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The release of genetically-modified or sterilemale mosquitoes offers a promising form of mosquito-transmitted pathogen control, but the insights derived from our understanding of male mosquito behaviour have not fully been incorporated into the design of such genetic control or sterile-male release methods. The importance of aspects of male life history and mating behaviour for sterile-male release programmes were investigated by projecting a stage-structured matrix model over time. An elasticity analysis of transient dynamics during sterile-male releases was performed to provide insight on which vector control methods are likely to be most synergistic. The results suggest that high mating competitiveness and mortality costs of released males are required before the sterile-release method becomes ineffective. Additionally, if released males suffer a mortality cost, older males should be released due to their increased mating capacity. If released males are of a homogenous size and size-assortative mating occurs in nature, this can lead to an increase in the abundance of large females and reduce the efficacy of the population-suppression effort. At a high level of size-assortative mating, the disease transmission potential of the vector population increases due to male releases, arguing for the release of a heterogeneously-sized male population. The female population was most sensitive to perturbations of density-dependent components of larval mortality and female survivorship and fecundity. These findings suggest source reduction might be a particularly effective complement to mosquito control based on the sterile insect technique (SIT). In order for SIT to realize its potential as a key component of an integrated vector-management strategy to control mosquito-transmitted pathogens, programme design of sterile-male release programmes must account for the ecology, behaviour and life history of mosquitoes. The model used here takes a step in this direction and can easily be modified to investigate additional aspects of mosquito behaviour or species-specific ecology.
Before sterile mass-reared mosquitoes are released in an attempt to control local populations, many facets of malemating biology need to be elucidated. Large knowledge gaps exist in how both sexes meet in space and time, the correlation of male size and mating success and in which arenas matings are successful. Previous failures in mosquito sterile insect technique (SIT) projects have been linked to poor knowledge of local mating behaviours or the selection of deleterious phenotypes during colonisation and long-term mass rearing. Careful selection of mating characteristics must be combined with intensive field trials to ensure phenotypic characters are not antagonistic to longevity, dispersal, or mating behaviours in released males. Success has been achieved, even when colonised vectors were less competitive, due in part to extensive field trials to ensure mating compatibility and effective dispersal. The study of malemating biology in other dipterans has improved the success of operational SIT programmes. Contributing factors include inter-sexual selection, pheromone based attraction, the ability to detect alterations in local mating behaviours, and the effects of long-term colonisation on mating competitiveness. Although great strides have been made in other SIT programmes, this knowledge may not be germane to anophelines, and this has led to a recent increase in research in this area.
Sexual maturation of Anastrepha fraterculus is a long process. Methoprene (a mimic of juvenile hormone) considerably reduces the time for sexual maturation in males. However, in other Anastrepha species, this effect depends on protein intake at the adult stage. Here, we evaluated the mating competitiveness of sterile laboratory males and females that were treated with methoprene (either the pupal or adult stage) and were kept under different regimes of adult food, which varied in the protein source and the sugar:protein ratio. Experiments were carried out under semi-natural conditions, where laboratory flies competed over copulations with sexually mature wild flies. Sterile, methoprene-treated males that reached sexual maturity earlier (six days old), displayed the same lekking behaviour, attractiveness to females and mating competitiveness as mature wild males. This effect depended on protein intake. Diets containing sugar and hydrolyzed yeast allowed sterilemales to compete with wild males (even at a low concentration of protein), while brewer´s yeast failed to do so even at a higher concentration. Sugar only fed males were unable to achieve significant numbers of copulations. Methoprene did not increase the readiness to mate of six-day-old sterile females. Long pre-copulatory periods create an additional cost to the management of fruit fly pests through the sterile insect technique (SIT). Our findings suggest that methoprene treatment will increase SIT effectiveness against A. fraterculus when coupled with a diet fortified with protein. Additionally, methoprene acts as a physiological sexing method, allowing the release of mature males and immature females and hence increasing SIT efficiency. PMID:22929968
Liendo, M C; Devescovi, F; Bachmann, G E; Utgés, M E; Abraham, S; Vera, M T; Lanzavecchia, S B; Bouvet, J P; Gómez-Cendra, P; Hendrichs, J; Teal, P E A; Cladera, J L; Segura, D F
The malesterile plants that segregated in a BC5F2 of `C. sericeus × C. cajan var. TT-5' population were maintained by sib mating. The malesterile plants were crossed with ICPL-85012.Approximately 50%\\u000a of the F1 plants were sterile. F2 plants derived from the fertile F1 plants did not segregate for malesterility. The reciprocal hybrid i.e. ICPL-85012 × Fertile derivatives
K. B. Wanjari; A. N. Patil; M. C. Patel; J. G. Manjaya
MULTIPLE copulations by Drosophila melanogaster males reduce their fertility1, even though these males will continue to court and mate after four or five successive matings. This sterility involves depletion of the accessory glands and not of sperm supply2 and is only temporary, for when these males are mated 2 or 3 h after the onset of sterility, they once again
Sexual maturation of Anastrepha fraterculus is a long process. Methoprene (a mimic of juvenile hormone) considerably reduces the time for sexual maturation in males. However, in other Anastrepha species, this effect depends on protein intake at the adult stage. Here, we evaluated the mating competit...
The sterile insect technique (SIT) is widely used in integrated programs against fruit fly pests, particularly the Mediterranean fruit fly. Unfortunately, the mass-rearing procedures inherent to the SIT often lead to a reduction in malemating competitiveness. The sterile insect technique (SIT) is w...
Previous research showed that exposure to ginger root, Zingiber officinale Roscoe, oil increased the mating success of mass-reared, sterilemales of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). This work, however, involved the exposure of small groups of males (n = 25) in small conta...
The occurrence of genetic malesterility and development of highly sterile lines have been reported. The malesterility was not accompanied by any visible chromosomal aberration. It behaved as recessive and was governed by multiple factors. It was hypothesised that three major genes with additive effect were operating to produce highly sterile forms while less sterile forms would be dependent
Laboratory?reared virgin females of 3 species of Tephritidae oviposited significantly fewer eggs than similar previously mated females. Melon flies, Dacus cucurbitae Coquillett, were most affected (3.0X more eggs for mated females), and Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), were least affected; oriental fruit flies, D. dorsalis Hendel, were in between. Numbers of eggs laid by females mated with males treated
Irving Keiser; Mohammad Ashraf; Ernest J. Harris; James A. Silva
Many empirical studies suggest that females often prefer to mate with older males. It is gener- ally assumed that females prefer older males because older males are of higher genetic quality. We used a viability-based simulation model to determine whether female preference for older mates is more likely to evolve than female preference for younger mates when males provide only
The suppressive effects of trapping adult sea lampreys, Petromyzon marinus Linnaeus, and releasing sterilemales (SMRT) or females (SFRT) into a closed system were expressed in deterministic models. Suppression was modeled as a function of the proportion of the population removed by trapping, the number of sterile animals released, the reproductive rate and sex ratio of the population, and (for the SFRT) the rate of polygyny. Releasing sterilemales reduced populations more quickly than did the release of sterile females. For a population in which 30% are trapped, sterile animals are initially released at ratio of 10 sterile to 1 fertile animal, 5 adult progeny are produced per fertile mating, 60% are male, and malesmate with an average of 1.65 females, the initial population is reduced 87% by SMRT and 68% by SFRT in one generation. The extent of suppression achieved is most sensitive to changes in the initial sterile release ratio. Given the current status of sea lamprey populations and trapping operations in the Great Lakes, the sterile-male-release technique has the best chance for success on a lake-wide basis if implemented in Lake Michigan. The effectiveness of the sterile-female-release technique should be investigated in a controlled study. Advancing trapping technology should be a high priority in the near term, and artificial rearing of sea lampreys to the adult stage should be a high priority in the long term. The diligent pursuit of sea lamprey suppression over a period of several decades can be expected to yield great benefits.
Klassen, Waldemar; Adams, Jean V.; Twohey, Michael B.
Although females are the choosier sex in most species, malemate choice is expected to occur under certain conditions. Theoretically, males should prefer larger females as mates in species where female fecundity increases with body size. However, any fecundity-related benefits accruing to a male that has mated with a large female may be offset by an associated fitness cost of
Emily J. E. Herdman; Clint D. Kelly; Jean-Guy J. Godin
The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a method of biological control whereby millions of factory reared sterilemale insects are released into the field. This technique is commonly used to combat the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata, Diptera: Tephritidae). Sterile medfly males are less competent in attracting and mating with wild females, a property commonly linked to the irradiation process
Females of many tephritid fruit flies can mate more than once, and can store ejaculates from multiple males. As well as being an important element of reproductive biology, multiple mating by females is of particular relevance for sterile insect technique programs used to control major tephritid pests. Here we investigate the consequences of multiple mating on fertility of Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni) females sequentially mated to irradiated ('sterile') and unirradiated ('normal') males. Females mated by two normal males showed persistent high fertility whereas females mated by two sterilemales showed persistent low fertility. Despite lack of association between copula duration and sperm number, fertility of females mated to a normal and then a sterilemale increased with duration of the first copulation and decreased with duration of the second. Fertility of females mated to a sterilemale and then a normal male was not influenced by duration of the first copulation but increased with duration of the second. These findings reveal a need for increased attention to how factors other than sperm number influence post-copulatory sexual selection in tephritid flies, and in particular how copula duration is linked to sperm storage and usage. PMID:22906778
Collins, Samuel R; Pérez-Staples, Diana; Taylor, Phillip W
The increasing popularity of sterilization underscores the need for knowledge about couples choosing male and female procedures. This research delineates four sets of variables that may be important for the decision and examines their relationship with the choice of male or female procedure among a sample of married couples. (Author)
Mate choice copying was mostly described as a strategy employed by females to assess the quality of potential mates, but also\\u000a males can copy other males mate choice. An open question in this context is whether and how copying males evaluate sperm\\u000a competition risk, as mating with a female that has already copulated with another male obviously sets the stage
David Bierbach; Claudia Kronmarck; Carmen Hennige-Schulz; Stefan Stadler; Martin Plath
Males often face strong mating competition by neighboring males in their social environment. A recent study by Plath et al.\\u000a (Anim Behav 75:2129, 2008a) has demonstrated that the visual presence of a male competitor (i.e., an audience male) affects\\u000a the expression of malemating preferences in a poeciliid fish (Poecilia mexicana) with a weaker expression of mating preferences when an
Martin Plath; Katja Kromuszczynski; Ralph Tiedemann
Although mountain gorillas,Gorilla gorilla beringei, are classified as having a one-malemating system, approximately 40% of the social units are multimale groups. I observed two multimale groups of mountain gorillas at the Karisoke Research Center, Rwanda, Africa, for 17 months to determine malemating patterns and malemalemating harassment in relation to both male dominance rank and female reproductive status.
Couples who are considering elective sterilization should compare the risks and costs of male and female sterilization procedures as part of the decision process. Morbidity, mortality, failure rates, and short-term costs associated with male and female st...
APPETITIVE BEHAVIOR AND COPULATORY RESPONSES WHICH CHARACTERIZE THE MATING BEHAVIOR OF MALE BEAGLES WERE STUDIED IN DETAIL. 4 DIFFERENT SEXUAL REFLEXES EXHIBITED BY SPINAL MALE BEAGLES WERE COMPARED TO RELEVANT ASPECTS OF THE MATING BEHAVIOR. IT IS CONCLUDED THAT SOME ASPECTS OF MATING BEHAVIOR, PARTICULARLY THE INTENSE EJACULATORY REACTION (IER) AND THE COPULATORY LOCK, ARE PROBABLY COMPLETELY MEDIATED AT THE
The olive tree is usually hermaphrodite but self-incompatible. In the Western Mediterranean some cultivars are totally male-sterile.\\u000a Three different male-sterile phenotypes have been recognised. To infer the genetic basis of malesterility we studied its\\u000a inheritance and cytoplasmic diversity in wild (oleaster) and cultivated Mediterranean olive. In the cross Olivière×Arbequina, the male-sterile trait was maternally inherited and affected all progenies.
A natural malesterile mutant was recovered from the normal population of chilli cv. CA 452-1. The malesterility in the mutant was governed by a single recessive gene ms. The excessive vegetative growth provided easy identification of malesterile plants in the seedling stage. The plant was found to be promising for hybrid seed production.
The effects of male and female body size, and correlated characteristics, on malemating behaviour were investigated in the western mosquitofish Gambusia affinis. Because larger females typically have larger broods in Gambusia sp., it was predicted that males would attempt more copulations with larger females. Two-way ANOVA showed that female body size was a significant predictor of malemating behaviour
In most animal species, males are predicted to compete for reproductive opportunities, while females are expected to choose between potential mates. However, when males' rate of reproduction is constrained, or females vary widely in 'quality', malemate choice is also predicted to occur. Such conditions exist in the promiscuous mating system of feral Soay sheep on St Kilda, Scotland, where a highly synchronized mating season, intense sperm competition and limitations on sperm production constrain males' potential reproductive rate, and females vary substantially in their ability to produce successful offspring. We show that, consistent with predictions, competitive rams focus their mating activity and siring success towards heavier females with higher inclusive fitness. To our knowledge, this is the first time that malemate choice has been identified and shown to lead to assortative patterns of parentage in a natural mammalian system, and occurs despite fierce male-male competition for mates. An additional consequence of assortative mating in this population is that lighter females experience a series of unstable consorts with less adept rams, and hence are mated by a greater number of males during their oestrus. We have thus also identified a novel male-driven mechanism that generates variation in female promiscuity, which suggests that the high levels of female promiscuity in this system are not part of an adaptive female tactic to intensify post-copulatory competition between males. PMID:15734690
Preston, B T; Stevenson, I R; Pemberton, J M; Coltman, D W; Wilson, K
Mitochondrial DNA was isolated from fertile and cytoplasmic malesterile lines of rice. Restriction analysis showed specific modifications in the malesterile cytoplasm. In addition to the major mitochondrial DNA, three small plasmid-like DNA molecules were detected by agarose gel electrophoresis in both cytoplasms. An additional molecule was specifically found in the sterile cytoplasm. These mitochondrial DNA modifications support the
The mating behavior of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae is of great interest from a fundamental and applied perspective. One of the most important elements of mating in this species is the crepuscular mating aggregation (swarm) composed almost entirely of males, where most coupling and inseminat...
The dimorphisms in morphology and behaviour of male fig wasps are among the most extreme in the animal kingdom, and offer excellent opportunities to test the predictions of certain sexual selection models. Winged males resemble their conspecific females closely, but wingless males are so divergent in form that they have repeatedly been classified into different taxa. Wingless malesmate within their natal fig fruits, whereas winged males disperse to mate. Individual species may have winged males, wingless males or both morphs. A key hypothesis proposes that sexual selection on malemating opportunities favours winged males in species with small broods and wingless males in species with large broods. Using data from 114 species in 33 genera, we show that both simple and formal comparative analyses support the correlated evolution of large brood size and male winglessness. Theoretical models further predict that, in male dimorphic species, the proportion of winged males should equal (in cases without local mate competition) or exceed (in cases with local mate competition) the proportion of females developing in fig fruits without wingless males. These predictions are met by eight out of nine male dimorphic species studied. Taken together, the patterns across all species, and between different male dimorphic species, strongly support sexual selection on mating opportunities as the major determinant of male morph ratios in fig wasps.
Cook, J. M.; Compton, S. G.; Herre, E. A.; West, S. A.
Because not all females are equally attractive, and because mating reduces the chances of getting further copulations, males should prefer better-quality mates. In this paper, we use the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata) to explore the effects of two non-correlated measures of female quality--size and reproductive status--on malemating decisions. All male guppies employ two alternative mating tactics. We found that large females, particularly those from a high predation site, were the target of most sneaky mating attempts. The response persisted in fish raised under standard conditions over several generations in the laboratory. In addition, non-pregnant females received more courtship displays. We conclude that males can discriminate among females and that they uncouple their mating tactics to track different axes of quality.
Summary How do animals integrate internal drives and external environmental cues to coordinate behaviours? We address this question studying mate-searching behaviour in C. elegans. C. elgans males explore their environment in search of mates (hermaphrodites) and will leave food if mating partners are absent. However, when mates and food coincide, male exploratory behaviour is suppressed and males are retained on the food source. We show that the drive to explore is stimulated by male specific neurons in the tail, the ray neurons. Periodic contact with the hermaphrodite detected through ray neurons changes the males behaviour during periods of no contact and prevents the male from leaving the food source. The hermaphrodite signal is conveyed by male-specific interneurons that are post-synaptic to the rays and that send processes to the major integrative center in the head. This study identifies key parts of the neural circuit that regulates a sexual appetitive behaviour in C. elegans.
Barrios, Arantza; Nurrish, Stephen; Emmons, Scott W.
The pilot field studies here presented are part of a long-term research program aimed to develop a cost-effective sterile insect technique (SIT) methodology to suppress Aedes albopictus (Skuse) populations. Aedes albopictus is a mosquito species mainly developing in man-made containers and with an island-like urban and suburban distribution. These two features make the application of the sterile insect technique a possible control strategy. Five trials have been performed in three small towns from 2005 to 2009 (Emilia-Romagna region, northern Italy). Reared male pupae, sexed by a sieving technique allowing the recovery of approximately 26-29% of males, were exposed to gamma rays and immediately released in the field. Adult population density was estimated based on a weekly monitoring of egg density in the ovitraps, whereas induced sterility was estimated by measuring the hatching percentage of weekly collected eggs in SIT and control areas. Results showed that sterilemales released at the rate of 896-1,590 males/ha/wk induced a significant sterility level in the local population. In addition, when the sterility level achieved values in the range of 70-80%, a similar reduction also was found for the egg density in the ovitraps. We could estimate that the minimum egg sterility value of 81% should be maintained to obtain suppression of the local population. Immigration of mated females was not a main issue in the small villages where trials have been run. PMID:23540120
Bellini, R; Medici, A; Puggioli, A; Balestrino, F; Carrieri, M
Cytoplasmic malesterility (CMS) in plants is a classical example of genomic conflict, opposing maternally-inherited cytoplasmic genes (mitochondrial genes in most cases), which induce malesterility, and nuclear genes, which restore male fertility. In natural populations, this type of sex control leads to gynodioecy, that is, the co-occurrence of female and hermaphroditic individuals within a population. According to theoretical models,
Background Anopheles gambiae mates in flight at particular mating sites over specific landmarks known as swarm markers. The swarms are composed of males; females typically approach a swarm, and leave in copula. This mating aggregation looks like a lek, but appears to lack the component of female choice. To investigate the possible mechanisms promoting the evolution of swarming in this mosquito species, we looked at the variation in mating success between swarms and discussed the factors that structure it in light of the three major lekking models, known as the female preference model, the hotspot model, and the hotshot model. Results We found substantial variation in swarm size and in mating success between swarms. A strong correlation between swarm size and mating success was observed, and consistent with the hotspot model of lek formation, the per capita mating success of individual males did not increase with swarm size. For the spatial distribution of swarms, our results revealed that some display sites were more attractive to both males and females and that females were more attracted to large swarms. While the swarm markers we recognize help us in localizing swarms, they did not account for the variation in swarm size or in the swarm mating success, suggesting that mosquitoes probably are attracted to these markers, but also perceive and respond to other aspects of the swarming site. Conclusions Characterizing the mating system of a species helps understand how this species has evolved and how selective pressures operate on male and female traits. The current study looked at malemating success of An. gambiae and discussed possible factors that account for its variation. We found that swarms of An. gambiae conform to the hotspot model of lek formation. But because swarms may lack the female choice component, we propose that the An. gambiae mating system is a lek-like system that incorporates characteristics pertaining to other mating systems such as scramble mating competition.
Rice is one of the most important model crop plants whose heterosis has been well-exploited in commercial hybrid seed production via a variety of types of male-sterile lines. Hybrid rice cultivation area is steadily expanding around the world, especially in Southern Asia. Characterization of genes and proteins related to malesterility aims to understand how and why the malesterility occurs, and which proteins are the key players for microspores abortion. Recently, a series of genes and proteins related to cytoplasmic malesterility (CMS), photoperiod-sensitive malesterility, self-incompatibility, and other types of microspores deterioration have been characterized through genetics or proteomics. Especially the latter, offers us a powerful and high throughput approach to discern the novel proteins involving in male-sterile pathways which may help us to breed artificial male-sterile system. This represents an alternative tool to meet the critical challenge of further development of hybrid rice. In this paper, we reviewed the recent developments in our understanding of malesterility in rice hybrid production across gene, protein, and integrated network levels, and also, present a perspective on the engineering of male-sterile lines for hybrid rice production.
Malesterility genes isolated in four inbred lines of pearl millet were found allelic. The differences between male fertile and malesterile phenotypes is mainly due to a single gene. Presence of a dominant gene (Ms) resulted in male fertility and double recessiveness (ms ms) in malesterility. However, genic malesterility (GMS) in Pennisetum is not a simply inherited
Theoretical models of sexual selection assume that females choose males independently of the actions and choice of other individual females. Variance in malemating success in promiscuous species is thus interpreted as a result of phenotypic differences among males which females perceive and to which they respond. Here we show that, if some females copy the behavior of other females in choosing mates, the variance in malemating success and therefore the opportunity for sexual selection is greatly increased. Copying behavior is most likely in non-resource-based harem and lek mating systems but may occur in polygynous, territorial systems as well. It can be shown that copying behavior by females is an adaptive alternative to random choice whenever there is a cost to mate choice. We develop a statistical means of estimating the degree of female copying in natural populations where it occurs. Images
Sexual selection theory traditionally considers choosiness for mates to be negatively related to intra-sexual competition. Males were classically considered to be the competing, but not the choosy, sex. However, evidence of male choosiness is now accumulating. Male choosiness is expected to increase with an individual's competitive ability, and to decrease as intra-sexual competition increases. However, such predictions have never been tested in field conditions. Here, we explore malemate choice in a spider by studying size-assortative pairing in two natural sites that strongly differ in the level of malemale competition. Unexpectedly, our results demonstrate that mate choice shifts from opportunism to high selectivity as competition between males increases. Males experiencing weak competition did not exhibit size-related mating preferences. By contrast, when competition was intense we found strong size-assortative pairing due to male choice: while larger, more competitive males preferentially paired with larger, more fecund females, smaller males chose smaller females. Thus, we show that mating preferences of males vary with their competitive ability. The distinct preferences exhibited by males of different sizes seem to be an adaptive response to the lower reproductive opportunities arising from increased competition between males.
Bel-Venner, M.C; Dray, S; Allaine, D; Menu, F; Venner, S
Fertility restoration of Petersons cytoplasmic male-sterility in pepper ( Capsicum annuum L.) is quantitative and environment-dependent. QTL analysis of fertility restoration was performed based on the test-cross progeny of 77013A (a strict cytoplasmic-genetic malesterile line) and a doubled haploid population of 114 lines obtained from an F 1 hybrid between Yolo wonder (a sterility maintainer line) and Perennial (a
L. H. Wang; B. X. Zhang; V. Lefebvre; S. W. Huang; A. M. Daubèze; A. Palloix
Human body morphology is thought to be correlated with sexual behaviour and sociosexuality (defined as an increased willingness to engage in sex without commitment) influences the perception of certain cues of physical attractiveness. Based on a sample of Slovak university students, we investigated relationships between 1) male and female mating success and reported body morphology (body mass index, BMI and waist-to-hip ratio, WHR) and 2) mate preference characteristics and mating success. Both males and females reported a similar number of long-term sexual partners and frequency of engaging in extra-pair copulation (EPC). The mating success of both sexes was positively mediated by self-perceived attractiveness. However, female BMI was inversely associated with mating success whereas increasing BMI was positively associated with malemating success (the total number of lifetime sexual partners) as well as with the likelihood of engaging in EPC. Unrestricted sociosexuality positively correlated with direct and indirect benefits from mating and negatively with the religious/political background of a potential mate and with the desire for a home/ children. These results confirm the hypothesis that human body morphology is associated with sexual behaviour and that cues of direct/indirect benefits in a potential mate positively correlate with sociosexuality. PMID:23980387
Morphological correlates of malemating success were assessed in natural populations of three Drosophila species. Matingmales in D. simulans were larger than single males but were characterized by reduced developmental stability as indicated by fluctuating asymmetry. Matingmale D. pseudoobscura were no larger than single males but exhibited significantly greater developmental stability. In D. mojavensis, however, matingmales were
Heterosubspecific mating experiments were carried out between two subspecies of cabbage butterflies, British Pieris rapae rapae and Japanese P. rapae crucivora, to examine how accurately males recognize the mates. The two subspecies are different in that the wings of female P. rapae rapae reflect little UV light, whereas those of female P. rapae crucivora are strongly UV-reflective. The wing colouration of P. rapae crucivora involving UV is believed to be critical in mate recognition. The results showed that males of both subspecies displayed mating behaviours, to and copulated with, females of both subspecies. Furthermore, P. rapae crucivora males exhibited mating behaviours and attempted to copulate with females of Pieris melete with low UV reflectance which are critically different from P. rapae crucivora females with high UV reflectance. Based on these findings, we propose the pioneer male hypothesis, which argues that such inaccurate mate recognition may sometimes be selectively beneficial for males and thus an adaptive mating strategy. The pioneer male was discussed in terms of its possible role in the evolution.
It is frequently assumed that males have an almost unlimited reproductive capacity, while access to receptive females is typically\\u000a limiting. Consequently, sexual selection is expected to favor vigorous courtship behavior in males. If such behavior is associated\\u000a with non-trivial costs, ample current mating opportunities should be accompanied by a reduction in future mating vigor. To\\u000a test this hypothesis, three treatments
Mating behavior in adult male nematodes can be assayed by mating efficiency, i.e., the number of cross progeny sired by males under standard conditions. Mutant males from 220 strains, representing most of the known complementation groups of C. elegans, have been examined for mating efficiency and for anatomical abnormalities of the specialized male copulatory organs. These data extend the phenotypic description of these mutants and indicate what anatomical and behavioral components are necessary for the ability to mate successfully. Also, mutants with specific defects in the male were sought by establishing superficially wild-type hermaphrodite stocks after mutagenesis and testing the males segregated by these stocks for mating efficiency. Forty-nine of 1119 stocks yielded abnormal males. Seventeen were characterized in detail and found to be abnormal in sensory behavior (carrying mutations in the genes che-2 or che-3) or male genital anatomy (carrying mutations in one of the genes mab-1 to mab-10). Four of the mab (male abnormal) genes affect specific postembryonic cell lineages.
A male-sterile, female-sterile soybean mutant (w4-m sterile) was identified among progeny of germinal revertants of a gene-tagging study. Our objectives were to determine the genetics (inheritance, allelism, and linkage) and the cytology (micro- sporogenesis and microgametogenesis) of the w4-m sterile. The mutant was in- herited as a single recessive nuclear gene and was nonallelic to known male-sterile, female-sterile mutants st2
We identified Arabidopsis thaliana sterility mutants by screening T-DNA and EMS-mutagenized lines and characterized several male-sterile mutants with defects\\u000a specific for different anther processes. Approximately 44 and 855 sterile mutants were uncovered from the T-DNA and EMS screens,\\u000a respectively. Several mutants were studied in detail with defects that included the establishment of anther morphology, microspore\\u000a production, pollen differentiation, and anther
Paul M. Sanders; Anhthu Q. Bui; Koen Weterings; Katherine N. McIntire; Yung-Chao Hsu; Pei Yun Lee; Mai Thy Truong; T. P. Beals; R. B. Goldberg
Male redback spiders twist their abdomens onto the fangs of their mates during copulation and, if cannibalized (65% of matings), increase their paternity relative to males that are not cannibalized. The adaptive male sacrifice hypothesis proposes that this increased reproductive payoff from a single mating outweighs the residual reproductive value of a cannibalized male, because high mortality during mate searching
In the beetle Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.) females are larger on average than males, as indicated by elytra length. Size-assortative matings were observed in wild populations in Florida and in laboratory mating experiments. We tested three mechanisms for this size-assortative mating: (1) mate availability; (2) mating constraints; and (3) mate choice. We found that mate choice influenced size-assortative mating by: (1)
Ally R. Harari; Alfred M. Handler; Peter J. Landolt
In many species, malemating behaviour is corre- lated with male body size, with large males often being preferred by females. Small surface-dwelling Poecilia mex- icana males compensate for this disadvantage by being more sexually active and using sneaky copulations. In a cave-dwelling population, however, small males do not show this behaviour. Do small males alter their behaviour in the
Female mate preference for dorsal fin length in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) was investigated. In a dichotomous choice experiment using live males, females preferred males with longer dorsal fins to\\u000a those with shorter dorsal fins. When the dorsal fin lengths of the two males were reversed by surgical manipulation, the females\\u000a reversed their preference. To further examine this preference behaviour,
Kenji Karino; Takatsugu Ishiwatari; Hiromi Kudo; Aya Sato
In poeciliid fishes, males can gain copulation either by courting females or through sexual coercion. In some species these two tactics coexist. However, in about half of the poeciliids, males do not display, females never cooperate during copulation and all matings are achieved by thrusting the intromittent organ toward the genital pore of apparently unaware females. In one of these
A `two-line system' using photoperiod-sensitivecytoplasmic malesterility (PCMS) caused by Aegilops crassa cytoplasm has been proposed as a newmeans of producing hybrid wheat. The PCMS line ismaintained by self-pollination under short-dayconditions (?14.5 h light period), and F1 seedscan be produced by outcrossing of the PCMS line witha pollinator under long-day conditions (?15 h lightperiod). As the levels of malesterility
The sterile insect technique (SIT) has been proposed as an area-wide method to control the South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann). This technique requires sterilization, a procedure that affects, along with other factors, the ability of males to modulate female sexual receptivity after copulation. Numerous pre-release treatments have been proposed to counteract the detrimental effects of irradiation, rearing and handling and increase SIT effectiveness. These include treating newly emerged males with a juvenile hormone mimic (methoprene) or supplying protein to the male's diet to accelerate sexual maturation prior to release. Here, we examine how male irradiation, methoprene treatment and protein intake affect remating behavior and the amount of sperm stored in inseminated females. In field cage experiments, we found that irradiated laboratory males were equally able to modulate female remating behavior as fertile wild males. However, females mated with 6-day-old, methoprene-treated males remated more and sooner than females mated with naturally matured males, either sterile or wild. Protein intake by males was not sufficient to overcome reduced ability of methoprene-treated males to induce refractory periods in females as lengthy as those induced by wild and naturally matured males. The amount of sperm stored by females was not affected by male irradiation, methoprene treatment or protein intake. This finding revealed that factors in addition to sperm volume intervene in regulating female receptivity after copulation. Implications for SIT are discussed. PMID:23340454
Abraham, S; Liendo, M C; Devescovi, F; Peralta, P A; Yusef, V; Ruiz, J; Cladera, J L; Vera, M T; Segura, D F
We investigated malemate preferences in relation to the perceived risk of sperm competition in the guppy ( Poecilia reticulata), a freshwater fish with a promiscuous mating system. Our laboratory experiments revealed that malemate choice behaviour is not influenced by the presence of rival males that are merely in close proximity to a potential mate, as there was no
The tendency of females to mate with multiple males is often explained by direct and indirect benefits that could outweigh the many potential costs of multiple mating. However, behaviour can only evolve in response to costs and benefits if there is sufficient genetic variation on which selection can act. We followed 108 mating chases of 85 North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) during 4 years, to measure each female's degree of multiple malemating (MMM), and used an animal model analysis of our multi-generational pedigree to provide what we believe is the first estimate of the heritability of MMM in the wild. Female red squirrels were highly polyandrous, mating with an average of 7.0 ± 0.2 males on their day of oestrus. Although we found evidence for moderate levels of additive genetic variation (CV(A) = 5.1), environmental variation was very high (CV(E) = 32.3), which resulted in a very low heritability estimate (h(2) < 0.01). So, while there is genetic variation in this trait, the large environmental variation suggests that any costs or benefits associated with differences among females in MMM are primarily owing to environmental and not genetic differences, which could constrain the evolutionary response to natural selection on this trait. PMID:21159688
McFarlane, S Eryn; Lane, Jeffrey E; Taylor, Ryan W; Gorrell, Jamieson C; Coltman, David W; Humphries, Murray M; Boutin, Stan; McAdam, Andrew G
A genic malesterile Chinese cabbage, Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis Makino, was examined using cytological and cytochemical methods to characterize the process of pollen abortion in this plant.\\u000a Thick sections of both fertile and sterile anthers at different developmental stages were stained using Toluidine Blue O,\\u000a Periodic Acid-Schiffs (PAS) reaction and Sudan Black B to detect cytochemical changes that
Summary. A study of malesterility over a period of three consecutive years on a conifer species endemic to Taiwan, Taiwania cryptomerioides Hayata (Taxodiaceae), was done for this article. With the aids of fluorescence and electron microscopic observations, the\\u000a ontogenic processes in the fertile and sterile microsporangia are compared, using samples collected from Chitou Experimental\\u000a Forest and Yeou-Shoei-Keng Clonal Orchard of
Mating behavior and factors affecting mating success of males were studied using wild Anastrepha ludens on a fieldcaged host tree. The most common courtship sequence had five components: (1) male calls from the underside of a leaf, (2) female arrives to the maleoccupied leaf, (3) male orients to female and stops calling, (4) one or both approach to a face-to-face
David C. Robacker; Robert L. Mangan; Daniel S. Moreno; Aleena M. Tarshis Moreno
We investigated mate choice in the antler fly (Protopiophila litigata Bonduriansky), which forms mating aggregations and oviposits exclusively on discarded cervid antlers, by pairing males with nongravid females and by collecting copulating pairs on antlers. Because females probably receive larger ejaculates (which they partly ingest after mating) and more effective protection (mate guarding) from large males than from small ones,
Little is known about male reproductive strategies in aquatically mating pinnipeds. To study the mating patterns of harbour seals,Phoca vitulinaVHF telemetry was used to relate the distribution and behaviour of adult males to the distribution of females during the summer pupping and mating season. Prior to July males occupied large and variable ranges. At the beginning of July, males decreased
SOFIE M. VAN PARIJS; PAUL M. THOMPSON; DOMINIC J. TOLLIT; ANN MACKAY
In the horseshoe crab mating system, mated pairs are frequently accompanied by unattached satellite males as they spawn on intertidal beaches. Previous studies have shown that males locate females visually using their lateral (compound) eyes, and that attached (mated) males generally have less heavily worn or damaged carapaces than unattached males. The purpose of this study was to investigate the
Erin E. Duffy; Dustin J. Penn; Mark L. Botton; H. Jane Brockmann; Robert E. Loveland
Morphological correlates of malemating success were assessed in natural populations of three Drosophila species. Matingmales in D. simulans were larger than single males but were characterized by reduced developmental stability as indicated by fluctuating asymmetry. Matingmale D. pseudoobscura were no larger than single males but exhibited significantly greater developmental stability. In D. mojavensis, however, matingmales were larger and they showed a similar level of fluctuating asymmetry to that observed in single males. The differences observed between species are discussed in the context of their mating systems and reproductive ecology. PMID:1526852
Most studies of repeatability examine female mate choice, but malemate choice may have significant evolutionary consequences when males of a sexual species are sexually parasitized by heterospecific gynogenetic females as is the case for sailfin mollies, Poecilia latipinna. Amazon mollies, Poecilia formosa, are all female gynogens that require sperm from P. latipinna for initiation of embryogenesis, but inheritance is
Large size often confers a fitness advantage to female insects because fecundity increases with body size. However, the fitness benefits of large size for male insects are less clear. We investigated the mating behavior of the mayfly Baetis bicaudatus to determine whether the probability of malemating success increased with body size. Males formed mating aggregations (swarms) ranging from a
Barbara L. Peckarsky; Angus R. McIntosh; Christopher C. Caudill; Jonas Dahl
Synopsis In both Malacoctenus hubbsi and Malacoctenus macropus, males defended preferred oviposition sites from both other males and potential egg predators. In M. hubbsi, adult females were larger than adult males. Larger M. hubbsi males were not associated with territory parameters that were correlated with higher mating success, and male size was not correlated with mating success. Male size did
The history of sterilization dates back to the time of Hippocrates, when female sterilization was recommended for preventing hereditary mental diseases. James Blundell introduced surgical sterilization in 1823 for the prevention of high risk pregnancies. Vasectomy was first performed in the US at the end of the 19th century, mainly to prevent hereditary disorders. Malesterilization was a means of genocide during Nazi rule in Germany. Religious beliefs have the most powerful impact on the practice or nonpractice of family planning. In the teachings of Islam, Christianity, and Judaism, only sporadic references explicitly prohibit contraception, yet various religious edicts have interpreted these references too broadly by advocating prohibition of most contraceptive methods. Recently, the world community endorsed the basic right of couples to decide the number of children they want and the right to family planning with free informed choice. An integral part of a successful family planning program is voluntarism. In Europe and North America sterilization is legal, except in Italy, France, and Turkey. In Latin America sterilization is illegal in a number of countries; in Burma and Vietnam restrictions are in place; and in Africa fertility regulation is illegal in one-third of the countries. Informed consent before sterilization during counseling by a skilled, unbiased counselor is indispensable. All family planning services should be part of the national health care system including the voluntary contraception services. Incentives may compromise voluntarism. Most programs require a minimum age and a minimum number of children, marital status, and spousal consent. For sterilization, a waiting period of 1-30 days has been recommended. The exclusion of childless and single individuals has been challenged as a violation of human rights. For mentally retarded people parents or guardians provide consent. Major ethical issues in the future could emerge concerning novel fertility techniques: cryopreservation of sperm and intracytoplasmic sperm injection. PMID:8535748
Background Males of many species adjust their reproductive tactics with regard to their condition and status. For example, large males may develop weapons and fight for access to females, whereas small or undernourished males do not express costly weapons or ornaments and sneak copulations. Different condition-dependent reproductive tactics may be associated with unequal average fitness, but the tactic chosen by a given male under given circumstances is thought to result in the highest possible fitness return. The ant species Cardiocondyla obscurior exhibits an environment-controlled polymorphism of docile, winged males and aggressive "ergatoid" males. Ergatoid males, which can replenish their sperm supply throughout their lives, engage in lethal fighting, and attempt to monopolize all female sexuals available in their nests, were previously assumed to gain higher lifetime reproductive success than the peaceful, winged males, which disperse to mate away from the nest and whose spermatogenesis is limited to the first days of adult life. However, precise data on malemating success have as yet not been available. Here, we compare the average mating success of the two male morphs, taking the high mortality rate of immature ergatoid males into account. Because individuals in insect societies may have opposing interests about their own development, we also investigate whether the interests of male larvae coincide with those of the workers and the rest of the society. Results When the survival probability of males is taken into account, winged males are more likely to mate multiply and in consequence have a higher estimated average mating success than ergatoid males. Therefore, male larvae are expected to prefer developing into winged instead of ergatoid adults. Conclusion Though male larvae can expect a higher average mating success when developing into winged males, most colonies produce only ergatoid males under standard conditions. This might point at a novel type of potential kin conflict within the social insect colony. Because workers in insect societies usually control male larval development, ergatoid male production under normal conditions probably reflects the optimal allocation strategy of workers to maximise their inclusive fitness.
Strong indication was found for the existence of a chromosal monogenic dominant malesterility-gene in chenese cabbage. This source of malesterility can be of practical use for the production of hybrid varieties. A pronounced drawback is the required removal, in the breeding and seed production stage, of the approximately 50% male fertile plants from each offspring of malesterile
Comparative genetic mapping provides insights into the evolution of the reproductive barriers that separate closely related species. This approach has been used to document the accumulation of reproductive incompatibilities over time, but has only been applied to a few taxa. House mice offer a powerful system to reconstruct the evolution of reproductive isolation between multiple subspecies pairs. However, studies of the primary reproductive barrier in house micehybrid malesterilityhave been restricted to a single subspecies pair: Mus musculus musculus and Mus musculus domesticus. To provide a more complete characterization of reproductive isolation in house mice, we conducted an F2 intercross between wild-derived inbred strains from Mus musculus castaneus and M. m. domesticus. We identified autosomal and X-linked QTL associated with a range of hybrid malesterility phenotypes, including testis weight, sperm density, and sperm morphology. The pseudoautosomal region (PAR) was strongly associated with hybrid sterility phenotypes when heterozygous. We compared QTL found in this cross with QTL identified in a previous F2 intercross between M. m. musculus and M. m. domesticus and found three shared autosomal QTL. Most QTL were not shared, demonstrating that the genetic basis of hybrid malesterility largely differs between these closely related subspecies pairs. These results lay the groundwork for identifying genes responsible for the early stages of speciation in house mice.
White, Michael A.; Stubbings, Maria; Dumont, Beth L.; Payseur, Bret A.
BACKGROUND: The novel chimeric open reading frame (orf) resulting from the rearrangement of a mitochondrial genome is generally thought to be a causal factor in the occurrence of cytoplasmic malesterility (CMS). Both positive and negative correlations have been found between CMS-associated orfs and the occurrence of CMS when CMS-associated orfs were expressed and targeted at mitochondria. Some orfs cause
Lekking males compete for females within and among leks, yet female choice is expected to work differently at each of these spatial scales. We used paternity analyses to examine how lek versus male attributes influence mate choice in the blue-crowned manakin Lepidothrix coronata. We tested the hypotheses that females prefer (i) to mate at larger leks where a larger number of potential mates can be assessed, (ii) to mate with unrelated or highly heterozygous males expected to produce high-quality offspring, (iii) to mate with males that display at higher rates, and that (iv) display honestly reflects male genetic quality. Our results show that (i) males at larger leks are not more likely to sire young, although females nesting close to small leks travel further to reach larger leks, (ii) siring males are not less related to females or more heterozygous than expected, (iii) within a lek, high-display males are more likely to sire young, and (iv) both male heterozygosity and display rate increased with lek size, and as a result display does not reliably reflect male genetic quality across leks. We suggest that female mate choice in this species is probably driven by a Fisherian process rather than adaptive genetic benefits.
Duraes, Renata; Loiselle, Bette A.; Parker, Patricia G.; Blake, John G.
Known in over 150 species, cytoplasmic malesterility is encoded by aberrant mitochondrial genes that prevent pollen development. The RNA- or protein-level expression of most of the mitochondrial genes encoding cytoplasmic malesterility is altered in the presence of one or more nuclear genes called restorers of fertility that suppress the male-sterile phenotype. Cytoplasmic malesterility\\/restorer systems have been proven
Stéphane Bentolila; Antonio A. Alfonso; Maureen R. Hanson
Divorcing a current partner to re-pair with a mate of higher quality may be a strategy to increase reproductive success used by socially monogamous birds. By increasing the availability of males through selective mate removal during the nest building period, we found that female black-capped chickadees, Parus atricapillus, will desert their mates to pair with males of higher social rank,
Background Lymphatic filariasis (LF), a global public health problem affecting approximately 120 million people worldwide, is a leading cause of disability in the developing world including the South Pacific. Despite decades of ongoing mass drug administration (MDA) in the region, some island nations have not yet achieved the threshold levels of microfilaremia established by the World Health Organization for eliminating transmission. Previously, the generation of a novel Aedes polynesiensis strain (CP) infected with an exogenous type of Wolbachia has been described. The CP mosquito is cytoplasmically incompatible (i.e., effectively sterile) when mated with wildtype mosquitoes, and a strategy was proposed for the control of A. polynesiensis populations by repeated, inundative releases of CP males to disrupt fertility of wild females. Such a strategy could lead to suppression of the vector population and subsequently lead to a reduction in the transmission of filarial worms. Methodology/Principal Findings CP males and F1 male offspring from wild-caught A. polynesiensis females exhibit near equal mating competitiveness with F1 females under semi-field conditions. Conclusions/Significance While laboratory experiments are important, prior projects have demonstrated the need for additional testing under semi-field conditions in order to recognize problems before field implementation. The results reported here from semi-field experiments encourage forward progression toward small-scale field releases.
Nucleocytoplasmic determination of malesterility in Thymus vulgaris L. has been assumed in all papers attempting to explain the remarkably high frequencies of malesteriles found in natural populations of this species. This paper provides strong evidence that both nuclear and cytoplasmic genes are involved in the determination of malesterility of this species, giving a complex inheritance. Interpopulation and
E. Belhassen; B. Dommée; A. Atlan; P. H. Gouyon; D. Pomente; M. W. Assouad; D. Couvet
Wild abortive cytoplasmic malesterility has been extensively used in hybrid seed production in the tropics. Using protoplast fusion between cytoplasmic malesterile and fertile maintainer lines; we report here, transfer of wild abortive cytoplasmic malesterility to the nuclear background of RCPL1-2C, an advance breeding line which also served as maintainer of this cytoplasm. In total, 27 putative cybrids
Bijoya Bhattacharjee; Aniruddha P. Sane; Hari S. Gupta
Seeds of homozygous ''Tift 23DBâ'' pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum (L.) K. Schum), maintainer for cytoplasmic malesterile (cms) ''Tift 23DAâ,'' were soaked in deionized water solutions of 250 and 1000 ppM of ethidium bromide (EB) at 5Â°C for 40 hours. Treated seeds were rinsed in tap water for 30 min, surface-dried, and planted in replicated two-row plots in the field
Many shorebirds show elaborate breeding displays that include aerial flights and ground displays accompanied by song. The mate attraction hypothesis suggests that breeding displays function to attract mates and maintain pair bonds, whereas the territory defense hypothesis suggests breeding displays function in defining and defending nesting and feeding territories. We tested these hypotheses in the Western Sandpiper (Calidris mauri) by contrasting the duration and level of male breeding displays among pairs that differed in their mate and site fidelity. As predicted by the mate attraction hypothesis, males performed the highest number of song sequences during pair formation, and males paired with their mate of a prior year sang less than males paired to new mates. Further, site-faithful malesmated to a new but experienced mate displayed significantly more than remated males or males new to the area. This suggests a male's prior familiarity with an area and his neighbors does not lessen his display rate as was predicted under the territory defense hypothesis. Limited support for the territory defense hypothesis came from observations of males performing breeding displays with neighboring males along nest territory boundaries. This behavior was short-lived, however, as males abandoned nesting areas after pair-formation and used adjacent or disjointed feeding areas during egg-laying and incubation. Male aggression (i.e., aerial and ground chases), as opposed to breeding displays, appeared to be the principal means of maintaining territory boundaries. Indeed, the rate at which males chased other males remained fairly constant and high throughout the breeding season. Male chasing behavior may also serve as a paternity guard to protect against extra-pair copulations. Our study also found that a female's prior breeding experience in an area correlated with a reduced display rate by her mate, particularly if that mate was new to the area. This indicates female characteristics may not only drive nest initiation, as has been shown in other studies, but are important in determining the duration and extent of male display. Received: 7 February 2000, accepted 10 March 2000.
Mating systems and sexual selection are assumed to be affected by the distribution of critical resources. We use observations\\u000a of 312 mating aggregations to compare mate-searching success of male northern water snakes (Nerodia sipedon) in two marshes in which differences in mating substrate availability resulted in more than fourfold differences in female\\u000a dispersion. Reproductive males had significantly larger home ranges
Soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) germplasm, isogenic except for loci controlling male-sterility (ms1) and nodulation (rj1) was utilized to investigate the effects of reproductive tissue development and nitrogen source on the initiation of monocarpic senescence. The experimental genotypes (Ms1Rj1, Ms1rj1, ms1Rj1, and ms1rj1, were selected from a cross between N69-2774 and N59-5259, and were inbred to the F5 generation. Green-house-grown plants were collected during the period of flowering (77 days after transplanting) until maturity (147 days after transplanting). Leaf tissues from the respective genotypes were analyzed at the various harvest dates for RNA, phenolic, and chlorophyll concentrations; acid protease activity; polypeptide banding patterns of chloroplast thylakoids; and chloroplastic ultrastructure. Regardless of nitrogen source, total chlorophyll concentrations declined between 77 and 119 days after transplanting, resulting in a 40% loss of chlorophyll per square centimeter in all genotypes. Leaf chlorophyll levels continued to decline at a constant rate in male-fertile genotypes, but remained at a constant level (26 micrograms chlorophyll per square centimeter) in male-sterile genotypes, for the remainder of the study. With increased leaf age, a gradual disruption of thylakoid structures was observed, particularly in chloroplasts from the male-fertile genotypes. Chloroplasts from the male-sterile genotypes appeared to lose starch grains but increased their number of chloroplastic lipid bodies with leaf aging. These data suggest that monocarpic senescence in soybeans was initiated at or before flowering. Although reproductive tissue development probably augmented the process, the response attributed to seed formation was not apparent until the mid-pod fill stage (119 days after transplanting). All genotypes had similar changes in other cellular components that are recognized as indicators of plant senescence regardless of whether the plants produced seed. Images Fig. 6 Fig. 7
Burke, John J.; Kalt-Torres, Willy; Swafford, James R.; Burton, Joseph W.; Wilson, Richard F.
Given the non-trivial cost of reproduction for males and substantial variation in female quality, males have been predicted to show mating bias as an evolved strategy. Using a large outbred population of Drosophila melanogaster, we test this prediction and show that males may adaptively bias their mating effort in response to the infection status of females. Given a simultaneous choice between females infected with pathogenic bacteria and sham infected females, males preferentially mated with the latter, who had a higher reproductive output compared to infected females. This may provide evidence for pre-copulatory malemate choice. Assessment of the reproductive behaviour ensured that the observed pattern of mating bias was not due to differences in receptivity between females infected with pathogenic bacteria and sham infected females. Further, there was no evidence for post-copulatory malemate choice measured in terms of copulation duration. PMID:23932964
The seaweed fly mating system is characterized by pre-mating struggles during which females exhibit a mate rejection response involving kicking, shaking and abdominal curling. Males must resist rejection until females become passive and allow copulation to take place. However, despite the vigorous nature of the struggle males frequently dismount passive females without attempting copulation. Here we show that rejected females suffered higher post-encounter mortality rates than those accepted by males in the seaweed fly Gluma musgravei. Furthermore, we show that males also preferentially mounted females with higher future longevity. We propose that this malemate choice for female survivorship has evolved as a result of females often having to survive for long periods after mating until suitable oviposition sites become available. Such male preferences for female survivorship may be common in species in which oviposition must sometimes be substantially delayed after mating.
AN important problem in evolutionary biology since the time of Darwin has been to understand why females preferentially mate with males handicapped by secondary sexual ornaments1-3. One hypothesis of sexual selection theory is that these ornaments reliably reveal the male's condition4-6, which can be affected for example by parasites4,7-13. Here we show that in the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) the
Sterility in the universally exploited PET1-CMS system of sunflower is associated with the expression of orfH522, a novel mitochondrial gene. Definitive evidence that ORFH522 is directly responsible for malesterility is lacking.\\u000a To test the hypothesis that ORFH522 is sufficient to induce malesterility, a set of chimeric constructs were developed. The\\u000a cDNA of orfH522 was cloned in-frame with yeast
We investigated the relationship between mating success, male size and variation in the advertisement call in the frog Crinia georgiana under field conditions. Mating success in 91 males was determined by following 32 females as they moved through the chorus. Our analyses indicated that successful males had a higher number of pulses in the first note and\\/or called at a
Sexual selection may explain why secondary sexual traits of males are so strongly developed in some species that they seem maladaptive. Female mate choice appears to favor the evolution of conspicuous color patterns in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) from Trinidad, but color patterns vary strikingly among populations. According to most theory, correlated evolution of female mating preferences and preferred male
Interspecific sneak malemating tactics between paired lamprey species are described for the first time. Although alternative mating tactics among petromyzontids have been described previously, including intraspecific sneak males, the presence of sneak male tactics between parasitic and non-parasitic forms suggests that high levels of gene flow between putative lamprey species could remain high, despite large body size discrepancies. PMID:23464566
1.The postcopulatory behavior of the damselfly Calopteryx maculata (De Beauvois) (Odonata: Calopterygidae) was studied in field populations to determine the adaptive significance of guarding of ovipositing females by males. Of particular interest was an explanation for the guarding of ovipositing nonmates by males. A promiscuous mating system and the large variation in mating success (Table 1) among territorial males indicated
Variation in lekking duration of males of a Hawaiian Drosophila, D. grimshawi, was examined in laboratory enclosures. The relationship between variation in male lekking activity and number of eggs laid by females, proportion of eggs hatching, and total offspring production was investigated. Females mating highly active males laid fewer eggs and thus had lower offspring production than females mating less
In lek-mating species, males defend territories lacking in resources attractive to females and females visit these sites only to mate (Bradbury, 1977). Emlen and Oring (1977) predicted that species are likely to possess a lek-mating system when their breeding season is long and when females or resources critical to female reproduction are widely dispersed in space and time, that is,
Background The relationship between reproductive health disorders and lifestyle factors in middle-aged and older men is not clear. The aim of this study is to describe lifestyle and biomedical associations as possible causes of erectile dysfunction (ED), prostate disease (PD), lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and perceived symptoms of androgen deficiency (pAD) in a representative population of middle-aged and older men, using the Men in Australia Telephone Survey (MATeS). Methods A representative sample (n = 5990) of men aged 40+ years, stratified by age and State, was contacted by random selection of households, with an individual response rate of 78%. All men participated in a 20-minute computer-assisted telephone interview exploring general and reproductive health. Associations between male reproductive health disorders and lifestyle and biomedical factors were analysed using multivariate logistic regression (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]). Variables studied included age, body mass index, waist circumference, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, co-morbid disease and medication use for hypertension, high cholesterol and symptoms of depression. Results Controlling for age and a range of lifestyle and co-morbid exposures, sedentary lifestyle and being underweight was associated with an increased likelihood of ED (1.4 [1.1-1.8]; 2.9 [1.5-5.8], respectively) and pAD (1.3 [1.1-1.7]; 2.7 [1.4-5.0], respectively. Diabetes and cardiovascular disease were both associated with ED, with hypertension strongly associated with LUTS and pAD. Current smoking (inverse association) and depressive symptomatology were the only variables independently associated with PD. All reproductive disorders showed consistent associations with depression (measured either by depressive symptomatology or medication use) in both age-adjusted and multivariate analyses. Conclusion A range of lifestyle factors, more often associated with chronic disease, were significantly associated with male reproductive health disorders. Education strategies directed to improving general health may also confer benefits to male reproductive health.
Why do males exert strong mate choice in some taxa but not others? Theory suggests that mate discrim- ination will enhance male fitness when encounter rates with potential mates are high, when those poten- tial mates vary in the fitness consequences likely to accrue from an attempted insemination, and when courting one female reduces the male's opportunity to court other
Mate choice as one element of sexual selection can be sensitive to public information from neighbouring individuals. Here, we demonstrate that males of the livebearing fish Poecilia mexicana gather complex social information when given a chance to familiarize themselves with rivals prior to mate choice. Focal males ceased to show mating preferences when being observed by a rival (which prevents rivals from copying mating decisions), but this effect was only seen when focal males have perceived rivals as sexually active. In addition, focal males that were observed by a familiar, sexually active rival showed a stronger behavioural response when rivals were larger and thus, more attractive to females. Our study illustrates an unparalleled adjustment in the expression of mating preferences based on social cues, and suggests that male fish are able to remember and strategically exploit information about rivals when performing mate choice.
AN important problem in evolutionary biology since the time of Darwin has been to understand why females preferentially mate with males handicapped by secondary sexual ornaments1-3. One hypothesis of sexual selection theory is that these ornaments reliably reveal the male's condition4-6, which can be affected for example by parasites4,7-13. Here we show that in the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) the intensity of male red breeding coloration positively correlates with physical condition. Gravid females base their active mate choice on the intensity of the male's red coloration. Choice experiments under green light prevent the use of red colour cues by females, and males that were previously preferred are now chosen no more than randomly, although the courtship behaviour of the males remains unchanged. Parasitieation causes a deterioration in the males' condition and a decrease in the intensity of their red coloration. Tests under both lighting conditions reveal that the females recognize the formerly parasitized males by the lower intensity of their breeding coloration. Female sticklebacks possibly select a male with a good capacity for paternal care14 but if there is additive genetic variation for parasite resistance, then they might also select for resistance genes, as proposed by Hamilton and Zuk4.
Many crustaceans use pheromones to find mates and induce mating behaviours. If pollutants impair the ability to detect chemosensory cues and respond to pheromone signals, they could profoundly affect mating. In a series of laboratory experiments, the effect of copper (0, 0.1 or 0.5 mg Cu(II) per litre for 5 days) on specific components of the mating behaviour of male
Theory predicts that males will benefit when they bias their mating effort towards females of higher reproductive potential, and that this discrimination will increase as males become more resource limited. We conducted a series of experiments to test these predictions in a laboratory population of the fruitfly, Drosophila melanogaster. In this species, courtship and copulation have significant costs to males, and females vary greatly in fecundity, which is positively associated with body size. When given a simultaneous choice between small and large virgin females, males preferentially mated with larger, more fecund, females. Moreover, after males had recently mated they showed a stronger preference for larger females. These results suggest that male D. melanogaster adaptively allocate their mating effort in response to variation in female quality and provide some of the first support for the theoretical prediction that male stringency in mate choice increases as resources become more limiting.
Data on over 950 natural matings of red-sided garter snakes,Thamnophissirtalisparietalis , in Manitoba revealed size-assortative pairing: large males tended to mate with large females, and small males with small females. Unlike previously reported cases of size-assortative mating, the causal mechanism in these snakes involved a size-related shift in active mate selection by males. In the field, courtship as well as
R. Shine; D. O'connor; M. P. Lemaster; R. T. Mason
Despite its well-described role in female affiliation, the influence of oxytocin on male pairbonding is largely unknown. However, recent human studies indicate that this nonapeptide has a potent influence on male behaviors commonly associated with monogamy. Here we investigated the distribution of oxytocin receptors (OTR) throughout the forebrain of the socially monogamous male prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). Because males vary in both sexual and spatial fidelity, we explored the extent to which OTR predicted monogamous or non-monogamous patterns of space use, mating success and sexual fidelity in free-living males. We found that monogamous males expressed higher OTR density in the nucleus accumbens than non-monogamous males, a result that mirrors species differences in voles with different mating systems. OTR density in the posterior portion of the insula predicted mating success. Finally, OTR in the hippocampus and septohippocampal nucleus, which are nuclei associated with spatial memory, predicted patterns of space use and reproductive success within mating tactics. Our data highlight the importance of oxytocin receptor in neural structures associated with pairbonding and socio-spatial memory in malemating tactics. The role of memory in mating systems is often neglected, despite the fact that mating tactics impose an inherently spatial challenge for animals. Identifying mechanisms responsible for relating information about the social world with mechanisms mediating pairbonding and mating tactics is crucial to fully appreciate the suite of factors driving mating systems.
Ophir, Alexander G.; Gessel, Ana; Zheng, Da-Jiang; Phelps, Steven M.
Our research concerns the basic mechanisms of cytoplasmic malesterility (CMS) and fertility restoration in maize. The molecular determination of CMS is in the DNA of the mitochondria (mtDNA) but specific nuclear restorer-of-fertility (Rf) genes can overrule the male-sterile effect of the cytoplasm. Our approach to the study of the Rf genes is threefold. We are attempting to tag the cms-S Rf genes and the cms-T Rf2 gene with controlling elements (CEs). Since we have identified a number of spontaneous Rf genes for cms-S and have demonstrated that they are themselves transposable, we are also searching for cases in which an Rf gene is inserted into a wild-type gene. The other aspect of our research involves the nuclear control over the organization of the mitochondrial genome. We found that the changes in mtDNA organization upon cytoplasmic reversion to fertility were characteristic of the nuclear background in which the reversion event occurred. We have investigated whether these differences are a reflection of differences in the organization of the mtDNA genome before reversion.
Mate choice can be sensitive to social cues from neighboring individuals, e.g., animals can copy mate choice decisions. Males that are at risk of being copied by others may respond to this with reduced preference expression ("audience effects"). We review the various pathways by which sperm competition risk affects (1) malemate copying behavior and (2) audience effects. For example, a recent study suggests that males gather complex social information on rivals' sexual competitiveness (sexual activity and attractiveness to females) and respond with reduced expression of mating preferences only "when it matters," i.e., when a sexually competitive rival is present. PMID:21980557
Temperature affects the mating displays of many ectothermic animals, yet almost no information exists on the temperature preferences of ectotherms while they are displaying for mates. This study investigated the preferences of displaying male field crickets ( Gryllus integer) for microhabitats of different temperatures. G. integer males attract sexually receptive females by calling from cracks in the ground. We collected data from the field on the temperature of male calling sites (cracks in the ground), on the amount of herbaceous cover (which affects crack temperature) surrounding calling sites, and on the temporal properties of male calls at different temperatures. Laboratory experiments demonstrated that males prefer warmer sites and confirmed that temperature influences mating calls. We conclude that males of this ectothermic species prefer to call for mates from warmer sites, and that microhabitat choice on the basis of temperature affects their mating calls, and potentially their reproductive success. PMID:12466955
In Sweden, approximately 1,500 men and 7,000 women are sterilized yearly. The frequency varies considerably between regions. The reasons for these differences are not fully known. More women than men are sterilized in Sweden, but a higher proportion of sterilized men undergo refertilization. The object of the study was to analyze counselling routines prior to sterilization, presterilization waiting time, the
Summary Transgenic mice are vital tools in both basic and applied research. Unfortunately, the transgenesis process as well as many other assisted reproductive techniques involving embryo transfer rely on vasectomized males to induce pseudopregnancy in surrogate mothers. Vasectomy is a surgical procedure associated with moderate pain and must be carried out under full anaesthesia by qualified personnel. Eliminating the need for vasectomy would be beneficial from the economic and animal welfare point of view. Our aim was to develop a transgene-based alternative to the surgical vasectomy procedure. We generated several transgenic mouse lines expressing a Protamine-1 (Prm1) EGFP fusion protein under the transcriptional and translational regulatory control of Prm1. Male mice from lines showing moderate transgene expression were fully fertile whereas strong overexpression of the Prm1-EGFP fusion protein resulted in complete and dominant malesterility without affecting the ability to mate and to produce copulatory plugs. Sterility was due to impaired spermatid maturation affecting sperm viability and motility. Furthermore, sperm having high Prm1-EGFP levels failed to support preimplantation embryonic development following Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI). The genetic vasectomy system was further improved by genetically linking the dominant malesterility to ubiquitous EGFP expression in the soma as an easy phenotypic marker enabling rapid genotyping of transgenic males and females. This double transgenic approach represents a reliable and cost-effective genetic vasectomy procedure making the conventional surgical vasectomy methodology obsolete.
Demographic factors such as operational sex ratio (OSR) and local population density (LPD) are temporally and spatially dynamic in the natural environment but the influence of these variables on malemating success and the mechanisms behind it are still poorly understood and highly controversial. Here, we manipulated the OSR and LPD of a seed bug, Nysius huttoni, and carried out a series of mating trials to test how these variables affected malemating success. The two demographic factors had no significant interactions, suggesting that they affect malemating success independently in N. huttoni. In this species malemating success was significantly higher in both male- and female-biased OSR than in even OSR. It is suggested that, in male-biased OSR, the increased intensity of competition and interference does not result in lower malemating success; rather, males may make more effort in courting and females may have more chance to encounter better males, resulting in higher malemating success. In female-biased OSR, females may become less choosy and less likely to reject malemating attempt, leading to the higher malemating success. Lower malemating success in N. huttoni in high LPD may be due to increased interference between males and/or delayed female receptiveness for mating. OSR had a stronger effect on malemating success than LPD in N. huttoni, suggesting that OSR and LPD affect mating success in different ways and intensities.
This research is an investigation into the cognitive aspects of mate attraction in human males. Two experiments demonstrate that visual exposure to women (in person or within photo- graphs) can prime large changes in the attitudes, mood states, and personality trait descriptions of male participants. These changes, furthermore, are such that participants show greater conformity to female mate preferences as
Temperature affects the mating displays of many ectothermic animals, yet almost no information exists on the temperature preferences of ectotherms while they are displaying for mates. This study investigated the preferences of displaying male field crickets (Gryllus integer) for microhabitats of different temperatures. G. integer males attract sexually receptive females by calling from cracks in the ground. We collected data
The c-fos polyclonal anti-c-fos antibody was used to examine the effects of mating on Fos expression in brain neurons of 11 male macaques. Behavior tests were for 30 min, five males were unmated, four were mated, and two were social controls. Matedmales were killed 60 min after ejaculation. Social controls were paired with females, but mating did not occur. Fos immunoreactive (Fos-ir) neuronal nuclei were counted in nine brain regions extending from the medial preoptic to the mammillary body area of all males. In contrast to previous reports on nonprimate laboratory species, overall there was as much Fos-ir in unmated as in matedmales. Moreover, there was significantly less Fos expression in four brain regions (known to contain steroid receptors), namely, ventromedial hypothalamus, arcuate nucleus, lateral mammillary area, and bed nucleus of stria terminalis, of mated than of unmated males. There were no significant differences between mated and unmated males in the 5 other brain regions studied. These findings may reflect taxonomic differences between primates and nonprimates, or result from greater neural activation in feral animals maintained in a laboratory than in domesticated, inbred laboratory species. The simplest interpretation would be that neural activity in the male primate is turned off by mating in some brain sites but not in others. PMID:10386902
We removed the mates of ten male black-capped chickadees (Pares atricapillus) during the nest-building period to determine the effect of female presence on dawn singing. During the first dawn chorus following mate removal, males sang significantly longer, increased movement within their territory, and increased the percentage of their territory covered while singing. After the female was returned, these parameters returned
Cytoplasmic male-sterile lines CMS89 and CMSBaso of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) differ from the fertile lines HA89 and Baso in a mitochondrial DNA sequence in the vicinity of theatpA gene. In addition, the transcriptional pattern of theatpA gene is changed in male-sterile lines compared to fertile ones. Besides one main transcript in the fertile lines, the male-sterile lines additionally show larger
For commercial development of hybrids the four pre-requisites are; availability of perfect male-sterility system, efficient\\u000a mass pollen transfer mechanism, hybrid vigor, and the large scale seed production of hybrids for commercialization. The type\\u000a of male-sterility governs the acceptance of hybrids by farmers. Genetic male-sterility (GMS) system was not accepted by farmers\\u000a due to the economics of large scale seed production.
Efforts were made to study microsporogenesis and genetics of fertility restoration of A4 cytoplasmic-nuclear male- sterility (CMS) system in pigeonpea. The process of microsporogenesis in the male-sterile (ICPA 2039) and its maintainer (ICPB 2039) plants was normal up to the tetrad formation stage. The tapetal cells in the male-sterile anthers degenerated soon after tetrad formation, resulting in shriveled and degenerated
VIJAY A. DALVI; K UL B. SAXENA; I. A. Madrap; VIJAY K. RAVIKOTI
I examined the effects of the parasitic larval nematode, Eustrongylides ignotus, on malemate choice in the western mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis. I hypothesized that parasite presence influences malemate choice either directly (via reduction in malemating behavior due to presence of parasite in females) or indirectly (via reduction in malemating behavior due to reduced condition of infected females). Specifically, I tested the predictions that (1) males would mate preferentially with uninfected over infected females (scoring both mating attempts and association time with females); (2) parasitized females would be in poorer condition than non-parasitized females (measured as soluble fat stores); and (3) parasitized females would have reduced fecundity (measured as number of developing embryos). Males preferred to mate with non-parasitized over parasitized females, but showed no differences in association time between females. The nematode did not decrease female body condition, but did decrease female mass, and appeared to decrease female fecundity via reduction in broods (# embryos). Results support that parasites affect malemate choice in mosquitofish; however, the mechanisms used by males to differentiate between parasitized and non-parasitized females remain untested. This study provides the first empirical evidence of parasite affects on malemate choice in livebearing fishes, and suggest a potentially important role for parasite-mediated sexual selection in organisms that use coercive mating as the primary mechanism of obtaining mates. PMID:18765273
We studied the efficiency of maintaining and restoring cytoplasmic malesterility (CMS) systems in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). An Rf-linked molecular marker was employed to analyze the interaction between 6 CMS lines (A), 5 maintainers (B), and 6 restorers (C). Sterility was maintained in the matings of lines 201A x 200B, 203A x 200B, 206A x 200B, 200A x 201B, 206A x 201B, 200A x 202B, 200A x 203B, 200A x 206B, and 201A x 206B. All 6 restorers restored the fertility of lines 200A, 202A, 203A, and 204A, except that 213C could not restore the fertility of lines 200A and 204A. However, the 6 restorers had diverse restoring abilities in individual CMS lines. The Rf-linked molecular marker was amplified by PCR in lines 207C, 208C, and 213C. This DNA marker was only found in the F1 hybrids M39, M14, M19, M25, M13, M20, and M22. We conclude that the restorers 208C and 207C can transmit the Rf gene or the Rf-linked marker to F1 hybrids. PMID:23315867
Ma, Y; Huang, W; Ji, J-J; Gong, Z-H; Yin, C-C; Ahmed, S S; Zhao, Z-L
Sterility is common in hybrids between divergent populations, such as the indica and japonica subspecies of Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa). Although multiple loci for plant hybrid sterility have been identified, it remains unknown how alleles of the loci interact at the molecular level. Here we show that a locus for indica-japonica hybrid malesterility, Sa, comprises two adjacent genes,
Intense competition between males for reproduction has led to the evolution of alternative mating tactics (AMTs). Feral goat\\u000a males usually use a tactic called tending, in which they defend oestrous females from other males. Males may also use a second\\u000a mating tactic called coursing, in which they gain access to oestrous females by disturbing a tending pair. Herein, we examine
Fiona C. Saunders; Alan G. McElligott; Kamran Safi; Thomas J. Hayden
The reproductive system of adult male Cactoblastis cactorum, the cactus moth, was examined to determine whether the mating status of males could be ascertained. In unmated males, the posterior portion of the primary ductus ejaculatorius simplex is opaque yellow in color and contains many small football-shaped hyaline granules 3-5 x 5-10 Î¼m in size. In matedmales, the posterior simplex
Mate choice studies routinely assume female preferences for indicators of high quality in males but rarely consider developmental causes of within-population variation in mating preferences. By contrast, recent mate choice models assume that costs and benefits of searching or competing for high-quality males depend on females' phenotypic quality. A prediction following from these models is that manipulation of female quality should alter her choosiness or even the direction of her mating preferences. We here provide (to our knowledge) the first example where an experimental manipulation of female quality induced a mating preference for low-quality males. Zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) reared in small or large experimental broods became high- or low-quality adults, respectively. Only high-quality females preferred high-quality males' mate-advertising songs, while all low-quality females preferred low-quality males' song. Subsequent breeding trials confirmed this pattern: latency until egg laying was shortest in quality-matched pairs, indicating that quality-matched birds were accepted faster as partners. Females produced larger eggs when mated with high-quality males, regardless of their own quality, indicating consensus regarding male quality despite the expression of different choices. Our results demonstrate the importance of considering the development of mating preferences to understand their within-population variation and environmentally induced change.
Two different forces are thought to contribute to the rapid accumulation of hybrid malesterility that has been observed in\\u000a many inter-specific crosses, namely the faster male and the dominance theories. For male heterogametic taxa, both faster male\\u000a and dominance would work in the same direction to cause the rapid evolution of malesterility; however, for taxa lacking differentiated\\u000a sex
Christopher S. Willett; PM Punta Morro; AB Abalone Cove; SC Santa Cruz; PES Pescadero; PLA Playa Altamira
Male fertility was restored to genetically engineered malesterile oilseed rape plants. Malesterile plants that express a chimaeric ribonuclease gene in the anther tapetal cell layer were crossed with male fertile plants that were transformed with a chimaeric tapetal-cell-specific ribonuclease-inhibitor gene. F1 progeny expressing both genes are restored to male fertility by the suppression of cytotoxic ribonuclease activity in
Celestina Mariani; Veronique Gossele; Marc De Beuckeleer; Marc De Block; Robert B. Goldberg; Willy De Greef; Jan Leemans
Variation in malemating success is often related to rank differences. Males who are unable to monopolize oestrous females alone may engage in coalitions, thus enhancing their mating success. While studies on chimpanzees and dolphins suggest that coalitions are independent of kinship, information from female philopatric species shows the importance of kin support, especially from mothers, on the reproductive success of females. Therefore, one might expect a similar effect on sons in male philopatric species. We evaluate mating success determinants in male bonobos using data from nine male individuals from a wild population. Results reveal a steep, linear male dominance hierarchy and a positive correlation between dominance status and mating success. In addition to rank, the presence of mothers enhances the mating success of sons and reduces the proportion of matings by the highest ranking male. Mothers and sons have high association rates and mothers provide agonistic aid to sons in conflicts with other males. As bonobos are male-philopatric and adult females occupy high dominance status, maternal support extends into adulthood and females have the leverage to intervene in male conflicts. The absence of female support to unrelated males suggests that mothers gain indirect fitness benefits by supporting their sons.
Surbeck, Martin; Mundry, Roger; Hohmann, Gottfried
Malemating experience was shown to play an important role in settling conflicts between males; however, little is known about whether and how prior access to females influences male behavior during intersexual interactions and female choice itself. Here, I experimentally test this relationship in the house cricket (Acheta domesticus) by combining one-on-one interaction between the male and female with direct comparison of males by the female, but precluding aggression between males. I found that solitary males were more active during subsequent courtship displays than paired males, suggesting the detrimental effect of mating on courtship performance. At the same time, females spent significantly more time close to solitary males or playbacks of male's natural courtship songs, and responded positively to the condition of males, ignoring body size of males. In contrast, females responded similarly to computer-modified playbacks of courtship songs of solitary and paired males with standardized rate of phrases and amplitudes; however, when females were additionally allowed to contact with anesthetized males they spent more time close to bigger males, irrespective of the acoustic parameters of courtship songs. These results show that although females were able to differentiate between many behavioral and morphological characteristics of males, including voluntary and intrinsic ones, they preferred traits conditional upon the costliness of male's displays. In addition, mating experience appeared to be a crucial factor in the choice of a particular costly mating strategy by males. PMID:23162206
Male spawning-run sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus were exposed to various doses of cobalt-60 or cesium-137 radiation in an attempt to sterilize them for use in a program for controlling sea lampreys through the release of sterilemales. Males captured and irradiated during the early part of the upstream migration were not effectively sterilized at the doses tested. After irradiation, the sea lampreys were more susceptible to fungal infections by Saprolegnia sp., and many died without attempting to spawn. Males captured and irradiated during the middle and late parts of the spawning migration were effectively sterilized at a dose of 2,000 rads. However, some radiation-induced mortality was observed in males captured and irradiated during the middle part of the spawning migration. Radiation is not as effective as the chemosterilant bisazir for sterilizingmale sea lampreys.
In many species that form socially monogamous pair bonds, a considerable proportion of the offspring is sired by extrapair males. This observation has remained a puzzle for evolutionary biologists: although mating outside the pair bond can obviously increase the offspring production of males, the benefits of such behavior to females are less clear, yet females are known to actively solicit extrapair copulations. For more than two decades adaptionist explanations have dominated the discussions, yet remain controversial, and genetic constraint arguments have been dismissed without much consideration. An intriguing but still untested hypothesis states that extrapair mating behavior by females may be affected by the same genetic variants (alleles) as extrapair mating behavior by males, such that the female behavior could evolve through indirect selection on the male behavior. Here we show that in the socially monogamous zebra finch, individual differences in extrapair mating behavior have a hereditary component. Intriguingly, this genetic basis is shared between the sexes, as shown by a strong genetic correlation between male and female measurements of extrapair mating behavior. Hence, positive selection on males to sire extrapair young will lead to increased extrapair mating by females as a correlated evolutionary response. This behavior leads to a fundamentally different view of female extrapair mating: it may exist even if females obtain no net benefit from it, simply because the corresponding alleles were positively selected in the male ancestors.
In this study, we provide a piece of experimental evidence that immune function is related to dominance and mating success\\u000a in wild caught male wolf spiders, Hygrolycosa rubrofasciata. In the mating season, H. rubrofasciata males are actively searching for receptive females, and while searching males often engage in agonistic behavior (i.e., agonistic\\u000a drumming signals, chases, and fights) with each other.
Jari J. Ahtiainen; Rauno V. Alatalo; Raine Kortet; Markus J. Rantala
Alternative mating strategies in male Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, are characterized by variability in body size and mate competition. Controlling breeding numbers of larger, older anadromous males, we examined whether body size of mature male parr influenced fertilization success and whether such an association was affected by mate competition among parr. Variation at three to four hypervariable microsatellite loci was
We use laboratory mating experiments to examine the effect of male size, age, and mating behavior on fecundity selection and sexual selection in the seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera Bruchidae), a species in which females are larger than males. Female C. maculatus gain a fitness advantage, in the form of increased lifetime fecundity, from mating with large males (which contribute
Hybrid rice breeding in the US has depended largely upon male-sterile lines originating in China or from other Asian sources. By contrast, the program in Arkansas has developed all of its male-sterile lines at Stuttgart,AR using germplasm accessions available in the USDA Rice Germplasm Collection st...
In the period 19801984 about 70000 selfed seeds of the petunia cultivar Blue Bedder were treated with the chemical mutagens ethidium bromide (EB) and ethylnitroso urea (ENU) with the intention to induce (new sources of) cytoplasmic malesterility (CMS). This work resulted in 27 stable malesterile MS-plants, all derived from the ENU-treatments.
A. M. VAN HARTEN; D. W. VAN DER SPEK; E. C. J. Bal
Chimaeric ribonuclease genes that are expressed in the anthers of transformed tobacco and oilseed rape plants were constructed. Chimaeric ribonuclease gene expression within the anther selectively destroys the tapetal cell layer that surrounds the pollen sac, prevents pollen formation, and leads to malesterility. These nuclear malesterility genes should facilitate the production of hybrid seed in various crop plants.
Celestina Mariani; Marc De Beuckeleer; Jessie Truettner; Jan Leemans; Robert B. Goldberg
Tagging of restorer genes for wild abortive (WA) CMS source by studying a 222 individual plants from a F2 population of a cross between IR58025A × IR42686R. The restorer line IR42686R that was used in this study had been previously\\u000a derived through random mating composite population (RMCP) involving 12 parents facilitated by IR36 genetic malesterility.\\u000a Four Rf genes were tagged to
L. Bazrkar; A. J. Ali; N. A. Babaeian; A. A. Ebadi; M. Allahgholipour; K. Kazemitabar; G. Nematzadeh
In mating systems with social monogamy and obligatory bi-parental care, such as found in many songbird species, male and female fitness depends on the combined parental investment. Hence, both sexes should gain from choosing mates in high rather than low condition. However, theory also predicts that an individual's phenotypic quality can constrain choice, if low condition individuals cannot afford prolonged search efforts and/or face higher risk of rejection. In systems with mutual mate choice, the interaction between male and female condition should thus be a better predictor of choice than either factor in isolation. To address this prediction experimentally, we manipulated male and female condition and subsequently tested male and female mating preferences in zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata, a songbird species with mutual mate choice and obligatory bi-parental care. We experimentally altered phenotypic quality by manipulating the brood size in which the birds were reared. Patterns of association for high- or low-condition individuals of the opposite sex differed for male and female focal birds when tested in an 8-way choice arena. Females showed repeatable condition-assortative preferences for males matching their own rearing background. Male preferences were also repeatable, but not predicted by their own or females' rearing background. In combination with a brief review of the literature on condition-dependent mate choice in the zebra finch we discuss whether the observed sex differences and between-studies differences arise because males and females differ in context sensitivity (e.g. male-male competition suppressing malemating preferences), sampling strategies or susceptibility to rearing conditions (e.g. sex-specific effect on physiology). While a picture emerges that juvenile and current state indeed affect preferences, the development and context-dependency of mutual state-dependent mate choice warrants further study.
Fifteen sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) cytoplasmic male-sterile, and a single male-fertile, cytotypes were studied by both mtDNA (mitochondrial DNA) restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and genetical analysis of male-fertility restoration patterns. It was found by multivariate analysis that the two methods of identification of cytoplasmic malesterility (CMS) should be of use in sunflower breeding programs. The RFLP study distinguished
D. Crouzillat; L. De La Canal; F. Vear; H. Serieys; G. Ledoigt
In sequentially polyandrous birds, a female's second mate faces a substantial risk of cuckoldry due to rapid mate switching and stored sperm. Secondary males are potentially available to females because males arrive asynchronously and\\/or are recycled into the breeding pool following nest predation. In a study of red-necked phalaropes, Phalaropus lobatus, a sex-role reversed shorebird, we tested the hypotheses that
A fundamental question of sexual selection theory concerns the causes and consequences of reproductive skew among males. The\\u000a priority of access (PoA) model (Altmann, Ann NY Acad Sci 102:338435, 1962) has been the most influential framework in primates living in permanent, mixed-sex groups, but to date it has only been\\u000a tested with the appropriate data on female synchrony in a
Annie Bissonnette; Nicole Bischofberger; Carel P van Schaik
Mating systems that capitalize on heterosis in dairy cattle are the criss-cross (CC), the repeat hybrid male cross (RHMC) and random mating within a synthetic population (SYN). When performance is determined solely by direct additive genetic and dominance genetic effects, expected performance under CC (averaged over four generations after F1 generation), relative to that under RHMC (or SYN) is (59
Background and Aims Expression of the mitochondrial gene orf138 causes Ogura cytoplasmic malesterility (CMS) in Raphanus sativus, but little is known about the mechanism by which CMS takes place. A preliminary microarray experiment revealed that several nuclear genes concerned with flavonoid biosynthesis were inhibited in the male-sterile phenotype. In particular, a gene for one of the key enzymes for flavonoid biosynthesis, chalcone synthase (CHS), was strongly inhibited. A few reports have suggested that the inhibition of CHS causes nuclear-dependent malesterile expression; however, there do not appear to be any reports elucidating the effect of CHS on CMS expression. In this study, the expression patterns of the early genes in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway, including CHS, were investigated in normal and male-sterile lines. Methods In order to determine the aberrant stage for CMS expression, the characteristics of male-sterile anthers are observed using light and transmission electron microscopy for several stages of flower buds. The expression of CHS and the other flavonoid biosynthetic genes in the anthers were compared between normal and male-sterile types using real time RT-PCR. Key Results Among the flavonoid biosynthetic genes analysed, the expression of CHS was strongly inhibited in the later stages of anther development in sterility cytoplasm; accumulation of putative naringenin derivatives was also inhibited. Conclusions These results show that flavonoids play an important role in the development of functional pollen, not only in nuclear-dependent malesterility, but also in CMS.
In the present study, we report that contact with isolated female antenna significantly increases both the pheromone 3-hydroxy-2-butanone (3H-2B) release and the hemolymph JH III level in all examined aggressive posture-adopting (AP) and NP (non-AP-adopting) socially naïve males, with significantly faster concomitant pre-mating wing-raising behavior in AP as compared to NP males. 3H-2B release and JH III level were significantly increased after mating in both AP and NP males. A positive correlation was observed between mating experience and dominant status. Furthermore, mated-AP males initiated fights more rapidly and fought for a significantly longer duration than mated-NP males; retention with the paired female for 24h did not affect this increase. JH III level and 3H-2B release were significantly increased in dominant males as compared to subordinates. These results suggest that prior mating experience in invertebrates may enhance aggression in subsequent male-male encounters, with accompanying physiological (hormone and pheromone) responses. PMID:23939458
The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a method of eradicating insects by releasing mass-reared sterilizedmales into fields\\u000a to reduce the hatchability of eggs laid by wild females that have mated with the sterilemales. SIT requires mass-production\\u000a of the target insect, and maintenance of the quality of the mass-reared insects. The most important factor is successful mating\\u000a between wild
One of the most studied life-history trade-offs is that resulting from the cost of reproduction: a trade-off arises when reproduction diverts limited resources from other life-history traits. We examine the cost of reproduction in male, and the effect of malemating status on female Callosobruchus maculatus seed beetles. Cost of reproduction for male C. maculatus was manifested as reduced longevity.
Background Photoperiod-sensitive genic malesterile (PGMS) rice, Nongken 58S, was discovered in 1973. It has been widely used for the production of hybrid rice, and great achievements have been made in improving rice yields. However, the mechanism of the malesterility transition in PGMS rice remains to be determined. Results To investigate the transcriptome during the malesterility transition in PGMS rice, the transcriptome of Nongken 58S under short-day (SD) and long-day (LD) at the glume primordium differentiation and pistil/stamen primordium forming stages was compared. Seventy-three and 128 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified at the glume primordium differentiation and pistil/stamen primordium forming stages, respectively. Five and 22 genes were markedly up-regulated (? 5-fold), and two and five genes were considerably down-regulated (? 5-fold) under SD during the malesterility transition. Gene ontology annotation and pathway analysis revealed that four biological processes and the circadian rhythms and the flowering pathways coordinately regulated the malesterility transition. Further quantitative PCR analysis demonstrated that the circadian rhythms of OsPRR1, OsPRR37, OsGI, Hd1, OsLHY and OsDof in leaves were obviously different between Nongken 58S and Nongken 58 under LD conditions. Moreover, both OsPRR37 and Hd1 in the inflorescence displayed differences between Nongken 58S and Nongken 58 under both LD and SD conditions. Conclusion The results presented here indicate that the transcriptome in Nongken 58S was significantly suppressed under LD conditions. Among these DEGs, the circadian rhythm and the flowering pathway were involved in the malesterility transition. Furthermore, these pathways were coordinately involved in the malesterility transition in PGMS rice.
Low female mating frequencies often appear to be cases of direct male induction that can oppose female interests. Mating plugs\\u000a are most obvious means leading to low degrees of multiple mating in females. In spiders, mating plugs are formed by a variety\\u000a of amorphous materials, by the breakage of the male sperm transferring organ, or by the whole male that
Gabriele Uhl; Stefan H. Nessler; Jutta M. Schneider
Many crustaceans use pheromones to find mates and induce mating behaviours. If pollutants impair the ability to detect chemosensory cues and respond to pheromone signals, they could profoundly affect mating. In a series of laboratory experiments, the effect of copper (0, 0.1 or 0.5 mg Cu(II) per litre for 5 days) on specific components of the mating behaviour of male shore crab Carcinus maenas was investigated, as well as differences in sensitivity between red and green colour morphs. The results show that copper exposure clearly altered the response of C. maenas males to a pheromone stimulus (pre-moult female urine) presented alone, together with a dummy female (a sponge injected with pre-moult female urine) or with a real female. Crabs exposed to the highest copper treatment took more than twice as long to initiate search activity after pheromone introduction and their search behaviour was less directed. When offered a dummy female, male crabs showed decreased pheromone discrimination in both copper treatments. Stroking was the only mating behaviour significantly affected, with a 90% reduction in red crabs in the highest copper treatment. Additionally, crabs of the highest copper treatment more often pinched the dummy female (non-mating behaviour). Finally, male crabs exposed to copper more often pinched pre-moult females and it took about three times longer to establish cradle-carrying. Thus, copper affects the ability of males to detect female pheromones, perform specific mating behaviours and to form pairs. PMID:16942808
Gynodioecy, the coexistence of female and hermaphrodite plants within a species, is often under nuclearcytoplasmic sex determination, involving cytoplasmic malesterility (CMS) genes and nuclear restorers. A good knowledge of CMS and restorer polymorphism is essential for understanding the evolution and maintenance of gynodioecy, but reciprocal crossing studies remain scarce. Although mitochondrial diversity has been studied in a few gynodioecious species, the relationship between mitotype diversity and CMS status is poorly known. From a French sample of Silene nutans, a gynodioecious species whose sex determination remains unknown, we chose the four most divergent mitotypes that we had sampled at the cytochrome b gene and tested by reciprocal crosses whether they carry distinct CMS genes. We show that gynodioecy in S. nutans is under nuclearcytoplasmic control, with at least two different CMSs and up to four restorers with epistatic interactions. Female occurrence and frequency were highly dependent on the mitotype, suggesting that the level of restoration varies greatly among CMSs. Two of the mitotypes, which have broad geographic distributions, represent different CMSs and are very unequally restored. We discuss the dynamics of gynodioecy at the large-scale meta-population level.
Garraud, C; Brachi, B; Dufay, M; Touzet, P; Shykoff, J A
Sexual selection may explain why secondary sexual traits of males are so strongly developed in some species that they seem maladaptive. Female mate choice appears to favor the evolution of conspicuous color patterns in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) from Trinidad, but color patterns vary strikingly among populations. According to most theory, correlated evolution of female mating preferences and preferred male traits within populations could promote this kind of divergence between populations. But mating preferences could also constrain the evolution of male traits. In some guppy populations, females discriminate among males based on variation in the extent of orange pigment in male color patterns, and populations differ significantly in the degree offemale preferences for orange area. In a comparison ofseven populations, the degree offemale preference based on orange is correlated with the population average orange area. Thus male traits and female preferences appear to be evolving in parallel. PMID:17747527
Male animals of many species use conspicuous coloration to attract mates. Among mammals, primates possess the most brilliant secondary sexual coloration. However, whether colour plays a part in primate female mate choice remains unknown. Adult male rhesus macaques undergo a hormonally regulated increased reddening of facial and anogenital skin during their mating season. We experimentally investigated whether red male facial coloration is preferred by simultaneously presenting female rhesus macaques (n = 6) with computer-manipulated pale and red versions of 24 different male faces. The duration and direction of gaze were measured to discern visual preferences. Females exhibited preferences for the red versions of male faces. It is proposed that male coloration might provide a cue to male quality.
Waitt, Corri; Little, Anthony C; Wolfensohn, Sarah; Honess, Paul; Brown, Anthony P; Buchanan-Smith, Hannah M; Perrett, David I
Semen limitation (lack of semen to fertilize all of a female's eggs) imposes high fitness costs to female partners. Females should therefore avoid mating with semen-limited males. This can be achieved by using public information extracted from watching individual males' previous copulating activities. This adaptive preference should be flexible given that semen limitation is temporary. We first demonstrate that the number of offspring produced by males Drosophila melanogaster gradually decreases over successive copulations. We then show that females avoid mating with males they just watched copulating and that visual public cues are sufficient to elicit this response. Finally, after males were given the time to replenish their sperm reserves, females did not avoid the males they previously saw copulating anymore. These results suggest that female fruit flies may have evolved sophisticated behavioural processes of resistance to semen-limited males, and demonstrate unsuspected adaptive context-dependent mate choice in an invertebrate.
Hybrid sterility in the heterogametic sex is a common feature of speciation in animals. In house mice, the contribution of the Mus musculus musculus X chromosome to hybrid malesterility is large. It is not known, however, whether F1 malesterility is caused by X-Y or X-autosome incompatibilities or a combination of both. We investigated the contribution of the M. musculus domesticus Y chromosome to hybrid malesterility in a cross between wild-derived strains in which males with a M. m. musculus X chromosome and M. m. domesticus Y chromosome are partially sterile, while males from the reciprocal cross are reproductively normal. We used eight X introgression lines to combine different X chromosome genotypes with different Y chromosomes on an F1 autosomal background, and we measured a suite of male reproductive traits. Reproductive deficits were observed in most F1 males, regardless of Y chromosome genotype. Nonetheless, we found evidence for a negative interaction between the M. m. domesticus Y and an interval on the M. m. musculus X that resulted in abnormal sperm morphology. Therefore, although F1 malesterility appears to be caused mainly by X-autosome incompatibilities, X-Y incompatibilities contribute to some aspects of sterility. PMID:22595240
Campbell, Polly; Good, Jeffrey M; Dean, Matthew D; Tucker, Priscilla K; Nachman, Michael W
Hybrid sterility in the heterogametic sex is a common feature of speciation in animals. In house mice, the contribution of the Mus musculus musculus X chromosome to hybrid malesterility is large. It is not known, however, whether F1 malesterility is caused by XY or X-autosome incompatibilities or a combination of both. We investigated the contribution of the M. musculus domesticus Y chromosome to hybrid malesterility in a cross between wild-derived strains in which males with a M. m. musculus X chromosome and M. m. domesticus Y chromosome are partially sterile, while males from the reciprocal cross are reproductively normal. We used eight X introgression lines to combine different X chromosome genotypes with different Y chromosomes on an F1 autosomal background, and we measured a suite of male reproductive traits. Reproductive deficits were observed in most F1 males, regardless of Y chromosome genotype. Nonetheless, we found evidence for a negative interaction between the M. m. domesticus Y and an interval on the M. m. musculus X that resulted in abnormal sperm morphology. Therefore, although F1 malesterility appears to be caused mainly by X-autosome incompatibilities, XY incompatibilities contribute to some aspects of sterility.
Campbell, Polly; Good, Jeffrey M.; Dean, Matthew D.; Tucker, Priscilla K.; Nachman, Michael W.
Three cytoplasmic male-sterile Nicotiana cultivars together with corresponding male-fertile progenitors and restored lines were investigated in order to find possible correlations between respiratory characteristics and malesterility. Oxygen consumption measurements were performed on cells from suspension cultures as well as on mitochondria isolated from green leaves. Inhibitors, which have been reported to specifically block either the cytochrome (KCN) or the alternative (propyl gallate and sali-cylhydroxamic acid [SHAM] respiratory pathways, were used in order to measure the capacity and activity of the two pathways. One of the inhibitors, SHAM, was found unsuitable to measure the activity of the alternative pathway due to the lack of specificity of SHAM for this pathway. A great difference in the capacity of the alternative pathway was detected between the two types of cell materials tested. Mitochondria isolated from green leaves showed a capacity of the alternative pathway of 5 to 20% of total mitochondrial repiration, while the capacity of cells from suspension cultures generally ranged from 50 to 80%. In addition to this, in organello synthesis of mitochondrial proteins revealed differences between mitochondria isolated from green leaves and from cell suspensions. No correlation, however, could be found between respiratory characteristics and malesterility. Images Figure 1 Figure 2
Hakansson, Gunilla; Glimelius, Kristina; Bonnett, Howard T.
Male hybrids between Anopheles gambiae and An. arabiensis suffer from hybrid sterility, and inviability effects are sometimes present as well. We examined the genetic basis of these reproductive barriers between the two species, using 21 microsatellite markers. Generally, recessive inviability effects were found on the X chromosome of gambiae that are incompatible with at least one factor on each arabiensis autosome. Inviability is complete when the gambiae and arabiensis inviability factors are hemi- or homozygous. Using a QTL mapping approach, regions that contribute to male hybrid sterility were also identified. The X chromosome has a disproportionately large effect on male hybrid sterility. Additionally, several moderate-to-large autosomal QTL were found in both species. The effect of these autosomal QTL is contingent upon the presence of an X chromosome from the other species. Substantial regions of the autosomes do not contribute markedly to male hybrid sterility. Finally, no evidence for epistatic interactions between conspecific sterility loci was found.
In most animals, the origins of mating preferences are not clear. The "sensory-bias" hypothesis proposes that biases in female sensory or neural systems are important in triggering sexual selection and in determining which male traits will become elaborated into sexual ornaments. Subsequently, other mechanisms can evolve for discriminating between high- and low-quality mates. Female guppies (Poecilia reticulata) generally show a preference for males with larger, more chromatic orange spots. It has been proposed that this preference originated because it enabled females to obtain high-quality mates. We present evidence for an alternative hypothesis, that the origin of the preference is a pleiotropic effect of a sensory bias for the colour orange, which might have arisen in the context of food detection. In field and laboratory experiments, adult guppies of both sexes were more responsive to orange-coloured objects than to objects of other colours, even outside a mating context. Across populations, variation in attraction to orange objects explained 94% of the inter-population variation in female mate preference for orange coloration on males. This is one of the first studies to show both an association between a potential trigger of a mate-choice preference and a sexually selected trait, and also that an innate attraction to a coloured inanimate object explains almost all of the observed variation in female mate choice. These results support the "sensory-bias" hypothesis for the evolution of mating preferences. PMID:11886639
Rodd, F Helen; Hughes, Kimberly A; Grether, Gregory F; Baril, Colette T
Empirical studies of sexual selection typically focus on one of the two mechanisms of sexual selection without integrating these into a description of total sexual selection, or study total sexual selection without quantifying the contributions of all of the mechanisms of sexual selection. However, this can provide an incomplete or misleading view of how sexually selected traits evolve if the mechanisms of sexual selection are opposing or differ in form. Here, we take a two-fold approach to advocate a direction for future studies of sexual selection. We first show how a quantitative partitioning and examination of sexual selection mechanisms can inform by identifying illustrative studies that describe both male-male competition and female mate choice acting on the same trait. In our sample, the most common trait where this occurred was body size, and selection was typically linear. We found that male-male competition and female mate choice can be reinforcing or opposing, although the former is most common in the literature. The mechanisms of sexual selection can occur simultaneously or sequentially, and we found they were more likely to be opposing when the mechanisms operated sequentially. The degree and timing that these mechanisms interact have important implications for the operation of sexual selection and needs to be considered in designing studies. Our examples highlight where empirical data are needed. We especially lack standardized measures of the form and strength of selection imposed by each mechanism of sexual selection and how they combine to determine total sexual selection. Secondly, using quantitative genetic principles, we outline how the selection imposed by individual mechanisms can be measured and combined to estimate the total strength and form of sexual selection. We discuss the evolutionary consequences of combining the mechanisms of sexual selection and interpreting total sexual selection. We suggest how this approach may result in empirical progress in the field of sexual selection. PMID:19120810
Hunt, John; Breuker, Casper J; Sadowski, Jennifer A; Moore, Allen J
Mating behavior, including courtship and copulation, is a main component of male fitness, especially in species with no parental\\u000a care. Variation in this behavior can thus be a target for mate choice and sexual selection, and can lead to evolution. The\\u000a fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has well-documented complex male courtship comprised of a sequence behaviors, and is an ideal model
Evolutionary conflicts of interest between the sexes are common, as mating tactics and strategies that increase fitness benefits\\u000a for one sex may incur costs for the other. As a consequence, antagonistic coevolution between the sexes often results in a\\u000a complex arms race between male persistence and female resistance. Coercive mating (e.g., forced copulation) likely benefits\\u000a males by increasing the probability
Julianna L. Johns; J. Andrew Roberts; David L. Clark; George W. Uetz
Triticum aestivum cv. Norin 26 with Aegilops crassa, Ae. juvenalis or Ae. vavilovii cytoplasm (all D2 type) has been studied relative to its photoperiodic response of malesterility and fertility restoration patterns. Alloplasmic lines of Norin 26 with a D2 type cytoplasm showed almost complete malesterility under long-day conditions (=15 h), but high male fertility under short-day conditions (=14.5
Female choice experiments were used to investigate the effect of relative male age on mating success inD. melanogaster. Experiments were conducted with a Canton-S (CS) strain, in which two virgin males of different ages (2, 4, or 8 days old) were offered to virgin females. Older males were found to be more successful under competitive conditions. In another group of
Although females prefer to mate with brightly colored males in numerous species, the benefits accruing to such females are virtually unknown. According to one hypothesis of sexual selection theory, if the expression of costly preferred traits in males (such as conspicuous colors) is proportional to the male's overall quality or reveals his quality, a well-developed trait should indicate good condition
Female guppies Poecilia reticulata descended from the Tacarigua population in Trinidad subject to high predation exhibited strong preferences for males with relatively high levels of carotenoid colouration. The study, which controlled for differences in male courtship, revealed that mate choice in this population is based on the expression of orange pigmentation, irrespective of differences in male motivation. # 2004 The
Male insects often compete over access to female ova. In combat larger males usually have a competitive edge over smaller males. However, female insects may discriminate against potential mates based on body size. This discrimination can occur during courtship, copulation, or post-copulation. Here, ...
This study examined the relationship between dietary carotenoids, female choice, and malemating success in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata. Using a split-brood design, male siblings were either raised on a diet enhanced with astaxanthin and canthaxin or fed a basal diet without carotenoids. Males were photographed, and the location, size, and brightness of their red and orange pigment spots on
Theory predicts that males will benefit when they bias their mating effort towards females of higher reproductive potential, and that this discrimination will increase as males become more resource limited. We conducted a series of experiments to test these predictions in a laboratory population of the fruitfly, Drosophila melanogaster. In this species, courtship and copulation have significant costs to males,
We investigated the amount of variation in mating behaviour between and within individual male and female American toads, because both sources of trait variation can influence the course of sexual selection. Males varied in all four call parameters investigated (dominant call frequency, pulse rate, call rate and call duration). Individual males lowered the dominant frequency of their call when they
Male-male competition over territorial ownership suggests that winning is associated with considerable benefits. In the speckled wood butterfly, Pararge aegeria, males fight over sunspot territories on the forest floor; winners gain sole residency of a sunspot, whereas losers patrol the forest in search of females. It is currently not known whether residents experience greater mating success than non- residents, or
Martin Bergman; Karl Gotthard; David Berger; Martin Olofsson; Darrell J. Kemp; Christer Wiklund
In mammals with solitary females, the potential for males to monopolize matings is relatively low, and scramble competition polygyny is presumed to be the predominant mating system. However, combinations of male traits and mating tactics within this type of polygyny have been described. The main aim of our study was to identify the relative importance of, and interactions among, potential
In crosses between evolutionarily diverged populations, genomic incompatibilities may result in sterile hybrids, indicating evolution of reproductive isolation. In several plant families, crosses within a population can also lead to malesterile progeny because of conflict between the maternally and biparentally inherited genomes. We examined hybrid fertility between subspecies of the perennial outcrossing self-incompatible Lyrate rockcress (Arabidopsis lyrata) in large reciprocal F2 progenies and three generations of backcrosses. In one of the reciprocal F2 progenies, almost one-fourth of the plants were male-sterile. Correspondingly, almost one-half of the plants in one of the four reciprocal backcross progenies expressed malesterility. In an additional four independent F2 and backcross families, three segregated malesterility. The observed asymmetrical hybrid incompatibility is attributable to malesterility factors in one cytoplasm, for which the other population lacks effective fertility restorers. Genotyping of 96 molecular markers and quantitative trait locus mapping revealed that only 60% of the plants having the malesterile cytoplasm and lacking the corresponding restorers were phenotypically male-sterile. Genotyping data showed that there is only one restorer locus, which mapped to a 600-kb interval at the top of chromosome 2 in a region containing a cluster of pentatricopeptide repeat genes. Male fertility showed no trade-off with seed production. We discuss the role of cytoplasm and genomic conflict in incipient speciation and conclude that cytoplasmic malesterility-lowering hybrid fitness is a transient effect with limited potential to form permanent reproductive barriers between diverged populations of hermaphrodite self-incompatible species. PMID:23935000
Aalto, Esa A; Koelewijn, Hans-Peter; Savolainen, Outi
In crosses between evolutionarily diverged populations, genomic incompatibilities may result in sterile hybrids, indicating evolution of reproductive isolation. In several plant families, crosses within a population can also lead to malesterile progeny because of conflict between the maternally and biparentally inherited genomes. We examined hybrid fertility between subspecies of the perennial outcrossing self-incompatible Lyrate rockcress (Arabidopsis lyrata) in large reciprocal F2 progenies and three generations of backcrosses. In one of the reciprocal F2 progenies, almost one-fourth of the plants were male-sterile. Correspondingly, almost one-half of the plants in one of the four reciprocal backcross progenies expressed malesterility. In an additional four independent F2 and backcross families, three segregated malesterility. The observed asymmetrical hybrid incompatibility is attributable to malesterility factors in one cytoplasm, for which the other population lacks effective fertility restorers. Genotyping of 96 molecular markers and quantitative trait locus mapping revealed that only 60% of the plants having the malesterile cytoplasm and lacking the corresponding restorers were phenotypically male-sterile. Genotyping data showed that there is only one restorer locus, which mapped to a 600-kb interval at the top of chromosome 2 in a region containing a cluster of pentatricopeptide repeat genes. Male fertility showed no trade-off with seed production. We discuss the role of cytoplasm and genomic conflict in incipient speciation and conclude that cytoplasmic malesterilitylowering hybrid fitness is a transient effect with limited potential to form permanent reproductive barriers between diverged populations of hermaphrodite self-incompatible species.
Aalto, Esa A.; Koelewijn, Hans-Peter; Savolainen, Outi
Background In promiscuous species, male fitness is expected to increase with repeated matings in an open-ended fashion (thereby increasing number of partners or probability of paternity) whereas female fitness should level out at some optimal number of copulations when direct and indirect benefits still outweigh the costs of courtship and copulation. After this fitness peak, additional copulations would incur female fitness costs and be under opposing selection. Hence, a sexual conflict over mating frequency may evolve in species where females are forced to engage in costly matings. Under such circumstance, if females could avoid male detection, significant fitness benefits from such avoidance strategies would be predicted. Methodology/Principal Findings Among four Littorina species, one lives at very much higher densities and has a longer mating season than the other three species. Using video records of snail behaviour in a laboratory arena we show that males of the low-density species discriminate among male and female mucous trails, trailing females for copulations. In the high-density species, however, males fail to discriminate between male and female trails, not because males are unable to identify female trails (which we show using heterospecific females), but because females do not, as the other species, add a gender-specific cue to their trail. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that there is likely a sexual conflict over mating frequency in the high-density species (L. saxatilis) owing to females most likely being less sperm-limited in this species. This has favoured the evolution of females that permanently or optionally do not release a cue in the mucus to decrease excessive and costly matings resulting in unusually high frequencies of male-male copulating attempts in the wild. This is one of few examples of masking gender identity to obtain fewer matings.
Johannesson, Kerstin; Saltin, Sara H.; Duranovic, Iris; Havenhand, Jon N.; Jonsson, Per R.
Capturing the process of speciation early enough to determine the initial genetic causes of reproductive isolation remains a major challenge in evolutionary biology. We have found, to our knowledge, the first example of substantial intraspecific polymorphism for genetic factors contributing to hybrid malesterility. Specifically, we show that the occurrence of hybrid malesterility in crosses between Drosophila mojavensis and its sister species, Drosophila arizonae, is controlled by factors present at different frequencies in different populations of D. mojavensis. In addition, we show that hybrid malesterility is a complex phenotype; some hybrid males with motile sperm still cannot sire offspring. Because malesterility factors in hybrids between these species are not yet fixed within D. mojavensis, this system provides an invaluable opportunity to characterize the genetics of reproductive isolation at an early stage. PMID:15184657
Since natural populations of guppies, Poecilia reticulata, often differ from one another in social structure, the intensity of sperm competition is likely to vary between localities. Guppies are promiscuous, with female choice for colourful males playing a central role in the mating system. In addition, male guppies use forced copulations to circumvent female choice. Both methods of copulation are used interchangeably by individual males, but the degree to which either is used may depend on the social environment into which males are born. Here we show that malemating behaviour varies according to the rearing sex ratio: when reared in male-biased groups, males performed more forced copulations and fewer courtship displays but showed the opposite pattern of behaviour when reared in female-biased groups. Our prediction, based on sperm competition theory, that stripped sperm number would reflect social structure was not supported by our results. Instead, the overall level of sexual activity (gonopodial thrusts+sigmoid displays) was a better predictor of sperm number in the different groups of males. Rearing density, where sex ratio was controlled, did not significantly affect malemating behaviour or sperm traits. Males reared under the different sex ratios continued to show their characteristic behaviour patterns when placed in equal sex ratio tanks. We conclude, therefore, that males adopt mating strategies to suit their social environment, and that these strategies remain fixed, for short periods at least, if population structure changes. Copyright 1999 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:10564602
Recent research has highlighted the potential importance of environmental and genotype-by-environment (G×E) variation in sexual selection, but most studies have focussed on the expression of male sexual traits. Consequently, our understanding of genetic variation for plasticity in female mate choice is extremely poor. In this study we examine the genetics of female mate choice in Drosophila simulans using isolines reared across two post-eclosion temperatures. There was evidence for G×Es in female choosiness and preference, which suggests that the evolution of female mate choice behaviour could differ across environments. However, the ranked order of preferred males was consistent across females and environments, so the same males are favoured by mate choice in spite of G×Es. Our study highlights the importance of taking cross-environment perspectives in order to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the operation of sexual selection.
Males of many species assess the likely level of sperm competition and respond adaptively, for example by increasing the level of courtship they deliver, by transferring more sperm or seminal fluids or by extending matings. In mechanistic terms, it may be easier for males to adjust the level of their investment to the likely level of sperm competition for male-limited traits such as sperm and seminal fluid production over which they have control. However, for shared traits, such as mating duration, that are expressed at a level determined by direct interactions between males and females, adaptive responses by males to competition could be constrained. This need not be the case, however, if males have significant influence over the expression of such traits. Understanding which sex can most influence the expression of shared traits in response to sexual competition is important in order to document the range of strategic, plastic responses that are available to each sex. However, direct tests of these ideas require, as in this study, measurements of the effect on a shared trait of manipulating the ability of one, but not the other, sex to influence it. We studied the responses of male Drosophila melanogaster to sexual competition, in which mating duration is increased following exposure to rivals, resulting in significantly increased paternity share. Males were allowed to respond normally to the presence of rivals prior to mating, but female responses to males were reduced via decapitation and immobilisation. We found that matings with both intact and decapitated, immobilised females were significantly longer with males that had been exposed to rivals prior to mating. Hence males could maintain their responses to rivals with intact and decapitated females, suggesting significant male influence over the ability to extend mating duration in this context. However, overall, mating duration was significantly longer with intact in comparison to decapitated females. Whether this is due to a female influence over mating duration in general, or whether males respond differently to immobilised females, is not yet known. Gaining a fuller understanding of sex-specific control of plastic traits will be important in the future for understanding how reproductive traits evolve and function. PMID:23727302
Bretman, Amanda; Westmancoat, James D; Chapman, Tracey
The fitness consequences of mate choice are a source of ongoing debate in evolutionary biology. Recent theory predicts that indirect benefits of female choice due to offspring inheriting superior genes are likely to be negated when there are direct costs associated with choice, including any costs of mating with attractive males. To estimate the fitness consequences of mating with males of varying attractiveness, we housed female house crickets, Acheta domesticus, with either attractive or unattractive males and measured a variety of direct and indirect fitness components. These fitness components were combined to give relative estimates of the number of grandchildren produced and the intrinsic rate of increase (relative net fitness). We found that females mated to attractive males incur a substantial survival cost. However, these costs are cancelled out and may be outweighed by the benefits of having offspring with elevated fitness. This benefit is due predominantly, but not exclusively, to the effect of an increase in sons' attractiveness. Our results suggest that the direct costs that females experience when mating with attractive males can be outweighed by indirect benefits. They also reveal the value of estimating the net fitness consequences of a mating strategy by including measures of offspring quality in estimates of fitness.
A new improved method for hybrid seed production was successfully tested. This method is based on using a cytoplasmic malesterile line possessing a lethal gene with action that can be easily inhibited and a female sterile pollenizer. The lethal gene ensures 100% purity of the F1 crop. The female sterile pollenizer provides a permanent abundant flowering with excess of
Reproductive isolation between sympatric taxa can be maintained by specific mate-recognition behaviours or by ecological divergence that reduces interspecific contact during reproduction. Common garter snakes, Thamnophis sirtalis (L., 1758), and plains garter snakes, Thamnophis radix (Baird and Girard, 1853), are sympatric over large areas, but morphological data suggest that the prezygotic isolation between these two species partially breaks down in
Richard Shine; Benjamin Phillips; Heather Waye; Michael Lemaster; Robert T. Mason
We have analyzed the sterility associated with introgressions of the distal one-fourth of the X chrc- mosome from either Drosophila mauritiana or Drosophila sechellia into the genome of Drosophila simu- lans using a series of visible and DNA markers. Because in Drosophila hybrids, malesterility is usually complete and is often tightly linked with each of several markers used in
Eric L. Cabot; Andrew W. Davis; Norman A. Johnson; Chung-I Wu
Examined relationships between perceptions of marital communication and the choice of male or female sterilization in 313 couples. The wife's perception of marital communication was negatively related to the tendency for the couple to choose female sterilization, conditional on female labor force participation. Communication questions are
Sexual selection, differences in reproductive success between individuals, continues beyond acquiring a mating partner and affects ejaculate size and composition (sperm competition). Sperm and seminal fluid have very different roles in sperm competition but both components encompass production costs for the male. Theoretical models predict that males should spend ejaculate components prudently and differently for sperm and seminal fluid but empirical evidence for independent variation of sperm number and seminal fluid volume is scarce. It is also largely unknown how sperm and seminal fluid variation affect future mating rate. In bedbugs we developed a protocol to examine the role of seminal fluids in ejaculate allocation and its effect on future malemating rate. Using age-related changes in sperm and seminal fluid volume we estimated the lowest capacity at which mating activity started. We then showed that sexually active males allocate 12% of their sperm and 19% of their seminal fluid volume per mating and predicted that males would be depleted of seminal fluid but not of sperm. We tested (and confirmed) this prediction empirically. Finally, the slightly faster replenishment of seminal fluid compared to sperm did not outweigh the faster decrease during mating. Our results suggest that malemating rate can be constrained by the availability of seminal fluids. Our protocol might be applicable to a range of other organisms. We discuss the idea that economic considerations in sexual conflict research might benefit from distinguishing between costs and benefits that are ejaculate dose-dependent and those that are frequency-dependent on the mating rate per se.
Reinhardt, Klaus; Naylor, Richard; Siva-Jothy, Michael T.
Courtship is well known for its positive effects on mating success. However, in polyandrous species, sexual selection continues to operate after copulation. Cryptic female choice is expected under unpredictable mating rates in combination with sequential mate encounters. However, there are very few accounts of the effects of courtship on cryptic female choice, and the available evidence is often correlative. Mature Argiope bruennichi females are always receptive and never attack or reject males before mating, although sexual cannibalism after mating occurs regularly. Still, males usually perform an energetic vibratory display prior to copulation. We tested the hypothesis that beneficial effects of courtship arise cryptically, during or after mating, resulting in increased paternity success under polyandry. Manipulating courtship duration experimentally, we found that males that mated without display had a reduced paternity share even though no differences in post-copulatory cannibalism or copulation duration were detected. This suggests that the paternity advantage associated with courtship arose through female-mediated processes after intromission, meeting the definition of cryptic female choice.
Recent evidence shows that females exert a post-copulatory fertilization bias in favour of unrelated males to avoid the genetic incompatibilities derived from inbreeding. One of the mechanisms suggested for fertilization biases in insects is female control over transport of sperm to the sperm-storage organs. We investigated post-copulatory inbreeding-avoidance mechanisms in females of the cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus. We assessed the relative contribution of related and unrelated males to the sperm stores of double-mated females. To demonstrate unequivocally that biased sperm storage results from female control rather than cryptic male choice, we manipulated the relatedness of matedmales and of males performing post-copulatory mate guarding. Our results show that when guarded by a related male, females store less sperm from their actual mate, irrespective of the relatedness of the matingmale. Our data support the notion that inhibition of sperm storage by female crickets can act as a form of cryptic female choice to avoid the severe negative effects of inbreeding. PMID:23745826
Screwworms, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), were devastating pests in parts of North America and Central America before their eradication by means of the sterile insect technique (SIT). Now, a barrier is maintained to prevent re-entry of screwworms from endemic regions t...
Despite intense interest in the role of deception in animal communication, empirical evidence is wanting that nonhuman animals are capable of actively falsifying signals to manipulate mates for reproductive benefits. Tactical use of false positive signals has thus been documented mainly where interests are consistently opposed, such as between predator and prey and between competitors for food and for mates. Here we report that male topi antelopes alarm snort deceptively to retain receptive females in their territories and thereby secure mating opportunities. The finding reveals that sexual conflict over mating, which is known to promote various forms of coercion and sensory bias exploitation, can also lead to active signal falsification. However, because honesty in sexual signals is generally assured by physical or cost-enforced constraints on signal production, sexually selected mate deception is likely to target mainly signals, such as alarm calls, that were originally not under sexual selection. PMID:20477537
Atlantic mollies (Poecilia mexicana) inhabit a variety of surface habitats, but they also occur in a sulfur cave in southern Mexico. We examined malemate choice relative to female body size in the cave population and in the most closely related surface-dwelling population from a nearby river. Males from both populations were either light- or dark-reared and could choose between two differently sized females either on the basis of visual cues in light or on the basis of solely nonvisual cues in darkness. Sexual preferences were estimated from the degree of association. Cave molly males always showed a preference for the larger female, both in light and in darkness. Among the surface males, only light-reared males showed a preference in the visual cues test, but not in darkness. In a control experiment, we demonstrated that male association preferences directly translate into actual mating preferences. Apparently, using visual cues for mate choice is the ancestral state in this system, and using nonvisual cues has evolved as a novel trait in the cave population. We discuss the evolution of nonvisual malemate choice in the context of changed environmental conditions, namely the absence of light, hypoxia, and toxic hydrogen sulfide in the cave. PMID:16404589
Male sexual displays provide females with information that is crucial to their reproductive decisions. That same information is available to eavesdroppers, with potential consequences for both signaller and receiver. We present empirical evidence for size-dependent responses to intersexual communication by conspecific rivals. Acoustic features of a male house cricket's (Acheta domesticus) mating call are positively associated with its size, with females preferring the calls of larger males. In order to investigate whether conspecific males make use of the information content of mating calls, we examined their phonotactic responses to call recordings that differ in attractiveness to females. Males of all sizes exhibited positive phonotaxis, with smaller males showing a clear preference for female-preferred calls. Smaller males were also less likely to seek contact with the speaker playing their chosen call. We discuss possible explanations for this size-dependent male behaviour.
F1 hybrid seeds are produced by controlled hybridization of homozygous inbred lines. Malesterility avoids tedious emasculation\\u000a procedures of female parental plants but must be reversible easily in order to propagate and maintain the male-sterile lines.\\u000a Doubled haploid plants provide complete homozygosity and therefore may be used as parental lines to breed F1 hybrids. An environment-friendly F1 hybrid breeding technology
A. Ribarits; A. N. K. Mamun; S. Li; T. Resch; M. Fiers; E. Heberle-Bors; C.-M. Liu; A. Touraev
Males of the damselfly Calopteryx splendens xanthostoma (Charpentier) demonstrate territorial and non-territorial mate securing tactics. Non-territorial males obtain a territory in one of two ways: they either wait for a territory to become vacant, or they fight with and displace a territory holder. The estimated reproductive success of territorial males was a thousand times greater than that of non-territorial males,
In previous experiments on the induction of translocations in the mouse tests were usually confined to the sons of treated animals. In the present experiment daughters of irradiated males were studied, with a view to finding the frequency of X-linked translocations and of autosomal aberrations causing malesterility. The treated males were given 600 rad X-rays to the hind part
Malesterility of wheat-breeding line 337S (Triticum aestivum L.) is sensitive to both short day-length\\/low temperature and long day-length\\/high temperature. 337S was crossed with the\\u000a common wheat variety, Huamai No. 8 and the F1 was highly fertile. The F2 population segregated in a 15:1 ratio for fertility\\/sterility in 243 individuals under long day-length\\/high-temperature.\\u000a The two thermophotoperiod-responsive malesterile genes were
R. X. Guo; D. F. Sun; Z. B. Tan; D. F. Rong; C. D. Li
Gynodioecy, the coexistence of hermaphrodites and females (i.e. male-sterile plants) in natural plant populations, most often results from polymorphism at genetic loci involved in a particular interaction between the nuclear and cytoplasmic genetic compartments (cytonuclear epistasis): cytoplasmic malesterility (CMS). Although CMS clearly contributes to the coevolution of involved nuclear loci and cytoplasmic genomes in gynodioecious species, the occurrence of CMS genetic factors in the absence of sexual polymorphism (cryptic CMS) is not easily detected and rarely taken in consideration. We found cryptic CMS in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana after crossing distantly related accessions, Sha and Mr-0. Malesterility resulted from an interaction between the Sha cytoplasm and two Mr-0 genomic regions located on chromosome 1 and chromosome 3. Additional accessions with either nuclear sterility maintainers or sterilizing cytoplasms were identified from crosses with either Sha or Mr-0. By comparing two very closely related cytoplasms with different male-sterility inducing abilities, we identified a novel mitochondrial ORF, named orf117Sha, that is most likely the sterilizing factor of the Sha cytoplasm. The presence of orf117Sha was investigated in worldwide natural accessions. It was found mainly associated with a single chlorotype in accessions belonging to a clade predominantly originating from Central Asia. More than one-third of accessions from this clade carried orf117Sha, indicating that the sterilizing-inducing cytoplasm had spread in this lineage. We also report the coexistence of the sterilizing cytoplasm with a non-sterilizing cytoplasm at a small, local scale in a natural population; in addition a correlation between cytotype and nuclear haplotype was detected in this population. Our results suggest that this CMS system induced sexual polymorphism in A. thaliana populations, at the time when the species was mainly outcrossing. PMID:23658632
The stereotyped mating behaviour of the Caenorhabditis elegans male is made up of several substeps: response, backing, turning, vulva location, spicule insertion and sperm transfer. The complexity of this behaviour is reflected in the sexually dimorphic anatomy and nervous system. Behavioural functions have been assigned to most of the male-specific sensory neurons by means of cell ablations; for example, the
In the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), males have two alternative mating tactics. Individual males may either display to a receptive female prior to attempting to copulate with her or attempt to quickly sneakcopulate with a female without first displaying to her or without a prior receptive response from her. In this study, I experimentally investigated the effects of simulated local increases
Although females prefer to mate with brightly colored males in numerous species, the benefits accruing to such females are virtually unknown. According to one hypothesis of sexual selection theory, if the expression of costly preferred traits in males (such as conspicuous colors) is proportional to the male's overall quality or reveals his quality, a well-developed trait should indicate good condition and/or viability for example. A female choosing such a male would therefore stand to gain direct or indirect fitness benefits, or both. Among potential phenotypic indicators of an individual's quality are the amount and brightness of its carotenoid-based colors and its boldness, as measured by its willingness to risk approaching predators without being killed. Here, we show experimentally that in the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata) the visual conspicuousness of the color pattern of males correlates positively with boldness toward, and with escape distance from, a cichlid fish predator. Bold individuals are thus more informed about nearby predators and more likely to survive encounters with them. Mate-choice experiments showed that females prefer colorful males as mates, but prefer bolder males irrespective of their coloration when given the opportunity to observe their behavior toward a potential fish predator. By preferentially mating with colorful males, female guppies are thus choosing on average, relatively bold, and perhaps more viable, individuals. In doing so, and to the extent that viability is heritable, they potentially gain indirect fitness benefits by producing more viable offspring than otherwise. PMID:11607706
BACKGROUND: Research on the evolution of reproductive isolation in African cichlid fishes has largely focussed on the role of male colours and female mate choice. Here, we tested predictions from the hypothesis that allopatric divergence in male colour is associated with corresponding divergence in preference. METHODS: We studied four populations of the Lake Malawi Pseudotropheus zebra complex. We predicted that
Jonatan Blais; Martin Plenderleith; Ciro Rico; Martin I Taylor; Ole Seehausen; Cock van Oosterhout; George F Turner
Although many studies have examined the effects of male size on attractiveness and mating behaviour, few have taken genetic background into consideration. Phenotypic manipulation permits the experimental adjustment of morphological traits while keeping genetic background constant. Here, male guppies, Poecilia reticulata, an ideal model for this type of manipulation, were raised at different temperatures to produce sibling pairs that differed
Kit Magellan; Lars B. Pettersson; Anne E. Magurran
Since natural populations of guppies, Poecilia reticulata, often differ from one another in social structure, the intensity of sperm competition is likely to vary between localities. Guppies are promiscuous, with female choice for colourful males playing a central role in the mating system. In addition, male guppies use forced copulations to circumvent female choice. Both methods of copulation are used
Cerci are paired, sensory appendages extending from the terminal abdominal segment of crickets. While the cerci are acutely sensitive to air currents and thereby function in the detection of potential predators, they are also known to play a role in co-ordinating movements of males and females during copulation. The role of the male's cerci at four stages of the mating
I investigated how mate quality and territory quality influence an extravagant ornament in a socially monogamous species that defends multipurpose territories. Northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis) are a highly dichromatic, socially monogamous species, and males are a brilliant red. I conducted a 3-year field study of northern cardinals and found that redder males produced more offspring in a breeding season. Two
Alternative reproductive tactics are often correlated with phenotype, density, environment, or social context. Male horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus) have two mating tactics that are associated with phenotype. Males in good condition arrive at the nesting beach and spawn while attached to females, whereas those in poorer condition come ashore unattached and crowd around the nesting couples as satellites, fertilizing eggs
We examined the relationships between male body and horn sizes and mating duration in the Japanese horned beetle, Allomyrina dichotoma. Smaller males possessing shorter horns spent more time for copulation with a female and mounting the female without copulation. The results of multiple regression analyses indicate that the horn length is a determining factor for the time spent by the
A series of studies was conducted to examine the role of copulatory dysfunction, spermatotoxicity, and/or impaired fertilization in the reduced rates of fertility and implantation observed in females mated to acrylamid-treated male rats. In initial experiments, males were gavaged...
Gametic asymmetry implies that females invest more per gamete than males do and thus sperm is considered to be a relatively cheap resource. However, contrary to this classic view, sperm has been shown to be frequently in short supply; hence, selection favouring females that mate for fertility benefits should occur. For this reason, we determined whether males signalling fertility are
The males of lekking species are not expected to be choosy about mating because a reduced reproductive rate due to lost mating opportunities should outweigh any benefits of male choice. Females have traditionally not been expected to be competitive in this system since their reproduction has usually been assumed to be unconstrained by male availability. Here we show that, in contrast to these predictions, males are choosy and females may be competitive in the lekking great snipe Gallinago media. Males preferred by many females often refused to copulate with and even chased away females that the male had already copulated with, whereas females seemed to compete for repeated copulations. We conclude that choosiness may sometimes pay for popular males in those lekking species where females copulate repeatedly. Apparently, evolutionary conflicts of interest between individuals may cause a richer repertoire of behavioural adaptations than, to our knowledge, hitherto realized.
In summer, males of Polistes dominulus form large aggregations at sunny landmarks. We identified two size-correlated behavioural categories: residents (R) and transient (T). R males, which constitute 20%25% of the total population, are larger than T males, territorial, aggressive, and more site-faithful, while T males range more widely, are non-aggressive, and show little site tenacity. Field and laboratory data suggest
Because mating may be costly, sexually active males or females are predicted to be in relatively good physiological condition and may preferentially direct their mating behavior toward relatively high-quality mates. We tested this hypothesis in Japanese beetles (Popillia japonica Newman), a pest species in which males and females may be either isolated or in aggregations while feeding on host plants. We examined male size and lipid content and female size and egg load with respect to both their pairing status and whether they were isolated or in aggregations. Males that were paired had the highest lipid levels, and single, isolated males had the lowest. Paired females had the highest egg loads and single, isolated females had the lowest. Neither male nor female size was related to pairing status. Females captured during the times of relatively high pairing frequency (i.e., morning and evening) had higher egg loads than females captured at times of lower pairing frequency (i.e., afternoon). These results suggest that mating and aggregative behaviors in Japanese beetles are dependent on the physiological status of males and the reproductive condition of females. PMID:20550803
Tigreros, Natasha; Jadhav, Rashmi; Kowles, Katelyn A; Nathan, Britto P; Switzer, Paul V
Guppies are a model vertebrate for studies of sexual selection and life history evolution. None the less, there have been few investigations of the factors responsible for maintaining extreme within-population genetic variation in male coloration. In a laboratory study, we tested the hypothesis that frequency-dependent mate choice contributes to the maintenance of this variation. We attempted to avoid biases inherent in earlier studies of the 'rare male effect' by familiarizing females to males bearing a particular colour pattern and later presenting them with alternate male types, in equal numbers. Females were significantly more likely to mate with males having novel colour patterns than with males having a colour pattern with which they were familiar. This result is consistent with the hypothesis that mate choice is frequency dependent. Other factors such as male and female size were unrelated to mate preference. Implications of the results for theories of sexual selection and the maintenance of variation are discussed. Copyright 1999 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:10512664
Sexual selection involves two main mechanisms: intrasexual competition for mates and intersexual mate choice. We experimentally separated intrasexual (male-male interference competition) and intersexual (female choice) components of sexual selection in a freshwater fish, the European bitterling ( Rhodeus sericeus ). We compared the roles of multiple morphological and behavioural traits in male success in both components of sexual com- petition,
M. REICHARD; J. BRYJA; M. ONDRACKOVA; M. DAVIDOVA; P. KANIEWSKA; C. SMITH
BACKGROUND: Multidirectional interactions in social networks can have a profound effect on mate choice behavior; e.g., Poecilia mexicana males show weaker expression of mating preferences when being observed by a rival. This may be an adaptation to reduce sperm competition risk, which arises because commonly preferred female phenotypes will receive attention also from surrounding males, and\\/or because other males can
Madlen Ziege; Kristin Mahlow; Carmen Hennige-Schulz; Claudia Kronmarck; Ralph Tiedemann; Bruno Streit; Martin Plath
Male songbirds typically mate-guard by closely following the female during her fertile period. At dawn, males may sing near the nest or roost to direct their chorus at mates. Recent evidence suggests males may also be involved in singing interactions with neighbours during the dawn chorus. We used a 16- channel acoustic location system to examine the movement behaviour of
Jennifer R. Foote; Lauren P. Fitzsimmons; Daniel J. Mennill; Laurene M. Ratcliffe
Summary After mating, the females of many species of moths become depleted of sex pheromone, calling behaviour is terminated, and they become transiently or permanently unreceptive to additional matings. In the corn earworm moth, Helicoverpa zea, we have found that the male accessory gland\\/duplex is required for evoking the post-mating depletion of sex pheromone but apparently not for the cessation
Although multiple mating most likely increases mortality risk for social insect queens and lowers the kin benefits for nonreproductive workers, a significant proportion of hymenopteran queens mate with several males. It has been suggested that queens may mate multiply as a means to manipulate sex ratios to their advantage. Multiple paternity reduces the extreme relatedness value of females for workers,
Else J. Fjerdingstad; Pia J. Gertsch; Laurent Keller
In primate species exhibiting seasonal reproduction, patterns of testosterone excretion in adult males are variable: in some species, peaks correlate with female receptivity periods and heightened male-male aggression over access to estrous females, in others, neither heightened aggression nor marked elevations in testosterone have been noted. In this study, we examined mean fecal testosterone ( f T) levels and intermale aggression in wild adult male ring-tailed lemurs residing in three groups at Beza Mahafaly Reserve, Madagascar. Results obtained from mating and post-mating season 2003 were compared to test Wingfield et al. [1990. Am Nat 136:829-846] "challenge hypothesis", which predicts a strong positive relationship between male testosterone levels and male-male competition for access to receptive females during breeding season. f T levels and rates of intermale aggression were significantly higher during mating season compared to the post-mating period. Mean f T levels and aggression rates were also higher in the first half of the mating season compared with the second half. Number of males in a group affected rates of intermale agonism, but not mean f T levels. The highest-ranking males in two of the groups exhibited higher mean f T levels than did lower-ranking males, and young males exhibited lower f T levels compared to prime-aged and old males. In the post-mating period, mean male f T levels did not differ between groups, nor were there rank or age effects. Thus, although male testosterone levels rose in relation to mating and heightened male-male aggression, f T levels fell to baseline breeding levels shortly after the early mating period, and to baseline non-breeding levels immediately after mating season had ended, offsetting the high cost of maintaining both high testosterone and high levels of male-male aggression in the early breeding period. PMID:17427976
We have been studying the physiological mechanisms responsible for coordination of reproductive maturity and sex pheromone communication in males of tephritid flies in order to develop methods for acceleration of reproductive maturity among sterilizedmales. Our studies revealed that the juvenile ho...
Zygaena filipendulae accumulates the cyanogenic glucosides linamarin and lotaustralin by larval sequestration from the food plant or de novo biosynthesis. We have previously demonstrated that the Z. filipendulae male transfers linamarin and lotaustralin to the female in the course of mating. In this study we report the additional transfer of 5-hydroxytryptophan glucoside (5-(?-d-glucopyranosyloxy)-l-Tryptophan) from the Z. filipendulae male internal genitalia to the female spermatophore around 5 h into the mating process. 5-Hydroxytryptophan glucoside is present in the virgin male internal genitalia, and production continues during the early phase of mating. Following initiation of 5-hydroxytryptophan glucoside transfer to the female, the amount in male internal genitalia is drastically reduced until after mating where it is slowly replenished. For unambiguous structural identification, 5-hydroxytryptophan glucoside was chemically synthesized and used as an authentic standard. The biological function of 5-hydroxytryptophan glucoside remains to be established, although we have indications that it may be involved in inducing the female to stay in copula and delay egg-laying to prevent re-mating of the female. To our knowledge 5-hydroxytryptophan glucoside has not previously been reported present in animal tissues. PMID:24012995
Zagrobelny, Mika; Motawia, Mohammed Saddik; Olsen, Carl Erik; Bak, Søren; Møller, Birger Lindberg
Response is given to questions raised by L.E. LaChance, et al., regarding the types of screwworm that occur in Mexico and anatomical differences in male genitalia among types. Errors in chromosome length and arm ratios are discussed. Results of testing the V-81 strain (sterilemales) indicate that mating barriers exist even at high release rates. Mating discrimination must be high for a population to withstand an excess of sterile flies. The relevance of this to eradication programs is discussed. (RJC)
Males of the damselfly,Mnais pruinosa costalis, exhibit wing color dimorphism: one form has orange wings, and the other hyaline wings which resemble female wings. The former\\u000a is usually territorial and the latter uses sneaky mate securing tactics. When orange-winged males failed to establish territory,\\u000a they became floaters that day. Hyaline-winged males perched around their territories and often, formed in tandem
We investigated the amount of variation in mating behaviour between and within individual male and female American toads, because both sources of trait variation can influence the course of sexual selection. Males varied in all four call parameters investigated (dominant call frequency, pulse rate, call rate and call duration). Individual males lowered the dominant frequency of their call when they interacted vocally with nearby males. Dominant call frequency was more highly correlated with body size in vocally interacting males than in non-interacting males. Pulse rate of calls primarily varied with water temperature. Call rate and call duration showed the most variation of the four call properties, but this variation was unrelated to male morphology or social interactions. Females varied in three aspects of mating behaviour: two measures of pair formation and their preference for dominant frequency of male calls. The body size of paired males varied between females both in pairings initiated by either sex and in pairings initiated only by females. Males chosen by females were usually larger than average, although age and prior breeding experience of females did not affect mate choice. Playback experiments indicated that female preference for calls of low dominant frequency depended on the temporal patterning of alternative calls presented. Each of the four male vocal properties showed significant repeatability, but only one of the three aspects of female mating behaviour was repeatable. We discuss how different degrees of repeatability in sexual traits of males and females may influence the action and detection of sexual selection in this and other species. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:9632502
Aquatically matingmale harbour seals,Phoca vitulinamust balance the competing demands of foraging and reproduction while at sea during the breeding season. Time-depth recorders (TDRs) were attached to 31 adult male harbour seals to investigate changes in diving behaviour at Sable Island, Nova Scotia, during the 19921994 breeding seasons. Male seals were captured, fitted with TDRs and weighed at the beginning
DAVE W. COLTMAN; W. DON BOWEN; DARYL J. BONESS; SARA J. IVERSON
Twelve Japanese rice cultivars were converted to CMS by asymmetric protoplast fusion with MTC-5A, the cytoplasm of which was derived from an indica rice, Chinsurah Boro II. With the exception of the cybrids that had a nucleus from Hoshiyutaka, most of these cybrid plants were sterile. The unique sequence downstream from the mitochondrial atp6 of MTC-5A was specifically amplified in
H. Akagi; A. Nakamura; R. Sawada; M. Oka; T. Fujimura
As populations decline to levels where reproduction among close genetic relatives becomes more probable, subsequent increases in homozygous recessive deleterious expression and/or loss of heterozygote advantage can lead to inbreeding depression. Here, we measure how inbreeding across replicate lines of the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum impacts on male reproductive fitness in the absence or presence of male-male competition. Effects on male evolution from mating pattern were removed by enforcing monogamous mating throughout. After inbreeding across eight generations, we found that male fertility in the absence of competition was unaffected. However, we found significant inbreeding depression of sperm competitiveness: non-inbred males won 57 per cent of fertilizations in competition, while inbred equivalents only sired 42 per cent. We also found that the P(2) 'offence' role in sperm competition was significantly more depressed under inbreeding than sperm 'defence' (P(1)). Mating behaviour did not explain these differences, and there was no difference in the viability of offspring sired by inbred or non-inbred males. Sperm length variation was significantly greater in the ejaculates of inbred males. Our results show that male ability to achieve normal fertilization success was not depressed under strong inbreeding, but that inbreeding depression in these traits occurred when conditions of sperm competition were generated. PMID:20554548
Michalczyk, Lukasz; Martin, Oliver Y; Millard, Anna L; Emerson, Brent C; Gage, Matthew J G
As populations decline to levels where reproduction among close genetic relatives becomes more probable, subsequent increases in homozygous recessive deleterious expression and/or loss of heterozygote advantage can lead to inbreeding depression. Here, we measure how inbreeding across replicate lines of the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum impacts on male reproductive fitness in the absence or presence of malemale competition. Effects on male evolution from mating pattern were removed by enforcing monogamous mating throughout. After inbreeding across eight generations, we found that male fertility in the absence of competition was unaffected. However, we found significant inbreeding depression of sperm competitiveness: non-inbred males won 57 per cent of fertilizations in competition, while inbred equivalents only sired 42 per cent. We also found that the P2 offence role in sperm competition was significantly more depressed under inbreeding than sperm defence (P1). Mating behaviour did not explain these differences, and there was no difference in the viability of offspring sired by inbred or non-inbred males. Sperm length variation was significantly greater in the ejaculates of inbred males. Our results show that male ability to achieve normal fertilization success was not depressed under strong inbreeding, but that inbreeding depression in these traits occurred when conditions of sperm competition were generated.
Michalczyk, Lukasz; Martin, Oliver Y.; Millard, Anna L.; Emerson, Brent C.; Gage, Matthew J. G.
The social environment of animals strongly influences the mating preferences of both the choosing and the observing individuals. Notably, there is recent evidence that polygamous males decrease their selectivity when being observed by competitors in order to direct their rivals attention away from their true interest and, consequently, reduce sperm competition risk. Yet, other mechanisms, whose importance remains unexplored, could induce similar effects. In monogamous species with mutual choice, particularly, if males adjust their selectivity according to the risk of being rejected by their preferred mate, they should as well become less selective when potential rivals are present. Here, we investigated whether the presence of bystanders modifies malemating preferences when the risk of sperm competition is low, by carrying out mate-choice experiments with male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) whose preferences for two females were measured twice: with and without an audience. We found that the presence of potential rivals had no effect on the males choosiness. However, with an audience, they spent more time with the female that was considered as the less attractive one in the control condition. These findings support the hypothesis that monogamous males alter their mate choice decisions in the presence of a male audience to reduce the risk of remaining unpaired. Thus, our results indicate that several explanations can account for the changes in male preferences due to the presence of competitors and highlight the importance of assessing the relative role of each mechanism potentially involved, to be able to make conclusions about the effect of an audience on signal evolution.
Correlated traits are important from an evolutionary perspective as natural selection acting on one trait may indirectly affect other traits. Further, the response to selection can be constrained or hastened as a result of correlations. Because mating behaviour and body colour can dramatically affect fitness, a correlation between them can have important fitness ramifications. In this work, melanic (black) male mosquitofishes (Gambusia holbrooki) with temperature-sensitive body-colour expression are bred in captivity. Half of the sons of each melanic sire are reared at 19 degrees C (and express a black body colour) and half are reared at 31 degrees C (and express a silver body colour). The two colour morphs are placed in the same social setting and monitored for behavioural differences. Mating behaviour and colour are correlated traits. Mating behaviour differs markedly between the two phenotypes, despite high genetic relatedness. Melanic (black) phenotypes are more aggressive towards females, chasing them and attempting more matings than their silver siblings. Females avoid melanic-malemating attempts more than silver-malemating attempts. When males with temperature-sensitive colour expression are melanic and aggressive, they probably experience a very different selective regime in nature from when they are silver and less aggressive. Under some conditions (e.g. predation), melanic coloration and/or aggression is advantageous compared with silver coloration and/or less aggressive behaviour. However, under different conditions (e.g. high-frequency melanism), melanism and/or aggression appears to be disadvantageous and melanic males have reduced survival and reproduction. Selective advantages to each morph under different conditions may enable the long-term persistence of this temperature-sensitive genotype.
Atlantic mollies (Poecilia mexicana) inhabit a variety of surface habitats, but they also occur in a sulfur cave in southern Mexico. We examined malemate choice\\u000a relative to female body size in the cave population and in the most closely related surface-dwelling population from a nearby\\u000a river. Males from both populations were either light- or dark-reared and could choose between
Martin Plath; Uta Seggel; Heike Burmeister; Katja U. Heubel; Ingo Schlupp
Male-sterile plants were identified in the wild H. annuus L. accessions PI 413178 and PI 413180, and maintained by backcrossing with the inbred line HA 89. Male-fertile progenies from crosses between cms plants of the two PIs and 12 USDA inbred lines indicated the presence of fertility restoration g...
The project was intended to make practical the use of nuclear malesterile (ms) genes in hybrid seed production by linking a marker gene to the male fertile allele of the ms gene and selecting for the segregating ms seed by discarding segregants showing t...
In male mammals, the X and Y chromosomes are transcriptionally silenced in primary spermatocytes by meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI) and remain repressed for the duration of spermatogenesis. Here, we test the longstanding hypothesis that disrupted MSCI might contribute to the preferential sterility of heterogametic hybrid males. We studied a cross between wild-derived inbred strains of Mus musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus in which sterility is asymmetric: F1 males with a M. m. musculus mother are sterile or nearly so while F1 males with a M. m. domesticus mother are normal. In previous work, we discovered widespread overexpression of X-linked genes in the testes of sterile but not fertile F1 males. Here, we ask whether this overexpression is specifically a result of disrupted MSCI. To do this, we isolated cells from different stages of spermatogenesis and measured the expression of several genes using quantitative PCR. We found that X overexpression in sterile F1 primary spermatocytes is coincident with the onset of MSCI and persists in postmeiotic spermatids. Using a series of recombinant X genotypes, we then asked whether X overexpression in hybrids is controlled by cis-acting loci across the X chromosome. We found that it is not. Instead, one large interval in the proximal portion of the M. m. musculus X chromosome is associated with both overexpression and the severity of sterility phenotypes in hybrids. These results demonstrate a strong association between X-linked hybrid malesterility and disruption of MSCI and suggest that trans-acting loci on the X are important for the transcriptional regulation of the X chromosome during spermatogenesis. PMID:23307891
Campbell, Polly; Good, Jeffrey M; Nachman, Michael W
Public opposition to aerial application of sex pheromone for mating disruption of light brown apple moth (Epiphyas postvittana, LBAM) in California stopped its further use in the ca. $74 million eradication programme in 2008, underscoring the need for other eradication tactics. We demonstrate that ...
Sexual selection molds the morphology, physiology and behavior of males in many animals. At first glance, it seems reasonable to assume that females would use the same male traits and signals in mate choice as males do during male-male competition. However, intra- and intersexual competition may affect traits in the same or the opposite direction, with differing strength. We investigated which color, morphometric and performance traits are selected for through male-male competition and whether female mate preference is based on these same traits and/or dominance status in the three male color morphs of the lizard Podarcis melisellensis. Males with relatively bigger heads and relatively higher bite forces were more likely to win fights and orange males were always dominant over the other morphs. Females, however, preferred scents of bigger males that were in better body condition, and surprisingly had lower bite force capacities. They did not show a preference for scents of any particular color morph or for scents of the more dominant males. These results indicate that intra- and intersexual competition may result in selection for different secondary sexual traits in P. melisellensis. PMID:22561096
The effect of dietary protein (P) and the topical application of juvenile hormone analogue (methoprene (M)) on mating behaviour of male melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, was assessed in the laboratory and in field cages. Age, dietary protein and methoprene application improved the sexual success and...
Guppies are a model vertebrate for studies of sexual selection and life history evolution. None the less, there have been few investigations of the factors responsible for maintaining extreme within-population genetic variation in male coloration. In a laboratory study, we tested the hypothesis that frequency-dependent mate choice contributes to the maintenance of this variation. We attempted to avoid biases inherent
KIMBERLY A. HUGHES; LINH DU; F. HELEN RODD; DAVID N. REZNICK
A previously unknown aggressive component of the mating behavior of Donacia crassipes F. is described and illustrated. Male fights were observed in June, July and August from 1980 to 1982 on Unecha river in southwestern Russia. During the fights the following combat techniques are employed: warning ...
Sexual size dimorphism may evolve as a result of both natural and sexual selection. In polygynous mammals, the main factor resulting in the evolution of large body size in males is the advantage conferred during competition for mates. In this study, we examined whether sexual selection acts on body size in mature fallow bucks (Dama dama) by examining how the
Alan G. McElligott; Martin P. Gammell; Hilda C. Harty; Dean R. Paini; Desmond T. Murphy; James T. Walsh; Thomas J. Hayden
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) alleles likely have adaptive value because of overdominance, in which case MHC heterozygous individuals have increased fitness relative to homozygotes. Because of this potential benefit, the evolution of sexual reproduction between MHC-divergent individuals (i.e. negative assortative mating, NAM) may be favoured. However, the strongest evidence for MHC-based NAM comes from inbred animals, and context-dependent mating preferences have rarely been evaluated although they often occur in nature. We assessed the extent MHC-based mating preferences among wild tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum) using multiple molecular approaches. We genotyped 102 adults and 864 larvae from 36 breeding trials at both microsatellite and MHC loci. Parentage analysis revealed that reproductive success among males was positively associated with increased tail length and that with respect to the focal female, MHC-similar males sired a significantly higher number of offspring than more dissimilar males. This trend was consistent, even under context-dependent scenarios that favour traditional MHC-based NAM. These results suggest that the most MHC-divergent males may be at a reproductive disadvantage in pairwise breeding trials. Our data add to a growing body of evidence that suggests where it exists, MHC-based choice is probably dynamic and mediated by many factors that vary in the wild, notably signals from other indicator traits and by the quality and quantity of potential mates. PMID:19508451
Bos, David H; Williams, Rod N; Gopurenko, David; Bulut, Zafer; DeWoody, J Andrew
Rapid speciation in Lake Victoria cichlid fish of the genus Pundamilia may be facilitated by sexual selection: female mate choice exerts sexual selection on male nuptial coloration within species and maintains reproductive isolation between species. However, declining water transparency coincides with increasingly dull coloration and increasing hybridization. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism underlying this pattern in Pundamilia
MARTINE E. MAAN; OLE SEEHAUSEN; JACQUES J. M. VAN ALPHEN
In Thymus vulgaris L., sex determination involves both the nuclear and the cytoplasmic genomes: the cytoplasm is responsible for malesterility (the female phenotype) whereas specific nuclear genes may restore male fertility (the hermaphrodite phenotype). The evolutionary dynamics of cytoplasmic male-sterility genes and nuclear restorer genes represents a coevolutionary conflict. Here we draw a parallel between this conflict and the
Mate search plays a central role in hypotheses for the adaptive significance of extreme female-biased sexual size dimorphism (SSD) in animals. Spiders (Araneae) are the only free-living terrestrial taxon where extreme SSD is common. The gravity hypothesis states that small body size in males is favoured during mate search in species where males have to climb to reach females, because
The evolutionary stability of simultaneous hermaphroditism depends in part on the existence of constraints on the potential for malemating success. In the seabasses (Serranidae), several species of simultaneous hermaphrodites divide each day's clutch of eggs into parcels that are spawned sequentially and alternately with a partner. This behavior is thought to be one source of constraint on malemating
Recent theory predicts that in species where females tend to mate with the relatively most ornamented males, males may increase their attractiveness to females, and hence mating success, by preferentially associating with females that are surrounded by less ornamented competitors. Despite this prediction, we still lack explicit experimental evidence that males strategically prefer females surrounded by less attractive competitors to maximize their relative attractiveness. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive test of this hypothesis in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a species where a female's perception of a male's attractiveness depends on his coloration relative to that of surrounding males. We found that males preferentially associated with females that were surrounded by relatively drab competitors, and that the strength of an individual male's preference was negatively correlated with his level of ornamentation. A series of control experiments made it possible to exclude the potentially confounding effects of male-male competition or social motivations when drawing these conclusions. The ability of males to choose social context to increase their relative attractiveness has important evolutionary consequences, for example, by contributing towards the maintenance of variability in male sexual ornamentation despite the strong directional selection exerted by female preferences. PMID:23407839
Gasparini, Clelia; Serena, Giovanna; Pilastro, Andrea
The fertility segregations of F1, F2, BCF1 descended from crosses between PSGMR and japonica varieties, and F1's anther cultured homozygous diploid pollen plant populations (H2) were studied to reveal the genetic mechanism of photoperiod sensitive genic malesterility in PSGMR under natural daylight\\u000a length at Shanghai. Rate of bagged seed-setting was used as an indicator of fertility. Fifteen F1 showed
Male reproductive output, pollen in plants and sperm in animals has been shown to constitute a substantial cost for many organisms. In parthenogenetic hermaphrodites, selection is therefore expected to reduce the allocation of resources to male reproductive output. However, sustained production of pollen or sperm has been observed in numerous asexual hermaphrodites. We studied the widespread production of pollen by
Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is self-pollinated. To produce large quantities of hybrid seed, insect-mediated cross-pollination is necessary. An efficient nuclear male-sterile system for hybrid seed production would benefit from molecular and/or phenotypic markers linked to male fertility/sterility loci to facilitate early identification of phenotypes. Nuclear male-sterile, female-fertile ms3 mutant is a single recessive gene and displays high outcrossed seed set with pollinators. Our objective was to map the ms3 locus. A segregating population of 150 F(2) plants from Minsoy (PI 27890) x T284H, Ms3ms3 (A00-68), was screened with 231 simple sequence repeat markers. The ms3 locus mapped to molecular linkage group (MLG) D1b (Gm02) and is flanked by markers Satt157 and Satt542, with a distance of 3.7 and 12.3 cM, respectively. Female-partial sterile-1 (Fsp1) and the Midwest Oilseed male-sterile (msMOS) mutants previously were located on MLG D1b. msMOS and Fsp1 are independent genes located very close to each other. All 3 genes are located in close proximity of Satt157. We believe that this is the first report of clustering of fertility-related genes in plants. Characterization of these closely linked genes may help in understanding the evolutionary relationship among them. PMID:19617521
Cervantes-Martinez, Innan; Sandhu, Devinder; Xu, Min; Ortiz-Pérez, Evelyn; Kato, Kiyoaki K; Horner, Harry T; Palmer, Reid G
Female-limited polymorphism is often attributed to selection to avoid excessive malemating attempts. It is encountered in\\u000a various taxonomic groups, but is particularly common in damselflies, where one female morph (andromorph) typically resembles\\u000a the conspecific male in colour pattern, while the other(s) (gynomorph(s)) do not. Two sets of theories have been proposed\\u000a to explain the phenomenon in damselflies, which can
Janice J. Ting; Jessica Bots; Felipe Pérez Jvostov; Hans van Gossum; Thomas N. Sherratt
In internally fertilizing species male genitalia often show a higher degree of elaboration than required for simply transferring sperm to females. Among the hypotheses proposed to explain such diversity, sexual selection has received the most empirical support, with studies revealing that genital morphology can be targeted by both pre-and postcopulatory sexual selection. Until now, most studies have focused on these two episodes of selection independently. Here, we take an alternative approach by considering both components simultaneously in the livebearing fish, Poecilia reticulata. We allowed females to mate successively (and cooperatively) with two males and determined whether male genital length influenced the female's propensity to mate with a male (precopulatory selection, via female choice) and whether male genital size and shape predicted the relative paternity share of subsequent broods (postcopulatory selection, via sperm competition/cryptic female choice). We found no evidence that either episode of sexual selection targets male genital size or shape. These findings, in conjunction with our recent work exposing a role of genital morphology in mediating unsolicited (forced) matings in guppies, further supports our prior speculation that sexual conflict may be an important broker of genital evolution in this species. PMID:21799825
Gasparini, Clelia; Pilastro, Andrea; Evans, Jonathan P
In internally fertilizing species male genitalia often show a higher degree of elaboration than required for simply transferring sperm to females. Among the hypotheses proposed to explain such diversity, sexual selection has received the most empirical support, with studies revealing that genital morphology can be targeted by both pre-and postcopulatory sexual selection. Until now, most studies have focused on these two episodes of selection independently. Here, we take an alternative approach by considering both components simultaneously in the livebearing fish, Poecilia reticulata. We allowed females to mate successively (and cooperatively) with two males and determined whether male genital length influenced the female's propensity to mate with a male (precopulatory selection, via female choice) and whether male genital size and shape predicted the relative paternity share of subsequent broods (postcopulatory selection, via sperm competition/cryptic female choice). We found no evidence that either episode of sexual selection targets male genital size or shape. These findings, in conjunction with our recent work exposing a role of genital morphology in mediating unsolicited (forced) matings in guppies, further supports our prior speculation that sexual conflict may be an important broker of genital evolution in this species.
Gasparini, Clelia; Pilastro, Andrea; Evans, Jonathan P.
Understanding the genetic basis of reproductive isolation between recently diverged species is a central problem in evolutionary genetics. Here, I present analyses of the genetic architecture underlying hybrid malesterility and segregation distortion between the Bogota and USA subspecies of Drosophila pseudoobscura. Previously, a single gene, Overdrive (Ovd), was shown to be necessary but not sufficient for both malesterility and segregation distortion in F1 hybrids between these subspecies, requiring several interacting partner loci for full manifestation of hybrid phenomena. I map these partner loci separately on the Bogota X chromosome and USA autosomes using a combination of different mapping strategies. I find that hybrid sterility involves a single hybrid incompatibility of at least seven interacting partner genes that includes three large-effect loci. Segregation distortion involves three loci on the Bogota X chromosome and one locus on the autosomes. The genetic bases of hybrid sterility and segregation distortion are at least partiallybut not completelyoverlapping. My results lay the foundation for fine-mapping experiments to identify the complete set of genes that interact with Overdrive. While individual genes that cause hybrid sterility or inviability have been identified in a few cases, my analysis provides a comprehensive look at the genetic architecture of all components of a hybrid incompatibility underlying F1 hybrid sterility. Such an analysis would likely be unfeasible for most species pairs due to their divergence time and emphasizes the importance of young species pairs such as the D. pseudoobscura subspecies studied here.
Current sexual selection theory proposes several potential mechanisms driving the evolution of female mating preferences, few of which involve social interactions. Although vertebrate examples of socially influenced mating preferences do exist, the invertebrate examples are virtually nonexistent. Here I demonstrate that the mating preferences of female wolf spiders can be acquired through exposure as subadults to unrelated, sexually active adult males. I first conducted exposure trials during which subadult females of the wolf spider Schizocosa uetzi were allowed to interact with mature males of an experimentally manipulated phenotype (either black or brown forelegs). After maturation, these previously exposed females were paired with a male of either a familiar or unfamiliar manipulated phenotype for mate-choice trials. Subadult females that were exposed to directed courtship by mature males of a particular morphological phenotype were subsequently more likely to mate with a male of a familiar phenotype as adults. Furthermore, females that were exposed as subadults were more likely, as adults, to cannibalize a courting male with an unfamiliar phenotype. Unexposed females did not distinguish between phenotypes in either mate choice or cannibalism frequency. These results suggest a previously uncharacterized mechanism influencing the origin of female mating preferences and ultimately the evolution of male traits: subadult experience. This study also stresses the potential importance of learning and memory on adult mate choice in an arthropod.
Partial restoration of male fertility limits the use of C-type cytoplasmic malesterility (C-CMS) for the production of hybrid\\u000a seeds in maize. Nevertheless, the genetic basis of the trait is still unknown. Therefore, the aim to this study was to identify\\u000a genomic regions that govern partial restoration by means of a QTL analysis carried out in an F2 population (n = 180).
Communication, an essential prerequisite for sociality, involves the transmission of signals. A signal can be defined as any action or trait produced by one animal, the sender, that produces a change in the behaviour of another animal, the receiver. Secondary sexual signals are often used for mate choice because they may inform on a potential partner's quality. Verreaux's sifaka (Propithecus verreauxi) is characterized by the presence of two different morphs of males (bimorphism), which can show either a stained or clean chest. The chest becomes stained by secretions of the sternal gland during throat marking (rubbing throat and chest on a vertical substrate while smearing the scent deposition). The role of the chest staining in guiding female mate choice was previously hypothesized but never demonstrated probably due to the difficulty of observing sifaka copulations in the wild. Here we report that stained-chested males had a higher throat marking activity than clean-chested males during the mating season, but not during the birth season. We found that females copulated more frequently with stained-chested males than the clean-chested males. Finally, in agreement with the biological market theory, we found that clean-chested males, with a lower scent-releasing potential, offered more grooming to females. This grooming for sex tactic was not completely unsuccessful; in fact, half of the clean-chested males copulated with females, even though at low frequency. In conclusion, the chest stain, possibly correlated with different cues targeted by females, could be one of the parameters which help females in selecting mates.
Background Recent work on animal signals has revealed a wide occurrence of UV signals in tetrapods, in particular birds, but also in lizards (and perhaps other Squamate reptiles). Our previous work on the Swedish sand lizard (Lacerta agilis) has verified, both in correlative selection analyses in the wild and with laboratory and field experiments, the importance of the green badge on the body sides of adult males for securing mating opportunities, probably mostly through deterring rival males rather than attracting females. The role of UV in communication has, however, never been examined. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we show that when measured immediately after spring skin shedding, there is also signaling in the UV. By UV-depriving the signal (reflectance) with sun block chemicals fixated with permeable, harmless spray dressing, we show that males in the control group (spray dressing only) had significantly higher success in mate acquisition than UV-deprived males. Conclusions/Significance These results suggest that at least two colour traits in sand lizards, badge area and UV, contribute to rival deterrence and/or female choice on UV characters, which elevates success in mate acquisition in UV intact male sand lizards.
For the sake of screening novel genes related to the malesterility in chili pepper for studying the molecular mechanism of plant malesterility, the gene differential expression analysis was performed by cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) in the genic malesterile-fertile line 114AB of Capsicum annum L., and a variety of differentially expressed cDNA fragments were detected in fertile or sterility material. Camf1, a transcript-derived fragment (TDF) accumulated in fertile line flower buds was further investigated. The Camf1 has 1,854 bp in length with no introns containing a 1,707-bp open reading frame (ORF). The deduced amino acid sequence of Camf1 shares higher similarity to some members from a glyoxal oxidase-related protein family, and has a glyoxal oxidase conserved domain at the N-terminus and a domain of unknown function (DUF1929) at C-terminal end. Expression analysis showed that Camf1 expressed only in stage 3-7 flower buds of male fertile of C. annum L. 114AB, and no detection in all organs of malesterility. The peak of expression level of Camf1 appeared at stage 4 flower buds of fertile line. Furthermore, expression analysis of different organs revealed that Camf1 expressed only in anthers of male fertile material and there were no expression in sepals, petals, pistils, roots, stems, leaves and open flowers. These results suggested that Camf1 was an anther-specific gene and might be essential for the fertility of C. annum L. PMID:21559833
Nuclear-mitochondrial gene interactions governing cytoplasmic malesterility (CMS) in angiosperms have been found to be unique to each system. Fertility restoration of three diverse alloplasmic CMS lines of Brassica juncea by a line carrying the fertility-restorer gene introgressed from Moricandia arvensis prompted this investigation to examine the molecular basis of CMS in these lines. Since previous studies had found altered atpA transcription associated with CMS in these lines, the atpA genes and transcripts of CMS, fertility-restored, and euplasmic lines were cloned and compared. atpA coding and downstream sequences were conserved among CMS and euplasmic lines but major differences were found in the 5' flanking sequences of atpA. A unique open reading frame (ORF), orf108, co-transcribed with atpA, was found in malesterile flowers of CMS lines carrying mitochondrial genomes of Diplotaxis berthautii, D. catholica, or D. erucoides. In presence of the restorer gene, the bicistronic orf108-atpA transcript was cleaved within orf108 to yield a monocistronic atpA transcript. Transgenic expression of orf108 with anther-specific Atprx18 promoter in Arabidopsis thaliana gave 50% pollen sterility, indicating that Orf108 is lethal at the gametophytic stage. Further, lack of transmission of orf108 to the progeny showed for the first time that mitochondrial ORFs could also cause female sterility. orf108 was found to be widely distributed among wild relatives of Brassica, indicating its ancient origin. This is the first report that shows that CMS lines of different origin and morphology could share common molecular basis. The gametic lethality of Orf108 offers a novel opportunity for transgene containment. PMID:22371076
Kumar, Pankaj; Vasupalli, Naresh; Srinivasan, R; Bhat, Shripad R
Cytoplasmic malesterility (CMS) in Nicotiana is located on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) on which no selectable mutation has been isolated. The possibility of co-transfer of CMS and a selectable chloroplast trait, streptomycin resistance, was investigated by marker rescue from irradiated protoplasts, a method described from this laboratory (Menczel et al. 1982). As the source of the CMS factor, the Nicotiana
László Menczel; Ferenc Nagy; Gabriella Lázár; Pál Maliga
Beginning in late August, 2004, we began a program to release sterilemale oriental fruit flies, Bactrocera dorsalis, in a citrus orchard in central Oahu, Hawaii. This program follows the encouraging results obtained with the melon fly genetic sexing strain on the islands of Hawaii, Maui, and Oahu. ...
A syndrome of associated aberrant traits is described in Drosophila mel- anogaster. Six of these traits, mutation, sterility, male recombination, trans- mission ratio distortion, chromosomal aberrations and local increases in female recombination, have previously been reported. A seventh trait, nondisjunc- tion, is described for the first time. All of the traits we have examined are found nonreciprocally in F, hybrids.
MARGARET G. KIDWELL; JAMES F. KIDWELL; JOHN A. SVED
Mitochondrial (mt) and chloroplast (ct) DNAs from sugar beet carrying normal fertile and different cytoplasmic malesterile (cms) cytoplasms were compared by restriction analysis and for the occurrence of minicircles. One of the cms materials had the Owen cms cytoplasm currently used for hybrid production in sugar beet; the other three cms materials were derived from wild Beta beets. The
Meiotic studies have been carried out in a series of 1100 infertile and sterilemales. Of these, 599 cases have been studies in testicular biopsy, and 501, in semen samples. This is the largest meiotic series published so far. The incidence of meiotic anomalies was 4.3%. The most frequent chromosome abnormality was desynapsis (3.7%). However, the number of cases with
J. Egozcue; C. Templado; F. Vidal; J. Navarro; F. Morer-Fargas; S. Marina
Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is a self-pollinated plant. Manual cross-pollination is used to produce limited quantities of hybrid seed. To produce large quantities of hybrid seed, insect-mediated cross-pollination is necessary. An efficient nuclear male-sterile system for hybrid seed producti...
A new cytoplasmic malesterile sunflower, CMS3 , was characterised in relation to the Petiolaris (PET1) cytoplasmic male-sterile sunflower, CMS89 . Southern blot analysis showed that the mitochondrial genome of CMS3 contains unique rearrangements in at least five loci (atp6, atp9, atpA, nad1+5 and coxIII) compared to the PET1 sterile and the fertile cytoplasms. Transcripts of two (coxIII and atp6)
Mariana Spassova; Françoise Moneger; Christopher J. Leaver; Peter Petrov; Atanas Atanassov; H. John J. Nijkamp; Jacques Hille
Escaped transgenic organisms (GMO's) may threaten the populations of their wild relatives if able to hybridize with each other. The introgression of a growth enhancement transgene into a wild Atlantic salmon population may be affected by the transgene's effects not only on fitness parameters, but also on mating behaviour. Large anadromous GMO males are most preferred in mating, but a transgene can also give the large sneakers a reproductive advantage over the smaller wild individuals. With a simulation model, we studied whether the increase in the proportion and mating success of sneakers in transgenic and hybrid genotypes could facilitate the introgression of a transgene into wild population after the release of GMOs. The model combines population dynamics and Mendelian inheritance of a transgenic trait. We found that the introgression of the transgene is strongly affected by the greater mating preference of large GMO males. Furthermore, the difference in reproductive success between the anadromous versus sneaker strategy defines how much GMO's have to be preferred to be able to invade. These results emphasize the importance of detailed knowledge of reproductive systems and the effect of a transgene on the phenotype and behaviour of GMOs when assessing the consequences of their release or escape to the wild.
. In double mating experiments, we examined whether and to what extent various male and female behavioural traits influence\\u000a the course of mating and fertilization success in the cellar spider. In males, we focussed on pre-copulatory behaviour and\\u000a on the rhythmic twisting movements that the male performs with his pedipalps during copulation. In females, we investigated\\u000a remating decisions and the
The mitochondrial genomes of petunia somatic hybrid plants, which were derived from the fusion of male fertile P. hybrida protoplasts with cytoplasmic malesterile P. parodii protoplasts, were analyzed by endonuclease restriction and Southern blot hybridization analyses. We studied sterile and fertile somatic hybrids to address two main questions. First, is there any correlation between the mitochondrial DNA restriction banding
Maury L. Boeshore; Irit Lifshitz; Maureen R. Hanson; Shamay Izhar
Male melon flies, Dacus cucurbitae Coquillett, treated with a single dose of the chemosterilant tepa (tris(l?aziridinyl) phosphine oxide), or with gamma irradiation, either single or fractionated doses, did not differ significantly in sexual competitiveness as determined by percentage hatch of eggs. Mating competitiveness of males treated by either method ranged from 53 to 66% of that of untreated males. In
There are two known sources of cytoplasmic-genic malesterility (CMS) used to produce hybrid onion (Allium cepa L.) seed, S and T cytoplasms. Male-sterility has been observed in numerous other onion populations, indicating that additional sources of CMS may exist. A potentially new source of CMS w...
Background Multidirectional interactions in social networks can have a profound effect on mate choice behavior; e.g., Poecilia mexicana males show weaker expression of mating preferences when being observed by a rival. This may be an adaptation to reduce sperm competition risk, which arises because commonly preferred female phenotypes will receive attention also from surrounding males, and/or because other males can copy the focal male's mate choice. Do P. mexicana males indeed respond to perceived sperm competition risk? We gave males a choice between two females and repeated the tests under one of the following conditions: (1) an empty transparent cylinder was presented (control); (2) another ("audience") male inside the cylinder observed the focal male throughout the 2nd part, or (3) the audience male was presented only before the tests, but could not eavesdrop during the actual choice tests (non-specific sperm competition risk treatments); (4) the focal male could see a rival male interact sexually with the previously preferred, or (5) with the non-preferred female before the 2nd part of the tests (specific sperm competition risk treatments). Results The strength of individual male preferences declined slightly also during the control treatment (1). However, this decrease was more than two-fold stronger in audience treatment (2), i.e., with non-specific sperm competition risk including the possibility for visual eavesdropping by the audience male. No audience effect was found in treatments (3) and (5), but a weak effect was also observed when the focal male had seen the previously preferred female sexually interact with a rival male (treatment 4; specific sperm competition risk). Conclusion When comparing the two 'non-specific sperm competition risk' treatments, a very strong effect was found only when the audience male could actually observe the focal male during mate choice [treatment (2)]. This suggests that focal males indeed attempt to conceal their mating preferences so as to prevent surrounding males from copying their mate choice. When there is no potential for eavesdropping [treatment (3)], non-specific specific sperm competition risk seems to play a minor or no role. Our results also show that P. mexicana males tend to share their mating effort more equally among females when the resource value of their previously preferred mate decreases after mating with a rival male (perceived specific sperm competition risk), but this effect is comparatively weak.
Background Sexual conflict over mating rates may favour the origin and maintenance of phenotypes with contrasting reproductive strategies. The damselfly Ischnura elegans is characterised by a female colour polymorphism that consists of one androchrome and two gynochrome female morphs. Previous studies have shown that the polymorphism is genetic and to a high extent maintained by negative frequency-dependent mating success that varies temporally and spatially. However, the role of learning in malemating preferences has received little attention. We used molecular markers to investigate differences in polyandry between female morphs. In addition, we experimentally investigated innate malemating preferences and experience-dependent shifts in malemating preferences for female morphs. Results Field and molecular data show that androchrome females were less polyandrous than gynochrome females. Interestingly, we found that naïve males showed significantly higher sexual preferences to androchrome than to gynochrome females in experimental trials. In contrast, experienced males showed no preference for androchrome females. Conclusions The ontogenetic change in malemate preferences occurs most likely because of learned mate recognition after experience with females, which in this case does not result in a preference for one of the morphs, but rather in the loss of an innate preference for androchrome females.
Artificial traits such as coloured leg bands may affect an individual's mating success, as shown for some birds. One explanation is that colour-matching with a sexual ornament affects the individuals sexual attractiveness. This study reports a colour-band experiment with free-living bluethroats,Luscinia s. svecicaa species where males have a distinct blue and chestnut throat and upper breast. There was no apparent
Background The genetic basis of postzygotic isolation is a central puzzle in evolutionary biology. Evolutionary forces causing hybrid sterility or inviability act on the responsible genes while they still are polymorphic, thus we have to study these traits as they arise, before isolation is complete. Methodology/Principal Findings Isofemale strains of D. mojavensis vary significantly in their production of sterile F1 sons when females are crossed to D. arizonae males. We took advantage of the intraspecific polymorphism, in a novel design, to perform quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping analyses directly on F1 hybrid malesterility itself. We found that the genetic architecture of the polymorphism for hybrid malesterility (HMS) in the F1 is complex, involving multiple QTL, epistasis, and cytoplasmic effects. Conclusions/Significance The role of extensive intraspecific polymorphism, multiple QTL, and epistatic interactions in HMS in this young species pair shows that HMS is arising as a complex trait in this system. Directional selection alone would be unlikely to maintain polymorphism at multiple loci, thus we hypothesize that directional selection is unlikely to be the only evolutionary force influencing postzygotic isolation.
Reed, Laura K.; LaFlamme, Brooke A.; Markow, Therese A.
Female decision rules can influence the nature and intensity of sexual selection on males, but empirical demonstrations of rules underlying choice are rare. We hypothesized that female choice is largely based on a courtship duration threshold in the Australian redback spider (Latrodectus hasselti) because females kill males before copulation is complete (premature cannibalism) and reduce their paternity if courtship is brief. We used published data to infer that the female's threshold is approximately 100 min of courtship. We support this hypothesis by showing that premature cannibalism is common when the male's courtship duration is below this threshold, but is infrequent and unrelated to duration once courtship exceeds the threshold. We then ask whether females discriminate the source of courtship when rival males compete, as this will determine the effect of the threshold on male competitive tactics. We staged competitions where resident males initially courted females in the absence of competition, exceeding the courtship threshold before intruding males were introduced. Intruding malesmated rapidly but were not prematurely cannibalized by females, in contrast to cases where competition starts before the threshold is surpassed. This suggests females do not distinguish which male satisfies the threshold, allowing intruders to parasitize the courtship efforts of residents. To our knowledge, such exploitation of mating efforts by rival males mediated by a female choice threshold has not been demonstrated elsewhere. Ironically, this female choice threshold and the attendant possibility of courtship parasitism may lead to selection for lower-quality males to recognize and seek out (rather than avoid) webs in which competitors are already present.
Males of the parasitoid wasp Pimpla disparis Viereck (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) aggregate on parasitized gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, host pupae when the emergence of a prospective mate is imminent or under way. We tested the hypotheses that the developing parasitoid ("DePa") inside the host pupal case produces a pheromone that attracts and arrests mate-seeking males, and that the pheromone is most effective during the emergence of the parasitoid from the host. Results obtained in two-choice laboratory experiments, with 4-7-d-old virgin males, indicate that (1) DePa-derived semiochemicals arrest males, (2) the opening of a host pupal case strongly arrests males, and (3) the arrestment cue emanates from oral fluid secreted by both female and male parasitoids while they chew their way out of a host pupal case. This phenomenon implies that emerging females, which are haplodiploid and can reproduce without mating, do not engage in active pheromone signaling to attract males, and that mate-seeking males co-opt chemicals involved in eclosion as a mate-finding cue, taking a 50% chance that the prospective mate is a female. PMID:22392084
Hrabar, Michael; Danci, Adela; Schaefer, Paul W; Gries, Gerhard
While behavioural plasticity is considered an adaptation to fluctuating social and environmental conditions, many animals also display a high level of individual consistency in their behaviour over time or across contexts (generally termed 'personality'). However, studies of animal personalities that include sexual behaviour, or functionally distinct but correlated traits, are relatively scarce. In this study, we tested for individual behavioural consistency in courtship and exploratory behaviour in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in two light environments (high vs. low light intensity). Based on previous work on guppies, we predicted that males would modify their behaviour from sneak mating tactics to courtship displays under low light conditions, but also that the rank orders of courtship effort would remain unchanged (i.e. highly sexually active individuals would display relatively high levels of courtship under both light regimes). We also tested for correlations between courtship and exploratory behaviour, predicting that males that had high display rates would also be more likely to approach a novel object. Although males showed significant consistency in their exploratory and mating behaviour over time (1 week), we found no evidence that these traits constituted a behavioural syndrome. Furthermore, in contrast to previous work, we found no overall effect of the light environment on any of the behaviours measured, although males responded to the treatment on an individual-level basis, as reflected by a significant individual-by-environment interaction. The future challenge is to investigate how individual consistency across different environmental contexts relates to male reproductive success. PMID:24036665
Kelley, Jennifer L; Phillips, Samuel C; Evans, Jonathan P
While behavioural plasticity is considered an adaptation to fluctuating social and environmental conditions, many animals also display a high level of individual consistency in their behaviour over time or across contexts (generally termed `personality'). However, studies of animal personalities that include sexual behaviour, or functionally distinct but correlated traits, are relatively scarce. In this study, we tested for individual behavioural consistency in courtship and exploratory behaviour in male guppies ( Poecilia reticulata) in two light environments (high vs. low light intensity). Based on previous work on guppies, we predicted that males would modify their behaviour from sneak mating tactics to courtship displays under low light conditions, but also that the rank orders of courtship effort would remain unchanged (i.e. highly sexually active individuals would display relatively high levels of courtship under both light regimes). We also tested for correlations between courtship and exploratory behaviour, predicting that males that had high display rates would also be more likely to approach a novel object. Although males showed significant consistency in their exploratory and mating behaviour over time (1 week), we found no evidence that these traits constituted a behavioural syndrome. Furthermore, in contrast to previous work, we found no overall effect of the light environment on any of the behaviours measured, although males responded to the treatment on an individual-level basis, as reflected by a significant individual-by-environment interaction. The future challenge is to investigate how individual consistency across different environmental contexts relates to male reproductive success.
Kelley, Jennifer L.; Phillips, Samuel C.; Evans, Jonathan P.
The organisation of mtDNA was investigated for 28 sources of cytoplasmic malesterility (CMS) and a fertile line (normal cytoplasm) of Helianthus annuus by Southern hybridisation. In addition to nine known mitochondrial genes ( atp6, atp9, cob, coxI, coxII, coxIII, 18S, 5S and nd5) three probes for the open reading frames in the rearranged area of PET1, orfH522, orfH708 and orfH873, were used. Genetic similarities of the investigat-ed cytoplasms varied between 0.3 and 1. Cluster analyses using the UPGMA method allowed the distinction of ten mitochondrial (mt) types between the 29 investigated cytoplasms. Most mitochondrial types comprise two or more CMS sources, which could not be further separated, like the PET1-like CMS sources (with the exception of ANO1 and PRR1), or ANN1/ANN2/ANN3, ANN4/ ANN5, ARG3/RIG1, BOL1/EXI1/PEF1/PEP1 and GIG1/ PET2. ANL1, ANL2 and the fertile cytoplasms are also regarded as one mitochondrial type. Unique banding patterns were only observed for ANT1 ( atp6), MAX1 ( atp6, orfH522 and orfH708) and PRR1 ( coxII). However, four of the mitochondrial types showed unique hybridisation signals: ANN4/ANN5 had characteristic bands for atp6 and orfH708, PEF1/PEP1/EXI1/BOL1 for atp6and coxII, and PET2/GIG1 for atp9. The PET1-like cytoplasms all shared the same patterns for orfH522, orfH708and cob (except ANO1). It could be demonstrated that CMS sources, like, e.g., PET2 and PEF1, are different from PET1 in mtDNA organisation and the CMS mechanism. Therefore, these CMS sources represent interesting candidates for the development of new hybrid breeding systems based on new CMS mechanisms. PMID:12582659
Numerous animals are known to harbour intracytoplasmic symbionts that gain transmission to a new host generation via female eggs and not male sperm. Bacteria of the genus Wolbachia are a typical example. They infect a large range of arthropod species and manipulate host reproduction in several ways. In terrestrial isopods (woodlice), Wolbachia are responsible for converting males into females (feminization (F)) in some species, or for infertility in certain host crosses in other species (cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI)). Wolbachia with the F phenotype impose a strong excess of females on their host populations, while Wolbachia expressing CI do not. Here, we test the possibility that malemating capacity (MC) is correlated with Wolbachia-induced phenotype. We show that males of isopod hosts harbouring F Wolbachia possess a strong MC (i.e. are able to mate with several females in a short time), while those of species harbouring CI Wolbachia possess a weaker MC. This pattern may be explained either by the selection of high MC following the increase in female-biased sex ratios, or because the F phenotype would lead to population extinction in species where MC is not sufficiently high. This last hypotheses is nevertheless more constrained by population structure.
To determine whether socio-sexual interactions with females influence the male prairie vole's cognitive processing, three groups of males were simultaneously exposed to sensory stimuli of a control and a focal female then tested for their behavioral and neuronal responsiveness to the female cues. From the control female, all males received distal cues. From the focal female, the Unmated males received distal cues, the Unmated-Contact males received all cues but did not mate with her, and the Mated-Contact males received all cues and mated with her. Males were tested for their attentiveness to enclosures holding each female and for their memory of the females' previous location. Males' brains were then examined to localize activated regions following exposure to the odor of familiar versus unfamiliar focal females. The Mated-Contact males spent more time in the cage of the control female attending to her enclosure than in the cage of the focal female. Exposure to odors of unfamiliar focal females activated the cingulate cortex of Unmated-Contact males. There was a negative correlation between the level of neuronal activation in the retrosplenial cortex of males that were exposed to the odors of a familiar focal female and their attentiveness to the enclosure of the control female. The data suggest that the effect of socio-sexual interactions with a female on males' cognition depends on the type of sensory signals males receive from females and how individual males perceive those signals. PMID:21888956
Summary: We investigated malemating behavior in surface- and cave-dwelling Atlantic mollies, Poecilia mexicana, in their natural habitats. In previous laboratory experiments, size-dependent malemating behavior was found, and male sexual activity was negatively correlated with male body size in the surface form, but was positively correlated with male size in the cave form. In the field, however, in both
The effectiveness of hybridization barriers determines whether two species remain reproductively isolated when their populations\\u000a come into contact. We investigated acoustic mating signals and associated leg movements responsible for song creation of hybrids\\u000a between the grasshopper species Chorthippus biguttulus and C. brunneus to study whether and how songs of male hybrids contribute to reproductive isolation between these sympatrically occurring\\u000a species.
. Poor sperm motility characterized by a distinct aberration in flagellar waveform known as ``curlicue'' is a hallmark of t haplotype (t) homozygous malesterility. Previous studies have localized ``curlicue'' and a flagellar developmental defect, ``whipless'',\\u000a to the Hybrid Sterility 6 locus (Hst6), between the markers Pim1 and Crya1. More recent heterospecific breeding experiments between Mus spretus (Spretus) and Mus
John Fossella; Sadhana A. Samant; Lee M. Silver; Stephen M. King; Kevin T. Vaughan; Patricia Olds-Clarke; Karl A. Johnson; Atsushi Mikami; Richard B. Vallee; Stephen H. Pilder
A male-sterile (MS) radish (Raphanus sativus L.) was found in an accession collected from Uzbekistan. Unlike Ogura MS radishes in which no pollen grain is typically visible during anthesis, a small number of pollen grains stuck together in the dehiscing anthers was observed in the newly identified MS radish. Fluorescein diacetate tests and scanning electron micrographs showed that pollen grains in the new MS radish were severely deformed and non-viable. Cytological examination of pollen development stages showed a clear difference in the defective stage from that seen in Ogura male-sterility. Reciprocal cross-pollination with diverse male-fertile lines indicated that pollen grains of the new MS radish were completely sterile, and the female organs were fully fertile. When the new MS radish and Ogura MS lines were cross-pollinated with a set of eight breeding lines, all F1 progeny originating from crosses with the new MS radish were male-sterile. In contrast, most of the F1 progeny resulting from crosses with Ogura MS lines were male-fertile. These results demonstrated that factors associated with induction of the newly identified male-sterility are different from those of Ogura male-sterility. The lack of restorer lines for the newly identified male-sterility led us to predict that it might be a complete cytoplasmic male-sterility without restorer-of-fertility genes in nuclear genomes. However, cross-pollination with more diverse radish germplasm identified one accession introduced from Russia that could completely restore fertility, proving the existence of restorer-of-fertility gene(s) for the new male-sterility. Meanwhile, the PCR amplification profile of molecular markers for the classification of radish mitochondrial genome types revealed that the new MS radish contained a novel mitotype. PMID:18597066
Lee, Young-Pyo; Park, Suhyung; Lim, Chaewan; Kim, Hyojung; Lim, Heerae; Ahn, Youngsoon; Sung, Soon-Kee; Yoon, Moo-Kyoung; Kim, Sunggil
Male and female interests can either be in conflict or serve as a basis for exchange. Communication is thus an important aspect of intersexual relationships. Verreaux's sifaka (Propithecus verreauxi verreauxi), like many prosimians, uses chemical signals as one form of communication. The goals of this study were to determine 1) if males and females exhibit sex differences in their scent-marking behavior, and 2) if scent-marking is an example of mating conflict or cooperation. All occurrences of scent-marks, scent-mark context, and scent-mark style were collected on 23 sifaka in the Kirindy Forest of western Madagascar for 7 months (September 2001-March 2002). Scent-mark rates were collected using continuous focal animal sampling from November 2000-March 2002. Home-range data were collected using monthly censuses and instantaneous focal sampling throughout those 17 months. The pressures of behavioral ecology seem to have shaped scent-marking in sifaka: the sexes exhibited significantly different scent-marking behavior. Results from this study are consistent with the hypotheses that 1) females scent-mark to advertise their presence and mark their resources, 2) clean-chested males use scent-marks as between-group communication to advertise their presence, and 3) stained-chested males use scent-marks as a form of olfactory mate-guarding. Scent-marking does not appear to be a "service" that males provide to females, because overmarking limits female communication rather than adding to the overall number of scent-marks. Scent-marking behavior is a crucial aspect of the mating conflict and for understanding intersexual relationships in sifaka. PMID:15795894
Female mate choice by multiple male traits is an important current topic in animal behavior. However, the relative importance\\u000a among the multiple cues in female choice is not explored in most cases. Female guppies Poecilia reticulata use both the color saturation of orange spots and the total length of males as mate choice criteria. In the present study,\\u000a we used
Malemate location behaviour and encounter sites have been studied in 72 butterfly species at Nagpur, India, and related to\\u000a taxonomy, morphology, habitat and population parameters. Species can be placed in three broad classes of mate location behaviour:\\u000a invariant patrolling, invariant perching, and perch-patrol, the latter associated with increasing site fidelity, territorial\\u000a defence and male assemblages. Significant taxonomic differences occur,
Ashish D. Tiple; Sonali V. Padwad; Leonardo Dapporto; Roger L. H. Dennis
1. The assumption that the primary limitations on reproductive success differ between the sexes is inherent in traditional sexual selection theory. Although the energy that can be allocated to reproduction is assumed to be the main limitation to females, the ability to attract and defend oestrous females is assumed to be the primary limitation to males. 2. Estimates of the energetic costs of reproduction in male mammals are, however, limited and have largely been obtained from sexually dimorphic species exhibiting female defence mating systems. These studies often reveal that the energetic cost of male reproduction is similar to or even exceeds that of females, and therefore challenge long-held assumptions of inter-sexual reproductive limitations, but their generality is little known. 3. We coupled measurements of energy expenditure with detailed behavioural observations of reproductive male North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). This species displays minimal sexual dimorphism and exhibits a scramble competition mating system, under which sexual selection favours enhanced mate searching effort by males. 4. We conducted the study over 2 years characterized by a substantial variation in upcoming natural food availability and across two study populations that experienced either natural food abundance or an ad libitum food-supplementation to investigate the influence of resource availability on male reproductive energy expenditure. 5. Under natural conditions, mean energy expenditure of males across the 2 years was high, approximating that of females during lactation. Furthermore, in the anticipation of high upcoming natural food availability and resultant offspring survival, expenditure approximately doubled (from 290 +/- 7 to 579 +/- 73 kJ day(-1)). When current food availability (and consequently the density of receptive females) was experimentally elevated, males displayed the highest levels of energy expenditure we recorded (873 +/- 98 kJ day(-1)). 6. Our results provide compelling evidence that the energy available for reproductive allocation places a strong limitation on reproduction in male North American red squirrels and contribute to previous work suggesting that high and limiting energetic costs of male reproduction may be a general feature of mammalian reproduction. PMID:19674182
Lane, Jeffrey E; Boutin, Stan; Speakman, John R; Humphries, Murray M
Extragonadal sperm reserves in male rats were measured in different regions of the genital tract before and subsequent to normal ejaculation. In sexually rested rats, the sperm count (million spermatozoa for the paired organs) in different regions was: distal vas, 18; proximal vas, 9.8; cauda epididymidis, 229; caput + corpus epididymidis, 154. Following mating, the sperm count was reduced in the proximal and distal vas deferens and in the cauda epididymidis. The reproductive tract of mated females was found to contain 29% (no copulatory plug) or 59% (with copulatory plug) of the estimated mean ejaculate, which was estimated from the difference between the sperm counts in the sexually rested rat and following ejaculation. It is concluded that in the rat the immediate source of spermatozoa for ejaculation is the cauda epididymidis, with a smaller contribution arising from the vas deferens. PMID:3507351
The plant mitochondrial genome is characterized by a complex, multipartite structure. In cytoplasmic male-sterile (CMS) common bean, the sterility-inducing mitochondrial configuration maps as three autonomous DNA molecules, one containing the sterility-associated sequence pvs-orf239. We constructed a physical map of the mitochondrial ge- nome from the direct progenitors to the CMS cytoplasm and have shown that it maps as a single,
Hanna Janska; Rodrigo Sarria; Magdalena Woloszynska; Maria Arrieta-Montiel; Sally A. Mackenzie
Blind sterile 2 (bs2) is a spontaneous autosomal recessive mouse mutation exhibiting cataracts and malesterility. Detailed clinical and histological evaluation revealed that bs2 mice have cataracts resulting from severely disrupted lens fiber cells. Analysis of bs2 testes revealed the absence of mature sperm and the presence of large multinucleate cells within the lumens of seminiferous tubules. Linkage analysis mapped the bs2 locus to mouse chromosome 2, approximately 45cM distal from the centromere. Fine mapping established a 3.1Mb bs2 critical region containing 19 candidate genes. Sequence analysis of alkylglycerone-phosphate synthase (Agps), a gene within the bs2 critical region, revealed a G to A substitution at the +5 position of intron 14. This mutation results in two abundantly expressed aberrantly spliced Agps transcripts: Agps?exon14 lacking exon 14 or Agpsexon?1314 lacking both exons 13 and 14 as well as full-length Agps transcript. Agps is a peroxisomal enzyme which catalyzes the formation of the ether bond during the synthesis of ether lipids. Both aberrantly spliced Agps?exon14 and Agpsexon?1314 transcripts led to frame shift, premature stop and putative proteins lacking the enzymatic FAD domain. We present evidence that bs2 mice have significantly decreased levels of ether lipids. Human mutations in Agps result in rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata type 3 (RCDP3), a disease for which bs2 is the only genetic model. Thus, bs2 is a hypomorphic mutation in Agps, and represents a useful model for investigation of the tissue specificity of ether lipid requirements which will be particularly valuable for elucidating the mechanism of disease phenotypes resulting from ether lipid depletion.
Testing the offspring of field-captured bollworm (Helicoverpa zea) moths offers reliable indicators of their natural behavior and susceptibility to insecticides. In this study laboratory-reared females mass mated for one to five days with pheromone trap-captured (wild) or laboratory-reared males wer...
Phoenix et al. (Phoenix et al., 1959) were the first to propose an essential role of fetal testosterone exposure in the sexual differentiation of the capacity of mammals to display male-typical mating behavior. In one experiment control male and female guinea pigs as well as females given fetal testosterone actually showed equivalent levels of mounting behavior when gonadectomized and given ovarian steroids prior to adult tests with a stimulus female. This finding is discussed in the context of a recent, high-profile paper by Kimchi and co-workers (Kimchi et al., 2007) arguing that female rodents possess the circuits that control the expression of male-typical mating behavior and that their function is normally suppressed in this sex by pheromonal inputs that are processed via the vomeronasal organ (VNO)accessory olfactory nervous system. In another Phoenix et al. experiment, significantly more mounting behavior was observed in male guinea pigs and in females given fetal testosterone than in control females following adult gonadectomy and treatment with testosterone. Literature is reviewed that attempts to link sex differences in the anatomy and function of the accessory versus the main olfactory projections to the amygdala and hypothalamus to parallel sex differences in courtship behaviors, including sex partner preference, as well as the capacity to display mounting behavior.
Background Reproductive isolation is a defining characteristic of populations that represent unique biological species, yet we know very little about the gene expression basis for reproductive isolation. The advent of powerful molecular biology tools provides the ability to identify genes involved in reproductive isolation and focuses attention on the molecular mechanisms that separate biological species. Herein we quantify the sterility pattern of hybrid males in African Clawed Frogs (Xenopus) and apply microarray analysis of the expression pattern found in testes to identify genes that are misexpressed in hybrid males relative to their two parental species (Xenopus laevis and X. muelleri). Methodology/Principal Findings Phenotypic characteristics of spermatogenesis in sterilemale hybrids (X. laevis x X. muelleri) were examined using a novel sperm assay that allowed quantification of live, dead, and undifferentiated sperm cells, the number of motile vs. immotile sperm, and sperm morphology. Hybrids exhibited a dramatically lower abundance of mature sperm relative to the parental species. Hybrid spermatozoa were larger in size and accompanied by numerous undifferentiated sperm cells. Microarray analysis of gene expression in testes was combined with a correction for sequence divergence derived from genomic hybridizations to identify candidate genes involved in the sterility phenotype. Analysis of the transcriptome revealed a striking asymmetric pattern of misexpression. There were only about 140 genes misexpressed in hybrids compared to X. laevis but nearly 4,000 genes misexpressed in hybrids compared to X. muelleri. Conclusions/Significance Our results provide an important correlation between phenotypic characteristics of sperm and gene expression in sterile hybrid males. The broad pattern of gene misexpression suggests intriguing mechanisms creating the dominance pattern of the X. laevis genome in hybrids. These findings significantly contribute to growing evidence for allelic dominance in hybrids and have implications for the mechanism of species differentiation at the transcriptome level.
Malone, John H.; Chrzanowski, Thomas H.; Michalak, Pawel
The mitochondria of chive plants with normal N or male-sterile S cytoplasms have been examined by restriction fragment analysis and Southern hybridizations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and in organello protein biosynthesis. Restriction fragment patterns of the mtDNA differed extensively between N-and S-cytoplasms. The percentage of fragments with different mobility varied between 4448% depending on the restriction enzyme used. In contrast
Mitochondrial DNA from 1 fertile and 6 cytoplasmic malesterile (CMS) sunflower genotypes was studied. The CMS genotypes had been obtained either by specific crosses between different Helianthus species or by mutagenesis. CMS-associated restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) were found in the vicinity of the atpA locus, generated by various restriction enzymes. The organization of the mitochondrial genes 26S rRNA,
Mariana Spassova; Michail Christov; Natasha Bohorova; Peter Petrov; Kalin Dudov; Atanas Atanassov; H. John J. Nijkamp; Jaques Hille
The present study describes a novel thermo-sensitive genic malesterile (TGMS) line, Qiong68ms. To analyse the mode of fertility inheritance and tag the TGMS gene, a set of F2, BC1 and F2:3 populations derived from a cross between Qiong68ms and K12 were evaluated for a period of 2 years. Classical genetic analyses and QTL mapping using the mean restoration percentage of
J. H. Tang; Z. Y. Fu; Y. M. Hu; J. S. Li; L. L. Sun; H. Q. Ji
To elucidate reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism of cotton cytoplasmic malesterility and the effects of restorer gene\\u000a on the metabolism of ROS, the metabolism changes in the production and scavenging of ROS and gene expression related to ROS-scavenging\\u000a enzymes were investigated in the anther mitochondria of CMS line, maintainer line and hybrid F1. During the abortion preliminary stage (sporogenous
Chloroplast DNAs of six isonuclear malesterile tobacco lines and their respective parental species were analysed with the restriction endonuclease, EcoR1. Four of the lines had the same fragmentation pattern as their respective maternal species. Two lines had a pattern which was different to either parental species. The results show that nucleotide changes can occur in chloroplast DNA of isonuclear male-sterile
Rafael Frankel; William R. Scowcroft; Paul R. Whitfeld
Asymmetric cell-fusion of the japonica cultivar ofOryza sativa (rice) with cytoplasmic-male-sterile (CMS) plants bearing cytoplasm derived from Chinsurah Boro II, resulted in two classes of cytoplasmic hybrids (cybrids), fertile and CMS. Southern-blot analysis of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) indicates recombination events around a number of genes; however, the appearance of the CMS character is tightly correlated to reorganization around theatp6
60Co-irradiated protoplasts of the cytoplasmic male-sterile line A-58 CMS (Oryza saliva L.) were electrofused with iodoacetamide (IOA)-treated protoplasts of the fertile (normal) rice cultivar Fujiminori. Seven of the colonies that formed were identified as cytoplasmic hybrids (cybrids): they all had the peroxidase isozymes of the fertile Fujiminori parent, but contained four plasmid-like DNAs (Bl, B2, B3 and B4) from the
A novel cytoplasmic male-sterility (CMS) radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and its associated mitotype (DCGMS) were previously identified; however, no mtDNA fragments flanking the atp6 gene were found in the DCGMS mitotype. Unlike three other mitotypes in this study, a unique mtDNA organization, atp6nad3rps12, was found to be the major mtDNA structure associated with this mitotype. This organization may have arisen
Although much is known about female reproductive aging, fairly little is known about the causes of male reproductive senescence. We developed a method that facilitates culture maintenance of Caenorhabditis elegans adult males, which enabled us to measure male fertility as populations age, without profound loss of males from the growth plate. We find that the ability of males to sire progeny declines rapidly in the first half of adult lifespan and we examined potential factors that contribute towards reproductive success, including physical vigor, sperm quality, mating apparatus morphology, and mating ability. Of these, we find little evidence of general physical decline in males or changes in sperm number, morphology, or capacity for activation, at time points when reproductive senescence is markedly evident. Rather, it is the loss of efficient mating ability that correlates most strongly with reproductive senescence. Low insulin signaling can extend male ability to sire progeny later in life, although insulin impact on individual facets of mating behavior is complex. Overall, we suggest that combined modest deficits, predominantly affecting the complex mating behavior rather than sperm quality, sum up to block effective C. elegans male reproduction in middle adult life. PMID:23916839
We studied the effect of male coloration on interspecific female mate choice in two closely related species of haplochromine\\u000a cichlids from Lake Victoria. The species differ primarily in male coloration. Males of one species are red, those of the other\\u000a are blue. We recorded the behavioral responses of females to males of both species in paired male trials under white
Maternally inherited mutations, such as cytoplasmic malesterility, provide useful systems in which to study the function of plant mitochondrial genomes and also their interaction with nuclear genes. We have studied the organization and expression of the organelle genomes of the male-sterile cytoplasm of Ogura radish and compared them with those of normal radish to identify alterations that might be involved in cytoplasmic malesterility. The chloroplast DNAs of Ogura and normal radish are virtually indistinguishable, whereas their mitochondrial DNAs are highly rearranged. Alignment of a restriction map constructed for the 257-kilobase Ogura mitochondrial genome with that published for the 242-kilobase genome of normal radish reveals that the two mitochondrial DNAs differ in arrangement by at least 10 inversions. The transcriptional patterns of several known mitochondrial genes and of rearranged mitochondrial sequences were examined in three nuclear backgrounds. Altered transcripts were observed for three mitochondrial genes, atpA, atp6, and coxI. Rearrangements map near each of these genes and therefore may be responsible for their transcriptional alterations. Radish nuclear genes that restore fertility to the Ogura cytoplasm have no effect on the atp6 and coxI transcripts, but do influence the atpA transcriptional pattern. Images
In female insects, the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) plays a major role in activating vitellogenesis, a process required for egg development. By contrast with vertebrates, production of large amounts of hormonal steroids has not been reported in adult male insects. In the present study, we analyzed steroidogenesis in both male and female adult of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae and we found that A. gambiae male mosquitoes produce high amounts of the steroid hormone 20E. Importantly, we found that male accessory glands, but not testes, are the source of 20E. Moreover, this steroid hormone is stored in male accessory glands and delivered to females during mating. These findings suggest that male 20E may not act as a true male sex steroid, but more likely as an allohormone. Our results give new insights into species-specific physiological processes that govern the reproductive success of the malaria mosquito. This could thus lead to the identification of new target genes for manipulating male and/or female reproductive success, a promising way to reduce or eliminate mosquito population and therefore to control malaria transmission.
A study was made of the restoration of fertility in cytoplasmic malesterile petunia. The fertility expression of plants with restorer genes in sterilizing cytoplasm proved quite dependent upon environmental conditions, especially temperature. In experiments with clones at a series of constant temperatures in the phytotron fertility appeared to follow an optimum curve, the position of the optimum and the
Photoperiod-sensitive genic malesterile (PSGMS) rice has a number of desirable characteristics for hybrid rice production. In this study we made use of a published rice genetic linkage map to determine the locations of PSGMS genes and we have characterized the effects of these genes on sterility by using molecular markers. A two-step approach was designed for mapping the genes:
Qifa Zhang; B. Z. Shen; X. K. Dai; M. H. Mei; M. A. Saghai Maroof; Z. B. Li
Genetic analysis of hybrid sterility and inviability has recently become a successful experimental approach to pursue the problem of speciation. In the present study, classical genetic analyses and high resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) have been used to investigate the genetic basis of hybrid malesterility in three sibling species of the Drosophila melanogaster species subgroup. The genetic basis of
One commonly cited function of dispersal is to increase mating opportunities. In this study, I evaluated the hypothesis that male inter-troop transfer is used as a mating strategy in ring-tailed lemurs, Lemur catta, on St. Catherines Island (SCI), Ga., USA. I measured malemating success and inter-troop transfer behavior across 5 years in a population consisting of 4 lemur groups on SCI. Data strongly supported dispersal as a successful mating strategy of natal males, because these males did not mate within their natal groups, but always mated in their new groups of entry. For secondary male dispersal (transfers between 2 non-natal groups), data on 2 males collected in breeding seasons immediately prior to and following transfer show that their individual mating success measures increased following a transfer. Data revealed that among non-natal males, high-ranking males on SCI were more likely to transfer between groups than lower-ranking males, which is somewhat contrary to the more common trend among primates of lower-ranking males transferring more frequently. In sum, male primary dispersal appears to function as a mating strategy among male L. catta on SCI, with indications that secondary dispersal may also be successful at increasing malemating success. PMID:20720432
Receiver bias models suggest that a male sexual signal became exaggerated to match a pre-existing sensory, perceptual or cognitive disposition of the female. Accordingly, these models predict that females of related taxa possessing the ancestral state of signalling evolved preference for the male trait in a non-sexual context. We postulated that female preference for the male-released bile alcohol mating pheromone, 3 keto petromyzonol sulfate (3kPZS), of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) evolved as a result of a receiver bias. In particular, we propose that migratory silver lamprey (Ichthyomyzon unicuspis), a basal member of the Petromyzontidae, evolved a preference for 3kPZS released by stream-resident larvae as a means of identifying productive habitat for offspring. Larval silver lamprey released 3kPZS at rates sufficient to be detected by migratory lampreys. Females responded to 3kPZS by exhibiting upstream movement behaviours relevant in a migratory context, but did not exhibit proximate behaviours important to mate search and spawning. Male silver lamprey did not release 3kPZS at rates sufficient to be detected by females in natural high-volume stream environments. We infer that female silver lamprey cue onto 3kPZS excreted by stream-resident larvae as a mechanism to locate habitat conducive to offspring survival and that males do not signal with 3kPZS. We suggest that this female preference for a male signal in a non-sexual context represents a bias leading to the sexual signalling observed in sea lamprey. PMID:24068361
Transcripts of the maize mitochondrial genes atp6, urf13-T and ORF25 were examined by Northern analysis from five normal (N), Texas malesterile (T), and T malesterile cytoplasm lines restored to fertility. A 5 kb DNA region containing the atp6 promoter is duplicated 5' to urf13-T and ORF25 in T cytoplasm. DNA sequence differences in the 5 kb repeat detected
The orfB locus of the normal (fertile) and Ogura (male-sterile) radish mitochondrial genomes has been characterized in order to determine if this region, which has previously been correlated with cytoplasmic malesterility (CMS) in Brassica napus cybrids (Bonhomme et al. 1991; Temple et al. 1992), could also be involved in radish CMS. In normal radish, orfB is expressed as a
The mitochondrial DNA of plants containing the malesterility-causing Ogura cytoplasm of radish contain a novel gene, orf138, that is transcribed as part of a bicistronic mRNA. Genetic studies have previously linked malesterility with the orf138 locus. To determine if orf138 is expressed at the protein level, and investigate the effect of fertility restoration on ORF138 levels, we have
The present work was aimed at developing vector construct(s) suitable for restoring fertility in transgenic malesterile tobacco\\u000a plants expressing male-sterility-inducing ORFH522 in tapetal cell layer (Nizampatnam et al. Planta 229:9871001, 2009). PTGS vectors that could produce either intron spliced hairpin RNA against the orfH522 or induce silencing of orfH522 by heterologous 3?UTR region were developed using the selected 316 bp
Mitochondrial DNA in the T male-sterile cytoplasm (cms-T) of maize contains an open reading frame (ORF 13) associated with the T type of sterility. Antibodies raised to a chemically synthesized oligopeptide corresponding to ORF 13 were used to establish the expression of a 13-kDa protein from this reading frame. The 13-kDa polypeptide is synthesized uniquely in cms-T maize and purifies with the membrane fraction of T mitochondria. We assign the symbol urf13-T to designate this mitochondrial gene. Presence of the nuclear restorer gene Rf1 in cms-T plants results in a decrease in abundance of 13-kDa protein and alteration in the transcripts of urf13-T. Images
Alternative malemate-securing strategies are widespread among animal taxa, but there are few well-documented examples of genetic polymorphisms for them. In the Japanese calopterygid damselfly Mnais costalis, males occur as either orange-winged territorial fighter males, or clear-winged non-territorial sneaker males. It has previously been suggested that this behavioral polymorphism is genetically controlled. However, there was no direct evidence for this.
In lekking species, females may become sperm-limited when mating with sexually successful males, and this may be exacerbated\\u000a by a poor male diet. Polygynous males may also be limited by the amount of accessory gland products (AGPs) they can transmit\\u000a to females, which in turn may influence the females refractory period and longevity. Here, we tested the effect of male
Diana Perez-Staples; Martín Aluja; Rogelio Macías-Ordóñez; John Sivinski
Individuals of species that change sex from male to female may gain a size advantage from that sex change; that is, as males\\u000a become larger, they become female, thus increasing their fecundity with their size. However, males could also gain an early\\u000a and different reproductive size advantage by choosing large females as mates. While male preference for large females has
Males of the moth Cosmosoma myrodora (Arctiidae) acquire pyrrolizidine alkaloid by feeding on the excrescent fluids of certain plants (for instance, Eupatorium capillifolium). They incorporate the alkaloid systemically and as a result are protected against spiders. The males have a pair of abdominal pouches, densely packed with fine cuticular filaments, which in alkaloid-fed males are alkaloid laden. The males discharge the filaments on the female in bursts during courtship, embellishing her with alkaloid as a result. The topical investiture protects the female against spiders. Alkaloid-free filaments, from alkaloid-deprived males, convey no such protection. The males also transmit alkaloid to the female by seminal infusion. The systemic alkaloid thus received, which itself may contribute to the female's defense against spiders, is bestowed in part by the female on the eggs. Although paternal contribution to egg defense had previously been demonstrated for several arctiid moths, protective nuptial festooning of a female by its mate, such as is practiced by C. myrodora, appears to be without parallel among insects.
Conner, William E.; Boada, Ruth; Schroeder, Frank C.; Gonzalez, Andres; Meinwald, Jerrold; Eisner, Thomas
The effects of male-derived extracts on female receptivity to remating were investigated in Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Injection of aqueous extracts of male reproductive tracts into the abdomen of females reduced receptivity. When aqueous extracts of male reproductive tracts were divided to three molecular weight (MW) fractions by ultrafiltration: <3, 3-14, and >14 kDa, the filtrate containing MW substances <3 kDa reduced female receptivity 3h and 1 day after injection, whereas the fraction containing MW substances >14 kDa inhibited receptivity 2 and 4 days after injection. Finally, male reproductive tract organs were divided into accessory gland, seminal vesicle, and testis. Aqueous extracts of testis reduced receptivity of females on the second day and at 3h, and aqueous extracts of accessory gland reduced receptivity of females on the second day after injection. On the other hand, aqueous extracts of seminal vesicle did not reduce female receptivity. The results indicate that more than one mechanism may be involved in producing the effects of male-derived substances on female receptivity; low MW male-derived substances, which possibly exist in testis, cause short-term inhibition, while high MW substances, which possibly exist in the accessory gland, inhibit female mating later than low MW substances in C. chinensis. PMID:18177665
Cytoplasm has substantial genetic effects on progeny and is important for yield improvement in rice breeding. Studies on the cytoplasmic effects of cytoplasmic malesterility (CMS) show that most types of CMS have negative effects on yield-related traits and that these negative effects vary among CMS. Some types of genic malesterility (GMS), including photo-thermo sensitive malesterility (PTMS), have been widely used in rice breeding, but the cytoplasmic effects of GMS remain unknown. Here, we identified a GMS mutant line, h2s, which exhibited small, white anthers and failed to produce mature pollen. Unlike CMS, the h2s had significant positive cytoplasmic effects on the seed set rate, weight per panicle, yield, and general combining ability (GCA) for plant height, seed set rate, weight per panicle, and yield. These effects indicated that h2s cytoplasm may show promise for the improvement of rice yield. Genetic analysis suggested that the phenotype of h2s was controlled by a single recessive locus. We mapped h2s to a 152 kb region on chromosome 6, where 22 candidate genes were predicted. None of the 22 genes had previously been reported to be responsible for the phenotypes of h2s. Sequencing analysis showed a 12 bp deletion in the sixth exon of Loc_Os06g40550 in h2s in comparison to wild type, suggesting that Loc_Os06g40550 is the best candidate gene. These results lay a strong foundation for cloning of the H2S gene to elucidate the molecular mechanism of male reproduction.
Cytoplasm has substantial genetic effects on progeny and is important for yield improvement in rice breeding. Studies on the cytoplasmic effects of cytoplasmic malesterility (CMS) show that most types of CMS have negative effects on yield-related traits and that these negative effects vary among CMS. Some types of genic malesterility (GMS), including photo-thermo sensitive malesterility (PTMS), have been widely used in rice breeding, but the cytoplasmic effects of GMS remain unknown. Here, we identified a GMS mutant line, h2s, which exhibited small, white anthers and failed to produce mature pollen. Unlike CMS, the h2s had significant positive cytoplasmic effects on the seed set rate, weight per panicle, yield, and general combining ability (GCA) for plant height, seed set rate, weight per panicle, and yield. These effects indicated that h2s cytoplasm may show promise for the improvement of rice yield. Genetic analysis suggested that the phenotype of h2s was controlled by a single recessive locus. We mapped h2s to a 152 kb region on chromosome 6, where 22 candidate genes were predicted. None of the 22 genes had previously been reported to be responsible for the phenotypes of h2s. Sequencing analysis showed a 12 bp deletion in the sixth exon of Loc_Os06g40550 in h2s in comparison to wild type, suggesting that Loc_Os06g40550 is the best candidate gene. These results lay a strong foundation for cloning of the H2S gene to elucidate the molecular mechanism of male reproduction. PMID:23613915
A chemical malesterility system based on anther-localized conversion of the inactive D-enantiomer of the herbicide, glufosinate (2-amino-4-(methylphosphinyl)-butanoate) to the phytotoxic L is described. Highly pure D-glufosinate was isolated in >98% enantiomeric excess from the racemate via fermentation with a strain of Escherichia coli expressing the PAT (L-glufosinate N-acetyl transferase) gene and purification of the unreacted D-enantiomer from the broth by ion exchange. A modified (F58K, M213S) form of the D-amino acid oxidase (DAAO) (EC 184.108.40.206) from Rhodosporidium toruloides was designed, tested in vitro and found to efficiently oxidize D-glufosinate to its 2-oxo derivative [2-oxo-4-(methylphosphinyl)-butanoic acid]. Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants were transformed to express this modified oxidase under control of the TAP1 tapetum-specific promoter. A number of the resultant transgenic lines exhibited complete malesterility that persisted for two or more weeks immediately following foliar treatment with 75 or 200 g/ha of D-glufosinate without exhibiting obvious phytotoxic symptoms or any measurable decline in female fertility. Similarly, plants containing the same construct and, additionally, a PAT gene expressed from a plastocyanin promoter exhibited significantly reduced male fertility and no reduction in female fertility following foliar application of racemic glufosinate. Thus, foliar application of d-glufosinate either purified or as the commercial herbicide, combined with anther expression of a modified DAAO promises to provide a cost-effective conditional chemical malesterility system with the characteristics necessary for practical F? hybrid seed production. PMID:20678098
Background Females can potentially assess the quality of potential mates using their secondary sexual traits, and obtain "good genes" that increase offspring fitness. Another potential indirect benefit from mating preferences is genetic compatibility, which does not require extravagant or viability indicator traits. Several studies with mammals and fish indicate that the genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) influence olfactory cues and mating preferences, and such preferences confer genetic benefits to offspring. We investigated whether individual MHC diversity (class I) influences mating preferences in house sparrows (Passer domesticus). Results Overall, we found no evidence that females preferred males with high individual MHC diversity. Yet, when we considered individual MHC allelic diversity of the females, we found that females with a low number of alleles were most attracted to males carrying a high number of MHC alleles, which might reflect a mating-up preference by allele counting. Conclusions This is the first experimental evidence for MHC-dependent mating preferences in an avian species to our knowledge. Our findings raise questions about the underlying mechanisms through which birds discriminate individual MHC diversity among conspecifics, and they suggest a novel mechanism through which mating preferences might promote the evolution of MHC polymorphisms and generate positive selection for duplicated MHC loci.
Males ofXylocopa micans employ two mating systems in south-central Texas. They defend territories around flowering wisteria and redbud in March and April, and they maintain nonresource-based or landmark territories in July and August. Mandibular and mesosomal gland contents (analyzed by GC-MS) are different in bees employing the two mating systems. Mandibular glands contain only straight-chain hydrocarbons in bees defending floral
. Multiple mating (i.e., polyandry) by queens in social Hymenoptera is expected to weaken social cohesion since it lowers within-colony relatedness,\\u000a and hence, indirect fitness benefits from kin selection. Yet, there are many species where queens mate multiply. Several hypotheses\\u000a have been put forward to explain the evolution and maintenance of polyandry. Here,we investigated the sperm limitation and\\u000a the diploid male
An association is reported between the ?\\/? inversion polymorphism on chromosome I and adult size as assessed by the length of wings, ?? flies are larger than ?? flies, with heterokaryotypes intermediate, and the differences are more marked in males than in females. Laboratory mating experiments were performed in which a single female was given a choice of two males.
The information content of a sexual signal may predict its importance in a multiple signal system. Many studies have correlated sexual signal expression with the absolute levels of nutrient reserves. In contrast, the changes of nutrient reserves associated with signal expression are largely unknown in the wild due to technical limitations although they are important determinants of signal information content. We compared two visual and eight acoustic sexual traits in male collared flycatchers to see whether the nutritional correlates of expression predict the role of the signal in sexual selection. We used single point assays of plasma lipid metabolites to estimate short-term changes in nutritional state in relation to sexual trait expression during courtship. As a measure of sexual selection, we estimated the relationship with pairing latency after arrival in a 4-year dataset. Males which found a mate rapidly were characterized by large wing and forehead patches, but small song strophe complexity and small figure repertoire size. Traits more strongly related to pairing latency were also more closely related to changes in nutrient reserves. This indicates a link between signal role and information content. Small wing patches and, surprisingly, complex songs seemed to indicate poor phenotypic quality and were apparently disfavoured at mate acquisition in our population. Future studies of the information content of sexual traits, especially dynamic traits such as song, may benefit from the use of plasma metabolite profiles as non-invasive indicators of short-term changes in body condition.
Violent crimes (murders, rapes, and assaults) are substantially higher in countries with a relative scarcity of men according to research using INTERPOL data [Barber, 2000a]. This is a paradox given that males are more criminally violent and likely reflects increased direct mating competition. The present research sought to confirm and extend Barber's [2000a] finding, using murder data from the United Nations and homicides from World Health Organization that are of higher quality than the INTERPOL data, and using more rigorous controls. In addition to level of economic development, control variables included, income inequality, urbanization, population density, the number of police, and whether the country was a major center of illegal drug trafficking. Regression analyses with all controls found that killings in both data sets increased with declines in the male proportion of the population. The findings are discussed in terms of direct reproductive competition and alternative explanations are considered. PMID:18985767
Although multiple mating most likely increases mortality risk for social insect queens and lowers the kin benefits for nonreproductive workers, a significant proportion of hymenopteran queens mate with several males. It has been suggested that queens may mate multiply as a means to manipulate sex ratios to their advantage. Multiple paternity reduces the extreme relatedness value of females for workers, selecting for workers to invest more in males. In populations with female-biased sex ratios, queens heading such male-producing colonies would achieve a higher fitness. We tested this hypothesis in a Swiss and a Swedish population of the ant Lasius niger. There was substantial and consistent variation in queen mating frequency and colony sex allocation within and among populations, but no evidence that workers regulated sex allocation in response to queen mating frequency; the investment in females did not differ among paternity classes. Moreover, population-mean sex ratios were consistently less female biased than expected under worker control and were close to the queen optimum. Queens therefore had no incentive to manipulate sex ratios because their fitness did not depend on the sex ratio of their colony. Thus, we found no evidence that the sex-ratio manipulation theory can explain the evolution and maintenance of multiple mating in L. niger. PMID:11989685
Fjerdingstad, Else J; Gertsch, Pia J; Keller, Laurent
In the cotton-top tamarin, a primate where paternal care is critical to the survival of the offspring, we found that expectant fathers experienced multiple hormonal changes during their mate's pregnancy. Fathers that had experienced several previous births showed significant changes in urinary estrogens, androgens, prolactin and cortisol in the last 2 months before birth, whereas less-experienced fathers (LEF) did not. The female's midpregnancy rise in glucocorticoids was followed within 1-2 weeks by a peak of cortisol and corticosterone in her paired male in 70% of all males and 100% of all experienced males. Examination of behavioral interactions between the pairs did not reveal changes in rates of interactions between the experienced pairs over pregnancy. However, the less-experienced pairs had significantly higher levels of affiliative and sexual interactions. Therefore, behavioral communication between the pair did not appear to account for the hormonal changes occurring within the experienced fathers (EF). The midpregnancy rise of glucocorticoids in females may stimulate a glucocorticoid response in male tamarins and thereby activate other hormonal changes in males to prepare them for their parenting role. PMID:15019794
Ziegler, Toni E; Washabaugh, Kate F; Snowdon, Charles T
A novel cytoplasmic male-sterility (CMS) radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and its associated mitotype (DCGMS) were previously identified; however, no mtDNA fragments flanking the atp6 gene were found in the DCGMS mitotype. Unlike three other mitotypes in this study, a unique mtDNA organization, atp6-nad3-rps12, was found to be the major mtDNA structure associated with this mitotype. This organization may have arisen from short repeat sequence-mediated recombination events. The short repeat clusters involved in the mtDNA rearrangement around the atp6 gene also exist as repetitive sequences in the complete mitochondrial genomes of other members of the Brassicaceae family, including rapeseed and Arabidopsis. These sequences do not exist as repetitive elements in the mtDNA of tobacco, sugar beet, or rice. While studying the regions flanking atp6, we identified a truncated atp6 mtDNA fragment which consists of the 5' part of the atp6 gene linked to an unidentified sequence. This mtDNA structure was present in all mitotypes; however, a single nucleotide insertion mutation leading to a frame-shift was identified only in the DCGMS mitotype. Although this truncated atp6 organization was transcribed, there was no significantly different expression between male-sterile and fertile segregating individuals from the BC(1)F(1) population originating from a cross between male-sterile and restorer parents. Comprehensive survey of the single base-pair insertion showed that it was maternally inherited and unique to the DCGMS mitotype. Therefore, this single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the coding sequence of the mtDNA will be a useful molecular marker for the detection of the DCGMS mitotype. PMID:19034407
Lee, Young-Pyo; Kim, Sunggil; Lim, Heerae; Ahn, Youngsoon; Sung, Soon-Kee
Speciation, the evolution of reproductive isolation between populations, serves as the driving force for generating biodiversity. Postzygotic barriers to gene flow, such as F(1) hybrid sterility and inviability, play important roles in the establishment and maintenance of biological species. F(1) hybrid incompatibilities in taxa that obey Haldane's rule, the observation that the heterogametic sex suffers greater hybrid fitness problems than the homogametic sex, are thought to often result from interactions between recessive-acting X-linked loci and dominant-acting autosomal loci. Because they play such prominent roles in producing hybrid incompatibilities, we examine the dominance and nature of epistasis between alleles derived from Drosophila persimilis that confer hybrid malesterility in the genetic background of its sister species, D. pseudoobscura bogotana. We show that epistasis elevates the apparent dominance of individually recessive-acting QTL such that they can contribute to F(1) hybrid sterility. These results have important implications for assumptions underlying theoretical models of hybrid incompatibilities and may offer a possible explanation for why, to date, identification of dominant-acting autosomal "speciation genes" has been challenging. PMID:19686263
Women's reproductive fertility peaks for a few days in the middle of their cycle around ovulation. Because conception is most likely to occur inside this brief fertile window, evolutionary theories suggest that men possess adaptations designed to maximize their reproductive success by mating with women during their peak period of fertility. In this article, we provide evidence from 3 studies that subtle cues of fertility prime mating motivation in men, thus facilitating psychological and behavioral processes associated with the pursuit of a sexual partner. In Study 1, men exposed to the scent of a woman near peak levels of fertility displayed increased accessibility to sexual concepts. Study 2 demonstrated that, among men who reported being sensitive to odors, scent cues of fertility triggered heightened perceptions of women's sexual arousal. Study 3 revealed that, in a face-to-face interaction, high levels of female fertility were associated with a greater tendency for men to make risky decisions and to behaviorally mimic a female partner. Hence, subtle cues of fertility led to a cascade of mating-related processes-from lower order cognition to overt behavior-that reflected heightened mating motivation. Implications for theories of goal pursuit, romantic attraction, and evolutionary psychology are discussed. PMID:20822287
Women's reproductive fertility peaks for a few days in the middle of their cycle around ovulation. Because conception is most likely to occur inside this brief fertile window, evolutionary theories suggest that men possess adaptations designed to maximize their reproductive success by mating with women during their peak period of fertility. In this article, we provide evidence from 3 studies
Background Heliconius butterflies possess a remarkable diversity of phenotypes, physiologies, and behaviors that has long distinguished this genus as a focal taxon in ecological and evolutionary research. Recently Heliconius has also emerged as a model system for using genomic methods to investigate the causes and consequences of biological diversity. One notable aspect of Heliconius diversity is a dichotomy in mating systems which provides an unusual opportunity to investigate the relationship between sexual selection and the evolution of reproductive proteins. As a first step in pursuing this research, we report the generation and analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from the male accessory gland of H. erato and H. melpomene, species representative of the two mating systems present in the genus Heliconius. Results We successfully sequenced 933 ESTs clustering into 371 unigenes from H. erato and 1033 ESTs clustering into 340 unigenes from H. melpomene. Results from the two species were very similar. Approximately a third of the unigenes showed no significant BLAST similarity (E-value <10-5) to sequences in GenBank's non-redundant databases, indicating that a large proportion of novel genes are expressed in Heliconius male accessory glands. In both species only a third of accessory gland unigenes were also found among genes expressed in wing tissue. About 25% of unigenes from both species encoded secreted proteins. This includes three groups of highly abundant unigenes encoding repetitive proteins considered to be candidate seminal fluid proteins; proteins encoded by one of these groups were detected in H. erato spermatophores. Conclusion This collection of ESTs will serve as the foundation for the future identification and evolutionary analysis of male reproductive proteins in Heliconius butterflies. These data also represent a significant advance in the rapidly growing collection of genomic resources available in Heliconius butterflies. As such, they substantially enhance this taxon as a model system for investigating questions of ecological, phenotypic, and genomic diversity.
In two experiments, we investigated the mate choice behavior of female Japanese quail toward taxidermically-prepared male models. Both experiments consisted of four phases: (1) habituation; (2) a pre-test in which two taxidermically-prepared models of male birds were presented; (3) observation in which the respective non-preferred male model was presented either alone or with another stimulus, and (4) a post-test in
Whether female crickets choose among males based on characteristics of the courtship song is uncertain, but in many species,\\u000a males not producing courtship song do not mate. In the house cricket,Acheta domesticus, we examined whether a female chose or rejected a male based on his size, latency to chirp, latency to produce courtship\\u000a song, or rate of the high-frequency pulse
Utilization of a two-line breeding system via photoperiod-thermo sensitive malesterility has a great potential for hybrid production in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). 337S is a novel wheat malesterile line sensitive to both short daylength/low temperature and long daylength/high temperature. Five F2 populations derived from the crosses between 337S and five common wheat varieties were developed for genetic analysis. All F1s were highly fertile while segregation occurred in the F2 populations with a ratio of 3 fertile:1 sterile under short daylength/low temperature. It is shown that malesterility in 337S was controlled by a single recessive gene, temporarily designated as wptms3. Bulked segregant analysis (BSA) coupled with simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers was applied to map the sterile gene using one mapping population. The wptms3 gene was mapped to chromosome arm 1BS and flanked by Xgwm413 and Xgwm182 at a genetic distance of 3.2 and 23.5 cM, respectively. The accuracy and efficiency of marker-assisted selection were evaluated and proved essential for identifying homozygous recessive malesterile genotypes of the wptms3 gene in F2 generation.
In soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], manual cross-pollination to produce large quantities of hybrid seed is difficult and time consuming. Identification of an environmentally stable male-sterility system could make hybrid seed production commercially valuable. In soybean, 2 environmentally sensitive male-sterile, female-fertile mutants (ms8 and msp) have been identified. Inheritance studies showed that sterility in both mutants is inherited as a single gene. The objectives of this study were to 1) confirm that msp and ms8 are independent genes; 2) identify the soybean chromosomes that contain the msp and the ms8 genes using bulked segregant analyses (BSAs); and 3) make a genetic linkage map of the regions containing these genes. Mapping populations consisting of 176 F(2) plants for ms8 and 134 F(2) plants for msp were generated. BSA revealed that Sat_389 and Satt172 are closely associated markers with ms8 and msp, respectively. Map location of Sat_389 suggested that the ms8 gene is located on chromosome 7; molecular linkage group (MLG) M. Map location of Satt172 indicated that the msp gene is located on chromosome 2 (MLG Dlb). Genetic linkage maps developed using F(2) populations revealed that ms8 is flanked by a telomere and Sat_389 and msp is flanked by Sat_069 and GMES4176. The region between the telomere and Sat_389 is physically 160 Kb. Soybean sequence information revealed that there are 13 genes present in that region. Protein BLASTP analyses revealed that homologs of 3 of the 13 genes are known to a play role in cell division, suggesting putative candidates for ms8. PMID:20864624
Frasch, Ryan M; Weigand, Courtney; Perez, Paola T; Palmer, Reid G; Sandhu, Devinder
Background Pelargonium is one of the most popular garden plants in the world. Moreover, it has a considerable economic importance in the ornamental plant market. Conventional cross-breeding strategies have generated a range of cultivars with excellent traits. However, gene transfer via Agrobacterium tumefaciens could be a helpful tool to further improve Pelargonium by enabling the introduction of new genes/traits. We report a simple and reliable protocol for the genetic transformation of Pelargonium spp. and the production of engineered long-life and malesterile Pelargonium zonale plants, using the pSAG12::ipt and PsEND1::barnase chimaeric genes respectively. Results The pSAG12::ipt transgenic plants showed delayed leaf senescence, increased branching and reduced internodal length, as compared to control plants. Leaves and flowers of the pSAG12::ipt plants were reduced in size and displayed a more intense coloration. In the transgenic lines carrying the PsEND1::barnase construct no pollen grains were observed in the modified anther structures, which developed instead of normal anthers. The locules of sterile anthers collapsed 34?days prior to floral anthesis and, in most cases, the undeveloped anther tissues underwent necrosis. Conclusion The chimaeric construct pSAG12::ipt can be useful in Pelargonium spp. to delay the senescence process and to modify plant architecture. In addition, the use of engineered malesterile plants would be especially useful to produce environmentally friendly transgenic plants carrying new traits by preventing gene flow between the genetically modified ornamentals and related plant species. These characteristics could be of interest, from a commercial point of view, both for pelargonium producers and consumers.
Our research concerns the basic mechanisms of cytoplasmic malesterility (CMS) and fertility restoration in maize. The molecular determination of CMS is in the DNA of the mitochondria (mtDNA) but specific nuclear restorer-of-fertility (Rf) genes can overrule the male-sterile effect of the cytoplasm. Our approach to the study of the Rf genes is threefold. We are attempting to tag the cms-S Rf genes and the cms-T Rf2 gene with controlling elements (CEs). Since we have identified a number of spontaneous Rf genes for cms-S and have demonstrated that they are themselves transposable, we are also searching for cases in which an Rf gene is inserted into a wild-type gene. The other aspect of our research involves the nuclear control over the organization of the mitochondrial genome. We found that the changes in mtDNA organization upon cytoplasmic reversion to fertility were characteristic of the nuclear background in which the reversion event occurred. We have investigated whether these differences are a reflection of differences in the organization of the mtDNA genome before reversion.
The hypothesis of the association between an increase in cytokinin activity and restoration of anther fertility in msm1 cytoplasm was tested. The following barley lines with Hordeum vulgare cv. Adorra nuclear gene background were studied: Adorra cytoplasm without nuclear restorer gene (fertile), Adorra cytoplasm homozygous for nuclear Rfm1a gene (fertile), msm1 cytoplasm without restorer gene (malesterile), msm1 cytoplasm homozygous for nuclear Rfm1a gene (fertile). Ethanolic extracts of root exudate were fractionated and bioassayed for cytokinins. Both the biological activity and the total quantity of cytokinins appeared lowest in the unrestored malesterile line. The total biological activities of cytokinins in the three fertile lines were similar, but the quantities in the restorer gene carriers appeared lower. On the other hand, the restorer gene carriers, independent of the cytoplasm, showed 8-9 times more of a bound cytokinin. Because the bound form is evidently underestimated by the bioassay, the increase in the bound cytokinin fraction may mean even a higher total content in the Rfm1a gene carriers than in Adorra without the gene. The bound cytokinin may be translocated more readily to distal organs (e.g., the anthers) compared with unbound cytokinins. Because cytokinins are associated with various ecophysiological processes, the rise in a particular form may explain the heterogeneous distribution of the restorer gene in wild barley populations in different regions of Israel.
We have sequenced five distinct mitochondrial genomes in maize: two fertile cytotypes (NA and the previously reported NB) and three cytoplasmic-male-sterile cytotypes (CMS-C, CMS-S, and CMS-T). Their genome sizes range from 535,825 bp in CMS-T to 739,719 bp in CMS-C. Large duplications (0.5120 kb) account for most of the size increases. Plastid DNA accounts for 2.34.6% of each mitochondrial genome. The genomes share a minimum set of 51 genes for 33 conserved proteins, three ribosomal RNAs, and 15 transfer RNAs. Numbers of duplicate genes and plastid-derived tRNAs vary among cytotypes. A high level of sequence conservation exists both within and outside of genes (1.657.04 substitutions/10 kb in pairwise comparisons). However, sequence losses and gains are common: integrated plastid and plasmid sequences, as well as noncoding native mitochondrial sequences, can be lost with no phenotypic consequence. The organization of the different maize mitochondrial genomes varies dramatically; even between the two fertile cytotypes, there are 16 rearrangements. Comparing the finished shotgun sequences of multiple mitochondrial genomes from the same species suggests which genes and open reading frames are potentially functional, including which chimeric ORFs are candidate genes for cytoplasmic malesterility. This method identified the known CMS-associated ORFs in CMS-S and CMS-T, but not in CMS-C.
Allen, James O.; Fauron, Christiane M.; Minx, Patrick; Roark, Leah; Oddiraju, Swetha; Lin, Guan Ning; Meyer, Louis; Sun, Hui; Kim, Kyung; Wang, Chunyan; Du, Feiyu; Xu, Dong; Gibson, Michael; Cifrese, Jill; Clifton, Sandra W.; Newton, Kathleen J.
The ventral bed nuclei of the stria terminalis (BST) and medial preoptic nucleus (MPN) of gerbils contain cells that regulate male sex behavior via a largely uncrossed pathway to the retrorubral field (RRF). Our goal was to learn more about cells at the pathway source and target. To determine if the pathway uses GABA as its transmitter, we used immunocytochemistry to study glutamic acid decarboxlyase67 (GAD67) colocalization with Fluoro-Gold (FG) in the ventral BST and MPN after applying FG to the RRF. To determine if the pathway is activated with mating, we studied FG-Fos colocalization in the ventral BST of recently matedmales. The ventral BST expresses Fos with mating and is the major pathway source. To determine to what extent other GABAergic cells in the ventral BST are activated with mating, we studied Fos colocalization with GAD67 mRNA visualized by in situ hybridization. We also looked for GAD67 mRNA in RRF cells. Almost all ventral BST and MPNm cells projecting to the RRF (9597%), and most ventral BST cells activated with mating (89%), were GABAergic. GABAergic cells were also seen in the RRF. RRF-projecting cells represented 37% of ventral BST cells activated with mating. Their activation may reflect arousal and anticipation of sexual reward. Among ventral BST cells that project to the RRF, 14% were activated with mating, consistent with how much of this pathway is needed for mating. The activated GABAergic cells that do not project to the RRF may release GABA locally and inhibit ejaculation.
Simmons, Danielle A.; Hoffman, Neil W.; Yahr, Pauline
Post-copulatory interactions between males and females involve highly coordinated, complex traits that are often rapidly evolving and divergent between species. Failure to produce and deposit eggs may be a common post-mating prezygotic barrier, yet little is known about what prevents the induction of egg-laying between species. The field crickets, Gryllus firmus and G. pennsylvanicus are isolated by a one-way reproductive incompatibility; G. pennsylvanicus males fail to fertilize G. firmus eggs or to induce normal egg-laying in G. firmus females. We use experimental crosses to elucidate the role of accessory gland-derived vs. testis-derived components of the G. firmus male ejaculate on egg-laying in conspecific and heterospecific crosses. Using surgical castrations to create spermless males that transfer only seminal fluid proteins (SFPs) we test whether G. firmus male SFPs can induce egg-laying in conspecific crosses and rescue egg-laying in crosses between G. pennsylvanicus males and G. firmus females. We find G. firmus SFPs induce only a small short-term egg-laying response and that SFPs alone cannot explain the normal induction of egg-laying. Gryllus firmus SFPs also do not rescue the heterospecific cross. Testis-derived components, such as sperm or prostaglandins, most likely stimulate egg-laying or act as transporters for SFPs to targets in the female reproductive tract. These results highlight the utility of experimental approaches for investigating the phenotypes that act as barriers between species and suggest that future work on the molecular basis of the one-way incompatibility between G. firmus and G. pennsylvanicus should focus on divergent testis-derived compounds or proteins in addition to SFPs.
Larson, Erica L.; Andres, Jose A.; Harrison, Richard G.
Restoration of male fertility was achieved by fusing protoplasts from malesterile (CMS) Nicotiana sylvestris plants with X-irradiated protoplasts derived from fertile N. tabacum plants. The CMS N. sylvestris plants were derived from a previous somatic hybridization experiment and contained alien (Line 92) cytoplasm. About one quarter of the regenerated plants were found to be cybrids. i.e. they consisted of
To study the genetic differences responsible for the sterility of their male hybrids, we introgressed small segments of an X chromosome from Drosophila simulans into a pure Drosophila mauritiana genetic background, then assessed the fertility of males carrying heterospecific introgressions of varying size. Although this analysis examined less than 20% of the X chromosome (roughly 5% of the euchromatic portion
Sexual dimorphisms in the brain underlie behavioral sex differences, but the function of individual sexually dimorphic neuronal populations is poorly understood. Neuronal sexual dimorphisms typically represent quantitative differences in cell number, gene expression, or other features, and it is unknown whether these dimorphisms control sex-typical behavior exclusively in one sex or in both sexes. The progesterone receptor (PR) controls female sexual behavior, and we find many sex differences in number, distribution, or projections of PR-expressing neurons in the adult mouse brain. Using a genetic strategy we developed, we have ablated one such dimorphic PR-expressing neuronal population located in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH). Ablation of these neurons in females greatly diminishes sexual receptivity. Strikingly, the corresponding ablation in males reduces mating and aggression. Our findings reveal the functions of a molecularly defined, sexually dimorphic neuronal population in the brain. Moreover, we show that sexually dimorphic neurons can control distinct sex-typical behaviors in both sexes. PMID:23663785
Yang, Cindy F; Chiang, Michael C; Gray, Daniel C; Prabhakaran, Mahalakshmi; Alvarado, Maricruz; Juntti, Scott A; Unger, Elizabeth K; Wells, James A; Shah, Nirao M
Jasmonic acid (JA) and its precursor 12-oxophytodienoic acid (OPDA) act as plant growth regulators and mediate responses to environmental cues. To investigate the role of these oxylipins in anther and pollen development, we characterized a T-DNA-tagged, male-sterile mutant of Arabidopsis, opr3. The opr3 mutant plants are sterile but can be rendered fertile by exogenous JA but not by OPDA. Cloning
The Polima cytoplasmic malesterility (CMS) system has been successfully used in three\\/two-line hybrid production in rapeseed\\u000a (Brassica napus L.). However, the sterility of the Polima (pol) CMS lines is sensitive to temperature fluctuations. Also, traces of pollen\\u000a can cause self-pollination within the CMS lines, which results in reduced levels of F1 hybrid seed purity and leads to a significant
Cytoplasmic malesterility in plants is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. We have proposed that a nuclear-encoded chimeric peptide formed by mitochondrial sequences when imported into the mitochondria may impair organelle function and induce malesterility in plants. A model developed to test this hypothesis is reported here. Assuming that the editing process in higher plant mitochondria reflects a requirement for producing active proteins, we have used edited and unedited coding sequences of wheat ATP synthase subunit 9 (atp9) fused to the coding sequence of a yeast coxIV transit peptide. Transgenic plants containing unedited atp9 exhibited either fertile, semifertile, or male-sterile phenotypes; controls containing edited atp9 or only the selectable marker gave fertile plants. Pollen fertility ranged from 31% to 75% in fertile plants, 10% to 20% in semifertile plants, and < 2% in male-sterile plants. Genetic and molecular data showed that the chimeric plasmid containing the transgene is inherited as a Mendelian trait. The transgenic protein is imported into the mitochondria. The production and frequency of semifertile or male-sterile transgenic plants conform to the proposed hypothesis. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4
Hernould, M; Suharsono, S; Litvak, S; Araya, A; Mouras, A
One commonly cited function of dispersal is to increase mating opportunities. In this study, I evaluated the hypothesis that male inter-troop transfer is used as a mating strategy in ring-tailed lemurs, Lemur catta, on St. Catherines Island (SCI), Ga., USA. I measured malemating success and inter-troop transfer behavior across 5 years in a population consisting of 4 lemur groups
Conversion of testosterone into estradiol is important for male rat sexual behavior, and both steroids probably contribute to mating. The distributions of neurons containing androgen receptors (AR) and estrogen receptors (ER) overlap, and many AR-immunoreactive (AR-ir) neurons express Fos immunoreactivity (Fos-ir) induced by mating. Because mating-induced Fos-ir in the male rat occurs mainly in AR-ir neurons, and because both steroids
Béatrice Gréco; David A. Edwards; Richard P. Michael; Andrew N. Clancy
Males of all polygynous deer species (Cervinae) give conspicuous calls during the reproductive season. The extreme interspecific diversity that characterizes these vocalizations suggests that they play a strong role in species discrimination. However, interbreeding between several species of Cervinae indicates permeable interspecific reproductive barriers. This study examines the contribution of vocal behavior to female species discrimination and mating preferences in two closely related polygynous deer species known to hybridize in the wild after introductions. Specifically, we investigate the reaction of estrous female red deer (Cervus elaphus) to playbacks of red deer vs. sika deer (Cervus nippon) malemating calls, with the prediction that females will prefer conspecific calls. While on average female red deer preferred male red deer roars, two out of twenty females spent more time in close proximity to the speaker broadcasting male sika deer moans. We suggest that this absence of strict vocal preference for species-specific mating calls may contribute to the permeability of pre-zygotic reproductive barriers observed between these species. Our results also highlight the importance of examining inter-individual variation when studying the role of female preferences in species discrimination and intraspecific mate selection.
Wyman, Megan T.; Charlton, Benjamin D.; Locatelli, Yann; Reby, David
Males of all polygynous deer species (Cervinae) give conspicuous calls during the reproductive season. The extreme interspecific diversity that characterizes these vocalizations suggests that they play a strong role in species discrimination. However, interbreeding between several species of Cervinae indicates permeable interspecific reproductive barriers. This study examines the contribution of vocal behavior to female species discrimination and mating preferences in
Megan T. Wyman; Benjamin D. Charlton; Yann Locatelli; David Reby
Malemate location behaviour and encounter sites have been studied in 72 butterfly species at Nagpur, India, and related to taxonomy, morphology, habitat and population parameters. Species can be placed in three broad classes of mate location behaviour: invariant patrolling, invariant perching, and perch-patrol, the latter associated with increasing site fidelity, territorial defence and male assemblages. Significant taxonomic differences occur, closely related species tending to share mate location behaviours. Morphological differences are found with heavier and larger butterflies displaying greater site fidelity and territorial defence, and differences occur between individuals of species which both perch and patrol. Invariant patrolling is particularly associated with tracks through vegetation, host planttrack distributions, and high female to male numbers observed on transects; invariant perching is linked more to edge features than patrolling, and to lower population counts on transects. Species which perch-patrol, defend territories and establish male assemblages are associated with more complex vegetation structures, and have encounter sites at vegetation edges, landforms and predictable resource (host plant) concentrations. Attention is drawn to the importance of distinctive mate encounter sites for the conservation of butterfly species' habitats. PMID:21289445
Tiple, Ashish D; Padwad, Sonali V; Dapporto, Leonardo; Dennis, Roger L H
In sterile insect technique (SIT) programs, the released sterilemales are important for their effectiveness. The use of sex\\u000a pheromones to collect males is economical; however, pre-exposure to sex pheromones may affect malemating behavior, and would\\u000a thus reduce the effectiveness of the SIT programs. Males exposed to sex pheromone may become attractive to other males due\\u000a to pheromone adsorption
Takashi KuriwadaNorikuni Kumano; Norikuni Kumano; Keiko Shiromoto; Dai Haraguchi
Cytoplasmic malesterility (CMS) in common bean is associated with the presence of a 3-kb unique mitochondrial sequence designated pvs. The pvs sequence encodes at least two open reading frames (297 and 720 bp in length) with portions derived from the chloroplast genome. Fertility restoration by the nuclear restorer gene Fr results in the loss of this transcriptionally active unique region. We examined the effect of CMS (pvs present) and fertility restoration by Fr (pvs absent) on the pattern of pollen development in bean. In the CMS line, pollen aborted in the tetrad stage late in microgametogenesis. Microspores maintained cytoplasmic connections throughout pollen development, indicating aberrant or incomplete cytokinesis. Pollen-specific events associated with pollen abortion and fertility restoration imply that a gametophytic factor or event may be involved in CMS. In situ hybridization experiments suggested that significant reduction or complete loss of the mitochondrial sterility-associated sequence occurred in fertile pollen of F2 populations segregating for fertility. These observations support a model of fertility restoration by the loss of a mitochondrial DNA sequence prior to or during microsporogenesis/gametogenesis.
Theory predicts that individuals should adopt counterstrategies against intersexual conflict with their mating partners if\\u000a the counterstrategies are effective and cost-efficient. In fishes, males with parental care often cannibalize their own offspring,\\u000a which reduces the females fitness and creates intersexual conflicts. Males of the goby Rhinogobius flumineus cannibalize more eggs in the nest when they have access to additional females
Common blue butterflies (Polyommatus icarus) sequester flavonoids from their larval host plants and allocate these UV-absorbing pigments to the wings. In field experiments using dummies constructed from female butterflies, mate-searching males inspected flavonoid-rich dummies more intensively than those with little or no flavonoids. Flavonoid content as signalled by UV-wing pattern may indicate ontogenetically determined female quality or enhance detectability to males.
Burghardt, Frank; Knüttel, Helge; Becker, Mechthild; Fiedler, K.
Eggs from crosses of 40 adult male R. prolixus irradiated with 6K rad ?-rays with normal females had a mean fertility of 23.9%, only 2 crosses being completely sterile. The 86 F1 progeny of both sexes, when outcrossed with normal mates, had a mean egg fertility of 12.6%, and 43 of these matings were completely sterile. Twenty-eight F2 bugs reared
Background Dengue is the most important mosquito-borne viral disease. In the absence of specific drugs or vaccines, control focuses on suppressing the principal mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti, yet current methods have not proven adequate to control the disease. New methods are therefore urgently needed, for example genetics-based sterile-male-release methods. However, this requires that lab-reared, modified mosquitoes be able to survive and disperse adequately in the field. Methodology/Principal Findings Adult male mosquitoes were released into an uninhabited forested area of Pahang, Malaysia. Their survival and dispersal was assessed by use of a network of traps. Two strains were used, an engineered genetically sterile (OX513A) and a wild-type laboratory strain, to give both absolute and relative data about the performance of the modified mosquitoes. The two strains had similar maximum dispersal distances (220 m), but mean distance travelled of the OX513A strain was lower (52 vs. 100 m). Life expectancy was similar (2.0 vs. 2.2 days). Recapture rates were high for both strains, possibly because of the uninhabited nature of the site. Conclusions/Significance After extensive contained studies and regulatory scrutiny, a field release of engineered mosquitoes was safely and successfully conducted in Malaysia. The engineered strain showed similar field longevity to an unmodified counterpart, though in this setting dispersal was reduced relative to the unmodified strain. These data are encouraging for the future testing and implementation of genetic control strategies and will help guide future field use of this and other engineered strains.
A cytoplasm malesterile pepper (Capsicum annum L.) was examined using cytochemical method to study its pollen abortion. Thick sections of both anthers of malesterility line 8214A and its maintainer 8214B at different stages were stained using Periodic Acid-Schiff's (PAS) reaction to detect starch distribution. Anther structure and starch distribution in both anthers of malesterility and maintainer line were similar before the meiosis of microspore mother cells. After meiosis, the size of tapetal cells of fertile anthers of maintainer line increased and became high vacuolation. Abundant small starches appeared in the connective cells from tetrad stage to early stage of microspore development. At the late stage of microspore, the tapetal cells began to degenerate and the starches in the connective cells became large. Bi-cellular pollen synthesized starches after the large vacuole of vegetative cell disappeared, and abundant starches were stored in the mature pollen. In the anthers of malesterile line, meiosis of microspore mother could occurred and the tetrads could be formed in the locule, but the tetrads were extruded together because the locule could not enlarge its space. Finally, the tetrad microspores degenerated. The development of vascular tissue of the sterile anthers was normal and abundant starches were stored in the connective cells, which suggested that the function of plant transporting polysaccharide into anther was normal but tapetum could not transport the polysaccharide into locule. According to our result, the pollen abortion occurred in the tetrad stage and the abnormal development of tapetal cells might be the reason which induced tetrad microspore abortion in this malesterile pepper. PMID:18959002
Many animals live in a communication network, an environment where individuals can obtain information about competitors or potential mates by observing interactions between conspecifics. In such an environment, interactants might benefit by changing their signalling behaviour in the presence of an audience. This audience effect seems widespread among species, has been observed during various types of interaction (e.g. intra-sexual vs. inter-sexual interaction) and varies according to the social context (e.g. gender, hierarchical or mating status of the audience). However, the way individuals might adapt their signalling behaviour to a combination of these factors remains poorly understood. To address this question, we studied how the presence of an audience affects the behaviour of male domestic canaries Serinus canaria during two types of interactions: (i) an extra-pair interaction and (ii) a male-male competition for food. Males were observed under three conditions: (a) in the absence of audience, (b) in the presence of their mate or (c) of a familiar female. Our results show that male domestic canaries minutely adapt their courting and agonistic behaviours to a combination of: (i) the type of interaction (extra-pair interaction/male-male competition), (ii) the social context (mate, familiar female or nobody in audience) and (iii) the behaviours of both the audience and the interactant. These results highlight the ability of animals to subtly adapt their behaviour to the social environment. This also raises questions about the cognitive foundations and evolution of these processes especially considering that canaries are known neither for having high cognitive abilities nor for being a typical example for the social intelligence hypothesis.
Partial restoration of male fertility limits the use of C-type cytoplasmic malesterility (C-CMS) for the production of hybrid seeds in maize. Nevertheless, the genetic basis of the trait is still unknown. Therefore, the aim to this study was to identify genomic regions that govern partial restoration by means of a QTL analysis carried out in an F(2) population (n = 180). This population was derived from the Corn Belt inbred lines B37C and K55. F(2)BC(1) progenies were phenotyped at three locations in Switzerland. Male fertility was rated according to the quality and number of anthers as well as the anthesis-silking interval. A weak effect of environment on the expression of partial restoration was reflected by high heritabilities of all fertility-related traits. Partial restoration was inherited like an oligogenic trait. Three major QTL regions were found consistently across environments in the chromosomal bins 2.09, 3.06 and 7.03. Therefore, a marker-assisted counter-selection of partial restoration is promising. Minor QTL regions were found on chromosomes 3, 4, 5, 6 and 8. A combination of partial restorer alleles at different QTL can lead to full restoration of fertility. The maternal parent was clearly involved in the partial restoration, because the restorer alleles at QTL in bins 2.09, 6.04 and 7.03 originated from B37. The three major QTL regions collocated with other restorer genes of maize, a phenomenon, which seems to be typical for restorer genes. Therefore, a study of the clusters of restorer genes in maize could lead to a better understanding of their evolution and function. In this respect, the long arm of chromosome 2 is particularly interesting, because it harbors restorer genes for the three major CMS systems (C, T and S) of maize. PMID:21479555
A key assumption underpinning major models of sexual selection is the expectation that male sexual attractiveness is heritable. Surprisingly, however, empirical tests of this assumption are relatively scarce. Here we use a paternal full-sib/half-sib breeding design to examine genetic and environmental variation in malemating latency (a proxy for sexual attractiveness) and copulation duration in a natural population of Drosophila melanogaster. As our experimental design also involved the manipulation of the social environment within each full-sibling family, we were able to further test for the presence of genotype-by-environment interactions (GEIs) in these traits, which have the potential to compromise mate choice for genetic benefits. Our experimental manipulation of the social environment revealed plastic expression of both traits; males exposed to a rival male during the sensitive period of adult sexual maturation exhibited shorter mating latencies and longer copulation durations than those who matured in isolation. However, we found no evidence for GEIs, and no significant additive genetic variation underlying these traits in either environment. These results undermine the notion that the evolution of female choice rests on covariance between female preference and male displays, an expectation that underpins indirect benefit models such as the good genes and sexy sons hypotheses. However, our results may also indicate depletion of genetic variance in these traits in the natural population studied, thus supporting the expectation that traits closely aligned with reproductive fitness can exhibit low levels of additive genetic variance. PMID:24155948
Taylor, Michelle L; Evans, Jonathan P; Garcia-Gonzalez, Francisco
A key assumption underpinning major models of sexual selection is the expectation that male sexual attractiveness is heritable. Surprisingly, however, empirical tests of this assumption are relatively scarce. Here we use a paternal full-sib/half-sib breeding design to examine genetic and environmental variation in malemating latency (a proxy for sexual attractiveness) and copulation duration in a natural population of Drosophila melanogaster. As our experimental design also involved the manipulation of the social environment within each full-sibling family, we were able to further test for the presence of genotype-by-environment interactions (GEIs) in these traits, which have the potential to compromise mate choice for genetic benefits. Our experimental manipulation of the social environment revealed plastic expression of both traits; males exposed to a rival male during the sensitive period of adult sexual maturation exhibited shorter mating latencies and longer copulation durations than those who matured in isolation. However, we found no evidence for GEIs, and no significant additive genetic variation underlying these traits in either environment. These results undermine the notion that the evolution of female choice rests on covariance between female preference and male displays, an expectation that underpins indirect benefit models such as the good genes and sexy sons hypotheses. However, our results may also indicate depletion of genetic variance in these traits in the natural population studied, thus supporting the expectation that traits closely aligned with reproductive fitness can exhibit low levels of additive genetic variance.
Taylor, Michelle L.; Evans, Jonathan P.; Garcia-Gonzalez, Francisco
Drosophila melanogaster males perform a courtship ritual consisting of a series of dependent fixed-action patterns. The yellow (y) gene is required for normal male courtship behavior and subsequent mating success. To better characterize the requirement for y in the manifestation of innate male sexual behavior, we measured the malemating success (MMS) of 12 hypomorphic y mutants and matched-outbred-background controls using a y+ rescue element on a freely segregating minichromosome. We found that 4 hypomorphs significantly reduced MMS to varying degrees. Reduced MMS was largely independent of adult pigmentation patterns. These mutations defined a 300-bp regulatory region upstream of the transcription start, the mating-success regulatory sequence (MRS), whose function is required for normal MMS. Visualization of gene action via GFP and a Yellow antibody suggests that the MRS directs y transcription in a small number of cells in the third instar CNS, the developmental stage previously implicated in the role of y with regard to male courtship behavior. The presence of Yellow protein in these cells positively correlates with MMS in a subset of mutants. The MRS contains a regulatory sequence controlling larval pigmentation and a 35-bp sequence that is highly conserved within the genus Drosophila and is predicted to bind known transcription factors.
Drapeau, Mark David; Cyran, Shawn A.; Viering, Michaela M.; Geyer, Pamela K.; Long, Anthony D.
Background Mating behaviors in simple invertebrate model organisms represent tractable paradigms for understanding the neural bases of sex-specific behaviors, decision-making and sensorimotor integration. However, there are few examples where such neural circuits have been defined at high resolution or interrogated. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we exploit the simplicity of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to define the neural circuits underlying the males decision to initiate mating in response to contact with a mate. Mate contact is sensed by male-specific sensilla of the tail, the rays, which subsequently induce and guide a contact-based search of the hermaphrodites surface for the vulva (the vulva search). Atypically, search locomotion has a backward directional bias so its implementation requires overcoming an intrinsic bias for forward movement, set by activity of the sex-shared locomotory system. Using optogenetics, cell-specific ablation- and mutant behavioral analyses, we show that the male makes this shift by manipulating the activity of command cells within this sex-shared locomotory system. The rays control the command interneurons through the male-specific, decision-making interneuron PVY and its auxiliary cell PVX. Unlike many sex-shared pathways, PVY/PVX regulate the command cells via cholinergic, rather than glutamatergic transmission, a feature that likely contributes to response specificity and coordinates directional movement with other cholinergic-dependent motor behaviors of the mating sequence. PVY/PVX preferentially activate the backward, and not forward, command cells because of a bias in synaptic inputs and the distribution of key cholinergic receptors (encoded by the genes acr-18, acr-16 and unc-29) in favor of the backward command cells. Conclusion/Significance Our interrogation of male neural circuits reveals that a sex-specific response to the opposite sex is conferred by a male-specific pathway that renders subordinate, sex-shared motor programs responsive to mate cues. Circuit modifications of these types may make prominent contributions to natural variations in behavior that ultimately bring about speciation.
To identify DNA markers linked to a fertility restorer (Rf) genefor Ogura cytoplasmic malesterility in radish (Raphanus sativus L.),a non-radioactive, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysiswas performed on bulked DNA samples from male-sterile and male-fertileradishes. Ten male-fertile and 10 male-sterile plants selected arbitrarilyfrom an F2 population made by selfing of F1 plant from a crossbetween a male-sterile (`MS-Gensuke') plant
Background Members of the subfamily Galleriinae have adapted to different selective environmental pressures by devising a unique mating process. Galleriinae males initiate mating by attracting females with either chemical or acoustic signals (or a combination of both modalities). Six compounds considered candidates for the sex pheromone have recently been identified in the wing gland extracts of Aphomia sociella males. Prior to the present study, acoustic communication had not been investigated. Signals mediating female attraction were likewise unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings Observations of A. sociella mating behaviour and recordings of male acoustic signals confirmed that males initiate the mating process. During calling behaviour (stationary wing fanning and pheromone release), males disperse pheromone from their wing glands. When a female approaches, males cease calling and begin to produce ultrasonic songs as part of the courtship behaviour. Replaying of recorded courting songs to virgin females and a comparison of the mating efficiency of intact males with males lacking tegullae proved that male ultrasonic signals stimulate females to accept mating. Greenhouse experiments with isolated pheromone glands confirmed that the male sex pheromone mediates long-range female attraction. Conclusion/Significance Female attraction in A. sociella is chemically mediated, but ultrasonic communication is also employed during courtship. Male ultrasonic songs stimulate female sexual display and significantly affect mating efficiency. Considerable inter-individual differences in song structure exist. These could play a role in female mate selection provided that the female's ear is able to discern them. The A. sociella mating strategy described above is unique within the subfamily Galleriinae.
Kindl, Jiri; Kalinova, Blanka; Cervenka, Milan; Jilek, Milan; Valterova, Irena
The present study was aimed at characterizing cytoplasmic malesterility (CMS) and identifying the fertility restorer gene for CMS ( Diplotaxis catholica) Brassica juncea derived through sexual hybridization. The fertility restorer gene was identified by crossing the CMS line with progeny plants derived from somatic hybrids of B. juncea and D. cathoilca. The CMS line is comparable to the nuclear
A. Pathania; S. R. Bhat; V. Dinesh Kumar; Ashutosh; P. B. Kirti; S. Prakash; V. L. Chopra
Using the restriction endonucleases SaII, SmaI, BgII and KpnI, physical maps of chloroplast DNA isolated from normal and cytoplasmic malesterile (radish cytoplasm) lines of B. napus were constructed and compared. In this study, a rapid and simple procedure was developed for the isolation of chloroplast DNA restriction fragments from low gelling temperature agarose gels.
The inheritance of fertility restoration of six mitomycin C and streptomycin induced cytoplasmic male-sterile (cms) mutants and one cms line derived from Native American cultivar PI 432513 was evaluated. These cms sources were also compared with the commercially used cms PET1 (Helianthus petiolaris ...
Most of the alloplasmic cytoplasmic malesterility (CMS) systems are known to be associated with a number of floral abnormalities that result from nuclear-cytoplasmic incompatibilities. One such system, tour, which is derived from Brassica tournefortii, induces additional floral abnormalities and causes chlorosis in Brassica spp. While the restorer for this CMS has been reported to be present in B. napus,
N. Arumugam; A. Mukhopadhyay; V. Gupta; D. Pental; A. K. Pradhan
Fertility restoration of sorghum lines carrying the IS1112C (A3 group) sorghum male-sterile cytoplasm in the line A3Tx398 has been documented as a two-gene gametophytic mechanism involving complementary action of restoring alleles designated Rf3 and Rf4, as derived from IS1112C. Fertility restorat...
In selections of some more or less commonly grown onion varieties in the Netherlands the frequencies of genetical factors governing malesterility were determined. In the leading Dutch variety Rijnsburger the chromosomal factor ms was found to occur in a frequency of over 0.95 and the cytoplasmic factor S in a frequency of less than 0.01.
Defects in the human mitochondrial genetic system result in some diseases. These disorders are the result of rearrangements or point mutations in mitochondrial genes. In higher plants mutations and rearrangements in the mitochondrial DNA are believed to cause cytoplasmic malesterility (CMS), a mitochondrially inherited inability to produce viable pollen. In sorghum, formation of CMS is strongly correlated with anther-specific
The normal type (N) and cytoplasmic malesterile type T (cmsT) maize mitochondrial genomes are 570 kb and 540 kb in length respectively. Detailed hybridization studies have been undertaken to compare the sequence complexity and variation between the two genomes (genotype B37). They have approximately 500 kb of common sequences but there is considerable variation in sequence organization which can
Five accessions of members of the C group of malesterile maize cytoplasms (BB, C, ES, PR, and RB) in two nuclear backgrounds (A619 and A632) were examined to elucidate the nature of mitochondrial genome diversity within a related group of cytoplasms. Cosmid and plasmid clones carrying single copy and recombinationally active sequences from N and S cytoplasms of maize
D. R. Pring; D. M. Lonsdale; V. E. Gracen; A. G. Smith
Photoperiod-sensitive genic male-sterile rice has a number of desirable characteristics for hybrid rice production. Previous studies identified pms1, located on chromosome 7, as a major locus for photoperiod-sensitive genic malesterility. The objective of this study was to localize the pms1 locus to a specific DNA fragment by genetic and physical mapping. Using 240 highly sterile individuals and a random
N. Liu; Y. Shan; F. Wang; C. Xu; K. Peng; X. Li; Qifa Zhang
Beginning in 2007, the largest human Q fever outbreak ever described occurred in the Netherlands. Dairy goats from intensive farms were identified as the source, amplifying Coxiella burnetii during gestation and shedding large quantities during abortions. It has been postulated that wild rodents are reservoir hosts from which C. burnetii can be transmitted to domestic animals and humans. However, little is known about the infection dynamics of C. burnetii in wild rodents. The aim of this study was to investigate whether brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) can be experimentally infected with C. burnetii and whether transmission to a cage mates occurs. Fourteen male brown rats (wild type) were intratracheally or intranasally inoculated with a Dutch C. burnetii isolate obtained from a goat. At 3 days postinoculation, a contact rat was placed with each inoculated rat. The pairs were monitored using blood samples and rectal and throat swabs for 8 weeks, and after euthanasia the spleens were collected. Rats became infected by both inoculation routes, and detection of C. burnetii DNA in swabs suggests that excretion occurred. However, based on the negative spleens in PCR and the lack of seroconversion, none of the contact animals was considered infected; thus, no transmission was observed. The reproduction ratio R(0) was estimated to be 0 (95% confidence interval = 0 to 0.6), indicating that it is unlikely that rats act as reservoir host of C. burnetii through sustained transmission between male rats. Future research should focus on other transmission routes, such as vertical transmission or bacterial shedding during parturition. PMID:22685149
Opsteegh, Marieke; Hogerwerf, Lenny; Nooijen, Stephane; Dam-Deisz, Cecile; de Heer, Lianne; Reusken, Chantal; Bouma, Annemarie; Roest, Hendrik-Jan; Nielen, Mirjam; van der Giessen, Joke
A number of hypotheses for the occurrence of multiple mating by queens of social Hymenoptera are reviewed in the light of Cole's (1983) observation that polyandrous species tend to have larger colonies than single-mating ones. Most of these hypotheses cannot be definitively excluded, but only three of them appear sufficiently general, plausible and predictive to be useful guides to further
Reproductive isolation can evolve between species as a byproduct of adaptation to different niches, through reinforcement, and by direct selection on mating preferences. We investigated the potential role of direct selection in the reproductive isolation between sympatric species of threespine sticklebacks. Each sympatric pair consists of a small-bodied limnetic species and large-bodied benthic species. We compared the mate preferences and
Variation in sex ratio can affect mating behaviour, with more intense competition predicted at biased sex ratios. In species with alternative mating behaviours, sex ratio variation can induce switches between be- haviour types and this, together with the consistency with which behaviours are expressed, may also affect the intensity of sexual selection. All these factors can be combined to elucidate
To identify regions of the mitochondrial genome potentially involved in the expression of alloplasmic 'Tournefortii-Stiewe' cytoplasmic malesterility (CMS) in Brassica napus, transcripts of 25 mitochondrial genes were analysed in fertile and near isogenic male-sterile plants (BC 8 generation). Differences were detected in the transcription of genes for subunit 9 of ATP synthase ( atp9), cytochrome b ( cob) and
Mitochondrial DNA fragments of two nearly isogenic lines of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) were amplified by RAPD analysis. A number of fragments, most of them unique to either the male-sterile or the male-fertile\\u000a cytoplasm, were selected for cloning and sequencing. One fragment was present in the PCR fingerprint pattern of both cytoplasms,\\u000a whereas five of the selected fragments were
Males of many web-building spiders abandon their webs at maturity to search for a potential mate. Since wandering can be very risky, and females are often widely distributed, males should use any cues that might ensure rapid and accurate location of conspecific females. Although it has long been assumed that mate-searching male spiders locate females using species-specific airborne pheromones released
Interspecific F1 hybrid males of the Drosophila bipectinata species complex are sterile, while females are fertile, following Haldane's rule. A backcross scheme involving a single recessive visible marker on the X chromosome has been used to assess the putative roles of X-autosome and X-Y interactions in hybrid malesterility in the D. bipectinata species complex. The results suggest that X-Y interactions are playing the major role in hybrid malesterility in the crosses D. bipectinata x D. parabipectinata and D. bipectinata x D. pseudoananassae, while X-autosome interactions are largely involved in hybrid malesterility in the crosses D. malerkotliana x D. bipectinata and D. malerkotliana x D. parabipectinata. However, by using this single marker it is not possible to rule out the involvement of autosome-autosome interactions in hybrid malesterility. These findings also lend further support to the phylogenetic relationships among 4 species of the D. bipectinata complex. PMID:17893743
We investigated the reproductive outcomes of male and female mating tactics in the spotted hyena, Crocuta crocuta, a female-dominated social carnivore with high maternal investment, an absence of paternal care and female control over copulation. Paternity was determined using microsatellite profiling of 236 offspring in 171 litters from three clans. We found little evidence that male tactics that sought to coerce or monopolize females were successful. Polyandry and sperm competition appeared to counter effectively pre-copulatory male tactics, such as harassment, monopolization and other tactics, such as infanticide, that were against the evolutionary interests of females, and may have contributed to the stability of the male dominance hierarchy, which operated as a social queue. At least 39% of 54 females mated multiply, and 35% of 75 twin litters were fathered by two sires. Polyandry may also serve to ensure fertilization, compensate for an initial poor-quality mate or ensure fertilization by genetically compatible mates. Female mate choice matched observed patterns of affiliative male-female behaviour, indicating that affiliative behaviour is a successful malemating tactic, and was consistent with the idea that male tenure may serve as an index of male quality, although male fertility may decline with extreme old age.
By next generation transcriptome sequencing, it is possible to obtain data on both nucleotide sequence variation and gene expression. We have used this approach (RNA-Seq) to investigate the genetic basis for differences in plumage coloration and mating strategies in a non-model bird species, the ruff (Philomachus pugnax). Ruff males show enormous variation in the coloration of ornamental feathers, used for individual recognition. This polymorphism is linked to reproductive strategies, with dark males (Independents) defending territories on leks against other Independents, whereas white morphs (Satellites) co-occupy Independent's courts without agonistic interactions. Previous work found a strong genetic component for mating strategy, but the genes involved were not identified. We present feather transcriptome data of more than 6,000 de-novo sequenced ruff genes (although with limited coverage for many of them). None of the identified genes showed significant expression divergence between males, but many genetic markers showed nucleotide differentiation between different color morphs and mating strategies. These include several feather keratin genes, splicing factors, and the Xg blood-group gene. Many of the genes with significant genetic structure between mating strategies have not yet been annotated and their functions remain to be elucidated. We also conducted in-depth investigations of 28 pre-identified coloration candidate genes. Two of these (EDNRB and TYR) were specifically expressed in black- and rust-colored males, respectively. We have demonstrated the utility of next generation transcriptome sequencing for identifying and genotyping large number of genetic markers in a non-model species without previous genomic resources, and highlight the potential of this approach for addressing the genetic basis of ecologically important variation. PMID:23145334
Ekblom, Robert; Farrell, Lindsay L; Lank, David B; Burke, Terry
Demographic factors such as operational sex ratio (OSR) and local population density (LPD) are temporally and spatially dynamic\\u000a in the natural environment but the influence of these variables on malemating success and the mechanisms behind it are still\\u000a poorly understood and highly controversial. Here, we manipulated the OSR and LPD of a seed bug, Nysius huttoni, and carried out
Qiao Wang; Xiong Zhao He; Linghuan Yang; Duncan Hedderley; Lorraine K. Davis
In some lizards, female mate choice is influenced by chemicals secreted by males, e.g., via the femoral glands. Secretions\\u000a of the femoral glands are under direct androgenic control and vary seasonally with androgen production. However, whether increased\\u000a testosterone (T) levels affect the concentration and chemical composition of secretions or their attractiveness to females\\u000a is unknown. We manipulated T levels of
José Martín; Pilar López; Marianne Gabirot; Kevin M. Pilz
The effect of access to dietary protein (P) and the topical application of a juvenile hormone analogue (methoprene (M)) on mating behaviour of male melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae was assessed in the laboratory and in field cages. Age, dietary protein and methoprene application increased the mating...
Recent recognition of widespread polyandry in insects has generated considerable interest in understanding why females mate multiple times and in identifying factors that affect mating rate and inhibit female remating. However, little attention has been paid to understanding the question from both a female and male perspective, particularly with respect to factors that may simultaneously influence female remating rates. Here,
M. Aluja; J. Rull; J. Sivinski; G. Trujillo; D. Pérez-Staples
Cytoplasmic malesterility (CMS) in commercial sunflower hybrids is thought to be derived from a related wild species, Helianthus petiolaris, yet CMS lines are known to carry the chloroplast DNA genotype of H. annuus. To clarify the origin of sunflower CMS, we developed a polymerase chain reaction-based strategy for detecting CMS in sunflower and surveyed more than 1,200 plants representing 55 accessions of H. annuus and 26 accessions of H. petiolaris. We also tested 160 progeny from three crosses for strict maternal inheritance of organelle DNAs to determine if the apparent discrepancy in the species donor of the mitochondrial DNA and chloroplast DNA genotypes in CMS lines might result from low-frequency maternal or biparental inheritance of either organelle. No CMS cytotypes were observed in natural populations of either H. annuus or H. petiolaris, and strict maternal inheritance of organelle DNA was observed. These data provide little insight, therefore, into the origin and population genetics of CMS in natural populations of sunflower, except that the evidence for strict maternal inheritance of organelles in sunflower makes it unlikely that the mtDNA and cpDNA genotypes in CMS lines were derived from different species. Nonetheless, the primers developed for assaying organelle DNA variation in sunflower may be useful tools for plant breeding programs, cytotype identification, and systematic and evolutionary studies in the domesticated sunflower and its relatives. PMID:8014465
Rieseberg, L H; Van Fossen, C; Arias, D; Carter, R L
The Arabidopsis thaliana MALESTERILITY1 (MS1) gene is critical for viable pollen formation and has homology to the PHD-finger class of transcription factors; however, its role in pollen development has not been fully defined. We show that MS1 transcription appears to be autoregulated by the wild-type MS1 transcript or protein. Using a functional green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion to analyze the temporal and spatial expression of MS1, we demonstrate that the MS1:GFP protein is nuclear localized within the tapetum and is expressed in a developmentally regulated manner between late tetraspore and microspore release, then rapidly breaks down, probably by ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis. Absence of MS1 expression results in changes in tapetal secretion and exine structure. Microarray analysis has shown that 260 (228 downregulated and 32 upreglated) genes have altered expression in young ms1 buds. These genes are primarily associated with pollen wall and coat formation; however, a number of transcription factors and Cys proteases have also been identified as the putative primary regulatory targets of MS1. Ectopic expression of MS1 alters transcriptional regulation of vegetative gene expression, resulting in stunted plants with increased levels of branching, partially fertile flowers and an apparent increase in wall material on mature pollen. MS1 therefore plays a critical role in the induction of pollen wall and pollen coat materials in the tapetum and, ultimately, the production of viable pollen.
Yang, Caiyun; Vizcay-Barrena, Gema; Conner, Katie; Wilson, Zoe A.
Cytoplasmic malesterility (CMS) is a phenomenon widely observed in various plant species characterized with disrupted anther development caused by mitochondrial mutation. CMS is becoming a model system for the investigations of nucleus-cytoplasmic interaction. To reveal the possible effects of CMS genes on plant growth in adverse environment, plant development and biochemical characters of mitochondria from Honglian (HL)-CMS line Yuetai A and maintainer Yuetai B treated with H(2)O(2) were analyzed. Results showed that 40-60mM H(2)O(2) significantly inhibits rice seedling development and growth. When treated with H(2)O(2), ATP content and mitochondrial membrane potential in Yuetai A decreased significantly faster than those of Yuetai B. These biochemical changes were accompanied by the severe nuclear DNA fragmentation and the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c in the leaf cells of Yuetai A. In addition, the antioxidative enzyme activities and mitochondrial electron transfer chain complexes were significantly down-regulated. Disturbance of the biochemical indexes indicate that HL-CMS line is more susceptible to H(2)O(2) stress than the maintainer line, the deleterious effects caused by the CMS-related ORFH79 peptide compromises the adaptability of HL-CMS line to the adverse environment. PMID:22921008
S-type cytoplasmic malesterility (CMS-S) in maize is associated with high levels of a 1.6-kb RNA in mitochondria. This RNA contains two chimeric open reading frames (ORFs), orf355 and orf77. The previously described nuclear restorer-of-fertility allele Rf3 causes the processing of all transcripts that contain these chimeric ORFs. The Lancaster Surecrop-derived inbred line A619 carries a restorer that is distinct from Rf3 in that it selectively reduces only the CMS-S-specific 1.6-kb RNA. We have found that 10 additional Lancaster lines carry a single restoring allele traceable to either of two inbred lines, C103 and Oh40B. The C103 and Oh40B restorers are allelic to each other, but not to Rf3. Thus, this restoring allele, designated Rf9, represents a second naturally occurring CMS-S restorer in maize. Rf9 is a less effective restorer of fertility than is Rf3; its expression is influenced by both inbred nuclear background and temperature. Rf9 acts to reduce the amounts of orf355/orf77-containing linear mitochondrial subgenomes, which are generated by recombination of circular subgenomes with CMS-S-specific linear plasmids. The 1.6-kb RNA, which is transcribed only from linear ends, is correspondingly reduced.
The nna1 gene mutation is associated with spontaneous degeneration of cerebellar Purkinje cells and germ cells in Ataxia and MaleSterility (AMS) mouse. Since nna1 is also expressed in hippocampal neurons, we investigated their vulnerability to hypoperfusion in AMS mouse. Eight-week-old male wild type (WT) and AMS mice were subjected to bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) for 10 min and sacrificed 1, 3, 7 and 28 days after BCCAO. Nissl staining revealed the neuronal cell loss and pyknotic change in the CA1 of AMS mice. TUNEL(+) apoptotic cells were found in the area at 7 days in AMS mice. Bcl-2 mRNA and protein in WT hippocampus were increased, while they were not increased in AMS. Bax mRNA was increased in AMS. Moreover, Bax activation was immunohistochemically demonstrated only in AMS at 3 and 7 days after BCCAO. An oxidative DNA damage marker, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine-positive cells were increased in both strains at 1 day; decreased in WT at 3 days but remained high in AMS. BCCAO increased glutathione, an antioxidant, in WT, but not in AMS at 3 days. The mRNA level of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2, a regulator of oxidative stress, was increased only in WT at 1 day. Nna1 mRNA was similarly expressed in WT and AMS, but the protein was undetectable in AMS. Thus, our results indicate the increased vulnerability of hippocampal CA1 neurons of AMS mice to cerebral hypoperfusion could be due to an imbalance between oxidative stress and antioxidative defense system. PMID:23219973
Data from cDNA-AFLP analysis based on the genome-wide transcriptional profiling on the flower buds of the male meiotic cytokinesis (mmc) mutant and its wild-type of Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis Makino, syn. B. rapa L. ssp. chinensis, indicated that mutation of the MMC gene resulted in changes in expression of a variety of genes. A transcript-derived fragment specifically accumulated in the wild-type flower buds was isolated, and the corresponding full-length cDNA and DNA was subsequently amplified. Bioinformatical analyses of this gene named BcMF15 (GenBank accession number EF600901) showed that it encoded a protein with 103 amino acids. The BcMF15 had a 88% nucleotide similarity to a lipid transfer protein-like gene. Moreover, sequence prediction indicated that BcMF15 might encode a membrane protein with a signal peptide at the N-terminus. Meanwhile, six domains were predicted in the deduced BcMF15 protein, such as the AAI domain existing in some crucial proteins of pollen development-preferential, signal peptide, transmembrane domain, vWF domain, ZnF_C4 domain, and Tryp_alpha_amyl domain. Spatial and temporal expression patterns analysis by RT-PCR indicated that BcMF15 was exclusively expressed in the fertile line, which indicated this gene is malesterile related. Phylogenetic analysis in Cruciferae revealed that the BcMF15 was relative conservative in evolution. We suppose BcMF15 may be a critical molecule in the transmembrane transportation and signal transduction during microspore development. PMID:18034318
Tian, Aimei; Cao, Jiashu; Huang, Li; Yu, Xiaolin; Ye, Wanzhi
Rocky Mountain bighorn rams use three distinct tactics in competition for mates. Two tactics (tending and blocking) feature\\u000a defense and cooperative mating over a relatively prolonged consort period (up to 3 days). In the coursing tactic, subordinate\\u000a rams fight dominants for temporary copulatory access (lasting seconds) to defended ewes. By combining population-wide genetic\\u000a (microsatellite) exclusion of paternity, behavioral data and
Background: The genetic basis of postzygotic isolation is a central puzzle in evolutionary biology. Evolutionary forces causing hybrid sterility or inviability act on the responsible genes while they still are polymorphic, thus we have to study these traits as they arise, before isolation is complete. Methodology\\/Principal Findings: Isofemale strains of D. mojavensis vary significantly in their production of sterile F1
Laura K. Reed; Brooke A. LaFlamme; Therese A. Markow
We have previously shown that the expression of an unedited atp9 chimeric gene correlated with male-sterile phenotype in transgenic tobacco plant. To study the relationship between the expression of chimeric gene and the male-sterile trait, hemizygous and homozygous transgenic tobacco lines expressing the antisense atp9 RNA were constructed. The antisense producing plants were crossed with a homozygous male-sterile line, and the F1 progeny was analyzed. The offspring from crosses between homozygous lines produced only male-fertile plants, suggesting that the expression antisense atp9 RNA abolishes the effect of the unedited chimeric gene. In fact, the plants restored to male fertility showed a dramatic reduction of the unedited atp9 transcript levels, resulting in normal flower development and seed production. These results support our previous observation that the expression of unedited atp9 gene can induce malesterility. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4
Zabaleta, E; Mouras, A; Hernould, M; Suharsono; Araya, A
This study was designed to control plant fertility by cell lethal gene Barnase expressing at specific developmental stage and in specific tissue of male organ under the control of Cre/loxP system, for heterosis breeding, producing hybrid seed of eggplant. The Barnase-coding region was flanked by loxP recognition sites for Cre-recombinase. The eggplant inbred/pure line (E-38') was transformed with Cre gene and the inbred/pure line (E-8') was transformed with the Barnase gene situated between loxp. The experiments were done separately, by means of Agrobacterium co-culture. Four T0 -plants with the Barnase gene were obtained, all proved to be male-sterile and incapable of producing viable pollen. Flowers stamens were shorter, but the vegetative phenotype was similar to wild-type. Five T 0 -plants with the Cre gene developed well, blossomed out and set fruit normally. The crossing of male-sterile Barnase-plants with Cre expression transgenic eggplants resulted in site-specific excision with the male-sterile plants producing normal fruits. With the Barnase was excised, pollen fertility was fully restored in the hybrids. The phenotype of these restored plants was the same as that of the wild-type. Thus, the Barnase and Cre genes were capable of stable inheritance and expression in progenies of transgenic plants.
The mitochondrial genome of the S-type male-sterile cytoplasm of maize contains two linear episomes, S1 (6397 base pairs) and S2 (5453 base pairs). The S2 episome contains two large unidentified open reading frames, URF1 (3512 base pairs) and URF2 (1017 base pairs). We have demonstrated that a polypeptide with an apparent molecular mass of 130 kDa is the gene product of URF1. This polypeptide was first detected in Coomassie blue-stained protein gels of cms-S (where cms = cytoplasmic malesterile) but not in those of cms-T, cms-C, or normal mitochondrial proteins. The protein product of a translational fusion containing the 5? end of Escherichia coli lacZ and an internal segment from URF1 of S2 was recognized by antisera raised against the 130-kDa variant polypeptide. The mitochondria of fertile F1 hybrids of cms-S × Ky21 (the male parent carrying nuclear fertility restoration genes) contain as much of the 130-kDa protein as is found in cms-S mitochondria of sterile plants. Spontaneous fertile cytoplasmic revertants from cms-S in a WF9 nuclear background also synthesized the 130-kDa polypeptide. Therefore, the mere presence or absence of the URF1 gene product of S2 does not determine the fertility status of maize plants, because malesterile and male fertile (nuclear restored and revertant) plants can contain equivalent amounts of the 130-kDa polypeptide. Images
From a functionalist perspective, human memory should be attuned to information of adaptive value for one's survival and reproductive fitness. While evidence of sensitivity to survival-related information is growing, specific links between memory and information that could impact upon reproductive fitness have remained elusive. Here, in two experiments, we showed that memory in women is sensitive to male voice pitch, a sexually dimorphic cue important for mate choice because it not only serves as an indicator of genetic quality, but may also signal behavioural traits undesirable in a long-term partner. In Experiment 1, we report that women's visual object memory is significantly enhanced when an object's name is spoken during encoding in a masculinised (i.e., lower-pitch) versus feminised (i.e., higher-pitch) male voice, but that no analogous effect occurs when women listen to other women's voices. Experiment 2 replicated this pattern of results, additionally showing that lowering and raising male voice pitch enhanced and impaired women's memory, respectively, relative to a baseline (i.e., unmanipulated) voice condition. The modulatory effect of sexual dimorphism cues in the male voice may reveal a mate-choice adaptation within women's memory, sculpted by evolution in response to the dilemma posed by the double-edged qualities of male masculinity. PMID:21901577
Smith, David S; Jones, Benedict C; Feinberg, David R; Allan, Kevin
A two-line system using photoperiod-sensitive cytoplasmic malesterility (PCMS) caused by Aegilops crassa cytoplasm under long-day photoperiods (?15 h) has been proposed as a means of producing hybrid varieties in common wheat\\u000a (Triticum aestivum). The PCMS line is maintained by self-pollination under short-day conditions, and hybrid seeds can be produced through outcrossing\\u000a of the PCMS line with a pollinator line under
'Good genes' models of sexual selection suggest that elaborate male sexual ornaments have evolved as reliable signals of male quality because only males of high genetic viability are able to develop and maintain them. Females benefit from choosing such individuals if quality is heritable. A key prediction is that the offspring of males with elaborate mating displays will perform better than those of less elaborate males, but it has proved difficult to demonstrate such an effect independently of the effects of differences in parental investment. We tested for 'good genes' linked to male ornamentation in the three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus using in vitro fertilization to generate maternal half-siblings, which were raised without parental care. Maternal half-siblings sired by brightly coloured males grew less quickly than half-siblings sired by dull males but were more resistant to a controlled disease challenge. Among the offspring that became infected, those with brighter fathers had higher white blood cell counts. This suggests that highly ornamented males confer disease resistance on their offspring. The association with reduced growth suggests a mechanism for the maintenance of heritable variation in both disease resistance and male sexual coloration.
Barber, I; Arnott, S A; Braithwaite, V A; Andrew, J; Huntingford, F A
Recent formulations of sexual selection theory emphasize how mate choice can be affected by environmental factors, such as predation risk and resource quality. Women vary greatly in the extent to which they prefer male masculinity and this variation is hypothesized to reflect differences in how women resolve the trade-off between the costs (e.g. low investment) and benefits (e.g. healthy offspring) associated with choosing a masculine partner. A strong prediction of this trade-off theory is that women's masculinity preferences will be stronger in cultures where poor health is particularly harmful to survival. We investigated the relationship between women's preferences for male facial masculinity and a health index derived from World Health Organization statistics for mortality rates, life expectancies and the impact of communicable disease. Across 30 countries, masculinity preference increased as health decreased. This relationship was independent of cross-cultural differences in wealth or women's mating strategies. These findings show non-arbitrary cross-cultural differences in facial attractiveness judgements and demonstrate the use of trade-off theory for investigating cross-cultural variation in women's mate preferences.
DeBruine, Lisa M.; Jones, Benedict C.; Crawford, John R.; Welling, Lisa L. M.; Little, Anthony C.
Maize mitochondrial (mt) tRNA genes were localized on the mt master circles of two fertile lines (WF9-N and B37-N) and of one cytoplasmic malesterile line (B37-cmsT) of maize. The three genomes contain 16 tRNA genes with 14 different anticodons which correspond to 13 amino acids. Out of these 16 tRNA genes, 6 show a high degree of homology with the corresponding chloroplast (cp) tRNA genes and were shown to originate from cp DNA insertions and to be expressed in the mitochondria. The organization of the mt tRNA genes in both fertile lines is similar. The same genes are found, in the same environment, as judged from the restriction maps, in fertile and malesterile lines that have the same nuclear background, but the relative organization of the mt tRNA genes on the master circle is completely different. PMID:1701208
Sangaré, A; Weil, J H; Grienenberger, J M; Fauron, C; Lonsdale, D
Background A major question in behavioural ecology concerns the relationship between genetic mating systems and the strength of sexual selection. In this study, we investigated the genetic mating system of the two-spotted goby (Gobiusculus flavescens), a useful fish model for the study of sexual selection whose genetic mating system remains uncharacterized. We developed four polymorphic microsatellite markers and used them to conduct parentage analyses on 21 nests collected during the breeding season to examine the rates of multiple mating by males and to test for evidence of alternative mating strategies. Results Results of this study indicate that male G. flavescens mate with multiple females and enjoy confidence of paternity. We detected only one instance of sneaking, so cuckoldry contributed a very small percentage (~0.1%) of the total fertilizations in this population. Nests were nearly full and males that maintain larger nests have higher mating and reproductive success, irrespective of body size. Conclusion Overall, our investigation shows that G. flavescens is similar to other, related gobies in that the nests of care-giving males often contain eggs from multiple females. However, G. flavescens differs from other gobies in displaying an extremely low rate of cuckoldry. The study of ecological factors responsible for this important difference between G. flavescens and related species should be a fertile area for future work.
Mobley, Kenyon B; Amundsen, Trond; Forsgren, Elisabet; Svensson, Per A; Jones, Adam G
Male burying beetles attract females using a pheromonal signal and can provide parental care and a food resource, vertebrate carrion, for their developing offspring. But males attempt to attract females even when they have no carrion. We examined the factors that influence male behavior directed toward finding or attracting mates in both field-caught and laboratory-reared Nicrophorus orbicollis, a North American
Andria E. Beeler; Claudia M. Rauter; Allen J. Moore
Results are given of genetic studies of malesterility using plants from two natural populations from Sussex, England. Both populations have substantial frequencies of females, z0.25 in population 1 and 0.60 in population 3. As in the few other gynodioecious populations studied in detail, many genetic factors are present. In population 1, there are at least two, and more likely
Background Plant mitochondria, semiautonomous organelles that function as manufacturers of cellular ATP, have their own genome that has\\u000a a slow rate of evolution and rapid rearrangement. Cytoplasmic malesterility (CMS), a common phenotype in higher plants, is\\u000a closely associated with rearrangements in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), and is widely used to produce F1 hybrid seeds in a variety\\u000a of valuable crop species.
Summary The primary goal of this study was to establish callus cultures of selected plant taxa containing both normal (N) and cytoplasmic\\u000a male-sterile (CMS) lines. A secondary goal was to attempt to differentiate the calli into whole flowering plants. Undifferentiated\\u000a and organ differentiated calli were produced in specific lines of N and CMS sorghum, pepper, sunflower, and tobacco. Calli\\u000a from both
Mitochondrial (mt) DNA from eight cytoplasmic male-sterile (cms) lines of sugar beet from different breeding stations was investigated by restriction fragment analysis and Southern hybridization. All cms lines showed similar but not identical restriction and hybridization signal patterns, readily distinguishable from those of fertile (N) cytoplasm. Digestion of the mtDNA with BamHI, EcoRI, SalI, and XhoI revealed distinct differences between
A. Weihe; N. A. Dudareva; S. G. Veprev; S. I. Maletsky; R. Melzer; R. I. Salganik; Th. Börner
Plants carrying Texas male-sterile (Tms) cytoplasm are normally sensitive to Drechslera maydis T-toxin. Tissue cultures were initiated from immature embryos of maize carrying Tms-cytoplasm, and plants were regenerated after selection for resistance to T-toxin. Fertile, T-toxin resistant plants were obtained from the unselected control cultures as well as from the selected material. In addition, one regenerant from an unselected culture
A male-sterile (MS) radish (Raphanus sativus L.) was found in an accession collected from Uzbekistan. Unlike Ogura MS radishes in which no pollen grain is typically visible\\u000a during anthesis, a small number of pollen grains stuck together in the dehiscing anthers was observed in the newly identified\\u000a MS radish. Fluorescein diacetate tests and scanning electron micrographs showed that pollen grains
Maize mitochondrial (mt) tRNA genes were localized on the mt master circles of two fertile lines (WF9-N and B37-N) and of one cytoplasmic malesterile line (B37-cmsT) of maize. The three genomes contain 16 tRNA genes with 14 different anticodons which correspond to 13 amino acids. Out of these 16 tRNA genes, 6 show a high degree of homology with
Abdourahamane Sangaré; Jacques-Henry Weil; Jean-Michel Grienenberger; Christiane Fauron; David Lonsdale
High resolution gel electrophoresis has allowed the assignment of fragment number and molecular weight to EcoRI, Sal1 and PstI restriction fragments of mitochondrial DNA from B37 normal (N) and B37 T, C and S malesterile cytoplasmic types of maize. A minimum complexity of 450-475 kb has been established. Hybridization of cloned EcoRI fragments to restriction digests of total mitochondrial
Spontaneous reversion to pollen fertility and fertility restoration by the nuclear gene Fr in cytoplasmic malesterile common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are associated with the loss of a large portion of the mitochondrial genome. To understand better the molecular events responsible for this DNA loss, we have constructed a physical map of the mitochondrial genome of a stable fertile revertant line, WPR-3, and the cytoplasmic malesterile line (CMS-Sprite) from which it was derived. This involved a cosmid clone walking strategy with comparative DNA gel blot hybridizations. Mapping data suggested that the simplest model for the structure of the CMS-Sprite genome consists of three autonomous chromosomes differing only in short, unique regions. The unique region contained on one of these chromosomes is the malesterility-associated 3-kb sequence designated pvs. Based on genomic environments surrounding repeated sequences, we predict that chromosomes can undergo intra- and intermolecular recombination. The mitochondrial genome of the revertant line appeared to contain only two of the three chromosomes; the region containing the pvs sequence was absent. Therefore, the process of spontaneous cytoplasmic reversion to fertility likely involves the disappearance of an entire mitochondrial chromosome. This model is supported by the fact that we detected no evidence of recombination, excision or deletion events within the revertant genome that could account for the loss of a large segment of mitochondrial DNA.
The hybrid pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) breeding technology based on cytoplasmic malesterility (CMS) is currently unique among legumes and displays major potential for yield increase. CMS is defined as a condition in which a plant is unable to produce functional pollen grains. The novel chimeric open reading frames (ORFs) produced as a results of mitochondrial genome rearrangements are considered to be the main cause of CMS. To identify these CMS-related ORFs in pigeonpea, we sequenced the mitochondrial genomes of three C. cajan lines (the male-sterile line ICPA 2039, the maintainer line ICPB 2039, and the hybrid line ICPH 2433) and of the wild relative (Cajanus cajanifolius ICPW 29). A single, circular-mapping molecule of length 545.7 kb was assembled and annotated for the ICPA 2039 line. Sequence annotation predicted 51 genes, including 34 protein-coding and 17 RNA genes. Comparison of the mitochondrial genomes from different Cajanus genotypes identified 31 ORFs, which differ between lines within which CMS is present or absent. Among these chimeric ORFs, 13 were identified by comparison of the related male-sterile and maintainer lines. These ORFs display features that are known to trigger CMS in other plant species and to represent the most promising candidates for CMS-related mitochondrial rearrangements in pigeonpea.
Tuteja, Reetu; Saxena, Rachit K.; Davila, Jaime; Shah, Trushar; Chen, Wenbin; Xiao, Yong-Li; Fan, Guangyi; Saxena, K. B.; Alverson, Andrew J.; Spillane, Charles; Town, Christopher; Varshney, Rajeev K.
The hybrid pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) breeding technology based on cytoplasmic malesterility (CMS) is currently unique among legumes and displays major potential for yield increase. CMS is defined as a condition in which a plant is unable to produce functional pollen grains. The novel chimeric open reading frames (ORFs) produced as a results of mitochondrial genome rearrangements are considered to be the main cause of CMS. To identify these CMS-related ORFs in pigeonpea, we sequenced the mitochondrial genomes of three C. cajan lines (the male-sterile line ICPA 2039, the maintainer line ICPB 2039, and the hybrid line ICPH 2433) and of the wild relative (Cajanus cajanifolius ICPW 29). A single, circular-mapping molecule of length 545.7 kb was assembled and annotated for the ICPA 2039 line. Sequence annotation predicted 51 genes, including 34 protein-coding and 17 RNA genes. Comparison of the mitochondrial genomes from different Cajanus genotypes identified 31 ORFs, which differ between lines within which CMS is present or absent. Among these chimeric ORFs, 13 were identified by comparison of the related male-sterile and maintainer lines. These ORFs display features that are known to trigger CMS in other plant species and to represent the most promising candidates for CMS-related mitochondrial rearrangements in pigeonpea. PMID:23792890
Tuteja, Reetu; Saxena, Rachit K; Davila, Jaime; Shah, Trushar; Chen, Wenbin; Xiao, Yong-Li; Fan, Guangyi; Saxena, K B; Alverson, Andrew J; Spillane, Charles; Town, Christopher; Varshney, Rajeev K
Dominant genic malesterility (DGMS) is an important approach to utilize the heterosis of Brassica napus, but the molecular mechanism of DGMS is not well understood. As an initial step towards understanding this event, some pilot studies were performed. Using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) and cDNA microarray, about 1200 significantly differentially expressed clones were isolated between the fertile and sterile
Genetic analysis of hybrid sterility and inviability has recently become a successful experimental approach to pursue the problem of speciation. In the present study, classical genetic analyses and high resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) have been used to investigate the genetic basis of hybrid malesterility in three sibling species of the Drosophila melanogaster species subgroup. The genetic basis of
Haldane's rule (i.e., the preferential hybrid sterility and inviability of heterogametic sex) has been known for 70 years, but its genetic basis, which is crucial to the understanding of the process of species formation, remains unclear. In the present study, we have investigated the genetic basis of hybrid malesterility using Drosophila simulans, Drosophila mauritiana and Drosophila sechellia. An introgression
Burying beetles, Nicrophorus orbicollis, have facultative biparental care. They bury and prepare small vertebrate carcasses that provide food for their young. Here we establish the juvenile hormone (JH) profiles of paired females, paired males and single males and investigate some of the environmental and social factors that may affect these profiles. Before larvae hatch JH profiles of paired males and females were similar. However, after larvae hatch and during brood care, JH titers of females were very high and those of single males were significantly higher than those of paired males. We tested the hypothesis that higher JH was a response to the need for increased parental care by manipulating brood size. Although JH titers of single males caring for small versus large broods were not significantly different, when comparing JH titers and larval growth (a measure of parental effort), a significant positive correlation emerged. In contrast, we found that food quality had no effect on JH levels suggesting that increased feeding by males and females after carcass discovery cannot explain the elevation of JH. The regulation of JH in male burying beetles appears thus to be dependent on the presence of a mate and on critical stimuli from young. PMID:15288205
Panaitof, S Carmen; Scott, Michelle Pellissier; Borst, David W
In many anuran species, males vocalize to attract females but will grasp any female that comes within reach and retain their hold unless displaced by a rival male. Thus, female anurans may face strong selection to repel unwanted suitors, but no mechanism is known for doing so. We suggest that a defensive trait (the ability to inflate the body to ward off attack) has been co-opted for this role: by inflating their bodies, females are more difficult for males to grasp and hence, it is easier for another male to displace an already amplexed rival. Inflating a model female cane toad (Bufo marinus) strongly reduced a male's ability to maintain amplexus; and females who were experimentally prevented from inflating their bodies experienced no successful takeovers from rival males, in contrast to control females. Thus, the ability of a female cane toad to inflate her body may allow her to manipulate the outcome of male-male competition. This overlooked mechanism of anuran mate choice may reflect a common evolutionary pattern, whereby females co-opt defensive traits for use in sexual selection. PMID:20053661
Bruning, Bas; Phillips, Benjamin L; Shine, Richard
|A good sense of humor is sexually attractive, perhaps because it reveals intelligence, creativity, and other "good genes" or "good parent" traits. If so, intelligence should predict humor production ability, which in turn should predict mating success. In this study, 400 university students (200 men and 200 women) completed measures of abstract