Sample records for mating sterile male

  1. The Sterile Insect Technique for Controlling Populations of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) on Reunion Island: Mating Vigour of Sterilized Males

    PubMed Central

    Oliva, Clelia F.; Jacquet, Maxime; Gilles, Jeremie; Lemperiere, Guy; Maquart, Pierre-Olivier; Quilici, Serge; Schooneman, François; Vreysen, Marc J. B.; Boyer, Sebastien

    2012-01-01

    Reunion Island suffers from high densities of the chikungunya and dengue vector Aedes albopictus. The sterile insect technique (SIT) offers a promising strategy for mosquito-borne diseases prevention and control. For such a strategy to be effective, sterile males need to be competitive enough to fulfil their intended function by reducing wild mosquito populations in natura. We studied the effect of irradiation on sexual maturation and mating success of males, and compared the sexual competitiveness of sterile versus wild males in the presence of wild females in semi-field conditions. For all untreated or sterile males, sexual maturation was completed within 13 to 20 h post-emergence and some males were able to inseminate females when 15 h old. In the absence of competition, untreated and sterile males were able to inseminate the same number of virgin females during 48 h, in small laboratory cages: an average of 93% of females was inseminated no matter the treatment, the age of males, and the sex ratio. Daily mating success of single sterile males followed the same pattern as for untreated ones, although they inseminated significantly fewer females after the ninth day. The competitiveness index of sterile males in semi-field conditions was only 0.14 when they were released at 1-day old, but improved to 0.53 when the release occurred after a 5-day period in laboratory conditions. In SIT simulation experiments, a 5?1 sterile to wild male ratio allowed a two-fold reduction of the wild population’s fertility. This suggests that sterile males could be sufficiently competitive to mate with wild females within the framework of an SIT component as part of an AW-IPM programme for suppressing a wild population of Ae. albopictus in Reunion Island. It will be of interest to minimise the pre-release period in controlled conditions to ensure a good competitiveness without increasing mass rearing costs. PMID:23185329

  2. Mating competitiveness of Aedes albopictus radio-sterilized males in large enclosures exposed to natural conditions.

    PubMed

    Bellini, R; Balestrino, F; Medici, A; Gentile, G; Veronesi, R; Carrieri, M

    2013-01-01

    Mating competitiveness trials have been conducted in large net-screened enclosures (8 by 5 by 2.8 m) built in a natural shaded environment, in the summers of 2006, 2007, 2008, and 2009 in northern Italy. Aedes albopictus (Skuse) males were radio-sterilized by applying gamma radiations at doses in the range 30-60 Gy. Gamma radiation was administered to aged pupae at the rate of 2.3 Gy/min. Reared radiated males (originally collected in Rimini, Forli, Bologna, Matera, Pinerolo) and hybrid radiated males were tested against wild fertile males (originated from eggs collected in Rimini and Cesena) and reared fertile males, in multiple comparisons for mating competitiveness with reared or wild females. The ratio was kept constant at 100-100_100 (fertile males-radiated males_virgin females). Mating competitiveness was estimated through the calculation of the hatching rate of the eggs laid in oviposition traps positioned inside enclosures. No clear effect of the strains tested (reared, wild, or hybrid) was found. Results demonstrated that reducing the radiation dose from 60 to 30 Gy increases males' competitiveness. Laboratory investigations conducted after controversial results in the 2006 preliminary trials, showed that radiation induces precociousness in adult male emergence. PMID:23427657

  3. Transient Population Dynamics of Mosquitoes during Sterile Male Releases: Modelling Mating Behaviour and Perturbations of Life History Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    The release of genetically-modified or sterile male mosquitoes offers a promising form of mosquito-transmitted pathogen control, but the insights derived from our understanding of male mosquito behaviour have not fully been incorporated into the design of such genetic control or sterile-male release methods. The importance of aspects of male life history and mating behaviour for sterile-male release programmes were investigated by projecting a stage-structured matrix model over time. An elasticity analysis of transient dynamics during sterile-male releases was performed to provide insight on which vector control methods are likely to be most synergistic. The results suggest that high mating competitiveness and mortality costs of released males are required before the sterile-release method becomes ineffective. Additionally, if released males suffer a mortality cost, older males should be released due to their increased mating capacity. If released males are of a homogenous size and size-assortative mating occurs in nature, this can lead to an increase in the abundance of large females and reduce the efficacy of the population-suppression effort. At a high level of size-assortative mating, the disease transmission potential of the vector population increases due to male releases, arguing for the release of a heterogeneously-sized male population. The female population was most sensitive to perturbations of density-dependent components of larval mortality and female survivorship and fecundity. These findings suggest source reduction might be a particularly effective complement to mosquito control based on the sterile insect technique (SIT). In order for SIT to realize its potential as a key component of an integrated vector-management strategy to control mosquito-transmitted pathogens, programme design of sterile-male release programmes must account for the ecology, behaviour and life history of mosquitoes. The model used here takes a step in this direction and can easily be modified to investigate additional aspects of mosquito behaviour or species-specific ecology. PMID:24086715

  4. Wing Morphometry and Acoustic Signals in Sterile and Wild Males: Implications for Mating Success in Ceratitis capitata

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, João Maria Gomes Alencar; Molina, Wagner Franco; de Almeida, Lúcia Maria; de Gouveia, Milson Bezerra; de Macêdo, Francisco Pepino; Laumann, Raul Alberto; Paranhos, Beatriz Aguiar Jordão

    2015-01-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is widely utilized in the biological control of fruit flies of the family Tephritidae, particularly against the Mediterranean fruit fly. This study investigated the interaction between mating success and morphometric variation in the wings and the production of acoustic signals among three male groups of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann): (1) wild males, (2) irradiated with Co-60 (steriles), and (3) irradiated (steriles) and treated with ginger oil. The canonical variate analysis discriminated two groups (males irradiated and males wild), based on the morphological shape of the wings. Among males that emit buzz signals, wild males obtained copulation more frequently than males in Groups 2 and 3. The individuals of Group 3 achieved more matings than those in Group 2. Wild males displayed lower pulse duration, higher intervals between pulses, and higher dominant frequency. Regarding the reproductive success, the morphological differences in the wings' shape between accepted and nonaccepted males are higher in wild males than in the irradiated ones. The present results can be useful in programs using the sterile insect technique for biological control of C. capitata. PMID:26075293

  5. Wing Morphometry and Acoustic Signals in Sterile and Wild Males: Implications for Mating Success in Ceratitis capitata.

    PubMed

    de Souza, João Maria Gomes Alencar; de Lima-Filho, Paulo Augusto; Molina, Wagner Franco; de Almeida, Lúcia Maria; de Gouveia, Milson Bezerra; de Macêdo, Francisco Pepino; Laumann, Raul Alberto; Paranhos, Beatriz Aguiar Jordão

    2015-01-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is widely utilized in the biological control of fruit flies of the family Tephritidae, particularly against the Mediterranean fruit fly. This study investigated the interaction between mating success and morphometric variation in the wings and the production of acoustic signals among three male groups of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann): (1) wild males, (2) irradiated with Co-60 (steriles), and (3) irradiated (steriles) and treated with ginger oil. The canonical variate analysis discriminated two groups (males irradiated and males wild), based on the morphological shape of the wings. Among males that emit buzz signals, wild males obtained copulation more frequently than males in Groups 2 and 3. The individuals of Group 3 achieved more matings than those in Group 2. Wild males displayed lower pulse duration, higher intervals between pulses, and higher dominant frequency. Regarding the reproductive success, the morphological differences in the wings' shape between accepted and nonaccepted males are higher in wild males than in the irradiated ones. The present results can be useful in programs using the sterile insect technique for biological control of C. capitata. PMID:26075293

  6. Additional tests on the efficacy of ginger root oil in enhacing the mating competitiveness of sterile males of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent studies have shown that exposure to the aroma of ginger root oil (Zingiber officinale Roscoe; termed GRO hereafter) increases the mating competitiveness of males of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). This result suggests that pre-release exposure of sterile ...

  7. Aromatherapy on a large scale: Exposing entire holding rooms to ginger root oil increases the mating competitiveness of sterile males of the Mediterranean fruit fly in field cage trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is widely used in integrated programs against fruit fly pests, particularly the Mediterranean fruit fly. Unfortunately, the mass-rearing procedures inherent to the SIT often lead to a reduction in male mating competitiveness. The sterile insect technique (SIT) is w...

  8. Swarming and mating behavior of male Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae) in an area of the Sterile Insect Technique Project in Dongola, northern Sudan.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Mo'awia M; Zain, Hussam M; Basheer, Mohammed A; Elhaj, Hassab-Elrasoul F; El-Sayed, Badria B

    2014-04-01

    The problems facing the conventional mosquito control methods including resistance to insecticides have led to the development of alternative methods such as the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) to suppress populations of the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis in northern Sudan. This method entails the release of large numbers of irradiated males to compete against wild conspecifics for mating with virgin females in the field. The swarming and mating behaviors of this species were conducted at two field sites during the period 2009-2012 in Dongola, northern Sudan. Observations were made in the field sites and in a contained semi-field enclosure. In addition, participation of released irradiated-marked males in the swarms of wild mosquito was investigated. Swarms were observed on sunset in the vicinity of larval habitats around irrigation channel and stopped with the onset of the darkness about 21-25 min after the start. Swarms were observed above visual markers such as palm trees, bare ground, and manure. Several couples were observed leaving the swarms in copula in the direction of the sunlight. The majority of copulations were observed within 12-15 min of the start of swarming. Relatively low insemination rates (28%) of females collected from coupling pairs were observed. Irradiated-marked males were observed to join the natural swarms regularly, indicating their probable competitiveness with the other wild males. These findings enhance the feasibility of staging an SIT campaign against malaria vector in Northern State-Sudan. PMID:24291461

  9. Cytoplasmic male-sterility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John R. Edwardson

    1956-01-01

    Cytoplasmic inheritance is of theoretical importance--it may be of even greater practical importance, for, when it involves malesterilitylas in many instances it does--it may make hybridization easier. It may also make possible the use of heterosis in plants otherwise difficult to hybridize. The effect of the cytoplasm on the inheritance of male-sterility was speculated on before the rediscovery of Mendel's

  10. REGISTRATIONS OF C931, C941, CR11, AND CZ25/2 SELF-FERTILE, GENETIC-MALE-STERILE FACILITATED, RANDOM-MATED, SUGARBEET GERMPLASM POPULATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarbeet is naturally self-sterile and most germplasm can not be selfed to produce selfed progenies for breeding and genetic research. However, it is often very useful to be able to produce selfed progeny families. With the use of the genes for self-fertility and genetic-male-sterility, over the pa...

  11. Engineered Male Sterility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Kempken

    \\u000a \\u000a The agricultural exploitation of hybrid crop varieties has enabled enormous increases in food productivity through increased\\u000a uniformity and hybrid vigour. Because of hybrid vigour, or heterosis\\u000a , these crops are characterized by an increased resistance to disease and enhanced performance in different environments when\\u000a comparing the heterozygous hybrid progeny (called F1 hybrids) to the homozygous parents. The generation of male

  12. Effects of male sterility on female remating in the mediterranean fruitfly, Ceratitis capitata.

    PubMed Central

    Kraaijeveld, Ken; Chapman, Tracey

    2004-01-01

    Mating-induced reductions in female receptivity are common in insects. These responses are of interest because of their utility in insect pest control. In addition, the control of receptivity is likely to be the subject of sexual conflict over remating frequency. We investigated the specific effect of male sterility on female receptivity in an important pest species, the Mediterranean fruitfly (medfly), in which sterile males are often used for population suppression. Sterile males performed less courtship, obtained significantly fewer first and second matings than fertile males, and reduced female receptivity significantly less effectively than did fertile males. We modelled the likelihood of fertile matings and show that the low mating success of sterile males represents a significant problem for medfly sterile insect technique (SIT) programmes. PMID:15252986

  13. Male adaptive stupidity: male mating pattern in hybridogenetic frogs

    E-print Network

    ). Such erroneous matings based on preferences for fertility indicators occur in males of the fishes Poecilia mexicana and P. latipinna. Males of these two species prefer to mate with larger, but gynogenetic, females

  14. Male fish deceive competitors about mating preferences.

    PubMed

    Plath, Martin; Richter, Stephanie; Tiedemann, Ralph; Schlupp, Ingo

    2008-08-01

    A fundamental question in animal communication is whether the information provided is honest or deceptive [1, 2]. This problem has received much attention, both in theoretical [1, 3] and experimental [4] work. Here we show that male Atlantic mollies (Poecilia mexicana), when observed during mate choice by another male, reduce their mating activity and no longer prefer mating with one of two females presented, which can be interpreted as an attempt to avoid unintended interception of information by the rival male. Most importantly, focal males directed their first sexual interaction (after they were presented with the rival male) toward the initially nonpreferred female, suggesting that males deceive other males about their mating preferences. Deception by the choosing male may be an adaptation to avoid sperm competition, because surrounding males may use public information and copy the focal male's mate choice. PMID:18674912

  15. Male Mate Choice in Trichogramma Turkestanica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Martel; D. Damiens; G. Boivin

    2008-01-01

    In most animals it is the sex that invests the most in reproduction, generally the female, that expresses mate choice. However,\\u000a in numerous species, males or both males and females are choosy. We investigated mate choice in males of the egg parasitoid\\u000a Trichogramma turkestanica Meyer (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae). We tested the impact of age and feeding status of males on their

  16. Male sterility and fertility restoration in crops.

    PubMed

    Chen, Letian; Liu, Yao-Guang

    2014-01-01

    In plants, male sterility can be caused either by mitochondrial genes with coupled nuclear genes or by nuclear genes alone; the resulting conditions are known as cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) and genic male sterility (GMS), respectively. CMS and GMS facilitate hybrid seed production for many crops and thus allow breeders to harness yield gains associated with hybrid vigor (heterosis). In CMS, layers of interaction between mitochondrial and nuclear genes control its male specificity, occurrence, and restoration of fertility. Environment-sensitive GMS (EGMS) mutants may involve epigenetic control by noncoding RNAs and can revert to fertility under different growth conditions, making them useful breeding materials in the hybrid seed industry. Here, we review recent research on CMS and EGMS systems in crops, summarize general models of male sterility and fertility restoration, and discuss the evolutionary significance of these reproductive systems. PMID:24313845

  17. Sperm precedence in Callosobruchus chinensis estimated using the sterile male technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomohiro Harano; Yutaka Nakamoto; Takahisa Miyatake

    2008-01-01

    P2, the proportion of offspring sired by the second male to mate, is an indicator of the outcome of postcopulatory sexual selection,\\u000a which occurs through sperm competition and\\/or cryptic female choice. We determined the appropriate dose of gamma radiation\\u000a for sterilization of adult males and, using the sterile male technique, measured P2 in the adzuki bean beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis. Adult

  18. Transfer of Ogu cytoplasmic male sterility to Brassica juncea and improvement of the male sterile line through somatic cell fusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. B. Kirti; S. S. Banga; S. Prakash; V. L. Chopra

    1995-01-01

    Male sterility conferred by ogu cytoplasm of Raphanus sativus has been transferred to Brassica juncea cv ‘RLM 198’ from male-sterile B. napus through repeated backcrossing and selection. The male-sterile B. juncea is, however, highly chlorotic and late. It has low female (seed) fertility and small contorted pods. To rectify these defects, protoplasts of the male sterile were fused with normal

  19. Estimating SIT-driven population reduction in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, from sterile mating.

    PubMed

    Juan-Blasco, M; Sabater-Muñoz, B; Pla, I; Argilés, R; Castañera, P; Jacas, J A; Ibáñez-Gual, M V; Urbaneja, A

    2014-04-01

    Area-wide sterile insect technique (SIT) programs assume that offspring reduction of the target population correlates with the mating success of the sterile males released. However, there is a lack of monitoring tools to prove the success of these programs in real-time. Field-cage tests were conducted under the environmental conditions of the Mediterranean coast of Spain to estimate: (a) the mating success of sterile Vienna-8 (V8) Ceratitis capitata males using molecular markers and (b) their efficacy to reduce C. capitata populations under six release ratios of wild females to wild males to V8 males (1:0:0, 1:1:0, 1:1:1, 1:1:5, 1:1:10, and 1:1:20). Statistical models were developed to predict: (a) the number of females captured in traps, (b) sperm ID (sterile or not) in spermathecae of the trapped females, and (c) the viable offspring produced, using release ratio and temperature as predictors. The number of females captured was affected by relative humidity. However, its influence in the model was low. Female captures were significantly higher in ratios 1:0:0 compared to ratios where V8 males were released. The proportion of V8 sperm in spermathecae increased with temperature and with the number of V8 males released, but leveled off between ratios 1:1:10 and 1:1:20. In all seasons, except winter (no offspring), viable offspring increased with temperature and was lowest for ratio 1:1:20. For the first time, a strong negative relationship between proportion of V8 sperm detected by molecular tools and C. capitata offspring was established. The models obtained should contribute to enhance the efficacy of SIT programs against this pest. PMID:24444376

  20. Cytoplasmic male sterility in the olive (Olea europaea L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Besnard; B. Khadari; P. Villemur; A. Bervillé

    2000-01-01

    The olive tree is usually hermaphrodite but self-incompatible. In the Western Mediterranean some cultivars are totally male-sterile.\\u000a Three different male-sterile phenotypes have been recognised. To infer the genetic basis of male sterility we studied its\\u000a inheritance and cytoplasmic diversity in wild (oleaster) and cultivated Mediterranean olive. In the cross Olivière×Arbequina, the male-sterile trait was maternally inherited and affected all progenies.

  1. Mating tactics and mate choice in relation to age and social rank in male mountain goats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julien Mainguy; Steeve D. Côté; Etienne Cardinal; Mélina Houle

    2008-01-01

    In polygynous mammals, mating success of males often depends on intense male-male competition and the use of alternative mating tactics. Because reproduction incurs substantial energetic costs and risks of fight injuries, mate selection by males should be expected, particularly when females vary in their ability to produce offspring but can only be defended 1 at a time. Here, we investigated

  2. Mitochondrial gene expression and cytoplasmic male sterility in sorghum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda K. Dixon; Christopher J. Leaver

    1982-01-01

    Variation in sorghum mitochondrial translation products has enabled fertile (Kafir) cytoplasm to be distinguished from Milo cytoplasmic male sterile cytoplasm and from three alternative sources of cytoplasmic male sterile cytoplasm. Mitochondria from Milo cytoplasm synthesised a 65 000 mol. wt. polypeptide which was not synthesised by those from Kafir cytoplasm. In the cytoplasmic male sterile combination of Kafir nucleus in

  3. INVESTIGATION Genetic Architecture of Male Sterility and Segregation

    E-print Network

    Dean, Matthew D.

    INVESTIGATION Genetic Architecture of Male Sterility and Segregation Distortion in Drosophila of the genetic architecture underlying hybrid male sterility and segregation distortion between the Bogota to be necessary but not sufficient for both male sterility and segregation distortion in F1 hybrids between

  4. A Single Gene Causes Both Male Sterility and Segregation Distortion

    E-print Network

    Sorenson, Michael

    A Single Gene Causes Both Male Sterility and Segregation Distortion in Drosophila Hybrids Nitin the evolution of postzygotic isolation. Here, we show that the same gene, Overdrive, causes both male sterility hybrid males that are nearly completely sterile, whereas all other F1 hybrids are fertile (19). Hybrid

  5. SWORDTAIL MATE CHOICE AND REPRODUCTIVE ALLOCATION: EFFECTS OF MALE CONDITION

    E-print Network

    Simpson, Suzanne

    2011-04-26

    allocate differentially depending on the quality of their mate. We manipulated male diet to determine if females had a mate preference based on male chronic condition. Afterward, we dissected the females and measured their allocation using egg size and egg...

  6. Construction of backcrossed Gelidium male-sterile and male-fertile lines and their growth comparison

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohsin U. Patwary; John P. van der Meer

    1996-01-01

    The male sterility gene from a male-sterile, green,Gelidium vagum line was introduced to a wild-type line through repeated backcrossing and selection for five generations. The plants from the recurrent parent, the male-sterile green, the backcross-5 fertile and the backcross-5 male-sterile lines were compared for their growth performance. The backcross-5, red, male-sterile plants grew at a significantly higher rate than the

  7. Male motion coordination in anopheline mating swarms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shishika, Daigo; Manoukis, Nicholas C.; Butail, Sachit; Paley, Derek A.

    2014-09-01

    The Anopheles gambiae species complex comprises the primary vectors of malaria in much of sub-Saharan Africa. Most of the mating in these species occurs in swarms composed almost entirely of males. Intermittent, organized patterns in such swarms have been observed, but a detailed description of male-male interactions has not previously been available. We identify frequent, time-varying interactions characterized by periods of parallel flight in data from 8 swarms of Anopheles gambiae and 3 swarms of Anopheles coluzzii filmed in 2010 and 2011 in the village of Donéguébogou, Mali. We use the cross correlation of flight direction to quantify these interactions and to induce interaction graphs, which show that males form synchronized subgroups whose size and membership change rapidly. A swarming model with damped springs between each male and the swarm centroid shows good agreement with the correlation data, provided that local interactions represented by damping of relative velocity between males are included.

  8. Reduction in sea lamprey hatching success due to release of sterilized males

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergstedt, R.A.; McDonald, R.B.; Twohey, M.B.; Mullett, K.M.; Young, R.J.; Heinrich, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    Male sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus), sterilized by injection with bisazir, were released in Lake Superior tributaries from 1991 to 1996 and exclusively in the St. Marys River (the outflow from Lake Superior to Lake Huron) since 1997 as an alternative to chemical control. To determine effectiveness in reducing reproductive potential through the time of hatch, males were observed on nests and egg viability was determined in nests in selected Lake Superior tributaries and the St. Marys River. The proportions of sterilized males observed on nests were not significantly different than their estimated proportion in the population for all streams and years combined or for the St. Marys River alone. It was concluded that sterilized males survive, appear on the spawning grounds, and nest at near their estimated proportion in the population. There was a significant reduction in egg viability corresponding with release of sterilized males for all streams and years combined or for the St. Marys River alone. In the St. Marys River from 1993 to 2000, the percent reduction in egg viability was significantly correlated with the observed proportion of sterile males on nests. It was further concluded that sterilized males remain sterile through nesting and attract and mate with females. Reduction in reproductive potential in the St. Marys River due to both removal of females by traps and sterile-male-release ranged from 34 to 92% from 1993 to 2001 and averaged 64%. From 1999 to 2001, when the program stabilized, reductions ranged from 71 to 92% and averaged 81%. The current release of sterile males in the St. Marys River effectively reduced reproductive potential through the time of hatch and did so near theoretical levels based on numbers released, estimates of population size, and the assumptions of full sterility and competitiveness.

  9. Sperm competition in the damselfly Enallagma hageni Walsh (Odonata: Coenagrionidae): benefits of multiple mating to males and females

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ola M. Fincke

    1984-01-01

    Sperm competition was investigated in the non-territorial damselfly, Enallagma hageni. Using irradiated (sterile) male techniques, the last male to mate was found to fertilize up to 95% \\u000a$${\\\\text{(}}\\\\bar x = {\\\\text{80\\\\% )}}$$\\u000a of the eggs of the first clutch laid after mating. Dissection of females collected before, during, and after copula showed that a male removes a maximum of 87%

  10. Defective pollen wall contributes to male sterility in the male sterile line 1355A of cotton.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuanlong; Min, Ling; Wu, Zancheng; Yang, Li; Zhu, Longfu; Yang, Xiyan; Yuan, Daojun; Guo, Xiaoping; Zhang, Xianlong

    2015-01-01

    To understand the mechanisms of male sterility in cotton (Gossypium spp.), combined histological, biochemical and transcription analysis using RNA-Seq was carried out in the anther of the single-gene recessive genic male sterility system of male sterile line 1355A and male fertile line 1355B, which are near-isogenic lines (NILs) differing only in the fertility trait. A total of 2,446 differentially expressed genes were identified between the anthers of 1355AB lines, at three different stages of development. Cluster analysis and functional assignment of differentially expressed genes revealed differences in transcription associated with pollen wall and anther development, including the metabolism of fatty acids, glucose, pectin and cellulose. Histological and biochemical analysis revealed that a major cellular defect in the 1355A was a thicker nexine, consistent with the RNA-seq data, and further gene expression studies implicated differences in fatty acids synthesis and metabolism. This study provides insight into the phenotypic characteristics and gene regulatory network of the genic male sterile line 1355A in upland cotton. PMID:26043720

  11. Defective pollen wall contributes to male sterility in the male sterile line 1355A of cotton

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yuanlong; Min, Ling; Wu, Zancheng; Yang, Li; Zhu, Longfu; Yang, Xiyan; Yuan, Daojun; Guo, Xiaoping; Zhang, Xianlong

    2015-01-01

    To understand the mechanisms of male sterility in cotton (Gossypium spp.), combined histological, biochemical and transcription analysis using RNA-Seq was carried out in the anther of the single-gene recessive genic male sterility system of male sterile line 1355A and male fertile line 1355B, which are near-isogenic lines (NILs) differing only in the fertility trait. A total of 2,446 differentially expressed genes were identified between the anthers of 1355AB lines, at three different stages of development. Cluster analysis and functional assignment of differentially expressed genes revealed differences in transcription associated with pollen wall and anther development, including the metabolism of fatty acids, glucose, pectin and cellulose. Histological and biochemical analysis revealed that a major cellular defect in the 1355A was a thicker nexine, consistent with the RNA-seq data, and further gene expression studies implicated differences in fatty acids synthesis and metabolism. This study provides insight into the phenotypic characteristics and gene regulatory network of the genic male sterile line 1355A in upland cotton. PMID:26043720

  12. Costs influence male mate choice in a freshwater fish

    E-print Network

    Keogh, Scott

    ; fecundity; sexual selection 1. INTRODUCTION Mate choice can be a costly undertaking involving con- siderable- criminate among potential mates (Kokko et al. 2003). Theory predicts that individuals should become less affect male mate choice strategies. Here, we examine whether male Pacific blue-eye fish (Pseudomugil

  13. The cytoplasmic inheritance of male sterility in Zea mays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcus M. Rhoades

    1933-01-01

    X. Summary  1. The analyses of a male-sterile condition inZea mays indicate that the egg cytoplasm plays the chief rôle in the expression of the character.\\u000a \\u000a 2. There was no transmission of the male-sterility through the pollen of partially sterile plants.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 3. A replacement of the chromosomes in the male-sterile line with chromosomes known to be free from sterility-producing factors\\u000a had

  14. Male mating strategies and the mating system of great-tailed grackles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristine Johnson; Emily DuVal; Megan Kielt; Colin Hughesd

    2000-01-01

    Great-tailed grackles (Quiscalus mexicanus) are sexually dimorphic, dichromatic, colonially nesting blackbirds. In this study, males pursued three basic types of conditional mating strategies, each of which employed a different set of mating tactics. Territorial males defended one or more trees in which several females nested. They achieved reproductive success by siring the offspring of their social mates and through extrapair

  15. Density affects mating mode and large male mating advantage in a fiddler crab.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Pablo D; Daleo, Pedro; Iribarne, Oscar O

    2010-12-01

    Fiddler crabs show two different mating modes: either females search and crabs mate underground in male burrows, or males search and crabs mate on the surface near female burrows. We explored the relationship between crab density, body size, the searching behavior of both sexes, and the occurrence of both mating modes in the fiddler crab Uca uruguayensis. We found that crabs change their mating mode depending on their size and crab density. Crabs mated mostly on the surface at low densities, and underground at high densities. The proportion of wandering receptive females but not courting males accounted for the variation in mating modes. This suggests that whether crabs mate underground (or on the surface) is determined by the presence (or absence) of searching females. We found that the change in the mating mode affected the level of assortative mating; males mating underground were bigger than those mating on the surface, suggesting active female choice. Given that fiddler crabs experience multiple reproductive cycles, they are prone to showing behavioral plasticity in their mating strategy whenever the payoffs of using different mating modes differ between reproductive events. Our results suggest that the incorporation of different levels of environmental variability may be important in theoretical models aimed at improving our understanding of the evolution of alternative mating tactics and strategies. PMID:20931233

  16. Optimizing methyl-eugenol aromatherapy to maximize posttreatment effects to enhance mating competitiveness of male Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Haq, Ihsan Ul; Vreysen, Marc J B; Cacéres, Carlos; Shelly, Todd E; Hendrichs, Jorge

    2014-06-17

    Methyl-eugenol (ME) (1,2-dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl)benzene), a natural phytochemical, did enhance male Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae) mating competitiveness 3 d after ingestion. Enhanced male mating competitiveness can significantly increase the effectiveness of the sterile insect technique (SIT). ME application to mass reared sterile flies by feeding is infeasible. ME application by aromatherapy however, would be a very practical way of ME application in fly emergence and release facilities. This approach was shown to enhance mating competitiveness of B. carambolae 3 d posttreatment (DPT). Despite this added benefit, every additional day of delaying release will reduce sterile fly quality and will add cost to SIT application. The present study was planned to assess the effects of ME-aromatherapy on male B. carambolae mating competitiveness 1DPT and 2DPT. ME aromatherapy 1DPT or 2DPT did enhance mating competitiveness of B. carambolae males whereas ME feeding 1DPT and 2DPT did not. Male mating competitiveness was enhanced by the ME aromatherapy irrespective if they received 1DPT, 2DPT or 3DPT. ME aromatherapy, being a viable approach for its application, did enhance mating competitiveness of male B. carambolae 1?d posttreatment as ME feeding did 3 d after ingestion. PMID:24935641

  17. The Nucleo-Mitochondrial Conflict in Cytoplasmic Male Sterilities Revisited

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Françoise Budar; Pascal Touzet; Rosine De Paepe

    2003-01-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in plants is a classical example of genomic conflict, opposing maternally-inherited cytoplasmic genes (mitochondrial genes in most cases), which induce male sterility, and nuclear genes, which restore male fertility. In natural populations, this type of sex control leads to gynodioecy, that is, the co-occurrence of female and hermaphroditic individuals within a population. According to theoretical models,

  18. Pilot field trials with Aedes albopictus irradiated sterile males in Italian urban areas.

    PubMed

    Bellini, R; Medici, A; Puggioli, A; Balestrino, F; Carrieri, M

    2013-03-01

    The pilot field studies here presented are part of a long-term research program aimed to develop a cost-effective sterile insect technique (SIT) methodology to suppress Aedes albopictus (Skuse) populations. Aedes albopictus is a mosquito species mainly developing in man-made containers and with an island-like urban and suburban distribution. These two features make the application of the sterile insect technique a possible control strategy. Five trials have been performed in three small towns from 2005 to 2009 (Emilia-Romagna region, northern Italy). Reared male pupae, sexed by a sieving technique allowing the recovery of approximately 26-29% of males, were exposed to gamma rays and immediately released in the field. Adult population density was estimated based on a weekly monitoring of egg density in the ovitraps, whereas induced sterility was estimated by measuring the hatching percentage of weekly collected eggs in SIT and control areas. Results showed that sterile males released at the rate of 896-1,590 males/ha/wk induced a significant sterility level in the local population. In addition, when the sterility level achieved values in the range of 70-80%, a similar reduction also was found for the egg density in the ovitraps. We could estimate that the minimum egg sterility value of 81% should be maintained to obtain suppression of the local population. Immigration of mated females was not a main issue in the small villages where trials have been run. PMID:23540120

  19. Hybrid male sterility and genome-wide misexpression of male reproductive proteases.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Suzanne; Civetta, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid male sterility is a common barrier to gene flow between species. Previous studies have posited a link between misregulation of spermatogenesis genes in interspecies hybrids and sterility. However, in the absence of fully fertile control hybrids, it is impossible to differentiate between misregulation associated with sterility vs. fast male gene regulatory evolution. Here, we differentiate between these two possibilities using a D. pseudoobscura species pair that experiences unidirectional hybrid sterility. We identify genes uniquely misexpressed in sterile hybrid male reproductive tracts via RNA-seq. The sterile male hybrids had more misregulated and more over or under expressed genes relative to parental species than the fertile male hybrids. Proteases were the only gene ontology class overrepresented among uniquely misexpressed genes, with four located within a previously identified hybrid male sterility locus. This result highlights the potential role of a previously unexplored class of genes in interspecific hybrid male sterility and speciation. PMID:26146165

  20. Hybrid male sterility and genome-wide misexpression of male reproductive proteases

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Suzanne; Civetta, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid male sterility is a common barrier to gene flow between species. Previous studies have posited a link between misregulation of spermatogenesis genes in interspecies hybrids and sterility. However, in the absence of fully fertile control hybrids, it is impossible to differentiate between misregulation associated with sterility vs. fast male gene regulatory evolution. Here, we differentiate between these two possibilities using a D. pseudoobscura species pair that experiences unidirectional hybrid sterility. We identify genes uniquely misexpressed in sterile hybrid male reproductive tracts via RNA-seq. The sterile male hybrids had more misregulated and more over or under expressed genes relative to parental species than the fertile male hybrids. Proteases were the only gene ontology class overrepresented among uniquely misexpressed genes, with four located within a previously identified hybrid male sterility locus. This result highlights the potential role of a previously unexplored class of genes in interspecific hybrid male sterility and speciation. PMID:26146165

  1. Mitochondria and cytoplasmic male sterility in plants.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jun; Huang, Wenchao; Huang, Qi; Qin, Xiaojian; Yu, Changchun; Wang, Lili; Li, Shaoqing; Zhu, Renshan; Zhu, Yingguo

    2014-11-01

    Mitochondria are essential organelles in cells not only because they supply over 90% of the cell's energy but also because their dysfunction is associated with disease. Owing to the importance of mitochondria, there are many questions about mitochondria that must be answered. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is a mysterious natural phenomenon, and the mechanism of the origin of CMS is unknown. Despite successful utilization of CMS and restoration of fertility (Rf) in practice, the underlying mechanisms of these processes remain elusive. This review summarizes the genes involved in CMS and Rf, with a special focus on recent studies reporting the mechanisms of the CMS and Rf pathways, and concludes with potential working models. PMID:24566371

  2. Sequential male mate choice under sperm competition risk

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Male eagerness to mate is a central paradigm of sexual selection theory. However, limited sperm supplies mean that male sexual restraint might sometimes be favored under promiscuous mating. Here, we demonstrate dynamic plasticity in male mating effort when females are encountered sequentially under varying sperm competition risk. Rather than showing consistent eagerness to mate, male house mice (Mus musculus domesticus) instead tailor their mating effort according to likely reproductive payoffs. They are significantly less likely to mate when sperm competition is certain and potential reproductive payoffs low, but dramatically increase investment if they do choose to mate under such circumstances. By contrast, male mice are significantly more likely to mate in situations simulating extra-territorial copulations, where future risk of competition is high but so too are potential reproductive rewards. Differential mating propensity appears to be the primary mechanism by which male house mice allocate sperm adaptively under sperm competition risk because we find no evidence for facultative adjustment of sperm numbers per ejaculate or ejaculation frequency in response to female-related cues. We conclude that sequential male mate choice under sperm competition risk could be a widespread but often unappreciated mechanism of strategic sperm allocation. PMID:24822023

  3. The dance of male Anopheles gambiae in mating swarms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mating behavior of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae is of great interest from a fundamental and applied perspective. One of the most important elements of mating in this species is the crepuscular mating aggregation (swarm) composed almost entirely of males, where most coupling and inseminat...

  4. Male Sterility-Inducing Mitochondrial Genomes: How Do They Differ?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomohiko Kubo; Kazuyoshi Kitazaki; Muneyuki Matsunaga; Hiroyo Kagami; Tetsuo Mikami

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-nine mitochondrial genomes from 19 angiosperm species have been completely sequenced and have been found to vary in genome size and gene content. Seven of these mitochondrial genomes are known to induce cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), and thus can be utilized for hybrid seed production or the prevention of pollen dispersal. Genome rearrangement frequently is observed in male sterility (MS)-inducing

  5. Gamma ray dosimetry and mating capacity studies in the laboratory on Aedes albopictus males.

    PubMed

    Balestrino, F; Medici, A; Candini, G; Carrieri, M; Maccagnani, B; Calvitti, M; Maini, S; Bellini, R

    2010-07-01

    In Italy, Aedes albopictus Skuse is currently recognized as the most dangerous mosquito, and as currently applied conventional control methods gave unsatisfactory results, we are developing alternative strategies such as the sterile insect technique. To find the optimal sterilizing dose, male pupae were exposed to different doses of gamma rays in the range 20-80 Gy, generated by a Cesium-137 source. The effects of male pupal age at irradiation and gamma ray dose on adult male emergence, sterility level, longevity, and mating capacity were evaluated, and dose-response curves of residual fertility were calculated. Radiation tests were also performed on female pupae to observe their reproductive capacity in case of accidental release. Results confirmed that the age at which the male pupa is irradiated is an important factor that affects the longevity of the adult, whereas the effect of age on the induced sterility level is less pronounced. When male pupae older than 30 h were irradiated, the longevity of the adults was not affected by doses up to 40 Gy. The 40-Gy dose appeared sufficient to induce high level of sterility (>99%) at any male pupal age for all the strains tested. The duration of coupling and the number of mated females per male appeared to be affected by the radiation received by male pupae only at doses higher than 40 Gy. The female pupae were more sensitive to radiation than male pupae, with strong reduction in fecundity and fertility at 20 Gy and complete suppression of oviposition at higher doses. PMID:20695273

  6. Sexual Experience Enhances Drosophila melanogaster Male Mating Behavior and Success

    PubMed Central

    Saleem, Sehresh; Ruggles, Patrick H.; Abbott, Wiley K.; Carney, Ginger E.

    2014-01-01

    Competition for mates is a wide-spread phenomenon affecting individual reproductive success. The ability of animals to adjust their behaviors in response to changing social environment is important and well documented. Drosophila melanogaster males compete with one another for matings with females and modify their reproductive behaviors based on prior social interactions. However, it remains to be determined how male social experience that culminates in mating with a female impacts subsequent male reproductive behaviors and mating success. Here we show that sexual experience enhances future mating success. Previously mated D. melanogaster males adjust their courtship behaviors and out-compete sexually inexperienced males for copulations. Interestingly, courtship experience alone is not sufficient in providing this competitive advantage, indicating that copulation plays a role in reinforcing this social learning. We also show that females use their sense of hearing to preferentially mate with experienced males when given a choice. Our results demonstrate the ability of previously mated males to learn from their positive sexual experiences and adjust their behaviors to gain a mating advantage. These experienced-based changes in behavior reveal strategies that animals likely use to increase their fecundity in natural competitive environments. PMID:24805129

  7. INTRODUCTION Understanding both male and female mating beha-

    E-print Network

    (Linnaeus). The two-spot ladybird is a naturally pro- miscuous beetle, with both males and females mating consider male and female mating behaviour in two populations of the two-spot ladybird, Adalia bipunc- tata; Haddrill et al., 2008). Two-spot ladybird populations are known to Eur. J. Entomol. 110(1): 87­93, 2013

  8. Unexpected male choosiness for mates in a spider.

    PubMed

    Bel-Venner, M C; Dray, S; Allainé, D; Menu, F; Venner, S

    2008-01-01

    Sexual selection theory traditionally considers choosiness for mates to be negatively related to intra-sexual competition. Males were classically considered to be the competing, but not the choosy, sex. However, evidence of male choosiness is now accumulating. Male choosiness is expected to increase with an individual's competitive ability, and to decrease as intra-sexual competition increases. However, such predictions have never been tested in field conditions. Here, we explore male mate choice in a spider by studying size-assortative pairing in two natural sites that strongly differ in the level of male-male competition. Unexpectedly, our results demonstrate that mate choice shifts from opportunism to high selectivity as competition between males increases. Males experiencing weak competition did not exhibit size-related mating preferences. By contrast, when competition was intense we found strong size-assortative pairing due to male choice: while larger, more competitive males preferentially paired with larger, more fecund females, smaller males chose smaller females. Thus, we show that mating preferences of males vary with their competitive ability. The distinct preferences exhibited by males of different sizes seem to be an adaptive response to the lower reproductive opportunities arising from increased competition between males. PMID:17956845

  9. Anther developmental defects in Arabidopsis thaliana male-sterile mutants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul M. Sanders; Anhthu Q. Bui; Koen Weterings; Katherine N. McIntire; Yung-Chao Hsu; Pei Yun Lee; Mai Thy Truong; T. P. Beals; R. B. Goldberg

    1999-01-01

    We identified Arabidopsis thaliana sterility mutants by screening T-DNA and EMS-mutagenized lines and characterized several male-sterile mutants with defects\\u000a specific for different anther processes. Approximately 44 and 855 sterile mutants were uncovered from the T-DNA and EMS screens,\\u000a respectively. Several mutants were studied in detail with defects that included the establishment of anther morphology, microspore\\u000a production, pollen differentiation, and anther

  10. Cytoplasmic male sterility in rapeseed ( Brassica napus L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Erickson; I. Grant; W. Beversdorf

    1986-01-01

    Restriction patterns of chloroplast (cp) and mitochondrial (mt) DNA in Brassica napus rapeseed reveal the alloplasmic nature of cytoplasmic male sterility in this crop. Both the Shiga and Bronowski systems probably exploit cytoplasmic diversity in B. napus cultivars arising from introgression of cytoplasm from the other rapeseed species, B. campestris. Nuclear genes specific to these systems do not cause sterility

  11. Male Financial Consumption is Associated with Higher Mating Intentions and Mating Success

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel J. Kruger

    Cross-culturally, male economic power is directly related to reproductive success. Displays of wealth and social status are an important part of human male mating effort. The degree of male financial consumption may be related to variance in life history strategies, as differences in life history patterns are fundamentally differences in the allocation of effort and\\/or resources. Males who have higher

  12. Modeling the Suppression of Sea Lamprey Populations by the Release of Sterile Males or Sterile Females

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Waldemar Klassen; Jean V. Adams; Michael B. Twohey

    2004-01-01

    The suppressive effects of trapping adult sea lampreys, Petromyzon marinus Linnaeus, and releasing sterile males (SMRT) or females (SFRT) into a closed system were expressed in deterministic models. Suppression was modeled as a function of the proportion of the population removed by trapping, the number of sterile animals released, the reproductive rate and sex ratio of the population, and (for

  13. The sterile male technique: irradiation negatively affects male fertility but not male courtship.

    PubMed

    Magris, Martina; Wignall, Anne E; Herberstein, Marie E

    2015-04-01

    The sterile male technique is a common method to assign paternity, widely adopted due to its relative simplicity and low cost. Male sterility is induced by exposure to sub lethal doses of chemosterilants or irradiation, the dosage of which has to be calibrated for every species to provide successful male sterilisation, without affecting male physiology and behaviour. While the physiological effects of sterilisation are usually assessed for each study, the behavioural ones are rarely analysed in detail. Using the orb web spider Argiope keyserlingi as a model we first tested (1) the validity of the thread assay, which simulates male courtship behaviour in a standardised context, as a proxy representing courtship on a female web. We then investigated (2) the effectiveness of male sterilisation via irradiation and (3) its consequences on male courtship behaviour. Our results validate the thread assay and the sterile male technique as legitimate tools for the study of male courtship behaviour and fertilisation success. We show that these techniques are time and cost effective and reduce undesirable variation, thereby creating opportunities to study and understand the mechanisms underlying sexual selection. PMID:25794431

  14. Investigation of methods for sterilization of potting compounds and mated surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tulius, J. J.; Daley, D. J.; Phillips, G. B.

    1972-01-01

    The feasibility of using formaldehyde-liberating synthetic resins or polymers for the sterilization of potting compounds, mated and occluded areas, and spacecraft surfaces was demonstrated. The detailed study of interrelated parameters of formaldehyde gas sterilization revealed that efficient cycle conditions can be developed for the sterilization of spacecraft components. It was determined that certain parameters were more important than others in the development of cycles for specific applications. The use of formaldehyde gas for the sterilization of spacecraft components provides NASA with a highly efficient method which is inexpensive, reproducible, easily quantitated, materials compatible, operationally simple, generally non-hazardous and not thermally destructive.

  15. Inaccurate mate recognition as a mating strategy of a ‘pioneer male

    PubMed Central

    Obara, Yoshiaki; Majerus, Mike E. N.

    2009-01-01

    Heterosubspecific mating experiments were carried out between two subspecies of cabbage butterflies, British Pieris rapae rapae and Japanese P. rapae crucivora, to examine how accurately males recognize the mates. The two subspecies are different in that the wings of female P. rapae rapae reflect little UV light, whereas those of female P. rapae crucivora are strongly UV-reflective. The wing colouration of P. rapae crucivora involving UV is believed to be critical in mate recognition. The results showed that males of both subspecies displayed mating behaviours, to and copulated with, females of both subspecies. Furthermore, P. rapae crucivora males exhibited mating behaviours and attempted to copulate with females of Pieris melete with low UV reflectance which are critically different from P. rapae crucivora females with high UV reflectance. Based on these findings, we propose the “pioneer male” hypothesis, which argues that such inaccurate mate recognition may sometimes be selectively beneficial for males and thus an adaptive mating strategy. The “pioneer male” was discussed in terms of its possible role in the evolution. PMID:19521057

  16. Low-oxygen atmospheric treatment improves the performance of irradiation-sterilized male cactus moths used in SIT.

    PubMed

    López-Martínez, Giancarlo; Carpenter, James E; Hight, Stephen D; Hahn, Daniel A

    2014-02-01

    As part of sterile insect technique (SIT) programs, irradiation can effectively induce sterility in insects by damaging genomic DNA. However, irradiation also induces other off-target side effects that reduce the quality and performance of sterilized males. Thus, treatments that reduce off-target effects of irradiation on male performance while maintaining sterility can improve the feasibility and economy of SIT programs. Exposure to ionizing radiation induces the formation of damaging free radicals in biological systems that may reduce sterile male performance. Here, we test whether exposure to an anoxic environment for 1 h before and during irradiation improves male performance, while maintaining sterility in males of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg). We show that exposure to 1 h of anoxia increases the moth's antioxidant capacity and that irradiation in anoxia after 1 h of anoxic conditioning decreases irradiation-induced oxidative damage to the moth's lipids and proteins. Anoxia treatment that reduced oxidative damage after irradiation also produced moths with greater flight performance, mating success, and longevity, while maintaining F1 male sterility at acceptable levels for SIT. We conclude that anoxia pretreatment followed by irradiation in anoxia is an efficient way to improve the quality of irradiated moths and perhaps lower the number of moths needed for release SIT moth operations. PMID:24665701

  17. Evidence for minority male mating success and minority female mating disadvantage in Drosophila ananassae.

    PubMed

    Som, Arundhati; Singh, Bashisth N

    2005-01-01

    Frequency-dependent mating success was tested for three pairs of wild-type and mutant strains of Drosophila ananassae, MY and yellow body color (y), PN and claret eye color (ca), and TIR and cut wing (ct). The two strains of each pair were chosen for their approximately equal mating propensities. Multiple-choice experiments, using different experimental procedures, were employed. The tests were carried out by direct observation in Elens-Wattiaux mating chambers with five different sex ratios (4:16, 8:12, 10:10, 12:8, and 16:4). There was no assortative mating and sexual isolation between the strains, based on 2 x 2 contingency chi2 analysis and isolation estimate values. One-sided rare male mating advantages were found in two experiments, one for ca males and the other for wild-type males (TIR). However, no advantage was found for rare males in the experiment with MY and y flies. Mating disadvantages for rare females were found for sex-linked mutants (y and ct). Two different observational methods (removal or direct observation of mating pairs) imparted no overall significant effects on the outcome of the frequency-dependent mating tests. PMID:15841431

  18. Species-isolating mechanisms in a mating system with male mate choice (garter snakes,

    E-print Network

    Mason, Robert T.

    , Thamnophis sirtalis (L., 1758), and plains garter snakes, Thamnophis radix (Baird and Girard, 1853'isolement reproductif entre des taxons sympatri- ques. Les couleuvres rayées, Thamnophis sirtalis (L., 1758), et lesSpecies-isolating mechanisms in a mating system with male mate choice (garter snakes, Thamnophis

  19. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Male mating bias and its potential reproductive consequence

    E-print Network

    Macedonia, Joseph

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Male mating bias and its potential reproductive consequence in the butterfly of these biases are often unclear, especially in species for which the operational sex ratio is strongly male-biased. In Colias butterflies, male choice is thought to be one of the factors responsible for maintaining a female

  20. Male Phenotypes and Mating Efficiency in CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS

    PubMed Central

    Hodgkin, Jonathan

    1983-01-01

    Mating behavior in adult male nematodes can be assayed by mating efficiency, i.e., the number of cross progeny sired by males under standard conditions. Mutant males from 220 strains, representing most of the known complementation groups of C. elegans, have been examined for mating efficiency and for anatomical abnormalities of the specialized male copulatory organs. These data extend the phenotypic description of these mutants and indicate what anatomical and behavioral components are necessary for the ability to mate successfully. Also, mutants with specific defects in the male were sought by establishing superficially wild-type hermaphrodite stocks after mutagenesis and testing the males segregated by these stocks for mating efficiency. Forty-nine of 1119 stocks yielded abnormal males. Seventeen were characterized in detail and found to be abnormal in sensory behavior (carrying mutations in the genes che-2 or che-3) or male genital anatomy (carrying mutations in one of the genes mab-1 to mab-10). Four of the mab (male abnormal) genes affect specific postembryonic cell lineages. PMID:17246100

  1. Female agreement over male attractiveness is not affected by cost of mating with experienced males

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Edvardsson; John Hunt; Patricia J. Moore; Allen J. Moore

    2008-01-01

    The extent to which females differ in their mating preferences has important consequences for the evolution of male sexual traits; yet, the way in which female mating preferences vary remains largely unexplored in most animal taxa. Even less is known about the implications of this variation to female fitness. Here, we examine the degree of between-female agreement in the mating

  2. Mitochondrially-targeted expression of a cytoplasmic male sterility-associated orf220 gene causes male sterility in Brassica juncea

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The novel chimeric open reading frame (orf) resulting from the rearrangement of a mitochondrial genome is generally thought to be a causal factor in the occurrence of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS). Both positive and negative correlations have been found between CMS-associated orfs and the occurrence of CMS when CMS-associated orfs were expressed and targeted at mitochondria. Some orfs cause male sterility or semi-sterility, while some do not. Little is currently known about how mitochondrial factor regulates the expression of the nuclear genes involved in male sterility. The purpose of this study was to investigate the biological function of a candidate CMS-associated orf220 gene, newly isolated from cytoplasmic male-sterile stem mustard, and show how mitochondrial retrograde regulated nuclear gene expression is related to male sterility. Results It was shown that the ORF220 protein can be guided to the mitochondria using the mitochondrial-targeting sequence of the ? subunit of F1-ATPase (atp2-1). Transgenic stem mustard plants expressed the chimeric gene containing the orf220 gene and a mitochondrial-targeting sequence of the ? subunit of F1-ATPase (atp2-1). Transgenic plants were male-sterile, most being unable to produce pollen while some could only produce non-vigorous pollen. The transgenic stem mustard plants also showed aberrant floral development identical to that observed in the CMS stem mustard phenotype. Results obtained from oligooarray analysis showed that some genes related to mitochondrial energy metabolism were down-regulated, indicating a weakening of mitochondrial function in transgenic stem mustard. Some genes related to pollen development were shown to be down-regulated in transgenic stem mustard and the expression of some transcription factor genes was also altered. Conclusion The work presented furthers our understanding of how the mitochondrially-targeted expression of CMS-associated orf220 gene causes male sterility through retrograde regulation of nuclear gene expression in Brassica juncea. PMID:20974011

  3. Segregation of male-sterility alleles across a species boundary.

    PubMed

    Weller, S G; Sakai, A K; Culley, T M; Duong, L; Danielson, R E

    2014-02-01

    Hybrid zones may serve as bridges permitting gene flow between species, including alleles influencing the evolution of breeding systems. Using greenhouse crosses, we assessed the likelihood that a hybrid zone could serve as a conduit for transfer of nuclear male-sterility alleles between a gynodioecious species and a hermaphroditic species with very rare females in some populations. Segregation patterns in progeny of crosses between rare females of hermaphroditic Schiedea menziesii and hermaphroditic plants of gynodioecious Schiedea salicaria heterozygous at the male-sterility locus, and between female S. salicaria and hermaphroditic plants from the hybrid zone, were used to determine whether male-sterility was controlled at the same locus in the parental species and the hybrid zone. Segregations of females and hermaphrodites in approximately equal ratios from many of the crosses indicate that the same nuclear male-sterility allele occurs in the parent species and the hybrid zone. These rare male-sterility alleles in S. menziesii may result from gene flow from S. salicaria through the hybrid zone, presumably facilitated by wind pollination in S. salicaria. Alternatively, rare male-sterility alleles might result from a reversal from gynodioecy to hermaphroditism in S. menziesii, or possibly de novo evolution of male sterility. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that some species of Schiedea have probably evolved separate sexes independently, but not in the lineage containing S. salicaria and S. menziesii. High levels of selfing and expression of strong inbreeding depression in S. menziesii, which together should favour females in populations, argue against a reversal from gynodioecy to hermaphroditism in S. menziesii. PMID:24417506

  4. Multiple mating in a lekking bird: why do peahens mate with more than one male and with the same male more than once?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marion Petrie; Marion Hall; Tim Halliday; Helen Budgey; Chris Pierpoint

    1992-01-01

    Approximately 50% of marked peahens (Pavo cristatus) mate more than once with lek males. Some females mate with more than one male, others copulate repeatedly with the same male. The frequency of courtship also shows marked variation. Some females repeatedly engage males in courtship interactions after they have succesfully copulated with them. The likelihood of mating with more than one

  5. Polymorphism in hybrid male sterility in wild-derived Mus musculus musculus strains on proximal chromosome 17.

    PubMed

    Vyskocilová, Martina; Prazanová, Gabriela; Piálek, Jaroslav

    2009-02-01

    The hybrid sterility-1 (Hst1) locus at Chr 17 causes male sterility in crosses between the house mouse subspecies Mus musculus domesticus (Mmd) and M. m. musculus (Mmm). This locus has been defined by its polymorphic variants in two laboratory strains (Mmd genome) when mated to PWD/Ph mice (Mmm genome): C57BL/10 (carrying the sterile allele) and C3H (fertile allele). The occurrence of sterile and/or fertile (wild Mmm x C57BL)F1 males is evidence that polymorphism for this trait also exists in natural populations of Mmm; however, the nature of this polymorphism remains unclear. Therefore, we derived two wild-origin Mmm strains, STUS and STUF, that produce sterile and fertile males, respectively, in crosses with C57BL mice. To determine the genetic basis underlying male fertility, the (STUS x STUF)F1 females were mated to C57BL/10 J males. About one-third of resulting hybrid males (33.8%) had a significantly smaller epididymis and testes than parental animals and lacked spermatozoa due to meiotic arrest. A further one-fifth of males (20.3%) also had anomalous reproductive traits but produced some spermatozoa. The remaining fertile males (45.9%) displayed no deviation from values found in parental individuals. QTL analysis of the progeny revealed strong associations of male fitness components with the proximal end of Chr 17, and a significant effect of the central section of Chr X on testes mass. The data suggest that genetic incompatibilities associated with male sterility have evolved independently at the proximal end of Chr 17 and are polymorphic within both Mmd and Mmm genomes. PMID:19123034

  6. Risky mate search and male self-sacrifice in redback spiders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maydianne C. B. Andrade

    2003-01-01

    Male redback spiders twist their abdomens onto the fangs of their mates during copulation and, if cannibalized (65% of matings), increase their paternity relative to males that are not cannibalized. The adaptive male sacrifice hypothesis proposes that this increased reproductive payoff from a single mating outweighs the residual reproductive value of a cannibalized male, because high mortality during mate searching

  7. Sugar administration to newly emerged Aedes albopictus males increases their survival probability and mating performance.

    PubMed

    Bellini, Romeo; Puggioli, Arianna; Balestrino, Fabrizio; Brunelli, Paolo; Medici, Anna; Urbanelli, Sandra; Carrieri, Marco

    2014-04-01

    Aedes albopictus male survival in laboratory cages is no more than 4-5 days when kept without any access to sugar indicating their need to feed on a sugar source soon after emergence. We therefore developed a device to administer energetic substances to newly emerged males when released as pupae as part of a sterile insect technique (SIT) programme, made with a polyurethane sponge 4 cm thick and perforated with holes 2 cm in diameter. The sponge was imbibed with the required sugar solution and due to its high retention capacity the sugar solution was available for males to feed for at least 48 h. When evaluated in lab cages, comparing adults emerged from the device with sugar solution vs the device with water only (as negative control), about half of the males tested positive for fructose using the Van Handel anthrone test, compared to none of males in the control cage. We then tested the tool in semi-field and in field conditions with different sugar concentrations (10%, 15%, and 20%) and compared results to the controls fed with water only. Males were recaptured by a battery operated manual aspirator at 24 and 48 h after pupae release. Rather high share 10-25% of captured males tested positive for fructose in recollections in the vicinity of the control stations, while in the vicinity of the sugar stations around 40-55% of males were positive, though variability between replicates was large. The sugar positive males in the control test may have been released males that had access to natural sugar sources found close to the release station and/or wild males present in the environment. Only a slight increase in the proportion of positive males was obtained by increasing the sugar concentration in the feeding device from 10% to 20%. Surprisingly, modification of the device to add a black plastic inverted funnel above the container reduced rather than increased the proportion of fructose positive males collected around the station. No evidence of difference in the capacity of sterile (irradiated with 30 Gy) males to take a sugar meal relative to fertile males was observed in field comparison. A clear effect of temperature and relative humidity (RH) on the rate of sugar positive males was observed, with an increase of temperature and a decrease in RH strongly increasing the % of sugar positive males. In large enclosures we tested the effect of our sugar supplying tool on the mating competitiveness of sterile vs fertile males, which produced an evident favorable effect both on sterile and fertile males. PMID:24299923

  8. Male mate choice and sperm allocation in a sexual/asexual mating complex of Poecilia (Poeciliidae, Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Schlupp, I; Plath, M

    2005-06-22

    Male mate choice is critical for understanding the evolution and maintenance of sexual/asexual mating complexes involving sperm-dependent, gynogenetic species. Amazon mollies (Poecilia formosa) require sperm to trigger embryogenesis, but the males (e.g. Poecilia mexicana) do not contribute genes. Males benefit from mating with Amazon mollies, because such matings make males more attractive to conspecific females, but they might control the cost of such matings by providing less sperm to Amazon mollies. We examined this at the behavioural and sperm levels. P. mexicana males preferred to mate with, and transferred more sperm to conspecific females. However, if males mated with P. formosa, sperm was readily transferred. This underscores the importance of male choice in this system. PMID:17148157

  9. Male mate choice and sperm allocation in a sexual/asexual mating complex of Poecilia (Poeciliidae, Teleostei)

    PubMed Central

    Schlupp, I; Plath, M

    2005-01-01

    Male mate choice is critical for understanding the evolution and maintenance of sexual/asexual mating complexes involving sperm-dependent, gynogenetic species. Amazon mollies (Poecilia formosa) require sperm to trigger embryogenesis, but the males (e.g. Poecilia mexicana) do not contribute genes. Males benefit from mating with Amazon mollies, because such matings make males more attractive to conspecific females, but they might control the cost of such matings by providing less sperm to Amazon mollies. We examined this at the behavioural and sperm levels. P. mexicana males preferred to mate with, and transferred more sperm to conspecific females. However, if males mated with P. formosa, sperm was readily transferred. This underscores the importance of male choice in this system. PMID:17148157

  10. Effect of predation on male mating behaviour in a unisexual-bisexual mating system

    E-print Network

    Gabor, Caitlin - Department of Biology, Texas State University

    , mate choice, Poecilia formosa, Poecilia latipinna, predation risk. Introduction Predation risk can occurs in the genus Poecilia. Poe- ciliid fish are livebearing and exhibit internal fertilization. Male sailfin mol- lies (P. latipinna) and male Atlantic mollies (P. mexicana mexicana and P. m. limantouri

  11. Female mate choice in a mating system dominated by male sexual coercion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angelo Bisazza; Giorgio Vaccari; Andrea Pilastro

    In poeciliid fishes, males can gain copulation either by courting females or through sexual coercion. In some species these two tactics coexist. However, in about half of the poeciliids, males do not display, females never cooperate during copulation and all matings are achieved by thrusting the intromittent organ toward the genital pore of apparently unaware females. In one of these

  12. A novel mobile approach to investigating mating tactics in male grey seals (Halichoerus grypus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. C. Lidgard; D. J. Boness; W. D. Bowen

    2001-01-01

    Studies of the grey seal Halichoerus grypus mating system, using focal animal sampling constrained by study site location and size, limit the measurement of variation in male mating tactics and success. Using this method, the mating tactics of grey seal males have been classified as either 'tenured' or 'transient'. Preliminary evidence is presented of wider variation in male mating tactics

  13. Male red-sided garter snakes, Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis, determine female mating status from pheromone trails

    E-print Network

    Mason, Robert T.

    ARTICLES Male red-sided garter snakes, Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis, determine female mating or a mating plug prevents remating. Males that determine female mating status from a distance will minimize to determine the mating status of females based solely on these pheromone trails. Males were given a choice

  14. Mating preference of female zebrafish, Danio rerio, in relation to male dominance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rowena Spence; Carl Smith

    2006-01-01

    Mating success tends to be skewed toward dominant males, though female mate preferences may not always correlate with male dominance. In this study, we investigated the mating preferences of female zebrafish, Danio rerio, in the absence of male--male competition. We paired females sequentially with males of known dominance rank, using a nested, repeated measures design, with egg production as a

  15. The role of meiotic drive in hybrid male sterility

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, Shannon R.; Noor, Mohamed A. F.

    2010-01-01

    Meiotic drive causes the distortion of allelic segregation away from Mendelian expected ratios, often also reducing fecundity and favouring the evolution of drive suppressors. If different species evolve distinct drive-suppressor systems, then hybrid progeny may be sterile as a result of negative interactions of these systems' components. Although the hypothesis that meiotic drive may contribute to hybrid sterility, and thus species formation, fell out of favour early in the 1990s, recent results showing an association between drive and sterility have resurrected this previously controversial idea. Here, we review the different forms of meiotic drive and their possible roles in speciation. We discuss the recent empirical evidence for a link between drive and hybrid male sterility, also suggesting a possible mechanistic explanation for this link in the context of chromatin remodelling. Finally, we revisit the population genetics of drive that allow it to contribute to speciation. PMID:20308102

  16. Mating tactics and male-male courtship in the lek-breeding cichlid Oreochromis mossambicus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. F. Oliveira; V. C. Almada

    1998-01-01

    Data are presented on the breeding behaviour of Oreochromis mossambicus under captive conditions. Males tended to synchronize their occupation of territories and breeding activities. DiVerent male mating tactics were observed, namely establishing a breeding territory, acting as a floater, or behaving as a sneaker. The majority of spawnings observed involved dominant males and were subjected to interference from other males.

  17. Chromosomal monogenic dominant male sterility in chinese cabbage ( Brassica rapa supbs. pekinensis (Lour.) hanelt)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Q. P. Meer

    1987-01-01

    Strong indication was found for the existence of a chromosal monogenic dominant male sterility-gene in chenese cabbage. This source of male sterility can be of practical use for the production of hybrid varieties. A pronounced drawback is the required removal, in the breeding and seed production stage, of the approximately 50% male fertile plants from each offspring of male sterile

  18. Genetics of Male and Female Sterility in Hybrids of Drosophila pseudoobscura and D. persimilis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Allen Orr

    The genetic basis of male and female sterility in hybrids of Drosophila pseudoobscura-Drosophila persimilis was studied using backcross analysis. Previous studies indirectly assessed male fertility by measuring testis size; these studies concluded that male sterility results from an X chromosome- autosome imbalance. By directly scoring for the production of motile sperm, male sterility is shown to be largely due to

  19. Rare male mating advantage for inversion karyotype in Drosophila ananassae.

    PubMed

    Som, Arundhati; Singh, B N

    2004-05-01

    These experiments were conducted to study frequency-dependent sexual selection on the alpha inversion in the left arm of the second chromosome (2L) in Drosophila ananassae. Two different strains, ST/ST-standard gene arrangement and AL/AL-alpha inversion in 2L were used. Female-choice experiments were carried out in five different male ratios. Two different methods of observation have been employed, one in which copulating pairs are aspirated out and the other, in which pairs are not removed. Results were analyzed by chi(2) tests, and log odds plus regression analyses. Regression analyses revealed the presence of one-sided rare male mating advantages for AL/AL males. Preferential mating is present within the strain having AL/AL karyotype. The minority male advantage and preferential mating found in the AL/AL strain are different components of mating success. ANOVA fails to show any significant difference between the outcomes of rare-male experiments using these two different methods. PMID:14990872

  20. The impact of social context on male mate preference in a unisexual--bisexual mating complex.

    PubMed

    Alberici da Barbiano, L; Aspbury, A S; Nice, C C; Gabor, C R

    2011-07-01

    Male sailfin mollies Poecilia latipinna were tested in five different treatments that varied in the relative frequency of heterospecific gynogens (Amazon molly Poecilia formosa) to conspecific females to determine whether social interactions among males within a population causes some males to mate with heterospecific females. Male P. latipinna inseminated a significantly higher proportion of conspecific females and fertilized a significantly higher number of conspecific eggs regardless of the treatment. Nonetheless, preference for conspecific females was not exclusive as a range of 20 to 50% of heterospecific females were fertilized. Social interactions among males may best explain the results and may therefore play an important role in the maintenance of unisexual--bisexual mating complexes. PMID:21722119

  1. Evaluation of sterility and fertility of male sterile lines in the USPB farm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hybrid rice has proven to have a yield advantage of 15–20% over the best inbred cultivars at the commercial scale worldwide. At present, two methods have been successfully commercialized; the three-line and two-line systems. The three-line system consists of the male sterile (MS), maintainer and res...

  2. The heritability of multiple male mating in a promiscuous mammal.

    PubMed

    McFarlane, S Eryn; Lane, Jeffrey E; Taylor, Ryan W; Gorrell, Jamieson C; Coltman, David W; Humphries, Murray M; Boutin, Stan; McAdam, Andrew G

    2011-06-23

    The tendency of females to mate with multiple males is often explained by direct and indirect benefits that could outweigh the many potential costs of multiple mating. However, behaviour can only evolve in response to costs and benefits if there is sufficient genetic variation on which selection can act. We followed 108 mating chases of 85 North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) during 4 years, to measure each female's degree of multiple male mating (MMM), and used an animal model analysis of our multi-generational pedigree to provide what we believe is the first estimate of the heritability of MMM in the wild. Female red squirrels were highly polyandrous, mating with an average of 7.0 ± 0.2 males on their day of oestrus. Although we found evidence for moderate levels of additive genetic variation (CV(A) = 5.1), environmental variation was very high (CV(E) = 32.3), which resulted in a very low heritability estimate (h(2) < 0.01). So, while there is genetic variation in this trait, the large environmental variation suggests that any costs or benefits associated with differences among females in MMM are primarily owing to environmental and not genetic differences, which could constrain the evolutionary response to natural selection on this trait. PMID:21159688

  3. DNA loss at the Ceratocystis fimbriata mating locus results in self-sterility.

    PubMed

    Wilken, P Markus; Steenkamp, Emma T; Wingfield, Michael J; de Beer, Z Wilhelm; Wingfield, Brenda D

    2014-01-01

    Fungi have evolved a remarkable diversity of reproductive strategies. Some of these, most notably those of the model fungi, have been well studied but others are poorly understood. The latter is also true for uni-directional mating type switching, which has been reported in only five fungal genera, including Ceratocystis. Mating type switching allows a self-fertile fungal isolate to produce both self-fertile and self-sterile offspring. This study considered the molecular nature of uni-directional mating type switching in the type species of Ceratocystis, C. fimbriata. To do this, the genome of C. fimbriata was first examined for the presence of mating type genes. Three mating genes (MAT1-1-1, MAT1-2-1 and MAT1-1-2) were found in an atypical organisation of the mating type locus. To study the effect that uni-directional switching has on this locus, several self-sterile offspring were analysed. Using a combination of next generation and conventional Sanger sequencing, it was shown that a 3581 base pair (bp) region had been completely deleted from the MAT locus. This deletion, which includes the entire MAT1-2-1 gene, results in the permanent loss of self-fertility, rendering these isolates exclusively self-sterile. Our data also suggest that the deletion mechanism is tightly controlled and that it always occurs at the same genomic position. Two 260 bp direct repeats flanking the deleted region are strongly implicated in the process, although the exact mechanism behind the switching remains unclear. PMID:24651494

  4. Genetics and Evolution of Hybrid Male Sterility in House Mice

    PubMed Central

    White, Michael A.; Stubbings, Maria; Dumont, Beth L.; Payseur, Bret A.

    2012-01-01

    Comparative genetic mapping provides insights into the evolution of the reproductive barriers that separate closely related species. This approach has been used to document the accumulation of reproductive incompatibilities over time, but has only been applied to a few taxa. House mice offer a powerful system to reconstruct the evolution of reproductive isolation between multiple subspecies pairs. However, studies of the primary reproductive barrier in house mice—hybrid male sterility—have been restricted to a single subspecies pair: Mus musculus musculus and Mus musculus domesticus. To provide a more complete characterization of reproductive isolation in house mice, we conducted an F2 intercross between wild-derived inbred strains from Mus musculus castaneus and M. m. domesticus. We identified autosomal and X-linked QTL associated with a range of hybrid male sterility phenotypes, including testis weight, sperm density, and sperm morphology. The pseudoautosomal region (PAR) was strongly associated with hybrid sterility phenotypes when heterozygous. We compared QTL found in this cross with QTL identified in a previous F2 intercross between M. m. musculus and M. m. domesticus and found three shared autosomal QTL. Most QTL were not shared, demonstrating that the genetic basis of hybrid male sterility largely differs between these closely related subspecies pairs. These results lay the groundwork for identifying genes responsible for the early stages of speciation in house mice. PMID:22554891

  5. How is female mate choice affected by male competition?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bob B. M. Wong; Ulrika Candolin

    2005-01-01

    The plethora of studies devoted to the topics of male competition and female mate choice belie the fact that their interaction remains poorly understood. Indeed, on the question of whether competition should help or hinder the choice process, opinions scattered throughout the sexual selection literature seem unnecessarily polarised. We argue, in the light of recent theoretical and empirical advances, that

  6. Extreme costs of mating for male two-spot ladybird beetles.

    PubMed

    Perry, Jennifer C; Tse, Crystal T

    2013-01-01

    Male costs of mating are now thought to be widespread. The two-spot ladybird beetle (Adalia bipunctata) has been the focus of many studies of mating and sexual selection, yet the costs of mating for males are unknown. The mating system of A. bipunctata involves a spermatophore nuptial gift ingested by females after copulation. In this study, we investigate the cost to males of mating and of transferring spermatophores in terms of lifespan, ejaculate production and depletion of nutritional reserves. We found that males faced a strong trade-off between mating and survival, with males that were randomly assigned to mate a single time experiencing a 53% reduction in post-mating lifespan compared to non-mating males. This is among the most severe survival costs of a single mating yet reported. However, spermatophore transfer did not impact male survival. Instead, the costs associated with spermatophores appeared as a reduced ability to transfer spermatophores in successive matings. Furthermore, males ingested more food following spermatophore transfer than after matings without spermatophores, suggesting that spermatophore transfer depletes male nutritional reserves. This is to our knowledge the first report of an effect of variation in copulatory behaviour on male foraging behaviour. Overall, our study highlights the advantages of assessing mating costs using multiple currencies, and suggests that male A. bipunctata should exhibit mate choice. PMID:24339980

  7. A pentatricopeptide repeat-containing gene restores fertility to cytoplasmic male-sterile plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stéphane Bentolila; Antonio A. Alfonso; Maureen R. Hanson

    2002-01-01

    Known in over 150 species, cytoplasmic male sterility is encoded by aberrant mitochondrial genes that prevent pollen development. The RNA- or protein-level expression of most of the mitochondrial genes encoding cytoplasmic male sterility is altered in the presence of one or more nuclear genes called restorers of fertility that suppress the male-sterile phenotype. Cytoplasmic male sterility\\/restorer systems have been proven

  8. Genetic Architecture of Hybrid Male Sterility in Drosophila: Analysis of Intraspecies Variation for

    E-print Network

    Markow, Therese

    Genetic Architecture of Hybrid Male Sterility in Drosophila: Analysis of Intraspecies Variation design, to perform quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping analyses directly on F1 hybrid male sterility itself. We found that the genetic architecture of the polymorphism for hybrid male sterility (HMS

  9. Meiotic disturbances related to human male sterility J. M. LUCIANI, A. STAHL

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Meiotic disturbances related to human male sterility J. M. LUCIANI, A. STAHL Laboratoire d. Summary. The authors found an abnormal karyotype in 5 to 15 p. 100 of the cases of male sterility studied anomalies are one cause of human male sterility. These anomalies act in different ways : - They may cause

  10. GENETIC ARCHITECHTURE OF MALE STERILITY AND SEGREGATION DISTORTION IN DROSOPHILA PSEUDOOBSCURA BOGOTA-USA HYBRIDS

    E-print Network

    Nachman, Michael

    1 GENETIC ARCHITECHTURE OF MALE STERILITY AND SEGREGATION DISTORTION IN DROSOPHILA PSEUDOOBSCURA architecture underlying hybrid male sterility and segregation distortion between the Bogota and USA subspecies but not sufficient for both male sterility and segregation distortion in F1 hybrids between these subspecies

  11. An experimental test of frequency-dependent selection on male mating strategy in the field

    E-print Network

    Murphy, Troy G.

    strategies.However,if alternative male mating tactics are the outcome of male­male competition, then we may of intraspecific male­male competition. Thus, a complete test of the control of FDS entails a manipulation of bothAn experimental test of frequency-dependent selection on male mating strategy in the field C. Bleay

  12. Male mating success, sexual size dimorphism, and site fidelity in two species of Malacoctenus (Labrisomidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher W. Petersen; APO Miami

    1988-01-01

    Synopsis In both Malacoctenus hubbsi and Malacoctenus macropus, males defended preferred oviposition sites from both other males and potential egg predators. In M. hubbsi, adult females were larger than adult males. Larger M. hubbsi males were not associated with territory parameters that were correlated with higher mating success, and male size was not correlated with mating success. Male size did

  13. Specific Expression in Reproductive Tissues and Fate of a Mitochondrial Sterility-Associated Protein in Cytoplasmic Male-Sterile Bean

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andre R. Abad; Brian J. Mehrtens; Sally A. Mackenzie

    1995-01-01

    In common bean, cytoplasmic male sterility has been associated with a unique sequence found in the mitochondrial genome, designated pvs (for Phaseolus vulgaris sterility sequence). Within the pvs sequence, two open reading frames are encoded, ORF98 and ORF239. We have raised rabbit polyclonal antibodies against Pvs-ORF239 to evaluate the role of this putative male sterility-associated protein. Histological investigation of pollen

  14. Male mate choice selects for female coloration in a fish

    PubMed Central

    Amundsen, Trond; Forsgren, Elisabet

    2001-01-01

    Although sexual selection theory has proved successful in explaining a wide array of male ornaments, the function of ornaments occurring in females is largely unknown. Traditionally, female ornaments have been considered nonfunctional, being merely a genetically correlated response to selection for male ornamentation. However, this hypothesis is only relevant to species in which the ornament is basically the same in the two sexes. Alternatively, female ornaments may be influenced by selection acting directly on the females, either through female–female competition or male choice. We tested the latter hypothesis in mate-choice experiments with two-spotted gobies (Gobiusculus flavescens). In this small marine fish, females have bright yellow-orange bellies during the breeding season, a conspicuous trait that is not present in males. We conducted two aquarium experiments to test whether males preferred to mate with more colorful females. In the first experiment, males had a choice between two females that varied in natural coloration (and belly roundness). In the second experiment, we manipulated belly coloration and kept roundness constant. Males spent more time with colorful than with drab females in both experiments and also performed far more courtship displays toward colorful females. Our study provides experimental evidence that males prefer ornamented females in a fish that is not sex-role reversed, supporting the hypothesis that female ornamentation is sexually selected. PMID:11606720

  15. Male Age Affects Female Mate Preference and Reproductive Performance in the Cabbage Beetle, Colaphellus bowringi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xing-Ping Liu; Jing Xu; Hai-Min He; Xian-Ju Kuang; Fang-Sen Xue

    2011-01-01

    The influence of male age on female mate preference and reproductive performance in the cabbage beetle, Colaphellus bowringi was examined, using male and female adults of varying ages (young, middle-aged and old) after a single mating. In a simultaneous\\u000a choice test, females of all age class preferentially mated with middle-aged males. Mating duration was positively related\\u000a to male age. Longevity

  16. Male remating and female fitness in the wolf spider Pardosa astrigera : the role of male mating history

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoguo Jiao; Zhanqi Chen; Jun Wu; Hongyan Du; Fengxiang Liu; Jian Chen; Daiqin Li

    2011-01-01

    Although the effects of male mating history on female reproductive output and longevity have been studied in insects, few\\u000a such studies have been carried out in spiders. In a mating system in which females are monandrous while males are polygynous,\\u000a females may incur the risk by mating with successful males that have experienced consecutive matings and suffer from the possible

  17. Plant Mating Systems: Female Sterility in the Driver's Seat.

    PubMed

    Pannell, John R; Voillemot, Marie

    2015-06-15

    Violation of Mendel's Law of Segregation by selfish X chromosomes that favour their own transmission is known for a number of organisms. Now, a new study reveals sex-ratio distortion favouring males and explains previously puzzling sex ratios in a Mediterranean shrub. PMID:26079085

  18. Double-stranded RNA and male sterility in rice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Wang; Y. N. Li; X. W. Zhang; L. Hu; J. Z. Wang

    1990-01-01

    Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) was isolated from rice Oryza sativa ssp. japonica, but not from other subspecies. The dsRNA has been found in all of the examined cytoplasmic male-sterile (CMS) lines of BT (Chinsurah Boro II)-type rice, but was not detected in their companionate maintainer lines. It is uniquely and positivley correlated with the CMS trait in BT-type rice. Recently, the

  19. Towards male sterility in Pinus radiata--a stilbene synthase approach to genetically engineer nuclear male sterility.

    PubMed

    Höfig, Kai P; Möller, Ralf; Donaldson, Lloyd; Putterill, Joanna; Walter, Christian

    2006-05-01

    A male cone-specific promoter from Pinus radiata D. Don (radiata pine) was used to express a stilbene synthase gene (STS) in anthers of transgenic Nicotiana tabacum plants, resulting in complete male sterility in 70% of transformed plants. Three plants were 98%-99.9% male sterile, as evidenced by pollen germination. To identify the stage at which transgenic pollen first developed abnormally, tobacco anthers from six different developmental stages were assayed microscopically. Following the release of pollen grains from tetrads, transgenic pollen displayed an increasingly flake-like structure, which gradually rounded up during the maturation process. We further investigated whether STS expression may have resulted in an impaired flavonol or sporopollenin formation. A specific flavonol aglycone stain was used to demonstrate that significant amounts of these substances were produced only in late stages of normal pollen development, therefore excluding a diminished flavonol aglycone production as a reason for pollen ablation. A detailed analysis of the exine layer by transmission electron microscopy revealed minor structural changes in the exine layer of ablated pollen, and pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy indicated that the biochemistry of sporopollenin production was unaffected. The promoter-STS construct may be useful for the ablation of pollen formation in coniferous gymnosperms and male sterility may potentially be viewed as a prerequisite for the commercial use of transgenic conifers. PMID:17147639

  20. Swarming and mating behavior of a mayfly Baetis bicaudatus suggest stabilizing selection for male body size

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara L. Peckarsky; Angus R. McIntosh; Christopher C. Caudill; Jonas Dahl

    2002-01-01

    Large size often confers a fitness advantage to female insects because fecundity increases with body size. However, the fitness benefits of large size for male insects are less clear. We investigated the mating behavior of the mayfly Baetis bicaudatus to determine whether the probability of male mating success increased with body size. Males formed mating aggregations (swarms) ranging from a

  1. Male mating history and female fecundity in the Lepidoptera: do male virgins make better partners?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis M. Torres-Vila; Michael D. Jennions

    2005-01-01

    In insects, large ejaculate and associated materials, including spermatophores, appear to have evolved via sexual selection acting on males to either delay female remating or to increase the rate of egg-laying. It is also possible, however, that females use nutrients transferred during mating to increase their lifetime fecundity. If so, male ejaculate size may also have evolved under natural selection

  2. [Genetic study on two maize male sterile mutants obtained by space mutagenesis].

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-Ling; Yu, Yong-Liang; Liu, Yan-Xia; Li, Xue-Hui; Fu, Jia-Feng

    2007-06-01

    Two maize male sterile mutants were selected from the offspring of four maize inbred lines, which were carried into space by the Shenzhou spaceship 4. Their genetic characteristic and stability was analyzed in present study. Crosses were made between the male sterile plants and fertile plants from the same line, and other inbred lines with normal cytoplasm. The ratios of the sterile plants with the fertile plants in their F1, F2 generations, and their reciprocal backcross generations with the male sterile plants were calculated. The results showed that the characteristic in male sterility was stable in different years, different seasons and different locations, and was inheritable from generation to generation. This male sterile was controlled by a single nuclear recessive gene. Since no pollens or a few malformed pollens existed in the anther of the sterile plants, it was a completely sterile type. PMID:17650492

  3. Expression of Engineered Nuclear Male Sterility in Brassica napus (Genetics, Morphology, Cytology, and Sensitivity to Temperature).

    PubMed Central

    Denis, M.; Delourme, R.; Gourret, J. P.; Mariani, C.; Renard, M.

    1993-01-01

    A dominant genetic male sterility trait obtained through transformation in rapeseed (Brassica napus) was studied in the progenies of 11 transformed plants. The gene conferring the male sterility consists of a ribonuclease gene under the control of a tapetum-specific promoter. Two ribonuclease genes, RNase T1 and barnase, were used. The chimaeric ribonuclease gene was linked to the bialophos-resistance gene, which confers resistance to the herbicide phosphinotricine (PPT). The resistance to the herbicide was used as a dominant marker for the male sterility trait. The study presented here concerns three aspects of this engineered male sterility: genetics correlated with the segregation of the T-DNA in the progenies; expression of the male sterility in relation to the morphology and cytology of the androecium; and stability of the engineered male sterility under different culture conditions. Correct segregation, 50% male-sterile, PPT-resistant plants, and 50% male-fertile, susceptible plants were observed in the progeny of seven transformants. The most prominent morphological change in the male-sterile flowers was a noticeable reduction in the length of the stamen filament. The first disturbances of microsporogenesis were observed from the free microspore stage and were followed by a simultaneous degeneration of microspore and tapetal cell content. At anthesis, the sterile anthers contained only empty exines. In some cases, reversion to fertility of male-sterile plants has been observed. Both ribonuclease genes are susceptible to instability. Instability of the RNase T1-male sterility trait increased at temperatures higher than 25[deg] C. Our results do not allow us to confirm this observation for the barnase male-sterile plants. However, the male-sterile plants of the progeny of two independent RNase T1 transformants were stably male sterile under all conditions studied. PMID:12231785

  4. Female Sexual Polymorphism and Fecundity Consequences of Male Mating Harassment in the Wild

    PubMed Central

    Gosden, Thomas P.; Svensson, Erik I.

    2007-01-01

    Genetic and phenotypic variation in female response towards male mating attempts has been found in several laboratory studies, demonstrating sexually antagonistic co-evolution driven by mating costs on female fitness. Theoretical models suggest that the type and degree of genetic variation in female resistance could affect the evolutionary outcome of sexually antagonistic mating interactions, resulting in either rapid development of reproductive isolation and speciation or genetic clustering and female sexual polymorphisms. However, evidence for genetic variation of this kind in natural populations of non-model organisms is very limited. Likewise, we lack knowledge on female fecundity-consequences of matings and the degree of male mating harassment in natural settings. Here we present such data from natural populations of a colour polymorphic damselfly. Using a novel experimental technique of colour dusting males in the field, we show that heritable female colour morphs differ in their propensity to accept male mating attempts. These morphs also differ in their degree of resistance towards male mating attempts, the number of realized matings and in their fecundity-tolerance to matings and mating attempts. These results show that there may be genetic variation in both resistance and tolerance to male mating attempts (fitness consequences of matings) in natural populations, similar to the situation in plant-pathogen resistance systems. Male mating harassment could promote the maintenance of a sexual mating polymorphism in females, one of few empirical examples of sympatric genetic clusters maintained by sexual conflict. PMID:17593979

  5. Behavioral sterility of hybrid males in acoustically communicating grasshoppers (Acrididae, Gomphocerinae).

    PubMed

    Gottsberger, Brigitte; Mayer, Frieder

    2007-07-01

    The effectiveness of hybridization barriers determines whether two species remain reproductively isolated when their populations come into contact. We investigated acoustic mating signals and associated leg movements responsible for song creation of hybrids between the grasshopper species Chorthippus biguttulus and C. brunneus to study whether and how songs of male hybrids contribute to reproductive isolation between these sympatrically occurring species. Songs of F1, F2, and backcross hybrids were intermediate between those of both parental species in terms phrase number and duration. In contrast, species-specific syllable structure within phrases was largely lost in hybrids and was produced, if at all, in an irregular and imperfect manner. These divergences in inheritance of different song parameters are likely the result of incompatibility of neuronal networks that control stridulatory leg movements in hybrids. It is highly probable that songs of hybrid males are unattractive to females of either parental species because they are intermediate in terms of phrase duration and lack a clear syllable structure. Males of various hybrid types (F1, F2, and backcrosses) are behaviorally sterile because their songs fail to attract mates. PMID:17440734

  6. Effects of temperature variation on male behavior and mating success in a montane beetle.

    PubMed

    Dick, Cynthia A; Rank, Nathan E; McCarthy, Meagan; McWeeney, Stephen; Hollis, Daniel; Dahlhoff, Elizabeth P

    2013-01-01

    Locomotion and mating ability are crucial for male reproductive success yet are energetically costly and susceptible to physiological stress. In the Sierra willow beetle Chrysomela aeneicollis, male mating success depends on locating and mating with as many females as possible. Variation at the glycolytic enzyme locus phosphoglucose isomerase (Pgi) is concordant with a latitudinal temperature gradient in these populations, with Pgi-1 frequent in the cooler north, Pgi-4 in the warmer south, and alleles 1 and 4 in relatively equal frequency in areas intermediate in geography and climate. Beetles experience elevated air temperatures during a mating season that causes differential physiological stress among Pgi genotypes, and running speeds of individuals homozygous for Pgi-4 are more tolerant of repeated thermal stress than individuals possessing Pgi-1. Here the importance of running behavior for male mating activity was examined, and differential effects of thermal stress among Pgi genotypes on male mating activity were measured. In nature, males run more than females, and nearly half of males mate or fight for a mate after running. In the laboratory, mating activity was positively correlated with running speed, and repeated mating did not reduce running speed or subsequent mating activity. Males homozygous for Pgi-4 mated longer and more frequently after heat treatment than 1-1 and 1-4 males. All heat-treated males had lower mating frequencies and higher heat shock protein expression than control males; however, mating frequency of recovering 4-4 males increased throughout mating trials, while treated 1-1 and 1-4 males remained low. These results suggest that effects of stress on mating activity differ between Pgi genotypes, implying a critical role for energy metabolism in organisms' response to stressful temperatures. PMID:23799837

  7. Expression of sunflower cytoplasmic male sterility-associated open reading frame, orf H522 induces male sterility in transgenic tobacco plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Narasimha Rao Nizampatnam; Harinath Doodhi; Yamini Kalinati Narasimhan; Sujatha Mulpuri; Dinesh Kumar Viswanathaswamy

    2009-01-01

    Sterility in the universally exploited PET1-CMS system of sunflower is associated with the expression of orfH522, a novel mitochondrial gene. Definitive evidence that ORFH522 is directly responsible for male sterility is lacking.\\u000a To test the hypothesis that ORFH522 is sufficient to induce male sterility, a set of chimeric constructs were developed. The\\u000a cDNA of orfH522 was cloned in-frame with yeast

  8. Male Mating Competitiveness of a Wolbachia-Introgressed Aedes polynesiensis Strain under Semi-Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bossin, Hervé; Dobson, Stephen L.

    2011-01-01

    Background Lymphatic filariasis (LF), a global public health problem affecting approximately 120 million people worldwide, is a leading cause of disability in the developing world including the South Pacific. Despite decades of ongoing mass drug administration (MDA) in the region, some island nations have not yet achieved the threshold levels of microfilaremia established by the World Health Organization for eliminating transmission. Previously, the generation of a novel Aedes polynesiensis strain (CP) infected with an exogenous type of Wolbachia has been described. The CP mosquito is cytoplasmically incompatible (i.e., effectively sterile) when mated with wildtype mosquitoes, and a strategy was proposed for the control of A. polynesiensis populations by repeated, inundative releases of CP males to disrupt fertility of wild females. Such a strategy could lead to suppression of the vector population and subsequently lead to a reduction in the transmission of filarial worms. Methodology/Principal Findings CP males and F1 male offspring from wild-caught A. polynesiensis females exhibit near equal mating competitiveness with F1 females under semi-field conditions. Conclusions/Significance While laboratory experiments are important, prior projects have demonstrated the need for additional testing under semi-field conditions in order to recognize problems before field implementation. The results reported here from semi-field experiments encourage forward progression toward small-scale field releases. PMID:21829750

  9. Identification of molecular markers linked to a new nuclear male-sterility gene ms7 in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nuclear male sterility (NMS) is an important alternative system to the cytoplasm male sterility (CMS) in hybrid breeding programs because of its stable male sterility and abundant available restorer resources. For sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), NMS 89-552, a nuclear male-sterile mutant induced by...

  10. Male and Female Mating Behavior is Dependent on Social Context in the Butterfly Bicyclus anynana

    E-print Network

    Monteiro, Antónia

    Male and Female Mating Behavior is Dependent on Social Context in the Butterfly Bicyclus anynana context. We tested for plasticity in male and female mating behavior in a species of butterfly, Bicyclus and females change their mating behavior in response to social context in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana

  11. Do Tetranychus urticae males avoid mating with familiar females?

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, T; Yano, S

    2014-07-01

    The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, usually lives in kin groups under common webs. Because only the first mating results in fertilisation in female T. urticae, adult males guard quiescent deutonymph females, those at the stage immediately before maturation, to ensure paternity. Therefore, the cost of precopulatory guarding time seems considerable for males. Moreover, the fitness indices of daughters from intra-population crosses were significantly lower than those of daughters from inter-population crosses, indicating that inbreeding depression exists in T. urticae. Therefore, we hypothesised that T. urticae males should be choosy in guarding familiar females to avoid inbreeding depression. Furthermore, webs should be a key element of the environment shared by familiar individuals. In this study, we demonstrated the inbreeding avoidance mechanism of T. urticae males in relation to webs produced by familiar females (known webs) or unfamiliar females (unknown webs). Regardless of surrounding webs (known or unknown), males preferred unfamiliar to familiar females. We further examined whether males detect unfamiliar females by their webs. When males had experienced a female's web without encountering that female, they subsequently preferred females that did not produce the surrounding webs in which the choice experiment was conducted. Results suggest that putative kin recognition for inbreeding avoidance in T. urticae males is based on the relationship between webs and females, and not on the discrimination of webs in shared environments. PMID:24737758

  12. Genetic analysis of male fertility restoration in wild cytoplasmic male sterility G of beet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pascal Touzet; Nathalie Hueber; Alexandra Bürkholz; Stephen Barnes; Joël Cuguen

    2004-01-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) has been used in the breeding of sugar beet for decades but is also more generally an important feature of the reproductive system in its wild relative, Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima. Among the several CMSs found in wild populations, the G CMS is a mitochondrial variant of the respiratory chain. The segregants derived from a cross

  13. Male butterfly investment in successive ejaculates in relation to mating system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charlene J. Bissoondath; Christer Wiklund

    1996-01-01

    In Lepidoptera, female mating systems range from strict monandry to strong polyandry. Males transfer an ejaculate during\\u000a copulation that contains both sperm and accessory gland substances. In butterflies the male ejaculate has at least three effects:\\u000a it (1) contains sperm that can fertilize the eggs of the male’s mating partner, (2) influences the refractory period of the\\u000a mated female, and

  14. Do male breeding displays function to attract mates or defend territories? The explanatory role of mate and site fidelity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lanctot, Richard B.; Sandercock, B.K.; Kempenaers, B.

    2000-01-01

    Many shorebirds show elaborate breeding displays that include aerial flights and ground displays accompanied by song. The mate attraction hypothesis suggests that breeding displays function to attract mates and maintain pair bonds, whereas the territory defense hypothesis suggests breeding displays function in defining and defending nesting and feeding territories. We tested these hypotheses in the Western Sandpiper (Calidris mauri) by contrasting the duration and level of male breeding displays among pairs that differed in their mate and site fidelity. As predicted by the mate attraction hypothesis, males performed the highest number of song sequences during pair formation, and males paired with their mate of a prior year sang less than males paired to new mates. Further, site-faithful males mated to a new but experienced mate displayed significantly more than remated males or males new to the area. This suggests a male's prior familiarity with an area and his neighbors does not lessen his display rate as was predicted under the territory defense hypothesis. Limited support for the territory defense hypothesis came from observations of males performing breeding displays with neighboring males along nest territory boundaries. This behavior was short-lived, however, as males abandoned nesting areas after pair-formation and used adjacent or disjointed feeding areas during egg-laying and incubation. Male aggression (i.e., aerial and ground chases), as opposed to breeding displays, appeared to be the principal means of maintaining territory boundaries. Indeed, the rate at which males chased other males remained fairly constant and high throughout the breeding season. Male chasing behavior may also serve as a paternity guard to protect against extra-pair copulations. Our study also found that a female's prior breeding experience in an area correlated with a reduced display rate by her mate, particularly if that mate was new to the area. This indicates female characteristics may not only drive nest initiation, as has been shown in other studies, but are important in determining the duration and extent of male display. Received: 7 February 2000, accepted 10 March 2000.

  15. Female distribution affects mate searching and sexual selection in male northern water snakes ( Nerodia sipedon )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory P. Brown; Patrick J. Weatherhead

    1999-01-01

    Mating systems and sexual selection are assumed to be affected by the distribution of critical resources. We use observations\\u000a of 312 mating aggregations to compare mate-searching success of male northern water snakes (Nerodia sipedon) in two marshes in which differences in mating substrate availability resulted in more than fourfold differences in female\\u000a dispersion. Reproductive males had significantly larger home ranges

  16. Fertility Compensation of Cornerstone Male Sterility of Wheat by Rye

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, M. A.; Driscoll, C. J.

    1983-01-01

    The genome of rye is known to compensate for the lost male-fertility gene(s) of wheat chromosome arm 4A? in the Cornerstone male-sterility mutant. A search for the rye chromosome(s) involved in this compensation showed that chromosomes 2R and 4R are responsible. Only the short arms of these two chromosomes are the operative ones. Chromosome arm 4RS compensates in an erratic way, whereas 2RS compensates in a full and consistent way. The entire chromosome 2R compensates less well than the 2RS telocentric which reflects an antifertility factor(s) on 2RL. This may be a specific expression of the 2R genes for poor vigor which are located on only the long arm. 2RS will be a valuable piece of chromatin for the XYZ system of producing hybrid wheat. PMID:17246128

  17. Fertility compensation of cornerstone male sterility of wheat by rye.

    PubMed

    Hossain, M A; Driscoll, C J

    1983-05-01

    The genome of rye is known to compensate for the lost male-fertility gene(s) of wheat chromosome arm 4Aalpha in the Cornerstone male-sterility mutant. A search for the rye chromosome(s) involved in this compensation showed that chromosomes 2R and 4R are responsible. Only the short arms of these two chromosomes are the operative ones. Chromosome arm 4RS compensates in an erratic way, whereas 2RS compensates in a full and consistent way. The entire chromosome 2R compensates less well than the 2RS telocentric which reflects an antifertility factor(s) on 2RL. This may be a specific expression of the 2R genes for poor vigor which are located on only the long arm. 2RS will be a valuable piece of chromatin for the XYZ system of producing hybrid wheat. PMID:17246128

  18. Sexual competitiveness of Vienna 4\\/Tol-94 ‘genetic sexing’ sterile mediterranean fruit fly males in Israel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phillip W. Taylor; Allon Bear; Yoav Gazit; Yoram Rössler

    2001-01-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is used as an environment-friendly means of suppressing Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata; ‘medfly’) populations in the Arava valley of Israel. The technique depends on released sterile males effectively wresting\\u000a the reproductive potential away from wild, fertile males. Studies carried out in other countries have indicated that sterile\\u000a males may sometimes be of inferior sexual

  19. Characterization of three male-sterile mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana exhibiting alterations in meiosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brenda N. Peirson; Heather A. Owen; Kenneth A. Feldmann; Christopher A. Makaroff

    1996-01-01

    Male-sterile mutants are being studied to deepen our understanding of the complex processes of microsporogenesis and microgametogenesis. Due to difficulties associated with isolating the mutated gene, there is currently very little molecular information on the defects responsible for male sterility. As a first step in utilizing male-sterile mutants to better understand the bio-chemical and molecular processes that control pollen development,

  20. Mating behavior of adolescent male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Watts, David P

    2015-04-01

    Male mating tactics vary extensively in many primates. Some variation occurs because adolescent males often are sexually active but cannot invest heavily in mating effort because of their limited ability to compete directly with adults and because they are still investing in growth; consequently, most of their mating attempts may be surreptitious and/or with females whose fecundity is low. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have a complex mating system: most copulations occur between estrous females with full sexual swelling and multiple males in group settings where the potential for sperm competition is high, but males sometimes mate-guard females, and sometimes male-female pairs mate exclusively with each other while avoiding other males during "consortships." Among other factors, dominance ranks, coalition formation, and variation in male-female association influence male mating and reproductive success. Mating effort increases from adolescence into prime adulthood. At Gombe and Mahale, adolescent males copulated more with nulliparous than with parous females, and mostly when females were unlikely to be ovulating, partly because of low adult male interest in nulliparous females and partly because of aggression from or avoidance of adult males. Adolescents thus had low probabilities of siring infants. However, adolescents are known to have gained some paternity at Gombe and in other populations, and their mating behavior deserves more study. I present data on mating by adolescent males in an unusually large chimpanzee community at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda. Adolescents at Ngogo also copulated more with nulliparous than parous females and mostly copulated outside of periovulatory periods. Also, they directed less aggression at estrous females than did adult males. However, they gained lower shares of copulations than reported for Gombe and Mahale, regardless of female parity, and received more aggression from adult males. These differences might partly reflect the influence of variation in the number of males per community on male mating tactics. PMID:25344150

  1. Female sticklebacks use male coloration in mate choice and hence avoid parasitized males

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manfred Milinski; Theo C. M. Bakker

    1990-01-01

    AN important problem in evolutionary biology since the time of Darwin has been to understand why females preferentially mate with males handicapped by secondary sexual ornaments1-3. One hypothesis of sexual selection theory is that these ornaments reliably reveal the male's condition4-6, which can be affected for example by parasites4,7-13. Here we show that in the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) the

  2. Mating system and size advantage of male mating in the protogynous swamp eel Monopterus albus with paternal care.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Seiji; Takeyama, Tomohiro; Ohnishi, Nobuhiro; Kohda, Masanori

    2011-05-01

    In fish with paternal care, protogynous sex change (female to male) is rare and has only been reported from species with haremic polygyny. The swamp eel, Monopterus albus, is a protogynous fish with paternal care, but little is known about its mating system. To understand protogyny in this species, we examined the mating system and male size advantage in mating in M. albus under semi-natural condition. Females swam over wide ranges and visited multiple male nests. Males defended a narrow territory around nests against other males that approached nests; at these nests, males courted and accepted visiting females. After spawning inside nests, caring males continued to perform courtship activities, and multiple breeding was observed. These observations suggest that the M. albus mating system is male-territory-visiting (MTV)-polygamy. Larger males had nests, and mated more frequently compared with small males. Because small initial males of this species are not found in nature, and because M. albus does not engage in sneaking tactics, larger nesting males do not suffer from reproductive parasitism. Thus, protogyny in this fish is likely consistent with the predictions of the size-advantage model. Biting attacks by territorial males of this predatory fish seriously wounded intruding males, occasionally resulting in the death of the intruder. We discuss the possibility that sexual differences in mortality rates in small fish may facilitate the evolution of protogyny in this species. Protogyny of the swamp eel is, to our knowledge, the first example of an MTV-polygamous mating system in a fish with paternal care. PMID:21557660

  3. Cytoplasmic Male Sterility in Mimulus hybrids has Pleiotropic Effects on Corolla and Pistil Traits Camille M. Barr and Lila Fishman

    E-print Network

    Fishman, Lila

    Cytoplasmic Male Sterility in Mimulus hybrids has Pleiotropic Effects on Corolla and Pistil Traits between cytonuclear anther sterility and other floral traits in Mimulus hybrids. Male-sterile flowers had that male-sterile plants produced ~20 seeds per flower more than fertile sibling after supplemental

  4. Mating behavior, male sensory cilia, and polycystins in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    O'Hagan, Robert; Wang, Juan; Barr, Maureen M

    2014-09-01

    The investigation of Caenorhabditis elegans males and the male-specific sensory neurons required for mating behaviors has provided insight into the molecular function of polycystins and mechanisms that are needed for polycystin ciliary localization. In humans, polycystin 1 and polycystin 2 are needed for kidney function; loss of polycystin function leads to autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Polycystins localize to cilia in C. elegans and mammals, a finding that has guided research into ADPKD. The discovery that the polycystins form ciliary receptors in male-specific neurons needed for mating behaviors has also helped to unlock insights into two additional exciting new areas: the secretion of extracellular vesicles; and mechanisms of ciliary specialization. First, we will summarize the studies done in C. elegans regarding the expression, localization, and function of the polycystin 1 and 2 homologs, LOV-1 and PKD-2, and discuss insights gained from this basic research. Molecules that are co-expressed with the polycystins in the male-specific neurons may identify evolutionarily conserved molecular mechanisms for polycystin function and localization. We will discuss the finding that polycystins are secreted in extracellular vesicles that evoke behavioral change in males, suggesting that such vesicles provide a novel form of communication to conspecifics in the environment. In humans, polycystin-containing extracellular vesicles are secreted in urine and can be taken up by cilia, and quickly internalized. Therefore, communication by polycystin-containing extracellular vesicles may also use mechanisms that are evolutionarily conserved from nematode to human. Lastly, different cilia display structural and functional differences that specialize them for particular tasks, despite the fact that virtually all cilia are built by a conserved intraflagellar transport (IFT) mechanism and share some basic structural features. Comparative analysis of the male-specific cilia with the well-studied cilia of the amphid and phasmid neurons has allowed identification of molecules that specialize the male cilia. We will discuss the molecules that shape the male-specific cilia. The cell biology of cilia in male-specific neurons demonstrates that C. elegans can provide an excellent model of ciliary specialization. PMID:24977333

  5. A chimaeric ribonuclease-inhibitor gene restores fertility to male sterile plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Celestina Mariani; Veronique Gossele; Marc De Beuckeleer; Marc De Block; Robert B. Goldberg; Willy De Greef; Jan Leemans

    1992-01-01

    Male fertility was restored to genetically engineered male sterile oilseed rape plants. Male sterile plants that express a chimaeric ribonuclease gene in the anther tapetal cell layer were crossed with male fertile plants that were transformed with a chimaeric tapetal-cell-specific ribonuclease-inhibitor gene. F1 progeny expressing both genes are restored to male fertility by the suppression of cytotoxic ribonuclease activity in

  6. Anim. Behav., 1998, 55, 16311635 Sex recognition and mate choice by male western toads, Bufo boreas

    E-print Network

    Blaustein, Andrew R.

    Anim. Behav., 1998, 55, 1631­1635 Sex recognition and mate choice by male western toads, Bufo and mate choice in male western toads, Bufo boreas. When given a simultaneous choice between a male & Cohen 1995). Frog and toad advertisement calls may be considered a form of long-range courtship (Rand

  7. Mating frequency of the male cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae), under laboratory conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated the number of times that males of the invasive cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) mate under laboratory conditions. Virgin females were provided to each male at 24 h intervals until male death. Females removed from the containers were dissected to ascertain their mating ...

  8. The Effects of Perceived Mating Opportunities on Patterns of Reproductive Investment by Male Guppies

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Luke T.; Evans, Jonathan P.; Gasparini, Clelia

    2014-01-01

    Males pay considerable reproductive costs in acquiring mates (precopulatory sexual selection) and in producing ejaculates that are effective at fertilising eggs in the presence of competing ejaculates (postcopulatory sexual selection). Given these costs, males must balance their reproductive investment in a given mating to optimise their future reproductive potential. Males are therefore expected to invest in reproduction prudently according to the likelihood of obtaining future matings. In this study we tested this prediction by determining whether male reproductive investment varies with expected future mating opportunities, which were experimentally manipulated by visually exposing male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) to high or low numbers of females in the absence of competing males. Our experiment did not reveal consistent effects of perceived future mating opportunity on either precopulatory (male mate choice and mating behaviour) or postcopulatory (sperm quality and quantity) investment. However, we did find that male size and female availability interacted to influence mating behaviour; large males visually deprived of females during the treatment phase became more choosy and showed greater interest in their preferred female than those given continuous visual access to females. Overall, our results suggest males tailor pre- rather than postcopulatory traits according to local female availability, but critically, these effects depend on male size. PMID:24705713

  9. Size-dependent response to conspeci c mating calls by male crickets

    E-print Network

    Gray, David A.

    by males that `eavesdrop' on male^male competitive encounters, i.e. visual eavesdropping (e.g. Oliveira et competition disadvantage small males. Here we examine whether and in what manner male A. domesticus useSize-dependent response to conspeci c mating calls by male crickets Moshe Ki£awi* and David A. Gray

  10. Male fish use prior knowledge about rivals to adjust their mate choice

    PubMed Central

    Bierbach, David; Girndt, Antje; Hamfler, Sybille; Klein, Moritz; Mücksch, Frauke; Penshorn, Marina; Schwinn, Michael; Zimmer, Claudia; Schlupp, Ingo; Streit, Bruno; Plath, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Mate choice as one element of sexual selection can be sensitive to public information from neighbouring individuals. Here, we demonstrate that males of the livebearing fish Poecilia mexicana gather complex social information when given a chance to familiarize themselves with rivals prior to mate choice. Focal males ceased to show mating preferences when being observed by a rival (which prevents rivals from copying mating decisions), but this effect was only seen when focal males have perceived rivals as sexually active. In addition, focal males that were observed by a familiar, sexually active rival showed a stronger behavioural response when rivals were larger and thus, more attractive to females. Our study illustrates an unparalleled adjustment in the expression of mating preferences based on social cues, and suggests that male fish are able to remember and strategically exploit information about rivals when performing mate choice. PMID:21208944

  11. Male fish use prior knowledge about rivals to adjust their mate choice.

    PubMed

    Bierbach, David; Girndt, Antje; Hamfler, Sybille; Klein, Moritz; Mücksch, Frauke; Penshorn, Marina; Schwinn, Michael; Zimmer, Claudia; Schlupp, Ingo; Streit, Bruno; Plath, Martin

    2011-06-23

    Mate choice as one element of sexual selection can be sensitive to public information from neighbouring individuals. Here, we demonstrate that males of the livebearing fish Poecilia mexicana gather complex social information when given a chance to familiarize themselves with rivals prior to mate choice. Focal males ceased to show mating preferences when being observed by a rival (which prevents rivals from copying mating decisions), but this effect was only seen when focal males have perceived rivals as sexually active. In addition, focal males that were observed by a familiar, sexually active rival showed a stronger behavioural response when rivals were larger and thus, more attractive to females. Our study illustrates an unparalleled adjustment in the expression of mating preferences based on social cues, and suggests that male fish are able to remember and strategically exploit information about rivals when performing mate choice. PMID:21208944

  12. Parallelism between male mating propensity and chromosome arrangement frequency in natural populations of Drosophila ananassae.

    PubMed

    Singh, B N; Chatterjee, S

    1988-04-01

    Mating ability of different karyotypes due to sub-terminal (alpha or In(2L)A) inversion in 2L from two natural populations of Drosophila ananassae was investigated. The results show that the average number of females inseminated by a single male in 12-hour period varies for different karyotypes in males. The analysis of variance indicates that the differences are highly significant for males in both the populations studied. However, the averages for different karyotypes in females show no variation and thus homo- and heterokaryotypic females are equally receptive. The males heterozygous for inversion show greater mating propensity as compared with homokaryotypic males which provides evidence for heterosis associated with AL inversion in D. ananassae with respect to male mating activity. Furthermore, the comparison of male mating propensity with chromosome arrangement frequency in both the natural populations suggests that there is a correlation between mating propensity and chromosome arrangement frequency in natural populations of D. ananassae. PMID:3366629

  13. Male mating tactics in the American rubyspot damselfly: territoriality, nonterritoriality and switching behaviour

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Raihani; M. A. Serrano-Meneses; A. Córdoba-Aguilar

    2008-01-01

    Odonates exhibit a wide range of territorial and nonterritorial mating tactics and are ideal for investigating alternative reproductive behaviours. We studied male mating tactics in the American rubyspot damselfly, Hetaerina americana, a species that exhibits red wing spots that have been suggested to have evolved as a consequence of maleemale contests. In this species mating success is enhanced by the

  14. Hormonal contraceptive use and mate retention behavior in women and their male partners

    E-print Network

    Little, Tony

    contraceptive, 44.8%, other hormonal contraceptive, 1.1%), but also in emerging and developing economiesHormonal contraceptive use and mate retention behavior in women and their male partners Lisa L Available online 18 November 2011 Keywords: Mate retention behavior MRI-SF Hormonal contraception Mate

  15. Male mate preference for large size overrides species recognition in allopatric flat lizards ( Platysaurus broadleyi )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monica N. Wymann; Martin J. Whiting

    2003-01-01

    Species recognition and mate preference both influence mate choice but can be in conflict with each other. In such cases the relative importance of the two functions depends on the costs of mating with heterospecifics and the frequency of such interactions. We tested whether male flat lizards ( Platysaurus broadleyi) are able to discriminate between conspecific females and females of

  16. Ogura cytoplasmic male-sterility (CMS)-associated orf138 is translated into a mitochondrial membrane polypeptide in male-sterile Brassica cybrids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mathilde Grelon; Françoise Budar; Sandrine Bonhomme; Georges Pelletier

    1994-01-01

    Transcription of a putative mitochondrial gene (orf138) has previously been correlated with Ogura cytoplasmic male-sterility (CMS) in rapeseed cybrids. In this paper, studies performed on a Brassica cybrid with a different organization of the orf138 locus confirm this association. We also show that mitochondria isolated from male-sterile rapeseed plants synthesize a polypeptide of 19 kDa, which is absent in fertile

  17. Oxytocin receptor density is associated with male mating tactics and social monogamy.

    PubMed

    Ophir, Alexander G; Gessel, Ana; Zheng, Da-Jiang; Phelps, Steven M

    2012-03-01

    Despite its well-described role in female affiliation, the influence of oxytocin on male pairbonding is largely unknown. However, recent human studies indicate that this nonapeptide has a potent influence on male behaviors commonly associated with monogamy. Here we investigated the distribution of oxytocin receptors (OTR) throughout the forebrain of the socially monogamous male prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). Because males vary in both sexual and spatial fidelity, we explored the extent to which OTR predicted monogamous or non-monogamous patterns of space use, mating success and sexual fidelity in free-living males. We found that monogamous males expressed higher OTR density in the nucleus accumbens than non-monogamous males, a result that mirrors species differences in voles with different mating systems. OTR density in the posterior portion of the insula predicted mating success. Finally, OTR in the hippocampus and septohippocampal nucleus, which are nuclei associated with spatial memory, predicted patterns of space use and reproductive success within mating tactics. Our data highlight the importance of oxytocin receptor in neural structures associated with pairbonding and socio-spatial memory in male mating tactics. The role of memory in mating systems is often neglected, despite the fact that mating tactics impose an inherently spatial challenge for animals. Identifying mechanisms responsible for relating information about the social world with mechanisms mediating pairbonding and mating tactics is crucial to fully appreciate the suite of factors driving mating systems. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Oxytocin, Vasopressin, and Social Behavior. PMID:22285648

  18. Mitochondrial genome diversity in connection with male sterility in Allium schoenoprasum L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Engelke; T. Tatlioglu

    2000-01-01

    Mitochondrial genome diversity in chives (Allium schoenoprasum L.) was investigated with respect to different forms of male sterility. Cytoplasmic male-sterile (CMS) and restored genotypes\\u000a of the known CMS system, compared to plants of the wi-, the st1- and the st2-sterility types and additional fertile plants of different origin were examined by means of RFLP analyses using mitochondrial\\u000a gene probes. Besides

  19. Pushy males and choosy females: courtship disruption and mate choice in the lekking great snipe

    PubMed Central

    ther, S. A. S; Fiske, P.; s, J. A. K l

    1999-01-01

    We studied the effects of male disruptive behaviour on female mate choice and male mating success in the great snipe, Gallinago media, a lekking bird. Harassment from neighbouring males, a widespread behaviour in lekking animals, was the most prevalent cause of females leaving a male territory. Several lines of evidence show that females did not prefer to mate with males able to protect them from harassment. Males that obtained mating success were no less likely to suffer disruptions and females were no less likely to be disrupted when with their preferred male. Females returned to the male they later mated with, despite being repeatedly chased away by neighbours. The probability that an individual female returned and solicited mating from a male was 15 times higher for the male she was chased away from compared to the neighbour that chased her away. Females returned as often or more to the territory owner after being disrupted, compared to after leaving the territory without being harassed. Our results suggest that female great snipes are extremely choosy, but also that females do not gain direct benefits (harassment avoidance) by mating with certain males. Females appear to have neither direct nor indirect preferences for dominance that could give them such benefits: females appeared choosy despite, not because of, harassment. If females gain indirect benefits (genetically superior offspring) by being choosy, this is also likely to be unrelated to any dominance among males.

  20. Methoprene treatment reduces the pre-copulatory period in Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) sterile males

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anastrepha fraterculus is a major fruit pest in South America. Ongoing studies encourage the implementation of the sterile insect technique (SIT) against this pest. Sexual readiness of sterile males is a key point for SIT. The time required for A. fraterculus males to become sexually mature is unkn...

  1. Induction of male sterility in plants by a chimaeric ribonuclease gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Celestina Mariani; Marc De Beuckeleer; Jessie Truettner; Jan Leemans; Robert B. Goldberg

    1990-01-01

    Chimaeric ribonuclease genes that are expressed in the anthers of transformed tobacco and oilseed rape plants were constructed. Chimaeric ribonuclease gene expression within the anther selectively destroys the tapetal cell layer that surrounds the pollen sac, prevents pollen formation, and leads to male sterility. These nuclear male sterility genes should facilitate the production of hybrid seed in various crop plants.

  2. The population genetics of gynodioecy with cytoplasmic-genic male-sterility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D Charlesworth; F R Ganders

    1979-01-01

    Two models of gynodioecy controlled by cytoplasmic factors and nuclear genes are studied. In one model, there is a male-sterility determining cytoplasm which produces its effect only in the absence of a restorer allele at a nuclear locus. In the other model, either the cytoplasmic factor or the nuclear gene can produce male-sterility independently of the other. Neither model permits

  3. Mitochondrial atp6 transcript editing during microgametogenesis in male-sterile sorghum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daryl Pring; Hoang Tang

    2001-01-01

    A marked reduction of mitochondrial atp6 transcript-editing capability in sorghum anthers and pollen has been invoked as a factor in the loss of viability of male gametophytes in lines carrying the IS1112C male-sterile cytoplasm. We initiated a systematic examination of transcript editing of sorghum atp6 during microgametogenesis, from microspores through pollen, in two sets of male-fertile and near-isogenic, male-sterile lines.

  4. Biased sex ratio and low population density increase male mating success in the bug Nysius huttoni (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiao; He, Xiong Zhao; Yang, Linghuan; Hedderley, Duncan; Davis, Lorraine K.

    2009-01-01

    Demographic factors such as operational sex ratio (OSR) and local population density (LPD) are temporally and spatially dynamic in the natural environment but the influence of these variables on male mating success and the mechanisms behind it are still poorly understood and highly controversial. Here, we manipulated the OSR and LPD of a seed bug, Nysius huttoni, and carried out a series of mating trials to test how these variables affected male mating success. The two demographic factors had no significant interactions, suggesting that they affect male mating success independently in N. huttoni. In this species male mating success was significantly higher in both male- and female-biased OSR than in even OSR. It is suggested that, in male-biased OSR, the increased intensity of competition and interference does not result in lower male mating success; rather, males may make more effort in courting and females may have more chance to encounter better males, resulting in higher male mating success. In female-biased OSR, females may become less choosy and less likely to reject male mating attempt, leading to the higher male mating success. Lower male mating success in N. huttoni in high LPD may be due to increased interference between males and/or delayed female receptiveness for mating. OSR had a stronger effect on male mating success than LPD in N. huttoni, suggesting that OSR and LPD affect mating success in different ways and intensities.

  5. Genetic Basis of the Sterile Insect Technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. ROBINSON

    The use of the sterile insect technique (SIT) for insect control relies on the introduction of sterility in the females of the wild population. This sterility is produced following the mating of these females with released males carrying, in their sperm, dominant lethal mutations that have been induced by ionizing radiation. The reasons why the SIT can only be effective

  6. Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Female mountain log skinks are more likely to mate with males

    E-print Network

    Keogh, Scott

    and exaggeration of male traits, we need to clarify the combined and separate contributions of male competition, resulting in male competition favouring male orange colour and mate choice favouring male courtship. Ó 2007 situations, both male competitive ability and female mate choice influence the skew in male reproductive

  7. Behavioural and life-history regulation in a unisexual/ bisexual mating system: does male mate choice affect

    E-print Network

    Schlupp, Ingo

    -history signature of male mate choice in a system of coexisting bisexual sailfin mollies (Poecilia latipinna) and gynogenetic Amazon mollies (Poecilia formosa). Specifically, we gave P. latipinna males an opportunity) females with sperm in their genital tract and (2) pregnant females. A higher proportion of P. latipinna

  8. Visual Cues in Mate Recognition by Males of the Damselfly, Coenagrion puella (L.) (Odonata: Coenagrionidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. N. Gorb

    1998-01-01

    Coenagrion puella males search actively for mates and are not aggressive to other males. To study the role of visual cues in male–female discrimination, four types of models were used: (1) bodies of intact insects, (2) models of painted males, (3) models of male–female chimerae, and (4) models of female body parts. Abdomen coloration pattern and presence of wings were

  9. Food and the deceptive acquisition of mates by polygynous male harriers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E. Simmons

    1988-01-01

    Female northern harriers Circus cyaneus are polygynous, marsh-nesting raptors, whose mate choices are enigmatic. I determined the mate choice cues employed by females by correlating the order in which males were chosen with characters that 1) significantly influenced reproductive success; 2) were assessable prior to settlement; and 3) varied between breeding situations. Only nest sites and male provisioning performance met

  10. Anim. Behav., 1996, 52, 12251236 Male mate preferences in a gynogenetic species complex of Amazon mollies

    E-print Network

    Ryan, Michael J.

    . Poecilia mexicana males, alternatively, showed high mate attraction to P. formosa when these females were. number: A7425R) Abstract. Female Amazon mollies, Poecilia formosa, are gynogenetic and mate with males of a sexual species, P. latipinna or P. mexicana, for successful reproduction. It was found that both species

  11. Fertilization dynamics of sperm from different male mating tactics in bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus)

    E-print Network

    Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht

    Fertilization dynamics of sperm from different male mating tactics in bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus (Lepomis macrochirus Rafinesque, 1819) mâles en fonction de deux tactiques d'accouplement, celles de l the fertilization dynamics of alternative mating tactics (cuckolders and parentals) of male bluegill (Lepomis

  12. Feminization of pheromone-sensing neurons affects mating decisions in Drosophila males

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Beika; Zelle, Kathleen M.; Seltzer, Raya; Hefetz, Abraham; Ben-Shahar, Yehuda

    2014-01-01

    Summary The response of individual animals to mating signals depends on the sexual identity of the individual and the genetics of the mating targets, which represent the mating social context (social environment). However, how social signals are sensed and integrated during mating decisions remains a mystery. One of the models for understanding mating behaviors in molecular and cellular terms is the male courtship ritual in the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster). We have recently shown that a subset of gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs) that are enriched in the male appendages and express the ion channel ppk23 play a major role in the initiation and maintenance of male courtship via the perception of cuticular contact pheromones, and are likely to represent the main chemosensory pathway that influences mating decisions by males. Here we show that genetic feminization of ppk23-expressing GRNs in male flies resulted in a significant increase in male–male sexual attraction without an apparent impact on sexual attraction to females. Furthermore, we show that this increase in male–male sexual attraction is sensory specific, which can be modulated by variable social contexts. Finally, we show that feminization of ppk23-expressing sensory neurons lead to major transcriptional shifts, which may explain the altered interpretation of the social environment by feminized males. Together, these data indicate that the sexual cellular identity of pheromone sensing GRNs plays a major role in how individual flies interpret their social environment in the context of mating decisions. PMID:24463366

  13. Roving females and patient males: a new perspective on the mating strategies of chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Newton-Fisher, Nicholas E

    2014-05-01

    Mating strategies are sets of decisions aimed at maximizing reproductive success. For male animals, the fundamental problem that these strategies address is attaining mating access to females in a manner that maximizes their chances of achieving paternity. For chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), despite substantial interest in mating strategies, very little attention has been paid to the most fundamental problem that mating strategies need to solve: finding mates. Only a single model, Dunbar's general model of male mating strategies, exists to explain mate-searching behaviour in chimpanzees. Under this model, males in most populations are regarded as pursuing a 'roving' strategy: searching for and sequestering fertile females who are essentially passive with respect to mate searching. The roving mating strategy is an assumption deeply embedded in the way chimpanzee behaviour is considered; it is implicit in the conventional model for chimpanzee social structure, which posits that male ranging functions both to monitor female reproductive state and to ward these females from other groups of males through collective territoriality: essentially, ranging as mating effort. This perspective is, however, increasingly at odds with observations of chimpanzee behaviour. Herein, I review the logic and evidence for the roving-male mating strategy and propose a novel alternative, a theoretical framework in which roving is a strategy pursued by female chimpanzees in order to engage successfully in promiscuous mating. Males, unable to thwart this female strategy, instead maximise the number of reproductive opportunities encountered by focusing their behaviour on countering threats to health, fertility and reproductive career. Their prolonged grooming bouts are seen, in consequence, as functioning to mitigate the negative impacts of socially induced physiological stress. In this new framework, the roving-male strategy becomes, at best, a 'best of a bad job' alternative for low-ranking males when faced with high levels of competition for mating access. Male chimpanzees do not search for mates, but for one another, for food, and, at times, for rivals in other communities. To the extent that female promiscuity functions to counter infanticide risk, mate searching by female chimpanzees-and any associated costs-can be seen as an unavoidable consequence of male sexual coercion. This novel framework is a better fit to the available data than is the conventional account. This review highlights the desperate need for additional work in an area of chimpanzee biology that has been somewhat neglected, perhaps in part because assumptions of roving males have remained unquestioned for too long. It also highlights the need, across taxa, to revisit and revise theory, and to test old assumptions, when faced with contrary data. PMID:24393574

  14. Respiration in Cells and Mitochondria of Male-Fertile and Male-Fertile and Male-Sterile Nicotiana spp. 1

    PubMed Central

    Håkansson, Gunilla; Glimelius, Kristina; Bonnett, Howard T.

    1990-01-01

    Three cytoplasmic male-sterile Nicotiana cultivars together with corresponding male-fertile progenitors and restored lines were investigated in order to find possible correlations between respiratory characteristics and male sterility. Oxygen consumption measurements were performed on cells from suspension cultures as well as on mitochondria isolated from green leaves. Inhibitors, which have been reported to specifically block either the cytochrome (KCN) or the alternative (propyl gallate and sali-cylhydroxamic acid [SHAM] respiratory pathways, were used in order to measure the capacity and activity of the two pathways. One of the inhibitors, SHAM, was found unsuitable to measure the activity of the alternative pathway due to the lack of specificity of SHAM for this pathway. A great difference in the capacity of the alternative pathway was detected between the two types of cell materials tested. Mitochondria isolated from green leaves showed a capacity of the alternative pathway of 5 to 20% of total mitochondrial repiration, while the capacity of cells from suspension cultures generally ranged from 50 to 80%. In addition to this, in organello synthesis of mitochondrial proteins revealed differences between mitochondria isolated from green leaves and from cell suspensions. No correlation, however, could be found between respiratory characteristics and male sterility. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:16667475

  15. Hybrid male sterility in rice controlled by interaction between divergent alleles of two adjacent genes

    PubMed Central

    Long, Yunming; Zhao, Lifeng; Niu, Baixiao; Su, Jing; Wu, Hao; Chen, Yuanling; Zhang, Qunyu; Guo, Jingxin; Zhuang, Chuxiong; Mei, Mantong; Xia, Jixing; Wang, Lan; Wu, Haibin; Liu, Yao-Guang

    2008-01-01

    Sterility is common in hybrids between divergent populations, such as the indica and japonica subspecies of Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa). Although multiple loci for plant hybrid sterility have been identified, it remains unknown how alleles of the loci interact at the molecular level. Here we show that a locus for indica-japonica hybrid male sterility, Sa, comprises two adjacent genes, SaM and SaF, encoding a small ubiquitin-like modifier E3 ligase-like protein and an F-box protein, respectively. Most indica cultivars contain a haplotype SaM+SaF+, whereas all japonica cultivars have SaM?SaF? that diverged by nucleotide variations in wild rice. Male semi-sterility in this heterozygous complex locus is caused by abortion of pollen carrying SaM?. This allele-specific gamete elimination results from a selective interaction of SaF+ with SaM?, a truncated protein, but not with SaM+ because of the presence of an inhibitory domain, although SaM+ is required for this male sterility. Lack of any one of the three alleles in recombinant plants does not produce male sterility. We propose a two-gene/three-component interaction model for this hybrid male sterility system. The findings have implications for overcoming male sterility in inter-subspecific hybrid rice breeding. PMID:19033192

  16. [Inheritance of reversions to male fertility in male-sterile sorghum hybrids with 9E cytoplasm male sterility induced by environmental conditions].

    PubMed

    Elkonin, L A; Gerashchenkov, G A; Domanina, I V; Rozhnova, N A

    2015-03-01

    Heritable phenotypic alterations occurring during plant ontogenesis under the influence of environmental factors are among the most intriguing genetic phenomena. It was found that male-sterile sorghum hybrids in the 9E cytoplasm from the F1 and F2 generations, which were obtained by crossing CMS lines with different fertile lines grown in field conditions, were transferred to greenhouse produce fertile tillers. Lines created by the self-pollination of revertant tillers exhibit complete male fertility upon cultivation under various environments (in the field, Tdry plot,(y) Tirrigated plot(y)). In a number of test-crosses of revertants to CMS lines in the 9E cytoplasm, restoration of male fertility in F1 hybrids was found, indicating that revertants possess functional fertility-restoring genes. A high positive correlation was found between the fertility level of the test-cross hybrids and the hydrothermal coefficient (the ratio of the sum of precipitation to the sum of temperatures) during the booting stage and pollen maturation (r = 0.75...0.91; P<0.01), suggesting that a high level of plant water availability is needed for the expression of fertility-restoring genes of revertants. These data show that the fertility-restoring genes for the 9E cytoplasm are dominant in conditions of high water availability and recessive in drought conditions; reversions to male fertility are due to up-regulation of fertility-restoring genes by a high level of water availability. Comparative MSAP-analysis of DNA of male-sterile and male-fertile test-cross hybrids using HpaII/MspI restrictases and primers to polygalacturonase gene ADPG2, which is required for cell separation during reproductive development, and gene MYB46, the transcription factor regulating secondary wall biosynthesis, revealed differences in the number and the length of amplified fragments. Changes in the methylation of these genes in conditions of drought stress are apparently the reason for male sterility of sorghum hybrids in the 9E cytoplasm. These data demonstrate that methylation of nuclear genes in sterility-inducing cytoplasm may be one of mechanisms causing the CMS phenomenon. PMID:26027370

  17. Effects of a parasitic nematode on male mate choice in a livebearing fish with a coercive mating system (western mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis).

    PubMed

    Deaton, Raelynn

    2009-01-01

    I examined the effects of the parasitic larval nematode, Eustrongylides ignotus, on male mate choice in the western mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis. I hypothesized that parasite presence influences male mate choice either directly (via reduction in male mating behavior due to presence of parasite in females) or indirectly (via reduction in male mating behavior due to reduced condition of infected females). Specifically, I tested the predictions that (1) males would mate preferentially with uninfected over infected females (scoring both mating attempts and association time with females); (2) parasitized females would be in poorer condition than non-parasitized females (measured as soluble fat stores); and (3) parasitized females would have reduced fecundity (measured as number of developing embryos). Males preferred to mate with non-parasitized over parasitized females, but showed no differences in association time between females. The nematode did not decrease female body condition, but did decrease female mass, and appeared to decrease female fecundity via reduction in broods (# embryos). Results support that parasites affect male mate choice in mosquitofish; however, the mechanisms used by males to differentiate between parasitized and non-parasitized females remain untested. This study provides the first empirical evidence of parasite affects on male mate choice in livebearing fishes, and suggest a potentially important role for parasite-mediated sexual selection in organisms that use coercive mating as the primary mechanism of obtaining mates. PMID:18765273

  18. Alternative phenotypes of male mating behaviour in the two-spotted spider mite.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yukie; Sabelis, Maurice W; Egas, Martijn; Faraji, Farid

    2013-09-01

    Severe intraspecific competition for mates selects for aggressive individuals but may also lead to the evolution of alternative phenotypes that do not act aggressively, yet manage to acquire matings. The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, shows male mate-guarding behaviour and male-male combat for available females. This may provide opportunity for weaker males to avoid fighting by adopting alternative mating behaviour such as sneaker or satellite tactics as observed in other animals. We investigated male precopulatory behaviour in the two-spotted spider mite by means of video-techniques and found three types of male mating behaviour: territorial, sneaker and opportunistic. Territorial and sneaker males associate with female teleiochrysales and spend much time guarding them. Territorial males are easily disturbed by rival males and engage themselves in fights with them. However, sneaker males are not at all disturbed by rival males, never engage in fights and, strikingly, never face attack by territorial males. Opportunistic males wander around in search of females that are in the teleiochrysalis stage but very close to or at emergence. To quickly classify any given mate-guarding male as territorial or sneaker we developed a method based on the instantaneous response of males to disturbance by a live male mounted on top of a brush. We tested this method against the response of the same males to natural disturbance by two or three other males. Because this method proved to be successful, we used it to collect territorial and sneaker males, and subjected them to morphological analysis to assess whether the various behavioural phenotypes are associated with different morphological characters. However, we found no statistical differences between territorial and sneaker males, concerning the length of the first legs, the stylets, the pedipalps or the body. PMID:23423424

  19. Meiotic effects in chromosomally derived male sterility of mice A. G. SEARLE, C. V. BEECHEY E. P. EVANS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Meiotic effects in chromosomally derived male sterility of mice A. G. SEARLE, C. V. BEECHEY E. P. Summary. Much sterility in male (though not in female) mice can be related to the pre- sence of specific tertiary trisomic mice, which are also male-sterile as a rule. Mammalian spermatogenesis is a complex

  20. Note on the appearance of a new nucleocyto-plasmic male sterility in Vicia faba after muta-

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Note on the appearance of a new nucleocyto- plasmic male sterility in Vicia faba after muta, B.P. 29, F35650 Le Rheu SUMMARY A new cytoplasm appeared in a nucleo-cytoplasmic male sterile line behaved differently when crossed with genomes that maintain or restore the 447 male sterility. The new

  1. The male sterile 8 mutation of maize disrupts the temporal progression of the transcriptome and results in the

    E-print Network

    Kay, Mark A.

    The male sterile 8 mutation of maize disrupts the temporal progression of the transcriptome proliferation, cell fate acquisition and the start of meiosis. Although many male-sterile mutants disrupt (Goldberg et al., 1993). Nuclear male sterility has been reported in many flowering plants, and in most

  2. Determinants of male reproductive health disorders: the Men in Australia Telephone Survey (MATeS)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The relationship between reproductive health disorders and lifestyle factors in middle-aged and older men is not clear. The aim of this study is to describe lifestyle and biomedical associations as possible causes of erectile dysfunction (ED), prostate disease (PD), lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and perceived symptoms of androgen deficiency (pAD) in a representative population of middle-aged and older men, using the Men in Australia Telephone Survey (MATeS). Methods A representative sample (n = 5990) of men aged 40+ years, stratified by age and State, was contacted by random selection of households, with an individual response rate of 78%. All men participated in a 20-minute computer-assisted telephone interview exploring general and reproductive health. Associations between male reproductive health disorders and lifestyle and biomedical factors were analysed using multivariate logistic regression (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]). Variables studied included age, body mass index, waist circumference, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, co-morbid disease and medication use for hypertension, high cholesterol and symptoms of depression. Results Controlling for age and a range of lifestyle and co-morbid exposures, sedentary lifestyle and being underweight was associated with an increased likelihood of ED (1.4 [1.1-1.8]; 2.9 [1.5-5.8], respectively) and pAD (1.3 [1.1-1.7]; 2.7 [1.4-5.0], respectively. Diabetes and cardiovascular disease were both associated with ED, with hypertension strongly associated with LUTS and pAD. Current smoking (inverse association) and depressive symptomatology were the only variables independently associated with PD. All reproductive disorders showed consistent associations with depression (measured either by depressive symptomatology or medication use) in both age-adjusted and multivariate analyses. Conclusion A range of lifestyle factors, more often associated with chronic disease, were significantly associated with male reproductive health disorders. Education strategies directed to improving general health may also confer benefits to male reproductive health. PMID:20181284

  3. Hybrid Male Sterility in Rice Is Due to Epistatic Interactions with a Pollen Killer Locus

    PubMed Central

    Kubo, Takahiko; Yoshimura, Atsushi; Kurata, Nori

    2011-01-01

    In intraspecific crosses between cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) subspecies indica and japonica, the hybrid male sterility gene S24 causes the selective abortion of male gametes carrying the japonica allele (S24-j) via an allelic interaction in the heterozygous hybrids. In this study, we first examined whether male sterility is due solely to the single locus S24. An analysis of near-isogenic lines (NIL-F1) showed different phenotypes for S24 in different genetic backgrounds. The S24 heterozygote with the japonica genetic background showed male semisterility, but no sterility was found in heterozygotes with the indica background. This result indicates that S24 is regulated epistatically. A QTL analysis of a BC2F1 population revealed a novel sterility locus that interacts with S24 and is found on rice chromosome 2. The locus was named Epistatic Factor for S24 (EFS). Further genetic analyses revealed that S24 causes male sterility when in combination with the homozygous japonica EFS allele (efs-j). The results suggest that efs-j is a recessive sporophytic allele, while the indica allele (EFS-i) can dominantly counteract the pollen sterility caused by S24 heterozygosity. In summary, our results demonstrate that an additional epistatic locus is an essential element in the hybrid sterility caused by allelic interaction at a single locus in rice. This finding provides a significant contribution to our understanding of the complex molecular mechanisms underlying hybrid sterility and microsporogenesis. PMID:21868603

  4. Cytoplasmic male sterility contributes to hybrid incompatibility between subspecies of Arabidopsis lyrata.

    PubMed

    Aalto, Esa A; Koelewijn, Hans-Peter; Savolainen, Outi

    2013-10-01

    In crosses between evolutionarily diverged populations, genomic incompatibilities may result in sterile hybrids, indicating evolution of reproductive isolation. In several plant families, crosses within a population can also lead to male sterile progeny because of conflict between the maternally and biparentally inherited genomes. We examined hybrid fertility between subspecies of the perennial outcrossing self-incompatible Lyrate rockcress (Arabidopsis lyrata) in large reciprocal F2 progenies and three generations of backcrosses. In one of the reciprocal F2 progenies, almost one-fourth of the plants were male-sterile. Correspondingly, almost one-half of the plants in one of the four reciprocal backcross progenies expressed male sterility. In an additional four independent F2 and backcross families, three segregated male sterility. The observed asymmetrical hybrid incompatibility is attributable to male sterility factors in one cytoplasm, for which the other population lacks effective fertility restorers. Genotyping of 96 molecular markers and quantitative trait locus mapping revealed that only 60% of the plants having the male sterile cytoplasm and lacking the corresponding restorers were phenotypically male-sterile. Genotyping data showed that there is only one restorer locus, which mapped to a 600-kb interval at the top of chromosome 2 in a region containing a cluster of pentatricopeptide repeat genes. Male fertility showed no trade-off with seed production. We discuss the role of cytoplasm and genomic conflict in incipient speciation and conclude that cytoplasmic male sterility-lowering hybrid fitness is a transient effect with limited potential to form permanent reproductive barriers between diverged populations of hermaphrodite self-incompatible species. PMID:23935000

  5. Molecular diversity of male sterility inducing and male-fertile cytoplasms in the genus Helianthus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Horn

    2002-01-01

    The organisation of mtDNA was investigated for 28 sources of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) and a fertile line (normal cytoplasm)\\u000a of Helianthus annuus by Southern hybridisation. In addition to nine known mitochondrial genes (atp6, atp9, cob, coxI, coxII, coxIII, 18S, 5S and nd5) three probes for the open reading frames in the rearranged area of PET1, orfH522, orfH708 and orfH873,

  6. A fertile revertant from petaloid cytoplasmic male-sterile carrot has a rearranged mitochondrial genome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Chahal; H. S. Sidhu; D. J. Wolyn

    1998-01-01

    A spontaneously derived fertile plant was recovered from a petaloid cytoplasmic male-sterile (CMS) carrot inbred line. Genetic\\u000a analysis indicated a single nuclear gene was responsible for the restoration to fertility. Within a family segregating for\\u000a the nuclear restorer in combination with the sterility-inducing cytoplasm, fertile plants were recovered that could not restore\\u000a fertility when crossed to sterile genotypes. Genetic analysis

  7. Behavior Genetics, Vol. 10, No. 2, 1980 Relative Male Age, Fertility, and Competitive Mating

    E-print Network

    Markow, Therese

    Behavior Genetics, Vol. 10, No. 2, 1980 Relative Male Age, Fertility, and Competitive Mating males were found to be more successful under competitive conditions. In another group of experiments, vermilion (v) males of different ages competed with CS males of different ages. The competitive success of v

  8. Variation in Male Fertilities and Pairwise Mating Probabilities in Picea glauca

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Schoen; S. C. Stewart

    1987-01-01

    Frequencies of multilocus male gametes in seeds collected from clones in several blocks of a white spruce seed orchard were analyzed as part of a 2-yr study of mating system variation in this species. Observed frequencies of male gamete types departed significantly from those expected assuming equal male fertilities among clones. Male gamete frequencies in seed crops were significantly hetero-

  9. Mating tactics of male Cape ground squirrels, Xerus inauris : consequences of year-round breeding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JANE M. WATERMAN

    1998-01-01

    The Cape ground squirrel is a highly social, tropical ground squirrel that does not hibernate, suggesting that female receptivity could be scattered throughout the year. Males in this species are very social, living in all-male bands. I studied the mating tactics of male Cape ground squirrels to examine the effects of year-round female receptivity and male grouping on these tactics

  10. Male mating bias and its potential reproductive consequence in the butterfly Colias eurytheme

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Darrell J. Kemp

    2007-01-01

    Male mating biases may be a widespread feature of animal mating systems but the phenotypic consequences of these biases are\\u000a often unclear, especially in species for which the operational sex ratio is strongly male-biased. In Colias butterflies, male choice is thought to be one of the factors responsible for maintaining a female-limited genetic color polymorphism,\\u000a in which female wings appear

  11. Do female garter snakes evade males to avoid harassment or to enhance mate quality?

    PubMed

    Shine, Richard; Wall, Michael; Langkilde, Tracy; Mason, Robert T

    2005-06-01

    Females of many species behave in ways that make it difficult for males to locate, court, and inseminate them. Two hypotheses have been advanced to explain such behavior: either a female thereby minimizes costs of harassment (sexual conflict model) or by playing "hard to get" she discourages inferior suitors (indirect mate choice model). Our studies of garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) at a communal den in Manitoba support an interpretation of sexual conflict rather than indirect mate choice. Female snakes dispersed rapidly from the den through areas with relatively few males rather than waiting for additional courtship. Many females dispersed without mating. Experimental (pheromonal) manipulation of the intensity of courtship accelerated rates of female dispersal rather than delaying dispersal, as would be predicted if females wait to obtain matings. The behaviors of females escaping from courting groups were maximally effective in losing their suitors regardless of the number of courting males or whether or not the female was capable of mating (recently mated females cannot mate again because of a mating plug). In total, our data are most consistent with the hypothesis that female garter snakes at communal dens evade males to escape harassment rather than to enhance mate quality. PMID:15937746

  12. Low Mate Encounter Rate Increases Male Risk Taking in a Sexually Cannibalistic Praying Mantis

    PubMed Central

    Brown, William D.; Muntz, Gregory A.; Ladowski, Alexander J.

    2012-01-01

    Male praying mantises are forced into the ultimate trade-off of mating versus complete loss of future reproduction if they fall prey to a female. The balance of this trade-off will depend both on (1) the level of predatory risk imposed by females and (2) the frequency of mating opportunities for males. We report the results of a set of experiments that examine the effects of these two variables on male risk-taking behavior and the frequency of sexual cannibalism in the praying mantis Tenodera sinensis. We experimentally altered the rate at which males encountered females and measured male approach and courtship behavior under conditions of high and low risk of being attacked by females. We show that male risk taking depends on prior access to females. Males with restricted access to females showed greater risk-taking behavior. When males were given daily female encounters, they responded to greater female-imposed risk by slowing their rate of approach and remained a greater distance from a potential mate. In contrast, males without recent access to mates were greater risk-takers; they approached females more rapidly and to closer proximity, regardless of risk. In a second experiment, we altered male encounter rate with females and measured rates of sexual cannibalism when paired with hungry or well-fed females. Greater risk-taking behavior by males with low mate encounter rates resulted in high rates of sexual cannibalism when these males were paired with hungry females. PMID:22558146

  13. Low mate encounter rate increases male risk taking in a sexually cannibalistic praying mantis.

    PubMed

    Brown, William D; Muntz, Gregory A; Ladowski, Alexander J

    2012-01-01

    Male praying mantises are forced into the ultimate trade-off of mating versus complete loss of future reproduction if they fall prey to a female. The balance of this trade-off will depend both on (1) the level of predatory risk imposed by females and (2) the frequency of mating opportunities for males. We report the results of a set of experiments that examine the effects of these two variables on male risk-taking behavior and the frequency of sexual cannibalism in the praying mantis Tenodera sinensis. We experimentally altered the rate at which males encountered females and measured male approach and courtship behavior under conditions of high and low risk of being attacked by females. We show that male risk taking depends on prior access to females. Males with restricted access to females showed greater risk-taking behavior. When males were given daily female encounters, they responded to greater female-imposed risk by slowing their rate of approach and remained a greater distance from a potential mate. In contrast, males without recent access to mates were greater risk-takers; they approached females more rapidly and to closer proximity, regardless of risk. In a second experiment, we altered male encounter rate with females and measured rates of sexual cannibalism when paired with hungry or well-fed females. Greater risk-taking behavior by males with low mate encounter rates resulted in high rates of sexual cannibalism when these males were paired with hungry females. PMID:22558146

  14. Mating in the red-sided garter snake, Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis : differential effects on male and female sexual behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joan M. Whittier; Robert T. Mason; David Crews

    1985-01-01

    Female red-sided garter snakes, Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis, become unattractive to most males after mating in the field and in the laboratory. Male red-sided garter snakes vary in their latencies to court attractive females following copulation, with courtship resuming in minutes to hours. Unsuccessful males in mating balls disperse from mating pairs, but are not residually inhibited from courting attractive females.

  15. Female extrapair mating behavior can evolve via indirect selection on males

    PubMed Central

    Forstmeier, Wolfgang; Martin, Katrin; Bolund, Elisabeth; Schielzeth, Holger; Kempenaers, Bart

    2011-01-01

    In many species that form socially monogamous pair bonds, a considerable proportion of the offspring is sired by extrapair males. This observation has remained a puzzle for evolutionary biologists: although mating outside the pair bond can obviously increase the offspring production of males, the benefits of such behavior to females are less clear, yet females are known to actively solicit extrapair copulations. For more than two decades adaptionist explanations have dominated the discussions, yet remain controversial, and genetic constraint arguments have been dismissed without much consideration. An intriguing but still untested hypothesis states that extrapair mating behavior by females may be affected by the same genetic variants (alleles) as extrapair mating behavior by males, such that the female behavior could evolve through indirect selection on the male behavior. Here we show that in the socially monogamous zebra finch, individual differences in extrapair mating behavior have a hereditary component. Intriguingly, this genetic basis is shared between the sexes, as shown by a strong genetic correlation between male and female measurements of extrapair mating behavior. Hence, positive selection on males to sire extrapair young will lead to increased extrapair mating by females as a correlated evolutionary response. This behavior leads to a fundamentally different view of female extrapair mating: it may exist even if females obtain no net benefit from it, simply because the corresponding alleles were positively selected in the male ancestors. PMID:21670288

  16. Genetics of Reproductive Isolation in the Drosophila simulans Clade: Complex Epistasis Underlying Hybrid Male Sterility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric L. Cabot; Andrew W. Davis; Norman A. Johnson; Chung-I Wu

    We have analyzed the sterility associated with introgressions of the distal one-fourth of the X chrc- mosome from either Drosophila mauritiana or Drosophila sechellia into the genome of Drosophila simu- lans using a series of visible and DNA markers. Because in Drosophila hybrids, male sterility is usually complete and is often tightly linked with each of several markers used in

  17. Interconversion of Yeast Mating Types II. Restoration of Mating Ability to Sterile Mutants in Homothallic and Heterothallic Strains

    PubMed Central

    Hicks, James B.; Herskowitz, Ira

    1977-01-01

    The two mating types of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be interconverted in both homothallic and heterothallic strains. Previous work indicates that all yeast cells contain the information to be both a and ? and that the HO gene (in homothallic strains) promotes a change in mating type by causing a change at the mating type locus itself. In both heterothallic and homothallic strains, a defective ? mating type locus can be converted to a functional a locus and subsequently to a functional ? locus. In contrast, action of the HO gene does not restore mating ability to a strain defective in another gene for mating which is not at the mating type locus. These observations indicate that a yeast cell contains an additional copy (or copies) of ? information, and lead to the "cassette" model for mating type interconversion. In this model, HMa and hm? loci are blocs of unexpressed ? regulatory information, and HM? and hma loci are blocs of unexpressed a regulatory information. These blocs are silent because they lack an essential site for expression, and become active upon insertion of this information (or a copy of the information) into the mating type locus by action of the HO gene. PMID:17248735

  18. Male mating competition, female choice and dominance in a free ranging group of Japanese macaques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sidney I. Perloe

    1992-01-01

    Focal and ad libitum samples of high and middle ranked males in a group of free ranging Japanese macques were taken in order\\u000a to examine rank related differences in male mating strategies. Males tended to have like ranked females as consort partners,\\u000a with high rank males showing more consort activity, over all, than middle rank males. High rank males tended

  19. Conspicuous Female Ornamentation and Tests of Male Mate Preference in Threespine Sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus)

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Daniel Shane; Pierotti, Michele E. R.; Rundle, Howard D.; McKinnon, Jeffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    Sexual selection drives the evolution of exaggerated male ornaments in many animal species. Female ornamentation is now acknowledged also to be common but is generally less well understood. One example is the recently documented red female throat coloration in some threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) populations. Although female sticklebacks often exhibit a preference for red male throat coloration, the possibility of sexual selection on female coloration has been little studied. Using sequential and simultaneous mate choice trials, we examined male mate preferences for female throat color, as well as pelvic spine color and standard length, using wild-captured threespine sticklebacks from the Little Campbell River, British Columbia. In a multivariate analysis, we found no evidence for a population-level mate preference in males, suggesting the absence of directional sexual selection on these traits arising from male mate choice. Significant variation was detected among males in their preference functions, but this appeared to arise from differences in their mean responsiveness across mating trials and not from variation in the strength (i.e., slope) of their preference, suggesting the absence of individual-level preferences as well. When presented with conspecific intruder males, male response decreased as intruder red throat coloration increased, suggesting that males can discriminate color and other aspects of phenotype in our experiment and that males may use these traits in intrasexual interactions. The results presented here are the first to explicitly address male preference for female throat color in threespine sticklebacks. PMID:25806520

  20. Geographical variation in reproductive character displacement in mate choice by male sailfin mollies.

    PubMed

    Gabor, C R; Ryan, M J

    2001-05-22

    Female Amazon mollies, Poecilia formosa, are a unisexual species that reproduce by gynogenesis. They must coexist and mate with males of other species (usually the mollies Poecilia latipinna or Poecilia mexicana) to induce embryogenesis, but inheritance is strictly maternal. We examined the mating preference of the male sailfin molly, P. latipinna, for female sailfin mollies versus Amazon mollies, P. formosa. We compared the mating preferences of sympatric and allopatric populations collected throughout the Gulf Coast of North America. Male P. latipinna from six populations sympatric with Amazon mollies showed a significantly greater strength of preference for conspecific sailfin females than males from five populations that were allopatric with Amazon mollies. These results provide strong evidence for reproductive character displacement of male mate choice in sympatry. Furthermore, the large geographical range of populations that we tested revealed variation among populations within sympatry and allopatry, indicating that it is important to evaluate a large number of populations when examining reproductive character displacement. PMID:11375091

  1. Genomics and Transcriptomics of Hybrid Male Sterility Assessed in Multiple Interspecies Feline Breeds

    E-print Network

    Davis, Brian W

    2013-05-13

    Hybrid male sterility (HMS) is typically the first mechanism fortifying reproductive isolation resulting from genomic incompatibilities. Three interspecies feline breeds derived from domestic cat crosses to wild cat species (Asian leopard cat...

  2. Strikingly, Wolbachia also induce a form of male sterility, a phenomenon called

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Kevin P.

    Strikingly, Wolbachia also induce a form of male sterility, a phenomenon called cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), which is widespread in arthropods. CI results in embryonic mortality when males infected the eggs with an antidote, protecting them from the action of a poison produced in germline of the males

  3. Mating skew in Barbary macaque males: the role of female mating synchrony, female behavior, and male–male coalitions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annie Bissonnette; Nicole Bischofberger; Carel P van Schaik

    2011-01-01

    A fundamental question of sexual selection theory concerns the causes and consequences of reproductive skew among males. The\\u000a priority of access (PoA) model (Altmann, Ann NY Acad Sci 102:338–435, 1962) has been the most influential framework in primates living in permanent, mixed-sex groups, but to date it has only been\\u000a tested with the appropriate data on female synchrony in a

  4. Cost of reproduction in Callosobruchus maculatus: effects of mating on male longevity and the effect of male mating status on female longevity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satu Paukku; Janne S. Kotiaho

    2005-01-01

    One of the most studied life-history trade-offs is that resulting from the cost of reproduction: a trade-off arises when reproduction diverts limited resources from other life-history traits. We examine the cost of reproduction in male, and the effect of male mating status on female Callosobruchus maculatus seed beetles. Cost of reproduction for male C. maculatus was manifested as reduced longevity.

  5. Strong reproductive skew among males in the multiply mated swordtail Xiphophorus multilineatus (Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Luo, J; Sanetra, M; Schartl, M; Meyer, A

    2005-01-01

    Male swordtails in the genus Xiphophorus display a conspicuous ventral elongation of the caudal fin, the sword, which arose through sexual selection due to female preference. Females mate regularly and are able to store sperm for at least 6 months. If multiple mating is frequent, this would raise the intriguing question about the role of female choice and male-male competition in shaping the mating system of these fishes. Size-dependent alternate mating strategies occur in Xiphophorus; one such strategy is courtship with a sigmoid display by large dominant males, while the other is gonopodial thrusting, in which small subordinate males sneak copulations. Using microsatellite markers, we observed a frequency of multiple paternity in wild-caught Xiphophorus multilineatus in 28% of families analyzed, but the actual frequency of multiple mating suggested by the correction factor PrDM was 33%. The number of fathers contributing genetically to the brood ranged from one to three. Compared to other species in the family Poeciliidae, both frequency and degree of multiple paternity were low. Paternity was found to be highly skewed, with one male on average contributing more than 70% to the offspring. Hence in this Xiphophorus mating system, typically one male dominates and sneaker males do not appear to be particularly effective. Postcopulatory mechanisms, however, such as sperm competition, are also indicated by our data, using sex-linked phenotypes among the offspring. PMID:15743903

  6. Characterization of pearl millet mitochondrial DNA fragments rearranged by reversion from cytoplasmic male sterility to fertility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Smith; M. K. U. Chowdhury

    1991-01-01

    Cloned pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] mitochondrial (mt) DNA fragments rearranged by spontaneous reversion from cytoplasmic male sterility (cms) to fertility were characterized by restriction mapping, hybridization with maize mt genes, and transcription analyses. The clones characterized were a 4.7-kb fragment found only in the male-sterile cytoplasm and lost upon reversion to fertility, a 10.9-kb fragment found in

  7. Premature Dissolution of the Microsporocyte Callose Wall Causes Male Sterility in Transgenic Tobacco

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dawn Worrall; Diane L. Hird; Wyatt Paul; John Draper

    1992-01-01

    Male sterility in a petunia cytoplasmic male sterile line has been attributed to the early appearance of active callase, a P-1,3-glucanase, in the anther locule. This leads to premature dissolution of the callose walls surrounding the microsporogenous cells. We have mimicked this aspect of the petunia line in transgenic tobacco by engineering the secretion of a modified pathogenesis-related vacuolar P-1,3-glucanase

  8. A Moricandia arvensis– based cytoplasmic male sterility and fertility restoration system in Brassica juncea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Prakash; P. B. Kirti; S. R. Bhat; K. Gaikwad; V. D. Kumar; V. L. Chopra

    1998-01-01

    A cytoplasmic male-sterility system has been developed in mustard (Brassica juncea) following repeated backcrossings of the somatic hybrid Moricandia arvensis (2n=28, MM)+B. juncea (2n=36, AABB), carrying mitochondria and chloroplasts from M. arvensis, to Brassica juncea. Cytoplasmic male-sterile (CMS) plants are similar to normal B. juncea; however, the leaves exhibit severe chlorosis resulting in delayed flowering. Flowers are normal with slender,

  9. When not to copy: female fruit flies use sophisticated public information to avoid mated males

    PubMed Central

    Loyau, Adeline; Blanchet, Simon; Van Laere, Pauline; Clobert, Jean; Danchin, Etienne

    2012-01-01

    Semen limitation (lack of semen to fertilize all of a female's eggs) imposes high fitness costs to female partners. Females should therefore avoid mating with semen-limited males. This can be achieved by using public information extracted from watching individual males' previous copulating activities. This adaptive preference should be flexible given that semen limitation is temporary. We first demonstrate that the number of offspring produced by males Drosophila melanogaster gradually decreases over successive copulations. We then show that females avoid mating with males they just watched copulating and that visual public cues are sufficient to elicit this response. Finally, after males were given the time to replenish their sperm reserves, females did not avoid the males they previously saw copulating anymore. These results suggest that female fruit flies may have evolved sophisticated behavioural processes of resistance to semen-limited males, and demonstrate unsuspected adaptive context-dependent mate choice in an invertebrate. PMID:23105967

  10. Offspring viability benefits but no apparent costs of mating with high quality males.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Leigh W; Holley, Rebecca

    2011-06-23

    Traditional models of sexual selection posit that male courtship signals evolve as indicators of underlying male genetic quality. An alternative hypothesis is that sexual conflict over mating generates antagonistic coevolution between male courtship persistence and female resistance. In the scarabaeine dung beetle Onthophagus taurus, females are more likely to mate with males that have high courtship rates. Here, we examine the effects of exposing females to males with either high or low courtship rates on female lifetime productivity and offspring viability. Females exposed to males with high courtship rates mated more often and produced offspring with greater egg-adult viability. Female productivity and lifespan were unaffected by exposure to males with high courtship rates. The data are consistent with models of sexual selection based on indirect genetic benefits, and provide little evidence for sexual conflict in this system. PMID:21123248

  11. Chemical and Physical Cues Synergistically Affect Mating Behavior Sequences of Male Dasylepida ishigakiensis (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).

    PubMed

    Fujiwara-Tsujii, Nao; Yasui, Hiroe; Arakaki, Norio

    2014-09-01

    We investigated physical and chemical cues involved in male mating behavior of the white grub beetle, Dasylepida ishigakiensis (Scarabaeidae). When presented with female attractant pheromone (R)-2-butanol lures in a flight tunnel, nearly all males exhibited orientation and touching behaviors to freshly killed males and females and to intact glass models. Males landed and bent their abdomens on male and female bodies, but not on intact glass models. When treated with one female equivalent (FE) extract, washed immature male bodies and glass models both evoked stronger male responses than untreated equivalents, with the former eliciting a greater response than the treated glass models. Male responses to target male and female bodies decreased with increased numbers of washings of target bodies with organic solvents. These results suggest that the chemical factors that elicit male abdominal bending behavior are present on the body surface in both sexes. Washed immature male bodies treated with 1 FE or one male equivalent (ME) of extract induced strong male abdominal bending behavior. Washed mature female bodies treated with 1 ME extract also evoked male responses. Extracts of both sexes included factors eliciting male abdominal bending behavior. These results suggest that both physical and chemical cues derived from conspecifics cooperate to facilitate male mating recognition in D. ishigakiensis. The mating process of this species in the field is highly synchronized. Thus, after orienting to a female-like object, the only information males require by touching is whether the sex attractant pheromone that attracted them is indeed from a conspecific. PMID:25186925

  12. Anim. Behav., 1997, 54, 3543 Distribution and activity of male harbour seals during the mating season

    E-print Network

    Aberdeen, University of

    extremes of distribution patterns not seen in most terrestrial mammals. When at sea, they occur in large; final acceptance 30 August 1996; MS. number: 5109) Abstract. Little is known about male reproductive strategies in aquatically mating pinnipeds. To study the mating patterns of harbour seals, Phoca vitulina

  13. A possible non-sexual origin of mate preference: are male guppies mimicking fruit?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Helen Rodd; Kimberly A. Hughes; Gregory F. Grether; Colette T. Baril

    2002-01-01

    In most animals, the origins of mating preferences are not clear. Thesensory-bias' hypothesis proposes that biases in female sensory or neural systems are important in triggering sexual selection and in determin- ing which male traits will become elaborated into sexual ornaments. Subsequently, other mechanisms can evolve for discriminating between high- and low-quality mates. Female guppies (Poecilia reticulata) gener- ally show

  14. Workable male sterility systems for hybrid rice: Genetics, biochemistry, molecular biology, and utilization.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jian-Zhong; E, Zhi-Guo; Zhang, Hua-Li; Shu, Qing-Yao

    2014-12-01

    The exploitation of male sterility systems has enabled the commercialization of heterosis in rice, with greatly increased yield and total production of this major staple food crop. Hybrid rice, which was adopted in the 1970s, now covers nearly 13.6 million hectares each year in China alone. Various types of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) and environment-conditioned genic male sterility (EGMS) systems have been applied in hybrid rice production. In this paper, recent advances in genetics, biochemistry, and molecular biology are reviewed with an emphasis on major male sterility systems in rice: five CMS systems, i.e., BT-, HL-, WA-, LD- and CW- CMS, and two EGMS systems, i.e., photoperiod- and temperature-sensitive genic male sterility (P/TGMS). The interaction of chimeric mitochondrial genes with nuclear genes causes CMS, which may be restored by restorer of fertility (Rf) genes. The PGMS, on the other hand, is conditioned by a non-coding RNA gene. A survey of the various CMS and EGMS lines used in hybrid rice production over the past three decades shows that the two-line system utilizing EGMS lines is playing a steadily larger role and TGMS lines predominate the current two-line system for hybrid rice production. The findings and experience gained during development and application of, and research on male sterility in rice not only advanced our understanding but also shed light on applications to other crops. PMID:26055995

  15. Males of the two-spotted spider mite attempt to copulate with mated females: effects of double mating on fitness of either sex.

    PubMed

    Oku, Keiko

    2010-02-01

    In Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae), when the intervals between first and second copulation are more than 24 h, only the first copulation is effective for females. Therefore, adult males should copulate only with virgin females, but not with females that copulated more than 1 day ago. Indeed, T. urticae males preferred virgin females to mated females under dual choice conditions. In the absence of virgin females, however, 60% of males copulated with mated females (n = 30). Therefore, the effects of male copulation behaviour on male and mated-female fitness were examined, respectively. Since T. urticae is arrhenotokous (i.e., only daughters have genes derived from their father), the proportion of females among the offspring was used as an index of male fitness. After males had lived with/without a mated female, the males were allowed to copulate with a virgin female. The proportion of females among the offspring did not differ between males with and without a female. On the other hand, when mated females lived with an adult male, their egg production was lower than mated females without a male. These results suggest that males do not seem to obtain fitness benefit from the copulation behaviour and that mated females incur a fitness cost due to the male behaviour. PMID:19760507

  16. Clonal growth is enhanced in the absence of a mating morph: a comparative study of fertile stylar polymorphic and sterile monomorphic populations of Nymphoides montana (Menyanthaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Haddadchi, Azadeh; Fatemi, Mohammad; Gross, C. L.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Many aquatic species with stylar polymorphisms have the capacity for clonal and sexual reproduction and are sensitive to the balance of the two reproductive modes when there are a limited number of mating morphs within a population. This study asked how the clonal and sexual reproductive modes perform in populations that contain only a single morph and where fitness gain through sexual reproduction is rare. In clonal aquatic Nymphoides montana, polymorphic populations normally contain two mating morphs in equal frequencies. Populations are sexually fertile and appear to be maintained by pollen transfer between the two partners. However, in a monomorphic population of N. montana where mating opportunities are unavailable, female and male function is impaired and clonality maintains the population. Here, the consequences of intraspecific variation in sexuality were explored between monomorphic and polymorphic N. montana populations in eastern Australia. Methods Comparative measurements of male and female fertility, total dry mass and genotypic diversity using ISSR markers were made between populations with variable sexuality. Key Results and Conclusions Very few seeds were produced in the monomorphic population under natural and glasshouse conditions due to dysfunctional pollen and ovules. Stigma–anther separation was minimal in the monomorphic population, which may be a consequence of the relaxed selective pressures that regulate the maintenance of sexual function. However, clonal reproduction was favoured at the expense of sexual reproduction in the monomorphic population; this may facilitate the establishment of sterility throughout the population via resource reallocation or pleiotropic effects. The ISSR results showed that the monomorphic population was one large, single genotype, unlike the multi-genotypic fertile polymorphic populations. Evolutionary loss of sex in a clonal population in which a mating morph is absent was evident; under these conditions clonal growth may assure reproduction and expand the population via spreading stolons. PMID:24287813

  17. The sterile-male-release technique in Great Lakes sea lamprey management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twohey, M.B.; Heinrich, J.W.; Seelye, J.G.; Fredricks, K.T.; Bergstedt, R.A.; Kaye, C.A.; Scholefield, R.J.; McDonald, R.B.; Christie, G.C.

    2003-01-01

    The implementation of a sterile-male-release technique from 1991 through 1999 and evaluation of its effectiveness in the Great Lakes sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) management program is reviewed. Male sea lampreys were injected with the chemosterilant bisazir (P,P-bis(1-aziridinyl)-N- methylphosphinothioic amide) using a robotic device. Quality assurance testing indicated the device delivered a consistent and effective dose of bisazir. Viability of embryos in an untreated control group was 64% compared to 1% in a treatment group. A task force developed nine hypotheses to guide implementation and evaluation of the technique. An annual average of 26,000 male sea lampreys was harvested from as many as 17 Great Lakes tributaries for use in the technique. An annual average of 16,100 sterilized males was released into 33 tributaries of Lake Superior to achieve a theoretical 59% reduction in larval production during 1991 to 1996. The average number of sterile males released in the St. Marys River increased from 4,000 during 1991 to 1996 to 20,100 during 1997 to 1999. The theoretical reduction in reproduction when combined with trapping was 57% during 1991 to 1996 and 86% during 1997 to 1999. Evaluation studies demonstrated that sterilized males were competitive and reduced production of larvae in streams. Field studies and simulation models suggest reductions in reproduction will result in fewer recruits, but there is risk of periodic high recruitment events independent of sterile-male release. Strategies to reduce reproduction will be most reliable when low densities of reproducing females are achieved. Expansion of the technique is limited by access to additional males for sterilization. Sterile-male release and other alternative controls are important in delivering integrated pest management and in reducing reliance on pesticides.

  18. The sterile-male-release technique in Great Lakes sea lamprey management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twohey, Michael B.; Heinrich, John W.; Seelye, James G.; Fredricks, Kim T.; Bergstedt, Roger A.; Kaye, Cheryl A.; Scholefield, Ron J.; McDonald, Rodney B.; Christie, Gavin C.

    2003-01-01

    The implementation of a sterile-male-release technique from 1991 through 1999 and evaluation of its effectiveness in the Great Lakes sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) management program is reviewed. Male sea lampreys were injected with the chemosterilant bisazir (P,P-bis(1-aziridinyl)-N-methylphosphinothioic amide) using a robotic device. Quality assurance testing indicated the device delivered a consistent and effective dose of bisazir. Viability of embryos in an untreated control group was 64% compared to 1% in a treatment group. A task force developed nine hypotheses to guide implementation and evaluation of the technique. An annual average of 26,000 male sea lampreys was harvested from as many as 17 Great Lakes tributaries for use in the technique. An annual average of 16,100 sterilized males was released into 33 tributaries of Lake Superior to achieve a theoretical 59% reduction in larval production during 1991 to 1996. The average number of sterile males released in the St. Marys River increased from 4,000 during 1991 to 1996 to 20,100 during 1997 to 1999. The theoretical reduction in reproduction when combined with trapping was 57% during 1991 to 1996 and 86% during 1997 to 1999. Evaluation studies demonstrated that sterilized males were competitive and reduced production of larvae in streams. Field studies and simulation models suggest reductions in reproduction will result in fewer recruits, but there is risk of periodic high recruitment events independent of sterile-male release. Strategies to reduce reproduction will be most reliable when low densities of reproducing females are achieved. Expansion of the technique is limited by access to additional males for sterilization. Sterile-male release and other alternative controls are important in delivering integrated pest management and in reducing reliance on pesticides.

  19. Copper reduced mating behaviour in male shore crabs (Carcinus maenas (L.)).

    PubMed

    Krång, Anna-Sara; Ekerholm, Mattias

    2006-10-25

    Many crustaceans use pheromones to find mates and induce mating behaviours. If pollutants impair the ability to detect chemosensory cues and respond to pheromone signals, they could profoundly affect mating. In a series of laboratory experiments, the effect of copper (0, 0.1 or 0.5 mg Cu(II) per litre for 5 days) on specific components of the mating behaviour of male shore crab Carcinus maenas was investigated, as well as differences in sensitivity between red and green colour morphs. The results show that copper exposure clearly altered the response of C. maenas males to a pheromone stimulus (pre-moult female urine) presented alone, together with a dummy female (a sponge injected with pre-moult female urine) or with a real female. Crabs exposed to the highest copper treatment took more than twice as long to initiate search activity after pheromone introduction and their search behaviour was less directed. When offered a dummy female, male crabs showed decreased pheromone discrimination in both copper treatments. Stroking was the only mating behaviour significantly affected, with a 90% reduction in red crabs in the highest copper treatment. Additionally, crabs of the highest copper treatment more often pinched the dummy female (non-mating behaviour). Finally, male crabs exposed to copper more often pinched pre-moult females and it took about three times longer to establish cradle-carrying. Thus, copper affects the ability of males to detect female pheromones, perform specific mating behaviours and to form pairs. PMID:16942808

  20. Male competition and female choice interact to determine mating success in the bluefin killifish

    E-print Network

    Fuller, Rebecca

    Male competition and female choice interact to determine mating success in the bluefin killifish, Champaign, IL 61820, USA Whether male competition and female choice act in concert, independently female choice and male competition interact in the bluefin killifish, Lucania goodei, in a 3-staged

  1. The inuence of male parr body size and mate competition on fertilization success

    E-print Network

    Hutchings, Jeffrey A.

    The in¯uence of male parr body size and mate competition on fertilization success and effective size and individual reproductive success at any level of competition when anadromous males were between total parr reproductive success and intensity of anadromous male competition. To our knowledge

  2. Dietary carotenoids and male mating success in the guppy: an environmental component to female choice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Astrid Kodric-Brown

    1989-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between dietary carotenoids, female choice, and male mating success in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata. Using a split-brood design, male siblings were either raised on a diet enhanced with astaxanthin and canthaxin or fed a basal diet without carotenoids. Males were photographed, and the location, size, and brightness of their red and orange pigment spots on

  3. Mating success of resident versus non-resident males in a territorial butterfly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Bergman; Karl Gotthard; David Berger; Martin Olofsson; Darrell J. Kemp; Christer Wiklund

    2007-01-01

    Male-male competition over territorial ownership suggests that winning is associated with considerable benefits. In the speckled wood butterfly, Pararge aegeria, males fight over sunspot territories on the forest floor; winners gain sole residency of a sunspot, whereas losers patrol the forest in search of females. It is currently not known whether residents experience greater mating success than non- residents, or

  4. Sperm competition games played by dimorphic male beetles: fertilization gains with equal mating access

    E-print Network

    Tomkins, Joseph L.

    Sperm competition games played by dimorphic male beetles: fertilization gains with equal mating to sperm competition should arise in males facing the greater risk. This prediction is met in the dung beetle Onthophagus binodis where minor males which sneak copulations have a greater expenditure

  5. Female mate preferences for male body size and shape promote sexual isolation in threespine sticklebacks

    PubMed Central

    Head, Megan L; Kozak, Genevieve M; Boughman, Janette W

    2013-01-01

    Female mate preferences for ecologically relevant traits may enhance natural selection, leading to rapid divergence. They may also forge a link between mate choice within species and sexual isolation between species. Here, we examine female mate preference for two ecologically important traits: body size and body shape. We measured female preferences within and between species of benthic, limnetic, and anadromous threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus species complex). We found that mate preferences differed between species and between contexts (i.e., within vs. between species). Within species, anadromous females preferred males that were deep bodied for their size, benthic females preferred larger males (as measured by centroid size), and limnetic females preferred males that were more limnetic shaped. In heterospecific mating trials between benthics and limnetics, limnetic females continued to prefer males that were more limnetic like in shape when presented with benthic males. Benthic females showed no preferences for size when presented with limnetic males. These results show that females use ecologically relevant traits to select mates in all three species and that female preference has diverged between species. These results suggest that sexual selection may act in concert with natural selection on stickleback size and shape. Further, our results suggest that female preferences may track adaptation to local environments and contribute to sexual isolation between benthic and limnetic sticklebacks. PMID:23919161

  6. Molecular mapping of three male-sterile, female-fertile mutants and generation of a comprehensive map of all known male sterility genes in soybean.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Speth, Benjamin D; Boonyoo, Napatsakorn; Baumert, Eric; Atkinson, Taylor R; Palmer, Reid G; Sandhu, Devinder

    2014-03-01

    In soybean, an environmentally stable male sterility system is vital for making hybrid seed production commercially viable. Eleven male-sterile, female-fertile mutants (ms1, ms2, ms3, ms4, ms5, ms6, ms7, ms8, ms9, msMOS, and msp) have been identified in soybean. Of these, eight (ms2, ms3, ms5, ms7, ms8, ms9, msMOS, and msp) have been mapped to soybean chromosomes. The objectives of this study were to (i) locate the ms1, ms4, and ms6 genes to soybean chromosomes; (ii) generate genetic linkage maps of the regions containing these genes; and (iii) develop a comprehensive map of all known male-sterile, female-fertile genes in soybean. The bulked segregant analysis technique was used to locate genes to soybean chromosomes. Microsatellite markers from the corresponding chromosomes were used on F2 populations to generate genetic linkage maps. The ms1 and ms6 genes were located on chromosome 13 (molecular linkage group F) and ms4 was present on chromosome 2 (molecular linkage group D1b). Molecular analyses revealed markers Satt516, BARCSOYSSR_02_1539, and AW186493 were located closest to ms1, ms4, and ms6, respectively. The ms1 and ms6 genes, although present on the same chromosome, were independently assorting with a genetic distance of 73.7 cM. Using information from this study and compiled information from previously published male sterility genes in soybean, a comprehensive genetic linkage map was generated. Eleven male sterility genes were present on seven soybean chromosomes. Four genes were present in two regions on chromosome 2 (molecular linkage group D1b) and two genes were present on chromosome 13 (molecular linkage group F). PMID:24814801

  7. Is reduced female survival after mating a by-product of male-male competition in the dung fly Sepsis cynipsea?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y Teuschl; DJ Hosken; WU Blanckenhorn

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In a number of species males damage females during copulation, but the reasons for this remain unclear. It may be that males are trying to manipulate female mating behaviour or their life histories. Alternatively, damage may be a side-effect of male-male competition. In the black scavenger or dung fly Sepsis cynipsea (Diptera: Sepsidae) mating reduces female survival, apparently because

  8. Pest management programmes in vineyards using male mating disruption.

    PubMed

    Harari, Ally R; Zahavi, Tirtza; Gordon, Dvora; Anshelevich, Leonid; Harel, Miriam; Ovadia, Shmulik; Dunkelblum, Ezra

    2007-08-01

    Israeli vine growers have been reluctant to adopt the mating disruption technique for control of the European vine moth, Lobesia botrana Den. & Schiff. Since the chemically controlled honeydew moth, Cryptoblabes gnidiella Mill., coexists with the European vine moth, growers have maintained that the use of mating disruption would fail to bring about a significant reduction in pesticide use. In this study, the efficacy of mating disruption techniques against C. gnidiella was tested, as well as the effect of these methods on pesticide use and damage to clusters when the method was employed against both of the pests in wine grapes. Comparisons were made between plots treated with (1) L. botrana mating disruption pheromone, (2) L. botrana and C. gnidiella mating disruption pheromones and (3) control plots. A significant difference in the number of clusters infested with the developmental stages of the moths was seen between pheromone-treated plots and controls, while no such difference was observed between plots treated with one versus two pheromones. A similar pattern was observed in the number of insecticide applications; the greatest number of applications was used in control plots, followed by plots treated with L. botrana mating disruption pheromone and by plots treated with pheromones against both pests, in which no pesticides were applied. PMID:17523143

  9. Indiscriminate Males: Mating Behaviour of a Marine Snail Compromised by a Sexual Conflict?

    PubMed Central

    Johannesson, Kerstin; Saltin, Sara H.; Duranovic, Iris; Havenhand, Jon N.; Jonsson, Per R.

    2010-01-01

    Background In promiscuous species, male fitness is expected to increase with repeated matings in an open-ended fashion (thereby increasing number of partners or probability of paternity) whereas female fitness should level out at some optimal number of copulations when direct and indirect benefits still outweigh the costs of courtship and copulation. After this fitness peak, additional copulations would incur female fitness costs and be under opposing selection. Hence, a sexual conflict over mating frequency may evolve in species where females are forced to engage in costly matings. Under such circumstance, if females could avoid male detection, significant fitness benefits from such avoidance strategies would be predicted. Methodology/Principal Findings Among four Littorina species, one lives at very much higher densities and has a longer mating season than the other three species. Using video records of snail behaviour in a laboratory arena we show that males of the low-density species discriminate among male and female mucous trails, trailing females for copulations. In the high-density species, however, males fail to discriminate between male and female trails, not because males are unable to identify female trails (which we show using heterospecific females), but because females do not, as the other species, add a gender-specific cue to their trail. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that there is likely a sexual conflict over mating frequency in the high-density species (L. saxatilis) owing to females most likely being less sperm-limited in this species. This has favoured the evolution of females that permanently or optionally do not release a cue in the mucus to decrease excessive and costly matings resulting in unusually high frequencies of male-male copulating attempts in the wild. This is one of few examples of masking gender identity to obtain fewer matings. PMID:20711254

  10. Abstract When females mate with more than one male, the ensuing sperm competition leads to the evolution of

    E-print Network

    Rutowski, Ronald L.

    Abstract When females mate with more than one male, the ensuing sperm competition leads). Adequate tests for cryptic fe- male choice can only be designed if male mechanisms of sperm competition competition, usually measured as the proportion of offspring sired by the second of two males to mate

  11. Alternative mating tactics in the yellow dung fly: resolving mechanisms of small-male advantage off pasture

    PubMed Central

    Gress, Brian E.; Waltzer, Ryan J.; Lüpold, Stefan; Droge-Young, Elizabeth M.; Manier, Mollie K.; Pitnick, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Recent work suggests that the yellow dung fly mating system may include alternative patroller–competitor mating tactics in which large males compete for gravid females on dung, whereas small, non-competitive males search for females at foraging sites. Small males obtain most matings off pasture, yet the behavioural mechanism(s) giving rise to this pattern are unknown. We investigated the male and female behaviours that determine mating success in this environment by conducting field mating experiments and found small males to benefit from several attributes specific to the off-pasture mating environment. First, small males from foraging sites exhibited higher mating propensity, indicating that large males away from dung may be depleted of energy and/or sperm. Second, small males were more discriminating, being significantly less likely to attempt with non-gravid females, which are absent on dung but common off pasture. Third, non-gravid females were generally more likely to actively struggle and reject mating attempts; however, such behaviours occurred disproportionately more often with large males. Female Scathophaga stercoraria thus appear to preferentially mate with small males when off pasture. These findings challenge assumptions about male–female interactions in systems with alternative mating tactics and reveal hidden processes that may influence selection patterns in the field. PMID:24225455

  12. Genotype-by-Environment Interactions for Female Mate Choice of Male Cuticular Hydrocarbons in Drosophila simulans

    PubMed Central

    Ingleby, Fiona C.; Hunt, John; Hosken, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has highlighted the potential importance of environmental and genotype-by-environment (G×E) variation in sexual selection, but most studies have focussed on the expression of male sexual traits. Consequently, our understanding of genetic variation for plasticity in female mate choice is extremely poor. In this study we examine the genetics of female mate choice in Drosophila simulans using isolines reared across two post-eclosion temperatures. There was evidence for G×Es in female choosiness and preference, which suggests that the evolution of female mate choice behaviour could differ across environments. However, the ranked order of preferred males was consistent across females and environments, so the same males are favoured by mate choice in spite of G×Es. Our study highlights the importance of taking cross-environment perspectives in order to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the operation of sexual selection. PMID:23825675

  13. Choosy males from the underground: male mating preferences in surface- and cave-dwelling Atlantic mollies ( Poecilia mexicana)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plath, Martin; Seggel, Uta; Burmeister, Heike; Heubel, Katja U.; Schlupp, Ingo

    2006-03-01

    Atlantic mollies ( Poecilia mexicana) inhabit a variety of surface habitats, but they also occur in a sulfur cave in southern Mexico. We examined male mate choice relative to female body size in the cave population and in the most closely related surface-dwelling population from a nearby river. Males from both populations were either light- or dark-reared and could choose between two differently sized females either on the basis of visual cues in light or on the basis of solely nonvisual cues in darkness. Sexual preferences were estimated from the degree of association. Cave molly males always showed a preference for the larger female, both in light and in darkness. Among the surface males, only light-reared males showed a preference in the visual cues test, but not in darkness. In a control experiment, we demonstrated that male association preferences directly translate into actual mating preferences. Apparently, using visual cues for mate choice is the ancestral state in this system, and using nonvisual cues has evolved as a novel trait in the cave population. We discuss the evolution of nonvisual male mate choice in the context of changed environmental conditions, namely the absence of light, hypoxia, and toxic hydrogen sulfide in the cave.

  14. Choosy males from the underground: male mating preferences in surface- and cave-dwelling Atlantic mollies (Poecilia mexicana).

    PubMed

    Plath, Martin; Seggel, Uta; Burmeister, Heike; Heubel, Katja U; Schlupp, Ingo

    2006-03-01

    Atlantic mollies (Poecilia mexicana) inhabit a variety of surface habitats, but they also occur in a sulfur cave in southern Mexico. We examined male mate choice relative to female body size in the cave population and in the most closely related surface-dwelling population from a nearby river. Males from both populations were either light- or dark-reared and could choose between two differently sized females either on the basis of visual cues in light or on the basis of solely nonvisual cues in darkness. Sexual preferences were estimated from the degree of association. Cave molly males always showed a preference for the larger female, both in light and in darkness. Among the surface males, only light-reared males showed a preference in the visual cues test, but not in darkness. In a control experiment, we demonstrated that male association preferences directly translate into actual mating preferences. Apparently, using visual cues for mate choice is the ancestral state in this system, and using nonvisual cues has evolved as a novel trait in the cave population. We discuss the evolution of nonvisual male mate choice in the context of changed environmental conditions, namely the absence of light, hypoxia, and toxic hydrogen sulfide in the cave. PMID:16404589

  15. REGISTRATION OF SEVEN CYTOPLASMIC MALE-STERILE AND FOUR FERTILITY RESTORATION SUNFLOWER GERMPLASMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cms ANN14 originated from one male-sterile plant identified in a Native American landrace PI 432513, and is a BC5 bulk with the pedigree of cms PI 432513/6*HA 89. Restoration genes for cms PI 432513 were found in 'Armavir', 'VNIIMK', 'P21', and male-fertile plants of PI 432513. F2 segregation ratios...

  16. REGISTRATION OF TWO CYTOPLASMIC MALE-STERILE AND EIGHT FERTILITY RESTORATION SUNFLOWER GENETIC STOCKS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Male-sterile plants were identified in the wild H. annuus L. accessions PI 413178 and PI 413180, and maintained by backcrossing with the inbred line HA 89. Male-fertile progenies from crosses between cms plants of the two PIs and 12 USDA inbred lines indicated the presence of fertility restoration g...

  17. Male Mating Rate Is Constrained by Seminal Fluid Availability in Bedbugs, Cimex lectularius

    PubMed Central

    Reinhardt, Klaus; Naylor, Richard; Siva-Jothy, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    Sexual selection, differences in reproductive success between individuals, continues beyond acquiring a mating partner and affects ejaculate size and composition (sperm competition). Sperm and seminal fluid have very different roles in sperm competition but both components encompass production costs for the male. Theoretical models predict that males should spend ejaculate components prudently and differently for sperm and seminal fluid but empirical evidence for independent variation of sperm number and seminal fluid volume is scarce. It is also largely unknown how sperm and seminal fluid variation affect future mating rate. In bedbugs we developed a protocol to examine the role of seminal fluids in ejaculate allocation and its effect on future male mating rate. Using age-related changes in sperm and seminal fluid volume we estimated the lowest capacity at which mating activity started. We then showed that sexually active males allocate 12% of their sperm and 19% of their seminal fluid volume per mating and predicted that males would be depleted of seminal fluid but not of sperm. We tested (and confirmed) this prediction empirically. Finally, the slightly faster replenishment of seminal fluid compared to sperm did not outweigh the faster decrease during mating. Our results suggest that male mating rate can be constrained by the availability of seminal fluids. Our protocol might be applicable to a range of other organisms. We discuss the idea that economic considerations in sexual conflict research might benefit from distinguishing between costs and benefits that are ejaculate dose-dependent and those that are frequency-dependent on the mating rate per se. PMID:21779378

  18. Costs of mate-guarding in wild male long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis): physiological stress and aggression.

    PubMed

    Girard-Buttoz, Cédric; Heistermann, Michael; Rahmi, Erdiansyah; Agil, Muhammad; Fauzan, Panji Ahmad; Engelhardt, Antje

    2014-09-01

    Mate-guarding is an important determinant of male reproductive success in a number of species. However, it is known to potentially incur costs. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of mate-guarding on male physiological stress and aggression in long-tailed macaques, a species in which males mate-guard females to a lesser extent than predicted by the Priority of Access model (PoA). The study was carried out during two mating periods on three groups of wild long-tailed macaques in Indonesia by combining behavioral observations with non-invasive measurements of fecal glucocorticoid (fGC) levels. Mate-guarding was associated with a general rise in male stress hormone levels but, from a certain threshold of mate-guarding onwards, increased vigilance time was associated with a decrease in stress hormone output. Mate-guarding also increased male-male aggression rate and male vigilance time. Overall, alpha males were more physiologically stressed than other males independently of mating competition. Increased glucocorticoid levels during mate-guarding are most likely adaptive since it may help males to mobilize extra-energy required for mate-guarding and ultimately maintain a balanced energetic status. However, repeated exposure to high levels of stress over an extended period is potentially deleterious to the immune system and thus may carry costs. This potential physiological cost together with the cost of increased aggression mate-guarding male face may limit the male's ability to mate-guard females, explaining the deviance from the PoA model observed in long-tailed macaques. Comparing our results to previous findings we discuss how ecological factors, reproductive seasonality and rank achievement may modulate the extent to which costs of mate-guarding limit male monopolization abilities. PMID:25236888

  19. No Evidence for the Effect of MHC on Male Mating Success in the Brown Bear

    PubMed Central

    Kuduk, Katarzyna; Babik, Wieslaw; Bellemain, Eva; Valentini, Alice; Zedrosser, Andreas; Taberlet, Pierre; Kindberg, Jonas; Swenson, Jon E.; Radwan, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    Mate choice is thought to contribute to the maintenance of the spectacularly high polymorphism of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) genes, along with balancing selection from parasites, but the relative contribution of the former mechanism is debated. Here, we investigated the association between male MHC genotype and mating success in the brown bear. We analysed fragments of sequences coding for the peptide-binding region of the highly polymorphic MHC class I and class II DRB genes, while controlling for genome-wide effects using a panel of 18 microsatellite markers. Male mating success did not depend on the number of alleles shared with the female or amino-acid distance between potential mates at either locus. Furthermore, we found no indication of female mating preferences for MHC similarity being contingent on the number of alleles the females carried. Finally, we found no significant association between the number of MHC alleles a male carried and his mating success. Thus, our results provided no support for the role of mate choice in shaping MHC polymorphism in the brown bear. PMID:25470381

  20. MALE STERILITY (Kaul 1988) A. INFERTILITY VS. INCOMPATIBILITY

    E-print Network

    Bhattacharyya, Madan Kumar

    plants or no male flowers in dioecious plants. b. Failure to develop normal microsporogenous tissue as the failure of plants to produce functional anthers, pollen, or male gametes. a. 1st documentation: 1763

  1. No evidence for local adaptation between cytoplasmic male sterility and nuclear restorer genes in the gynodioecious species Thymus vulgaris L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. GIGORD; C Lavigne; J. A. SHYKOFF; A Atlan

    1998-01-01

    In Thymus vulgaris L., sex determination involves both the nuclear and the cytoplasmic genomes: the cytoplasm is responsible for male sterility (the female phenotype) whereas specific nuclear genes may restore male fertility (the hermaphrodite phenotype). The evolutionary dynamics of cytoplasmic male-sterility genes and nuclear restorer genes represents a coevolutionary conflict. Here we draw a parallel between this conflict and the

  2. Fine mapping of a gene for non-pollen type thermosensitive genic male sterility in rice ( Oryza sativa L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. F. Peng; X. H. Chen; Y. P. Lu; Y. F. Peng; B. H. Wan; N. D. Chen; B. Wu; S. P. Xin; G. Q. Zhang

    2010-01-01

    The thermo-sensitive genic male sterility (TGMS) lines play a crucial role in two-line hybrid rice production. For a practical\\u000a TGMS line, the stability of male sterility is one of the most important technical indicators. In this study, XianS, a spontaneous\\u000a mutant with stable male sterility from an indica rice cultivar Xianhuangzhan, was classified as a non-pollen type TGMS line. The

  3. Methoprene and protein supplements accelerate reproductive development and improve mating success of male tephritid flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have been studying the physiological mechanisms responsible for coordination of reproductive maturity and sex pheromone communication in males of tephritid flies in order to develop methods for acceleration of reproductive maturity among sterilized males. Our studies revealed that the juvenile ho...

  4. Effect of adult screwworm male size on mating competence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Screwworms, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), were devastating pests in parts of North America and Central America before their eradication by means of the sterile insect technique (SIT). Now, a barrier is maintained to prevent re-entry of screwworms from endemic regions t...

  5. Mate choice in the grey partridge, Perdix perdix : role of physical and behavioural male traits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LAURA BEANI; FRANCESCO DESSÌ-FULGHERI

    1995-01-01

    The brown breast patch of the male grey partridge, the species' most conspicuous sexually dimorphic trait, was totally or partly bleached out, to test its influence on female preference. In mate-choice experiments, patch size (which was unaffected by early testosterone treatment) appeared to be unimportant: artificially and naturally bred females primarily selected males on the basis of their vocal performance.

  6. Quantity matters: male sex pheromone signals mate quality in the parasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis

    PubMed Central

    Ruther, Joachim; Matschke, Michael; Garbe, Leif-Alexander; Steiner, Sven

    2009-01-01

    Sexual selection theory asserts that females are well adapted to sense signals indicating the quality of potential mates. One crucial male quality parameter is functional fertility (i.e. the success of ejaculates in fertilizing eggs). The phenotype-linked fertility hypothesis (PLFH) predicts that functional fertility of males is reflected by phenotypic traits that influence female mate choice. Here, we show for Nasonia vitripennis, a parasitic wasp with haplodiploid sex determination and female-biased sex ratios, that females use olfactory cues to discriminate against sperm-limited males. We found sperm limitation in newly emerged and multiply mated males (seven or more previous matings) as indicated by a higher proportion of sons in the offspring fathered by these males. Sperm limitation correlated with clearly reduced pheromone titres. In behavioural bioassays, females oriented towards higher doses of the synthetic pheromone and were attracted more often to scent marks of males with a full sperm load than to those of sperm-limited males. Our data support the PLFH and suggest that N. vitripennis females are able to decrease the risk of getting constrained to produce suboptimal offspring sex ratios by orienting towards gradients of the male sex pheromone. PMID:19535374

  7. Red coloration of male northern cardinals correlates with mate quality and territory quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. LaReesa Wolfenbarger

    1999-01-01

    I investigated how mate quality and territory quality influence an extravagant ornament in a socially monogamous species that defends multipurpose territories. Northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis) are a highly dichromatic, socially monogamous species, and males are a brilliant red. I conducted a 3-year field study of northern cardinals and found that redder males produced more offspring in a breeding season. Two

  8. Influence of methoprene and dietary protein on male Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae) mating aggregations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), like many polyphagous tephritids, exhibits a lek polygyny mating system. Juvenile hormone levels and adult diet have important effects on male sexual success. The components of this success, male attractiveness and competitiveness, and consequentl...

  9. Geographical variation in temporal and spatial vocalization patterns of male harbour seals in the mating season

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sofie M. Van Parijs; Gordon D. Hastie; Paul M. Thompson

    1999-01-01

    In the aquatically mating harbour seal, Phoca vitulina, oestrous females show marked differences in spatial and temporal distribution between geographical areas. This suggests that the males' display behaviour may also vary between areas. We recorded male vocalizations in two areas, the Moray Firth and Orkney, U.K. In the Moray Firth, females haul out on a few intertidal sandbars and travel

  10. Male-specific Iridescent Coloration in the Pipevine Swallowtail (Battus philenor) is Used in Mate Choice

    E-print Network

    Rutowski, Ronald L.

    philenor. mate selection . sexual selection Introduction In many species of butterflies, males are more in butterflies have been experimentally evaluated using manipula- tions of male color for only seven species of butterflies, four pierids (Silberglied and Taylor 1978; Rutowski 1981; Wiernasz and Kingsolver 1992; Kemp 2008

  11. Showing Off in Humans: Male Generosity as a Mating Signal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wendy Iredale; Mark Van Vugt; Robin Dunbar

    We examined people's charity contributions while in the presence of an observer of the same sex, opposite sex, or no observer. Inspired by costly signaling theory, we hypothesized that men would be more generous in the presence of a potential mate. Men and women played a number of experimental games in which they could earn money. On completion of these

  12. Male Enchenopa treehoppers (Hemiptera: Membracidae) vary mate-searching behavior but not signaling behavior in response to spider silk.

    PubMed

    Fowler-Finn, Kasey D; Al-Wathiqui, Nooria; Cruz, Daniel; Al-Wathiqui, Mishal; Rodríguez, Rafael L

    2014-03-01

    Finding and attracting mates can impose costs on males in terms of increased encounters with, and attraction of, predators. To decrease the likelihood of predation, males may modify mate-acquisition efforts in two main ways: they may reduce mate-searching efforts or they may reduce mate-attraction efforts. The specific behavior that males change in the presence of predator cues should depend upon the nature of risk imposed by the type of predator present in the environment. For example, sit-and-wait predators impose greater costs to males moving in search of mates. Here, we test whether cues of the presence of a sit-and-wait predator lead to a reduction in mate-searching but not mate-acquisition behavior. We used a member of the Enchenopa binotata complex of treehoppers-a clade of vibrationally communicating insects in which males fly in search of mates and produce mate-attraction signals when they land on plant stems. We tested for changes in mate-searching and signaling behaviors when silk from a web-building spider was present or absent. We found that males delayed flight when spider silk was present but only if they were actively searching for mates. These results suggest that males have been selected to reduce predation risk by adjusting how they move about their environment according to the cues of sit-and-wait predators. PMID:24487912

  13. Male size, mating success, and mating strategy in the mosquitofish Gambusia affinis (Poeciliidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Austin L. Hughes

    1985-01-01

    In laboratory choice experiments, receptive female western mosquitofish Gambusia affinis affinis (deprived of contact with males ?30 days) preferred the larger of two males. When two males differing in size were placed with a receptive female, the larger was generally able to monopolize access to her, but not when the female was not receptive. In other experiments, a single male

  14. On the difficulties of discriminating between major and minor hybrid male sterility factors in Drosophila by examining the segregation ratio of sterile and fertile sons in backcrossing experiments.

    PubMed

    Maside, X R; Naveira, H F

    1996-10-01

    The observation of segregation ratios of sterile and fertile males in offspring samples from backcrossed hybrid females is, in principle, a valid method to unveil the genetic basis of hybrid male sterility in Drosophila. When the female parent is heterozygous (hybrid) for a sterility factor with major effects, equal proportions of fertile and sterile sons are expected in her offspring. However, intact (not recombined) chromosome segments of considerable length are expected to give segregation ratios that can not be easily differentiated from the 1:1 ratio expected from a single factor. When the phenotypic character under analysis can be determined by combinations of minor factors from the donor species spanning a certain chromosome length, very large offspring samples may be needed to test this alternative hypothesis against the null hypothesis of a single major factor. This is particularly the case of hybrid male sterility determinants in Drosophila. PMID:8885383

  15. Sexual selection for male dominance reduces opportunities for female mate choice in the European bitterling (Rhodeus sericeus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. REICHARD; J. BRYJA; M. ONDRACKOVA; M. DAVIDOVA; P. KANIEWSKA; C. SMITH

    2005-01-01

    Sexual selection involves two main mechanisms: intrasexual competition for mates and intersexual mate choice. We experimentally separated intrasexual (male-male interference competition) and intersexual (female choice) components of sexual selection in a freshwater fish, the European bitterling ( Rhodeus sericeus ). We compared the roles of multiple morphological and behavioural traits in male success in both components of sexual com- petition,

  16. Tied to the nest: male black-capped chickadees decrease dawn chorus movement behaviour when their mate is fertile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer R. Foote; Lauren P. Fitzsimmons; Daniel J. Mennill; Laurene M. Ratcliffe

    2008-01-01

    Male songbirds typically mate-guard by closely following the female during her fertile period. At dawn, males may sing near the nest or roost to direct their chorus at mates. Recent evidence suggests males may also be involved in singing interactions with neighbours during the dawn chorus. We used a 16- channel acoustic location system to examine the movement behaviour of

  17. Egg Viability, Mating Frequency and Male Mating Ability Evolve in Populations of Drosophila melanogaster Selected for Resistance to Cold Shock

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Karan; Kochar, Ekta; Prasad, N. G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Ability to resist temperature shock is an important component of fitness of insects and other ectotherms. Increased resistance to temperature shock is known to affect life-history traits. Temperature shock is also known to affect reproductive traits such as mating ability and viability of gametes. Therefore selection for increased temperature shock resistance can affect the evolution of reproductive traits. Methods We selected replicate populations of Drosophila melanogaster for resistance to cold shock. We then investigated the evolution of reproductive behavior along with other components of fitness- larval survivorship, adult mortality, fecundity, egg viability in these populations. Results We found that larval survivorship, adult mortality and fecundity post cold shock were not significantly different between selected and control populations. However, compared to the control populations, the selected populations laid significantly higher percentage of fertile eggs (egg viability) 24 hours post cold shock. The selected populations had higher mating frequency both with and without cold shock. After being subjected to cold shock, males from the selected populations successfully mated with significantly more non-virgin females and sired significantly more progeny compared to control males. Conclusions A number of studies have reported the evolution of survivorship in response to selection for temperature shock resistance. Our results clearly indicate that adaptation to cold shock can involve changes in components of reproductive fitness. Our results have important implications for our understanding of how reproductive behavior can evolve in response to thermal stress. PMID:26065704

  18. Sexual dimorphism and male mating success in the tentacled blenny, Parablennius tentacularis (Teleostei: Blenniidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eva Giacomello; Maria B. Rasotto

    2005-01-01

    Although external sexually dimorphic traits are commonly found in males of combtooth blenny species, little is known about\\u000a the benefit they can convey to male mating success. Indeed, while female preferences for large males have been demonstrated\\u000a in some species, the possible role played by dimorphic ornaments has been neglected. We now report on the tentacled blenny,\\u000a Parablennius tentacularis, a

  19. Independent effects of male and female density on sexual harassment, female fitness, and male competition for mates in the western mosquitofish Gambusia affinis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chad C. Smith

    2007-01-01

    Operational sex ratio (the ratio of sexually active males to fertilizable females) has a major influence on male competition\\u000a for mates and male–female interactions. The contributions of male and female density per se to mating system dynamics, however,\\u000a are rarely examined, and the fitness consequences are often inferred rather than quantified. Male mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) compete aggressively and frequently harass

  20. The male blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, uses both chromatic and achromatic cues during mate choice.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Jamie; Johnsen, Sönke

    2012-04-01

    In the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, claw color varies by sex, sexual maturity and individual. Males rely in part on color cues to select appropriate mates, and these chromatic cues may be perceived through an opponent interaction between two photoreceptors with maximum wavelength sensitivities at 440 and 508 nm. The range of color discrimination of this dichromatic visual system may be limited, however, and it is unclear whether male blue crabs are capable of discriminating the natural variations in claw color that may be important in mate choice. By testing males' innate color preferences in binary choice tests between photographs of red-clawed females and six variations of orange-clawed females, we examined both the chromatic (opponent interaction) and achromatic (relative luminance) cues used in male mate choice. Males significantly preferred red-clawed females to orange-clawed females, except when the test colors were similar in both opponency and relative luminance. Our results are unusual in that they indicate that male mate choice in the blue crab is not guided solely by achromatic or chromatic mechanisms, suggesting that both color and intensity are used to evaluate female claw color. PMID:22399664

  1. Sterile Insect Technique and F1 Sterility in the European Grapevine Moth, Lobesia botrana

    PubMed Central

    Saour, George

    2014-01-01

    Newly emerged adults of the European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis and Schiffermuller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), were irradiated with various doses of gamma radiation and crossed to unirradiated counterparts of the opposite sex. Fecundity was decreased when unirradiated females were mated with either 300- or 350-Gy-irradiated males. Adult males that were irradiated with 400 Gy and mated with unirradiated females retained a residual fertility of 2.7%. The radiation dose at which irradiated females were found to be 100% sterile when mated with unirradiated males was 150 Gy. The inherited effects in the F1 progeny of irradiated male parents were examined at 100, 150, and 200 Gy. Fecundity and fertility of the F1 progeny of males irradiated with 150 Gy and inbred or crossed with irradiated and unirradiated moths were also recorded. A significant reduction in fertility was observed when F1 males mated with either F1 or unirradiated females. According to sterility index, F1 females who mated with F1 males had greater sterility than when F1 females were crossed to 150-Gy-irradiated males. Based upon the results of this study, 150 Gy of gamma radiation would be the optimal dose to use in a sterile insect technique and F1 sterility program against L. botrana. PMID:25373155

  2. Audience Effect Alters Male Mating Preferences in Zebra Finches (Taeniopygia guttata)

    PubMed Central

    Dubois, Frédérique; Belzile, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    The social environment of animals strongly influences the mating preferences of both the choosing and the observing individuals. Notably, there is recent evidence that polygamous males decrease their selectivity when being observed by competitors in order to direct their rivals’ attention away from their true interest and, consequently, reduce sperm competition risk. Yet, other mechanisms, whose importance remains unexplored, could induce similar effects. In monogamous species with mutual choice, particularly, if males adjust their selectivity according to the risk of being rejected by their preferred mate, they should as well become less selective when potential rivals are present. Here, we investigated whether the presence of bystanders modifies male mating preferences when the risk of sperm competition is low, by carrying out mate-choice experiments with male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) whose preferences for two females were measured twice: with and without an audience. We found that the presence of potential rivals had no effect on the males’ choosiness. However, with an audience, they spent more time with the female that was considered as the less attractive one in the control condition. These findings support the hypothesis that monogamous males alter their mate choice decisions in the presence of a male audience to reduce the risk of remaining unpaired. Thus, our results indicate that several explanations can account for the changes in male preferences due to the presence of competitors and highlight the importance of assessing the relative role of each mechanism potentially involved, to be able to make conclusions about the effect of an audience on signal evolution. PMID:22916298

  3. Do Male Desert Gobies Compromise Offspring Care to Attract Additional Mating Opportunities?

    PubMed Central

    Symons, Nicholas; Svensson, P. Andreas; Wong, Bob B. M.

    2011-01-01

    Males often play a critical role in offspring care but the time and energy invested in looking after young can potentially limit their ability to seek out additional mating opportunities. Recent studies, however, suggest that a conflict between male parental effort and mating effort may not always be inevitable, especially if breeding occurs near the nest, or if parental behaviours are under sexual selection. Accordingly, we set out to experimentally investigate male care and courtship in the desert goby Chlamydogobius eremius, a nest-guarding fish with exclusive paternal care. Despite courtship occurring near the nest, we found that when egg-tending males were given the opportunity to attract additional females, they fanned their eggs less often, engaged in shorter fanning bouts, and spent more of their time outside their nests courting. Our findings highlight the importance of understanding the circumstances under which reproductive tradeoffs are expected to occur and how these, in turn, operate to influence male reproductive decisions. PMID:21687677

  4. Effects of Estrogen in the Male Rat Medial Amygdala: Infusion of an Aromatase Inhibitor Lowers Mating and Bovine Serum Albumin-Conjugated Estradiol Implants Do Not Promote Mating

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gloria G. Huddleston; Jacquelyn C. Paisley; Andrew N. Clancy

    2006-01-01

    In male rats, copulatory behavior depends on estrogen-responsive neurons located in brain areas known to be crucial for mating. Blocking the aromatization of testosterone (T) to estradiol (E2) either throughout the brain or within the medial preoptic area (MPO) reduces mating, whereas E2 treatment of either the MPO or the medial amygdala (MEA) maintains sexual behavior. The effects of T

  5. Male-Sterility Induction in Transgenic Tobacco Plants with an Unedited atp6 Mitochondrial Gene from Wheat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michel Hernould; Sony Suharsono; Simon Litvak; Alejandro Araya; Armand Mouras

    1993-01-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility in plants is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. We have proposed that a nuclear-encoded chimeric peptide formed by mitochondrial sequences when imported into the mitochondria may impair organelle function and induce male sterility in plants. A model developed to test this hypothesis is reported here. Assuming that the editing process in higher plant mitochondria reflects a requirement for

  6. MOLECULAR MAPPING OF A NUCLEAR MALE-STERILITY GENE IN SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.) USING TRAP AND SSR MARKERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A nuclear male-sterile mutant, NMS 360, possesses a single recessive gene, ms9, controlling male sterility. The present study identified DNA markers linked to the ms9 gene in an F2 population derived from the cross of NMS 360 x RHA 271 and maps the ms9 gene to an existing sunflower SSR linkage map. ...

  7. Novel composition of mitochondrial genomes in Petunia somatic hybrids derived from cytoplasmic male sterile and fertile plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maury L. Boeshore; Irit Lifshitz; Maureen R. Hanson; Shamay Izhar

    1983-01-01

    The mitochondrial genomes of petunia somatic hybrid plants, which were derived from the fusion of male fertile P. hybrida protoplasts with cytoplasmic male sterile P. parodii protoplasts, were analyzed by endonuclease restriction and Southern blot hybridization analyses. We studied sterile and fertile somatic hybrids to address two main questions. First, is there any correlation between the mitochondrial DNA restriction banding

  8. Inheritance of Fertility Restoration for Two Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Sources of Helianthus pauciflorus (rigidus) Nutt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. C. Jan; T. X. Zhang; J. F. Miller; G. N. Fick

    to have H. tuberosus cytoplasm. This was not generally recognized until the discovery of the vigor restoration New sources of cytoplasmic male sterility (cms) and fertility restora- genes in many cultivated lines obtained by crossing them tion genes would reduce the genetic vulnerability of commercial sun- flower (Helianthus annuus L.) hybrids because of the current use of with vigor-reduced HA89

  9. The effect of male sterility on oil content and seed yield in sunflowers (Helianthus annuus L.)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    The effect of male sterility on oil content and seed yield in sunflowers (Helianthus annuus L stérilité mâle sur la teneur en huile et le rendement en grains chez le tournesol (Helian- thus annuus L différences entre mâle-stérile et mâle- fertile ne soient pas dues au cytoplasme mâle-stérile de Helianthus

  10. Genetics of Male Sterility in Gynodioecious Plantago Coronopus. II. Nuclear Genetic Variation

    PubMed Central

    Koelewijn, H. P.; Van-Damme, JMM.

    1995-01-01

    Inheritance of male sterility was studied in the gynodioecious species Plantago coronopus using five plants and their descendants from an area of ~50 m(2) from each of four locations. In each location, crosses between these five plants yielded the entire array of possible sex phenotypes. Both nuclear and cytoplasmic genes were involved. Emphasis is placed on the nuclear (restorer) genetics of two cytoplasmic types. For both types, multiple interacting nuclear genes were demonstrated. These genes carried either dominant or recessive restorer alleles. The exact number of genes involved could not be determined, because different genetic models could be proposed for each location and no common genetic solution could be given. At least five genes, three with dominant and two with recessive restorer allele action, were involved with both cytoplasmic types. Segregation patterns of partially male sterile plants suggested that they are due to incomplete dominance at restorer loci. Restorer genes interact in different ways. In most instances models with independent restorer gene action were sufficient to explain the crossing results. However, for one case we propose a model with epistatic restorer gene action. There was a consistent difference in the segregation of male sterility between plants from the two cytoplasmic types. Hermaphrodites of cytoplasmic type 2 hardly segregated male steriles, in contrast to plants with cytoplasmic type 1. PMID:7789776

  11. Induction of male sterility in plants by metabolic engineering of the carbohydrate supply

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Goetz; Dietmute E. Godt; Anne Guivarc'h; Uwe Kahmann; Dominique Chriqui; Thomas Roitsch

    2001-01-01

    Extracellular invertase mediates phloem unloading via an apoplastic pathway. The gene encoding isoenzyme Nin88 from tobacco was cloned and shown to be characterized by a specific spatial and temporal expression pattern. Tissue-specific antisense repression of Nin88 under control of the corresponding promoter in tobacco results in a block during early stages of pollen development, thus, causing male sterility. This result

  12. The Male Sterility Locus ms3 is Present in a Fertility Controlling Gene Cluster in Soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is a self-pollinated plant. Manual cross-pollination is used to produce limited quantities of hybrid seed. To produce large quantities of hybrid seed, insect-mediated cross-pollination is necessary. An efficient nuclear male-sterile system for hybrid seed producti...

  13. Identification of fertiity restores for S male-sterile maize: beyond PPRs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nuclear genes are essential for expression of the mitochondrial genome and for the function of mitochondrial protein complexes. Interaction of the plant mitochondrial and nuclear genetic systems is exemplified by mitochondrial-encoded cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) under the control of nuclear fe...

  14. Restoration of fertility by antisense RNA in genetically engineered male sterile tobacco plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Schmülling; Horst Röhrig; Silke Pilz; Richard Walden; Jeff Schell

    1993-01-01

    Transgenic tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum L.) expressing the rolC gene of Agrobacterium rhizogenes under the transcriptional control of the 35S RNA promoter are male sterile. When these plants are genetically crossed with others containing the rolC gene linked in antisense orientation to the 35S RNA promoter, hybrid progeny display restoration of male fertility. Moreover, hybrid progeny are revertant for other

  15. RNAi-mediated male sterility of tobacco by silencing TA29

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Muhammad Shah Nawaz-ul-Rehman; Shahid Mansoor; Asif Ali Khan; Yusuf Zafar; Rob W. Briddon

    2007-01-01

    The superior performance of F1 hybrids has a significant impact on agricultural productivity. For commercial application, the availability of an efficient\\u000a system for obtaining male-sterile lines of crops is an essential prerequisite. Here we have investigated the use of RNA interference\\u000a (RNAi) technology to silence a male-specific gene in the model host tobacco. TA29 is expressed exclusively in anthers at

  16. Expression of kenaf mitochondrial chimeric genes HM184 causes male sterility in transgenic tobacco plants.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanhong; Liao, Xiaofang; Huang, Zhipeng; Chen, Peng; Zhou, Bujin; Liu, Dongmei; Kong, Xiangjun; Zhou, Ruiyang

    2015-08-01

    Chimeric genes resulting from the rearrangement of a mitochondrial genome were generally thought to be a causal factor in the occurrence of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS). In the study, earlier we reported that identifying a 47?bp deletion at 3'- flanking of atp9 that was linked to male sterile cytoplasm in kenaf. The truncated fragment was fused with atp9, a mitochondrial transit signal (MTS) and/or GFP, comprised two chimeric genes MTS-HM184-GFP and MTS-HM184. The plant expression vector pBI121 containing chimeric genes were then introduced to tobacco plants by Agrobacterium-mediated T-DNA transformation. The result showed that certain transgenic plants were male sterility or semi-sterility, while some were not. The expression analysis further demonstrated that higher level of expression were showed in the sterility plants, while no expression or less expression in fertility plants, the levels of expression of semi-sterility were in between. And the sterile plant (containing MTS-HM184-GFP) had abnormal anther produced malformed/shriveled pollen grains stained negative that failed to germinate (0%), the corresponding fruits was shrunken, the semi-sterile plants having normal anther shape produced about 10-50% normal pollen grains, the corresponding fruits were not full, and the germination rate was 58%. Meanwhile these transgenic plants which altered on fertility were further analyzed in phenotype. As a result, the metamorphosis leaves were observed in the seedling stage, the plant height of transgenic plants was shorter than wild type. The growth duration of transgenic tobacco was delayed 30-45 days compared to the wild type. The copy numbers of target genes of transgenic tobacco were analyzed using the real-time quantitative method. The results showed that these transgenic plants targeting-expression in mitochondrial containing MTS-HM184-GFP had 1 copy and 2 copies, the other two plants containing MTS-HM184 both had 3 copies, but 0 copy in wild type. In summary, the two manual chimeric genes might be related to male sterility in kenaf. PMID:24617462

  17. Bisexual Hybrid Sterility in DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER

    PubMed Central

    Colgan, D. J.; Angus, D. S.

    1978-01-01

    A new type of hybrid sterility was investigated in D. melanogaster . Matings between strain 27 males from Para Wirra, South Australia, and Canton-S females produce 70–80% fully sterile male and female progeny. Strain 27 males produce sterile progeny when crossed to females of other geographic origins, but produce fertile progeny when crossed to a second sympatric strain. The sterility is avoided by lower rearing temperatures. Heat shock and tetracycline produce no improvement in the fertility of the hybrids. Normal flies produce sterile progeny when injected with, or fed, homogenates of sterile flies. A combination of maternal and paternal factors may interact to produce sterile hybrids by inhibiting gonad development. PMID:17248832

  18. Do unattractive friends make you look better? Context-dependent male mating preferences in the guppy

    PubMed Central

    Gasparini, Clelia; Serena, Giovanna; Pilastro, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Recent theory predicts that in species where females tend to mate with the relatively most ornamented males, males may increase their attractiveness to females, and hence mating success, by preferentially associating with females that are surrounded by less ornamented competitors. Despite this prediction, we still lack explicit experimental evidence that males strategically prefer females surrounded by less attractive competitors to maximize their relative attractiveness. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive test of this hypothesis in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a species where a female's perception of a male's attractiveness depends on his coloration relative to that of surrounding males. We found that males preferentially associated with females that were surrounded by relatively drab competitors, and that the strength of an individual male's preference was negatively correlated with his level of ornamentation. A series of control experiments made it possible to exclude the potentially confounding effects of male–male competition or social motivations when drawing these conclusions. The ability of males to choose social context to increase their relative attractiveness has important evolutionary consequences, for example, by contributing towards the maintenance of variability in male sexual ornamentation despite the strong directional selection exerted by female preferences. PMID:23407839

  19. Female house mice avoid fertilization by t haplotype incompatible males in a mate choice experiment

    PubMed Central

    Manser, A; König, B; Lindholm, A K

    2015-01-01

    The t haplotype in house mice is a well-known selfish genetic element with detrimental, nonadditive fitness consequences to its carriers: recessive lethal mutations cause t/t homozygotes to perish in utero. Given the severe genetic incompatibility imposed by the t haplotype, we predict females to avoid fertilization by t haplotype incompatible males. Indeed, some of the strongest evidence for compatibility mate choice is related to the t haplotype in house mice. However, all previous evidence for compatibility mate choice in this system is based on olfactory preference. It is so far unknown how general these preferences are and whether they are relevant in an actual mating context. Here, we assess female compatibility mate choice related to t haplotypes in a setting that – for the first time – allowed females to directly interact and mate with males. This approach enabled us to analyse female behaviour during the testing period, and the resulting paternity success and fitness consequences of a given choice. We show that genetic incompatibilities arising from the t haplotype had severe indirect fitness consequences and t females avoided fertilization by t incompatible males. The results are inconclusive whether this avoidance of t fertilization by t females was caused by pre- or post-copulatory processes. PMID:25494878

  20. Female house mice avoid fertilization by t haplotype incompatible males in a mate choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Manser, A; König, B; Lindholm, A K

    2015-01-01

    The t haplotype in house mice is a well-known selfish genetic element with detrimental, nonadditive fitness consequences to its carriers: recessive lethal mutations cause t/t homozygotes to perish in utero. Given the severe genetic incompatibility imposed by the t haplotype, we predict females to avoid fertilization by t haplotype incompatible males. Indeed, some of the strongest evidence for compatibility mate choice is related to the t haplotype in house mice. However, all previous evidence for compatibility mate choice in this system is based on olfactory preference. It is so far unknown how general these preferences are and whether they are relevant in an actual mating context. Here, we assess female compatibility mate choice related to t haplotypes in a setting that--for the first time--allowed females to directly interact and mate with males. This approach enabled us to analyse female behaviour during the testing period, and the resulting paternity success and fitness consequences of a given choice. We show that genetic incompatibilities arising from the t haplotype had severe indirect fitness consequences and t females avoided fertilization by t incompatible males. The results are inconclusive whether this avoidance of t fertilization by t females was caused by pre- or post-copulatory processes. PMID:25494878

  1. A novel male sterility-fertility restoration system in plants for hybrid seed production.

    PubMed

    Singh, Surendra Pratap; Singh, Sudhir P; Pandey, Tripti; Singh, Ram Rakshpal; Sawant, Samir V

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid seeds are used for stimulated crop production, as they harness heterosis. The achievement of complete male-sterility in the female-parent and the restored-fertility in F1-hybrids are the major bottlenecks in the commercial hybrid seed production. Here, we report a male sterility-fertility restoration system by engineering the inmost nutritive anther wall layer tapetum of female and male parents. In the female parent, high-level, and stringent expression of Arabidopsis autophagy-related gene BECLIN1 was achieved in the tapetum, which altered the tapetal degeneration program, leading to male sterility. This works on our previously demonstrated expression cassette based on functional complementation of TATA-box mutant (TGTA) promoter and TATA-binding protein mutant3 (TBPm3), with modification by conjugating Long Hypocotyle in Far-Red1 fragment (HFR1(NT131)) with TBPm3 (HFR1(NT131)-TBPm3) to exercise regulatory control over it. In the male parent, tapetum-specific Constitutive photo-morphogenesis1 (COP1) was expressed. The F1 obtained by crossing these engineered parents showed decreased BECLIN1 expression, which was further completely abolished when COP1-mutant (COP1(L105A)) was used as a male parent, leading to normal tapetal development and restored fertility. The system works on COP1-HFR1 interaction and COP1-mediated degradation of TBPm3 pool (HFR1(NT131)-TBPm3). The system can be deployed for hybrid seed production in agricultural crops. PMID:26073981

  2. A novel male sterility-fertility restoration system in plants for hybrid seed production

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Surendra Pratap; Singh, Sudhir P.; Pandey, Tripti; Singh, Ram Rakshpal; Sawant, Samir V.

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid seeds are used for stimulated crop production, as they harness heterosis. The achievement of complete male-sterility in the female-parent and the restored-fertility in F1-hybrids are the major bottlenecks in the commercial hybrid seed production. Here, we report a male sterility–fertility restoration system by engineering the inmost nutritive anther wall layer tapetum of female and male parents. In the female parent, high–level, and stringent expression of Arabidopsis autophagy–related gene BECLIN1 was achieved in the tapetum, which altered the tapetal degeneration program, leading to male sterility. This works on our previously demonstrated expression cassette based on functional complementation of TATA-box mutant (TGTA) promoter and TATA-binding protein mutant3 (TBPm3), with modification by conjugating Long Hypocotyle in Far-Red1 fragment (HFR1NT131) with TBPm3 (HFR1NT131-TBPm3) to exercise regulatory control over it. In the male parent, tapetum–specific Constitutive photo-morphogenesis1 (COP1) was expressed. The F1 obtained by crossing these engineered parents showed decreased BECLIN1 expression, which was further completely abolished when COP1-mutant (COP1L105A) was used as a male parent, leading to normal tapetal development and restored fertility. The system works on COP1-HFR1 interaction and COP1–mediated degradation of TBPm3 pool (HFR1NT131-TBPm3). The system can be deployed for hybrid seed production in agricultural crops. PMID:26073981

  3. The evolutionary history of D. buzzatii. XXII. Chromosomal and genic sterility in male hybrids of Drosophila buzzatii and Drosophila koepferae.

    PubMed

    Naveira, H; Fontdevila, A

    1991-04-01

    The genetic basis of sterility in F1 male hybrids of Drosophila buzzatii and D. koepferae has been investigated in two steps. (1) By successive backcrossing of hybrid females to either parental species. (2) By assessment of the effects on male fertility of selected segments of polytene chromosomes from the donor species on a background entirely derived from the recipient species. The length of introgressed segments producing sterility was progressively reduced through repeated backcrosses. This procedure sometimes led to an approximate mapping of major genes of hybrid sterility (genic sterility) on the polytene chromosome map. At other times it was found that sterility was produced only when the introgressed segment exceeded a certain threshold size (chromosomal sterility). The contribution of the autosomes to hybrid sterility seems to be mainly of the chromosomal type. The evidence concerning the X chromosome is equivocal. No fertile males were found following introgression with any of the investigated segments of this chromosome. These results are compatible both with the presence of at least six major genes of hybrid sterility (genic sterility) and with the existence of a rather small threshold size for the chromosome segments producing sterility (chromosomal sterility). The role of the Y chromosome was not investigated in this study. PMID:2061093

  4. Alternative mating tactics and extreme male dimorphism in fig wasps. 

    E-print Network

    Cook, James M; Compton, Steven G; Herre, E Allen; West, Stuart A

    1997-01-01

    The dimorphisms in morphology and behaviour of male fig wasps are among the most extreme in the animal kingdom, and offer excellent oppotunities to test the predictions of certain sexual selection models....

  5. Sociosexual behavior, male mating tactics, and the reproductive cycle of giraffe Giraffa camelopardalis.

    PubMed

    Bercovitch, Fred B; Bashaw, Meredith J; del Castillo, Susan M

    2006-08-01

    Female distribution exerts a major impact on male mating tactics. Giraffe cows have a reproductive cycle, and a social system, that should favor a male roaming reproductive tactic. We conducted a 2-year study of female Rothschild's giraffe (G. c. rothschildi) reproductive endocrinology in order to characterize attributes of the reproductive cycle and investigate how female endocrine and behavioral cues influence mating activity. We used non-invasive fecal steroid methods to determine reproductive state among females residing in a herd in a large outdoor enclosure. We found that females had an estrous cycle of 14.7 days and that they regularly had multiple ovarian cycles prior to conception. Adult males were more likely to associate with, and sexually investigate, females when they were cycling than when they were either pregnant or acyclic. During the estrous cycle, male-female proximity and sociosexual behavior were more pronounced during the probable fertile phase than the rest of the cycle. Sexual activity between giraffe coincided with the periovulatory period, with male interest in females peaking during the fertile window in the absence of proceptive behavior by females. We conclude that males detect reliable cues revealing female reproductive status and partition their reproductive effort in response to such cues. We propose that male giraffe adopt a roaming reproductive strategy with their large size, enabling them to search for and mate guard fertile females while minimizing metabolic costs. PMID:16765955

  6. Genetic Architecture of Autosome-Mediated Hybrid Male Sterility in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Marin, I.

    1996-01-01

    Several estimators have been developed for assesing the number of sterility factors in a chromosome based on the sizes of fertile and sterile introgressed fragments. Assuming that two factors are required for producing sterility, simulations show that one of these, twice the inverse of the relative size of the largest fertile fragment, provides good average approximations when as few as five fertile fragments are analyzed. The estimators have been used for deducing the number of factors from previous data on several pairs of species. A particular result contrasts with the authors' interpretations: instead of the high number of sterility factors suggested, only a few per autosome are estimated in both reciprocal crosses involving Drosophila buzzatii and D. koepferae. It has been possible to map these factors, between three and six per chromosome, in the autosomes 3 and 4 of these species. Out of 203 introgressions of different fragments or combinations of fragments, the outcome of at least 192 is explained by the mapped zones. These results suggest that autosome-mediated sterility in the male hybrids of these species is mediated by a few epistatic factors, similarly to X-mediated sterility in the hybrids of other Drosophila species. PMID:8846896

  7. Genetic architecture of autosome-mediated hybrid male sterility in Drosophila

    SciTech Connect

    Marin, I. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Several estimators have been developed for assesing the number of sterility factors in a chromosome based on the sizes of fertile and sterile introgressed fragments. Assuming that two factors are required for producing sterility, simulations show that one of these, twice the inverse of the relative size of the largest fertile fragment, provides good average approximations when as few as five fertile fragments are analyzed. The estimators have been used for deducing the number of factors from previous data on several pairs of species. A particular result contrasts with the authors` interpretations: instead of the high number of sterility factors suggested, only a few per autosome are estimated in both reciprocal crosses involving Drosophila buzzatii and D. koepferae. It has been possible to map these factors, between three and six per chromosome, in the autosomes 3 and 4 of these species. Out of 203 introgressions of different fragments or combinations of fragments, the outcome of at least 192 is explained by the mapped zones. These results suggest that autosome-mediated sterility in the male hybrids of these species is mediated by a few epistatic factors, similarly to X-mediated sterility in the hybrids of other Drosophila species. 48 refs., 5 tabs.

  8. Effects of Arousal from Hibernation and Plasma Androgen Levels on Mating Behavior in the Male Big Brown Bat, Eptesicus fuscus

    E-print Network

    Hopkins, William A.

    , ThamnophisThe effects of arousal from hibernation and presence of plasma androgen on the expression of mating behavior in male big sirtalis parietalis. The expression of courtship behavior in male garter snakes has

  9. The effects of reproduction on courtship, fertility and longevity within and between alternative male mating tactics of the

    E-print Network

    Kotiaho, Janne S.

    of the dung beetle Onthophagus binodis adopt alternative reproductive tactics in which major males fight male mating tactics of the horned beetle, Onthophagus binodis L. W. SIMMONS* & J. S. KOTIAHO* à *Centre

  10. The quantitative genetic basis of male mating behavior in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    Moehring, Amanda J; Mackay, Trudy F C

    2004-01-01

    Male mating behavior is an important component of fitness in Drosophila and displays segregating variation in natural populations. However, we know very little about the genes affecting naturally occurring variation in mating behavior, their effects, or their interactions. Here, we have mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting courtship occurrence, courtship latency, copulation occurrence, and copulation latency that segregate between a D. melanogaster strain selected for reduced male mating propensity (2b) and a standard wild-type strain (Oregon-R). Mating behavior was assessed in a population of 98 recombinant inbred lines derived from these two strains and QTL affecting mating behavior were mapped using composite interval mapping. We found four QTL affecting male mating behavior at cytological locations 1A;3E, 57C;57F, 72A;85F, and 96F;99A. We used deficiency complementation mapping to map the autosomal QTL with much higher resolution to five QTL at 56F5;56F8, 56F9;57A3, 70E1;71F4, 78C5;79A1, and 96F1;97B1. Quantitative complementation tests performed for 45 positional candidate genes within these intervals revealed 7 genes that failed to complement the QTL: eagle, 18 wheeler, Enhancer of split, Polycomb, spermatocyte arrest, l(2)05510, and l(2)k02206. None of these genes have been previously implicated in mating behavior, demonstrating that quantitative analysis of subtle variants can reveal novel pleiotropic effects of key developmental loci on behavior. PMID:15280239

  11. Female bushcrickets mated with parasitized males show rapid remating and reduced fecundity (Orthoptera: Phaneropteridae: Poecilimon mariannae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, G. U. C.; Lehmann, A. W.

    2000-10-01

    Following mating, female bushcrickets undergo a refractory period during which they are sexually unreceptive. The length of the refractory period correlates with the size of the spermatophylax. However, the size of the nuptial gift of acoustically signalling bushcrickets is often reduced as a result of infections by parasitoid flies. We examined the effect of male parasitoid infection on the induction of the refractory period and fecundity of females. We found a drastically reduced refractory period in females if the first mating partner was infected. During this shortened period fewer eggs were deposited, as an effect of the shorter refractory period, whereas the daily egg-laying rate remained the same regardless of whether the females were mated with a parasitized or an unparasitized male.

  12. The role of testosterone in male downy woodpeckers in winter home range use, mate interactions and female foraging behaviour

    PubMed Central

    KELLAM, JAMES S.; LUCAS, JEFFREY R.; WINGFIELD, JOHN C.

    2006-01-01

    Studies of the role of testosterone (T) in birds have typically focused on sexual or aggressive behaviours of males during the breeding period, but males of nonmigratory species may invest in mate and territory long before breeding, and the influence of T in facilitating nonbreeding-season behaviours is poorly understood. We gave free-living male downy woodpeckers, Picoides pubescens, T-implants during the winter to determine whether elevated levels of T increased a male’s ability to exclusively occupy territory-based resources, and whether elevated T strengthened a male’s investment in an existing pair bond relationship. We also explored how a female’s foraging efficiency might be affected by her mate’s behaviour if he had elevated T. We found little difference between control and T-implanted males with regard to home range exclusivity. Surprisingly, male–male display rates were significantly lower in T-implanted males than in controls. Regarding male–female interactions, T-implanted males that experienced high incursion rates from other males maintained more frequent spatial association with their mate, suggesting that T facilitates male behaviours that could restrict the mate’s access to other male birds. Female mates of T-males showed reduced foraging rates, but because male–female aggression was similar between treatment groups, the cause for this reduction is unknown. The results indicate that exogenous T during winter affects a variety of behaviours in male woodpeckers, and proximate influences on pair bond maintenance in winter may be a fruitful avenue for future research. PMID:16932805

  13. MALE COMBAT AND MATING BEHAVIOR OF DONACIA CRASSIPES F. AND OTHER CHRYSOMELIDS (COLEOPTERA: CHRYSOMELIDAE: DONACIINAE).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A previously unknown aggressive component of the mating behavior of Donacia crassipes F. is described and illustrated. Male fights were observed in June, July and August from 1980 to 1982 on Unecha river in southwestern Russia. During the fights the following combat techniques are employed: warning ...

  14. Behaviour 149 (2012) 869879 brill.com/beh Male permissiveness in a unisexualbisexual mating

    E-print Network

    Gabor, Caitlin - Department of Biology, Texas State University

    2012-01-01

    - erospecific females does not lead to fitness benefits for the males. Here, we focused on the Poecilia latipinna­P. formosa­P. mexicana mating complex, where P. formosa is a gynogenetic species of hybrid origin and P. latipinna and P. mexicana are its parent species and sexual hosts (sperm donors). We examined

  15. Seismic signals are crucial for male mating success in a visual specialist jumping spider (Araneae: Salticidae)

    E-print Network

    Hoy, Ronald R.

    Seismic signals are crucial for male mating success in a visual specialist jumping spider (Araneae in an incomplete characterization of the communication system. Jumping spiders (Salticidae) have remarkable visual as sensory specialists. Such is the case for vision in jumping spiders (Salticidae) (Peckham & Peckham 1889

  16. Patterns of biomass allocation to male and female functions in plants with different mating systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert William Cruden; David L. Lyon

    1985-01-01

    Using dry weight biomass we examined the patterns of investment in male and female functions (prezygotic cost) in plants with different mating systems. All the flower parts of both xenogamous and facultatively xenogamous species were heavier, i.e., larger, than those of facultatively autogamous species. Likewise, the dry weights of all the flower parts of xenogamous species exceeded those of facultatively

  17. Fitting It All Together: How Courtship- and Mating-Responsive Genes Affect Drosophila melanogaster Male Behavior 

    E-print Network

    Ellis, Lisa Lynn

    2011-10-21

    1 fitTING IT ALL TOGETHER: HOW COURTSHIP- AND MATING- RESPONSIVE GENES AFFECT Drosophila melanogaster MALE BEHAVIOR A Dissertation by LISA LYNN ELLIS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University... CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION ................................................................................ 1 Understanding the genetic regulation of behavior ......................... 1 Behavior and gene expression can be modified by social...

  18. Methoprene modulates the effect of diet on male melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitate, performance at mating aggregations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of dietary protein (P) and the topical application of juvenile hormone analogue (methoprene (M)) on mating behaviour of male melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, was assessed in the laboratory and in field cages. Age, dietary protein and methoprene application improved the sexual success and...

  19. Polygynous mating impairs body condition and homeostasis in male reindeer ( Rangifer tarandus tarandus )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. S. Barboza; D. W. Hartbauer; W. E. Hauer; J. E. Blake

    2004-01-01

    Reindeer are polygynous ruminants that breed when plant growth declines in the Arctic. We studied seven males (2 years and older) in two herds with a total of 34 females to describe the costs and consequences of mating or rut. Body mass declined between September and November and did not recover through winter even though food was available ad libitum.

  20. Effects of extreme variation in female morph frequencies on the mating behaviour of male damselflies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janice J. Ting; Jessica Bots; Felipe Pérez Jvostov; Hans van Gossum; Thomas N. Sherratt

    2009-01-01

    Female-limited polymorphism is often attributed to selection to avoid excessive male mating attempts. It is encountered in\\u000a various taxonomic groups, but is particularly common in damselflies, where one female morph (andromorph) typically resembles\\u000a the conspecific male in colour pattern, while the other(s) (gynomorph(s)) do not. Two sets of theories have been proposed\\u000a to explain the phenomenon in damselflies, which can

  1. Strong Reproductive Skew Among Males in the Multiply Mated Swordtail Xiphophorus multilineatus (Teleostei)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Luo; M. SANETRA; M. SCHARTL; A. MEYER

    2005-01-01

    Male swordtails in the genus Xiphophorus display a conspicuous ventral elongation of the caudal fin, the sword, which arose through sexual selection due to female preference. Females mate regularly and are able to store sperm for at least 6 months. If multiplemating isfrequent,this wouldraise theintriguing question abouttherole offemalechoice andmale-malecompetition inshapingthematingsystemofthesefishes.Size-dependentalternatematingstrategiesoccurin Xiphophorus;onesuchstrategyis courtship with a sigmoid display by large dominant males,

  2. Nuptial gift consumption influences female remating in a scorpionfly: male or female control of mating rate?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leif Engqvist

    2007-01-01

    In the scorpionfly Panorpa cognata, males provide females with saliva secretions as nuptial food gifts. Consequently, females derive material benefits and possibly\\u000a also genetic benefits from multiple matings. Females therefore generally should have a high motivation to remate. Males, on\\u000a the other hand, do not share this interest, which will generate a sexual conflict over remating interval, possibly leading\\u000a to

  3. A barley PHD finger transcription factor that confers male sterility by affecting tapetal development.

    PubMed

    Fernández Gómez, José; Wilson, Zoe A

    2014-08-01

    Controlling pollen development is of major commercial importance in generating hybrid crops and selective breeding, but characterized genes for male sterility in crops are rare, with no current examples in barley. However, translation of knowledge from model species is now providing opportunities to understand and manipulate such processes in economically important crops. We have used information from regulatory networks in Arabidopsis to identify and functionally characterize a barley PHD transcription factor MALE STERTILITY1 (MS1), which expresses in the anther tapetum and plays a critical role during pollen development. Comparative analysis of Arabidopsis, rice and Brachypodium genomes was used to identify conserved regions in MS1 for primer design to amplify the barley MS1 gene; RACE-PCR was subsequently used to generate the full-length sequence. This gene shows anther-specific tapetal expression, between late tetrad stage and early microspore release. HvMS1 silencing and overexpression in barley resulted in male sterility. Additionally, HvMS1 cDNA, controlled by the native Arabidopsis MS1 promoter, successfully complemented the homozygous ms1 Arabidopsis mutant. These results confirm the conservation of MS1 function in higher plants and in particular in temperate cereals. This has provided the first example of a characterized male sterility gene in barley, which presents a valuable tool for the future control of male fertility in barley for hybrid development. PMID:24684666

  4. Alternative reproductive tactics in male common shrews: relationships between mate-searching behaviour, sperm production, and reproductive success as revealed by DNA fingerprinting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Stockley; J. B. Searle; D. W. Macdonald; C. S. Jones

    1994-01-01

    The common shrew (Sorex araneus) is a solitary small mammal with a promiscuous mating system. Previous studies of this species suggest that females typically mate multiply, and that males may adopt alternative mate-searching tactics. We studied two generations of common shrews in a population near Oxford, England. Males were found to adopt two different mate-searching tactics. Those classed as type

  5. Heritable variation underlies behavioural types in the mating context in male bluefin killifish

    PubMed Central

    McGhee, Katie E.; Travis, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    In many species, consistent behavioural differences among individuals are linked to fitness variation. Determining the environmental and genetic factors that mould these behavioural types is crucial to understanding how behaviours might respond to selection. Male bluefin killifish, Lucania goodei, show extensive consistent behavioural variation in their levels of courtship, male-directed aggression and female-directed aggression, resulting in a range of fitness-related behavioural types coexisting within a population. To determine whether the behavioural components underlying a male’s stable behavioural type in the mating context are heritable and genetically correlated, we performed paternal half-sib crosses. Using animal models, we found that all three of these mating behaviours were moderately heritable (h2 = 0.17–0.29) and courtship behaviour was also heritable as a binomial trait (court yes/no: h2 = 0.50). Including effects of dam identity/common rearing environment experienced by full sibs decreased model fit, suggesting that early social interactions might contribute to behavioural types. In addition, we found evidence consistent with the possibility that the positive phenotypic correlations among mating behaviours are underlain by positive genetic correlations. Thus, it is possible that the seemingly maladaptive aggression that males direct towards females during social interactions persist due to genetic constraints and direct selection on both male-directed aggression and courtship behaviour. PMID:24187377

  6. Male Genital Morphology and Its Influence on Female Mating Preferences and Paternity Success in Guppies

    PubMed Central

    Gasparini, Clelia; Pilastro, Andrea; Evans, Jonathan P.

    2011-01-01

    In internally fertilizing species male genitalia often show a higher degree of elaboration than required for simply transferring sperm to females. Among the hypotheses proposed to explain such diversity, sexual selection has received the most empirical support, with studies revealing that genital morphology can be targeted by both pre-and postcopulatory sexual selection. Until now, most studies have focused on these two episodes of selection independently. Here, we take an alternative approach by considering both components simultaneously in the livebearing fish, Poecilia reticulata. We allowed females to mate successively (and cooperatively) with two males and determined whether male genital length influenced the female's propensity to mate with a male (precopulatory selection, via female choice) and whether male genital size and shape predicted the relative paternity share of subsequent broods (postcopulatory selection, via sperm competition/cryptic female choice). We found no evidence that either episode of sexual selection targets male genital size or shape. These findings, in conjunction with our recent work exposing a role of genital morphology in mediating unsolicited (forced) matings in guppies, further supports our prior speculation that sexual conflict may be an important broker of genital evolution in this species. PMID:21799825

  7. Sexual cooperation and conflict in butterflies: a male-transferred anti-aphrodisiac reduces harassment of recently mated females.

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, J; Borg-Karlson, A K; Wiklund, C

    2000-01-01

    Sexual selection theory predicts that the different selection pressures on males and females result in sexual conflict. However, in some instances males and females share a common interest which could lead to sexual cooperation. In the pierid butterfly Pieris napi the male and the recently mated female share a common interest in reducing female harassment by other males soon after mating. Here we show that P. napi males transfer an anti-aphrodisiac to the female at mating, methyl-salicylate (MeS), which is a volatile substance which mated females emit when courted and which makes males quickly abandon them. A 13C-labelling experiment demonstrated that only males synthesize MeS. The effect of this antiaphrodisiac is so strong that most males will refrain from mating with virgin females to whom MeS has been artificially applied. In P. napi, males also transfer nutrients to females at mating. This increases female fecundity and longevity and so females benefit from remating. Hence, sexual cooperation gradually turns to conflict. Future research is required to reveal which sex controls the gradual decrease in the MeS titre which is necessary for allowing mated females to regain attractiveness and remate. PMID:10972120

  8. Sexual Signalling in Propithecus verreauxi: Male “Chest Badge” and Female Mate Choice

    PubMed Central

    Dall'Olio, Stefania; Norscia, Ivan; Antonacci, Daniela; Palagi, Elisabetta

    2012-01-01

    Communication, an essential prerequisite for sociality, involves the transmission of signals. A signal can be defined as any action or trait produced by one animal, the sender, that produces a change in the behaviour of another animal, the receiver. Secondary sexual signals are often used for mate choice because they may inform on a potential partner's quality. Verreaux's sifaka (Propithecus verreauxi) is characterized by the presence of two different morphs of males (bimorphism), which can show either a stained or clean chest. The chest becomes stained by secretions of the sternal gland during throat marking (rubbing throat and chest on a vertical substrate while smearing the scent deposition). The role of the chest staining in guiding female mate choice was previously hypothesized but never demonstrated probably due to the difficulty of observing sifaka copulations in the wild. Here we report that stained-chested males had a higher throat marking activity than clean-chested males during the mating season, but not during the birth season. We found that females copulated more frequently with stained-chested males than the clean-chested males. Finally, in agreement with the biological market theory, we found that clean-chested males, with a lower scent-releasing potential, offered more grooming to females. This “grooming for sex” tactic was not completely unsuccessful; in fact, half of the clean-chested males copulated with females, even though at low frequency. In conclusion, the chest stain, possibly correlated with different cues targeted by females, could be one of the parameters which help females in selecting mates. PMID:22615982

  9. Alloplasmic male-sterile Brassica lines containing B. tournefortii mitochondria express an ORF 3? of the atp6 gene and a 32 kDa protein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Landgren; Mattias Zetterstrand; Eva Sundberg; Kristina Glimelius

    1996-01-01

    Analyses of mitochondrial transcription and in organello translation were performed with the Brassica tournefortii cytoplasm. This cytoplasm causes alloplasmic male sterility when combined with the nuclear genomes of B. napus and B. juncea. Mitochondrial RNA and protein banding patterns were compared between the fertile wild species B. tournefortii, an alloplasmic male-sterile B. juncea line, an alloplasmic male-sterile B. napus line

  10. Direct and correlated responses to artificial selection on male mating frequency in the stalk-eyed fly Cyrtodiopsis dalmanni.

    PubMed

    Rogers, D W; Baker, R H; Chapman, T; Denniff, M; Pomiankowski, A; Fowler, K

    2005-05-01

    Traditionally it was thought that fitness-related traits such as male mating frequency, with a history of strong directional selection, should have little additive genetic variance and thus respond asymmetrically to bidirectional artificial selection. However, recent findings and theory suggest that a balance between selection for increased male mating frequency and opposing selection pressures on physiologically linked traits will cause male mating frequency to have high additive genetic variation and hence respond symmetrically to selection. We tested these hypotheses in the stalk-eyed fly, Cyrtodiopsis dalmanni, in which males hold harems comprising many females and so have the opportunity to mate at extremely high frequencies. We subjected male stalk-eyed flies to artificial selection for increased ('high') and decreased ('low') mating frequency in the presence of ecologically realistic, high numbers of females. High line males mated significantly more often than control or low line males. The direct response to selection was approximately symmetric in the high and low lines, revealing high additive genetic variation for, and no significant genetic constraints on, increased male mating frequency in C. dalmanni. In order to investigate trade-offs that might constrain male mating frequency under natural conditions we examined correlated responses to artificial selection. We measured accessory gland length, testis length and eyespan after 7 and 14 generations of selection. High line males had significantly larger accessory glands than low line males. No consistent correlated responses to selection were found in testis length or eyespan. Our results suggest that costs associated with the production and maintenance of large accessory glands, although yet to be identified, are likely to be a major constraint on mating frequency in natural populations of C. dalmanni. PMID:15842493

  11. Gonad morphogenesis defects drive hybrid male sterility in asymmetric hybrid breakdown of Caenorhabditis nematodes.

    PubMed

    Dey, Alivia; Jin, Qi; Chen, Yen-Chu; Cutter, Asher D

    2014-01-01

    Determining the causes and evolution of reproductive barriers to gene flow between populations, speciation, is the key to understanding the origin of diversity in nature. Many species manifest hybrid breakdown when they intercross, characterized by increasingly exacerbated problems in later generations of hybrids. Recently, Caenorhabditis nematodes have emerged as a genetic model for studying speciation, and here we investigate the nature and causes of hybrid breakdown between Caenorhabditis remanei and C. latens. We quantify partial F1 hybrid inviability and extensive F2 hybrid inviability; the ~75% F2 embryonic arrest occurs primarily during gastrulation or embryonic elongation. Moreover, F1 hybrid males exhibit Haldane's rule asymmetrically for both sterility and inviability, being strongest when C. remanei serves as maternal parent. We show that the mechanism by which sterile hybrid males are incapable of transferring sperm or a copulatory plug involves defective gonad morphogenesis, which we hypothesize results from linker cell defects in migration and/or cell death during development. This first documented case of partial hybrid male sterility in Caenorhabditis follows expectations of Darwin's corollary to Haldane's rule for asymmetric male fitness, providing a powerful foundation for molecular dissection of intrinsic reproductive barriers and divergence of genetic pathways controlling organ morphogenesis. PMID:25196892

  12. Carotenoids, oxidative stress and female mating preference for longer lived males

    PubMed Central

    Pike, Thomas W; Blount, Jonathan D; Bjerkeng, Bjørn; Lindström, Jan; Metcalfe, Neil B

    2007-01-01

    Some of the most spectacular exaggerated sexual ornaments are carotenoid dependent. It has been suggested that such ornaments have evolved because carotenoid pigments are limiting for both signal expression and in their role as antioxidants and immunostimulants. An implicit assumption of this hypothesis is that males which can afford to produce more elaborate carotenoid-dependent displays are signalling their enhanced ability to resist parasites, disease or oxidative stress and hence would be predicted to live longer. Therefore, in species with carotenoid-dependent ornaments where a parent's future longevity is crucial for determining offspring survival, there should be a mating preference for partners that present the lowest risk of mortality during the breeding attempt, as signalled by the ability to allocate carotenoids to sexual displays. In an experimental study using three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus), we show that when dietary carotenoid intake is limited, males attempt to maintain their sexual ornament at the expense of body carotenoids and hence suffer from reduced reproductive investment and a shorter lifespan. These males also suffer from an increased susceptibility to oxidative stress, suggesting that this may constitute the mechanism underlying the increased rate of ageing. Furthermore, in pairwise mate-choice trials, females preferred males that had a greater access to carotenoids and chance of surviving the breeding season, suggesting that females can make adaptive mate choice decisions based on a male's carotenoid status and potential future longevity. PMID:17439854

  13. Does divergence in female mate choice affect male size distributions in two cave fish populations?

    PubMed

    Tobler, Michael; Schlupp, Ingo; Plath, Martin

    2008-10-23

    Sexual selection by female choice can maintain male traits that are counter selected by natural selection. Alteration of the potential for sexual selection can thus lead to shifts in the expression of male traits. We investigated female mate choice for large male body size in a fish (Poecilia mexicana) that, besides surface streams, also inhabits two caves. All four populations investigated, exhibited an ancestral visual preference for large males. However, only one of the cave populations also expressed this female preference in darkness. Hence, the lack of expression of female preference in darkness in the other cave population leads to relaxation of sexual selection for large male body size. While P. mexicana populations with size-specific female mate choice are characterized by a pronounced male size variation, the absence of female choice in one cave coincides with the absence of large bodied males in that population. Our results suggest that population differences in the potential for sexual selection may affect male trait variation. PMID:18559308

  14. Genetic Variation and Covariation in Male Attractiveness and Female Mating Preferences in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Ratterman, Nicholas L.; Rosenthal, Gil G.; Carney, Ginger E.; Jones, Adam G.

    2013-01-01

    How mating preferences evolve remains one of the major unsolved mysteries in evolutionary biology. One major impediment to the study of ornament-preference coevolution is that many aspects of the theoretical literature remain loosely connected to empirical data. Theoretical models typically streamline mating preferences by describing preference functions with a single parameter, a modeling convenience that may veil important aspects of preference evolution. Here, we use a high-throughput behavioral assay in Drosophila melanogaster to quantify attractiveness and multiple components of preferences in both males and females. Females varied genetically with respect to how they ranked males in terms of attractiveness as well as the extent to which they discriminated among different males. Conversely, males showed consistent preferences for females, suggesting that D. melanogaster males tend to rank different female phenotypes in the same order in terms of attractiveness. Moreover, we reveal a heretofore undocumented positive genetic correlation between male attractiveness and female choosiness, which is a measure of the variability in a female’s response to different male phenotypes. This genetic correlation sets the stage for female choosiness to evolve via a correlated response to selection on male traits and potentially adds a new dimension to the Fisherian sexual selection process. PMID:24212081

  15. An axonemal dynein at the Hybrid Sterility 6 locus: implications for t haplotype-specific male sterility and the evolution of species barriers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Fossella; Sadhana A. Samant; Lee M. Silver; Stephen M. King; Kevin T. Vaughan; Patricia Olds-Clarke; Karl A. Johnson; Atsushi Mikami; Richard B. Vallee; Stephen H. Pilder

    2000-01-01

    .   Poor sperm motility characterized by a distinct aberration in flagellar waveform known as ``curlicue'' is a hallmark of t haplotype (t) homozygous male sterility. Previous studies have localized ``curlicue'' and a flagellar developmental defect, ``whipless'',\\u000a to the Hybrid Sterility 6 locus (Hst6), between the markers Pim1 and Crya1. More recent heterospecific breeding experiments between Mus spretus (Spretus) and Mus

  16. Mobile mating disruption of light brown apple moths using pheromone-treated sterile Mediterranean fruit flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Public opposition to aerial application of sex pheromone for mating disruption of light brown apple moth (Epiphyas postvittana, LBAM) in California stopped its further use in the ca. $74 million eradication programme in 2008, underscoring the need for other eradication tactics. We demonstrate that ...

  17. Reed bunting females increase fitness through extra-pair mating with genetically dissimilar males

    PubMed Central

    Suter, Stefan M; Keiser, Martin; Feignoux, Raoul; Meyer, Dietrich R

    2007-01-01

    Females of many socially monogamous species accept or even actively seek copulations outside the social pair bond. As females cannot increase the number of offspring with promiscuous behaviour, the question arises why they engage in extra-pair mating. We used microsatellite data to determine paternity, heterozygosity and genetic relatedness in the reed bunting (Emberiza schoeniclus), a species with high levels of extra-pair paternity (EPP). We found that extra-pair young (EPY) were more heterozygous than within-pair young (WPY). The high heterozygosity of the EPY resulted from a low genetic similarity between females and their extra-pair mates. EPY were heavier and larger when compared with their maternal half-siblings shortly before they left the nest. Recapture data indicated a higher fledgling survival of EPY compared with WPY. Our data suggest that reed bunting females increase the viability of their offspring and thus fitness through extra-pair mating with genetically dissimilar males. PMID:17785270

  18. Audience effects in the Atlantic molly (Poecilia mexicana)–prudent male mate choice in response to perceived sperm competition risk?

    PubMed Central

    Ziege, Madlen; Mahlow, Kristin; Hennige-Schulz, Carmen; Kronmarck, Claudia; Tiedemann, Ralph; Streit, Bruno; Plath, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Background Multidirectional interactions in social networks can have a profound effect on mate choice behavior; e.g., Poecilia mexicana males show weaker expression of mating preferences when being observed by a rival. This may be an adaptation to reduce sperm competition risk, which arises because commonly preferred female phenotypes will receive attention also from surrounding males, and/or because other males can copy the focal male's mate choice. Do P. mexicana males indeed respond to perceived sperm competition risk? We gave males a choice between two females and repeated the tests under one of the following conditions: (1) an empty transparent cylinder was presented (control); (2) another ("audience") male inside the cylinder observed the focal male throughout the 2nd part, or (3) the audience male was presented only before the tests, but could not eavesdrop during the actual choice tests (non-specific sperm competition risk treatments); (4) the focal male could see a rival male interact sexually with the previously preferred, or (5) with the non-preferred female before the 2nd part of the tests (specific sperm competition risk treatments). Results The strength of individual male preferences declined slightly also during the control treatment (1). However, this decrease was more than two-fold stronger in audience treatment (2), i.e., with non-specific sperm competition risk including the possibility for visual eavesdropping by the audience male. No audience effect was found in treatments (3) and (5), but a weak effect was also observed when the focal male had seen the previously preferred female sexually interact with a rival male (treatment 4; specific sperm competition risk). Conclusion When comparing the two 'non-specific sperm competition risk' treatments, a very strong effect was found only when the audience male could actually observe the focal male during mate choice [treatment (2)]. This suggests that focal males indeed attempt to conceal their mating preferences so as to prevent surrounding males from copying their mate choice. When there is no potential for eavesdropping [treatment (3)], non-specific specific sperm competition risk seems to play a minor or no role. Our results also show that P. mexicana males tend to share their mating effort more equally among females when the resource value of their previously preferred mate decreases after mating with a rival male (perceived specific sperm competition risk), but this effect is comparatively weak. PMID:19698098

  19. A potential role of male and female androgen in species recognition in a unisexual-bisexual mating complex.

    PubMed

    Gabor, Caitlin R; Grober, Matthew S

    2010-04-01

    Hormones play a critical role in the regulation of vertebrate mating behavior, including receptivity, and several components of mate choice. However, less is known about the role of these chemical messengers in mediating behavior associated with premating reproductive isolation. The bisexual-unisexual mating complex of sailfin mollies, Poecilia latipinna, and Amazon mollies, Poecilia formosa (sexual parasites of sailfins) has been a model system for studying ultimate mechanisms of species recognition. However proximate mechanisms, such as variation in hormone levels, have not been examined. We paired male sailfin mollies with either female conspecifics or Amazon mollies and obtained water-borne hormone samples before and after mating for all fish. We measured 11-ketotestosterone, testosterone, and estradiol from the water samples. As expected from previous studies, males mated with conspecifics more frequently than with Amazon mollies. 11-Ketotestosterone production by males increased when they mated with female sailfin mollies who themselves also showed elevated production of 11-ketotestosterone. This increase in male and female 11-ketotestosterone levels was not seen when males mated with Amazon mollies. This unique endocrine interaction represents a potential proximate mechanism for species recognition by male sailfin mollies. We found no significant change in testosterone or estradiol under these conditions suggesting that a single hormone mediates bidirectional interactions between males and females during courtship. PMID:20100486

  20. Molecular analysis of cytoplasmic male sterility in chives ( Allium schoenoprasum L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Potz; T. Tatlioglu

    1993-01-01

    The mitochondria of chive plants with normal N or male-sterile S cytoplasms have been examined by restriction fragment analysis and Southern hybridizations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and in organello protein biosynthesis. Restriction fragment patterns of the mtDNA differed extensively between N-and S-cytoplasms. The percentage of fragments with different mobility varied between 44–48% depending on the restriction enzyme used. In contrast

  1. Sterility and Gene Expression in Hybrid Males of Xenopus laevis and X. muelleri

    PubMed Central

    Malone, John H.; Chrzanowski, Thomas H.; Michalak, Pawel

    2007-01-01

    Background Reproductive isolation is a defining characteristic of populations that represent unique biological species, yet we know very little about the gene expression basis for reproductive isolation. The advent of powerful molecular biology tools provides the ability to identify genes involved in reproductive isolation and focuses attention on the molecular mechanisms that separate biological species. Herein we quantify the sterility pattern of hybrid males in African Clawed Frogs (Xenopus) and apply microarray analysis of the expression pattern found in testes to identify genes that are misexpressed in hybrid males relative to their two parental species (Xenopus laevis and X. muelleri). Methodology/Principal Findings Phenotypic characteristics of spermatogenesis in sterile male hybrids (X. laevis x X. muelleri) were examined using a novel sperm assay that allowed quantification of live, dead, and undifferentiated sperm cells, the number of motile vs. immotile sperm, and sperm morphology. Hybrids exhibited a dramatically lower abundance of mature sperm relative to the parental species. Hybrid spermatozoa were larger in size and accompanied by numerous undifferentiated sperm cells. Microarray analysis of gene expression in testes was combined with a correction for sequence divergence derived from genomic hybridizations to identify candidate genes involved in the sterility phenotype. Analysis of the transcriptome revealed a striking asymmetric pattern of misexpression. There were only about 140 genes misexpressed in hybrids compared to X. laevis but nearly 4,000 genes misexpressed in hybrids compared to X. muelleri. Conclusions/Significance Our results provide an important correlation between phenotypic characteristics of sperm and gene expression in sterile hybrid males. The broad pattern of gene misexpression suggests intriguing mechanisms creating the dominance pattern of the X. laevis genome in hybrids. These findings significantly contribute to growing evidence for allelic dominance in hybrids and have implications for the mechanism of species differentiation at the transcriptome level. PMID:17712429

  2. Cytoplasmic male sterility-regulated novel microRNAs from maize

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yaou Shen; Zhiming Zhang; Haijian Lin; Hailan Liu; Jie Chen; Hua Peng; Moju Cao; Tingzhao Rong; Guangtang Pan

    2011-01-01

    In higher plants, microRNA (miRNA) is involved in regulation of developmental processes, including sexual organ development.\\u000a Seven novel miRNA families with one known miRNA were isolated by constructing a small RNA library from a mixture of anther\\u000a from a cytoplasmic male sterile line and its maintainer. Two miRNAs are conserved in plant species. A total of 18 potential\\u000a targets were

  3. Large 3? UTR of sugar beet rps3 is truncated in cytoplasmic male-sterile mitochondria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Muneyuki Matsunaga; Hironori Nagano; Tetsuo Mikami; Tomohiko Kubo

    2011-01-01

    Genomic alteration near or within mitochondrial gene is often associated with cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS). Its influence\\u000a on the expression of the mitochondrial gene was proposed as one of the possible causes of CMS. In sugar beet mitochondrial\\u000a rps3, whose downstream 1,056-bp region contains Norf246, an apparently non-functional open reading frame (ORF), was deleted in CMS mitochondria. In our previous

  4. Mitochondrial genome organization of the maize cytoplasmic male sterile type T

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christiane Fauron; Marie Havlik; David Lonsdale; Lindy Nichols

    1989-01-01

    A complete SmaI, XhoI, BamHI restriction map of the maize mitochondrial genome from the T male sterile cytoplasm (cmsT) of maize has been established. The genome exists in the form of a complex multicircular structure as found for the maize normal (N) type (Lonsdale et al. 1984) where the entire sequence complexity with a content of 540 kb can be

  5. Phylogenetic relationships among fertile and petaloid male-sterile accessions of carrot, Daucus carota L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. E. Bowes; D. J. Wolyn

    1998-01-01

    Mitochondrial (mt) DNA variation for six petaloid cytoplasmic male-sterile (CMS) and three fertile maintainer lines of carrot\\u000a was assessed to establish genetic relationships. Total DNA was digested with restriction enzymes and probed with six homologous\\u000a mtDNA cosmid probes. The six CMS accessions derived from wild carrot, four from Guelph, Ontario, one from Orleans, Massachusetts,\\u000a and one from Madison, Wisconsin, were

  6. Chimeric mitochondrial genes expressed in the C male-sterile cytoplasm of maize

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E. Dewey; D. H. Timothy; C. S. Levings

    1991-01-01

    Aberrant recombinations involving the mitochondrial atp9, atp6 and coxII genes have created unique chimeric sequences in the C male0sterile cytoplasm (cms-C) of maize. An apparent consequence of the rearrangements is the interchanging of transcriptional and\\/or translational regulatory signals for these genes, and alterations in the reading frames encoding the atp6 and coxII genes in the C cytoplasm. Particularly unusual is

  7. A unique sequence located downstream from the rice mitochondrial atp6 may cause male sterility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiromori Akagi; Masahiro Sakamoto; Chou Shinjyo; Hiroaki Shimada; Tatsuhito Fujimura

    1994-01-01

    Asymmetric cell-fusion of the japonica cultivar ofOryza sativa (rice) with cytoplasmic-male-sterile (CMS) plants bearing cytoplasm derived from Chinsurah Boro II, resulted in two classes of cytoplasmic hybrids (cybrids), fertile and CMS. Southern-blot analysis of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) indicates recombination events around a number of genes; however, the appearance of the CMS character is tightly correlated to reorganization around theatp6

  8. Identification of mitochondrial genome rearrangements unique to novel cytoplasmic male sterility in radish ( Raphanus sativus L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Young-Pyo Lee; Sunggil Kim; Heerae Lim; YoungSoon Ahn; Soon-Kee Sung

    2009-01-01

    A novel cytoplasmic male-sterility (CMS) radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and its associated mitotype (DCGMS) were previously identified; however, no mtDNA fragments flanking the atp6 gene were found in the DCGMS mitotype. Unlike three other mitotypes in this study, a unique mtDNA organization, atp6–nad3–rps12, was found to be the major mtDNA structure associated with this mitotype. This organization may have arisen

  9. Cell Type-Specific Loss of atp6 RNA Editing in Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Sorghum bicolor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Werner Howad; Frank Kempken

    1997-01-01

    RNA editing and cytoplasmic male sterility are two important phenomena in higher plant mitochondria. To determine whether correlations might exist between the two, RNA editing in different tissues of Sorghum bicolor was compared employing reverse transcription-PCR and subsequent sequence analysis. In etiolated shoots, RNA editing of transcripts of plant mitochondrial atp6, atp9, nad3, nad4, and rps12 genes was identical among

  10. Chloroplast DNA variation in isonuclear male-sterile lines of Nicotiana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rafael Frankel; William R. Scowcroft; Paul R. Whitfeld

    1979-01-01

    Chloroplast DNAs of six isonuclear malesterile tobacco lines and their respective parental species were analysed with the restriction endonuclease, EcoR1. Four of the lines had the same fragmentation pattern as their respective maternal species. Two lines had a pattern which was different to either parental species. The results show that nucleotide changes can occur in chloroplast DNA of isonuclear male-sterile

  11. Species of small DNA molecules found in mitochondria from sugarbeet with normal and male sterile cytoplasms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Powling

    1981-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA and RNA were isolated from a range of normal and cytoplasmically male sterile sugarbeet varieties and breeding lines. When these nucleic acids were analysed by electrophoresis on agarose gels it was found that mitochondria from normal sugarbeet contain DNA species of sizes 1.3 kilobase pairs (kbp), 1.4 kbp and one of two other species of sizes 1.45 kbp

  12. Male wing color properties predict the size of nuptial gifts given during mating in the Pipevine Swallowtail butterfly (Battus philenor).

    PubMed

    Rajyaguru, Parth K; Pegram, Kimberly V; Kingston, Alexandra C N; Rutowski, Ronald L

    2013-06-01

    In many animals, males bear bright ornamental color patches that may signal both the direct and indirect benefits that a female might accrue from mating with him. Here we test whether male coloration in the Pipevine Swallowtail butterfly, Battus philenor, predicts two potential direct benefits for females: brief copulation duration and the quantity of materials the male passes to the female during mating. In this species, males have a bright iridescent blue field on the dorsal hindwing surface, while females have little or no dorsal iridescence. Females preferentially mate with males who display a bright and highly chromatic blue field on their dorsal hindwing. In this study, we show that the chroma of the blue field on the male dorsal hindwing and male body size (forewing length) significantly predict the mass of material or spermatophore that a male forms within the female's copulatory sac during mating. We also found that spermatophore mass correlated negatively with copulation duration, but that color variables did not significantly predict this potential direct benefit. These results suggest that females may enhance the material benefits they receive during mating by mating with males based on the coloration of their dorsal hindwing. PMID:23644511

  13. Male wing color properties predict the size of nuptial gifts given during mating in the Pipevine Swallowtail butterfly ( Battus philenor)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajyaguru, Parth K.; Pegram, Kimberly V.; Kingston, Alexandra C. N.; Rutowski, Ronald L.

    2013-06-01

    In many animals, males bear bright ornamental color patches that may signal both the direct and indirect benefits that a female might accrue from mating with him. Here we test whether male coloration in the Pipevine Swallowtail butterfly, Battus philenor, predicts two potential direct benefits for females: brief copulation duration and the quantity of materials the male passes to the female during mating. In this species, males have a bright iridescent blue field on the dorsal hindwing surface, while females have little or no dorsal iridescence. Females preferentially mate with males who display a bright and highly chromatic blue field on their dorsal hindwing. In this study, we show that the chroma of the blue field on the male dorsal hindwing and male body size (forewing length) significantly predict the mass of material or spermatophore that a male forms within the female's copulatory sac during mating. We also found that spermatophore mass correlated negatively with copulation duration, but that color variables did not significantly predict this potential direct benefit. These results suggest that females may enhance the material benefits they receive during mating by mating with males based on the coloration of their dorsal hindwing.

  14. Behavioral sterility of hybrid males in acoustically communicating grasshoppers (Acrididae, Gomphocerinae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brigitte Gottsberger; Frieder Mayer

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of hybridization barriers determines whether two species remain reproductively isolated when their populations\\u000a come into contact. We investigated acoustic mating signals and associated leg movements responsible for song creation of hybrids\\u000a between the grasshopper species Chorthippus biguttulus and C. brunneus to study whether and how songs of male hybrids contribute to reproductive isolation between these sympatrically occurring\\u000a species.

  15. Extra-pair mating, male plumage coloration and sexual selection in yellow warblers (Dendroica petechia)

    PubMed Central

    Yezerinac, S. M.; Weatherhead, P. J.

    1997-01-01

    Extra-pair mating has been proposed as a source of sexual selection responsible for secondary sexual traits that are common among socially monogamous birds, although supporting evidence is scant. In the socially monogamous yellow warbler, males are larger than females, and unlike females, have extensive reddish streaking on their breasts. Using DNA fingerprinting we show that within-pair parentage was positively related to male size, and that extra-pair mating success was positively related to the amount of streaking on the breast. To our knowledge, this is the first intraspecific evidence of an association between a male plumage ornament and gains of extra-pair paternity that is apparently independent of age. This study confirms that extra-pair mating can be an important mechanism of sexual selection even when the most successful sires are commonly cuckolded, and refutes a previous hypothesis that the variation in plumage and behaviour among male yellow warblers is an example of alternative, equally successful, evolutionarily stable strategies (ESS). More generally, the demonstrated independence of within-pair and extra-pair success and their associated traits indicates that where animals have multiple secondary sexual traits, different traits may be selected by different mechanisms that contribute to total reproductive success.

  16. Down regulation of Hsp70 expression level prolongs the duration of heat-induced male sterility in Drosophila buzzatii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. SARUP; J. DAHLGAARD; A.-M. NORUP; K. T. JORGENSEN; M. B. HEBSGAARD; V. LOESCHCKE

    2004-01-01

    Summary 1. The relationship between heat shock protein Hsp70 expression level and the duration of heat-induced male sterility was investigated in four populations of Drosophila buzzatii Patterson and Wheeler. The effect of heat hardening on the duration of sterility was fur- ther examined after flies developed at either 25 or 31 ? C. In addition, Hsp70 expression was measured in

  17. Using Bulked Extremes and Recessive Class to Map Genes for Photoperiod-Sensitive Genic Male Sterility in Rice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qifa Zhang; B. Z. Shen; X. K. Dai; M. H. Mei; M. A. Saghai Maroof; Z. B. Li

    1994-01-01

    Photoperiod-sensitive genic male sterile (PSGMS) rice has a number of desirable characteristics for hybrid rice production. In this study we made use of a published rice genetic linkage map to determine the locations of PSGMS genes and we have characterized the effects of these genes on sterility by using molecular markers. A two-step approach was designed for mapping the genes:

  18. Sex ratio meiotic drive as a plausible evolutionary mechanism for hybrid male sterility.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Linbin; Sun, Tianai; Woldesellassie, Fitsum; Xiao, Hailian; Tao, Yun

    2015-03-01

    Biological diversity on Earth depends on the multiplication of species or speciation, which is the evolution of reproductive isolation such as hybrid sterility between two new species. An unsolved puzzle is the exact mechanism(s) that causes two genomes to diverge from their common ancestor so that some divergent genes no longer function properly in the hybrids. Here we report genetic analyses of divergent genes controlling male fertility and sex ratio in two very young fruitfly species, Drosophila albomicans and D. nasuta. A majority of the genetic divergence for both traits is mapped to the same regions by quantitative trait loci mappings. With introgressions, six major loci are found to contribute to both traits. This genetic colocalization implicates that genes for hybrid male sterility have evolved primarily for controlling sex ratio. We propose that genetic conflicts over sex ratio may operate as a perpetual dynamo for genome divergence. This particular evolutionary mechanism may largely contribute to the rapid evolution of hybrid male sterility and the disproportionate enrichment of its underlying genes on the X chromosome--two patterns widely observed across animals. PMID:25822261

  19. Sex Ratio Meiotic Drive as a Plausible Evolutionary Mechanism for Hybrid Male Sterility

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Linbin; Xiao, Hailian; Tao, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Biological diversity on Earth depends on the multiplication of species or speciation, which is the evolution of reproductive isolation such as hybrid sterility between two new species. An unsolved puzzle is the exact mechanism(s) that causes two genomes to diverge from their common ancestor so that some divergent genes no longer function properly in the hybrids. Here we report genetic analyses of divergent genes controlling male fertility and sex ratio in two very young fruitfly species, Drosophila albomicans and D. nasuta. A majority of the genetic divergence for both traits is mapped to the same regions by quantitative trait loci mappings. With introgressions, six major loci are found to contribute to both traits. This genetic colocalization implicates that genes for hybrid male sterility have evolved primarily for controlling sex ratio. We propose that genetic conflicts over sex ratio may operate as a perpetual dynamo for genome divergence. This particular evolutionary mechanism may largely contribute to the rapid evolution of hybrid male sterility and the disproportionate enrichment of its underlying genes on the X chromosome – two patterns widely observed across animals. PMID:25822261

  20. Sexual selection, antennae length and the mating advantage of large males in Asellus aquaticus.

    PubMed

    Bertin, A; Cezilly, F

    2003-07-01

    In crustacean species with precopulatory mate-guarding, sexual size dimorphism has most often been regarded as the consequence of a large male advantage in contest competition for access to females. However, large body size in males may also be favoured indirectly through scramble competition. This might partly be the case if the actual target of selection is a morphological character, closely correlated with body size, involved in the detection of receptive females. We studied sexual selection on body size and antennae length in natural populations of Asellus aquaticus, an isopod species with precopulatory mate guarding. In this species, males are larger than females and male pairing success is positively related to body size. However, males also have longer antennae, relative to body size, than females, suggesting that this character may also be favoured by sexual selection. We used multivariate analysis of selection to assess the relative influences of body size and antennae length in five different populations in the field. Selection gradients indicated that overall body size was a better predictor of male pairing success than antennae length, although some variation was observed between sites. We then manipulated male antennae length in a series of experiments conducted in the laboratory, and compared the pairing ability of males with short or long antennae. Males with short antennae were less likely to detect, orient to and to pair with a receptive female compared to males with long antennae. We discuss the implications of our results for studies of male body size and sexual dimorphism in relation to sexual selection in crustaceans. PMID:14632233

  1. Sexual selection, antennae length and the mating advantage of large males in Asellus aquaticus.

    PubMed

    Bertin, A; Cézilly, F

    2003-05-01

    In crustacean species with precopulatory mate-guarding, sexual size dimorphism has most often been regarded as the consequence of a large male advantage in contest competition for access to females. However, large body size in males may also be favoured indirectly through scramble competition. This might partly be the case if the actual target of selection is a morphological character, closely correlated with body size, involved in the detection of receptive females. We studied sexual selection on body size and antennae length in natural populations of Asellus aquaticus, an isopod species with precopulatory mate guarding. In this species, males are larger than females and male pairing success is positively related to body size. However, males also have longer antennae, relative to body size, than females, suggesting that this character may also be favoured by sexual selection. We used multivariate analysis of selection to assess the relative influences of body size and antennae length in five different populations in the field. Selection gradients indicated that, overall, body size was a better predictor of male pairing success than antennae length, although some variation was observed between sites. We then manipulated male antennae length in a series of experiments conducted in the lab, and compared the pairing ability of males with short or long antennae. Males with short antennae were less likely to detect, orient to, and to pair with a receptive female compared with males with long antennae. We discuss the implications of our results for studies of male body size and sexual dimorphism in relation to sexual selection in crustaceans. PMID:14635849

  2. Molecular aspects of cytoplasmic male sterility in perennial ryegrass ( Lolium perenne L.): mtDNA and RNA differences between plants with male-sterile and fertile cytoplasm and restriction mapping of their atp6 and coxI homologous regions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. J. A. Rouwendal; J. Creemers-Molenaar; F. A. Krens

    1992-01-01

    Lolium perenne L. male-sterile and fertile cytoplasms contain different mitochondrial genomes, as revealed by Southern hybridization with a number of heterologous mitochondrial probes. In addition, transcriptional patterns of atp6 and coxI genes distinguish both cytoplasmic types. The majority of the L. perenne sequences from male-sterile and fertile cytoplasm showing homology with these two genes has been cloned and mapped by

  3. Cryptic forcible insemination: male snakes exploit female physiology, anatomy, and behavior to obtain coercive matings.

    PubMed

    Shine, Richard; Langkilde, Tracy; Mason, Robert T

    2003-11-01

    Whether males can inseminate uncooperative females is a central determinant of mating system evolution that profoundly affects the interpretation of phenomena such as multiple mating by females, mate choice, reproductive seasonality, and courtship tactics. Forcible insemination is usually inferred from direct physical battles between the sexes and has been dismissed on intuitive grounds for many kinds of animals. For example, snakes have elongate flexible bodies (making it difficult for a male to restrain a female physically), males are typically smaller than females, and copulation requires female cloacal gaping to enable intromission. Male garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis) do not display any overt aggression during courtship and simply lie over the female and exhibit rhythmic pulsating caudocephalic waves of muscular contraction; previous studies have interpreted this behavior as a mechanism for eliciting female receptivity. In contrast, we show that male garter snakes forcibly inseminate females. They do so by taking advantage of specific features of snake physiology, respiratory anatomy, and antipredator behavior. The snake lung extends along most of the body, with the large posterior section (the saccular lung) lacking any respiratory exchange surface. Rhythmic caudocephalic waves by courting male garter snakes push anoxic air from the saccular lung forward and across the respiratory surfaces such that females cannot obtain oxygen. Their stress response involves cloacal gaping, which functions in other contexts to repel predators by extruding feces and musk but in this situation permits male intromission. Thus, superficially benign courtship behaviors may involve cryptic coercion even in species for which intuition dismisses any possibility of forcible insemination. PMID:14618542

  4. Simple Y-Autosomal Incompatibilities Cause Hybrid Male Sterility in Reciprocal Crosses Between Drosophila virilis and D. americana

    PubMed Central

    Sweigart, Andrea L.

    2010-01-01

    Postzygotic reproductive isolation evolves when hybrid incompatibilities accumulate between diverging populations. Here, I examine the genetic basis of hybrid male sterility between two species of Drosophila, Drosophila virilis and D. americana. From these analyses, I reach several conclusions. First, neither species carries any autosomal dominant hybrid male sterility alleles: reciprocal F1 hybrid males are perfectly fertile. Second, later generation (backcross and F2) hybrid male sterility between D. virilis and D. americana is not polygenic. In fact, I identified only three genetically independent incompatibilities that cause hybrid male sterility. Remarkably, each of these incompatibilities involves the Y chromosome. In one direction of the cross, the D. americana Y is incompatible with recessive D. virilis alleles at loci on chromosomes 2 and 5. In the other direction, the D. virilis Y chromosome causes hybrid male sterility in combination with recessive D. americana alleles at a single QTL on chromosome 5. Finally, in contrast with findings from other Drosophila species pairs, the X chromosome has only a modest effect on hybrid male sterility between D. virilis and D. americana. PMID:20048051

  5. Blind sterile 2 (bs2), a hypomorphic mutation in Agps, results in cataracts and male sterility in mice

    PubMed Central

    Liegel, R.; Chang, B.; Dubielzig, R.; Sidjanin, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    Blind sterile 2 (bs2) is a spontaneous autosomal recessive mouse mutation exhibiting cataracts and male sterility. Detailed clinical and histological evaluation revealed that bs2 mice have cataracts resulting from severely disrupted lens fiber cells. Analysis of bs2 testes revealed the absence of mature sperm and the presence of large multinucleate cells within the lumens of seminiferous tubules. Linkage analysis mapped the bs2 locus to mouse chromosome 2, approximately 45cM distal from the centromere. Fine mapping established a 3.1Mb bs2 critical region containing 19 candidate genes. Sequence analysis of alkylglycerone-phosphate synthase (Agps), a gene within the bs2 critical region, revealed a G to A substitution at the +5 position of intron 14. This mutation results in two abundantly expressed aberrantly spliced Agps transcripts: Agps?exon14 lacking exon 14 or Agpsexon?13–14 lacking both exons 13 and 14 as well as full-length Agps transcript. Agps is a peroxisomal enzyme which catalyzes the formation of the ether bond during the synthesis of ether lipids. Both aberrantly spliced Agps?exon14 and Agpsexon?13–14 transcripts led to frame shift, premature stop and putative proteins lacking the enzymatic FAD domain. We present evidence that bs2 mice have significantly decreased levels of ether lipids. Human mutations in Agps result in rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata type 3 (RCDP3), a disease for which bs2 is the only genetic model. Thus, bs2 is a hypomorphic mutation in Agps, and represents a useful model for investigation of the tissue specificity of ether lipid requirements which will be particularly valuable for elucidating the mechanism of disease phenotypes resulting from ether lipid depletion. PMID:21353609

  6. In the nick of time: males of the parasitoid wasp Pimpla disparis respond to semiochemicals from emerging mates.

    PubMed

    Hrabar, Michael; Danci, Adela; Schaefer, Paul W; Gries, Gerhard

    2012-03-01

    Males of the parasitoid wasp Pimpla disparis Viereck (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) aggregate on parasitized gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, host pupae when the emergence of a prospective mate is imminent or under way. We tested the hypotheses that the developing parasitoid ("DePa") inside the host pupal case produces a pheromone that attracts and arrests mate-seeking males, and that the pheromone is most effective during the emergence of the parasitoid from the host. Results obtained in two-choice laboratory experiments, with 4-7-d-old virgin males, indicate that (1) DePa-derived semiochemicals arrest males, (2) the opening of a host pupal case strongly arrests males, and (3) the arrestment cue emanates from oral fluid secreted by both female and male parasitoids while they chew their way out of a host pupal case. This phenomenon implies that emerging females, which are haplodiploid and can reproduce without mating, do not engage in active pheromone signaling to attract males, and that mate-seeking males co-opt chemicals involved in eclosion as a mate-finding cue, taking a 50% chance that the prospective mate is a female. PMID:22392084

  7. Male-specific (Z)-9-tricosene stimulates female mating behaviour in the spider Pholcus beijingensis

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yong-Hong; Zhang, Jian-Xu; Li, Shu-Qiang

    2010-01-01

    Chemical signals play an important role in spider sexual communication, yet the chemistry of spider sex pheromones remains poorly understood. Chemical identification of male-produced pheromone-mediating sexual behaviour in spiders has also, to our knowledge, not been reported before. This study aimed to examine whether chemically mediated strategies are used by males of the spider Pholcus beijingensis for increasing the probability of copulation. Based on data from gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis, electroantennography assay and a series of behavioural tests, we verified that (Z)-9-tricosene is a male-specific compound in the spider P. beijingensis. This compound acts as an aphrodisiac: it increases the likelihood that a female will mate. Mate-searching males release (Z)-9-tricosene to stimulate sexual behaviour of conspecific females. In the two-choice assay, however, sexually receptive females show no preference to the chambers containing (Z)-9-tricosene. This indicates that the male pheromone of P. beijingensis is not an attractant per se to the conspecific females. This is, to our knowledge, the first identification of a male-produced aphrodisiac pheromone in spiders. PMID:20462911

  8. Directional transfer of a multiple-allele male sterile line in Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis (L.) Makino var. rosularis Tsen et Lee.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiu Shi; Zhang, Xi; Li, Cheng Yu; Liu, Zhi Yong; Feng, Hui

    2014-06-01

    To produce hybrid seeds of Wutacai (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis (L.) Makino var. rosularis Tsen et Lee), a "directional transfer program" was designed to breed the multiple-allele male sterile line of Wutacai. A multiple-allele male sterile line of Naibaicai (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis L., S01) was used as the male sterile resource, and an inbred line of Wutacai (WT01) was used as the target line. Recurrent backcrossing was employed to transfer the male sterility and other botanical traits simultaneously, while the genotype was identifiedthrough test crossing. The male sterility was successfully transferred from S01 to WT01. A new male sterile line, GMS-3, with similar botanical traits to WT01, was bred. Four hybrid combinations were generated with GMS-3 as the female parent. One hybrid (C1) that contained the most desirable traits was developed from the new male sterile line. PMID:24987301

  9. No evidence for minority male mating advantage in wild type strains of Drosophila ananassae tested in multiple-choice experiments.

    PubMed

    Som, Arundhati; Singh, Bashisth N

    2002-01-01

    Minority male mating advantage was tested in wild type strains of Drosophila ananassae through multiple-choice experiments. Mating success of two types of flies present in five different ratios was scored by direct observation in an Elens-Wattiaux mating chamber. We found no evidence for minority male mating advantage in wild type strains of D. ananassae. The relative mating success of two types of females was also compared in the multiple-choice experiments at different ratios; there was no evidence for a rare female effect. Further, there was similarity in the results of experiments employing different methods. The total number of homogamic and heterogamic matings was obtained by combining the data (all five ratios) from each experiment. Homogamic matings were significantly more frequent than heterogamic ones, which demonstrates preferential mating between males and females of the same strain; this was also supported by a lower isolation estimate. There was also a significant difference in the degree of mating preference between the two strains. PMID:14963822

  10. Intron hairpin and transitive RNAi mediated silencing of orf H522 transcripts restores male fertility in transgenic male sterile tobacco plants expressing orf H522

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Narasimha Rao Nizampatnam; Viswanathaswamy Dinesh Kumar

    The present work was aimed at developing vector construct(s) suitable for restoring fertility in transgenic male sterile tobacco\\u000a plants expressing male-sterility-inducing ORFH522 in tapetal cell layer (Nizampatnam et al. Planta 229:987–1001, 2009). PTGS vectors that could produce either intron spliced hairpin RNA against the orfH522 or induce silencing of orfH522 by heterologous 3?UTR region were developed using the selected 316 bp

  11. Suppression mechanism of mitochondrial ORF79 accumulation by Rf1 protein in BT-type cytoplasmic male sterile rice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomohiko Kazama; Takahiro Nakamura; Masao Watanabe; Mamoru Sugita; Kinya Toriyama

    2008-01-01

    Summary In BT-type cytoplasmic male sterile rice (Oryza sativa L.) with Chinsurah Boro II cytoplasm, cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is caused by an accumulation of the cytotoxic peptide ORF79. The ORF79 protein is expressed from a dicistronic gene atp6-orf79, which exists in addition to the normal atp6 gene in the BT-type mitochondrial genome. The CMS is restored by a PPR

  12. Influence of nuclear background on transcription of a maize mitochondrial region associated with Texas male sterile cytoplasm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Kennell; R. P. Wise; D. R. Pring

    1987-01-01

    Transcripts of the maize mitochondrial genes atp6, urf13-T and ORF25 were examined by Northern analysis from five normal (N), Texas male sterile (T), and T male sterile cytoplasm lines restored to fertility. A 5 kb DNA region containing the atp6 promoter is duplicated 5' to urf13-T and ORF25 in T cytoplasm. DNA sequence differences in the 5 kb repeat detected

  13. Cytoplasmic effects on DNA methylation between male sterile lines and the maintainer in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Ba, Qingsong; Zhang, Gaisheng; Niu, Na; Ma, Shoucai; Wang, Junwei

    2014-10-01

    Male sterile cytoplasm plays an important role in hybrid wheat, and three-line system including male sterile (A line), its maintainer (B line) and restoring (R line) has played a major role in wheat hybrid production. It is well known that DNA methylation plays an important role in gene expression regulation during biological development in wheat. However, no reports are available on DNA methylation affected by different male sterile cytoplasms in hybrid wheat. We employed a methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism technique to characterize nuclear DNA methylation in three male sterile cytoplasms. A and B lines share the same nucleus, but have different cytoplasms which is male sterile for the A and fertile for the B. The results revealed a relationship of DNA methylation at these sites specifically with male sterile cytoplasms, as well as male sterility, since the only difference between the A lines and B line was the cytoplasm. The DNA methylation was markedly affected by male sterile cytoplasms. K-type cytoplasm affected the methylation to a much greater degree than T-type and S-type cytoplasms, as indicated by the ratio of methylated sites, ratio of fully methylated sites, and polymorphism between A lines and B line for these cytoplasms. The genetic distance between the cytoplasm and nucleus for the K-type is much greater than for the T- and S-types because the former is between Aegilops genus and Triticum genus and the latter is within Triticum genus between Triticum spelta and Triticum timopheevii species. Thus, this difference in genetic distance may be responsible for the variation in methylation that we observed. PMID:24875418

  14. A chimeric gene containing the 5? portion of atp6 is associated with cytoplasmic male-sterility of rice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koh-ichi Kadowaki; Takeshi Suzuki; Shigeru Kazama

    1990-01-01

    Three ATPase subunit 6 (atp6) genes of rice mitochondria were isolated, one from normal and two from cms-Bo male-sterile cytoplasms, in order to determine whether the extra atp6 gene in cms-Bo rice plays a role in cytoplasmic male-sterility (CMS). The nucleotide sequences of all three genes were determined and analysis showed a chimeric atp6 gene (urf-rmc) as well as a

  15. Male sex pheromone release and female mate choice in a butterfly.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Johan; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Vongvanich, Namphung; Wiklund, Christer

    2007-03-01

    In butterflies female mate choice is influenced by both visual and olfactory cues, the latter of which are important at close range. Males of the green-veined butterfly, Pieris napi, are known to release citral (mixture of geranial and neral, 1:1), but its role(s) and conditions of release are not known. Here, we show that male P. napi release citral when interacting with conspecific males, conspecific females, heterospecific males and also when alone. The amount of citral released correlated strongly with male flight activity, which explained more than 70% of the variation. This suggests that males do not exercise control over turning release on or off, but rather that citral is emitted as a passive physical process during flight. Electroantennogram experiments showed that female antennal response was ten times more sensitive to citral than male response. Females expressed acceptance behavior when exposed to models made with freshly excised male wings or those treated with citral following chemical extraction, but not to ones with extracted wings only. Hence, these behavioral and electrophysiological tests provide strong evidence that citral is a signal from the male directed to the female during courtship, and that it functions as a male sex pheromone. PMID:17337709

  16. Anther-specific carbohydrate supply and restoration of metabolically engineered male sterility

    PubMed Central

    Engelke, T.; Hirsche, J.; Roitsch, T.

    2010-01-01

    Male-sterile plants are used in hybrid breeding as well as for gene confinement for genetically modified plants in field trials and agricultural production. Apart from naturally occurring mutations leading to male sterility, biotechnology has added new possibilities for obtaining male-sterile plants, although so far only one system is used in practical breeding due to limitations in propagating male-sterile plants without segregations in the next generation or insufficient restoration of fertility when fruits or seeds are to be harvested from the hybrid varieties. Here a novel mechanism of restoration for male sterility is presented that has been achieved by interference with extracellular invertase activity, which is normally specifically expressed in the anthers to supply the developing microspores with carbohydrates. Microspores are symplastically isolated in the locular space of the anthers, and thus an unloading pathway of assimilates via the apoplasmic space is mandatory for proper development of pollen. Antisense repression of the anther-specific cell wall invertase or interference with invertase activity by expressing a proteinacious inhibitor under the control of the anther-specific invertase promoter results in a block during early stages of pollen development, thus causing male sterility without having any pleiotropic effects. Restoration of fertility was successfully achieved by substituting the down-regulated endogenous plant invertase activity by a yeast invertase fused to the N-terminal portion of potato-derived vacuolar protein proteinase II (PiII–ScSuc2), under control of the orthologous anther-specific invertase promoter Nin88 from tobacco. The chimeric fusion PiII–ScSuc2 is known to be N-glycosylated and efficiently secreted from plant cells, leading to its apoplastic location. Furthermore, the Nin88::PiII-ScSuc2 fusion does not show effects on pollen development in the wild-type background. Thus, such plants can be used as paternal parents of a hybrid variety, thereby the introgression of Nin88::PiII-ScSuc2 to the hybrid is obtained and fertility is restored. In order to broaden the applicability of this male sterility/restoration system to other plant species, a phylogenic analysis of plant invertases(?-fructofuranosidases) and related genes of different species was carried out. This reveals a specific clustering of the cell wall invertases with anther-specific expression for dicotyl species and another cluster for monocotyl plants. Thus, in both groups of plants, there seems to be a kind of co-evolution, but no recent common ancestor of these members of the gene family. These findings provide a helpful orientation to classify corresponding candidate genes in further plant species, in addition to the species analysed so far (Arabidopsis, tobacco, tomato, potato, carrots, rice, and wheat). PMID:20427415

  17. No detectable genetic correlation between male and female mating frequency in the stalk-eyed fly Cyrtodiopsis dalmanni.

    PubMed

    Grant, C A; Chapman, T; Pomiankowski, A; Fowler, K

    2005-12-01

    There is much interest in explaining why female insects mate multiply. Females of the stalk-eyed fly Cyrtodiopsis dalmanni can mate several times each day in a lifetime which may span several months. There are many adaptive explanations, but one hypothesis that has received little rigorous empirical attention is that female multiple mating has evolved for non-adaptive reasons as a correlated response to selection for high male mating frequency rather than because of direct or indirect benefits accruing to females. We tested this hypothesis in stalk-eyed flies by measuring the mating frequency of females from lines that exhibited a direct response in males to artificial selection for increased ('high') and decreased ('low') male mating frequency. We found that the mating frequency of high-line females did not differ from that of low-line females. Hence, there was no support for a genetic correlation between male and female mating frequency in this species. Our study suggests that the genes which influence remating may not be the same in the sexes, and that females remate frequently in this species to gain as yet unidentified benefits. PMID:16094297

  18. The role of testosterone in male downy woodpeckers in winter home range use, mate interactions and female foraging behaviour.

    PubMed

    Kellam, James S; Lucas, Jeffrey R; Wingfield, John C

    2006-03-01

    Studies of the role of testosterone (T) in birds have typically focused on sexual or aggressive behaviours of males during the breeding period, but males of nonmigratory species may invest in mate and territory long before breeding, and the influence of T in facilitating nonbreeding-season behaviours is poorly understood. We gave free-living male downy woodpeckers, Picoides pubescens, T-implants during the winter to determine whether elevated levels of T increased a male's ability to exclusively occupy territory-based resources, and whether elevated T strengthened a male's investment in an existing pair bond relationship. We also explored how a female's foraging efficiency might be affected by her mate's behaviour if he had elevated T. We found little difference between control and T-implanted males with regard to home range exclusivity. Surprisingly, male-male display rates were significantly lower in T-implanted males than in controls. Regarding male-female interactions, T-implanted males that experienced high incursion rates from other males maintained more frequent spatial association with their mate, suggesting that T facilitates male behaviours that could restrict the mate's access to other male birds. Female mates of T-males showed reduced foraging rates, but because male-female aggression was similar between treatment groups, the cause for this reduction is unknown. The results indicate that exogenous T during winter affects a variety of behaviours in male woodpeckers, and proximate influences on pair bond maintenance in winter may be a fruitful avenue for future research. PMID:16932805

  19. Mate-guarding constrains feeding activity but not energetic status of wild male long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Girard-Buttoz, Cédric; Heistermann, Michael; Rahmi, Erdiansyah; Marzec, Anna; Agil, Muhammad; Fauzan, Panji Ahmad; Engelhardt, Antje

    2014-01-01

    Mate-guarding is an important determinant of male reproductive success in a number of species. Little is known however about the constraints of this behaviour, e.g. the associated energetic costs. We investigated these costs in long-tailed macaques where alpha males mate guard females to a lesser extent than predicted by the priority of access model. The study was carried out during two mating periods on three wild groups living in the Gunung Leuser National Park, Indonesia. We combined behavioural observations on males' locomotion and feeding activity, GPS records of distance travelled and non-invasive measurements of urinary C-peptide (UCP), a physiological indicator of male energetic status. Mate-guarding led to a decrease in feeding time and fruit consumption suggesting a reduced intake of energy. At the same time, vertical locomotion was reduced, which potentially saved energy. These findings, together with the fact that we did not find an effect of mate-guarding on UCP levels, suggest that energy intake and expenditure was balanced during mate-guarding in our study males. Mate-guarding thus seems to not be energetically costly under all circumstances. Given that in strictly seasonal rhesus macaques, high-ranking males lose physical condition over the mating period, we hypothesise that the energetic costs of mate-guarding vary inter-specifically depending on the degree of seasonality and that males of non-strictly seasonal species might be better adapted to maintain balanced energetic condition year-round. Finally, our results illustrate the importance of combining behavioural assessments of both energy intake and expenditure with physiological measures when investigating energetic costs of behavioural strategies. PMID:24659851

  20. Male gametogenesis and sterility in garlic (Allium sativum L.): barriers on the way to fertilization and seed production.

    PubMed

    Shemesh Mayer, Einat; Winiarczyk, Krystyna; B?aszczyk, Lidia; Kosmala, Arkadiusz; Rabinowitch, Haim D; Kamenetsky, Rina

    2013-01-01

    Commercial cultivars of garlic (Allium sativum) do not produce flowers and seed; hence, information on microgametogenesis and genetic knowledge of this important crop is unavailable. Recently, physiological studies enabled flowering and fertility restoration in garlic bolting genotypes by environmental manipulations, thus broadening of the genetic variation and facilitating genetic studies. The present report provides first detailed description of the development of male gametophytes in 11 garlic genotypes varying in their fertility traits. Morphological and anatomical studies revealed completely fertile genotypes, as well as variation in anther and pollen development and disruption of the male organs and gametes at different developmental stages. Three types of plant sterility were observed, including complete sterility, male sterility and environmentally induced male sterility. The ITS1 and ITS2 regions of rRNA of the studied genotypes proved to be strongly conservative and thus did not correspond with the phenotypic expression of fertility or sterility in garlic. On the other hand, two-dimensional protein separation maps revealed significant differences between fertile and sterile genotypes, as well as between developmental stages of microsporogenesis. Further research is needed to investigate the internal mechanisms and environmental component of garlic sterility, as well as the possible molecular markers of these traits. PMID:22986686

  1. Neuropeptides affecting the transfer of juvenile hormones from males to females during mating in Spodoptera frugiperda.

    PubMed

    Hassanien, Intisar T E; Grötzner, Manuela; Meyering-Vos, Martina; Hoffmann, Klaus H

    2014-07-01

    In the polyandric moth, Spodopterafrugiperda, juvenile hormone (JH) is transferred from the male accessory reproductive glands (AG) to the female bursa copulatrix (BC) during copulation (see Hassanien et al., 2014). Here we used the RNA interference technique to study the role of allatoregulating neuropeptides in controlling the synthesis and transfer of JH during mating. Knockdown of S. frugiperda allatostatin C (Spofr-AS type C) in freshly emerged males leads to an accumulation of JH in the AG beyond that in the control and mating results in a higher transport of JH I and JH II into the female BC. Knockdown of S. frugiperda allatotropin 2 (Spofr-AT2) significantly reduces the amount of JH in the AG as well as its transfer into the female BC during copulation. Knockdown of S. frugiperda allatostatin A (Spofr-AS type A) and S. frugiperda allatotropin (Spofr-AT; Hassanien et al., 2014) only slightly affects the accumulation of JH in the AG and its transfer from the male to the female. We conclude that Spofr-AS type C and Spofr-AT2 act as true allatostatin and true allatotropin, respectively, on the synthesis of JH I and JH II in the male AG. Moreover, both peptides seem to control the synthesis of JH III in the corpora allata of adult males and its release into the hemolymph. PMID:24852671

  2. Reproductive trade-offs from mating with a successful male: the case of the tephritid fly Anastrepha obliqua

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In lekking species, females may become sperm-limited when mating with sexually successful males and this may be exacerbated by a poor male adult diet. Polygynous males may also be limited by the amount of accessory gland products (AGPs) they can transmit to females which in turn may influence the fe...

  3. Sexual cannibalism and mate choice decisions in wolf spiders: influence of male size and secondary sexual characters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew H. Persons; George W. Uetz

    2005-01-01

    Sexual cannibalism may influence expression of elaborate male traits by either reinforcing or opposing sexual selection. Male Schizocosa ocreata (Hentz) wolf spiders (Lycosidae) have tufts of bristles on the first pair of legs that may function as a condition-indicating signal trait. We paired virgin and previously mated adult females with males under seminatural conditions (laboratory containers with leaf litter). For

  4. D-glufosinate as a male sterility agent for hybrid seed production.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, Tim; Pline-Srnic, Wendy; Dale, Richard; Friend, Emma; Hollinshead, Tricia; Howe, Peter; Thompson, Paul; Viner, Russell; Greenland, Andy

    2011-04-01

    A chemical male sterility system based on anther-localized conversion of the inactive D-enantiomer of the herbicide, glufosinate (2-amino-4-(methylphosphinyl)-butanoate) to the phytotoxic L is described. Highly pure D-glufosinate was isolated in >98% enantiomeric excess from the racemate via fermentation with a strain of Escherichia coli expressing the PAT (L-glufosinate N-acetyl transferase) gene and purification of the unreacted D-enantiomer from the broth by ion exchange. A modified (F58K, M213S) form of the D-amino acid oxidase (DAAO) (EC 1.4.3.3) from Rhodosporidium toruloides was designed, tested in vitro and found to efficiently oxidize D-glufosinate to its 2-oxo derivative [2-oxo-4-(methylphosphinyl)-butanoic acid]. Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants were transformed to express this modified oxidase under control of the TAP1 tapetum-specific promoter. A number of the resultant transgenic lines exhibited complete male sterility that persisted for two or more weeks immediately following foliar treatment with 75 or 200 g/ha of D-glufosinate without exhibiting obvious phytotoxic symptoms or any measurable decline in female fertility. Similarly, plants containing the same construct and, additionally, a PAT gene expressed from a plastocyanin promoter exhibited significantly reduced male fertility and no reduction in female fertility following foliar application of racemic glufosinate. Thus, foliar application of d-glufosinate either purified or as the commercial herbicide, combined with anther expression of a modified DAAO promises to provide a cost-effective conditional chemical male sterility system with the characteristics necessary for practical F? hybrid seed production. PMID:20678098

  5. The effect of male coloration on female mate choice in closely related Lake Victoria cichlids ( Haplochromis nyererei complex)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ole Seehausen; Jacques J. M. van Alphen

    1998-01-01

    We studied the effect of male coloration on interspecific female mate choice in two closely related species of haplochromine\\u000a cichlids from Lake Victoria. The species differ primarily in male coloration. Males of one species are red, those of the other\\u000a are blue. We recorded the behavioral responses of females to males of both species in paired male trials under white

  6. New cytoplasmic male sterility sources in common wheat: Their genetical and breeding considerations.

    PubMed

    Panayotov, I

    1980-07-01

    Nuclei from Triticum aestivum L. cultivars 'Penjamo 62' and 'Siete Cerros 66' were introduced into the cytoplasms of different species of Aegilops and some subspecies (varieties) of T. dicoccoides by backcrossing. The sterile alloplasmic lines obtained were compared with the normal cultivars used as the recurrent pollen parents. According to the cytoplasmic effect, these cytoplasms were subdivided into three main groups. The first group possesses C(u) type cytoplasm, the second one possesses M type and the third group includes S, C and G type. Promising male sterile cytoplasms for hybrid wheat production were found in Ae. mutica, Ae. triuncialis and T. dicoccoides var. 'spontaneovillosum'. Based on these results and other information some conjectures were made concerning hybrid wheat breeding and phylogenetic differentiations of the cytoplasm. PMID:24305794

  7. Energetic costs of male reproduction in a scramble competition mating system.

    PubMed

    Lane, Jeffrey E; Boutin, Stan; Speakman, John R; Humphries, Murray M

    2010-01-01

    1. The assumption that the primary limitations on reproductive success differ between the sexes is inherent in traditional sexual selection theory. Although the energy that can be allocated to reproduction is assumed to be the main limitation to females, the ability to attract and defend oestrous females is assumed to be the primary limitation to males. 2. Estimates of the energetic costs of reproduction in male mammals are, however, limited and have largely been obtained from sexually dimorphic species exhibiting female defence mating systems. These studies often reveal that the energetic cost of male reproduction is similar to or even exceeds that of females, and therefore challenge long-held assumptions of inter-sexual reproductive limitations, but their generality is little known. 3. We coupled measurements of energy expenditure with detailed behavioural observations of reproductive male North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). This species displays minimal sexual dimorphism and exhibits a scramble competition mating system, under which sexual selection favours enhanced mate searching effort by males. 4. We conducted the study over 2 years characterized by a substantial variation in upcoming natural food availability and across two study populations that experienced either natural food abundance or an ad libitum food-supplementation to investigate the influence of resource availability on male reproductive energy expenditure. 5. Under natural conditions, mean energy expenditure of males across the 2 years was high, approximating that of females during lactation. Furthermore, in the anticipation of high upcoming natural food availability and resultant offspring survival, expenditure approximately doubled (from 290 +/- 7 to 579 +/- 73 kJ day(-1)). When current food availability (and consequently the density of receptive females) was experimentally elevated, males displayed the highest levels of energy expenditure we recorded (873 +/- 98 kJ day(-1)). 6. Our results provide compelling evidence that the energy available for reproductive allocation places a strong limitation on reproduction in male North American red squirrels and contribute to previous work suggesting that high and limiting energetic costs of male reproduction may be a general feature of mammalian reproduction. PMID:19674182

  8. Pest persistence and eradication conditions in a deterministic model for sterile insect release.

    PubMed

    Gordillo, Luis F

    2015-07-01

    The release of sterile insects is an environment friendly pest control method used in integrated pest management programmes. Difference or differential equations based on Knipling's model often provide satisfactory qualitative descriptions of pest populations subject to sterile release at relatively high densities with large mating encounter rates, but fail otherwise. In this paper, I derive and explore numerically deterministic population models that include sterile release together with scarce mating encounters in the particular case of species with long lifespan and multiple matings. The differential equations account separately the effects of mating failure due to sterile male release and the frequency of mating encounters. When insects spatial spread is incorporated through diffusion terms, computations reveal the possibility of steady pest persistence in finite size patches. In the presence of density dependence regulation, it is observed that sterile release might contribute to induce sudden suppression of the pest population. PMID:25105593

  9. Costs of and Investment in Mate-Guarding in Wild Long-Tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis): Influences of Female Characteristics and Male-Female Social Bonds.

    PubMed

    Girard-Buttoz, Cédric; Heistermann, Michael; Rahmi, Erdiansyah; Agil, Muhammad; Fauzan, Panji Ahmad; Engelhardt, Antje

    2014-01-01

    Male primates living in multimale groups tend to direct mate and mate-guarding choices toward females of high reproductive value, i.e., high-ranking, parous females, or females with which they share strong bonds. Little is known, however, about the constraints that may limit male mate-guarding choices (the costs of this behavior) and the influence of the females' quality on male investment in mate-guarding. We aimed to study the effects of female rank, parity status, and male-female social bond strength on the costs of and investment in mate-guarding by males. We carried out our study during two reproductive seasons on three groups of wild long-tailed macaques in Indonesia. We combined behavioral observations on male locomotion and activity with noninvasive measurements of fecal glucocorticoids (fGC). Males spent less time feeding when mate-guarding nulliparous females than when mate-guarding parous females and tended to have higher fGC levels when mate-guarding low-ranking nulliparous females than when mate-guarding high-ranking nulliparous ones. Evolution should thus favor male choice for high-ranking parous females because such a decision brings benefits at proximate (reduced costs of mate-guarding) and ultimate (higher reproductive value) levels. Further, male investment in mate-guarding was flexible and contingent on female reproductive and social value. Males were more vigilant and more aggressive toward other males when mate-guarding females to which they were strongly bonded and/or high-ranking ones than when mate-guarding other females. Our findings bring a new dimension to the study of mate choice by showing that males not only mate preferentially with high-quality females but may also aim to secure paternity with these females through optimized monopolization. PMID:25152554

  10. Misregulation of spermatogenesis genes in Drosophila hybrids is lineage-specific and driven by the combined effects of sterility and fast male regulatory divergence.

    PubMed

    Gomes, S; Civetta, A

    2014-09-01

    Hybrid male sterility is a common outcome of crosses between different species. Gene expression studies have found that a number of spermatogenesis genes are differentially expressed in sterile hybrid males, compared with parental species. Late-stage sperm development genes are particularly likely to be misexpressed, with fewer early-stage genes affected. Thus, a link has been posited between misexpression and sterility. A more recent alternative explanation for hybrid gene misexpression has been that it is independent of sterility and driven by divergent evolution of male-specific regulatory elements between species (faster male hypothesis). The faster male hypothesis predicts that misregulation of spermatogenesis genes should be independent of sterility and approximately the same in both hybrids, whereas sterility should only affect gene expression in sterile hybrids. To test the faster male hypothesis vs. the effect of sterility on gene misexpression, we analyse spermatogenesis gene expression in different species pairs of the Drosophila phylogeny, where hybrid male sterility occurs in only one direction of the interspecies cross (i.e. unidirectional sterility). We find significant differences among genes in misexpression with effects that are lineage-specific and caused by sterility or fast male regulatory divergence. PMID:24898362

  11. Engineering cytoplasmic male sterility via the chloroplast genome by expression of {beta}-ketothiolase.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Oscar N; Daniell, Henry

    2005-07-01

    While investigating expression of the polydroxybutyrate pathway in transgenic chloroplasts, we addressed the specific role of beta-ketothiolase. Therefore, we expressed the phaA gene via the chloroplast genome. Prior attempts to express the phaA gene in transgenic plants were unsuccessful. We studied the effect of light regulation of the phaA gene using the psbA promoter and 5' untranslated region, and evaluated expression under different photoperiods. Stable transgene integration into the chloroplast genome and homoplasmy were confirmed by Southern analysis. The phaA gene was efficiently transcribed in all tissue types examined, including leaves, flowers, and anthers. Coomassie-stained gel and western blots confirmed hyperexpression of beta-ketothiolase in leaves and anthers, with proportionately high levels of enzyme activity. The transgenic lines were normal except for the male-sterile phenotype, lacking pollen. Scanning electron microscopy revealed a collapsed morphology of the pollen grains. Floral developmental studies revealed that transgenic lines showed an accelerated pattern of anther development, affecting their maturation, and resulted in aberrant tissue patterns. Abnormal thickening of the outer wall, enlarged endothecium, and vacuolation affected pollen grains and resulted in the irregular shape or collapsed phenotype. Reversibility of the male-sterile phenotype was observed under continuous illumination, resulting in viable pollen and copious amount of seeds. This study results in the first engineered cytoplasmic male-sterility system in plants, offers a new tool for transgene containment for both nuclear and organelle genomes, and provides an expedient mechanism for F(1) hybrid seed production. PMID:16009998

  12. Sexual size dimorphism in the American rubyspot: male body size predicts male competition and mating success

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Serrano-Meneses; A. Córdoba-Aguilar; V. Méndez; S. J. Layen; T. Székely

    2007-01-01

    Sexual differences in body size are widespread among animals, and various explanations for the evolution and maintenance of sexual size dimorphism have been proposed. We investigated the effects of sexual selection and fecundity selection on the sizes of males and females, respectively, in American rubyspots, Hetaerina americana. Males are larger than females and have large red spots at the base

  13. RFLP analysis of mitochondrial DNA from cytoplasmic male-sterile lines of pearl millet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Rajeshwari; S. Sivaramakrishnan; R. L. Smith; N. C. Subrahmanyam

    1994-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from 13 cytoplasmic male-sterile (cms) lines from diverse sources were characterized by Southern blot hybridization to pearl millet and maize mtDNA probes. Hybridization patterns of mtDNA digested with PstI, BamHI, SmaI or XhoI and probed with 13.6-, 10.9-, 9.7- or 4.7-kb pearl millet mtDNA clones revealed similarities among the cms lines 5141 A and ICMA 1 (classified

  14. Male Remating in Drosophila ananassae: Evidence for Interstrain Variation in Remating Time and Shorter Duration of Copulation during Second Mating.

    PubMed

    Singh, S R; Singh, B N

    2000-04-01

    In Drosophila ananassae, male remating was studied using ten mass culture stocks which were initiated from flies collected from different geographic localities. Male remating occurs at a high frequency and varies within narrow limits (84-96 percent) in different strains. Interestingly, male remating time (in min) varies from 7.41 (Bhutan) to 21.59 (PAT) in different strains and the variation is highly significant. Further, the results also show that males copulate for shorter duration during second mating. This is the first report in the genus Drosophila which provides evidence for interstrain variations for male remating time as well as for shorter duration of copulation during second mating as compared to first mating in D. ananassae. PMID:18494595

  15. A recessive gene controlling male sterility sensitive to short daylength/low temperature in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiao-dong; Sun, Dong-fa; Rong, De-fu; Peng, Jun-hua; Li, Cheng-dao

    2011-01-01

    Utilization of a two-line breeding system via photoperiod-thermo sensitive male sterility has a great potential for hybrid production in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). 337S is a novel wheat male sterile line sensitive to both short daylength/low temperature and long daylength/high temperature. Five F2 populations derived from the crosses between 337S and five common wheat varieties were developed for genetic analysis. All F1’s were highly fertile while segregation occurred in the F2 populations with a ratio of 3 fertile:1 sterile under short daylength/low temperature. It is shown that male sterility in 337S was controlled by a single recessive gene, temporarily designated as wptms3. Bulked segregant analysis (BSA) coupled with simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers was applied to map the sterile gene using one mapping population. The wptms3 gene was mapped to chromosome arm 1BS and flanked by Xgwm413 and Xgwm182 at a genetic distance of 3.2 and 23.5 cM, respectively. The accuracy and efficiency of marker-assisted selection were evaluated and proved essential for identifying homozygous recessive male sterile genotypes of the wptms3 gene in F2 generation. PMID:22042660

  16. Sequencing and annotation of the chloroplast DNAs and identification of polymorphisms distinguishing normal male-fertile and male-sterile cytoplasms of onion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due the biennial generation time of onion, classical crossing takes at least four years to classify cytoplasms as normal (N) male-fertile or male-sterile (S). Molecular markers in the organellar DNAs that distinguish N and S cytoplasms are useful to reduce the time required to classify onion cytopla...

  17. Restoration of fertility in cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) Nicotiana Sylvestris by fusion with X-irradiated N. tabacum protoplasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Aviv; E. Galun

    1980-01-01

    Restoration of male fertility was achieved by fusing protoplasts from male sterile (CMS) Nicotiana sylvestris plants with X-irradiated protoplasts derived from fertile N. tabacum plants. The CMS N. sylvestris plants were derived from a previous somatic hybridization experiment and contained alien (Line 92) cytoplasm. About one quarter of the regenerated plants were found to be cybrids. i.e. they consisted of

  18. Genetics of hybrid male sterility between Drosophila sibling species: a complex web of epistasis is revealed in interspecific studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael F. Palopoli; Chung-I Wu

    1995-01-01

    To study the genetic differences responsible for the sterility of their male hybrids, we introgressed small segments of an X chromosome from Drosophila simulans into a pure Drosophila mauritiana genetic background, then assessed the fertility of males carrying heterospecific introgressions of varying size. Although this analysis examined less than 20% of the X chromosome (roughly 5% of the euchromatic portion

  19. Evidence for a receiver bias underlying female preference for a male mating pheromone in sea lamprey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchinger, Tyler J.; Wang, Huiyong; Li, Weiming; Johnson, Nicholas S.

    2013-01-01

    Receiver bias models suggest that a male sexual signal became exaggerated to match a pre-existing sensory, perceptual or cognitive disposition of the female. Accordingly, these models predict that females of related taxa possessing the ancestral state of signalling evolved preference for the male trait in a non-sexual context. We postulated that female preference for the male-released bile alcohol mating pheromone, 3 keto petromyzonol sulfate (3kPZS), of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) evolved as a result of a receiver bias. In particular, we propose that migratory silver lamprey (Ichthyomyzon unicuspis), a basal member of the Petromyzontidae, evolved a preference for 3kPZS released by stream-resident larvae as a means of identifying productive habitat for offspring. Larval silver lamprey released 3kPZS at rates sufficient to be detected by migratory lampreys. Females responded to 3kPZS by exhibiting upstream movement behaviours relevant in a migratory context, but did not exhibit proximate behaviours important to mate search and spawning. Male silver lamprey did not release 3kPZS at rates sufficient to be detected by females in natural high-volume stream environments. We infer that female silver lamprey cue onto 3kPZS excreted by stream-resident larvae as a mechanism to locate habitat conducive to offspring survival and that males do not signal with 3kPZS. We suggest that this female preference for a male signal in a non-sexual context represents a bias leading to the sexual signalling observed in sea lamprey.

  20. Evidence for a receiver bias underlying female preference for a male mating pheromone in sea lamprey

    PubMed Central

    Buchinger, T. J.; Wang, H.; Li, W.; Johnson, N. S.

    2013-01-01

    Receiver bias models suggest that a male sexual signal became exaggerated to match a pre-existing sensory, perceptual or cognitive disposition of the female. Accordingly, these models predict that females of related taxa possessing the ancestral state of signalling evolved preference for the male trait in a non-sexual context. We postulated that female preference for the male-released bile alcohol mating pheromone, 3 keto petromyzonol sulfate (3kPZS), of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) evolved as a result of a receiver bias. In particular, we propose that migratory silver lamprey (Ichthyomyzon unicuspis), a basal member of the Petromyzontidae, evolved a preference for 3kPZS released by stream-resident larvae as a means of identifying productive habitat for offspring. Larval silver lamprey released 3kPZS at rates sufficient to be detected by migratory lampreys. Females responded to 3kPZS by exhibiting upstream movement behaviours relevant in a migratory context, but did not exhibit proximate behaviours important to mate search and spawning. Male silver lamprey did not release 3kPZS at rates sufficient to be detected by females in natural high-volume stream environments. We infer that female silver lamprey cue onto 3kPZS excreted by stream-resident larvae as a mechanism to locate habitat conducive to offspring survival and that males do not signal with 3kPZS. We suggest that this female preference for a male signal in a non-sexual context represents a bias leading to the sexual signalling observed in sea lamprey. PMID:24068361

  1. Navigation by Male Crab Spiders Misumenoides formosipes (Araneae: Thomisidae): Floral Cues May Aid in Locating Potential Mates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leo M. Stellwag; Gary N. Dodson

    2010-01-01

    The crab spider Misumenoides formosipes is an ambush predator whose males search for relatively sedentary females within a heterogeneous habitat. Females are receptive\\u000a to mating immediately after their adult molt and a male biased adult sex ratio together with precopulatory guarding places\\u000a a premium on male ability to locate females quickly. It is unknown what cues males use to find

  2. Operational sex ratio, mediated by synchrony of female arrival, alters the variance of male mating success in Japanese medaka

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JAMES W. A. GRANT; MICHAEL J. BRYANT; CATHERINE E. SOOS

    1995-01-01

    The hypotheses that variation in male mating success and use of aggression by competing males increase with decreasing synchrony of female arrival were experimentally tested. Groups of three male Japanese medaka,Oryzias latipes(Pisces, Oryziidae) were allowed to compete for females that were placed in the tank either simultaneously (synchronous treatment, male-to-female operational sex ratio=0·5) or sequentially (asynchronous treatment, operational sex ratio=3).

  3. The genetic polymorphism linked to mate-securing strategies in the male damselfly Mnais costalis Selys (Odonata: Calopterygidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshitaka Tsubaki

    2003-01-01

    Alternative male mate-securing strategies are widespread among animal taxa, but there are few well-documented examples of genetic polymorphisms for them. In the Japanese calopterygid damselfly Mnais costalis, males occur as either orange-winged territorial fighter males, or clear-winged non-territorial sneaker males. It has previously been suggested that this behavioral polymorphism is genetically controlled. However, there was no direct evidence for this.

  4. Male-sterility induction in transgenic tobacco plants with an unedited atp9 mitochondrial gene from wheat.

    PubMed Central

    Hernould, M; Suharsono, S; Litvak, S; Araya, A; Mouras, A

    1993-01-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility in plants is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. We have proposed that a nuclear-encoded chimeric peptide formed by mitochondrial sequences when imported into the mitochondria may impair organelle function and induce male sterility in plants. A model developed to test this hypothesis is reported here. Assuming that the editing process in higher plant mitochondria reflects a requirement for producing active proteins, we have used edited and unedited coding sequences of wheat ATP synthase subunit 9 (atp9) fused to the coding sequence of a yeast coxIV transit peptide. Transgenic plants containing unedited atp9 exhibited either fertile, semifertile, or male-sterile phenotypes; controls containing edited atp9 or only the selectable marker gave fertile plants. Pollen fertility ranged from 31% to 75% in fertile plants, 10% to 20% in semifertile plants, and < 2% in male-sterile plants. Genetic and molecular data showed that the chimeric plasmid containing the transgene is inherited as a Mendelian trait. The transgenic protein is imported into the mitochondria. The production and frequency of semifertile or male-sterile transgenic plants conform to the proposed hypothesis. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7681593

  5. Expression of a pathogen-induced cysteine protease (AdCP) in tapetum results in male sterility in transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Pawan; Singh, Naveen Kumar; Kumar, Dilip; Vijayan, Sambasivam; Ahmed, Israr; Kirti, Pulugurtha Bharadwaja

    2014-06-01

    Usable male sterility systems have immense potential in developing hybrid varieties in crop plants, which can also be used as a biological safety containment to prevent horizontal transgene flow. Barnase-Barstar system developed earlier was the first approach to engineer male sterility in plants. In an analogous situation, we have evolved a system of inducing pollen abortion and male sterility in transgenic tobacco by expressing a plant gene coding for a protein with known developmental function in contrast to the Barnase-Barstar system, which deploys genes of prokaryotic origin, i.e., from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. We have used a plant pathogen-induced gene, cysteine protease for inducing male sterility. This gene was identified in the wild peanut, Arachis diogoi differentially expressed when it was challenged with the late leaf spot pathogen, Phaeoisariopsis personata. Arachis diogoi cysteine protease (AdCP) was expressed under the strong tapetum-specific promoter (TA29) and tobacco transformants were generated. Morphological and histological analysis of AdCP transgenic plants showed ablated tapetum and complete pollen abortion in three transgenic lines. Furthermore, transcript analysis displayed the expression of cysteine protease in these male sterile lines and the expression of the protein was identified in western blot analysis using its polyclonal antibody raised in the rabbit system. PMID:24615687

  6. A low molecular weight proteome comparison of fertile and male sterile 8 anthers of Zea mays

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dongxue; Adams, Christopher M.; Fernandes, John F.; Egger, Rachel L.; Walbot, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Summary During maize anther development, somatic locular cells differentiate to support meiosis in the pollen mother cells. Meiosis is an important event during anther growth and is essential for plant fertility as pollen contains the haploid sperm. A subset of maize male sterile mutants exhibit meiotic failure, including ms8 (male sterile 8) in which meiocytes arrest as dyads and the locular somatic cells exhibit multiple defects. Systematic proteomic profiles were analysed in biological triplicates plus technical triplicates comparing ms8 anthers with fertile sibling samples at both the premeiotic and meiotic stages; proteins from 3.5 to 20 kDa were fractionated by 1-D PAGE, cleaved with Lys-C and then sequenced using a LTQ Orbitrap Velos MS paradigm. Three hundred and 59proteins were identified with two or more assigned peptides in which each of those peptides were counted at least two or more times (0.4% peptide false discovery rate (FDR) and 0.2% protein FDR); 2761 proteins were identified with one or more assigned peptides (0.4% peptide FDR and 7.6% protein FDR). Stage-specific protein expression provides candidate stage markers for early anther development, and proteins specifically expressed in fertile compared to sterile anthers provide important clues about the regulation of meiosis. 49% of the proteins detected by this study are new to an independent whole anther proteome, and many small proteins missed by automated maize genome annotation were validated; these outcomes indicate the value of focusing on low molecular weight proteins. The roles of distinctive expressed proteins and methods for mass spectrometry of low molecular weight proteins are discussed. PMID:22748129

  7. Co-Evolution of the Mating Position and Male Genitalia in Insects: A Case Study of a Hangingfly

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Qionghua; Hua, Baozhen

    2013-01-01

    Hangingflies are unique for the male providing a nuptial gift to the female during mating and taking a face-to-face hanging copulation with the female. Their male genitalia are peculiar for an extremely elongated penisfilum, a pair of well-developed epandrial lobes (9th tergum), and a pair of degenerated gonostyli. However, the co-evolution of their face-to-face copulation behavior and the male genitalia has rarely been studied hitherto. In this paper the mating behavior of the hangingfly Bittacus planus Cheng, 1949 was observed under laboratory conditions, and the morphology of the male and female external genitalia was investigated using light and scanning electron microscopy. The male provides an insect prey as a nuptial gift to the female in courtship and mating process, and commits a face-to-face copulation. During copulation, the male abdomen twists temporarily about 180° to accommodate their face-to-face mating position. The aedeagal complex has an extremely elongated penisfilum, corresponding to the elongated spermathecal duct of the female. The well-developed epandrial lobes serve as claspers to grasp the female subgenital plate during copulation, replacing the function of gonostyli, which are greatly reduced in Bittacidae. The modified proctiger assists the penisfilum to stretch and to enter into the female spermathecal duct. The possible reasons why this species might mate face-to-face are briefly discussed. PMID:24312490

  8. Molecular analysis of cytoplasmic male sterility in chives (Allium schoenoprasum L.).

    PubMed

    Potz, H; Tatlioglu, T

    1993-12-01

    The mitochondria of chive plants with normal N or male-sterile S cytoplasms have been examined by restriction fragment analysis and Southern hybridizations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and in organello protein biosynthesis. Restriction fragment patterns of the mtDNA differed extensively between N-and S-cytoplasms. The percentage of fragments with different mobility varied between 44-48% depending on the restriction enzyme used. In contrast to mtDNA, the restriction fragment patterns of the chloropolast DNA from N- and S-cytoplasms were identical. The organization of the analyzed mitochondrial genes coxII, coxIII, nad1 and nad3 was different in N- and S-cytoplasms. Comparison of mitochondrial proteins analyzed by in organello translation revealed an 18-kDa protein present only in S-cytoplasm. The restorer gene X suppressed the synthesis of that protein in S-cytoplasm. Thus, the 18-kDa protein seems to be associated with the cytoplasmic male-sterile phenotype. PMID:24190316

  9. The Arabidopsis male-sterile mutant, opr3, lacks the 12-oxophytodienoic acid reductase required for jasmonate synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annick Stintzi; John Browse

    2000-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and its precursor 12-oxophytodienoic acid (OPDA) act as plant growth regulators and mediate responses to environmental cues. To investigate the role of these oxylipins in anther and pollen development, we characterized a T-DNA-tagged, male-sterile mutant of Arabidopsis, opr3. The opr3 mutant plants are sterile but can be rendered fertile by exogenous JA but not by OPDA. Cloning

  10. Effects of egg testosterone on female mate choice and male sexual behavior in the pheasant.

    PubMed

    Bonisoli-Alquati, Andrea; Matteo, Angelo; Ambrosini, Roberto; Rubolini, Diego; Romano, Maria; Caprioli, Manuela; Dessì-Fulgheri, Francesco; Baratti, Mariella; Saino, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating that sex steroids in the eggs, besides affecting progeny phenotype and behavior in the short term, also have enduring effects until adulthood, when they may translate into differences in reproductive strategies and success. Maternal steroids transfer may therefore affect both agonistic behavior and mate choice decisions, either through the promotion of body size and condition or through a priming effect on the neuroendocrine system. However, owing to the prevalence of a short-term perspective, relevance of maternal transfer of sex steroids to sexual selection processes has been seldom studied. Here we investigate the effects of an experimental increase in egg testosterone on male dominance and copulation success in the ring-necked pheasant, Phasianus colchicus, a polygynous galliform with multiple male ornamental traits, in captivity. We found that females from testosterone (T) injected eggs copulated less than control females. Males from T-injected eggs obtained more copulations than control males, specifically with control females. The effect of male 'ordinary' and secondary sexual traits on either dominance or copulation frequency did not depend on early exposure to T, nor did T treatment affect male dominance. Present results demonstrate that variation in the early hormonal environment set up by mothers affects sexual behavior of the offspring, which might translate into fitness differences. PMID:21029735

  11. Altered volatile profile associated with precopulatory mate guarding attracts spider mite males.

    PubMed

    Oku, Keiko; Weldegergis, Berhane T; Poelman, Erik H; De Jong, Peter W; Dicke, Marcel

    2015-02-01

    Proximate factors affecting animal behavior include stimuli generated by conspecifics. In spider mites of the genus Tetranychus (Acari: Tetranychidae), males guard pre-reproductive quiescent females, because only the first mating results in fertilization. In a dual-choice experiment, more adult males of T. urticae were attracted to females guarded by a male than to solitary females. Because spider mites are known to perceive volatiles, we hypothesized that guarded and solitary females differ in the volatile blends emitted. To test this hypothesis, headspace volatiles of guarded females, solitary females, and solitary males were collected, respectively. GC/MS analysis detected octanal, methyl salicylate, ethyl 4-ethoxybenzoate, and methyl cis-dihydrojasmonate in all of the groups. Orthogonal Projection to Latent Structures Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA) of the blends clearly discriminated guarded females from solitary females, supporting our hypothesis. Individual compounds did not show significant difference in emission rates for guarded females vs. solitary females, suggesting that differences lay in the total blend composition. OPLS-DA did not discriminate between the blends emitted by guarded females and solitary males. In conclusion, the differences in the volatile blends are likely to mediate male discrimination between guarded and solitary females. PMID:25612522

  12. Variation in a female sexual attractiveness pheromone controls male mate choice in garter snakes.

    PubMed

    LeMaster, Michael P; Mason, Robert T

    2002-06-01

    Male red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) display a courtship preference for larger females during the breeding season. Utilizing behavioral experiments and chemical analyses, we tested the hypothesis that males can discriminate among females of varying size solely by means of the sexual attractiveness pheromone, a previously characterized sex pheromone composed of a homologous series of long-chain saturated and omega-9 cis-unsaturated methyl ketones contained in the skin lipids of females. When presented with skin lipid extracts from large and small females, a greater proportion of males displayed courtship behaviors to large female extracts. This demonstrates that there is an intrinsic property of the female skin lipids that allows males to differentiate among large and small females. Analysis of the sexual attractiveness pheromone revealed that the necessary variation exists for this pheromone to function as a reliable indicator to males of female body size. Specifically, we observed a strong correlation between female snout-vent length and the relative concentration of saturated and omega-9 cis-unsaturated methyl ketones composing the pheromone; smaller females expressed pheromone profiles higher in saturated methyl ketones. while larger females expressed pheromone profiles dominated by unsaturated methyl ketones. The results of this study suggest that male red-sided garter snakes utilize compositional variation in the female sexual attractiveness pheromone to differentiate among potential mates of varying size. PMID:12184402

  13. Genetic analyses supported by molecular methods provide evidence of a new genic (st1) and a new cytoplasmic (st2) male sterility in Allium schoenoprasum L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Engelke; T. Tatlioglu

    2000-01-01

    Spontaneous mutations leading to male sterility have been described for many different crops and are of great importance to\\u000a hybrid breeding, provided that their inheritance is resolved. This paper describes an efficient method to characterise male\\u000a sterilities with respect to cytoplasmic factors that might be causally related to them. The differentiation of cytoplasmic\\u000a (CMS) and genic (GMS) male sterility is

  14. Alloplasmic male-sterile Brassica juncea with Enarthrocarpus lyratus cytoplasm and the introgression of gene(s) for fertility restoration from cytoplasm donor species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. S. Banga; J. S. Deol; S. K. Banga

    2003-01-01

    A new cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) source in Brassica juncea (2n = 36; AABB) was developed by substituting its nucleus into the cytoplasm of Enarthrocarpus lyratus (2n = 20; EÊEÊ). Male sterility was complete, stable and manifested in either petaloid- or rudimentary-anthers which were devoid of fertile pollen grains. Male sterile plants resembled the euplasmic B. juncea except for slight

  15. Safe sex: male–female coalitions and pre-copulatory mate-guarding in a fiddler crab

    PubMed Central

    Milner, Richard N. C.; Jennions, Michael D.; Backwell, Patricia R. Y.

    2010-01-01

    In fiddler crabs both males and females defend territories that are essential for survival. Given pronounced sexual dimorphism in weaponry, how do weaponless females defend their territory from well-armed males? Using observational data and two simple experiments, we test whether male Uca annulipes protect their female neighbours from conspecific intruders. We show that males defend their female neighbours against male but not female intruders. We also show that females sometimes mate with their immediate neighbours. Male defence of female neighbours appears to represent both pre-copulatory mate-guarding and a territorial coalition. Males who ensure that their neighbour remains female could benefit through increased opportunity for future reproductive success and lower boundary maintenance costs. PMID:19889695

  16. Why small males have big sperm: dimorphic squid sperm linked to alternative mating behaviours

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Sperm cells are the target of strong sexual selection that may drive changes in sperm structure and function to maximize fertilisation success. Sperm evolution is regarded to be one of the major consequences of sperm competition in polyandrous species, however it can also be driven by adaptation to the environmental conditions at the site of fertilization. Strong stabilizing selection limits intra-specific variation, and therefore polymorphism, among fertile sperm (eusperm). Here we analyzed reproductive morphology differences among males employing characteristic alternative mating behaviours, and so potentially different conditions of sperm competition and fertilization environment, in the squid Loligo bleekeri. Results Large consort males transfer smaller (average total length = 73 ?m) sperm to a female's internal sperm storage location, inside the oviduct; whereas small sneaker males transfer larger (99 ?m) sperm to an external location around the seminal receptacle near the mouth. No significant difference in swimming speed was observed between consort and sneaker sperm. Furthermore, sperm precedence in the seminal receptacle was not biased toward longer sperm, suggesting no evidence for large sperm being favoured in competition for space in the sperm storage organ among sneaker males. Conclusions Here we report the first case, in the squid Loligo bleekeri, where distinctly dimorphic eusperm are produced by different sized males that employ alternative mating behaviours. Our results found no evidence that the distinct sperm dimorphism was driven by between- and within-tactic sperm competition. We propose that presence of alternative fertilization environments with distinct characteristics (i.e. internal or external), whether or not in combination with the effects of sperm competition, can drive the disruptive evolution of sperm size. PMID:21831296

  17. Interspecific aggression, not interspecific mating, drives character displacement in the wing coloration of male rubyspot damselflies (Hetaerina).

    PubMed

    Drury, J P; Grether, G F

    2014-12-01

    Traits that mediate intraspecific social interactions may overlap in closely related sympatric species, resulting in costly between-species interactions. Such interactions have principally interested investigators studying the evolution of reproductive isolation via reproductive character displacement (RCD) or reinforcement, yet in addition to reproductive interference, interspecific trait overlap can lead to costly between-species aggression. Previous research on rubyspot damselflies (Hetaerina spp.) demonstrated that sympatric shifts in male wing colour patterns and competitor recognition reduce interspecific aggression, supporting the hypothesis that agonistic character displacement (ACD) drove trait shifts. However, a recent theoretical model shows that RCD overshadows ACD if the same male trait is used for both female mate recognition and male competitor recognition. To determine whether female mate recognition is based on male wing coloration in Hetaerina, we conducted a phenotype manipulation experiment. Compared to control males, male H. americana with wings manipulated to resemble a sympatric congener (H. titia) suffered no reduction in mating success. Thus, female mate recognition is not based on species differences in male wing coloration. Experimental males did, however, experience higher interspecific fighting rates and reduced survival compared to controls. These results greatly strengthen the case for ACD and highlight the mechanistic distinction between ACD and RCD. PMID:25339724

  18. De Novo Assembly and Transcriptome Analysis of Wheat with Male Sterility Induced by the Chemical Hybridizing Agent SQ-1.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qidi; Song, Yulong; Zhang, Gaisheng; Ju, Lan; Zhang, Jiao; Yu, Yongang; Niu, Na; Wang, Junwei; Ma, Shoucai

    2015-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), one of the world's most important food crops, is a strictly autogamous (self-pollinating) species with exclusively perfect flowers. Male sterility induced by chemical hybridizing agents has increasingly attracted attention as a tool for hybrid seed production in wheat; however, the molecular mechanisms of male sterility induced by the agent SQ-1 remain poorly understood due to limited whole transcriptome data. Therefore, a comparative analysis of wheat anther transcriptomes for male fertile wheat and SQ-1-induced male sterile wheat was carried out using next-generation sequencing technology. In all, 42,634,123 sequence reads were generated and were assembled into 82,356 high-quality unigenes with an average length of 724 bp. Of these, 1,088 unigenes were significantly differentially expressed in the fertile and sterile wheat anthers, including 643 up-regulated unigenes and 445 down-regulated unigenes. The differentially expressed unigenes with functional annotations were mapped onto 60 pathways using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database. They were mainly involved in coding for the components of ribosomes, photosynthesis, respiration, purine and pyrimidine metabolism, amino acid metabolism, glutathione metabolism, RNA transport and signal transduction, reactive oxygen species metabolism, mRNA surveillance pathways, protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum, protein export, and ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. This study is the first to provide a systematic overview comparing wheat anther transcriptomes of male fertile wheat with those of SQ-1-induced male sterile wheat and is a valuable source of data for future research in SQ-1-induced wheat male sterility. PMID:25898130

  19. De Novo Assembly and Transcriptome Analysis of Wheat with Male Sterility Induced by the Chemical Hybridizing Agent SQ-1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Gaisheng; Ju, Lan; Zhang, Jiao; Yu, Yongang; Niu, Na; Wang, Junwei; Ma, Shoucai

    2015-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), one of the world’s most important food crops, is a strictly autogamous (self-pollinating) species with exclusively perfect flowers. Male sterility induced by chemical hybridizing agents has increasingly attracted attention as a tool for hybrid seed production in wheat; however, the molecular mechanisms of male sterility induced by the agent SQ-1 remain poorly understood due to limited whole transcriptome data. Therefore, a comparative analysis of wheat anther transcriptomes for male fertile wheat and SQ-1–induced male sterile wheat was carried out using next-generation sequencing technology. In all, 42,634,123 sequence reads were generated and were assembled into 82,356 high-quality unigenes with an average length of 724 bp. Of these, 1,088 unigenes were significantly differentially expressed in the fertile and sterile wheat anthers, including 643 up-regulated unigenes and 445 down-regulated unigenes. The differentially expressed unigenes with functional annotations were mapped onto 60 pathways using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database. They were mainly involved in coding for the components of ribosomes, photosynthesis, respiration, purine and pyrimidine metabolism, amino acid metabolism, glutathione metabolism, RNA transport and signal transduction, reactive oxygen species metabolism, mRNA surveillance pathways, protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum, protein export, and ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. This study is the first to provide a systematic overview comparing wheat anther transcriptomes of male fertile wheat with those of SQ-1–induced male sterile wheat and is a valuable source of data for future research in SQ-1–induced wheat male sterility. PMID:25898130

  20. 11-Ketotestosterone inhibits the alternative mating tactic in sneaker males of the peacock blenny, Salaria pavo.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, R F; Carneiro, L A; Gonçalves, D M; Canario, A V; Grober, M S

    2001-01-01

    In the peacock blenny, Salaria pavo, a species with courtship sex-role reversal, smaller, younger males mimic the courtship behavior and the nuptial coloration of females in order to get access to nests during spawning and to parasitize egg fertilization from nest-holder males. Later in their life, sneakers transform both morphologically and behaviorally into nest-holder males. In the present paper we investigate the activational role of 11-ketotestosterone (KT), the most potent androgen in most teleost species, to promote the switch between tactics in sneaker males of S. pavo. Sneakers were implanted either with KT or with control (i.e. castor oil) silastic implants. A week after implantation they were subjected to a set of behavioral tests and morphometric measurements. KT treatment promoted the differentiation of secondary sex characters, such as the anal glands, and inhibited the expression of female courtship behavior. KT-treated sneakers also showed a trend toward less frequent display of female nuptial coloration. There was no effect of KT treatment on the expression of typical nest-holder male behavior. Finally, there was no effect of KT treatment on the number or soma size of arginine vasotocin neurons in the preoptic area, which are often associated with the expression of vertebrate sexual behavior. Thus, KT seems to play a key role in mating tactic switching by inhibiting the expression of female courtship behavior and by promoting the development of male displaying traits (e.g. anal glands). The lack of a KT effect on behavior typical of nest-holding males and vasotocinergic preoptic neurons suggests that a longer time frame or other endocrine/social signals are needed for the initiation of these traits in males that are switching tactics. PMID:11799276

  1. Mating Competitiveness of Anopheles arabiensis Males as a Function of Transgenic State and Genetic Similarity to Females

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. I. Howell; M. Q. Benedict

    2009-01-01

    We conducted mating competitions between wild-type and heterozygous transgenic Anopheles arabiensis males that were produced by repeated backcrosses of a transposable element expressing the ?2-tubulin eGFP marker into two genetic backgrounds. These competed for genetically similar or dissimilar females in ratios of 1:1:3.\\u000a We analyzed the effect of genetic similarity, transgenic state and stock on mating frequency. We observed no

  2. Female house sparrows "count on" male genes: experimental evidence for MHC-dependent mate preference in birds

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Females can potentially assess the quality of potential mates using their secondary sexual traits, and obtain "good genes" that increase offspring fitness. Another potential indirect benefit from mating preferences is genetic compatibility, which does not require extravagant or viability indicator traits. Several studies with mammals and fish indicate that the genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) influence olfactory cues and mating preferences, and such preferences confer genetic benefits to offspring. We investigated whether individual MHC diversity (class I) influences mating preferences in house sparrows (Passer domesticus). Results Overall, we found no evidence that females preferred males with high individual MHC diversity. Yet, when we considered individual MHC allelic diversity of the females, we found that females with a low number of alleles were most attracted to males carrying a high number of MHC alleles, which might reflect a mating-up preference by allele counting. Conclusions This is the first experimental evidence for MHC-dependent mating preferences in an avian species to our knowledge. Our findings raise questions about the underlying mechanisms through which birds discriminate individual MHC diversity among conspecifics, and they suggest a novel mechanism through which mating preferences might promote the evolution of MHC polymorphisms and generate positive selection for duplicated MHC loci. PMID:21320306

  3. Genetic loss or pharmacological blockade of testes-expressed taste genes causes male sterility

    PubMed Central

    Mosinger, Bedrich; Redding, Kevin M.; Parker, M. Rockwell; Yevshayeva, Valeriya; Yee, Karen K.; Dyomina, Katerina; Li, Yan; Margolskee, Robert F.

    2013-01-01

    TAS1R taste receptors and their associated heterotrimeric G protein gustducin are involved in sugar and amino acid sensing in taste cells and in the gastrointestinal tract. They are also strongly expressed in testis and sperm, but their functions in these tissues were previously unknown. Using mouse models, we show that the genetic absence of both TAS1R3, a component of sweet and amino acid taste receptors, and the gustducin ?-subunit GNAT3 leads to male-specific sterility. To gain further insight into this effect, we generated a mouse model that expressed a humanized form of TAS1R3 susceptible to inhibition by the antilipid medication clofibrate. Sperm formation in animals without functional TAS1R3 and GNAT3 is compromised, with malformed and immotile sperm. Furthermore, clofibrate inhibition of humanized TAS1R3 in the genetic background of Tas1r3?/?, Gnat3?/? doubly null mice led to inducible male sterility. These results indicate a crucial role for these extraoral “taste” molecules in sperm development and maturation. We previously reported that blocking of human TAS1R3, but not mouse TAS1R3, can be achieved by common medications or chemicals in the environment. We hypothesize that even low levels of these compounds can lower sperm count and negatively affect human male fertility, which common mouse toxicology assays would not reveal. Conversely, we speculate that TAS1R3 and GNAT3 activators may help infertile men, particularly those that are affected by some of the mentioned inhibitors and/or are diagnosed with idiopathic infertility involving signaling pathway of these receptors. PMID:23818598

  4. Male sterility in Arabidopsis induced by overexpression of a MYC5-SRDX chimeric repressor.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Pablo; Browse, John

    2015-03-01

    Jasmonate hormone (JA) plays critical roles in both plant defense and reproductive development. Arabidopsis thaliana plants deficient in JA-biosynthesis or -signaling are male-sterile, with defects in stamen and pollen development. MYC2, MYC3 and MYC4 are JAZ-interacting bHLH transcription factors that play a major role in controlling JA responses in vegetative tissue, but are not likely to play a role in reproductive tissue. We found that a closely related transcription factor, MYC5 (bHLH28), was able to induce JAZ promoters that control some of the early JA-responsive genes in a Daucus carota (carrot) protoplast expression system. A G-box sequence in the JAZ2 promoter was necessary and sufficient for induction by MYC5 (as it is for MYC2, MYC3 and MYC4), and induction of JAZ genes was repressed by co-expression of a stabilized, JAZ1?Jas repressor. Two allelic myc5 mutants exhibited no overt phenotype; however, transgenic lines expressing MYC5 fused to an SRDX (SUPERMAN repressive domain X) motif phenocopied mutants defective in JA signaling. In particular, MYC5-SRDX plants were male-sterile, with defects in stamen filament elongation, anther dehiscence and pollen viability. Importantly, expression of MYB21 and other transcription factors required for stamen and pollen maturation was strongly reduced in stamens of MYC5-SRDX plants relative to the wild type. Taken together, these results indicate that MYC5, probably together with other, redundant transcription factors, may be activated by JA signaling to induce the expression of MYB21 and components required for male fertility. PMID:25627909

  5. A long noncoding RNA regulates photoperiod-sensitive male sterility, an essential component of hybrid rice

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Jihua; Lu, Qing; Ouyang, Yidan; Mao, Hailiang; Zhang, Pingbo; Yao, Jialing; Xu, Caiguo; Li, Xianghua; Xiao, Jinghua; Zhang, Qifa

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid rice has greatly contributed to the global increase of rice productivity. A major component that facilitated the development of hybrids was a mutant showing photoperiod-sensitive male sterility (PSMS) with its fertility regulated by day length. Transcriptome studies have shown that large portions of the eukaryotic genomic sequences are transcribed to long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). However, the potential roles for only a few lncRNAs have been brought to light at present. Thus, great efforts have to be invested to understand the biological functions of lncRNAs. Here we show that a lncRNA of 1,236 bases in length, referred to as long-day–specific male-fertility–associated RNA (LDMAR), regulates PSMS in rice. We found that sufficient amount of the LDMAR transcript is required for normal pollen development of plants grown under long-day conditions. A spontaneous mutation causing a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) between the wild-type and mutant altered the secondary structure of LDMAR. This change brought about increased methylation in the putative promoter region of LDMAR, which reduced the transcription of LDMAR specifically under long-day conditions, resulting in premature programmed cell death (PCD) in developing anthers, thus causing PSMS. Thus, a lncRNA could directly exert a major effect on a trait like a structure gene, and a SNP could alter the function of a lncRNA similar to amino acid substitution in structural genes. Molecular elucidating of PSMS has important implications for understanding molecular mechanisms of photoperiod regulation of many biological processes and also for developing male sterile germplasms for hybrid crop breeding. PMID:22308482

  6. Alternative mating tactics in male white-faced dragonflies ( Leucorrhinia intacta ): plasticity of tactical options and consequences for reproductive success

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward C. Waltz; Larry L. Wolf

    1988-01-01

    Summary Alternative tactics used by males to obtain mates usually are associated with genetic and\\/or phenotypic differences between the behavioral morphs. This system of white-faced dragonfly (Leucorrhinia intacta) alternatives is characterized by plasticity of tactical options for individual males. Males may act either as territorials, and defend small perch-centered territories on the study pond, or they act as transients, spending

  7. Cytochemical Analysis of Pollen Development in Wild-Type Arabidopsis and a Male-Sterile Mutant.

    PubMed Central

    Regan, SM; Moffatt, BA

    1990-01-01

    Microsporogenesis has been examined in wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana and the nuclear male-sterile mutant BM3 by cytochemical staining. The mutant lacks adenine phosphoribosyltransferase, an enzyme of the purine salvage pathway that converts adenine to AMP. Pollen development in the mutant began to diverge from wild type just after meiosis, as the tetrads of microspores were released from their callose walls. The first indication of abnormal pollen development in the mutant was a darker staining of the microspore wall due to an incomplete synthesis of the intine. Vacuole formation was delayed and irregular in the mutant, and the majority of the mutant microspores failed to undergo mitotic divisions. Enzyme activities of alcohol dehydrogenase and esterases decreased in the mutant soon after meiosis and were undetectable in mature pollen grains of the mutant. RNA accumulation was also diminished. These results are discussed in relation to the possible role(s) of adenine salvage in pollen development. PMID:12354970

  8. Influence of the Male Ejaculate on Post-Mating Prezygotic Barriers in Field Crickets

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Erica L.; Andrés, Jose A.; Harrison, Richard G.

    2012-01-01

    Post-copulatory interactions between males and females involve highly coordinated, complex traits that are often rapidly evolving and divergent between species. Failure to produce and deposit eggs may be a common post-mating prezygotic barrier, yet little is known about what prevents the induction of egg-laying between species. The field crickets, Gryllus firmus and G. pennsylvanicus are isolated by a one-way reproductive incompatibility; G. pennsylvanicus males fail to fertilize G. firmus eggs or to induce normal egg-laying in G. firmus females. We use experimental crosses to elucidate the role of accessory gland-derived vs. testis-derived components of the G. firmus male ejaculate on egg-laying in conspecific and heterospecific crosses. Using surgical castrations to create ‘spermless’ males that transfer only seminal fluid proteins (SFPs) we test whether G. firmus male SFPs can induce egg-laying in conspecific crosses and rescue egg-laying in crosses between G. pennsylvanicus males and G. firmus females. We find G. firmus SFPs induce only a small short-term egg-laying response and that SFPs alone cannot explain the normal induction of egg-laying. Gryllus firmus SFPs also do not rescue the heterospecific cross. Testis-derived components, such as sperm or prostaglandins, most likely stimulate egg-laying or act as transporters for SFPs to targets in the female reproductive tract. These results highlight the utility of experimental approaches for investigating the phenotypes that act as barriers between species and suggest that future work on the molecular basis of the one-way incompatibility between G. firmus and G. pennsylvanicus should focus on divergent testis-derived compounds or proteins in addition to SFPs. PMID:23071547

  9. Location of X-linked polygenic effects causing sterility in male hybrids of Drosophila simulans and D. mauritiana.

    PubMed

    Naveira, H F

    1992-03-01

    There is general agreement that hybrid male sterility in Drosophila is caused by changes at several (perhaps many) factors, most of them located on the X chromosome. These factors have been generally considered as major genes, each one of them able to bring about sterility by itself. However, the evidence on this last point is not conclusive. In principle, the possibility that they correspond to located polygenic effects instead of genes with a large effect cannot be excluded. This paper shows that some of the factors that cause male sterility in D. simulans/D. mauritiana hybrids, located by recombination on the X chromosome, are indeed 'effective factors', or located polygenic effects. Some of the consequences of this finding are explored. PMID:1559838

  10. Subunit 6 of the Fo-ATP synthase complex from cytoplasmic male-sterile radish: RNA editing and NH2-terminal protein sequencing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Subbiah Krishnasamy; Raymond A. Grant; Christopher A. Makaroff

    1994-01-01

    RNA editing and NH2-terminal processing of subunit 6 (atp6) of the mitochondrial Fo-ATPase complex has been investigated for the normal (fertile) and Ogura (male-sterile) radish cytoplasms to determine if previously identified differences between the Ogura atp6 locus and its normal radish counterpart are associated with cytoplasmic male sterility. Analysis of cDNA clones from five different sterile and fertile radish lines

  11. Morphological and Cytological Study in a New Type of Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Line CMS-GIG2 in Sunflower (Helianthus annuus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in sunflower anthers, termed lemon CMS-GIG2, has been further confirmed by crossing with the maintenance line and restoration line of CMS-PET1, both of which maintain the male sterility of CMS-GIG2. Light microscopy observation of anther sections showed that bo...

  12. Identification of RAPD markers linked to a fertility restorer gene for the Ogura radish cytoplasmic male sterility of rapeseed ( Brassica napus L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Delourme; A. Bouchereau; N. Hubert; M. Renard; B. S. Landry

    1994-01-01

    Bulked segregant analysis was employed to identify random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers linked to the restorer gene (Rfo) used in theOgura radish cytoplasmic male sterility of rapeseed. A total of 138 arbitrary 10-mer oligonucleotide primers were screened on the DNA of three pairs of bulks, each bulk corresponding to homozygous restored and male sterile plants of three segregating populations.

  13. Registration of N614, A3N615, N616, and N617 Shattercane Genetic Stocks with cytoplasmic or nuclear male-sterility and juicy or dry midribs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four shattercane [Sorghum bicolor subsp. drummondii (Nees ex Steud) de Wet & Harlan] genetic stocks, N614, A3N615, N616, N617 (Reg. No. XXX, PI 665683 to 665686), with A3 cytoplasmic male-sterility or nuclear male-sterility gene ms3 containing either juicy (dd) or dry (DD) culms were developed joint...

  14. Host-plant-derived variation in ultraviolet wing patterns influences mate selection by male butterflies.

    PubMed

    Knüttel, H; Fiedler, K

    2001-07-01

    We report on the first case in which sequestered secondary plant compounds determine an insect's external appearance in the ultraviolet spectrum and thereby influence visually mediated mate choice. Larvae of the common blue butterfly Polyommatus icarus specifically sequester flavonoids in different amounts and types, depending on the part or species of food plant. During late pupal development the majority of ultraviolet-absorbing flavonoids are deposited in the wing scales. The flavonoid content of the larval diet thereby determines ultraviolet wing patterns. In laboratory and field experiments, male butterflies clearly preferred flavonoid-rich, ultraviolet-absorbing female dummies. This preference is mediated visually by the ultraviolet pattern of the wings. Food-plant parts and species vary in value as a food source, so ultraviolet wing patterns may signal mate quality and are not a species-specific characteristic. We discuss the use of principal component analysis in analysing spectral data in the context of visual communication. We propose the alternative application of confidence intervals of averaged spectra as a novel straightforward statistical method for comparing groups of spectra in a manner that is independent of assumptions about the visual system of the receiver. In addition, they can be used to give confidence intervals to derived measures of colour such as quantum catch by photoreceptors. PMID:11511660

  15. Assembly and analysis of a male sterile rubber tree mitochondrial genome reveals DNA rearrangement events and a novel transcript

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis, is an important plant species that is commercially grown to produce latex rubber in many countries. The rubber tree variety BPM 24 exhibits cytoplasmic male sterility, inherited from the variety GT 1. Results We constructed the rubber tree mitochondrial genome of a cytoplasmic male sterile variety, BPM 24, using 454 sequencing, including 8 kb paired-end libraries, plus Illumina paired-end sequencing. We annotated this mitochondrial genome with the aid of Illumina RNA-seq data and performed comparative analysis. We then compared the sequence of BPM 24 to the contigs of the published rubber tree, variety RRIM 600, and identified a rearrangement that is unique to BPM 24 resulting in a novel transcript containing a portion of atp9. Conclusions The novel transcript is consistent with changes that cause cytoplasmic male sterility through a slight reduction to ATP production efficiency. The exhaustive nature of the search rules out alternative causes and supports previous findings of novel transcripts causing cytoplasmic male sterility. PMID:24512148

  16. Cytoplasmic male sterility in alloplasmic Brassica juncea carrying Diplotaxis catholica cytoplasm: molecular characterization and genetics of fertility restoration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Pathania; S. R. Bhat; V. Dinesh Kumar; Ashutosh; P. B. Kirti; S. Prakash; V. L. Chopra

    2003-01-01

    The present study was aimed at characterizing cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) and identifying the fertility restorer gene for CMS ( Diplotaxis catholica) Brassica juncea derived through sexual hybridization. The fertility restorer gene was identified by crossing the CMS line with progeny plants derived from somatic hybrids of B. juncea and D. cathoilca. The CMS line is comparable to the nuclear

  17. Genetic analysis and molecular mapping of an Rf gene from Helianthus angustifolius for a new cytoplasmic male-sterile line

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The combination of cytoplasmic male-sterile (CMS) and the corresponding fertility restoration genes (Rf) is a critical tool in large-scale hybrid seed production of sunflower. A new CMS line 514A, derived from H. tuberosus / 7718B, was obtained from a scientific exchange with the Liaoning Academy of...

  18. Mutations at specific atp6 codons which cause human mitochondrial diseases also lead to male sterility in a plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Kempken; Werner Howad; Daryl R. Pring

    1998-01-01

    Defects in the human mitochondrial genetic system result in some diseases. These disorders are the result of rearrangements or point mutations in mitochondrial genes. In higher plants mutations and rearrangements in the mitochondrial DNA are believed to cause cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), a mitochondrially inherited inability to produce viable pollen. In sorghum, formation of CMS is strongly correlated with anther-specific

  19. Interspecific amphiploid-derived alloplasmic male sterility with defective anthers, narrow disk florets, and small ray flowers in sunflower

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cytoplasmic male-sterility (CMS)/fertility-restoration system is important for hybrid sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seed production. Two novel alloplasmic CMSs, designated CMS GRO1 and CMS MAX3 with defective anthers, narrow disk florets with no swollen corolla, and short, narrow ray flowers,...

  20. Physical and gene mapping of chloroplast DNA from normal and cytoplasmic male sterile (radish cytoplasm) lines of Brassica napus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fernand Vedel; Chantal Mathieu

    1983-01-01

    Using the restriction endonucleases SaII, SmaI, BgII and KpnI, physical maps of chloroplast DNA isolated from normal and cytoplasmic male sterile (radish cytoplasm) lines of B. napus were constructed and compared. In this study, a rapid and simple procedure was developed for the isolation of chloroplast DNA restriction fragments from low gelling temperature agarose gels.

  1. Fertility restoration of the sorghum A3 male-sterile cytoplasm through a sporophytic mechanism derived from sudangrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fertility restoration of sorghum lines carrying the IS1112C (A3 group) sorghum male-sterile cytoplasm in the line A3Tx398 has been documented as a two-gene gametophytic mechanism involving complementary action of restoring alleles designated Rf3 and Rf4, as derived from IS1112C. Fertility restorat...

  2. A cytoplasmic-nuclear male-sterility system derived from a cross between Cajanus cajanifolius and Cajanus cajan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. B. Saxena; R. V. Kumar; Namita Srivastava; Bao Shiying

    2005-01-01

    Cytoplasmic-nuclear male-sterility is an important biological tool, which has been used by plant breeders to increase yields\\u000a in cross-pollinated cereals and vegetables by commercial exploitation of the phenomenon of hybrid vigor. In legumes, no such\\u000a example exists due to the absence of an economic way of mass pollen transfer from male to female parent. Pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.], however,

  3. Enhancing mating performance after juvenile hormone treatment in Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera:Tephritidae): a differential response in males and females acts as a physiological sexing system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methoprene treatment can reduce the time required for sexual maturation in Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) (Wiedemann) males under laboratory conditions, supporting its use as a treatment for sterile males within the context of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). Here we evaluated sexu...

  4. Intergenerational effects of parental personality and relationship traits on mate choice among gay male and lesbian offspring.

    PubMed

    van Eeden-Moorefield, Brad; Lindsey, Elizabeth W

    2005-01-01

    Data from 33 lesbian and 54 gay male cohabiting couples were used to examine the relation between parental identification and mate selection. Theories of mate selection and parental identification are reviewed. Effects of gender and sexual orientation as they relate to parental identification and mate selection in gay male and lesbian couples also are reviewed. The results demonstrate significant associations between the similarity of perceived parental personality and relationship styling traits with those of the partner. Socio-economic status, age, and culture also were significantly associated between parents and partners. Taken together, the results demonstrate little support for any specific theory and allude to the need for further research in this area. Limitations and implications are discussed. PMID:16048888

  5. The effect of male sodium diet and mating history on female reproduction in the puddling squinting bush brown Bicyclus anynana (Lepidoptera)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Freerk Molleman; Bas J. Zwaan; Paul M. Brakefield

    2004-01-01

    The males of butterflies transfer a spermatophore to the female during mating that can contain nutrients enhancing the reproductive potential of their partners. The nutrients transferred by males can be derived from both larval and adult feeding. These nutrients may be depleted by multiple matings. An apparent difference in adult feeding behaviour between the sexes is puddling on mud, dung

  6. Variability of Female Responses to Conspecific vs. Heterospecific Male Mating Calls in Polygynous Deer: An Open Door to Hybridization?

    PubMed Central

    Wyman, Megan T.; Charlton, Benjamin D.; Locatelli, Yann; Reby, David

    2011-01-01

    Males of all polygynous deer species (Cervinae) give conspicuous calls during the reproductive season. The extreme interspecific diversity that characterizes these vocalizations suggests that they play a strong role in species discrimination. However, interbreeding between several species of Cervinae indicates permeable interspecific reproductive barriers. This study examines the contribution of vocal behavior to female species discrimination and mating preferences in two closely related polygynous deer species known to hybridize in the wild after introductions. Specifically, we investigate the reaction of estrous female red deer (Cervus elaphus) to playbacks of red deer vs. sika deer (Cervus nippon) male mating calls, with the prediction that females will prefer conspecific calls. While on average female red deer preferred male red deer roars, two out of twenty females spent more time in close proximity to the speaker broadcasting male sika deer moans. We suggest that this absence of strict vocal preference for species-specific mating calls may contribute to the permeability of pre-zygotic reproductive barriers observed between these species. Our results also highlight the importance of examining inter-individual variation when studying the role of female preferences in species discrimination and intraspecific mate selection. PMID:21887242

  7. Variability of female responses to conspecific vs. heterospecific male mating calls in polygynous deer: an open door to hybridization?

    PubMed

    Wyman, Megan T; Charlton, Benjamin D; Locatelli, Yann; Reby, David

    2011-01-01

    Males of all polygynous deer species (Cervinae) give conspicuous calls during the reproductive season. The extreme interspecific diversity that characterizes these vocalizations suggests that they play a strong role in species discrimination. However, interbreeding between several species of Cervinae indicates permeable interspecific reproductive barriers. This study examines the contribution of vocal behavior to female species discrimination and mating preferences in two closely related polygynous deer species known to hybridize in the wild after introductions. Specifically, we investigate the reaction of estrous female red deer (Cervus elaphus) to playbacks of red deer vs. sika deer (Cervus nippon) male mating calls, with the prediction that females will prefer conspecific calls. While on average female red deer preferred male red deer roars, two out of twenty females spent more time in close proximity to the speaker broadcasting male sika deer moans. We suggest that this absence of strict vocal preference for species-specific mating calls may contribute to the permeability of pre-zygotic reproductive barriers observed between these species. Our results also highlight the importance of examining inter-individual variation when studying the role of female preferences in species discrimination and intraspecific mate selection. PMID:21887242

  8. BEHAVIORAL MECHANISMS OF MATING ACCELERATION AFTER EXPOSURE OF MALE C. CAPITATA (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE) TO GINGER AND ORANGE OIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The behavioral mechanism of mating acceleration after exposure of male Mediterranean fruit flies to ginger root oil (GO) or to orange peel oil (OO) was studied in the laboratory. Exposure to both oils increased the frequency of sexual signaling. In a wind tunnel females were attracted at similar rat...

  9. Anim.Behav.,1992,44, 633 639 Acoustic signalling and its relation to male mating success in sagebrush crickets

    E-print Network

    Sakaluk, Scott

    sexually receptive females has been firmly established in numerous bioassays (Weber & Thorson 1989Anim.Behav.,1992,44, 633 639 Acoustic signalling and its relation to male mating success known for their conspicuous acoustic signalling behaviour, widely held to be the primary means by which

  10. Have sex differences in spatial ability evolved from male competition for mating and female concern for survival?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isabelle Ecuyer-Dab; Michèle Robert

    2004-01-01

    Drawing on the theoretical and empirical foundations of two evolutionary models, we argue that, among humans and other mammals, a twofold selection process would parsimoniously account for sex-linked advantages in spatial contexts. In males, a superiority for both solving navigation-related spatial problems and understanding physical principles that apply to the behavior of projectiles could have been inherited from mating-oriented male

  11. Transgenic male-sterile plant induced by an unedited atp9 gene is restored to fertility by inhibiting its expression with antisense RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Zabaleta, E; Mouras, A; Hernould, M; Suharsono; Araya, A

    1996-01-01

    We have previously shown that the expression of an unedited atp9 chimeric gene correlated with male-sterile phenotype in transgenic tobacco plant. To study the relationship between the expression of chimeric gene and the male-sterile trait, hemizygous and homozygous transgenic tobacco lines expressing the antisense atp9 RNA were constructed. The antisense producing plants were crossed with a homozygous male-sterile line, and the F1 progeny was analyzed. The offspring from crosses between homozygous lines produced only male-fertile plants, suggesting that the expression antisense atp9 RNA abolishes the effect of the unedited chimeric gene. In fact, the plants restored to male fertility showed a dramatic reduction of the unedited atp9 transcript levels, resulting in normal flower development and seed production. These results support our previous observation that the expression of unedited atp9 gene can induce male sterility. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8855343

  12. Heaven It's My Wife! Male Canaries Conceal Extra-Pair Courtships but Increase Aggressions When Their Mate Watches

    PubMed Central

    Ung, Davy; Amy, Mathieu; Leboucher, Gérard

    2011-01-01

    Many animals live in a communication network, an environment where individuals can obtain information about competitors or potential mates by observing interactions between conspecifics. In such an environment, interactants might benefit by changing their signalling behaviour in the presence of an audience. This audience effect seems widespread among species, has been observed during various types of interaction (e.g. intra-sexual vs. inter-sexual interaction) and varies according to the social context (e.g. gender, hierarchical or mating status of the audience). However, the way individuals might adapt their signalling behaviour to a combination of these factors remains poorly understood. To address this question, we studied how the presence of an audience affects the behaviour of male domestic canaries Serinus canaria during two types of interactions: (i) an extra-pair interaction and (ii) a male-male competition for food. Males were observed under three conditions: (a) in the absence of audience, (b) in the presence of their mate or (c) of a familiar female. Our results show that male domestic canaries minutely adapt their courting and agonistic behaviours to a combination of: (i) the type of interaction (extra-pair interaction/male-male competition), (ii) the social context (mate, familiar female or nobody in audience) and (iii) the behaviours of both the audience and the interactant. These results highlight the ability of animals to subtly adapt their behaviour to the social environment. This also raises questions about the cognitive foundations and evolution of these processes especially considering that canaries are known neither for having high cognitive abilities nor for being a typical example for the social intelligence hypothesis. PMID:21857945

  13. Fusion-mediated combination of Ogura-type cytoplasmic male sterility with Brassica napus plastids using X-irradiated CMS protoplasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laszlo Menczel; Alison Morgan; Stacey Brown; Pal Maliga

    1987-01-01

    X-irradiated protoplasts of a Brassica napus line carrying the Ogura Raphanus sativus male sterile cytoplasm were fused to protoplasts of male fertile B. napus cv. Olga. Plants were regenerated from six out of 34 randomly selected clones. In one clone, Bn(RS)26, a plant with male sterile flowers was obtained. Mitochondria of this plant are non-parental as revealed by DNA-DNA hybridization

  14. Dispersal and survival of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) males in Italian urban areas and significance for sterile insect technique application.

    PubMed

    Bellini, Romeo; Albieri, Alessandro; Balestrino, Fabrizio; Carrieri, Marco; Porretta, Daniele; Urbanelli, Sandra; Calvitti, Maurizio; Moretti, Riccardo; Maini, Stefano

    2010-11-01

    The dispersal and survival of laboratory-reared Aedes albopictus Skuse males were investigated during the summer of 2007 in three Northern Italy urban localities by mark-release-recapture techniques. Two marking methods were compared: one group of males was dusted with fluorescent pigments on the body (FP), and the other group was obtained from a strain whose natural infection of Wolbachia had been removed (WB0). FP- and WB0-marked males were released as adults and pupae, respectively, in one fixed station at each locality. Recaptures were performed by skilled technicians, within a radius of 350 m from the release site, on days 4, 5, and 7 after the release, and the males were collected while flying around the technician's body or in swarms. Recapture rates ranged from 0.63 to 4.72% for FP males and from 2.39 to 11.05% for WB0 males. The mean distance traveled for WB0 males was significantly higher than for FP males; no difference was observed between the dispersal distance measured for the males recaptured on human host versus males recaptured while swarming. No further increase of the dispersal occurred during the postrelease period investigated (from day 4 to day 7 after release). The mean survival rate at the release was 0.51 for FP-marked males and 0.81 for WB0 males. The data obtained are discussed for their significance in planning sterile insect technique programs against Ae. albopictus. PMID:21175057

  15. Male Moth Songs Tempt Females to Accept Mating: The Role of Acoustic and Pheromonal Communication in the Reproductive Behaviour of Aphomia sociella

    PubMed Central

    Kindl, Ji?í; Kalinová, Blanka; ?ervenka, Milan; Jílek, Milan; Valterová, Irena

    2011-01-01

    Background Members of the subfamily Galleriinae have adapted to different selective environmental pressures by devising a unique mating process. Galleriinae males initiate mating by attracting females with either chemical or acoustic signals (or a combination of both modalities). Six compounds considered candidates for the sex pheromone have recently been identified in the wing gland extracts of Aphomia sociella males. Prior to the present study, acoustic communication had not been investigated. Signals mediating female attraction were likewise unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings Observations of A. sociella mating behaviour and recordings of male acoustic signals confirmed that males initiate the mating process. During calling behaviour (stationary wing fanning and pheromone release), males disperse pheromone from their wing glands. When a female approaches, males cease calling and begin to produce ultrasonic songs as part of the courtship behaviour. Replaying of recorded courting songs to virgin females and a comparison of the mating efficiency of intact males with males lacking tegullae proved that male ultrasonic signals stimulate females to accept mating. Greenhouse experiments with isolated pheromone glands confirmed that the male sex pheromone mediates long-range female attraction. Conclusion/Significance Female attraction in A. sociella is chemically mediated, but ultrasonic communication is also employed during courtship. Male ultrasonic songs stimulate female sexual display and significantly affect mating efficiency. Considerable inter-individual differences in song structure exist. These could play a role in female mate selection provided that the female's ear is able to discern them. The A. sociella mating strategy described above is unique within the subfamily Galleriinae. PMID:22065997

  16. Bioreplicated visual features of nanofabricated buprestid beetle decoys evoke stereotypical male mating flights

    PubMed Central

    Domingue, Michael J.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh; Pulsifer, Drew P.; Hall, Loyal P.; Badding, John V.; Bischof, Jesse L.; Martín-Palma, Raúl J.; Imrei, Zoltán; Janik, Gergely; Mastro, Victor C.; Hazen, Missy; Baker, Thomas C.

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in nanoscale bioreplication processes present the potential for novel basic and applied research into organismal behavioral processes. Insect behavior potentially could be affected by physical features existing at the nanoscale level. We used nano-bioreplicated visual decoys of female emerald ash borer beetles (Agrilus planipennis) to evoke stereotypical mate-finding behavior, whereby males fly to and alight on the decoys as they would on real females. Using an industrially scalable nanomolding process, we replicated and evaluated the importance of two features of the outer cuticular surface of the beetle’s wings: structural interference coloration of the elytra by multilayering of the epicuticle and fine-scale surface features consisting of spicules and spines that scatter light into intense strands. Two types of decoys that lacked one or both of these elements were fabricated, one type nano-bioreplicated and the other 3D-printed with no bioreplicated surface nanostructural elements. Both types were colored with green paint. The light-scattering properties of the nano-bioreplicated surfaces were verified by shining a white laser on the decoys in a dark room and projecting the scattering pattern onto a white surface. Regardless of the coloration mechanism, the nano-bioreplicated decoys evoked the complete attraction and landing sequence of Agrilus males. In contrast, males made brief flying approaches toward the decoys without nanostructured features, but diverted away before alighting on them. The nano-bioreplicated decoys were also electroconductive, a feature used on traps such that beetles alighting onto them were stunned, killed, and collected. PMID:25225359

  17. Bioreplicated visual features of nanofabricated buprestid beetle decoys evoke stereotypical male mating flights.

    PubMed

    Domingue, Michael J; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh; Pulsifer, Drew P; Hall, Loyal P; Badding, John V; Bischof, Jesse L; Martín-Palma, Raúl J; Imrei, Zoltán; Janik, Gergely; Mastro, Victor C; Hazen, Missy; Baker, Thomas C

    2014-09-30

    Recent advances in nanoscale bioreplication processes present the potential for novel basic and applied research into organismal behavioral processes. Insect behavior potentially could be affected by physical features existing at the nanoscale level. We used nano-bioreplicated visual decoys of female emerald ash borer beetles (Agrilus planipennis) to evoke stereotypical mate-finding behavior, whereby males fly to and alight on the decoys as they would on real females. Using an industrially scalable nanomolding process, we replicated and evaluated the importance of two features of the outer cuticular surface of the beetle's wings: structural interference coloration of the elytra by multilayering of the epicuticle and fine-scale surface features consisting of spicules and spines that scatter light into intense strands. Two types of decoys that lacked one or both of these elements were fabricated, one type nano-bioreplicated and the other 3D-printed with no bioreplicated surface nanostructural elements. Both types were colored with green paint. The light-scattering properties of the nano-bioreplicated surfaces were verified by shining a white laser on the decoys in a dark room and projecting the scattering pattern onto a white surface. Regardless of the coloration mechanism, the nano-bioreplicated decoys evoked the complete attraction and landing sequence of Agrilus males. In contrast, males made brief flying approaches toward the decoys without nanostructured features, but diverted away before alighting on them. The nano-bioreplicated decoys were also electroconductive, a feature used on traps such that beetles alighting onto them were stunned, killed, and collected. PMID:25225359

  18. No evidence for heritability of male mating latency or copulation duration across social environments in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Michelle L; Evans, Jonathan P; Garcia-Gonzalez, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    A key assumption underpinning major models of sexual selection is the expectation that male sexual attractiveness is heritable. Surprisingly, however, empirical tests of this assumption are relatively scarce. Here we use a paternal full-sib/half-sib breeding design to examine genetic and environmental variation in male mating latency (a proxy for sexual attractiveness) and copulation duration in a natural population of Drosophila melanogaster. As our experimental design also involved the manipulation of the social environment within each full-sibling family, we were able to further test for the presence of genotype-by-environment interactions (GEIs) in these traits, which have the potential to compromise mate choice for genetic benefits. Our experimental manipulation of the social environment revealed plastic expression of both traits; males exposed to a rival male during the sensitive period of adult sexual maturation exhibited shorter mating latencies and longer copulation durations than those who matured in isolation. However, we found no evidence for GEIs, and no significant additive genetic variation underlying these traits in either environment. These results undermine the notion that the evolution of female choice rests on covariance between female preference and male displays, an expectation that underpins indirect benefit models such as the good genes and sexy sons hypotheses. However, our results may also indicate depletion of genetic variance in these traits in the natural population studied, thus supporting the expectation that traits closely aligned with reproductive fitness can exhibit low levels of additive genetic variance. PMID:24155948

  19. No Evidence for Heritability of Male Mating Latency or Copulation Duration across Social Environments in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Michelle L.; Evans, Jonathan P.; Garcia-Gonzalez, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    A key assumption underpinning major models of sexual selection is the expectation that male sexual attractiveness is heritable. Surprisingly, however, empirical tests of this assumption are relatively scarce. Here we use a paternal full-sib/half-sib breeding design to examine genetic and environmental variation in male mating latency (a proxy for sexual attractiveness) and copulation duration in a natural population of Drosophila melanogaster. As our experimental design also involved the manipulation of the social environment within each full-sibling family, we were able to further test for the presence of genotype-by-environment interactions (GEIs) in these traits, which have the potential to compromise mate choice for genetic benefits. Our experimental manipulation of the social environment revealed plastic expression of both traits; males exposed to a rival male during the sensitive period of adult sexual maturation exhibited shorter mating latencies and longer copulation durations than those who matured in isolation. However, we found no evidence for GEIs, and no significant additive genetic variation underlying these traits in either environment. These results undermine the notion that the evolution of female choice rests on covariance between female preference and male displays, an expectation that underpins indirect benefit models such as the good genes and sexy sons hypotheses. However, our results may also indicate depletion of genetic variance in these traits in the natural population studied, thus supporting the expectation that traits closely aligned with reproductive fitness can exhibit low levels of additive genetic variance. PMID:24155948

  20. [Thermo-sensitive period and critical temperature of fertility transition of thermo-photo-sensitive genic male sterile wheat].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiankui; Feng, Li; He, Liren; Yu, Guodong

    2003-01-01

    The thermo-sensitive period and the critical temperature of fertility transition of C49S, a principal thermo-photosensitive genic male sterile line in two-line hybrid wheat, was studied in the growth chambers for controlling temperature and photoperiod. The seeds were sown on different time for some years. The results showed that the thermo-sensitive period in fertility expression of C49S was from PMC formation stage to mature pollen stage, and there were two most sensitive stages to temperature on fertility expression. One was the PMC meiosis stage, and the other was the middle microspore stage. The critical temperatures evoking a complete male sterility were the mean minimum temperature at PMC meiosis stage (Tmin1), the mean temperature at microspore stage (T2) and the mean minimum temperature at microspore stage (Tmin2) lower than 8.5 degrees C, 13.5 degrees C and 10.5 degrees C, respectively. The critical temperatures keeping a nearly normal male fertility Tmin1 and T2 and Tmin2 were higher than 11.5 degrees C, 15.0 degrees C and 12.5 degrees C, respectively. The value as well as the conditions and the risks of thermo-photo-sensitive genic male sterile line of wheat applied to hybrid wheat were evaluated in this paper. PMID:12722439

  1. DNA methylation changes in photoperiod-thermo-sensitive male sterile rice PA64S under two different conditions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaojun; Hu, Jihong; Zhang, Hongyuan; Ding, Yi

    2014-03-01

    Epigenetic modification can occur at a high frequency in crop plants and might generate phenotypic variation without changes in DNA sequences. DNA methylation is an important epigenetic modification that may contribute to environmentally-induced phenotypic variations by regulating gene expression. Rice Photoperiod-Thermo-Sensitive Genic Male Sterile (PTGMS) lines can transform from sterility to fertility under lower temperatures and short-day (SD) conditions during anther development. So far, little is known about the DNA methylation variation of PTGMS throughout the genome in rice. In this study, we investigated DNA cytosine methylation alterations in the young panicles of PTGMS line PA64S under two different conditions using methylation sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) method. Compared with the DNA methylation level of PA64S under lower temperatures and SD conditions (fertility), higher methylation was observed in PA64S (sterility). The sequences of 25 differentially amplified fragments were successfully obtained and annotated. Three methylated fragments, which are homologous to D2, NAD7 and psaA, were confirmed by bisulfite sequencing and their expression levels were also evaluated by qPCR. Real time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that five of the six selected methylated genes were downregulated in PA64S (sterility). These results suggested that DNA methylation may be involved in the sterility-fertility transition of PA64S under two different environmental conditions. PMID:24365594

  2. Discovery of mitochondrial chimeric-gene associated with cytoplasmic male sterility of HL-rice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ping Yi; Li Wang; Qingping Sun; Yingguo Zhu

    2002-01-01

    The mitochondrial genome libraries of HL-type sterile line (A) and maintainer line(B) have been constructed. Mitochondrial\\u000a gene, atp6, was used to screen libraries, due to the different Southern and Northern blot results between sterile and maintainer line.\\u000a Sequencing analysis of positive clones proved that there were two copies of atp6 gene in sterile line and only one in maintainer line.

  3. Restoration of fertility by antisense RNA in genetically engineered male sterile tobacco plants.

    PubMed

    Schmülling, T; Röhrig, H; Pilz, S; Walden, R; Schell, J

    1993-03-01

    Transgenic tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum L.) expressing the rolC gene of Agrobacterium rhizogenes under the transcriptional control of the 35S RNA promoter are male sterile. When these plants are genetically crossed with others containing the rolC gene linked in antisense orientation to the 35S RNA promoter, hybrid progeny display restoration of male fertility. Moreover, hybrid progeny are revertant for other features of the rolC phenotype, such as restoration of plant height, leaf pigment content and female fertility. The level of restoration of the characteristics of untransformed tobacco appeared to be independent of the steady-state level of antisense RNA. Addition of six transcriptional enhancer sequences upstream of the 35S transcriptional start region in the antisense construct led to a higher steady-state level of antisense RNA than that produced using a promoter linked to a single enhancer sequence. However no significant difference was observed in the level of attenuation of the rolC phenotype in the progeny of crosses with either one or six transcriptional enhancers linked to the antisense rolC gene. Antisense constructs comprising only 189 bp of the rolC 5' coding region appeared less efficient in attenuating the rolC phenotype than those including the whole rolC coding region as well as its 3' untranslated region. Furthermore, results from experiments on light-controlled rolC gene expression indicate that microsporogenesis is sensitive to rolC gene action during the early stages of flower development. PMID:8483453

  4. Molecular and biological studies on male-sterile cytoplasm in the Cruciferae. I. The origin and distribution of Ogura male-sterile cytoplasm in Japanese wild radishes ( Raphanus sativus L.) revealed by PCR-aided assay of their mitochondrial DNAs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Yamagishi; T. Terachi

    1994-01-01

    Ogura male-sterile cytoplasm was surveyed in common Japanese radish cultivars and in wild radishes growing in various localities in Japan. Mitochondrial (mt) DNA rearrangement involving the atp6 gene was used as a molecular marker. To detect the mtDNA rearrangement, polymerase chain reactions (PCR) were designed to amplify the upstream region of the atp6 gene. The oligonucleotides homologous to the following

  5. The relative costs and benefits of territorial defense and the two conditional male mating tactics in the Comanche Springs pupfish ( Cyprinodon elegans )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John K. Leiser; Murray Itzkowitz

    2002-01-01

    .   We examined the aggressive costs and reproductive benefits of territorial defense and its alternatives in a population of\\u000a the Comanche Springs pupfish (Cyprinodon elegans). The breeding system was characterized by three different male mating tactics: territorial defense, satellite positioning,\\u000a and sneak spawning. The mating tactic adopted by males reflected the males' sizes. Territorial residents were the largest,\\u000a satellites were

  6. Estimation of the Number of Sex Alleles and Queen Matings from Diploid Male Frequencies in a Population of APIS MELLIFERA

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Julian; Rothman, Edward D.; Kerr, Warwick E.; Paulino, Zila L.

    1977-01-01

    The distribution of diploid males in a population of Apis mellifera was obtained by direct examination of the sexual phenotypes of the larvae. Using these data, estimates are derived for the number of sex alleles and the number of matings undergone by the queen. The number of sex alleles is estimated to be 18.9. The estimate is larger than previous ones, which have ranged between 10 and 12. However, the increase in the number of sex alleles can be explained by the large effective population number for our data. The best estimator of the number of matings by a queen is a maximum likelihood type that assumes a prior distribution on the number of matings. For the data presented here, this estimate is 17.3. This estimate is compared to others in the literature obtained by different approaches. PMID:892423

  7. Variable mate-guarding time and sperm allocation by male snow crabs (Chionoecetes opilio) in response to sexual competition, and their impact on the mating success of females.

    PubMed

    Rondeau, A; Sainte-Marie, B

    2001-10-01

    Two laboratory experiments investigated mate guarding and sperm allocation patterns of adult males with virgin females of the snow crab, Chionoecetes opilio, in relation to sex ratio. Although females outnumbered males in treatments, operational sex ratios were male-biased because females mature asynchronously and have a limited period of sexual attractiveness after their maturity molt. Males guarded females significantly longer as the sex ratio increased: the mean time per female was 2.9 d in a 2 males:20 females treatment compared to 5.6 d in a 6 males:20 females treatment. Female injury and mortality scaled positively to sex ratio. Males that guarded for the greatest number of days were significantly larger, and at experiment's end had significantly smaller vasa deferentia, suggesting greater sperm expense, than males that guarded for fewer days. In both experiments, the spermathecal load (SL)--that is, the quantity of ejaculate stored in a female's spermatheca--was independent of molt date, except in the most female-biased treatment, where it was negatively related. The SL increased as the sex ratio increased, mainly because females accumulated more ejaculates. However, similarly sized males had smaller vasa deferentia and passed smaller ejaculates, such that, at a given sex ratio, the mean SL was 55% less in one experiment than in the other. Some females extruded clutches with few or no fertilized eggs, and their median SL (3-4 mg) was one order of magnitude smaller than that of females with well-fertilized clutches (31-50 mg), indicating sperm limitation. Males economized sperm: all females irrespective of sex ratio were inseminated, but to a varying extent submaximally; each ejaculate represented less than 2.5% of male sperm reserves; and no male was fully exhausted of sperm. Sperm economy is predicted by sperm competition theory for species like snow crab in which polyandry exists, mechanisms of last-male sperm precedence are effective, and the probability that one male fertilizes a female's lifetime production of eggs is small. PMID:11687392

  8. Localization and organization of tRNA genes on the mitochondrial genomes of fertile and male sterile lines of maize

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdourahamane Sangaré; Jacques-Henry Weil; Jean-Michel Grienenberger; Christiane Fauron; David Lonsdale

    1990-01-01

    Maize mitochondrial (mt) tRNA genes were localized on the mt master circles of two fertile lines (WF9-N and B37-N) and of one cytoplasmic male sterile line (B37-cmsT) of maize. The three genomes contain 16 tRNA genes with 14 different anticodons which correspond to 13 amino acids. Out of these 16 tRNA genes, 6 show a high degree of homology with

  9. Proteome Analysis of the Wild and YX-1 Male Sterile Mutant Anthers of Wolfberry (Lycium barbarum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Rui; Sijun Yue; Xu, Xiaoyan; Liu, Jianyu; Xu, Qing; Wang, Xiaolin; Han, Lu; Yu, Deyue

    2012-01-01

    Pollen development is disturbed in the early tetrad stage of the YX-1 male sterile mutant of wolfberry (Lycium barbarum L.). The present study aimed to identify differentially expressed anther proteins and to reveal their possible roles in pollen development and male sterility. To address this question, the proteomes of the wild-type (WT) and YX-1 mutant were compared. Approximately 1760 protein spots on two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) gels were detected. A number of proteins whose accumulation levels were altered in YX-1 compared with WT were identified by mass spectrometry and the NCBInr and Viridiplantae EST databases. Proteins down-regulated in YX-1 anthers include ascorbate peroxidase (APX), putative glutamine synthetase (GS), ATP synthase subunits, chalcone synthase (CHS), CHS-like, putative callose synthase catalytic subunit, cysteine protease, 5B protein, enoyl-ACP reductase, 14-3-3 protein and basic transcription factor 3 (BTF3). Meanwhile, activities of APX and GS, RNA expression levels of apx and atp synthase beta subunit were low in YX-1 anthers which correlated with the expression of male sterility. In addition, several carbohydrate metabolism-related and photosynthesis-related enzymes were also present at lower levels in the mutant anthers. In contrast, 26S proteasome regulatory subunits, cysteine protease inhibitor, putative S-phase Kinase association Protein 1(SKP1), and aspartic protease, were expressed at higher levels in YX-1 anthers relative to WT anthers. Regulation of wolfberry pollen development involves a complex network of differentially expressed genes. The present study lays the foundation for future investigations of gene function linked with wolfberry pollen development and male sterility. PMID:22860020

  10. Characterization of cytoplasmic male sterility of rice with Lead Rice cytoplasm in comparison with that with Chinsurah Boro II cytoplasm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Etsuko Itabashi; Tomohiko Kazama; Kinya Toriyama

    2009-01-01

    Rice with LD-type cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) possesses the cytoplasm of ‘Lead Rice’ and its fertility is recovered by\\u000a a nuclear fertility restorer gene Rf1. Rf1 promotes processing of a CMS-associated mitochondrial RNA of atp6–orf79, which consists of atp6 and orf79, in BT-CMS with the cytoplasm of ‘Chinsurah Boro II’. In this study, we found that LD-cytoplasm contained a sequence

  11. Proteome analysis of the wild and YX-1 male sterile mutant anthers of wolfberry (Lycium barbarum L.).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Rui; Sijun Yue; Xu, Xiaoyan; Liu, Jianyu; Xu, Qing; Wang, Xiaolin; Han, Lu; Yu, Deyue

    2012-01-01

    Pollen development is disturbed in the early tetrad stage of the YX-1 male sterile mutant of wolfberry (Lycium barbarum L.). The present study aimed to identify differentially expressed anther proteins and to reveal their possible roles in pollen development and male sterility. To address this question, the proteomes of the wild-type (WT) and YX-1 mutant were compared. Approximately 1760 protein spots on two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) gels were detected. A number of proteins whose accumulation levels were altered in YX-1 compared with WT were identified by mass spectrometry and the NCBInr and Viridiplantae EST databases. Proteins down-regulated in YX-1 anthers include ascorbate peroxidase (APX), putative glutamine synthetase (GS), ATP synthase subunits, chalcone synthase (CHS), CHS-like, putative callose synthase catalytic subunit, cysteine protease, 5B protein, enoyl-ACP reductase, 14-3-3 protein and basic transcription factor 3 (BTF3). Meanwhile, activities of APX and GS, RNA expression levels of apx and atp synthase beta subunit were low in YX-1 anthers which correlated with the expression of male sterility. In addition, several carbohydrate metabolism-related and photosynthesis-related enzymes were also present at lower levels in the mutant anthers. In contrast, 26S proteasome regulatory subunits, cysteine protease inhibitor, putative S-phase Kinase association Protein 1(SKP1), and aspartic protease, were expressed at higher levels in YX-1 anthers relative to WT anthers. Regulation of wolfberry pollen development involves a complex network of differentially expressed genes. The present study lays the foundation for future investigations of gene function linked with wolfberry pollen development and male sterility. PMID:22860020

  12. Reversion of Texas male-sterile cytoplasm maize in culture to give fertile, T-toxin resistant plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. I. S. Brettell; E. Thomas; D. S. Ingram

    1980-01-01

    Plants carrying Texas male-sterile (Tms) cytoplasm are normally sensitive to Drechslera maydis T-toxin. Tissue cultures were initiated from immature embryos of maize carrying Tms-cytoplasm, and plants were regenerated after selection for resistance to T-toxin. Fertile, T-toxin resistant plants were obtained from the unselected control cultures as well as from the selected material. In addition, one regenerant from an unselected culture

  13. The health of a nation predicts their mate preferences: Cross-cultural variation in women's preferences for masculinized male faces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. M. DeBruine; B. C. Jones; J. R. Crawford; L. L. M. Welling; A. C. Little

    2010-01-01

    Recent formulations of sexual selection theory emphasise how mate choice can be affected by environmental factors, such as predation risk and resource quality. Women vary greatly in the extent to which they prefer male masculinity and this variation is hypothesised to reflect differences in how women resolve the trade-off between the costs (e.g., low investment) and benefits (e.g., healthy offspring)

  14. Effects of host-plant quality on male two-spotted spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae) mate location and guarding behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reed N. Royalty; P. Larry Phelan; Franklin R. Hall

    1994-01-01

    Effects of host-plant quality on two-spotted spider mite,Tetranychus urticae Koch, mate location and guarding behaviors were described using a no-choice bioassay. Males and quiescent deutonymphs were collected from lima bean leaves of one of two host qualities. High-chlorophyll (HC) leaves had been infested with spider mites for 6–10 days, while low-chlorophyll (LC) leaves had been infested for>21 days. Three parameters

  15. Male care, mate switching, and future reproductive success in a double-brooded passerine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Bart

    1990-01-01

    Summary Little is known of the factors that cause monogamous, double-brooded birds to keep the same mates, or switch mates, between nesting attempts within one breeding season. Only one factor, success or failure of the first attempt, has been investigated, and it appears to be important in some species but unimportant in others. Kendeigh (1941) mentioned another possible factor in

  16. Male traits, mating tactics and reproductive success in the buff-breasted sandpiper, Tryngites subruficollis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RICHARD B. LANCTOT; PATRICK J. WEATHERHEAD; BART KEMPENAERS; KIM T. SCRIBNER

    1998-01-01

    Buff-breasted sandpipers use a variety of mating tactics to acquire mates, including remaining at a single lek for most of the breeding season, attending multiple leks during the season, displaying solitarily or displaying both on leks and solitarily. We found that differences in body size, body condition, fluctuating asymmetry scores, wing coloration, territory location and behaviour (attraction, solicitation and agonistic)

  17. On being the right size: male contributions and multiple mating in social Hymenoptera

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. H. Crozier; R. E. Page

    1985-01-01

    A number of hypotheses for the occurrence of multiple mating by queens of social Hymenoptera are reviewed in the light of Cole's (1983) observation that polyandrous species tend to have larger colonies than single-mating ones. Most of these hypotheses cannot be definitively excluded, but only three of them appear sufficiently general, plausible and predictive to be useful guides to further

  18. Indirect fitness consequences of mate choice in sticklebacks: offspring of brighter males grow slowly but resist parasitic infections.

    PubMed Central

    Barber, I; Arnott, S A; Braithwaite, V A; Andrew, J; Huntingford, F A

    2001-01-01

    'Good genes' models of sexual selection suggest that elaborate male sexual ornaments have evolved as reliable signals of male quality because only males of high genetic viability are able to develop and maintain them. Females benefit from choosing such individuals if quality is heritable. A key prediction is that the offspring of males with elaborate mating displays will perform better than those of less elaborate males, but it has proved difficult to demonstrate such an effect independently of the effects of differences in parental investment. We tested for 'good genes' linked to male ornamentation in the three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus using in vitro fertilization to generate maternal half-siblings, which were raised without parental care. Maternal half-siblings sired by brightly coloured males grew less quickly than half-siblings sired by dull males but were more resistant to a controlled disease challenge. Among the offspring that became infected, those with brighter fathers had higher white blood cell counts. This suggests that highly ornamented males confer disease resistance on their offspring. The association with reduced growth suggests a mechanism for the maintenance of heritable variation in both disease resistance and male sexual coloration. PMID:12123300

  19. Influence of methoprene and protein on survival, maturation and sexual performance of male Ceratitis capitata (Diptera:Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), like many other polifagous tephritids (Diptera: Tephritidae), adopts a lek as mating system. The sterile insect technique (SIT) requires the release of sterile males able to survive on the field, to compete with wild males, and attrac...

  20. Cytological and Comparative Proteomic Analyses on Male Sterility in Brassica napus L. Induced by the Chemical Hybridization Agent Monosulphuron Ester Sodium

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhanjie; Cui, Jianmin; Hu, Shengwu; Zhao, Huixian; Chen, Mingshun

    2013-01-01

    Male sterility induced by a chemical hybridization agent (CHA) is an important tool for utilizing crop heterosis. Monosulphuron ester sodium (MES), a new acetolactate synthase-inhibitor herbicide belonging to the sulphonylurea family, has been developed as an effective CHA to induce male sterility in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). To understand MES-induced male sterility in rapeseed better, comparative cytological and proteomic analyses were conducted in this study. Cytological analysis indicated that defective tapetal cells and abnormal microspores were gradually generated in the developing anthers of MES-treated plants at various development stages, resulting in unviable microspores and male sterility. A total of 141 differentially expressed proteins between the MES-treated and control plants were revealed, and 131 of them were further identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. Most of these proteins decreased in abundance in tissues of MES-treated rapeseed plants, and only a few increased. Notably, some proteins were absent or induced in developing anthers after MES treatment. These proteins were involved in several processes that may be crucial for tapetum and microspore development. Down-regulation of these proteins may disrupt the coordination of developmental and metabolic processes, resulting in defective tapetum and abnormal microspores that lead to male sterility in MES-treated plants. Accordingly, a simple model of CHA-MES-induced male sterility in rapeseed was established. This study is the first cytological and dynamic proteomic investigation on CHA-MES-induced male sterility in rapeseed, and the results provide new insights into the molecular events of male sterility. PMID:24244648

  1. Different organization and altered transcription of the mitochondrial atp6 gene in the male-sterile cytoplasm of rapeseed ( Brassica napus L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hirokazu Handa; Kousuke Nakajima

    1992-01-01

    The Fo-ATPase subunit 6 gene (atp6) of rapeseed mitochondria has been isolated from both pol malesterile and normal (fertile) cytoplasms in order to determine whether the rearrangements around the atp6 locus in pol male-sterile cytoplasm play a role in cytoplasmic male-sterility (cms). The pol cms and normal atp6 genes are identical and encode a 261-amino acid polypeptide. As a result

  2. Microdeletions in interval 6 of the Y chromosome of males with idiopathic sterility point to disruption of AZF, a human spermatogenesis gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Vogt; A. C. Chandley; T. B. Hargreave; R. Keil; K. Ma; A. Sharkey

    1992-01-01

    For males with idiopathic sterility, a molecular screen specific for small lesions (microdeletions) in interval 6 of the Y chromosome was set up using 29 Y-DNA probes. A “de novo” microdeletion in Y interval 6 was detected in 2 out of 19 “chromosomally normal” sterile males. The first microdeletion includes the Y-DNA probes pY6HP35 and 12f3; the second microdeletion includes

  3. Effects of male fecundity, interindividual distance and anisotropic pollen dispersal on mating success in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) seed orchard

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T Torimaru; U Wennström; D Lindgren; X-R Wang

    2012-01-01

    Quantifying the effect of pollen dispersal and flowering traits on mating success is essential for understanding evolutionary responses to changing environments and establishing strategies for forest tree breeding. This study examined, quantitatively, the effects of male fecundity, interindividual distance and anisotropic pollen dispersal on the mating success of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), utilizing a well-mapped Scots pine seed orchard. Paternity

  4. Effects of the juvenile hormone analogue methoprene and dietary protein on male melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera:Tephritidae) mating success

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of access to dietary protein (P) and the topical application of a juvenile hormone analogue (methoprene (M)) on mating behaviour of male melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae was assessed in the laboratory and in field cages. Age, dietary protein and methoprene application increased the mating...

  5. Sequencing of the chloroplast genomes of cytoplasmic male-sterile and male-fertile lines of soybean and identification of polymorphic markers.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chunjing; Zhang, Chunbao; Zhao, Hongkun; Xing, Shaochen; Wang, Yumin; Liu, Xiaodong; Yuan, Cuiping; Zhao, Limei; Dong, Yingshan

    2014-12-01

    The RN-type cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) system used to develop Hybsoy-1, the first commercial hybrid soybean, has been subsequently applied to generate nearly all released soybean hybrids. Although more than 3 years are needed to classify sterile (S) and normal male-fertile (F) cytoplasms by conventional crossing, such classifications can be performed rapidly using organellar DNA-based molecular markers. Except for fertility, the agronomic traits of CMS hybrid soybean sterile and maintainer lines are identical. Consequently, it is difficult to distinguish them by routine visual inspection in the mixture arising in the course of field planting and harvesting during breeding. In this study, we performed next-generation sequencing of chloroplast DNAs of F- and S-cytoplasmic soybeans, assembled and annotated the genomes, and identified polymorphisms distinguishing them. Chloroplast DNAs of F and S cytoplasms were very similar in size (152,215 and 152,222 base pairs) and GC contents (35.37%). Among 23 shared SNPs in gene coding regions, we identified four that could be used in conjunction with restriction endonucleases to distinguish S and F cytoplasms. Although CMS is likely associated with mitochondrial DNA, maternal transmission of mitochondrial and chloroplast DNAs allows polymorphisms in either genome to be used to classify soybean cytoplasms, aiding hybrid soybean cultivar development. PMID:25443847

  6. Genetic Architecture of Hybrid Male Sterility in Drosophila: Analysis of Intraspecies Variation for Interspecies Isolation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura K. Reed; Brooke A. Laflamme; Therese A. Markow; Pawel Michalak

    2008-01-01

    BackgroundThe genetic basis of postzygotic isolation is a central puzzle in evolutionary biology. Evolutionary forces causing hybrid sterility or inviability act on the responsible genes while they still are polymorphic, thus we have to study these traits as they arise, before isolation is complete.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsIsofemale strains of D. mojavensis vary significantly in their production of sterile F1 sons when females

  7. A modulatory effect of male voice pitch on long-term memory in women: evidence of adaptation for mate choice?

    PubMed

    Smith, David S; Jones, Benedict C; Feinberg, David R; Allan, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    From a functionalist perspective, human memory should be attuned to information of adaptive value for one's survival and reproductive fitness. While evidence of sensitivity to survival-related information is growing, specific links between memory and information that could impact upon reproductive fitness have remained elusive. Here, in two experiments, we showed that memory in women is sensitive to male voice pitch, a sexually dimorphic cue important for mate choice because it not only serves as an indicator of genetic quality, but may also signal behavioural traits undesirable in a long-term partner. In Experiment 1, we report that women's visual object memory is significantly enhanced when an object's name is spoken during encoding in a masculinised (i.e., lower-pitch) versus feminised (i.e., higher-pitch) male voice, but that no analogous effect occurs when women listen to other women's voices. Experiment 2 replicated this pattern of results, additionally showing that lowering and raising male voice pitch enhanced and impaired women's memory, respectively, relative to a baseline (i.e., unmanipulated) voice condition. The modulatory effect of sexual dimorphism cues in the male voice may reveal a mate-choice adaptation within women's memory, sculpted by evolution in response to the dilemma posed by the double-edged qualities of male masculinity. PMID:21901577

  8. Male genital size reflects a tradeoff between attracting mates and avoiding predators in two live-bearing fish species

    PubMed Central

    Langerhans, R. Brian; Layman, Craig A.; DeWitt, Thomas J.

    2005-01-01

    Male genitalia may experience more rapid, divergent evolution than any other animal character, but why? Research during the past several decades has culminated in the view that genital diversification primarily results from postmating sexual selection (e.g., sperm competition or cryptic female choice). However, the potential roles of premating sexual selection (e.g., mate choice) and natural selection have received little attention. We examined the possible importance of these mechanisms by investigating divergence in male genitalia among populations differing in predator regime for two species of live-bearing fish (Gambusia affinis in Texas and Gambusia hubbsi in The Bahamas). When controlled for body size, males exhibited a larger gonopodium (sperm-transfer organ) in predator-free environments than in predatory environments, a trend that persisted across space (multiple populations), time (multiple years), and species. By conducting laboratory experiments with G. affinis, we found that premating sexual selection seems to favor larger male genitalia (females exhibited mating preference for males having larger gonopodia), but natural selection in the presence of predatory fishes seems to favor reduced genital size (larger gonopodium size was associated with reduced burst-swimming performance, an important antipredator behavior). Although postmating sexual selection is widely presumed to be the most important mechanism driving genital diversification, these findings suggest that alternative mechanisms, particularly for organisms that cannot retract their genitalia, may also prove important. PMID:15894618

  9. Behavioural response of female dark-eyed juncos to the experimental removal of their mates: implications for the evolution of male parental care

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LICIA WOLF; ELLEN D. KETTERSON; V NOLANJR

    1990-01-01

    Male dark-eyed juncos, Junco hyemah.s, are monogamous and normally help females leed nestlings. We removed males at hatching of their eggs and examined female parental behaviour in response to male removal. We compared parental behaviour of unaided females (experimentals) with that of (l) lemales aideci by their matcs (control females) and (2) females and their mates working together (control pairs).

  10. Inactivation of the UGPase1 gene causes genic male sterility and endosperm chalkiness in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Mi-Ok; Ham, Tae-Ho; Ji, Hyeon-So; Choi, Min-Seon; Jiang, Wenzhu; Chu, Sang-Ho; Piao, Rihua; Chin, Joong-Hyoun; Kim, Jung-A; Park, Bong Soo; Seo, Hak Soo; Jwa, Nam-Soo; McCouch, Susan; Koh, Hee-Jong

    2008-01-01

    A rice genic male-sterility gene ms-h is recessive and has a pleiotropic effect on the chalky endosperm. After fine mapping, nucleotide sequencing analysis of the ms-h gene revealed a single nucleotide substitution at the 3?-splice junction of the 14th intron of the UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase 1 (UGPase1; EC2.7.7.9) gene, which causes the expression of two mature transcripts with abnormal sizes caused by the aberrant splicing. An in vitro functional assay showed that both proteins encoded by the two abnormal transcripts have no UGPase activity. The suppression of UGPase by the introduction of a UGPase1-RNAi construct in wild-type plants nearly eliminated seed set because of the male defect, with developmental retardation similar to the ms-h mutant phenotype, whereas overexpression of UGPase1 in ms-h mutant plants restored male fertility and the transformants produced T1 seeds that segregated into normal and chalky endosperms. In addition, both phenotypes were co-segregated with the UGPase1 transgene in segregating T1 plants, which demonstrates that UGPase1 has functional roles in both male sterility and the development of a chalky endosperm. Our results suggest that UGPase1 plays a key role in pollen development as well as seed carbohydrate metabolism. PMID:18182026

  11. Irradiation of adult Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae): egg sterility in parental and F1 generations.

    PubMed

    Jang, Eric B; McInnis, Donald O; Kurashima, Rick; Woods, Bill; Suckling, David M

    2012-02-01

    Adult Epiphyas postvittana Walker were irradiated using a Cobalt 60 source to determine the dose needed to achieve complete egg sterility of mated female moths, and egg sterility of female moths mated to F1 generation males. Adult male and female E. postvittana were irradiated at 100, 200, 250, and 300 Gy and their fertility (when crossed with normal moths) was compared with nonirradiated moths. Viable progeny (determined by egg hatch) were found at doses of 100 and 200 Gy, but very little at 250 and 300 Gy. In particular, there was no survival of female progeny into the F1 generation. Males irradiated at 250 and 300 Gy had very low egg eclosion rates (2.25 and 1.86% at 250 and 300 Gy, respectively) when mated with normal females. The F2 generation from those male progeny had a mean percent hatched of < 1.02%. Based on our results, a dose of 250-300 Gy is recommended for irradiation of E. postvittana adults used for sterile insect technique (SIT) if sterility of parental moths is the desired outcome. Our data also suggests that inclusion of F1 hybrid sterility rather than parental generation sterility into programs using the SIT may allow for doses lower than what we have reported, especially during initial phases of an eradication program where increase fitness of moths might be desirable. Further research is needed to verify the use of F1 hybrid sterility in light brown apple moth SIT programs. PMID:22420255

  12. Sexual reproduction in Daphnia pulex (Crustacea: Cladocera): observations on male mating behaviour

    E-print Network

    Innes, David J.

    of Newfoundland, St John's, Newfoundland, Canada SUMMARY 1. Mating behaviour in Daphnia appears to rely on random of Biology, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St John's, Newfoundland, AIB 3X9 Canada. E-mail: dinnes

  13. Female and male genetic contributions to post-mating immune defence in female

    E-print Network

    Lazzaro, Brian

    in phenoloxidase activity after mating in the beetle Tenebrio molitor (Rolff & Siva-Jothy 2002), and decreased in yellow dung flies Scathophaga stercoraria (Schwarzenbach et al. 2005), and phenoloxidase activity

  14. Basic studies on hybrid wheat breeding : VIII. A new male sterility-fertility restoration system in common wheat utilizing the cytoplasms of Aegilops kotschyi and Ae. variabilis.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Y; Tsunewaki, K

    1979-07-01

    The nuclei of 12 common wheats (genome constitution AABBDD) were placed into the cytoplasms of Aegilops kotschyi and Ae. variabilis (both C(u)C(u)S(v)S(v)) by repeated backcrosses. Using these nucleus-cytoplasm hybrids, male sterility-fertility restoration relationship was investigated. Male sterility was expressed by these cytoplasms only in Slm, Splt and Mch. The other nine common wheat nuclei gave normal fertility against these cytoplasms. These cytoplasms were compared with the Triticum timopheevi cytoplasm that is now widely used in the hybrid wheat breeding program in order to investigate their effects on important agronomic traits of the 12 common wheats: The kotschyi and variabilis cytoplasms were as good as the timopheevi cytoplasm in this respect.The F1 hybrid between (kotschyi)- or (variabilis)-Splt and CS showed normal fertility. Segregation of the fertiles and steriles in their F2 generations followed the simple Mendelian fashion, i.e., 3 fertile?1 sterile. Thus, the fertility restoration in this case is mainly controlled by a single dominant gene which will be designated as Rfv1. To determine its location, ditelo-lBS and -lBL of CS were crossed as male parents to male sterile (kotschyi)- and (variabilis)-Splt. The F1 hybrids between the male sterile Spit's and CS ditelo-lBS became male fertile, while those between the male sterile Spit's and CS ditelo-lBL became completely male sterile. Thus, the location of the gene Rfv1 has been determined to be on the short arm of chromosome lB of CS. Furthermore, a close relationship between the fertility-restoring genes and the nucleolus organizer region was pointed out.Finally, the schemes of breeding the male sterile lines of a cultivar with these cytoplasms, and its maintainer line were formulated. The following two points were considered as the advantages of the present male sterility-fertility restoration system over that using the timopheevi cytoplasm in breeding hybrid wheat: (1) easier fertility restoration in F1 hybrids, and (2) no need of breeding the restorer line. PMID:24310337

  15. An experimental test of frequency-dependent selection on male mating strategy in the field

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Bleay; T. Comendant; B. Sinervo

    2007-01-01

    We provide field-based experimental evidence for the frequency-dependent nature of the fitness of alternative mating strategies. We manipulated the frequency of genetically determined phenotypic strategies in six wild populations of the side-blotched lizard, Uta stansburiana. The within-population pattern of mating was assessed using nine microsatellite loci to assign paternity. Within populations of the side-blotched lizard exist three colour morphs (orange,

  16. Multiple mating and a low incidence of cuckoldry for nest-holding males in the two-spotted goby, Gobiusculus flavescens

    PubMed Central

    Mobley, Kenyon B; Amundsen, Trond; Forsgren, Elisabet; Svensson, Per A; Jones, Adam G

    2009-01-01

    Background A major question in behavioural ecology concerns the relationship between genetic mating systems and the strength of sexual selection. In this study, we investigated the genetic mating system of the two-spotted goby (Gobiusculus flavescens), a useful fish model for the study of sexual selection whose genetic mating system remains uncharacterized. We developed four polymorphic microsatellite markers and used them to conduct parentage analyses on 21 nests collected during the breeding season to examine the rates of multiple mating by males and to test for evidence of alternative mating strategies. Results Results of this study indicate that male G. flavescens mate with multiple females and enjoy confidence of paternity. We detected only one instance of sneaking, so cuckoldry contributed a very small percentage (~0.1%) of the total fertilizations in this population. Nests were nearly full and males that maintain larger nests have higher mating and reproductive success, irrespective of body size. Conclusion Overall, our investigation shows that G. flavescens is similar to other, related gobies in that the nests of care-giving males often contain eggs from multiple females. However, G. flavescens differs from other gobies in displaying an extremely low rate of cuckoldry. The study of ecological factors responsible for this important difference between G. flavescens and related species should be a fertile area for future work. PMID:19133131

  17. Males and Females Contribute Unequally to Offspring Genetic Diversity in the Polygynandrous Mating System of Wild Boar

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-González, Javier; Costa, Vânia; Santos, Pedro; Slate, Jon; Carranza, Juan; Fernández-Llario, Pedro; Zsolnai, Attila; Monteiro, Nuno M.; Anton, István; Buzgó, József; Varga, Gyula; Beja-Pereira, Albano

    2014-01-01

    The maintenance of genetic diversity across generations depends on both the number of reproducing males and females. Variance in reproductive success, multiple paternity and litter size can all affect the relative contributions of male and female parents to genetic variation of progeny. The mating system of the wild boar (Sus scrofa) has been described as polygynous, although evidence of multiple paternity in litters has been found. Using 14 microsatellite markers, we evaluated the contribution of males and females to genetic variation in the next generation in independent wild boar populations from the Iberian Peninsula and Hungary. Genetic contributions of males and females were obtained by distinguishing the paternal and maternal genetic component inherited by the progeny. We found that the paternally inherited genetic component of progeny was more diverse than the maternally inherited component. Simulations showed that this finding might be due to a sampling bias. However, after controlling for the bias by fitting both the genetic diversity in the adult population and the number of reproductive individuals in the models, paternally inherited genotypes remained more diverse than those inherited maternally. Our results suggest new insights into how promiscuous mating systems can help maintain genetic variation. PMID:25541986

  18. Organization of actin cytoskeleton during meiosis I in a wheat thermo-sensitive genic male sterile line.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chenguang; Liu, Zetao; Zhang, Liping; Zhao, Changping; Yuan, Shaohua; Zhang, Fengting

    2013-02-01

    BS366 is a thermo-sensitive male sterile line of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) for two-line hybrid breeding, which exhibits aberrant meiotic cytokinesis under low temperature. Through transcriptome analysis, a possible regulatory role for plant actin cytoskeleton was suggested. However, the organization of actin cytoskeleton in meiosis has been poorly understood so far. Here, fixed microsporocytes during meiosis were labeled with tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate-phalloidin and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole. Quantities of fluorescent micrographs were captured using a confocal microscope, including the transient state from metaphase to telophase. We observed that actin filaments were abundant in typical kariokinetic spindle, central spindle (parallel microtubules or actin fibers between two separated chromosomes in anaphase), and phragmoplast. Interestingly, we identified the Chinese lantern-shaped actin phragmoplast in wheat meiosis for the first time. Under low temperature, phragmoplast actin filaments were chaotic and normal cell plate failed to form. These data provide new insights into the organization of actin filaments during male meiosis of plant and support a role of actin cytoskeleton in bringing about thermo-sensitive male sterility in wheat. PMID:22350736

  19. Underwater oviposition in a damselfly (Odonata: Coenagrionidae) favors male vigilance, and multiple mating by females

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ola M. Fincke

    1986-01-01

    Female Enallagma hageni oviposit underwater where they are inaccessible to males. I demonstrate that males guard submerged females rather than perch sites, and are behaviorally distinct from lone males at the water. In contrast to lone males, which always attempt to copulate with females presented to them, guarding males exhibit a conditional latency to remating which corresponds closely to the

  20. Symmetry, male dominance and female mate preferences in the Iberian rock lizard, Lacerta monticola

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pilar López; Alberto Muñoz; José Martín

    2002-01-01

    Female preference for dominant males is widespread and it is generally assumed that success in male-male competition reflects high quality. However, male dominance is not always attractive to females. Alternatively, relatively symmetric individuals may experience fitness advantages, but it remains to be determined whether males with more symmetrical secondary sexual traits experience advantages in both intra- and intersexual selection. We

  1. Clinical Evaluation of Non-surgical Sterilization of Male Cats with Single Intra-testicular Injection of Calcium Chloride

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Calcium chloride solution is an established injectable sterilant in dogs and other mammals. With cat populations a continuing problem, we sought to explore its first use in cats. Six cats per group were injected with 5%, 10% or 20% calcium chloride dihydrate in saline solution with lignocaine hydrochloride, a local anaesthetic. Results At the 60th day post-injection, cat testes were collected and showed complete testicular necrosis and replacement by fibrous tissue; very low sperm counts; and reduction of serum testosterone by at least 70% in 20% dose. Androgenic enzyme activities and their expressions were also reduced in all the treated groups along with intra-testicular testosterone concentration was also low. Increased testicular lipid peroxidation, with reduced antioxidants and mitochondrial membrane potential, were evident following calcium chloride treatments. However, there were no apparent changes in serum concentrations of cortisol, fasting blood sugar level, blood urea nitrogen, packed cell volume, or total serum protein following calcium chloride injection, suggesting that this method of sterilization is not associated with any general stress response. Conclusion Calcium chloride solution demonstrates potential for androgenesis-eliminating nonsurgical sterilization of male cats in addition to its proven efficacy in dogs and other mammals. PMID:21774835

  2. Silencing of meiosis-critical genes for engineering male sterility in plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Engineering sterile traits in plants through the tissue-specific expression of a cytotoxic gene provides an effective way for containing transgene flow; however, the microbial origin of cytotoxic genes has raised concerns. In an attempt to develop a safe alternative, we have chosen the meiosis-crit...

  3. [Mapping of two fertility-restoring gene for WA cytoplasmic male sterility in minghui63 using SSR markers].

    PubMed

    He, Guang-Hua; Wang, Wen-Ming; Liu, Guo-Qing; Hou, Lei; Xiao, Yue-Hua; Tang, Mei; Yang, Zheng-Lin; Pei, Yan

    2002-09-01

    F2 population derived from Shanyou63, F1 hybrid developed from the cross Zhenshan97 A/Zhenshan97B, was used in this study. Fertile bulk was constructed by polling equal amount of 15 highly fertile lines. Sterile bulk was obtained by pooling equal amount of 15 highly sterile lines. Minghui63 and Zhenshan97A, parents of Shanyou63, were analyzed with 302 pairs of SSR primers. 244 pairs of primers gave amplification products, of which 58 pairs of primers on 12 different chromosomes showed polymorphism between the two parents with polymorphic frequency up to 23.77%. Gene bulks were further assayed with the 5 pairs of primers. RM1 on chromosome 1 and RM258, RM304 on chromosome 10 was found to be polymorphic between the two gene bulks. In theory, there should be no difference detected between the two gene bulks except for the target traits governed by fertility-restoring genes. RM1, RM258 and RM304 were probably related to the restorer genes. Ten highly fertile and ten highly sterile lines were selected from F2 population of Shanyou63 to screen the gene bulks. The results showed that specific bands of Minghui63 were detected in all ten highly fertile lines while not observed in all the sterile lines. It indicated that the three SSR markers might be linked to fertility-restoring genes. Dominant lines were not selected due to their inalbility to distinguish recombinant lines from non-recombinant lines. Pure recessive lines were chosen to conduct mapping analysis. A total of 53 highly sterile lines were selected from 900 lines of Shanyou63 F2 population to estimate the genetic distance between three SSR markers and fertility-restoring genes respectively. The results demonstrated that recombination occurred in 2, 3, lines with RM1 and RM258 while no one with RM304. Using MAPMAKER/EXP 3.0, the genetic distance between RM1, RM258, RM304 and the related restorer genes were calculated as 1.9, 2.9 and 0.0 cM, respectively. It is possible that the fertility restoring gene(s) on chromosome 10 for three different types of cytoplasmic male sterility(WA, BT and HL) are of the same, or belong to a gene family. PMID:12561227

  4. CONVERSION OF FERTILITY RESTORATION OF THE SORGHUM IS1112C (A3) MALE-STERILE CYTOPLASM FROM TWO GENES TO ONE GENE.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The restoration of male fertility in sorghum lines carrying the IS1112C male-sterile cytoplasm requires complementary gametophytic action of two restoring alleles, Rf3 and Rf4, for individual gamete viability. An F1 heterozygous for the two restoring loci is expected to exhibit 25% viable pollen, a...

  5. Male killing can select for male mate choice: a novel solution to the paradox of the lek.

    PubMed

    Randerson, J P; Jiggins, F M; Hurst, L D

    2000-05-01

    In lekking species, intense directional selection is applied to aspects of the male genotype by female choice. Under conventional quantitative genetics theory, the expectation is that this will lead to a rapid loss in additive genetic variance for the trait in question. However, despite female choice, male variation is maintained and hence it pays females to continue choosing. This has been termed the 'paradox of the lek'. Here we present a theoretical analysis of a putative sex-role-reversed lek in the butterfly Acraea encedon. Sex-role reversal appears to have come about because of infection with a male-killing Wolbachia. The bacterium is highly prevalent in some populations, such that there is a dearth of males. Receptive females form dense aggregations, and it has been suggested that males preferentially select females uninfected with the bacterium. As with more conventional systems, this presents a theoretical problem exactly analogous to the lek paradox, namely what maintains female variation and hence why do males continue to choose? We model the evolution of a male choice gene that allows discrimination between infected and uninfected females, and show that the stable maintenance of both female variation and male choice is likely, so long as males make mistakes when discriminating between females. Furthermore, our model allows the maintenance, in a panmictic population, of a male killer that is perfectly transmitted. This is the first model to allow this result, and may explain the long-term persistence of a male killer in Hypolimnas bolina. PMID:10853728

  6. Regulation of mating behavior by nutrition and the corpus allatum in both male and female Phormia regina (Meigen).

    PubMed

    Yin, C -M.; Qin, W -H.; Stoffolano, J G.

    1999-09-01

    Both dietary protein and the corpus allatum (CA) were required for normal mating behavior in both male and female black blow fly, Phormia regina (Meigen). Nutrition (protein diet) activated the CA in both sexes. More than 10 mg of dietary liver was required for each male to result in 80% insemination of females, while 20 mg of liver was required for each female to allow 78% of females to become inseminated. Between 10 to 15 mg of protein meal (i.e., liver) was required to activate sexual receptivity in 71% of the females, while between 15 to 20 mg of liver was needed to support full oöcyte development in 70% of the females (Yin, C.-M., Zou, B.-X., Li, M.-F., Stoffolano, J.G., Jr. 1994. Discovery of a midgut peptide hormone which activates the endocrine cascade leading to oogenesis in Phormia regina Meigen. Journal of Insect Physiology, 40, 283-292). Allatectomy suppressed mating behavior more than 2-fold in both sexes. Topical application of 10 &mgr;g of S-methoprene (a juvenile hormone analogue) at 12 h after the onset of liver feeding restored sexual activity of both allatectomized males and females. Incidence of successful insemination increased as the oöcyte development progressed. Ovariectomy suppressed sexual receptivity more than 3-fold in liver-fed females. Thus, in addition to nutrition and the CA, ovaries and their developmentaal status can also affect the sexual receptivity in female P. regina. PMID:12770294

  7. Quantitative Genetic Analyses of Male Color Pattern and Female Mate Choice in a Pair of Cichlid Fishes of Lake Malawi, East Africa

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Baoqing; Daugherty, Daniel W.; Husemann, Martin; Chen, Ming; Howe, Aimee E.; Danley, Patrick D.

    2014-01-01

    The traits involved in sexual selection, such as male secondary sexual characteristics and female mate choice, often co-evolve which can promote population differentiation. However, the genetic architecture of these phenotypes can influence their evolvability and thereby affect the divergence of species. The extraordinary diversity of East African cichlid fishes is often attributed to strong sexual selection and thus this system provides an excellent model to test predictions regarding the genetic architecture of sexually selected traits that contribute to reproductive isolation. In particular, theory predicts that rapid speciation is facilitated when male sexual traits and female mating preferences are controlled by a limited number of linked genes. However, few studies have examined the genetic basis of male secondary sexual traits and female mating preferences in cichlids and none have investigated the genetic architecture of both jointly. In this study, we artificially hybridized a pair of behaviorally isolated cichlid fishes from Lake Malawi and quantified both melanistic color pattern and female mate choice. We investigated the genetic architecture of both phenotypes using quantitative genetic analyses. Our results suggest that 1) many non-additively acting genetic factors influence melanistic color patterns, 2) female mate choice may be controlled by a minimum of 1–2 non-additive genetic factors, and 3) F2 female mate choice is not influenced by male courting effort. Furthermore, a joint analysis of color pattern and female mate choice indicates that the genes underlying these two traits are unlikely to be physically linked. These results suggest that reproductive isolation may evolve rapidly owing to the few genetic factors underlying female mate choice. Hence, female mate choice likely played an important role in the unparalleled speciation of East African cichlid fish. PMID:25494046

  8. Identification of aberrant chromosomes on the basis of morphometry of synaptonemal complexes in the sterile male mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Kalinskaya, E.I.; Chepyzhov, V.V.; Bogdanov, Yu.F.

    1989-01-01

    The results of an investigation of the synaptonemal complexes (SCs) of spermatocytes of sterile males of the house mouse from the progeny of parents subjected to the action of a mutagen are presented in this study. A nonreciprocal translocation was readily identified by the configuration of the SCs. The translocation was observed at pachytene in 100% of cells; at diakinesis-metaphase I, in 58% of cells. A different pattern of association of the X chromosome with the rearrangement region was found in pachytene spermatocytes. Computer analysis of the relative lengths of the synaptonemal complex during the pachytene stage permitted the determination that the translocation took place from the 4th autosome to the 16th. The translocated segment was 66-75% of chromosome 4. In chromosome 16 the point of rupture is close to the distal end, and it was not possible to find the broken-off telomeric fragment of this chromosome in the male under study.

  9. The Arabidopsis male-sterile mutant, opr3, lacks the 12-oxophytodienoic acid reductase required for jasmonate synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Stintzi, Annick; Browse, John

    2000-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and its precursor 12-oxophytodienoic acid (OPDA) act as plant growth regulators and mediate responses to environmental cues. To investigate the role of these oxylipins in anther and pollen development, we characterized a T-DNA-tagged, male-sterile mutant of Arabidopsis, opr3. The opr3 mutant plants are sterile but can be rendered fertile by exogenous JA but not by OPDA. Cloning of the mutant locus indicates that it encodes an isozyme of 12-oxophytodienoate reductase, designated OPR3. All of the defects in opr3 are alleviated by transformation of the mutant with an OPR3 cDNA. Our results indicate that JA and not OPDA is the signaling molecule that induces and coordinates the elongation of the anther filament, the opening of the stomium at anthesis, and the production of viable pollen. Just as importantly, our data demonstrate that OPR3 is the only isoform of OPR capable of reducing the correct stereoisomer of OPDA to produce JA required for male gametophyte development. PMID:10973494

  10. Characterisation of a cytoplasmic male-sterile hybrid line between Lycopersicon peruvianum Mill. ×Lycopersicon pennellii Corr. and its crosses with cultivated tomato

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Petrova; Z. Vulkova; N. Gorinova; S. Izhar; N. Firon; J.-M. Jacquemin; A. Atanassov; P. Stoeva

    1999-01-01

    The cytoplasmic male-sterile (CMS) line CMS-pennellii (BC10P2\\u000a \\u000a L. peruvianumL. pennellii) and its complex hybrids with L. esculentum were studied. The established sterility was classified as the sporogenous type. As a result of the interaction of the genome\\u000a of L. pennellii and the cytoplasm of L. peruvianum clear changes were established in the profiles of malic enzyme and esterase. Restriction fragment

  11. The Evolutionary Consequences of Disrupted Male Mating Signals: An Agent-Based Modelling Exploration of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals in the Guppy

    PubMed Central

    Senior, Alistair McNair; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Grimm, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Females may select a mate based on signalling traits that are believed to accurately correlate with heritable aspects of male quality. Anthropogenic actions, in particular chemicals released into the environment, are now disrupting the accuracy of mating signals to convey information about male quality. The long-term prediction for disrupted mating signals is most commonly loss of female preference. Yet, this prediction has rarely been tested using quantitative models. We use agent-based models to explore the effects of rapid disruption of mating signals. In our model, a gene determines survival. Males signal their level of genetic quality via a signal trait, which females use to select a mate. We allowed this system of sexual selection to become established, before introducing a disruption between the male signal trait and quality, which was similar in nature to that induced by exogenous chemicals. Finally, we assessed the capacity of the system to recover from this disruption. We found that within a relatively short time frame, disruption of mating signals led to a lasting loss of female preference. Decreases in mean viability at the population-level were also observed, because sexual-selection acting against newly arising deleterious mutations was relaxed. The ability of the population to recover from disrupted mating signals was strongly influenced by the mechanisms that promoted or maintained genetic diversity in traits under sexual selection. Our simple model demonstrates that environmental perturbations to the accuracy of male mating signals can result in a long-term loss of female preference for those signals within a few generations. What is more, the loss of this preference can have knock-on consequences for mean population fitness. PMID:25047080

  12. Functional Dissection of the Sensory Rays in Caenorhabditis elegans Male Mating Behavior 

    E-print Network

    Koo, Pamela Kristine

    2012-02-14

    .................................................. 13 Screening of A and B neuron ablated animals mating assays .................................................................................. 14 III FUNCTION OF THE RAYS... to readily produce transgenic animals in the lab [6-10]. As the C. elegans body is transparent, it is a relatively simple process to observe expression patterns for any number of genes by driving fluorescent protein expression with the promoter...

  13. Nuptial gift-giving behaviour and male mating effort in the Neotropical spider Paratrechalea ornata (Trechaleidae)

    E-print Network

    Wisenden, Brian D.

    (Trechaleidae) Mari´a J. Albo*, Fernando G. Costa Laboratorio de Etologi´a, Ecologi´a y Evolucio´n, Instituto de (Thornhill 1976a; Gwynne 1984; Simmons & Parker 1989). In some insects the nuptial gift has a positive effect their reproductive success (mating effort hypothesis: Thornhill 1976b; Simmons & Gwynne 1991; Eberhard 1996; Wolfner

  14. Casanovas are liars: behavioral syndromes, sperm competition risk, and the evolution of deceptive male mating behavior in live-bearing fishes.

    PubMed

    Bierbach, David; Makowicz, Amber M; Schlupp, Ingo; Geupel, Holger; Streit, Bruno; Plath, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Male reproductive biology can by characterized through competition over mates as well as mate choice. Multiple mating and male mate choice copying, especially in internally fertilizing species, set the stage for increased sperm competition, i.e., sperm of two or more males can compete for fertilization of the female's ova. In the internally fertilizing fish Poecilia mexicana, males respond to the presence of rivals with reduced expression of mating preferences (audience effect), thereby lowering the risk of by-standing rivals copying their mate choice. Also, males interact initially more with a non-preferred female when observed by a rival, which has been interpreted in previous studies as a strategy to mislead rivals, again reducing sperm competition risk (SCR). Nevertheless, species might differ consistently in their expression of aggressive and reproductive behaviors, possibly due to varying levels of SCR. In the current study, we present a unique data set comprising ten poeciliid species (in two cases including multiple populations) and ask whether species can be characterized through consistent differences in the expression of aggression, sexual activity and changes in mate choice under increased SCR. We found consistent species-specific differences in aggressive behavior, sexual activity as well as in the level of misleading behavior, while decreased preference expression under increased SCR was a general feature of all but one species examined. Furthermore, mean sexual activity correlated positively with the occurrence of potentially misleading behavior. An alternative explanation for audience effects would be that males attempt to avoid aggressive encounters, which would predict stronger audience effects in more aggressive species. We demonstrate a positive correlation between mean aggressiveness and sexual activity (suggesting a hormonal link as a mechanistic explanation), but did not detect a correlation between aggressiveness and audience effects. Suites of correlated behavioral tendencies are termed behavioral syndromes, and our present study provides correlational evidence for the evolutionary significance of SCR in shaping a behavioral syndrome at the species level across poeciliid taxa. PMID:24627773

  15. Casanovas are liars: behavioral syndromes, sperm competition risk, and the evolution of deceptive male mating behavior in live-bearing fishes

    PubMed Central

    Bierbach, David

    2013-01-01

    Male reproductive biology can by characterized through competition over mates as well as mate choice. Multiple mating and male mate choice copying, especially in internally fertilizing species, set the stage for increased sperm competition, i.e., sperm of two or more males can compete for fertilization of the female’s ova. In the internally fertilizing fish Poecilia mexicana, males respond to the presence of rivals with reduced expression of mating preferences (audience effect), thereby lowering the risk of by-standing rivals copying their mate choice. Also, males interact initially more with a non-preferred female when observed by a rival, which has been interpreted in previous studies as a strategy to mislead rivals, again reducing sperm competition risk (SCR). Nevertheless, species might differ consistently in their expression of aggressive and reproductive behaviors, possibly due to varying levels of SCR. In the current study, we present a unique data set comprising ten poeciliid species (in two cases including multiple populations) and ask whether species can be characterized through consistent differences in the expression of aggression, sexual activity and changes in mate choice under increased SCR. We found consistent species-specific differences in aggressive behavior, sexual activity as well as in the level of misleading behavior, while decreased preference expression under increased SCR was a general feature of all but one species examined. Furthermore, mean sexual activity correlated positively with the occurrence of potentially misleading behavior. An alternative explanation for audience effects would be that males attempt to avoid aggressive encounters, which would predict stronger audience effects in more aggressive species. We demonstrate a positive correlation between mean aggressiveness and sexual activity (suggesting a hormonal link as a mechanistic explanation), but did not detect a correlation between aggressiveness and audience effects. Suites of correlated behavioral tendencies are termed behavioral syndromes, and our present study provides correlational evidence for the evolutionary significance of SCR in shaping a behavioral syndrome at the species level across poeciliid taxa. PMID:24627773

  16. Reproductive Ecology of Male and Female Strobili and Mating System in Two Different Populations of Pinus roxburghii

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Chandra Mohan; Khanduri, Vinod Prasad; Ghildiyal, Sunil Kumar

    2012-01-01

    We studied several flowering traits, namely, male-female cone phenology, male-female cone production per tree, mating system, sex ratio, air-borne pollen grains and pollen migration, over four successive years in two different natural populations of P. roxburghii from Garhwal Himalaya, India. Assessment of each trait mentioned except pollen dispersion was done by selecting five representative trees randomly in each population. The pollen migration was studied on naturally isolated source trees. The pollen trapping was done in all directions up to 2.5?km. The average reproductive period in P. roxburghii was 36 days with 3–5 days protandry. There were significant year and population effects for male and female cone output and pollen grains production per tree. In mass production year (1999), an average production of pollen cone per tree was estimated as 42.44 ± 8.32 × 103 at lower altitude and 28.1 ± 0.89 × 103 at higher altitude. The controlled pollination results in high level of outcrossing with 90% seed setting. We conclude that the high male-female ratio and tremendous pollen production capacity in P. roxburghii indicate high male competition among trees within populations. The isolation strip of 600?m is considered minimal for the management of seed orchard. PMID:22654581

  17. Methoprene application and diet protein supplementation to male melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, modifies female remating behavior

    PubMed Central

    ul Haq, Ihsan; Vreysen, Marc J B; Teal, P E A; Hendrichs, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Methoprene (an analogue of juvenile hormone) application and feeding on a protein diet is known to enhance male melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae), mating success. In this study, we investigated the effect of these treatments on male B. cucurbitae's ability to inhibit female remating. While 14-d-old females were fed on protein diet, 6-d-old males were exposed to one of the following treatments: (i) topical application of methoprene and fed on a protein diet; (ii) no methoprene but fed on a protein diet; (iii) methoprene and sugar-fed only; and (iv) sugar-fed, 14-d-old males acted as controls. Treatments had no effect on a male's ability to depress the female remating receptivity in comparison to the control. Females mated with protein-deprived males showed higher remating receptivity than females first mated with protein-fed males. Methoprene and protein diet interaction had a positive effect on male mating success during the first and second mating of females. Significantly more females first mated with sugar-fed males remated with protein-fed males and females first mated with methoprene treated and protein-fed males were more likely to remate with similarly treated males. Females mating latency (time to start mating) was significantly shorter with protein-fed males, and mating duration was significantly longer with protein-fed males compared with protein-deprived males. These results are discussed in the context of methoprene and/or dietary protein as prerelease treatment of sterile males in area-wide control of melon fly integrating the sterile insect technique (SIT). PMID:24376160

  18. The effects of male mating behaviour and food provisioning on breeding success in snow buntings Plectrophenax nivalis in the high Arctic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katrine S. Hoset; Yngve Espmark; Marie Lier; Tommy Haugan; Morten I. Wedege; Arne Moksnes

    2009-01-01

    For passerine birds breeding in the Arctic, paternal effort in parental care is necessary for successful breeding. Behavioural\\u000a strategies, such as mate guarding, to ensure paternity should therefore also be common in this environment. In order to investigate\\u000a the relation between such behaviour and breeding success, when controlling for the effect of environmental factors, we recorded\\u000a male mate-guarding behaviour, parental

  19. Gene expression divergence and nucleotide differentiation between males of different color morphs and mating

    E-print Network

    Gene expression divergence and nucleotide differentiation between males of different color morphs other Independents, whereas white morphs (Satellites) co-occupy Independent's courts without agonistic between males, but many genetic markers showed nucleotide differentiation between different color morphs

  20. Male dimorphism, territoriality and mating success in the tropical damselfly, Paraphlebia zoe Selys (Odonata: Megapodagrionidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allari Romo-Beltrán; Rogelio Macías-Ordóñez; Alex Córdoba-Aguilar

    2009-01-01

    The tropical damselfly Paraphlebia zoe has two male morphs: a black-winged (BW) male which is associated with territorial defense of oviposition sites; and a hyaline-winged\\u000a (HW) male similar in appearance to females, and, compared to the black morph, less frequently found defending territories.\\u000a In a wild population of this species, we first assessed the relationship between phenotypic traits [male morph,

  1. Inter-population variation in male mating behaviours in the sailfin mollie, Poecilia latipinna

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARGARET B. PTACEK; JOSEPH TRAVIS

    1996-01-01

    Abstract. Male sailfin mollies show size-dependent variation in sexual behaviour. The level of variation between six north Florida populations in rates of condition-dependent behaviours was estimated and whether behavioural variation is ordered with respect to male body size distributions was determined. In five of six populations, courtship display rates increased with male length, supporting previous evidence. Several results were not

  2. Firefly Courtship: Behavioral and Morphological Predictors of Male Mating Success in Photinus greeni

    E-print Network

    Lewis, Sara

    or attractiveness to females (Andersson 1994). Male-biased breeding sex ratios are expected to intensify male is based on con- spicuous visual or acoustic signals, predation risk can also exert a major influence). The search phase of Photinus courtship begins near dusk, when males fly at 1­2 m elevations emitting

  3. Multi-male mating and female choice increase offspring growth in the spider Neriene litigiosa (Linyphiidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PAUL J. WATSON

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this controlled-breeding study was to investigate the viability consequences of female choice and sequential polyandry for offspring in a way that would separate the influences of these two aspects of female sexual behaviour. Female sierra dome spiders,Neriene litigiosa(=Linyphia litigiosa) typically mate two to three times before production of their first batch of eggs, although some females (ca16%)

  4. Comparative proteomics analysis reveals the mechanism of fertility alternation of thermosensitive genic male sterile rice lines under low temperature inducement.

    PubMed

    Song, Liru; Liu, Zhongqi; Tong, Jianhua; Xiao, Langtao; Ma, Hao; Zhang, Haiqing

    2015-06-01

    Thermosensitive genic male sterile (TGMS) rice line has made great economical contributions in rice production. However, the fertility of TGMS rice line during hybrid seed production is frequently influenced by low temperature, thus leading to its fertility/sterility alteration and hybrid seed production failure. To understand the mechanism of fertility alternation under low temperature inducement, the extracted proteins from young panicles of two TGMS rice lines at the fertility alternation sensitivity stage were analyzed by 2DE. Eighty-three protein spots were found to be significantly changed in abundance, and identified by MALDI-TOF-TOF MS. The identified proteins were involved in 16 metabolic pathways and cellular processes. The young panicles of TGMS rice line Zhu 1S possessed the lower ROS-scavenging, indole-3-acetic acid level, soluble protein, and sugar contents as well as the faster anther wall disintegration than those of TGMS rice line Zhun S. All these major differences might result in that the former is more stable in fertility than the latter. Based on the majority of the 83 identified proteins, together with microstructural, physiological, and biochemical results, a possible fertile alteration mechanism in the young panicles of TGMS rice line under low temperature inducement was proposed. Such a result will help us in breeding TGMS rice lines and production of hybrid seed. PMID:25641954

  5. RNase Z(S1) processes UbL40 mRNAs and controls thermosensitive genic male sterility in rice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hai; Zhou, Ming; Yang, Yuanzhu; Li, Jing; Zhu, Liya; Jiang, Dagang; Dong, Jingfang; Liu, Qinjian; Gu, Lianfeng; Zhou, Lingyan; Feng, Mingji; Qin, Peng; Hu, Xiaochun; Song, Chengli; Shi, Jinfeng; Song, Xianwei; Ni, Erdong; Wu, Xiaojin; Deng, Qiyun; Liu, Zhenlan; Chen, Mingsheng; Liu, Yao-Guang; Cao, Xiaofeng; Zhuang, Chuxiong

    2014-01-01

    Thermosensitive genic male-sterile (TGMS) lines, which are male-sterile at restrictive (high) temperatures but male-fertile at permissive (low) temperatures, have been widely used in breeding two-line hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.). Here we find that mutation of thermosensitive genic male sterile 5 (tms5) in rice causes the TGMS trait through a loss of RNase Z(S1) function. We show that RNase Z(S1) processes the mRNAs of three ubiquitin fusion ribosomal protein L40 (UbL40) genes into multiple fragments in vitro and in vivo. In tms5 mutants, high temperature results in increased levels of UbL40 mRNAs. Overaccumulation of UbL40 mRNAs causes defective pollen production and male sterility. Our results uncover a novel mechanism of RNase Z(S1)-mediated UbL40 mRNA regulation and shows that loss of this regulation produces TGMS in rice, a finding with potential applications in hybrid crop breeding. PMID:25208476

  6. Male age, mating probability, and progeny fitness in the bulb mite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zofia Maria Prokop; Jacek Radwan

    2007-01-01

    In many species, the accumulation of mutations in the male germline can result in decreased progeny fitness. Consequently, females may evolve preferences for younger partners. Here, we used a promiscuous and relatively long-living bulb mite (Rhizoglyphus robini) to test whether male age affects his progeny fitness. We found that daughters of 4- to 5-week-old males had a 6% lower fecundity

  7. 11-Ketotestosterone Inhibits the Alternative Mating Tactic in Sneaker Males of the Peacock Blenny, Salaria pavo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rui F. Oliveira; Luis A. Carneiro; David M. Gonçalves; Adelino V. M. Canario; Matthew S. Grober

    2001-01-01

    In the peacock blenny, Salaria pavo, a species with courtship sex-role reversal, smaller, younger males mimic the courtship behavior and the nuptial coloration of females in order to get access to nests during spawning and to parasitize egg fertilization from nest-holder males. Later in their life, sneakers transform both morphologically and behaviorally into nest-holder males. In the present paper we

  8. [The cDNA-AFLP differential display in developing anthers between cotton male sterile and fertile line of "Dong A"].

    PubMed

    Hou, Lei; Xiao, Yue-Hua; Li, Xian-Bi; Wang, Wen-Feng; Luo, Xiao-Ying; Pei, Yan

    2002-04-01

    cDNA-AFLP, an effective method for mRNA differential display, was employed to compare the gene expression in developing anthers between the male sterile and fertile plants of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivar, Dong A. In the micro-spore stage, there were more differential bands of cDNA-AFLP than that in the meio-phase stage. Among 64 differential fragments produced by cDNA-AFLP, three were randomly selected for further analysis. RNA dot blotting showed that the GHA27 transcript was expressed mainly in floral tissues; on the other hand, the GHA28 and GHA47 transcripts were present specifically in anther. BLAST analysis demonstrated that GHA27 was highly similar to the plant ADP-ribosylation factor genes, while GHA28 and GHA27 were shown no significant similar to any sequences in the available databases. PMID:11985272

  9. Modelling mate-finding Allee effects and populations dynamics, with applications in pest control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David S. Boukal; Lud?k Berec

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we review how mate-finding Allee effects enter population dynamical models that consider both sexes, highlight\\u000a possible limitations of the more widely used “one-sex” models, and outline the links between the different model classes.\\u000a We further explore interactions between the mate-finding Allee effect and other mechanisms relevant to pest-control strategies:\\u000a release of natural enemies, sterile male release, and

  10. Influences of Mating Group Composition on the Behavioral Time-Budget of Male and Female Alpine Ibex (Capra ibex) during the Rut

    PubMed Central

    Tettamanti, Federico; Viblanc, Vincent A.

    2014-01-01

    During the rut, polygynous ungulates gather in mixed groups of individuals of different sex and age. Group social composition, which may vary on a daily basis, is likely to have strong influences on individual’s time-budget, with emerging properties at the group-level. To date, few studies have considered the influence of group composition on male and female behavioral time budget in mating groups. Focusing on a wild population of Alpine ibex, we investigated the influence of group composition (adult sex ratio, the proportion of dominant to subordinate males, and group size) on three behavioral axes obtained by Principal Components Analysis, describing male and female group time-budget. For both sexes, the first behavioral axis discerned a trade-off between grazing and standing/vigilance behavior. In females, group vigilance behavior increased with increasingly male-biased sex ratio, whereas in males, the effect of adult sex ratio on standing/vigilance behavior depended on the relative proportion of dominant males in the mating group. The second axis characterized courtship and male-male agonistic behavior in males, and moving and male-directed agonistic behavior in females. Mating group composition did not substantially influence this axis in males. However, moving and male-directed agonistic behavior increased at highly biased sex ratios (quadratic effect) in females. Finally, the third axis highlighted a trade-off between moving and lying behavior in males, and distinguished moving and female-female agonistic behavior from lying behavior in females. For males, those behaviors were influenced by a complex interaction between group size and adult sex ratio, whereas in females, moving and female-female agonistic behaviors increased in a quadratic fashion at highly biased sex ratios, and also increased with increasing group size. Our results reveal complex behavioral trade-offs depending on group composition in the Alpine ibex, and emphasize the importance of social factors in influencing behavioral time-budgets of wild ungulates during the rut. PMID:24416453

  11. The effects of diet, mating duration , female to male ratios and temperature on ovary activation, mating success and fecundity of Aethina tumida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of natural diet, mating and temperature on the ovary activation and fecundity of small hive beetles (SHB) Aethina tumida Murray were studied. The natural diets evaluated were brood, pollen, honey and their various combinations. Duration of mating (1 day versus 2 days), ratio of female (F...

  12. the terrestrially breeding male grey seal: implications for alternative mating tactics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Damian C. Lidgard; Daryl J. Boness; W. Don Bowen; Jim I. McMillan

    We examined the diving behaviour of breeding male grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) at Sable Island, Nova Scotia, from 1997 to 2001. The proportion of time spent at sea varied between 0 and 78% (N = 30). Males engaged in deep (43.4 ± 3.3 m (mean ± SE), N = 27) diving, and these dives were clustered into bouts, which mostly

  13. Male genital size reflects a tradeoff between attracting mates and avoiding predators

    E-print Network

    Langerhans, Brian

    populations differing in pred- ator regime for two species of live-bearing fish (Gambusia affinis in Texas and Gambusia hubbsi in The Bahamas). When controlled for body size, males exhibited a larger gonopodium (sperm experiments with G. affinis, we found that premating sexual selection seems to favor larger male genitalia

  14. Female ornamentation and male mate choice in dark-eyed juncos

    E-print Network

    Casto, Joseph M.

    NOLAN, JR & ELLEN D. KETTERSON Department of Biology and Center for the Integrative Study of Animal feathers of males and females are all or partly white and form a sharp contrast with the bird's mostly grey plumage. The amount of white in these feathers (`tail white') is greater in males than in females and

  15. Malarial parasitism and male competition for mates in the western fence lizard, Sceloporus occidentalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Schall; M. D. Dearing

    1987-01-01

    The effect of malarial parasitism on the ability of male western fence lizards, Sceloporus occidentalis, to compete for access to females was assessed experimentally. Pairs of male lizards, one infected with the malarial parasite, Plasmodium mexicanum, and the other not infected, were matched by size and color and placed in large seminatural outdoor enclosures along with an adult female lizard.

  16. Female mate choice in a subsocial beetle: male phenotype correlates with helping potential and offspring survival

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. ANNE E RASA; SONIA BISCH; THERESA TEICHNER

    1998-01-01

    InParastizopus armaticeps(Tenebrionidae), a nocturnal desert beetle, the males excavate breeding burrows and maintain their moisture level while the females provision the larvae with detritus collected on the surface. The beetles court in small groups on the surface at night after rain. Male size distribution in these groups corresponded to that in the population but more large and fewer small females

  17. A 610 KB YAC CLONE HARBORS 7 CM OF TOMATO (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM) DNA THAT INCLUDES THE MALE STERILE 14 GENE AND A HOTSPOT FOR RECOMBINATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pollen development requires both sporophytic and gametophytic gene expression. We are using a map-based cloning technique to isolate sporophytic genes which, when mutant, cause pollen abortion and a male sterile (ms) phenotype in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). We have genetically characterized on...

  18. Reversible male sterility in transgenic tobacco carrying a dominant-negative mutated glutamine synthetase gene under the control of microspore-specific promoter.

    PubMed

    Mamun, A N K

    2007-12-01

    Metabolic engineering was used to disrupt glutamine metabolism in microspores in order to block pollen development. We used a dominant-negative mutant (DNM) approach of cytosolic glutamine synthetase (GS1) gene under the microspore-specific promoter NTM19 to block glutamine synthesis in developing pollen grains. We observed partial male sterility in primary transgenic plants by using light microscopy, FDA, DAPI and in vitro pollen germination test. Microspores started to die in the early unicellular microspore stage, pollen viability in all primary transgenic lines ranged from 40-50%. All primary transgenics produced seeds like control plants, hence the inserted gene did not affect the sporophyte and was inherited through the female germline. We regenerated plants by in vitro microspore embryogenesis from 4 individual lines, pollen viability of progeny ranged from 12 to 20%, but some of them also showed 100% male sterility. After foliage spray with glutamine, 100% male-sterile plants were produced viable pollen and seed set was also observed. These results suggested that mutated GS1 activity on microspores had a significant effect on normal pollen development. Back-cross progenies (T2) of DH 100% male-sterile plants showed normal seed set like primary transgenics and control plants. PMID:18254207

  19. Comparison of the organization and expression of mtDNA of fertile and male-sterile sugar beet varieties ( Beta vulgaris L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Duchenne; B. Lejeune; P. Fouillard; F. Quetier

    1989-01-01

    Analysis of minicircle occurrence in different samples of sugar beet mitochondrial (mt) DNA invalidates the postulated relationship between cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) phenotype and the absence of minicircle c and d. In high molecular weight mt DNA, two types of restriction patterns are found for fertile genomes and only one type for the CMS; in spite of the multiplicity of

  20. Cytoplasmic male sterility in Beta is associated with structural rearrangements of the mitochondrial DNA and is not due to interspecific organelle transfer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christer Halldén; Christina Lind; Torbjörn Säll; Nils Olof Bosemark; Bengt O. Bengtsson

    1990-01-01

    Summary Chloroplast (ct) and mitochondrial (mt) DNAs from four cytoplasmic male sterile (cms) and 22 normal fertile sugar beet lines and accessions of wild beets from the genusBeta have been compared with restriction analyses and Southern hybridizations. We have used restriction analyses of ctDNA as a phylogenetic marker to confirm the taxonomic relationships between the different cytoplasms. According to the