Sample records for mating sterile male

  1. Age-dependent variation in mating success of sterile male Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae): implications for sterile insect technique.

    PubMed

    Shelly, Todd E; Edu, James; Pahio, Elaine

    2007-08-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is widely used in integrated programs against the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Unfortunately, the mass-rearing procedures inherent to the SIT often lead to a reduction in the mating ability of the released males. To counter this deficiency, SIT programs rely upon the production and release of large numbers of sterile males to achieve high overflooding (sterile:wild male) ratios. To ensure a high release volume, emergence facilities release adult males at a young age (2 d old in some cases). The primary objective of this study was to describe age-dependent variation in the mating propensity and competitiveness of sterile males of C. capitata. Males that were 2 or 3 d old had lower mating propensity than males that were > or =4 d old, and 3-d-old males had lower mating competitiveness than males that were > or =4 d old. Given these results, we measured the effect of a longer holding period on male mortality in storage boxes. With delayed food placement, males held in storage boxes for 4 d after emergence showed no higher mortality than males held for only 2 d (the standard interval). Using large field enclosures, we compared the levels of egg sterility attained via releases of 2- versus 4-d-old sterile males at two overflooding ratios (5:1 and 100:1). At the lower ratio, the proportion of unhatched eggs observed for trials involving 2-d-old sterile males was not, on average, significantly higher than that observed for matings between wild flies (33 versus 25%, respectively), whereas the level of egg sterility observed for releases of 4 d old sterile males was 62%. At the 100:1 overflooding ratio, the proportion of unhatched eggs associated with the 2-d-old sterile males was 58%, a level not significantly different from that induced by 4-d-old sterile males at the 5:1 ratio and significantly lower than the level (79%) observed for 4-d-old sterile males at 100:1 overflooding ratio. The implications of these results for SIT are discussed. PMID:17849868

  2. The mating ability of males of Culex pipiens fatigans Wiedemann sterilized with apholate or tepa

    PubMed Central

    Grover, K. K.; Pillai, M. K. K.

    1970-01-01

    The chemosterilants apholate and tepa are known to induce a high degree of sterility in the males of Culex pipiens fatigans. The studies reported show that 36-hour-old apholate-and tepa-sterilized laboratory-bred males can inseminate the same number of laboratory-bred or wild females as can normal laboratory or wild males in the first 48 hours of their lives. Males sterilized by either compound were found to be more competitive in mating with normal laboratory females than were the normal laboratory males. When normal virgin females were mated first with sterile and then with normal males or vice versa, the sperms of the first mating always decided the fate of eggs. Apholate-sterilized laboratory males were not only compatible with wild females but could even induce the same level of sterility in them and were fully as competetive in mating as normal wild males. The authors stress that it has still to be ascertained whether these encouraging laboratory findings would apply in field conditions. PMID:5311065

  3. The sterile insect technique for controlling populations of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) on Reunion Island: mating vigour of sterilized males.

    PubMed

    Oliva, Clelia F; Jacquet, Maxime; Gilles, Jeremie; Lemperiere, Guy; Maquart, Pierre-Olivier; Quilici, Serge; Schooneman, François; Vreysen, Marc J B; Boyer, Sebastien

    2012-01-01

    Reunion Island suffers from high densities of the chikungunya and dengue vector Aedes albopictus. The sterile insect technique (SIT) offers a promising strategy for mosquito-borne diseases prevention and control. For such a strategy to be effective, sterile males need to be competitive enough to fulfil their intended function by reducing wild mosquito populations in natura. We studied the effect of irradiation on sexual maturation and mating success of males, and compared the sexual competitiveness of sterile versus wild males in the presence of wild females in semi-field conditions. For all untreated or sterile males, sexual maturation was completed within 13 to 20 h post-emergence and some males were able to inseminate females when 15 h old. In the absence of competition, untreated and sterile males were able to inseminate the same number of virgin females during 48 h, in small laboratory cages: an average of 93% of females was inseminated no matter the treatment, the age of males, and the sex ratio. Daily mating success of single sterile males followed the same pattern as for untreated ones, although they inseminated significantly fewer females after the ninth day. The competitiveness index of sterile males in semi-field conditions was only 0.14 when they were released at 1-day old, but improved to 0.53 when the release occurred after a 5-day period in laboratory conditions. In SIT simulation experiments, a 5:1 sterile to wild male ratio allowed a two-fold reduction of the wild population's fertility. This suggests that sterile males could be sufficiently competitive to mate with wild females within the framework of an SIT component as part of an AW-IPM programme for suppressing a wild population of Ae. albopictus in Reunion Island. It will be of interest to minimise the pre-release period in controlled conditions to ensure a good competitiveness without increasing mass rearing costs. PMID:23185329

  4. A novel molecular approach to assess mating success of sterile Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) males in sterile insect technique programs.

    PubMed

    San Andrés, V; Urbaneja, A; Sabater-Muñoz, B; Castañera, P

    2007-08-01

    Areawide sterile insect technique (SIT) programs against Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), are increasingly implemented worldwide. A key issue in SIT is to assess mating success of released sterile males, which could be currently estimated by egg hatchability and by stored sperm head measurements. We report here on a novel molecular approach that would allow detecting the presence of Mediterranean fruit fly sterile male sperm in the female spermathecae under field conditions, as a precise marker to assess mating performance. The simplicity (only two polymerase chain reactions) and reliability of this method, jointly with the capability to detect Vienna sperm in wild Mediterranean fruit fly maintained in monitoring traps for 7 d under field conditions, suggest that it could be an efficient tool when coupled with areawide SIT programs. PMID:17849900

  5. Transient Population Dynamics of Mosquitoes during Sterile Male Releases: Modelling Mating Behaviour and Perturbations of Life History Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    The release of genetically-modified or sterile male mosquitoes offers a promising form of mosquito-transmitted pathogen control, but the insights derived from our understanding of male mosquito behaviour have not fully been incorporated into the design of such genetic control or sterile-male release methods. The importance of aspects of male life history and mating behaviour for sterile-male release programmes were investigated by projecting a stage-structured matrix model over time. An elasticity analysis of transient dynamics during sterile-male releases was performed to provide insight on which vector control methods are likely to be most synergistic. The results suggest that high mating competitiveness and mortality costs of released males are required before the sterile-release method becomes ineffective. Additionally, if released males suffer a mortality cost, older males should be released due to their increased mating capacity. If released males are of a homogenous size and size-assortative mating occurs in nature, this can lead to an increase in the abundance of large females and reduce the efficacy of the population-suppression effort. At a high level of size-assortative mating, the disease transmission potential of the vector population increases due to male releases, arguing for the release of a heterogeneously-sized male population. The female population was most sensitive to perturbations of density-dependent components of larval mortality and female survivorship and fecundity. These findings suggest source reduction might be a particularly effective complement to mosquito control based on the sterile insect technique (SIT). In order for SIT to realize its potential as a key component of an integrated vector-management strategy to control mosquito-transmitted pathogens, programme design of sterile-male release programmes must account for the ecology, behaviour and life history of mosquitoes. The model used here takes a step in this direction and can easily be modified to investigate additional aspects of mosquito behaviour or species-specific ecology. PMID:24086715

  6. Additional tests on the efficacy of ginger root oil in enhacing the mating competitiveness of sterile males of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent studies have shown that exposure to the aroma of ginger root oil (Zingiber officinale Roscoe; termed GRO hereafter) increases the mating competitiveness of males of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). This result suggests that pre-release exposure of sterile ...

  7. Aromatherapy in the Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae): sterile males exposed to ginger root oil in prerelease storage boxes display increased mating competitiveness in field-cage trials.

    PubMed

    Shelly, Todd E; McInnis, Donald O; Pahio, Elaine; Edu, James

    2004-06-01

    Previous research showed that exposure to ginger root, Zingiber officinale Roscoe, oil increased the mating success of mass-reared, sterile males of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). This work, however, involved the exposure of small groups of males (n = 25) in small containers (volume 400 ml). Several sterile male release programs use plastic adult rearing containers (so-called PARC boxes; hereafter termed storage boxes; 0.48 by 0.60 by 0.33 m) to hold mature pupae and newly emerged adults before release (approximately = 36,000 flies per box). The objective of the current study was to determine whether the application of ginger root oil to individual storage boxes increases the mating competitiveness of sterile C. capitata males. Irradiated pupae were placed in storage boxes 2 d before adult emergence, and in the initial experiment (adult exposure) ginger root oil was applied 5 d later (i.e., 3 d after peak adult emergence) for 24 h at doses of 0.0625, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 ml. In a second experiment (pupal-adult exposure), ginger root oil was applied to storage boxes immediately after pupal placement and left for 6 d (i.e., 4 d after peak adult emergence) at doses of 0.25 and 1.0 ml. Using field cages, we conducted mating trials in which ginger root oil-exposed (treated) or nonexposed (control) sterile males competed against wild-like males for copulations with wild-like females. After adult exposure, treated males had significantly higher mating success than control males for all doses of ginger root oil, except 2.0 ml. After pupal-adult exposure, treated males had a significantly higher mating success than control males for the 1.0-ml but not the 0.25-ml dose of ginger root oil. The results suggest that ginger root oil can be used in conjunction with prerelease, storage boxes to increase the effectiveness of sterile insect release programs. PMID:15279263

  8. Nonrandom mating between Boophilus microplus and hybrids of B. microplus females and B. annulatus males, and its possible effect on sterile male hybrid control releases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Larry R. Hilburn; Ronald B. Davey; John E. George; J. Mathews Pound

    1991-01-01

    WhenBoophilus microplus and Type-II hybrids (B. microplus females×B. annulatus males) were released simultaneously onto bovine hosts, mating between the two forms appeared not to be at random. There were more contypic and fewer intertypic matings than predicted under an assumption of panmixia. An examination of the patterns of matings revealed that more of the matings on the first two days

  9. Precocious sexual signalling and mating in Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) sterile males achieved through juvenile hormone treatment and protein supplements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sexual maturation of Anastrepha fraterculus is a long process. Methoprene (a mimic of juvenile hormone) considerably reduces the time for sexual maturation in males. However, in other Anastrepha species, this effect depends on protein intake at the adult stage. Here, we evaluated the mating competit...

  10. Aromatherapy on a large scale: Exposing entire holding rooms to ginger root oil increases the mating competitiveness of sterile males of the Mediterranean fruit fly in field cage trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is widely used in integrated programs against fruit fly pests, particularly the Mediterranean fruit fly. Unfortunately, the mass-rearing procedures inherent to the SIT often lead to a reduction in male mating competitiveness. The sterile insect technique (SIT) is w...

  11. AROMATHERAPY IN THE MEDITERRANEAN FRUIT FLY (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE): STERILE MALES EXPOSED TO GINGER ROOT OIL IN PRE-RELEASE, STORAGE BOXES DISPLAY INCREASED MATING COMPETITIVENESS IN FIELD CAGE TRIALS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research showed that exposure to ginger root, Zingiber officinale Roscoe, oil increased the mating success of mass-reared, sterile males of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). This work, however, involved the exposure of small groups of males (n = 25) in small conta...

  12. Is elytral color polymorphism in sweetpotato weevil (Coleoptera: Brentidae) a visible marker for sterile insect technique? Comparison of male mating behavior.

    PubMed

    Shiromoto, Keiko; Kumano, Norikuni; Kuriwada, Takashi; Haraguchi, Dai

    2011-04-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is widely used for suppressing or eradicating target pest insect populations. In the eradication programs using the SIT, a large number of sterile insects are marked and released in the field. In Japan, Cylas fonnrmicarius (F.) group (Coleoptera: Brentidae) weevils are marked with a fluorescent powder dye to monitor the progress of such programs. However, this monitoring technique is not fully effective because of the disappearance or contamination of the dye. Therefore, an alternative marking method is required. Currently, a rare color morph such as piceous elytra (PE) is used for visible marking of C. formicarius group weevils. A PE-monomorphic strain has previously been established by artificial selection from a small locally distributed population; this can lead to reduced survival and genetic changes in behavioral traits due to inbreeding depression. In this study, we evaluated the survival rate and mating behavior of PE males of C. formicarius group. The characteristics of the PE males were similar to those of the wild strain (WS) males. Thus, we considered that PE males were suitable for visible marking in the eradication programs using the SIT. PMID:21510188

  13. Mating Behavior II: Male-Male Competition

    E-print Network

    Brown, Christopher A.

    1 Mating Behavior II: Male-Male Competition Intrasexual Selection Recall that the other "part Serves as a distraction; while superior male attempts to mate with mimic, it courts and mates with female Known in salamanders, lizards, fish, isopods, bedbugs In ruffs (Philomachus pugnax) a rare female mimic

  14. Transcutaneous male sterilization.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, A; Edelman, D A; Zatuchni, G I

    1985-04-01

    This report reviews and summarizes the results of current animal and human research studies for each of the 3 approaches to transcutaneous sterilization: intratesticular injection of chemical agents to affect spermatogenesis; intraepididymal injection of chemical agents to affect sperm transport; and obstruction of the vas lumen by the intravasal injection of chemical (sclerosing) agents or by electrocoagulation of the vas lumen. Wiebe and Barr evaluated the effects of the direct injection of aqueous 1, 2, 3-trihydroxypropane (THP; glycerol), a normal component of living cells, into the testes of Sprague-Dawley rats. Spermatogenesis was inhibited by a direct and local action of THP on the seminiferous tubules. The only other intratesticular method that has been investigated is the use of ultrasonic energy. Although the injection of sclerosing agents directly into the epididymis is technically simpler than injection into the vas lumen, the intraepididymal approach to nonsurgical sterilization has been evaluated in only 3 studies. The advantages of intraepididymal over intravasal injections are that the cauda epididymis is easily palpated and intraluminal placement of the needle in the epididymis is not necessary. The appeal of the intraepididymal approach to transcutaneous sterilization is that it is easier to inject a chemical into the epididymis than into the vas lumen. Limitated evaluations of the intraepididymal injection of chemical agents has shown this to be an unsatisfactory approach to male sterilization. Whether improved results can be obtained with other chemical agents remains to be evaluated. Numerous chemical agents have been injected into the vasa of rats, dogs, and rabbits to evaluate their effects in producing vas occulsion. A table lists the agents that have been evaluated. Only 2 chemical agents are known to have been tested in man: 3.6% formaldehyde in 90% ethanol and 4% formaldehyde in 90% ethanol and a carbolic acid, n-butyl alpha cyanoacrylate mixture. The mode of action of all of the sclerosing agents tested is thought to be similar: they produce local necrosis and fibrosis and vasal closure through scarring. A main objective in choosing a chemical agent for use in human sterilization procedures is to select one that has minimal toxic effects and will produce a minimal amount of damage if injected onto structures other than the vas. The transcutaneous intravasal sterilization procedure developed by the Chinese and which has been widely and successfully used since 1972 is described. To further advance the electrocoagulation procedure developed by Schmidt in 1966, bipolar electrodes have been developed. Black, at the Marie Stopes Clinic in the UK, is currently investigating a transcutaneous electrocoagulation procedure. Black believes that improvement of the electrodes and some changes in the technique of performing the electrocoagulation will result in an effective procedure. PMID:12179626

  15. REGISTRATIONS OF C931, C941, CR11, AND CZ25/2 SELF-FERTILE, GENETIC-MALE-STERILE FACILITATED, RANDOM-MATED, SUGARBEET GERMPLASM POPULATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarbeet is naturally self-sterile and most germplasm can not be selfed to produce selfed progenies for breeding and genetic research. However, it is often very useful to be able to produce selfed progeny families. With the use of the genes for self-fertility and genetic-male-sterility, over the pa...

  16. Assessment of effect of partial sterility on mating performance in sweetpotato weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Kumano, N; Kuriwada, T; Shiromoto, K; Haraguchi, D; Kohama, T

    2010-12-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is widely used to suppress or eradicate target pest insect populations. Although the effectiveness of SIT depends on the ability of released sterile males to mate with and inseminate wild females, the use of gamma radiation to induce sterility negatively impacts reproductive cells as well as somatic cells. Consequently, sterilization by irradiation drastically diminishes mating performance over time. In the current study, we evaluated the effect of irradiation dose intensity on fertility, mating propensity, and mating competitiveness in sweetpotato weevil, Cylas formicarius elegantulus (Summers) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), for 16 d after irradiation. Although the mating propensity of males irradiated with 200 Gy, the dose currently used to induce complete sterility of C. f. elegantulus in the SIT program in Okinawa Prefecture, was equal to that of nonirradiated weevils for the first 6 d, the mating propensity of males irradiated with doses between of 75 and 150 Gy was maintained for the first 12 d. The potential fertilization ability of weevils was highly depressed compared with the control weevils, even in those treated with 75 Gy. Mating performance was severely compromised in weevils that were irradiated with a dose of 100 Gy or more. These results demonstrate that partial sterilization can be highly advantageous in eradication programs for the sweetpotato weevil. We discuss the advantages of the application of partial irradiation in insect eradication programs. PMID:21309223

  17. Mating in the monogamous male: Behavioral consequences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas R. Insel; Stephanie Preston; James T. Winslow

    1995-01-01

    In monogamous mammals, males typically show selective affiliation with a single mate, high levels of paternal care, and aggression towards conspecifics to protect mate and offspring. We have previously described how selective aggression and affiliation increase after mating in the male prairie vole, Microtus ochrogaster. The current studies further explored the behavioral changes that follow mating in the male of

  18. Efficient methods for isolation of X-linked male sterile mutations in Drosophila melanogaster

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. von Wyl; P. S. Chen

    1977-01-01

    Summary Three different mating systems based on the production of virgin females in F1 and the elimination of undesired males in F2 are proposed for an efficient isolation of X-linked male sterile mutations in Drosophila melanogaster.

  19. Male adaptive stupidity: male mating pattern in hybridogenetic frogs

    E-print Network

    ). Such erroneous matings based on preferences for fertility indicators occur in males of the fishes Poecilia mexicana and P. latipinna. Males of these two species prefer to mate with larger, but gynogenetic, females

  20. Male fish deceive competitors about mating preferences.

    PubMed

    Plath, Martin; Richter, Stephanie; Tiedemann, Ralph; Schlupp, Ingo

    2008-08-01

    A fundamental question in animal communication is whether the information provided is honest or deceptive [1, 2]. This problem has received much attention, both in theoretical [1, 3] and experimental [4] work. Here we show that male Atlantic mollies (Poecilia mexicana), when observed during mate choice by another male, reduce their mating activity and no longer prefer mating with one of two females presented, which can be interpreted as an attempt to avoid unintended interception of information by the rival male. Most importantly, focal males directed their first sexual interaction (after they were presented with the rival male) toward the initially nonpreferred female, suggesting that males deceive other males about their mating preferences. Deception by the choosing male may be an adaptation to avoid sperm competition, because surrounding males may use public information and copy the focal male's mate choice. PMID:18674912

  1. Mating in the monogamous male: behavioral consequences.

    PubMed

    Insel, T R; Preston, S; Winslow, J T

    1995-04-01

    In monogamous mammals, males typically show selective affiliation with a single mate, high levels of paternal care, and aggression towards conspecifics to protect male and offspring. We have previously described how selective aggression and affiliation increase after mating in the male prairie vole, Microtus ochrogaster. The current studies further explored the behavioral changes that follow mating in the male of this species. The first set of experiments tested males on several behavioral measures after 24 h of either mating, social (but not sexual) exposure, or no social contact. After 24 h of mating, but not after the other two conditions, aggression and affiliation (partner preference) increased as previously reported. In addition, mated animals showed increased exploration of the open arms of a plus maze, consistent with decreased fearfulness. There were no group differences in paternal behavior (which was high in all three conditions) or analgesia (assessed by tail flick latency). To determine the minimum amount of mating necessary for the induction of aggression, males were tested in a resident-intruder paradigm after 1,6, or 24 h of mating. Although 1 h of mating was associated with a transient increase in the frequency of threats and attacks, the full spectrum of enduring aggression was observed only in the males given 24 h of mating. In a final experiment, the behavioral consequences of mating were studied in males of the closely related montane vole (Microtus montanus) which does not pair bond. Males of this nonmonogamous vole species did not show increased aggression, partner preference, or alterations in plus maze exploration following 24 h of mating. These results demonstrate the importance of prolonged mating for the induction of pair bonding in the monogamous male and they suggest that increases in aggression and affiliation are associated with decreased fearfulness in pair bonded males. PMID:7777594

  2. Cross-generational fitness benefits of mating and male seminal fluid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas K. Priest; Deborah A. Roach; Laura F. Galloway

    2008-01-01

    In many species, the physical act of mating and exposure to accessory gland proteins (Acps) in male seminal fluid reduces female survival and offspring production. It is not clear what males gain from harming their sexual partners or why females mate frequently despite being harmed. Using sterile strains of Drosophila melanogaster that differ in their production of Acps, we found

  3. Male sterility and fertility restoration in crops.

    PubMed

    Chen, Letian; Liu, Yao-Guang

    2014-01-01

    In plants, male sterility can be caused either by mitochondrial genes with coupled nuclear genes or by nuclear genes alone; the resulting conditions are known as cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) and genic male sterility (GMS), respectively. CMS and GMS facilitate hybrid seed production for many crops and thus allow breeders to harness yield gains associated with hybrid vigor (heterosis). In CMS, layers of interaction between mitochondrial and nuclear genes control its male specificity, occurrence, and restoration of fertility. Environment-sensitive GMS (EGMS) mutants may involve epigenetic control by noncoding RNAs and can revert to fertility under different growth conditions, making them useful breeding materials in the hybrid seed industry. Here, we review recent research on CMS and EGMS systems in crops, summarize general models of male sterility and fertility restoration, and discuss the evolutionary significance of these reproductive systems. PMID:24313845

  4. Effect of irradiation on mating ability in the male sweetpotato weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Kumano, N; Haraguchi, D; Kohama, T

    2008-08-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is widely used for suppressing or eradicating target pest insect populations. The effectiveness of SIT depends on the ability of released sterile males to mate with and inseminate wild females. Irradiation is the effective manner to sterilize mass-reared insects. The negative impacts of this procedure are not limited to damage on reproductive cells. Gamma-radiation damages the epithelial tissue of midgut, which affects the alimentation in insects. Irradiated males alter their mating behavior over time because of the depression of metabolic activity by sterilization. In this study, we evaluated the male mating performance and sexually compatibility of irradiated male Cylas formicarius elegantulus (Summers) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) with a 200-Gy dose, as currently used in the SIT program in Okinawa Prefecture, throughout 16 d after irradiation in the laboratory. The mating ability of irradiated males did not differ from that of control males for about a week. However, the mating ability of irradiated male drastically decreased thereafter. We consider that irradiated male C. formicarius elegantulus with a 200-Gy dose had no major effect on male mating behavior approximately for a week after irradiation. PMID:18767728

  5. Sperm precedence in Callosobruchus chinensis estimated using the sterile male technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomohiro Harano; Yutaka Nakamoto; Takahisa Miyatake

    2008-01-01

    P2, the proportion of offspring sired by the second male to mate, is an indicator of the outcome of postcopulatory sexual selection,\\u000a which occurs through sperm competition and\\/or cryptic female choice. We determined the appropriate dose of gamma radiation\\u000a for sterilization of adult males and, using the sterile male technique, measured P2 in the adzuki bean beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis. Adult

  6. Estimating SIT-driven population reduction in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, from sterile mating.

    PubMed

    Juan-Blasco, M; Sabater-Muñoz, B; Pla, I; Argilés, R; Castañera, P; Jacas, J A; Ibáñez-Gual, M V; Urbaneja, A

    2014-04-01

    Area-wide sterile insect technique (SIT) programs assume that offspring reduction of the target population correlates with the mating success of the sterile males released. However, there is a lack of monitoring tools to prove the success of these programs in real-time. Field-cage tests were conducted under the environmental conditions of the Mediterranean coast of Spain to estimate: (a) the mating success of sterile Vienna-8 (V8) Ceratitis capitata males using molecular markers and (b) their efficacy to reduce C. capitata populations under six release ratios of wild females to wild males to V8 males (1:0:0, 1:1:0, 1:1:1, 1:1:5, 1:1:10, and 1:1:20). Statistical models were developed to predict: (a) the number of females captured in traps, (b) sperm ID (sterile or not) in spermathecae of the trapped females, and (c) the viable offspring produced, using release ratio and temperature as predictors. The number of females captured was affected by relative humidity. However, its influence in the model was low. Female captures were significantly higher in ratios 1:0:0 compared to ratios where V8 males were released. The proportion of V8 sperm in spermathecae increased with temperature and with the number of V8 males released, but leveled off between ratios 1:1:10 and 1:1:20. In all seasons, except winter (no offspring), viable offspring increased with temperature and was lowest for ratio 1:1:20. For the first time, a strong negative relationship between proportion of V8 sperm detected by molecular tools and C. capitata offspring was established. The models obtained should contribute to enhance the efficacy of SIT programs against this pest. PMID:24444376

  7. Suppression of Pest Lepidoptera by Releasing Partially Sterile Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knipling. E. F.

    1970-01-01

    Uses population growth models to calculate the theoretical suppression of reproduction achieved by releasing irradiated male moths carrying genetic sterility factors. Shows that releasing partially sterile males should be more effective than releasing fully sterile males. Discusses the costs and advantages of applying this approach to the control…

  8. Molecular analysis of cytoplasmic male sterility

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, M.R.

    1990-01-01

    The ultimate aims of the project are to understand the molecular mechanism of the disruption in pollen development which occurs in cytoplasmic male sterile plants and to understand the control of respiratory energy flow in the higher plant cell. A mitochondrial locus termed S-pcf segregates with sterility and with an alteration in respiration in Petunia. This cloned locus contains three genes, an abnormal fused gene termed pcf, a gene for a subunit of an NADH dehydrogenase complex, and a small ribosomal subunit protein. The pcf gene is comprised of partial sequences of ATPase subunit 9, cytochrome oxidase subunit II, and an unidentified reading frame. Components of the S-Pcf locus will be introduced into the nuclear of a fertile genotype under the control of appropriate regulatory signals, and polypeptide products of introduced genes will be directed to the mitochondrion with a transit peptide. By examining transgenic plants, we can determine what elements of the locus are critical for altered respiration or sterility. Such knowledge could explain how mitochondrial DNA affects pollen development in the large number of plant species which exhibit the agronomically important trait of male sterility. 10 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Mating tactics and mate choice in relation to age and social rank in male mountain goats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julien Mainguy; Steeve D. Côté; Etienne Cardinal; Mélina Houle

    2008-01-01

    In polygynous mammals, mating success of males often depends on intense male-male competition and the use of alternative mating tactics. Because reproduction incurs substantial energetic costs and risks of fight injuries, mate selection by males should be expected, particularly when females vary in their ability to produce offspring but can only be defended 1 at a time. Here, we investigated

  10. Mitochondrial DNA modifications associated with cytoplasmic male sterility in rice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Mignouna; S. S. Virmani; M. Briquet

    1987-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA was isolated from fertile and cytoplasmic male sterile lines of rice. Restriction analysis showed specific modifications in the male sterile cytoplasm. In addition to the major mitochondrial DNA, three small plasmid-like DNA molecules were detected by agarose gel electrophoresis in both cytoplasms. An additional molecule was specifically found in the sterile cytoplasm. These mitochondrial DNA modifications support the

  11. SWORDTAIL MATE CHOICE AND REPRODUCTIVE ALLOCATION: EFFECTS OF MALE CONDITION

    E-print Network

    Simpson, Suzanne

    2011-04-26

    allocate differentially depending on the quality of their mate. We manipulated male diet to determine if females had a mate preference based on male chronic condition. Afterward, we dissected the females and measured their allocation using egg size and egg...

  12. Male motion coordination in anopheline mating swarms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shishika, Daigo; Manoukis, Nicholas C.; Butail, Sachit; Paley, Derek A.

    2014-09-01

    The Anopheles gambiae species complex comprises the primary vectors of malaria in much of sub-Saharan Africa. Most of the mating in these species occurs in swarms composed almost entirely of males. Intermittent, organized patterns in such swarms have been observed, but a detailed description of male-male interactions has not previously been available. We identify frequent, time-varying interactions characterized by periods of parallel flight in data from 8 swarms of Anopheles gambiae and 3 swarms of Anopheles coluzzii filmed in 2010 and 2011 in the village of Donéguébogou, Mali. We use the cross correlation of flight direction to quantify these interactions and to induce interaction graphs, which show that males form synchronized subgroups whose size and membership change rapidly. A swarming model with damped springs between each male and the swarm centroid shows good agreement with the correlation data, provided that local interactions represented by damping of relative velocity between males are included.

  13. Male motion coordination in anopheline mating swarms

    PubMed Central

    Shishika, Daigo; Manoukis, Nicholas C.; Butail, Sachit; Paley, Derek A.

    2014-01-01

    The Anopheles gambiae species complex comprises the primary vectors of malaria in much of sub-Saharan Africa. Most of the mating in these species occurs in swarms composed almost entirely of males. Intermittent, organized patterns in such swarms have been observed, but a detailed description of male-male interactions has not previously been available. We identify frequent, time-varying interactions characterized by periods of parallel flight in data from 8 swarms of Anopheles gambiae and 3 swarms of Anopheles coluzzii filmed in 2010 and 2011 in the village of Donéguébogou, Mali. We use the cross correlation of flight direction to quantify these interactions and to induce interaction graphs, which show that males form synchronized subgroups whose size and membership change rapidly. A swarming model with damped springs between each male and the swarm centroid shows good agreement with the correlation data, provided that local interactions represented by damping of relative velocity between males are included. PMID:25212874

  14. Sperm competition risk affects male mate choice copying

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Bierbach; Claudia Kronmarck; Carmen Hennige-Schulz; Stefan Stadler; Martin Plath

    Mate choice copying was mostly described as a strategy employed by females to assess the quality of potential mates, but also\\u000a males can copy other malesmate choice. An open question in this context is whether and how copying males evaluate sperm\\u000a competition risk, as mating with a female that has already copulated with another male obviously sets the stage

  15. Costs influence male mate choice in a freshwater fish

    E-print Network

    Keogh, Scott

    Costs influence male mate choice in a freshwater fish Bob B. M. Wong* and Michael D. Jennions that female mate choice decisions depend on the direct costs of choosing (either because of search costs or male-imposed costs). Far less is known about how direct fitness costs affect male mate choice. We

  16. Experienced males have higher mating success than virgin males despite fitness costs to females

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Panagiotis G. Milonas; Shannon L. Farrell; David A. Andow

    2011-01-01

    It is generally assumed that mating history has potentially important effects on the mating biology of insects, and differences\\u000a in mating success of males, in relation to their mating history, have been commonly documented in Lepidoptera. Mating success\\u000a of male European corn borer Ostrinia nubilalis, in relation to their mating history, and consequent fitness parameters for their female mates, were

  17. Audience effect alters male but not female mating preferences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Plath; Katja Kromuszczynski; Ralph Tiedemann

    2009-01-01

    Males often face strong mating competition by neighboring males in their social environment. A recent study by Plath et al.\\u000a (Anim Behav 75:21–29, 2008a) has demonstrated that the visual presence of a male competitor (i.e., an audience male) affects\\u000a the expression of male mating preferences in a poeciliid fish (Poecilia mexicana) with a weaker expression of mating preferences when an

  18. Cytoplasmic male sterility in Brassicaceae crops

    PubMed Central

    Yamagishi, Hiroshi; Bhat, Shripad R.

    2014-01-01

    Brassicaceae crops display strong hybrid vigor, and have long been subject to F1 hybrid breeding. Because the most reliable system of F1 seed production is based on cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), various types of CMS have been developed and adopted in practice to breed Brassicaceae oil seed and vegetable crops. CMS is a maternally inherited trait encoded in the mitochondrial genome, and the male sterile phenotype arises as a result of interaction of a mitochondrial CMS gene and a nuclear fertility restoring (Rf) gene. Therefore, CMS has been intensively investigated for gaining basic insights into molecular aspects of nuclear-mitochondrial genome interactions and for practical applications in plant breeding. Several CMS genes have been identified by molecular genetic studies, including Ogura CMS from Japanese radish, which is the most extensively studied and most widely used. In this review, we discuss Ogura CMS, and other CMS systems, and the causal mitochondrial genes for CMS. Studies on nuclear Rf genes and the cytoplasmic effects of alien cytoplasm on general crop performance are also reviewed. Finally, some of the unresolved questions about CMS are highlighted. PMID:24987289

  19. Cytoplasmic male sterility in Brassicaceae crops.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Hiroshi; Bhat, Shripad R

    2014-05-01

    Brassicaceae crops display strong hybrid vigor, and have long been subject to F1 hybrid breeding. Because the most reliable system of F1 seed production is based on cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), various types of CMS have been developed and adopted in practice to breed Brassicaceae oil seed and vegetable crops. CMS is a maternally inherited trait encoded in the mitochondrial genome, and the male sterile phenotype arises as a result of interaction of a mitochondrial CMS gene and a nuclear fertility restoring (Rf) gene. Therefore, CMS has been intensively investigated for gaining basic insights into molecular aspects of nuclear-mitochondrial genome interactions and for practical applications in plant breeding. Several CMS genes have been identified by molecular genetic studies, including Ogura CMS from Japanese radish, which is the most extensively studied and most widely used. In this review, we discuss Ogura CMS, and other CMS systems, and the causal mitochondrial genes for CMS. Studies on nuclear Rf genes and the cytoplasmic effects of alien cytoplasm on general crop performance are also reviewed. Finally, some of the unresolved questions about CMS are highlighted. PMID:24987289

  20. Scented males and choosy females: does male odor influence female mate choice in the Mediterranean fruit fly?

    PubMed

    Shelly, Todd E; Edu, James; Pahio, Elaine; Nishimoto, Jon

    2007-12-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), displays a lek mating system characterized by a high level of female discrimination among potential mates. The basis of female choice is not understood, but recent studies indicate that male exposure to the aroma of certain plant structures or essential oils may increase mating success. In particular, exposure to the aroma of ginger root oil (GRO) enhances male mating frequency, and several sterile-male release programs against C. capitata have incorporated 'aromatherapy' (large-scale exposure of pre-release insects to GRO) to increase the effectiveness of control efforts. We investigated the mechanism underlying female preference for GRO-exposed males. Two sets of experiments were conducted. In the first, we monitored female attraction to (1) freshly killed flies, or (2) paper discs that contained hexane extracts from varying treatments. In these tests, females were sighted more often (1) near GRO-exposed than non-exposed males (even when the males were visually concealed) and (2) near extracts from GRO-exposed than non-exposed males. These findings suggest a 'perfume effect', whereby female mate choice is mediated by olfactory differences. In the second set, we compared (1) mate choice between intact females and females from which both antennae had been surgically removed, and (2) mating success between intact males and males from which both antennae had been surgically removed before GRO exposure. Intact females preferred GRO-exposed males, whereas females lacking both antennae rarely mated and showed no preference between GRO-exposed and non-exposed males. In the opposite treatment (intact females but surgically altered males), GRO-exposed males lacking both antennae mated as frequently as GRO-exposed intact males. These data suggest that female choice was dependent on olfactory perception of male odor but that male mating success did not depend on olfactory perception of GRO aroma, suggesting, in turn, that GRO conferred a mating advantage through an external phenomenon (possibly alteration of cuticular scent) rather than through internal processing (pheromone synthesis). PMID:18030532

  1. Gene, protein, and network of male sterility in rice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kun; Peng, Xiaojue; Ji, Yanxiao; Yang, Pingfang; Zhu, Yingguo; Li, Shaoqing

    2013-01-01

    Rice is one of the most important model crop plants whose heterosis has been well-exploited in commercial hybrid seed production via a variety of types of male-sterile lines. Hybrid rice cultivation area is steadily expanding around the world, especially in Southern Asia. Characterization of genes and proteins related to male sterility aims to understand how and why the male sterility occurs, and which proteins are the key players for microspores abortion. Recently, a series of genes and proteins related to cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), photoperiod-sensitive male sterility, self-incompatibility, and other types of microspores deterioration have been characterized through genetics or proteomics. Especially the latter, offers us a powerful and high throughput approach to discern the novel proteins involving in male-sterile pathways which may help us to breed artificial male-sterile system. This represents an alternative tool to meet the critical challenge of further development of hybrid rice. In this paper, we reviewed the recent developments in our understanding of male sterility in rice hybrid production across gene, protein, and integrated network levels, and also, present a perspective on the engineering of male-sterile lines for hybrid rice production. PMID:23596452

  2. Pheromones Are Essential for Male Fertility and Sufficient To Direct Chemotropic Polarized Growth of Trichogynes during Mating in Neurospora crassa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyojeong Kim; Katherine A. Borkovich

    2006-01-01

    Neurospora crassa is a self-sterile filamentous fungus with two mating types, mat A and mat a. Its mating involves chemotropic polarized growth of female-specific hyphae (trichogynes) toward male cells of the oppo- site mating type in a process involving pheromones and receptors. mat A cells express the ccg-4 pheromone and the pre-1 receptor, while mat a strains produce mRNA for

  3. A character demonstrating the occurrence of mating in male Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Marti, O.G.; Carpenter, J.E. [United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Crop Protection and Management Research Service, P.O. Box 748, Tifton, GA 31793 (United States)

    2007-03-15

    The reproductive system of adult male Cactoblastis cactorum, the cactus moth, was examined to determine whether the mating status of males could be ascertained. In unmated males, the posterior portion of the primary ductus ejaculatorius simplex is opaque yellow in color and contains many small football-shaped hyaline granules 3-5 x 5-10 {mu}m in size. In mated males, the posterior simplex is clear and contains no granules. The presence or absence of these characters was found to be highly reliable and should be of value in determining mating status in marked-recaptured males of this species in a sterile insect release program directed against Cactoblastis. (author)

  4. Value of male remating and functional sterility in redback spiders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maydianne C. B. Andrade; Erin M. Banta

    2002-01-01

    In the Australian redback spider, Latrodectus hasselti, males typically use their paired copulatory organs (palps) to copulate twice with a single female then sacrifice themselves to their cannibalistic mates in a strategy that increases their paternity in that one mating, but leads to death. This type of terminal investment in one mating is predicted only if the expected value of

  5. Mitochondria and cytoplasmic male sterility in plants.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jun; Huang, Wenchao; Huang, Qi; Qin, Xiaojian; Yu, Changchun; Wang, Lili; Li, Shaoqing; Zhu, Renshan; Zhu, Yingguo

    2014-11-01

    Mitochondria are essential organelles in cells not only because they supply over 90% of the cell's energy but also because their dysfunction is associated with disease. Owing to the importance of mitochondria, there are many questions about mitochondria that must be answered. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is a mysterious natural phenomenon, and the mechanism of the origin of CMS is unknown. Despite successful utilization of CMS and restoration of fertility (Rf) in practice, the underlying mechanisms of these processes remain elusive. This review summarizes the genes involved in CMS and Rf, with a special focus on recent studies reporting the mechanisms of the CMS and Rf pathways, and concludes with potential working models. PMID:24566371

  6. Exposure to ginger root oil enhances mating success of irradiated, mass-reared males of Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Shelly, T E; McInnis, D O

    2001-12-01

    Previous research revealed that exposure to ginger root oil, Zingiber officinale Roscoe, containing the known male attractant (a-copaene) increased the mating success of male Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), from a newly established laboratory colony. The goal of the current study was to determine whether exposure to ginger root oil likewise enhanced the mating competitiveness of irradiated C. capitata males from a 5-yr-old mass-reared strain. Mating tests were conducted in field cages containing guava trees (Psidium guajava L.) to monitor the mating frequency of irradiated, mass-reared and wild males competing for wild females. In the absence of chemical exposure, wild males outcompeted the mass-reared males and obtained 74% of all matings. However, following exposure to ginger root oil (20 microl for 6 h), the mating frequencies were reversed. Whether exposed as mature (3-d-old) or immature (1-d-old) adults, mass-reared males achieved approximately 75% of all matings in tests conducted 2 or 4 d following exposure, respectively. Irradiated, mass-reared males prevented from contacting the oil directly (i.e., exposed to the odor only for 6 h) still exhibited a mating advantage over wild males. In an additional study, signaling levels and female arrivals were compared between males exposed to ginger root oil and nonexposed males, but no significant differences were detected. The implications of these findings for the sterile insect technique are discussed. PMID:11777043

  7. Incubation feeding by male Scarlet Tanagers: a mate removal experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul H. Klatt; Bridget J. M. Stutchbury; Melissa L. Evans

    2008-01-01

    Incubation feeding, where males feed their mates, is a common behavior in birds and may improve female condition, nest attentiveness, and nesting success. We used behavioral observations and a temporary mate removal experiment to test the female nutrition hypothesis for incubation feeding by male Scarlet Tanagers (Piranga olivacea). All males (N = 20) were observed incubation feeding and fed females

  8. Male mate preferences in mutual mate choice: finches modulate their songs across and within male-female interactions.

    PubMed

    Heinig, Abbie; Pant, Santosh; Dunning, Jeffery; Bass, Aaron; Coburn, Zachary; Prather, Jonathan F

    2014-10-01

    Male songbirds use song to advertise their attractiveness as potential mates, and the properties of those songs have a powerful influence on female mate preferences. One idea is that males may exert themselves maximally in each song performance, consistent with female evaluation and formation of mate preferences being the primary contributors to mate choice. Alternatively, males may modulate their song behaviour to different degrees in the presence of different females, consistent with both male and female mate preferences contributing to mutual mate choice. Here we consider whether male Bengalese finches, Lonchura striata domestica, express mate preferences at the level of individual females, and whether those preferences are manifest as changes in song behaviour that are sufficient to influence female mate choice. We tested this idea by recording songs performed by individual unmated males during a series of 1 h interactions with each of many unmated females. Across recording sessions, males systematically varied both the quantity and the quality of the songs that they performed to different females. Males also varied their song properties throughout the course of each interaction, and behavioural tests using female birds revealed that songs performed at the onset of each interaction were significantly more attractive than songs performed by the same male later during the same interaction. This demonstration of context-specific variation in the properties of male reproductive signals and a role for that variation in shaping female mate preference reveals that male mate preferences play an important role in mutual mate choice in this species. Because these birds thrive so well in the laboratory and are so amenable to observation and experimentation across generations, these results yield a new model system that may prove especially advantageous in disentangling the role of male and female mate preferences in shaping mutual mate choice and its long-term benefits or consequences. PMID:25242817

  9. Alternative mating tactics and extreme male dimorphism in fig wasps

    PubMed Central

    Cook, J. M.; Compton, S. G.; Herre, E. A.; West, S. A.

    1997-01-01

    The dimorphisms in morphology and behaviour of male fig wasps are among the most extreme in the animal kingdom, and offer excellent opportunities to test the predictions of certain sexual selection models. Winged males resemble their conspecific females closely, but wingless males are so divergent in form that they have repeatedly been classified into different taxa. Wingless males mate within their natal fig fruits, whereas winged males disperse to mate. Individual species may have winged males, wingless males or both morphs. A key hypothesis proposes that sexual selection on male mating opportunities favours winged males in species with small broods and wingless males in species with large broods. Using data from 114 species in 33 genera, we show that both simple and formal comparative analyses support the correlated evolution of large brood size and male winglessness. Theoretical models further predict that, in male dimorphic species, the proportion of winged males should equal (in cases without local mate competition) or exceed (in cases with local mate competition) the proportion of females developing in fig fruits without wingless males. These predictions are met by eight out of nine male dimorphic species studied. Taken together, the patterns across all species, and between different male dimorphic species, strongly support sexual selection on mating opportunities as the major determinant of male morph ratios in fig wasps.

  10. Sequential male mate choice under sperm competition risk.

    PubMed

    Ramm, Steven A; Stockley, Paula

    2014-05-01

    Male eagerness to mate is a central paradigm of sexual selection theory. However, limited sperm supplies mean that male sexual restraint might sometimes be favored under promiscuous mating. Here, we demonstrate dynamic plasticity in male mating effort when females are encountered sequentially under varying sperm competition risk. Rather than showing consistent eagerness to mate, male house mice (Mus musculus domesticus) instead tailor their mating effort according to likely reproductive payoffs. They are significantly less likely to mate when sperm competition is certain and potential reproductive payoffs low, but dramatically increase investment if they do choose to mate under such circumstances. By contrast, male mice are significantly more likely to mate in situations simulating extra-territorial copulations, where future risk of competition is high but so too are potential reproductive rewards. Differential mating propensity appears to be the primary mechanism by which male house mice allocate sperm adaptively under sperm competition risk because we find no evidence for facultative adjustment of sperm numbers per ejaculate or ejaculation frequency in response to female-related cues. We conclude that sequential male mate choice under sperm competition risk could be a widespread but often unappreciated mechanism of strategic sperm allocation. PMID:24822023

  11. The dance of male Anopheles gambiae in mating swarms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mating behavior of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae is of great interest from a fundamental and applied perspective. One of the most important elements of mating in this species is the crepuscular mating aggregation (swarm) composed almost entirely of males, where most coupling and inseminat...

  12. INTRODUCTION Understanding both male and female mating beha-

    E-print Network

    consider male and female mating behaviour in two populations of the two-spot ladybird, Adalia bipunc- tata mating behaviour among different populations of the two-spot ladybird, Adalia bipunctata (Coleoptera. Coccinellidae, Adalia, mating behaviour, sexual selection, two-spot ladybird, UK population, Russian population

  13. Male-Male and Male-Female Aggression May Influence Mating Associations in Wild Octopuses (Abdopus aculeatus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine L. Huffard; Roy L. Caldwell; Farnis Boneka

    2010-01-01

    Abdopus aculeatus engages in frequent aggression and copulation, exhibits male mate-choice, and employs multiple mating tactics. Here we draw upon established hypotheses to compare male–male aggression (MMA) and male–female aggression (MFA), as they relate to their mating behavior in the wild. When contesting for females, males appear to balance mate preference (resource value) with perceived chances of winning contests (resource

  14. [Mating choice of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae): influence of male ageing on mating success].

    PubMed

    Silva Neto, Alberto M da; Dias, Vanessa S; Joachim-Bravo, Iara S

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of male ageing on male pheromone release and mating success of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). The effects of male ageing on mating were evaluated on five and 21 d-old males by assessing their mating success (males chosen by a female for copulation) and the amount of males releasing the sex pheromone. The mating success was evaluated by using several ratios of young to older males by increasing the number of older males:young males from 1:1 to 5:1. The mating success of the 1:1 ratio was also evaluated in field cages. The evaluation of the mating success (in the 1:1 ratio) showed a clear preference of the females for young males. Sex pheromone emission was much more common on young than older males. Even in cases were older males were more abundant (ratios 2:1 and 3:1), females still chose the young males. However, females could not distinguish young from older males in ratios of 4:1 or 5:1. Our data indicate that the ageing of C. capitata males has a considerable negative effect on their reproductive success, especially if they are found in a proportion any lower than 3:1. PMID:19943002

  15. Costs influence male mate choice in a freshwater fish.

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Bob B M; Jennions, Michael D

    2003-01-01

    It is well known that female mate choice decisions depend on the direct costs of choosing (either because of search costs or male-imposed costs). Far less is known about how direct fitness costs affect male mate choice. We conducted an experiment to investigate male mate choice in a fish, the Pacific blue-eye (Pseudomugil signifer). Preferred females were larger, probably because larger females are also more fecund. Males, however, were consistent in their choice of female only when the costs of associating with prospective mates were equal. By contrast, males were far less consistent in their choice when made to swim against a current to remain with their initially preferred mate. Our results suggest that males may also respond adaptively to changes in the costs of choosing. PMID:12952630

  16. Sexual Experience Enhances Drosophila melanogaster Male Mating Behavior and Success

    PubMed Central

    Saleem, Sehresh; Ruggles, Patrick H.; Abbott, Wiley K.; Carney, Ginger E.

    2014-01-01

    Competition for mates is a wide-spread phenomenon affecting individual reproductive success. The ability of animals to adjust their behaviors in response to changing social environment is important and well documented. Drosophila melanogaster males compete with one another for matings with females and modify their reproductive behaviors based on prior social interactions. However, it remains to be determined how male social experience that culminates in mating with a female impacts subsequent male reproductive behaviors and mating success. Here we show that sexual experience enhances future mating success. Previously mated D. melanogaster males adjust their courtship behaviors and out-compete sexually inexperienced males for copulations. Interestingly, courtship experience alone is not sufficient in providing this competitive advantage, indicating that copulation plays a role in reinforcing this social learning. We also show that females use their sense of hearing to preferentially mate with experienced males when given a choice. Our results demonstrate the ability of previously mated males to learn from their positive sexual experiences and adjust their behaviors to gain a mating advantage. These experienced-based changes in behavior reveal strategies that animals likely use to increase their fecundity in natural competitive environments. PMID:24805129

  17. Effects of age and size on Anopheles gambiae s.s. male mosquito mating success.

    PubMed

    Sawadogo, Simon P; Diabaté, Abdoulaye; Toé, Hyacinthe K; Sanon, Antoine; Lefevre, Thierry; Baldet, Thierry; Gilles, Jeremie; Simard, Frederic; Gibson, Gabriella; Sinkins, Stevens; Dabiré, Roch K

    2013-03-01

    Before the release of genetically-modified or sterile male mosquitoes in an attempt to control local populations of malaria vectors, it is crucial to determine male traits involved in mating success. The effects of male size and age as determinants of male mating success in Anopheles gambiae s.s. were measured in the field and under laboratory conditions in Burkina Faso. First, the body sizes (estimated by wing length) of mating, swarming, and indoor-resting male mosquitoes were compared over a 3-yr period (2006-2009) from July to October in Soumousso and Vallée du Kou, two villages in western Burkina Faso. Second, the age structure of swarming and resting male mosquitoes were characterized based on the number of spermatocysts and the proportion of sperm in the reservoir of wild-caught male testis. Third, male age effects on the insemination rate of female An. gambiae were investigated in the laboratory. The mean size of males collected in copula was significantly larger than the mean for swarming males and indoor-resting males. The optimum male age for successful insemination of females was 4-8 d. These results suggest that male size is an important trait in determining male mating competitiveness in the field. Although age was not found to be a significant factor in mating competitiveness, it was significantly correlated with swarming behaviors in the field and insemination success in the laboratory. The implications of these results in terms of sexual selection in An. gambiae and vector control programs are further discussed. PMID:23540115

  18. Male mate choice, male availability and egg production as limitations on polyandry in the red-necked phalarope

    E-print Network

    Male mate choice, male availability and egg production as limitations on polyandry in the red polyandrous birds, a female's second mate faces a substantial risk of cuckoldry due to rapid mate switching) the availability of males as mates and (3) male mate choice. In a colour-banded population in which rates of nest

  19. Mate guarding and gallivanting by male hoary marmots ( Marmota caligata )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David P. Barash

    1981-01-01

    Seven years data on the vernal behavior of hoarty marmots, Marmota caligata, suggest that males engage in a two-part reproductive strategy, which consists of guarding their mates against possible copulation with additional males, and also gallivanting — wandering about in search of additional reproductive opportunities for themselves. Data are presented which support seven predictions derived from the assumption that mate

  20. Improving sterile male performance in support of programmes integrating the sterile insect technique against fruit flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is being applied against fruit fly pests in many areas of the world. Currently, factories have the capacity to produce several billion sterile male insects per week and to make them available for, irradiatiation and shipment to their destinations, where the emergin...

  1. Dual reproductive cost of aging in male medflies: dramatic decrease in mating competitiveness and gradual reduction in mating performance

    PubMed Central

    Papanastasiou, Stella A.; Diamantidis, Alexandros D.; Nakas, Christos T.; Carey, James R.; Papadopoulos, Nikos T.

    2011-01-01

    Although age-based effects on the reproductive success of males have been reported in several animal taxa the cost of aging on male mating success in lekking species has not been fully explored. We used the Mediterranean fruit fly, a lekking species, to investigate possible cost of aging on male reproductive success. We performed no choice and choice mating tests to test the hypothesis that aging does not affect the mating performance (mating success in conditions lacking competition) or the mating competitiveness (mating success against younger rivals) of males. The mating probability of older males decreased significantly when competing with younger males. Aging gradually reduced the mating performance of males but older males were still accepted as mating partners in conditions lacking competition. Therefore, older males are capable of performing the complete repertoire of sexual performance but fail to be chosen by females in the presence of young rivals. Older males achieved shorter copulations than younger ones, and female readiness to mate was negatively affected by male age. Older and younger males transferred similar amount of spermatozoids to female spermathecae. Females stored spermatozoids asymmetrically in the two spermathecae regardless the age of their mating partner. Aging positively affected the amount of spermatozoids in testes of both mated and non mated males. No significant differences were observed on the amount of spermatozoids between mated and non mated males. PMID:21801728

  2. Unexpected male choosiness for mates in a spider

    PubMed Central

    Bel-Venner, M.C; Dray, S; Allainé, D; Menu, F; Venner, S

    2007-01-01

    Sexual selection theory traditionally considers choosiness for mates to be negatively related to intra-sexual competition. Males were classically considered to be the competing, but not the choosy, sex. However, evidence of male choosiness is now accumulating. Male choosiness is expected to increase with an individual's competitive ability, and to decrease as intra-sexual competition increases. However, such predictions have never been tested in field conditions. Here, we explore male mate choice in a spider by studying size-assortative pairing in two natural sites that strongly differ in the level of male–male competition. Unexpectedly, our results demonstrate that mate choice shifts from opportunism to high selectivity as competition between males increases. Males experiencing weak competition did not exhibit size-related mating preferences. By contrast, when competition was intense we found strong size-assortative pairing due to male choice: while larger, more competitive males preferentially paired with larger, more fecund females, smaller males chose smaller females. Thus, we show that mating preferences of males vary with their competitive ability. The distinct preferences exhibited by males of different sizes seem to be an adaptive response to the lower reproductive opportunities arising from increased competition between males. PMID:17956845

  3. Mating with Stressed Males Increases the Fitness of Ant Queens

    PubMed Central

    Schrempf, Alexandra; Heinze, Jürgen

    2008-01-01

    Background According to sexual conflict theory, males can increase their own fitness by transferring substances during copulation that increase the short-term fecundity of their mating partners at the cost of the future life expectancy and re-mating capability of the latter. In contrast, sexual cooperation is expected in social insects. Mating indeed positively affects life span and fecundity of young queens of the male-polymorphic ant Cardiocondyla obscurior, even though males neither provide nuptial gifts nor any other care but leave their mates immediately after copulation and die shortly thereafter. Principal Findings Here, we show that mating with winged disperser males has a significantly stronger impact on life span and reproductive success of young queens of C. obscurior than mating with wingless fighter males. Conclusions Winged males are reared mostly under stressful environmental conditions, which force young queens to disperse and found their own societies independently. In contrast, queens that mate with wingless males under favourable conditions usually start reproducing in the safety of the established maternal nest. Our study suggests that males of C. obscurior have evolved mechanisms to posthumously assist young queens during colony founding under adverse ecological conditions. PMID:18596983

  4. Investigation of methods for sterilization of potting compounds and mated surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tulius, J. J.; Daley, D. J.; Phillips, G. B.

    1972-01-01

    The feasibility of using formaldehyde-liberating synthetic resins or polymers for the sterilization of potting compounds, mated and occluded areas, and spacecraft surfaces was demonstrated. The detailed study of interrelated parameters of formaldehyde gas sterilization revealed that efficient cycle conditions can be developed for the sterilization of spacecraft components. It was determined that certain parameters were more important than others in the development of cycles for specific applications. The use of formaldehyde gas for the sterilization of spacecraft components provides NASA with a highly efficient method which is inexpensive, reproducible, easily quantitated, materials compatible, operationally simple, generally non-hazardous and not thermally destructive.

  5. Reproductive Allocation and Resource Compensation in Male-Sterile and Hermaphroditic Plants of Plantago lanceolata (Plantaginaceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pieter Poot

    1997-01-01

    Gynodioecy is a breeding system in which hermaphrodites coexist with male steriles. Theoretical models predict that without any compensation in female fitness male steriles will disappear from a population due to their reproductive disad- vantage. In the present study I investigated whether male-sterile (MS), partially male-sterile (IN), and hermaphroditic (H) plants of Plantago lanceolata differed in reproductive growth and allocation.

  6. Sperm economy between female mating frequency and male ejaculate allocation.

    PubMed

    Abe, Jun; Kamimura, Yoshitaka

    2015-03-01

    Why females of many species mate multiply is a major question in evolutionary biology. Furthermore, if females accept matings more than once, ejaculates from different males compete for fertilization (sperm competition), which confronts males with the decision of how to allocate their reproductive resources to each mating event. Although most existing models have examined either female mating frequency or male ejaculate allocation while assuming fixed levels of the opposite sex's strategies, these strategies are likely to coevolve. To investigate how the interaction of the two sexes' strategies is influenced by the level of sperm limitation in the population, we developed models in which females adjust their number of allowable matings and males allocate their ejaculate in each mating. Our model predicts that females mate only once or less than once at an even sex ratio or in an extremely female-biased condition, because of female resistance and sperm limitation in the population, respectively. However, in a moderately female-biased condition, males favor partitioning their reproductive budgets across many females, whereas females favor multiple matings to obtain sufficient sperm, which contradicts the predictions of most existing models. We discuss our model's predictions and relationships with the existing models and demonstrate applications for empirical findings. PMID:25674694

  7. Mitochondrially-targeted expression of a cytoplasmic male sterility-associated orf220 gene causes male sterility in Brassica juncea

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The novel chimeric open reading frame (orf) resulting from the rearrangement of a mitochondrial genome is generally thought to be a causal factor in the occurrence of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS). Both positive and negative correlations have been found between CMS-associated orfs and the occurrence of CMS when CMS-associated orfs were expressed and targeted at mitochondria. Some orfs cause male sterility or semi-sterility, while some do not. Little is currently known about how mitochondrial factor regulates the expression of the nuclear genes involved in male sterility. The purpose of this study was to investigate the biological function of a candidate CMS-associated orf220 gene, newly isolated from cytoplasmic male-sterile stem mustard, and show how mitochondrial retrograde regulated nuclear gene expression is related to male sterility. Results It was shown that the ORF220 protein can be guided to the mitochondria using the mitochondrial-targeting sequence of the ? subunit of F1-ATPase (atp2-1). Transgenic stem mustard plants expressed the chimeric gene containing the orf220 gene and a mitochondrial-targeting sequence of the ? subunit of F1-ATPase (atp2-1). Transgenic plants were male-sterile, most being unable to produce pollen while some could only produce non-vigorous pollen. The transgenic stem mustard plants also showed aberrant floral development identical to that observed in the CMS stem mustard phenotype. Results obtained from oligooarray analysis showed that some genes related to mitochondrial energy metabolism were down-regulated, indicating a weakening of mitochondrial function in transgenic stem mustard. Some genes related to pollen development were shown to be down-regulated in transgenic stem mustard and the expression of some transcription factor genes was also altered. Conclusion The work presented furthers our understanding of how the mitochondrially-targeted expression of CMS-associated orf220 gene causes male sterility through retrograde regulation of nuclear gene expression in Brassica juncea. PMID:20974011

  8. Manipulation of the microbiota of mass-reared Mediterranean fruit flies Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) improves sterile male sexual performance.

    PubMed

    Ben Ami, Eyal; Yuval, Boaz; Jurkevitch, Edouard

    2010-01-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a method of biological control whereby millions of factory reared sterile male insects are released into the field. This technique is commonly used to combat the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata, Diptera: Tephritidae). Sterile medfly males are less competent in attracting and mating with wild females, a property commonly linked to the irradiation process responsible for the sterilization. As bacteria are important partners in the fly's life cycle, we used molecular analytical methods to study the community structure of the gut microbiota in irradiated male medflies. We find that the sterilizing irradiation procedure affects the gut bacterial community structure of the Mediterranean fruit fly. Although the Enterobacteriaceae family remains the dominant bacterial group present in the gut, the levels of Klebsiella species decreases significantly in the days after sterilization. In addition, we detected substantial differences in some bacterial species between the mass rearing strain Vienna 8 and the wild strain. Most notable among these are the increased levels of the potentially pathogenic species Pseudomonas in the industrial strain. Testing the hypothesis that regenerating the original microbiota community could result in enhanced competitiveness of the sterile flies, we found that the addition of the bacterial species Klebsiella oxytoca to the postirradiation diet enables colonization of these bacteria in the gut while resulting in decreased levels of the Pseudomonas sp. Feeding on diets containing bacteria significantly improved sterile male performance in copulatory tests. Further studies will determine the feasibility of bacterial amelioration in SIT operations. PMID:19617877

  9. Time-pattern and frequency analyses of sounds produced by irradiated and untreated male Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) during mating behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Behavior and sounds associated with mating of mass-reared irradiated and untreated (non-irradiated) Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) males were analyzed using synchronous acoustic and video recordings. The flies tested were from a population used in sterile release programs that help maintain fruit-fly...

  10. Why do female mice mate with multiple males?

    PubMed

    Thonhauser, Kerstin E; Raveh, Shirley; Hettyey, Attila; Beissmann, Helmut; Penn, Dustin J

    2013-01-01

    Females often show multi-male mating (MMM), but the adaptive functions are unclear. We tested whether female house mice (Mus musculus musculus) show MMM when they can choose their mates without male coercion. We released 32 females into separate enclosures where they could choose to mate with two neighboring males that were restricted to their own territories. We also tested whether females increase MMM when the available males appeared unable to exclude intruders from their territories. To manipulate territorial intrusion, we introduced scent-marked tiles from the neighboring males into males' territories, or we rearranged tiles within males' own territories as a control. Each female was tested in treatment and control conditions and we conducted paternity analyses on the 57 litters produced. We found that 46 % of litters were multiply sired, indicating that multiple paternity is common when females can choose their mates. Intrusion did not increase multiple paternity, though multiple paternity was significantly greater in the first trial when the males were virgins compared to the second trial. Since virgin male mice are highly infanticidal, this finding is consistent with the infanticide avoidance hypothesis. We also found that multiple paternity was higher when competing males showed small differences in their amount of scent marking, suggesting that females reduce MMM when they can detect differences in males' quality. Finally, multiple paternity was associated with increased litter size but only in the intrusion treatment, which suggests that the effect of multiple paternity on offspring number is dependent on male-male interactions. PMID:24273373

  11. Cytoplasmic male sterility and mitochondrial metabolism in plants.

    PubMed

    Touzet, Pascal; Meyer, Etienne H

    2014-11-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is a common feature encountered in plant species. It is the result of a genomic conflict between the mitochondrial and the nuclear genomes. CMS is caused by mitochondrial encoded factors which can be counteracted by nuclear encoded factors restoring male fertility. Despite extensive work, the molecular mechanism of male sterility still remains unknown. Several studies have suggested the involvement of respiration on the disruption of pollen production through an energy deficiency. By comparing recent works on CMS and respiratory mutants, we suggest that the "ATP hypothesis" might not be as obvious as previously suggested. PMID:24769053

  12. Inaccurate mate recognition as a mating strategy of a ‘pioneer male

    PubMed Central

    Obara, Yoshiaki; Majerus, Mike E. N.

    2009-01-01

    Heterosubspecific mating experiments were carried out between two subspecies of cabbage butterflies, British Pieris rapae rapae and Japanese P. rapae crucivora, to examine how accurately males recognize the mates. The two subspecies are different in that the wings of female P. rapae rapae reflect little UV light, whereas those of female P. rapae crucivora are strongly UV-reflective. The wing colouration of P. rapae crucivora involving UV is believed to be critical in mate recognition. The results showed that males of both subspecies displayed mating behaviours, to and copulated with, females of both subspecies. Furthermore, P. rapae crucivora males exhibited mating behaviours and attempted to copulate with females of Pieris melete with low UV reflectance which are critically different from P. rapae crucivora females with high UV reflectance. Based on these findings, we propose the “pioneer male” hypothesis, which argues that such inaccurate mate recognition may sometimes be selectively beneficial for males and thus an adaptive mating strategy. The “pioneer male” was discussed in terms of its possible role in the evolution. PMID:19521057

  13. Determinants of male mating success in a scorpion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. G. BENTON

    1992-01-01

    The scorpion, Euscorpiusflavicaudis, occurs in a large, well established colony at Sheerness in Kent. Males exhibit a life-history polymorphism: some males mature at the sixth instar, and some delay maturity until the seventh. The reproductive ecology of this population was studied, both at Sheerness and in the laboratory. Males became vagrant before the mating season, and searched for 'cracks' occupied

  14. Species-isolating mechanisms in a mating system with male mate choice (garter snakes,

    E-print Network

    Mason, Robert T.

    , Thamnophis sirtalis (L., 1758), and plains garter snakes, Thamnophis radix (Baird and Girard, 1853 couleuvres des plaines, Thamnophis radix (Baird et Girard, 1853), vivent en sympatrie sur un importantSpecies-isolating mechanisms in a mating system with male mate choice (garter snakes, Thamnophis

  15. Influence of male competition on male mating behaviour in the cave molly, Poecilia mexicana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    In many species, male mating behaviour is corre- lated with male body size, with large males often being preferred by females. Small surface-dwelling Poecilia mex- icana males compensate for this disadvantage by being more sexually active and using sneaky copulations. In a cave-dwelling population, however, small males do not show this behaviour. Do small males alter their behaviour in the

  16. Influence of male competition on male mating behaviour in the cave molly, Poecilia mexicana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rüdiger Riesch; Ingo Schlupp; Martin Plath

    2006-01-01

    In many species, male mating behaviour is correlated with male body size, with large males often being preferred by females. Small surface-dwelling Poecilia mexicana males compensate for this disadvantage by being more sexually active and using sneaky copulations. In a cave-dwelling population, however, small males do not show this behaviour. Do small males alter their behaviour in the presence of

  17. Molecular mapping of 36 soybean male-sterile, female-sterile mutants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. G. Palmer; D. Sandhu; K. Curran; M. K. Bhattacharyya

    2008-01-01

    Mutability of the w\\u000a \\u000a 4\\u000a flower color locus in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is conditioned by an unstable allele designated w\\u000a \\u000a 4\\u000a \\u000a -m. Germinal revertants, purple-flower plants, recovered among self-pollinated progeny of mutable flower plants were associated\\u000a with the generation of necrotic root, chlorophyll-deficiency, and sterility mutations. Thirty-seven male-sterile, female-sterile\\u000a mutant lines were generated from 37 independent reversion events

  18. Costing reproduction: effects of mating opportunity on mating success in male Bicyclus anynana butterflies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susann A. Janowitz; Klaus Fischer

    2010-01-01

    It is frequently assumed that males have an almost unlimited reproductive capacity, while access to receptive females is typically\\u000a limiting. Consequently, sexual selection is expected to favor vigorous courtship behavior in males. If such behavior is associated\\u000a with non-trivial costs, ample current mating opportunities should be accompanied by a reduction in future mating vigor. To\\u000a test this hypothesis, three treatments

  19. Multiple mating in a lekking bird: why do peahens mate with more than one male and with the same male more than once?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marion Petrie; Marion Hall; Tim Halliday; Helen Budgey; Chris Pierpoint

    1992-01-01

    Approximately 50% of marked peahens (Pavo cristatus) mate more than once with lek males. Some females mate with more than one male, others copulate repeatedly with the same male. The frequency of courtship also shows marked variation. Some females repeatedly engage males in courtship interactions after they have succesfully copulated with them. The likelihood of mating with more than one

  20. Mating order and reproductive success in male Columbian ground squirrels (Urocitellus columbianus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shirley Raveh; Dik Heg; F. Stephen Dobson; David W. Coltman; Jamieson C. Gorrell; Adele Balmer; Peter Neuhaus

    2010-01-01

    Multiple mating by females is common in many mammalian species, often resulting in mixed paternity litters. In such mating systems, mating order, male age, and male body mass frequently play an important role in determining male reproductive success. We tested for these effects on male reproductive success in Columbian ground squirrels (Urocitellus columbianus). The mating activity of estrous females was

  1. Female mate preference for a costly ornament in male guppies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenji Karino; Takatsugu Ishiwatari; Hiromi Kudo; Aya Sato

    2011-01-01

    Female mate preference for dorsal fin length in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) was investigated. In a dichotomous choice experiment using live males, females preferred males with longer dorsal fins to\\u000a those with shorter dorsal fins. When the dorsal fin lengths of the two males were reversed by surgical manipulation, the females\\u000a reversed their preference. To further examine this preference behaviour,

  2. Sugar administration to newly emerged Aedes albopictus males increases their survival probability and mating performance.

    PubMed

    Bellini, Romeo; Puggioli, Arianna; Balestrino, Fabrizio; Brunelli, Paolo; Medici, Anna; Urbanelli, Sandra; Carrieri, Marco

    2014-04-01

    Aedes albopictus male survival in laboratory cages is no more than 4-5 days when kept without any access to sugar indicating their need to feed on a sugar source soon after emergence. We therefore developed a device to administer energetic substances to newly emerged males when released as pupae as part of a sterile insect technique (SIT) programme, made with a polyurethane sponge 4 cm thick and perforated with holes 2 cm in diameter. The sponge was imbibed with the required sugar solution and due to its high retention capacity the sugar solution was available for males to feed for at least 48 h. When evaluated in lab cages, comparing adults emerged from the device with sugar solution vs the device with water only (as negative control), about half of the males tested positive for fructose using the Van Handel anthrone test, compared to none of males in the control cage. We then tested the tool in semi-field and in field conditions with different sugar concentrations (10%, 15%, and 20%) and compared results to the controls fed with water only. Males were recaptured by a battery operated manual aspirator at 24 and 48 h after pupae release. Rather high share 10-25% of captured males tested positive for fructose in recollections in the vicinity of the control stations, while in the vicinity of the sugar stations around 40-55% of males were positive, though variability between replicates was large. The sugar positive males in the control test may have been released males that had access to natural sugar sources found close to the release station and/or wild males present in the environment. Only a slight increase in the proportion of positive males was obtained by increasing the sugar concentration in the feeding device from 10% to 20%. Surprisingly, modification of the device to add a black plastic inverted funnel above the container reduced rather than increased the proportion of fructose positive males collected around the station. No evidence of difference in the capacity of sterile (irradiated with 30 Gy) males to take a sugar meal relative to fertile males was observed in field comparison. A clear effect of temperature and relative humidity (RH) on the rate of sugar positive males was observed, with an increase of temperature and a decrease in RH strongly increasing the % of sugar positive males. In large enclosures we tested the effect of our sugar supplying tool on the mating competitiveness of sterile vs fertile males, which produced an evident favorable effect both on sterile and fertile males. PMID:24299923

  3. RESEARCH ARTICLE Lifespan in male ants linked to mating syndrome

    E-print Network

    Kaspari, Mike

    females tend to increase fitness by living longer (Trivers, 1972). Males are often the shorter-lived sex, the ancestors of the ants likely used female calling, where females advertise with pheromones for longer lived involves sexual differences in lifespan: males tend to increase fitness by increasing mating rate, while

  4. Recruitment of mates and deceptive behavior by male Tengmalm's owls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bengt-Göran Carlsson

    1991-01-01

    Tengmalm's owl Aegolius funereus is a hole-nesting polygynous species in which female nomadism is a reaction to cyclic lows of staple prey. For 2 years during a peak in vole abundance, I examined recruitment of mates and male singing behavior in a local population. Females and about half of the breeding males seemed to arrive successively throughout the breeding period

  5. Metabolically engineered male sterility in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.).

    PubMed

    Engelke, Thomas; Hirsche, J; Roitsch, T

    2011-01-01

    Male sterility is of special interest as a mechanism allowing hybrid breeding, especially in important crops such as rapeseed (Brassica napus). Male sterile plants are also suggested to be used as a biological safety method to prevent the spread of transgenes, a risk that is high in the case of rapeseed due to the mode of pollination, out-crossing by wind or insects, and the presence of related, cross-pollinating species in the surrounding ecosystem in Europe. Different natural occurring male sterilities and alloplasmic forms have been tried to be used in rapeseed with more or less success. Due to the difficulties and limitations with these systems, we present a biotechnological alternative: a metabolically engineered male sterility caused by interference with anther-specific cell wall-bound invertase. This is an essential enzyme for carbohydrate supply of the symplastically isolated pollen. The activity of this enzyme is reduced either by antisense interference or by expressing an invertase inhibitor under control of the anther-specific promoter of the invertase with the consequence of a strong decrease of pollen germination ability. PMID:20821307

  6. Sterile Male with the Chromosome Constitution 46 XX

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Therkelsen

    1964-01-01

    A sterile male had slightly hypoplastic penis and testes but no other clinical symptoms of abnormal sexual development. An apparently normal female karyotype was observed in cultures from peripheral blood, skin and both testes. The Sertoli cells in both testes were shown to be sex chromatin negative, whereas all other cells examined were sex chromatin positive. The findings are discussed.Copyright

  7. The molecular basis of cytoplasmic male sterility and fertility restoration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick S Schnable; Roger P Wise

    1998-01-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is a maternally inherited condition in which a plant is unable to produce functional pollen. It occurs in many plant species and is often associated with chimeric mitochondrial open reading frames. In a number of cases, transcripts originating from these altered open reading frames are translated into unique proteins that appear to interfere with mitochondrial function

  8. Male mate choice and sperm allocation in a sexual/asexual mating complex of Poecilia (Poeciliidae, Teleostei)

    PubMed Central

    Schlupp, I; Plath, M

    2005-01-01

    Male mate choice is critical for understanding the evolution and maintenance of sexual/asexual mating complexes involving sperm-dependent, gynogenetic species. Amazon mollies (Poecilia formosa) require sperm to trigger embryogenesis, but the males (e.g. Poecilia mexicana) do not contribute genes. Males benefit from mating with Amazon mollies, because such matings make males more attractive to conspecific females, but they might control the cost of such matings by providing less sperm to Amazon mollies. We examined this at the behavioural and sperm levels. P. mexicana males preferred to mate with, and transferred more sperm to conspecific females. However, if males mated with P. formosa, sperm was readily transferred. This underscores the importance of male choice in this system. PMID:17148157

  9. Male mate choice and sperm allocation in a sexual/asexual mating complex of Poecilia (Poeciliidae, Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Schlupp, I; Plath, M

    2005-06-22

    Male mate choice is critical for understanding the evolution and maintenance of sexual/asexual mating complexes involving sperm-dependent, gynogenetic species. Amazon mollies (Poecilia formosa) require sperm to trigger embryogenesis, but the males (e.g. Poecilia mexicana) do not contribute genes. Males benefit from mating with Amazon mollies, because such matings make males more attractive to conspecific females, but they might control the cost of such matings by providing less sperm to Amazon mollies. We examined this at the behavioural and sperm levels. P. mexicana males preferred to mate with, and transferred more sperm to conspecific females. However, if males mated with P. formosa, sperm was readily transferred. This underscores the importance of male choice in this system. PMID:17148157

  10. Effect of predation on male mating behaviour in a unisexual-bisexual mating system

    E-print Network

    Gabor, Caitlin - Department of Biology, Texas State University

    , mate choice, Poecilia formosa, Poecilia latipinna, predation risk. Introduction Predation risk can occurs in the genus Poecilia. Poe- ciliid fish are livebearing and exhibit internal fertilization. Male sailfin mol- lies (P. latipinna) and male Atlantic mollies (P. mexicana mexicana and P. m. limantouri

  11. Males achieve greater reproductive success through multiple broods than through extrapair mating in house wrens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicole E. Poirier; Linda A. Whittingham; Peter O. Dunn

    2004-01-01

    In polygynous species, it is unclear whether extrapair matings provide a better reproductive payoff to males than additional social mates. Male house wrens, Troglodytes aedon, show three types of social mating behaviour: single-brooded monogamy, sequential monogamy (two broods) and polygyny. Thus, male reproductive success can vary depending on the number of mates, the number of broods and the number of

  12. Association patterns among male and female spotted hyenas ( Crocuta crocuta ) reflect male mate choice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Micaela Szykman; Anne L. Engh; Russell C. Van Horn; Stephan M. Funk; Kim T. Scribner; Kay E. Holekamp

    2001-01-01

    Although female animals tend to be choosier than males in selecting mates, sexual selection theory predicts that males should also be choosy when female fecundity varies. Reproductive success among female spotted hyenas varies greatly with social rank. Our goals were therefore to determine whether male hyenas preferentially associate with high-ranking females, and whether male preferences are affected by female reproductive

  13. No evidence for learned mating discrimination in male Drosophila pseudoobscura

    PubMed Central

    Kandul, Nikolai P; Wright, Kevin M; Kandul, Ekaterina V; Noor, Mohamed AF

    2006-01-01

    Background Since females often pay a higher cost for heterospecific matings, mate discrimination and species recognition are driven primarily by female choice. In contrast, frequent indiscriminate matings are hypothesized to maximize male fitness. However, recent studies show that previously indiscriminate males (e.g., Drosophila melanogaster and Poecilia reticulata) can learn to avoid heterospecific courtship. This ability of males to discriminate against heterospecific courtship may be advantageous in populations where two species co-occur if courtship or mating is costly. Results Here, we tested whether Drosophila pseudoobscura males learn to discriminate against heterospecific females after being exposed to and rejected by D. persimilis females. In most of our assays, we failed to observe differences in D. pseudoobscura courtship intensity of heterospecific females by males that had previously courted heterospecific females vs. males that had been maintained in isolation. Conclusion We conclude that learning to avoid heterospecific courtship may not be universal, even within the genus Drosophila, and may possibly be dependent on the natural history of the species. PMID:16824212

  14. Phenotypic correlates and survival consequences of male mating success in lek-mating greater prairie-chickens ( Tympanuchus cupido )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacqueline K. Nooker; Brett K. Sandercock

    2008-01-01

    Female choice and male–male aggression are two modes of sexual selection that can lead to elaboration of male morphological\\u000a and behavioral traits. In lek-mating species, male mating success is often strongly skewed, and it is puzzling why variation\\u000a in male traits is still observed given directional female choice. If male traits correlated with reproductive success are\\u000a honest signals of male

  15. DNA Loss at the Ceratocystis fimbriata Mating Locus Results in Self-Sterility

    PubMed Central

    Wilken, P. Markus; Steenkamp, Emma T.; Wingfield, Michael J.; de Beer, Z. Wilhelm; Wingfield, Brenda D.

    2014-01-01

    Fungi have evolved a remarkable diversity of reproductive strategies. Some of these, most notably those of the model fungi, have been well studied but others are poorly understood. The latter is also true for uni-directional mating type switching, which has been reported in only five fungal genera, including Ceratocystis. Mating type switching allows a self-fertile fungal isolate to produce both self-fertile and self-sterile offspring. This study considered the molecular nature of uni-directional mating type switching in the type species of Ceratocystis, C. fimbriata. To do this, the genome of C. fimbriata was first examined for the presence of mating type genes. Three mating genes (MAT1-1-1, MAT1-2-1 and MAT1-1-2) were found in an atypical organisation of the mating type locus. To study the effect that uni-directional switching has on this locus, several self-sterile offspring were analysed. Using a combination of next generation and conventional Sanger sequencing, it was shown that a 3581 base pair (bp) region had been completely deleted from the MAT locus. This deletion, which includes the entire MAT1-2-1 gene, results in the permanent loss of self-fertility, rendering these isolates exclusively self-sterile. Our data also suggest that the deletion mechanism is tightly controlled and that it always occurs at the same genomic position. Two 260 bp direct repeats flanking the deleted region are strongly implicated in the process, although the exact mechanism behind the switching remains unclear. PMID:24651494

  16. Gynodioecy in plantago lanceolata L. II Inheritance of three male sterility types2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J M M van Damme

    1983-01-01

    Inheritance of male sterility has been studied in Plantago lanceolata. Crosses between plants, obtained from a 50 m2 area, yielded the entire array of possible sex phenotypes. Emphasis is put on nuclear inheritance of two nuclear-cytoplasmically determined male sterility types. In both types multiple interacting genes are involved. For MS1 a combination of two recessive and three dominant male sterility

  17. The impact of social context on male mate preference in a unisexual--bisexual mating complex.

    PubMed

    Alberici da Barbiano, L; Aspbury, A S; Nice, C C; Gabor, C R

    2011-07-01

    Male sailfin mollies Poecilia latipinna were tested in five different treatments that varied in the relative frequency of heterospecific gynogens (Amazon molly Poecilia formosa) to conspecific females to determine whether social interactions among males within a population causes some males to mate with heterospecific females. Male P. latipinna inseminated a significantly higher proportion of conspecific females and fertilized a significantly higher number of conspecific eggs regardless of the treatment. Nonetheless, preference for conspecific females was not exclusive as a range of 20 to 50% of heterospecific females were fertilized. Social interactions among males may best explain the results and may therefore play an important role in the maintenance of unisexual--bisexual mating complexes. PMID:21722119

  18. Sexual reproduction in Daphnia pulex (Crustacea: Cladocera): observations on male mating behaviour

    E-print Network

    Innes, David J.

    Sexual reproduction in Daphnia pulex (Crustacea: Cladocera): observations on male mating behaviour conditions. Keywords: clone, Daphnia, inbreeding, mating behaviour, sexual reproduction Introduction with the dif®culty of locating and identifying poten- tial mates during sexual reproduction. Gerritsen (1980

  19. The heritability of multiple male mating in a promiscuous mammal.

    PubMed

    McFarlane, S Eryn; Lane, Jeffrey E; Taylor, Ryan W; Gorrell, Jamieson C; Coltman, David W; Humphries, Murray M; Boutin, Stan; McAdam, Andrew G

    2011-06-23

    The tendency of females to mate with multiple males is often explained by direct and indirect benefits that could outweigh the many potential costs of multiple mating. However, behaviour can only evolve in response to costs and benefits if there is sufficient genetic variation on which selection can act. We followed 108 mating chases of 85 North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) during 4 years, to measure each female's degree of multiple male mating (MMM), and used an animal model analysis of our multi-generational pedigree to provide what we believe is the first estimate of the heritability of MMM in the wild. Female red squirrels were highly polyandrous, mating with an average of 7.0 ± 0.2 males on their day of oestrus. Although we found evidence for moderate levels of additive genetic variation (CV(A) = 5.1), environmental variation was very high (CV(E) = 32.3), which resulted in a very low heritability estimate (h(2) < 0.01). So, while there is genetic variation in this trait, the large environmental variation suggests that any costs or benefits associated with differences among females in MMM are primarily owing to environmental and not genetic differences, which could constrain the evolutionary response to natural selection on this trait. PMID:21159688

  20. The heritability of multiple male mating in a promiscuous mammal

    PubMed Central

    McFarlane, S. Eryn; Lane, Jeffrey E.; Taylor, Ryan W.; Gorrell, Jamieson C.; Coltman, David W.; Humphries, Murray M.; Boutin, Stan; McAdam, Andrew G.

    2011-01-01

    The tendency of females to mate with multiple males is often explained by direct and indirect benefits that could outweigh the many potential costs of multiple mating. However, behaviour can only evolve in response to costs and benefits if there is sufficient genetic variation on which selection can act. We followed 108 mating chases of 85 North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) during 4 years, to measure each female's degree of multiple male mating (MMM), and used an animal model analysis of our multi-generational pedigree to provide what we believe is the first estimate of the heritability of MMM in the wild. Female red squirrels were highly polyandrous, mating with an average of 7.0 ± 0.2 males on their day of oestrus. Although we found evidence for moderate levels of additive genetic variation (CVA = 5.1), environmental variation was very high (CVE = 32.3), which resulted in a very low heritability estimate (h2 < 0.01). So, while there is genetic variation in this trait, the large environmental variation suggests that any costs or benefits associated with differences among females in MMM are primarily owing to environmental and not genetic differences, which could constrain the evolutionary response to natural selection on this trait. PMID:21159688

  1. Male sterilization and a modified vasectomy hook.

    PubMed

    Lee, H Y

    1968-04-20

    Vasectomy is discussed, and the advantages of a new vasectomy hook which has been modified by the author are reported. The difference between castration and vasectomy is emphasized. In castration, male hormone, sperm, and seminal fluid routes are cut. In vasectomy, only the vas deferens, the sperm route, is blocked. Vasectomy takes only 10-20 minutes to complete. There are 2 kinds of incisions to expose the vas: a single or median incision on the median raphe of the scrotum, and bilateral incisions just above the vasa. The length of the incision is about 1 cm. There are many indications for vasectomy including the prevention of future pregnancy, because the couple already has as many children as they can afford to rear. A preoperative interview is necessary in order to ascertain whether the couple are mentally competent and understand the operation. In the description of the operative techniques, Lee's vasectomy hook is discussed. It is stainless steel; pointed, tipped, and angular in shape, and its shaft is gradually enlarged in circumference. By using the vasectomy hook, the exposed vas is easily and bluntly separated from its coverings and held for the next step in the operation. After the operation, the patient is cautioned to use some type of contraceptive until it is determined that there are no sperm in his ejaculate. PMID:12177908

  2. Eye and clasper damage influence male mating tactics in the horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erin E. Duffy; Dustin J. Penn; Mark L. Botton; H. Jane Brockmann; Robert E. Loveland

    2006-01-01

    In the horseshoe crab mating system, mated pairs are frequently accompanied by unattached satellite males as they spawn on intertidal beaches. Previous studies have shown that males locate females visually using their lateral (compound) eyes, and that attached (mated) males generally have less heavily worn or damaged carapaces than unattached males. The purpose of this study was to investigate the

  3. Sexual conflict in the house sparrow: interference between polygynously mated females versus asymmetric male investment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José P. Veiga

    1990-01-01

    The reproductive success of female house sparrows mated with polygynous males depended to some extent on the aid received from their mates. Polygynous males fed nestlings at the same rate as monogamous males although polygynous males gave aid almost exclusively to one of their mates (the “preferred”). As a consequence, the number and quality of young raised by “preferred” females

  4. HETEROGENEITY OF MAIZE CYTOPLASMIC GENOMES AMONG MALE-STERILE CYTOPLASMS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. R. PRING; C. S. LEVINGS

    Maize mitochondrial and chloroplast DNA's were prepared from normal (fertile) lines or single crosses and from members of the T, C, and S groups of male-sterile cytoplasms. Restriction endonucleases HindIII, BamI, EcoRI, and Sal1 were used to restrict the DNA, and the resultant fragments were electrophoresed in agarose gels. The results show that the N (fertile), T, C, and S

  5. Towards male sterility in Pinus radiata--a stilbene synthase approach to genetically engineer nuclear male sterility.

    PubMed

    Höfig, Kai P; Möller, Ralf; Donaldson, Lloyd; Putterill, Joanna; Walter, Christian

    2006-05-01

    A male cone-specific promoter from Pinus radiata D. Don (radiata pine) was used to express a stilbene synthase gene (STS) in anthers of transgenic Nicotiana tabacum plants, resulting in complete male sterility in 70% of transformed plants. Three plants were 98%-99.9% male sterile, as evidenced by pollen germination. To identify the stage at which transgenic pollen first developed abnormally, tobacco anthers from six different developmental stages were assayed microscopically. Following the release of pollen grains from tetrads, transgenic pollen displayed an increasingly flake-like structure, which gradually rounded up during the maturation process. We further investigated whether STS expression may have resulted in an impaired flavonol or sporopollenin formation. A specific flavonol aglycone stain was used to demonstrate that significant amounts of these substances were produced only in late stages of normal pollen development, therefore excluding a diminished flavonol aglycone production as a reason for pollen ablation. A detailed analysis of the exine layer by transmission electron microscopy revealed minor structural changes in the exine layer of ablated pollen, and pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy indicated that the biochemistry of sporopollenin production was unaffected. The promoter-STS construct may be useful for the ablation of pollen formation in coniferous gymnosperms and male sterility may potentially be viewed as a prerequisite for the commercial use of transgenic conifers. PMID:17147639

  6. Theoretical influence of female mating status and remating propensity on male sperm allocation patterns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. ENGQVIST; K. REINHOLD

    2006-01-01

    Theoretical models predict that males should allocate more sperm in matings where the immediate risk of sperm competition is high. It has therefore often been argued that males should invest less sperm in matings with virgin females compared with matings with already mated females. However, with relatively polyandrous females, high sperm competition risk will covary with high sperm competition intensity

  7. Extreme Costs of Mating for Male Two-Spot Ladybird Beetles

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Jennifer C.; Tse, Crystal T.

    2013-01-01

    Male costs of mating are now thought to be widespread. The two-spot ladybird beetle (Adalia bipunctata) has been the focus of many studies of mating and sexual selection, yet the costs of mating for males are unknown. The mating system of A. bipunctata involves a spermatophore nuptial gift ingested by females after copulation. In this study, we investigate the cost to males of mating and of transferring spermatophores in terms of lifespan, ejaculate production and depletion of nutritional reserves. We found that males faced a strong trade-off between mating and survival, with males that were randomly assigned to mate a single time experiencing a 53% reduction in post-mating lifespan compared to non-mating males. This is among the most severe survival costs of a single mating yet reported. However, spermatophore transfer did not impact male survival. Instead, the costs associated with spermatophores appeared as a reduced ability to transfer spermatophores in successive matings. Furthermore, males ingested more food following spermatophore transfer than after matings without spermatophores, suggesting that spermatophore transfer depletes male nutritional reserves. This is to our knowledge the first report of an effect of variation in copulatory behaviour on male foraging behaviour. Overall, our study highlights the advantages of assessing mating costs using multiple currencies, and suggests that male A. bipunctata should exhibit mate choice. PMID:24339980

  8. Extreme costs of mating for male two-spot ladybird beetles.

    PubMed

    Perry, Jennifer C; Tse, Crystal T

    2013-01-01

    Male costs of mating are now thought to be widespread. The two-spot ladybird beetle (Adalia bipunctata) has been the focus of many studies of mating and sexual selection, yet the costs of mating for males are unknown. The mating system of A. bipunctata involves a spermatophore nuptial gift ingested by females after copulation. In this study, we investigate the cost to males of mating and of transferring spermatophores in terms of lifespan, ejaculate production and depletion of nutritional reserves. We found that males faced a strong trade-off between mating and survival, with males that were randomly assigned to mate a single time experiencing a 53% reduction in post-mating lifespan compared to non-mating males. This is among the most severe survival costs of a single mating yet reported. However, spermatophore transfer did not impact male survival. Instead, the costs associated with spermatophores appeared as a reduced ability to transfer spermatophores in successive matings. Furthermore, males ingested more food following spermatophore transfer than after matings without spermatophores, suggesting that spermatophore transfer depletes male nutritional reserves. This is to our knowledge the first report of an effect of variation in copulatory behaviour on male foraging behaviour. Overall, our study highlights the advantages of assessing mating costs using multiple currencies, and suggests that male A. bipunctata should exhibit mate choice. PMID:24339980

  9. Cytoplasmic male sterility in Plantago lanceolata L.: differences between male-sterile cytoplasms at the DNA and RNA-level

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. J. A. Rouwendal; J. M. M. Damme; J. G. H. Wessels

    1987-01-01

    To establish the feasibility of a cytoplasmtype assay based on molecular hybridizations, mitochondrial DNAs from the two male-sterile cytoplasms of Plantago lanceolata (P and R) were compared by restriction endonuclease digestion. We cloned a 1.1 kbp Eco RI-HindIII fragment from P-mtDNA (pPl-311), which on hybridization to Southern blots of Bam HI digested mtDNA and total DNA from plants with P-cytoplasm,

  10. Males achieve greater reproductive success through multiple broods than through extrapair mating in house wrens

    E-print Network

    Dunn, Peter O.

    provide a better reproductive payoff to males than additional social mates. Male house wrens, Troglodytes aedon, show three types of social mating behaviour: single-brooded monogamy, sequential monogamy (two

  11. Male mate choice selects for female coloration in a fish

    PubMed Central

    Amundsen, Trond; Forsgren, Elisabet

    2001-01-01

    Although sexual selection theory has proved successful in explaining a wide array of male ornaments, the function of ornaments occurring in females is largely unknown. Traditionally, female ornaments have been considered nonfunctional, being merely a genetically correlated response to selection for male ornamentation. However, this hypothesis is only relevant to species in which the ornament is basically the same in the two sexes. Alternatively, female ornaments may be influenced by selection acting directly on the females, either through female–female competition or male choice. We tested the latter hypothesis in mate-choice experiments with two-spotted gobies (Gobiusculus flavescens). In this small marine fish, females have bright yellow-orange bellies during the breeding season, a conspicuous trait that is not present in males. We conducted two aquarium experiments to test whether males preferred to mate with more colorful females. In the first experiment, males had a choice between two females that varied in natural coloration (and belly roundness). In the second experiment, we manipulated belly coloration and kept roundness constant. Males spent more time with colorful than with drab females in both experiments and also performed far more courtship displays toward colorful females. Our study provides experimental evidence that males prefer ornamented females in a fish that is not sex-role reversed, supporting the hypothesis that female ornamentation is sexually selected. PMID:11606720

  12. Expression of Engineered Nuclear Male Sterility in Brassica napus (Genetics, Morphology, Cytology, and Sensitivity to Temperature).

    PubMed Central

    Denis, M.; Delourme, R.; Gourret, J. P.; Mariani, C.; Renard, M.

    1993-01-01

    A dominant genetic male sterility trait obtained through transformation in rapeseed (Brassica napus) was studied in the progenies of 11 transformed plants. The gene conferring the male sterility consists of a ribonuclease gene under the control of a tapetum-specific promoter. Two ribonuclease genes, RNase T1 and barnase, were used. The chimaeric ribonuclease gene was linked to the bialophos-resistance gene, which confers resistance to the herbicide phosphinotricine (PPT). The resistance to the herbicide was used as a dominant marker for the male sterility trait. The study presented here concerns three aspects of this engineered male sterility: genetics correlated with the segregation of the T-DNA in the progenies; expression of the male sterility in relation to the morphology and cytology of the androecium; and stability of the engineered male sterility under different culture conditions. Correct segregation, 50% male-sterile, PPT-resistant plants, and 50% male-fertile, susceptible plants were observed in the progeny of seven transformants. The most prominent morphological change in the male-sterile flowers was a noticeable reduction in the length of the stamen filament. The first disturbances of microsporogenesis were observed from the free microspore stage and were followed by a simultaneous degeneration of microspore and tapetal cell content. At anthesis, the sterile anthers contained only empty exines. In some cases, reversion to fertility of male-sterile plants has been observed. Both ribonuclease genes are susceptible to instability. Instability of the RNase T1-male sterility trait increased at temperatures higher than 25[deg] C. Our results do not allow us to confirm this observation for the barnase male-sterile plants. However, the male-sterile plants of the progeny of two independent RNase T1 transformants were stably male sterile under all conditions studied. PMID:12231785

  13. Male Age Affects Female Mate Preference and Reproductive Performance in the Cabbage Beetle, Colaphellus bowringi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xing-Ping Liu; Jing Xu; Hai-Min He; Xian-Ju Kuang; Fang-Sen Xue

    2011-01-01

    The influence of male age on female mate preference and reproductive performance in the cabbage beetle, Colaphellus bowringi was examined, using male and female adults of varying ages (young, middle-aged and old) after a single mating. In a simultaneous\\u000a choice test, females of all age class preferentially mated with middle-aged males. Mating duration was positively related\\u000a to male age. Longevity

  14. Mitochondrion role in molecular basis of cytoplasmic male sterility.

    PubMed

    Horn, Renate; Gupta, Kapuganti J; Colombo, Noemi

    2014-11-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility and its fertility restoration via nuclear genes offer the possibility to understand the role of mitochondria during microsporogenesis. In most cases rearrangements in the mitochondrial DNA involving known mitochondrial genes as well as unknown sequences result in the creation of new chimeric open reading frames, which encode proteins containing transmembrane domains. So far, most of the CMS systems have been characterized via restriction fragment polymorphisms followed by transcript analysis. However, whole mitochondrial genome sequence analyses comparing male sterile and fertile cytoplasm open options for deeper insights into mitochondrial genome rearrangements. We more and more start to unravel how mitochondria are involved in triggering death of the male reproductive organs. Reduced levels of ATP accompanied by increased concentrations of reactive oxygen species, which are produced more under conditions of mitochondrial dysfunction, seem to play a major role in the fate of pollen production. Nuclear genes, so called restorer-of-fertility are able to restore the male fertility. Fertility restoration can occur via pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins or via different mechanisms involving non-PPR proteins. PMID:24732436

  15. Understanding why males and females multiply mate is at the heart of behavioural

    E-print Network

    Neff, Bryan D.

    Understanding why males and females multiply mate is at the heart of behavioural ecology. Generally, theory suggests that while a male's reproductive success is limited by the number of mates he has and plentiful, a female should be able to maximize her reproductive success by mating with only a single male

  16. 6.1 In state (n, m), male i mates female j at rate , so male i mates at rate m. Since there are n males, mating occurs at rate v(n,m) = nm. Since any mating is equally likely to produce

    E-print Network

    Litvak, Nelly

    Ross: 6.1 In state (n, m), male i mates female j at rate , so male i mates at rate m. Since there are n males, mating occurs at rate v(n,m) = nm. Since any mating is equally likely to produce a female

  17. Non-repeatable mate choice by male sailfin mollies, Poecilia latipinna, in a unisexual-bisexual mating complex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caitlin R. Gabor; Andrea S. Aspbury

    2008-01-01

    Most studies of repeatability examine female mate choice, but male mate choice may have significant evolutionary consequences when males of a sexual species are sexually parasitized by heterospecific gynogenetic females as is the case for sailfin mollies, Poecilia latipinna. Amazon mollies, Poecilia formosa, are all female gynogens that require sperm from P. latipinna for initiation of embryogenesis, but inheritance is

  18. The best time to have sex: mating behaviour and effect of daylight time on male sexual competitiveness in the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-03-01

    Aedes albopictus is the most invasive mosquito worldwide and works as a vector for many important pathogens. Control tools rely to chemical treatments against larvae, indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated bed nets. Recently, huge efforts have been carried out to propose new eco-friendly alternatives, such as evaluation of plant-borne compounds and sterile insect technique (SIT) programs. Success of SIT is dependent to the ability of sterile males to compete for mates with wild ones. Little is still known about mating behaviour of Aedes males. Most of the studies focus on comparisons of insemination ability in sterilised and wild males, while behavioural analyses of mating behaviour are lacking. Here, I quantified the courtship and mating behaviour of A. albopictus and evaluated how daylight hours affect male mating behaviour and success. A. albopictus males chased females facing them frontally, from behind, or from a lateral side. If the female allowed genital contact, copulation followed. Otherwise, females performed rejection kicks and/or flew away. Thirty-seven percent of males obtained a successful copulation (i.e. sperm transfer occurs), lasting 63?±?4 s. Unsuccessful copulation (20 % of males) had shorter duration (18?±?1 s). Successful copulations followed longer male courtships (39?±?3 s), over courtships preceding unsuccessful copulation (20?±?2 s) or male's rejection (22?±?2 s). After copulation, the male rested 7?±?0.4 s close to the female, then move off. In a semi-natural environment, male mating success was lower in early afternoon, over morning and late afternoon. However, little differences in courtship duration over daylight periods were found. This study adds knowledge to the reproductive behaviour of A. albopictus, which can be used to perform comparisons among courtship and mating ethograms from different mosquito species and strains, allowing monitoring and optimisation of mass rearing quality over time in SIT programs. PMID:25487029

  19. Female Sexual Polymorphism and Fecundity Consequences of Male Mating Harassment in the Wild

    PubMed Central

    Gosden, Thomas P.; Svensson, Erik I.

    2007-01-01

    Genetic and phenotypic variation in female response towards male mating attempts has been found in several laboratory studies, demonstrating sexually antagonistic co-evolution driven by mating costs on female fitness. Theoretical models suggest that the type and degree of genetic variation in female resistance could affect the evolutionary outcome of sexually antagonistic mating interactions, resulting in either rapid development of reproductive isolation and speciation or genetic clustering and female sexual polymorphisms. However, evidence for genetic variation of this kind in natural populations of non-model organisms is very limited. Likewise, we lack knowledge on female fecundity-consequences of matings and the degree of male mating harassment in natural settings. Here we present such data from natural populations of a colour polymorphic damselfly. Using a novel experimental technique of colour dusting males in the field, we show that heritable female colour morphs differ in their propensity to accept male mating attempts. These morphs also differ in their degree of resistance towards male mating attempts, the number of realized matings and in their fecundity-tolerance to matings and mating attempts. These results show that there may be genetic variation in both resistance and tolerance to male mating attempts (fitness consequences of matings) in natural populations, similar to the situation in plant-pathogen resistance systems. Male mating harassment could promote the maintenance of a sexual mating polymorphism in females, one of few empirical examples of sympatric genetic clusters maintained by sexual conflict. PMID:17593979

  20. Assortative mating and differential male mating success in an ash hybrid zone population

    PubMed Central

    Gérard, Pierre R; Klein, Etienne K; Austerlitz, Frédéric; Fernández-Manjarrés, Juan F; Frascaria-Lacoste, Nathalie

    2006-01-01

    Background The structure and evolution of hybrid zones depend mainly on the relative importance of dispersal and local adaptation, and on the strength of assortative mating. Here, we study the influence of dispersal, temporal isolation, variability in phenotypic traits and parasite attacks on the male mating success of two parental species and hybrids by real-time pollen flow analysis. We focus on a hybrid zone population between the two closely related ash species Fraxinus excelsior L. (common ash) and F. angustifolia Vahl (narrow-leaved ash), which is composed of individuals of the two species and several hybrid types. This population is structured by flowering time: the F. excelsior individuals flower later than the F. angustifolia individuals, and the hybrid types flower in-between. Hybrids are scattered throughout the population, suggesting favorable conditions for their local adaptation. We estimate jointly the best-fitting dispersal kernel, the differences in male fecundity due to variation in phenotypic traits and level of parasite attack, and the strength of assortative mating due to differences in flowering phenology. In addition, we assess the effect of accounting for genotyping error on these estimations. Results We detected a very high pollen immigration rate and a fat-tailed dispersal kernel, counter-balanced by slight phenological assortative mating and short-distance pollen dispersal. Early intermediate flowering hybrids, which had the highest male mating success, showed optimal sex allocation and increased selfing rates. We detected asymmetry of gene flow, with early flowering trees participating more as pollen donors than late flowering trees. Conclusion This study provides striking evidence that long-distance gene flow alone is not sufficient to counter-act the effects of assortative mating and selfing. Phenological assortative mating and short-distance dispersal can create temporal and spatial structuring that appears to maintain this hybrid population. The asymmetry of gene flow, with higher fertility and increased selfing, can potentially confer a selective advantage to early flowering hybrids in the zone. In the event of climate change, hybridization may provide a means for F. angustifolia to further extend its range at the expense of F. excelsior. PMID:17107611

  1. Mating effort and female receptivity: how do male guppies decide when to invest in sex?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Palestina Guevara-Fiore; Jessica Stapley; Penelope J. Watt

    2010-01-01

    Males vary in the degree to which they invest in mating. Several factors can explain this variation, including differences\\u000a in males’ individual condition and the fact that males allocate their energy depending on the context they face in each mating\\u000a attempt. Particularly, female quality affects male reproductive success. Here, we studied whether male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) strategically allocated more mating

  2. Low-quality females prefer low-quality males when choosing a mate

    E-print Network

    Sorenson, Michael

    Low-quality females prefer low-quality males when choosing a mate Marie-Jeanne Holveck1-UMR 5175, Montpellier F34293, France Mate choice studies routinely assume female preferences for indicators in mating preferences. By contrast, recent mate choice models assume that costs and benefits of searching

  3. Male Mating Competitiveness of a Wolbachia-Introgressed Aedes polynesiensis Strain under Semi-Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bossin, Hervé; Dobson, Stephen L.

    2011-01-01

    Background Lymphatic filariasis (LF), a global public health problem affecting approximately 120 million people worldwide, is a leading cause of disability in the developing world including the South Pacific. Despite decades of ongoing mass drug administration (MDA) in the region, some island nations have not yet achieved the threshold levels of microfilaremia established by the World Health Organization for eliminating transmission. Previously, the generation of a novel Aedes polynesiensis strain (CP) infected with an exogenous type of Wolbachia has been described. The CP mosquito is cytoplasmically incompatible (i.e., effectively sterile) when mated with wildtype mosquitoes, and a strategy was proposed for the control of A. polynesiensis populations by repeated, inundative releases of CP males to disrupt fertility of wild females. Such a strategy could lead to suppression of the vector population and subsequently lead to a reduction in the transmission of filarial worms. Methodology/Principal Findings CP males and F1 male offspring from wild-caught A. polynesiensis females exhibit near equal mating competitiveness with F1 females under semi-field conditions. Conclusions/Significance While laboratory experiments are important, prior projects have demonstrated the need for additional testing under semi-field conditions in order to recognize problems before field implementation. The results reported here from semi-field experiments encourage forward progression toward small-scale field releases. PMID:21829750

  4. Mutual Mate Assessment in Wolf Spiders: Differences in the Cues Used by Males and Females

    E-print Network

    Persons, Matthew H.

    Mutual Mate Assessment in Wolf Spiders: Differences in the Cues Used by Males and Females Ann L use characteristics of that display in mating decisions. However, males must also have a way to identify and evaluate females prior to engaging in what might be a costly mating ritual. Although

  5. Male and Female Mating Behavior is Dependent on Social Context in the Butterfly Bicyclus anynana

    E-print Network

    Monteiro, Antónia

    Male and Female Mating Behavior is Dependent on Social Context in the Butterfly Bicyclus anynana context. We tested for plasticity in male and female mating behavior in a species of butterfly, Bicyclus and females change their mating behavior in response to social context in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana

  6. Female Initiated Divorce in a Monogamous Songbird: Abandoning Mates for Males of Higher Quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ken Otter; Laurene Ratcliffe

    1996-01-01

    Divorcing a current partner to re-pair with a mate of higher quality may be a strategy to increase reproductive success used by socially monogamous birds. By increasing the availability of males through selective mate removal during the nest building period, we found that female black-capped chickadees, Parus atricapillus, will desert their mates to pair with males of higher social rank,

  7. The Indirect Benefits of Mating with Attractive Males Outweigh the Direct Costs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Megan L. Head; John Hunt; Michael D. Jennions; Robert Brooks

    2005-01-01

    The fitness consequences of mate choice are a source of ongoing debate in evolutionary biology. Recent theory predicts that indirect benefits of female choice due to offspring inheriting superior genes are likely to be negated when there are direct costs associated with choice, including any costs of mating with attractive males. To estimate the fitness consequences of mating with males

  8. Mating success increases alarm-calling effort in male fowl, Gallus gallus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David R. Wilson; Christopher S. Evans

    2008-01-01

    Investment in mates and offspring typically reflects a trade-off between survival and reproductive potential. Individuals should therefore invest according to potential fitness benefit. Males typically cannot ascertain their probability of paternity directly, but this can often be approximated from mating success. In fowl, mating frequency and fitness are both predicted by the rate at which males produce alarm signals. These

  9. Specific expression in reproductive tissues and fate of a mitochondrial sterility-associated protein in cytoplasmic male-sterile bean.

    PubMed Central

    Abad, A R; Mehrtens, B J; Mackenzie, S A

    1995-01-01

    In common bean, cytoplasmic male sterility has been associated with a unique sequence found in the mitochondrial genome, designated pvs (for Phaseolus vulgaris sterility sequence). Within the pvs sequence, two open reading frames are encoded, ORF98 and ORF239. We have raised rabbit polyclonal antibodies against Pvs-ORF239 to evaluate the role of this putative male sterility-associated protein. Histological investigation of pollen development revealed that in the male-sterile bean line, callose deposition was abnormal and microspores remained as tetrads as previously reported. Pvs-ORF239 was found to be localized within the reproductive tissues of the male-sterile bean line, in contrast to all other cytoplasmic male sterility systems studied to date. This protein was associated with mitochondria, the callose layer, and developing primary cell walls during microsporogenesis. Expression of pvs-orf239 was not detected in fertile plants containing restorer gene Fr2. These observations, together with previous reports, suggest that nuclear restorer gene Fr2 interferes with expression of the pvs region post-transcriptionally. PMID:7734962

  10. Coalitionary mate guarding by male chimpanzees at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David P. Watts

    1998-01-01

    Cooperative mate guarding by males is unusual in mammals and birds, largely because fertilizations are non-shareable. Chimpanzees\\u000a live in fission-fusion communities that have cores of philopatric males who cooperate in inter-group aggression and in defending\\u000a access to the females in their community. Male contest mating competition is restrained within communities, but single high-ranking\\u000a males sometimes try to mate guard estrous

  11. Male Deception in Short-Term Mating as a Function of Personality 

    E-print Network

    Fryer, Claire

    2007-01-01

    Deception is one solution which evolved to solve the adaptive problem of obtaining a mate. This study investigated the nature of deception used by males in short-term mating and whether use of this strategy was related ...

  12. Do male breeding displays function to attract mates or defend territories? The explanatory role of mate and site fidelity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lanctot, Richard B.; Sandercock, B.K.; Kempenaers, B.

    2000-01-01

    Many shorebirds show elaborate breeding displays that include aerial flights and ground displays accompanied by song. The mate attraction hypothesis suggests that breeding displays function to attract mates and maintain pair bonds, whereas the territory defense hypothesis suggests breeding displays function in defining and defending nesting and feeding territories. We tested these hypotheses in the Western Sandpiper (Calidris mauri) by contrasting the duration and level of male breeding displays among pairs that differed in their mate and site fidelity. As predicted by the mate attraction hypothesis, males performed the highest number of song sequences during pair formation, and males paired with their mate of a prior year sang less than males paired to new mates. Further, site-faithful males mated to a new but experienced mate displayed significantly more than remated males or males new to the area. This suggests a male's prior familiarity with an area and his neighbors does not lessen his display rate as was predicted under the territory defense hypothesis. Limited support for the territory defense hypothesis came from observations of males performing breeding displays with neighboring males along nest territory boundaries. This behavior was short-lived, however, as males abandoned nesting areas after pair-formation and used adjacent or disjointed feeding areas during egg-laying and incubation. Male aggression (i.e., aerial and ground chases), as opposed to breeding displays, appeared to be the principal means of maintaining territory boundaries. Indeed, the rate at which males chased other males remained fairly constant and high throughout the breeding season. Male chasing behavior may also serve as a paternity guard to protect against extra-pair copulations. Our study also found that a female's prior breeding experience in an area correlated with a reduced display rate by her mate, particularly if that mate was new to the area. This indicates female characteristics may not only drive nest initiation, as has been shown in other studies, but are important in determining the duration and extent of male display. Received: 7 February 2000, accepted 10 March 2000.

  13. Multiple Mating and Reproductive Success of Male and Female Apple Maggot Flies, Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan B. Opp; Ronald J. Prokopy

    2000-01-01

    Mature male and female apple maggot flies mated frequently on a field-caged host tree during a 14-day study. Each sex averaged one mating per day (mean of 1.0 ± 0.1), but some females mated up to eight times per day and some males up to six times per day. Reproductive success was estimated based both on observed numbers of matings

  14. Parthenogenesis maintains male sterility in a gynodioecious orchid.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shuang-Quan; Lu, Yang; Chen, Ying-Zhuo; Luo, Yi-Bo; Delph, Lynda F

    2009-10-01

    The invasion of male-sterile (female) individuals into hermaphroditic populations, leading to gynodioecy, is common in flowering plants. Both theoretical and empirical studies have shown that as the frequency of females increases in a population, pollen limitation reduces seed production more in females than in hermaphrodites, leading to higher fitness for hermaphrodites and a consequent decrease in female frequency. Here we show that contrary to this expectation, females of the gynodioecious orchid Satyrium ciliatum are maintained only in populations that experience high pollen limitation caused by low pollinator service and high pollen herbivory. This species avoids the typical problem of pollen limitation for seed production and can therefore maintain high frequencies of females in pollen-limited populations because females produce more seeds than hermaphrodites via facultative parthenogenesis in the absence of pollinia. Our results therefore demonstrate that parthenogenesis is a novel mechanism favoring the maintenance of gynodioecy. PMID:19689212

  15. Sterilizing effects of cobalt-60 and cesium-137 radiation on male sea lampreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanson, L.H.

    1990-01-01

    Male spawning-run sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus were exposed to various doses of cobalt-60 or cesium-137 radiation in an attempt to sterilize them for use in a program for controlling sea lampreys through the release of sterile males. Males captured and irradiated during the early part of the upstream migration were not effectively sterilized at the doses tested. After irradiation, the sea lampreys were more susceptible to fungal infections by Saprolegnia sp., and many died without attempting to spawn. Males captured and irradiated during the middle and late parts of the spawning migration were effectively sterilized at a dose of 2,000 rads. However, some radiation-induced mortality was observed in males captured and irradiated during the middle part of the spawning migration. Radiation is not as effective as the chemosterilant bisazir for sterilizing male sea lampreys.

  16. Female sticklebacks use male coloration in mate choice and hence avoid parasitized males

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manfred Milinski; Theo C. M. Bakker

    1990-01-01

    AN important problem in evolutionary biology since the time of Darwin has been to understand why females preferentially mate with males handicapped by secondary sexual ornaments1-3. One hypothesis of sexual selection theory is that these ornaments reliably reveal the male's condition4-6, which can be affected for example by parasites4,7-13. Here we show that in the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) the

  17. Mating behavior of adolescent male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Watts, David P

    2015-04-01

    Male mating tactics vary extensively in many primates. Some variation occurs because adolescent males often are sexually active but cannot invest heavily in mating effort because of their limited ability to compete directly with adults and because they are still investing in growth; consequently, most of their mating attempts may be surreptitious and/or with females whose fecundity is low. Chimpanzees (Pan trogolodytes) have a complex mating system: most copulations occur between estrous females with full sexual swelling and multiple males in group settings where the potential for sperm competition is high, but males sometimes mate-guard females, and sometimes male-female pairs mate exclusively with each other while avoiding other males during "consortships." Among other factors, dominance ranks, coalition formation, and variation in male-female association influence male mating and reproductive success. Mating effort increases from adolescence into prime adulthood. At Gombe and Mahale, adolescent males copulated more with nulliparous than with parous females, and mostly when females were unlikely to be ovulating, partly because of low adult male interest in nulliparous females and partly because of aggression from or avoidance of adult males. Adolescents thus had low probabilities of siring infants. However, adolescents are known to have gained some paternity at Gombe and in other populations, and their mating behavior deserves more study. I present data on mating by adolescent males in an unusually large chimpanzee community at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda. Adolescents at Ngogo also copulated more with nulliparous than parous females and mostly copulated outside of periovulatory periods. Also, they directed less aggression at estrous females than did adult males. However, they gained lower shares of copulations than reported for Gombe and Mahale, regardless of female parity, and received more aggression from adult males. These differences might partly reflect the influence of variation in the number of males per community on male mating tactics. PMID:25344150

  18. Early events in speciation: Polymorphism for hybrid male sterility in Drosophila

    E-print Network

    Markow, Therese

    Early events in speciation: Polymorphism for hybrid male sterility in Drosophila Laura K. Reed of hybrid male sterility in crosses between Drosophila mojavensis and its sister species, Drosophila variation in the Drosophila melanogaster species group. Mutations that rescue inviable hybrids have been

  19. Diverse germplasm to devleop male-sterile lines for hybrid breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hybrid rice breeding in the US has depended largely upon male-sterile lines originating in China or from other Asian sources. By contrast, the program in Arkansas has developed all of its male-sterile lines at Stuttgart,AR using germplasm accessions available in the USDA Rice Germplasm Collection st...

  20. Gynodioecy in Plantago lanceolata L. III. Sexual reproduction and the maintenance of male steriles1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J M M Van Damme

    1984-01-01

    The importance of the reproductive part of the life cycle for the maintenance of the gynodioecious breeding system in Plantago lanceolata has been studied. Two male sterility types (MS1, MS2), the corresponding partial male sterility types or intermediates (IN1, IN2) and hermaphrodites (H) have been compared in four populations for seed production (ovule production [ ] female fertility) and weight

  1. Adaptive significance of postcopulatory guarding of mates and nonmates by male Calopteryx maculata (Odonata)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan K. Waage

    1979-01-01

    1.The postcopulatory behavior of the damselfly Calopteryx maculata (De Beauvois) (Odonata: Calopterygidae) was studied in field populations to determine the adaptive significance of guarding of ovipositing females by males. Of particular interest was an explanation for the guarding of ovipositing nonmates by males. A promiscuous mating system and the large variation in mating success (Table 1) among territorial males indicated

  2. Mating frequency of the male cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae), under laboratory conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated the number of times that males of the invasive cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) mate under laboratory conditions. Virgin females were provided to each male at 24 h intervals until male death. Females removed from the containers were dissected to ascertain their mating ...

  3. Male Mating History and Body Size Influence Female Fecundity and Longevity of the Dengue Vector Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Helinski, Michelle E.H.; Harrington, Laura C.

    2014-01-01

    Male reproductive success is dependent on insemination success and reproductive output. During mating, male mosquitoes transfer not just sperm, but also seminal fluid proteins that may have profound effects on mated female biology and behavior. In this study, we investigated the role of male body size and mating history on semen depletion, female longevity and reproductive success in Aedes aegypti L. Small and large males were mated in rapid succession with up to five females. Our results indicate that large males had greater mating capacity than small males. A reduction in fecundity by more than 50% was observed in females that were fourth to mate with small males in comparison to females that mated earlier in sequence. For females mated to large males, this reduction became evident for females that mated fifth in sequence. No loss of fertility (measured as hatch rate) was observed in females that were 3rd-5th in mating sequence compared to females mated to virgin males. When females were maintained on a low-quality (5% sucrose) diet, those mated to virgin males had a greater longevity compared to females mated third in sequence. We conclude that small males experience more rapid seminal depletion than large males, and discuss the role of semen depletion in the mated female. Our results contribute towards a better understanding of the complexity of Ae. aegypti mating biology and provide refined estimates of mating capacity for genetic control efforts. PMID:21485355

  4. Female Preferences for Unmated Versus Mated Males in Two Species of Voles (Microtus ochrogaster and Microtus montanus )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John D. Pierce; Donald A. Dewsbury

    1991-01-01

    One criterion of mate choice, female preferences for unmated versus mated males, was examined for prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster), a generally monogamous species, and montane voles (M. montanus), a generally polygamous species. In tether tests and anesthetization tests, prairie vole females preferentially associated with unmated males over males that had been mated for three ejaculations prior to testing. When mated

  5. The Effects of Perceived Mating Opportunities on Patterns of Reproductive Investment by Male Guppies

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Luke T.; Evans, Jonathan P.; Gasparini, Clelia

    2014-01-01

    Males pay considerable reproductive costs in acquiring mates (precopulatory sexual selection) and in producing ejaculates that are effective at fertilising eggs in the presence of competing ejaculates (postcopulatory sexual selection). Given these costs, males must balance their reproductive investment in a given mating to optimise their future reproductive potential. Males are therefore expected to invest in reproduction prudently according to the likelihood of obtaining future matings. In this study we tested this prediction by determining whether male reproductive investment varies with expected future mating opportunities, which were experimentally manipulated by visually exposing male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) to high or low numbers of females in the absence of competing males. Our experiment did not reveal consistent effects of perceived future mating opportunity on either precopulatory (male mate choice and mating behaviour) or postcopulatory (sperm quality and quantity) investment. However, we did find that male size and female availability interacted to influence mating behaviour; large males visually deprived of females during the treatment phase became more choosy and showed greater interest in their preferred female than those given continuous visual access to females. Overall, our results suggest males tailor pre- rather than postcopulatory traits according to local female availability, but critically, these effects depend on male size. PMID:24705713

  6. Effects of diet, ginger root oil, and elevation on the mating competitiveness of male Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) from a mass-reared, genetic sexing strain in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Shelly, Todd E; Rendon, Pedro; Hernandez, Emilio; Salgado, Sergio; McInnis, Donald; Villalobos, Ethel; Liedo, Pablo

    2003-08-01

    The release of sterile males is a key component of an areawide program to eradicate the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), from Guatemala and southern Mexico. The objective of our study was to assess the effects of adult diet, exposure to ginger root oil (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), and elevation on the mating competitiveness of the sterile males used in an areawide program. Sterile males were maintained on a protein-sugar (protein-fed) or a sugar-only (protein-deprived) diet and were exposed (for 4 h 1 d before testing) or not exposed to ginger root oil. In field-cage trials conducted at a high (1,500 m) and low (700 m) site, we monitored the influence of these treatments on the mating success of sterile males in competition with wild males (reared exclusively on the protein-sugar diet and without ginger root oil exposure) for wild females. Elevation and ginger root oil exposure had significant effects, with sterile males having higher mating success at the low-elevation site and ginger root oil-exposed males having greater success than ginger root oil-deprived males at both sites. Diet did not have a significant overall effect, and its influence varied with elevation (dietary protein seemed to provide an advantage at the high-elevation site but not at the low-elevation site). Possible implications of these findings for eradication programs against the Mediterranean fruit fly are discussed. PMID:14503584

  7. Male fish use prior knowledge about rivals to adjust their mate choice

    PubMed Central

    Bierbach, David; Girndt, Antje; Hamfler, Sybille; Klein, Moritz; Mücksch, Frauke; Penshorn, Marina; Schwinn, Michael; Zimmer, Claudia; Schlupp, Ingo; Streit, Bruno; Plath, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Mate choice as one element of sexual selection can be sensitive to public information from neighbouring individuals. Here, we demonstrate that males of the livebearing fish Poecilia mexicana gather complex social information when given a chance to familiarize themselves with rivals prior to mate choice. Focal males ceased to show mating preferences when being observed by a rival (which prevents rivals from copying mating decisions), but this effect was only seen when focal males have perceived rivals as sexually active. In addition, focal males that were observed by a familiar, sexually active rival showed a stronger behavioural response when rivals were larger and thus, more attractive to females. Our study illustrates an unparalleled adjustment in the expression of mating preferences based on social cues, and suggests that male fish are able to remember and strategically exploit information about rivals when performing mate choice. PMID:21208944

  8. Male fish use prior knowledge about rivals to adjust their mate choice.

    PubMed

    Bierbach, David; Girndt, Antje; Hamfler, Sybille; Klein, Moritz; Mücksch, Frauke; Penshorn, Marina; Schwinn, Michael; Zimmer, Claudia; Schlupp, Ingo; Streit, Bruno; Plath, Martin

    2011-06-23

    Mate choice as one element of sexual selection can be sensitive to public information from neighbouring individuals. Here, we demonstrate that males of the livebearing fish Poecilia mexicana gather complex social information when given a chance to familiarize themselves with rivals prior to mate choice. Focal males ceased to show mating preferences when being observed by a rival (which prevents rivals from copying mating decisions), but this effect was only seen when focal males have perceived rivals as sexually active. In addition, focal males that were observed by a familiar, sexually active rival showed a stronger behavioural response when rivals were larger and thus, more attractive to females. Our study illustrates an unparalleled adjustment in the expression of mating preferences based on social cues, and suggests that male fish are able to remember and strategically exploit information about rivals when performing mate choice. PMID:21208944

  9. Hormonal contraceptive use and mate retention behavior in women and their male partners

    E-print Network

    Little, Tony

    Hormonal contraceptive use and mate retention behavior in women and their male partners Lisa L Available online 18 November 2011 Keywords: Mate retention behavior MRI-SF Hormonal contraception Mate guarding Hormones Estradiol Female hormonal contraceptive use has been associated with a variety

  10. The genetics of inviability and male sterility in hybrids between Anopheles gambiae and An. arabiensis.

    PubMed Central

    Slotman, M; Della Torre, A; Powell, J R

    2004-01-01

    Male hybrids between Anopheles gambiae and An. arabiensis suffer from hybrid sterility, and inviability effects are sometimes present as well. We examined the genetic basis of these reproductive barriers between the two species, using 21 microsatellite markers. Generally, recessive inviability effects were found on the X chromosome of gambiae that are incompatible with at least one factor on each arabiensis autosome. Inviability is complete when the gambiae and arabiensis inviability factors are hemi- or homozygous. Using a QTL mapping approach, regions that contribute to male hybrid sterility were also identified. The X chromosome has a disproportionately large effect on male hybrid sterility. Additionally, several moderate-to-large autosomal QTL were found in both species. The effect of these autosomal QTL is contingent upon the presence of an X chromosome from the other species. Substantial regions of the autosomes do not contribute markedly to male hybrid sterility. Finally, no evidence for epistatic interactions between conspecific sterility loci was found. PMID:15166154

  11. Pushy males and choosy females: courtship disruption and mate choice in the lekking great snipe

    PubMed Central

    ther, S. A. S; Fiske, P.; s, J. A. K l

    1999-01-01

    We studied the effects of male disruptive behaviour on female mate choice and male mating success in the great snipe, Gallinago media, a lekking bird. Harassment from neighbouring males, a widespread behaviour in lekking animals, was the most prevalent cause of females leaving a male territory. Several lines of evidence show that females did not prefer to mate with males able to protect them from harassment. Males that obtained mating success were no less likely to suffer disruptions and females were no less likely to be disrupted when with their preferred male. Females returned to the male they later mated with, despite being repeatedly chased away by neighbours. The probability that an individual female returned and solicited mating from a male was 15 times higher for the male she was chased away from compared to the neighbour that chased her away. Females returned as often or more to the territory owner after being disrupted, compared to after leaving the territory without being harassed. Our results suggest that female great snipes are extremely choosy, but also that females do not gain direct benefits (harassment avoidance) by mating with certain males. Females appear to have neither direct nor indirect preferences for dominance that could give them such benefits: females appeared choosy despite, not because of, harassment. If females gain indirect benefits (genetically superior offspring) by being choosy, this is also likely to be unrelated to any dominance among males.

  12. Molecular mapping of a new induced gene for nuclear male sterility in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new NMS line, NMS HA89-872, induced by mitomycin C and streptomycin carries a single recessive male-sterile gene ms6. An F2 population of 88 plants was obtained from a cross between nuclear male-sterile mutant NMS HA89-872 (msms) and male-fertile line RHA271 (MsMs). 225 SSR primers and 9 RFLP-deri...

  13. Cytoplasmic male sterility in Mimulus hybrids has pleiotropic effects on corolla and pistil traits

    PubMed Central

    Barr, C M; Fishman, L

    2011-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying genetic associations have important consequences for evolutionary outcomes, but distinguishing linkage from pleiotropy is often difficult. Here, we use a fine mapping approach to determine the genetic basis of association between cytonuclear male sterility and other floral traits in Mimulus hybrids. Previous work has shown that male sterility in hybrids between Mimulus guttatus and Mimulus nasutus is due to interactions between a mitochondrial gene from M. guttatus and two tightly linked nuclear restorer alleles on Linkage Group 7, and that male sterility is associated with reduced corolla size. In the present study, we generated a set of nearly isogenic lines segregating for the restorer region and male sterility, but with unique flanking introgressions. Male-sterile flowers had significantly smaller corollas, longer styles and greater stigmatic exsertion than fertile flowers. Because these effects were significant regardless of the genotypic composition of introgressions flanking the restorer region, they suggest that these floral differences are a direct byproduct of the genetic incompatibility causing anther abortion. In addition, we found a non-significant but intriguing trend for male-sterile plants to produce more seeds per flower than fertile siblings after supplemental pollination. Such pleiotropic effects may underlie the corolla dimorphism frequently observed in gynodioecious taxa and may affect selection on cytoplasmic male sterility genes when they initially arise. PMID:21245895

  14. Behavioural and life-history regulation in a unisexual/ bisexual mating system: does male mate choice affect

    E-print Network

    Schlupp, Ingo

    -history signature of male mate choice in a system of coexisting bisexual sailfin mollies (Poecilia latipinna) and gynogenetic Amazon mollies (Poecilia formosa). Specifically, we gave P. latipinna males an opportunity) females with sperm in their genital tract and (2) pregnant females. A higher proportion of P. latipinna

  15. Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Contributes to Hybrid Incompatibility Between Subspecies of Arabidopsis lyrata

    PubMed Central

    Aalto, Esa A.; Koelewijn, Hans-Peter; Savolainen, Outi

    2013-01-01

    In crosses between evolutionarily diverged populations, genomic incompatibilities may result in sterile hybrids, indicating evolution of reproductive isolation. In several plant families, crosses within a population can also lead to male sterile progeny because of conflict between the maternally and biparentally inherited genomes. We examined hybrid fertility between subspecies of the perennial outcrossing self-incompatible Lyrate rockcress (Arabidopsis lyrata) in large reciprocal F2 progenies and three generations of backcrosses. In one of the reciprocal F2 progenies, almost one-fourth of the plants were male-sterile. Correspondingly, almost one-half of the plants in one of the four reciprocal backcross progenies expressed male sterility. In an additional four independent F2 and backcross families, three segregated male sterility. The observed asymmetrical hybrid incompatibility is attributable to male sterility factors in one cytoplasm, for which the other population lacks effective fertility restorers. Genotyping of 96 molecular markers and quantitative trait locus mapping revealed that only 60% of the plants having the male sterile cytoplasm and lacking the corresponding restorers were phenotypically male-sterile. Genotyping data showed that there is only one restorer locus, which mapped to a 600-kb interval at the top of chromosome 2 in a region containing a cluster of pentatricopeptide repeat genes. Male fertility showed no trade-off with seed production. We discuss the role of cytoplasm and genomic conflict in incipient speciation and conclude that cytoplasmic male sterility–lowering hybrid fitness is a transient effect with limited potential to form permanent reproductive barriers between diverged populations of hermaphrodite self-incompatible species. PMID:23935000

  16. Cytoplasmic male sterility contributes to hybrid incompatibility between subspecies of Arabidopsis lyrata.

    PubMed

    Aalto, Esa A; Koelewijn, Hans-Peter; Savolainen, Outi

    2013-10-01

    In crosses between evolutionarily diverged populations, genomic incompatibilities may result in sterile hybrids, indicating evolution of reproductive isolation. In several plant families, crosses within a population can also lead to male sterile progeny because of conflict between the maternally and biparentally inherited genomes. We examined hybrid fertility between subspecies of the perennial outcrossing self-incompatible Lyrate rockcress (Arabidopsis lyrata) in large reciprocal F2 progenies and three generations of backcrosses. In one of the reciprocal F2 progenies, almost one-fourth of the plants were male-sterile. Correspondingly, almost one-half of the plants in one of the four reciprocal backcross progenies expressed male sterility. In an additional four independent F2 and backcross families, three segregated male sterility. The observed asymmetrical hybrid incompatibility is attributable to male sterility factors in one cytoplasm, for which the other population lacks effective fertility restorers. Genotyping of 96 molecular markers and quantitative trait locus mapping revealed that only 60% of the plants having the male sterile cytoplasm and lacking the corresponding restorers were phenotypically male-sterile. Genotyping data showed that there is only one restorer locus, which mapped to a 600-kb interval at the top of chromosome 2 in a region containing a cluster of pentatricopeptide repeat genes. Male fertility showed no trade-off with seed production. We discuss the role of cytoplasm and genomic conflict in incipient speciation and conclude that cytoplasmic male sterility-lowering hybrid fitness is a transient effect with limited potential to form permanent reproductive barriers between diverged populations of hermaphrodite self-incompatible species. PMID:23935000

  17. Visual Cues in Mate Recognition by Males of the Damselfly, Coenagrion puella (L.) (Odonata: Coenagrionidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. N. Gorb

    1998-01-01

    Coenagrion puella males search actively for mates and are not aggressive to other males. To study the role of visual cues in male–female discrimination, four types of models were used: (1) bodies of intact insects, (2) models of painted males, (3) models of male–female chimerae, and (4) models of female body parts. Abdomen coloration pattern and presence of wings were

  18. A lover, not a fighter: mating causes male crickets to lose fights

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin A. Judge; Janice J. Ting; Jonathan Schneider; Mark J. Fitzpatrick

    2010-01-01

    Both resource-holding potential (RHP) and experience in aggressive contests are known to affect future aggressive behaviour.\\u000a However, few studies have examined the effects of mating experience on agonistic behaviour, despite the fact that dominant\\u000a males usually acquire more matings. We investigated the effect of mating experience on male aggressive behaviour including\\u000a the relationship between RHP and fighting success in the

  19. Improving mating performance of mass-reared sterile Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) through changes in adult holding conditions: demography and mating competitiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Liedo, P.; Salgado, S.; Oropeza, A.; Toledo, J. [Departamento de Entomologia Tropical, El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, Apartado Postal 36, C. P. 30700, Tapachula, Chiapas (Mexico)

    2007-03-15

    Mass rearing conditions affect the mating behavior of Mediterranean fruit flies (medflies) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). We evaluated the effect of slight changes in the adult holding conditions of adult flies maintained for egg production on their mating performance. Colonization was initiated from wild flies collected as larvae from infested coffee berries (Coffea arabica L.). When pupae were close to adult emergence, they were randomly divided into 3 groups and the emerging adults were reared under the following conditions: (1) Metapa System (MS, control), consisting of 70 x 45 x 15 cm aluminum frame, mesh covered cages, with a density of 2,200 flies per cage and a 1:1 initial sex ratio; (2) Insert System (IS), with the same type of cage, and the same fly density and sex ratio as in the MS treatment, but containing twelve Plexiglas pieces (23 x 8.5 cm) to provide additional horizontal surface areas inside the cage; and (3) Sex-ratio System (SS), same as IS, but in this case the initial male: female ratio was 4:1. Three d later, newly emerged females were introduced, so the ratio became 3:1 and on the 6th d another group of newly emerged females was added to provide a 2:1 final sex ratio, at which the final density reached 1,675 flies per cage. The eggs collected from each of the 3 treatments were reared independently following standard procedures and the adults were held under the same experimental conditions. This process was repeated for over 10 to 13 generations (1 year). The experiment was repeated 3 times in 3 consecutive years, starting each replicate with a new collection of wild flies. Life tables were constructed for each treatment at the parental, 3rd, 6th, and 9th generations. Standard quality control parameters (pupation at 24 h, pupal weight, adult emergence, and flight ability), were estimated for each treatment every third generation in the third year. For the last generation each year, mating competitiveness was evaluated in field cage tests with wild flies. As colonization progressed, life expectancy and fecundity rates increased in the 3 rearing systems. There was no significant difference in standard quality control parameters among the 3 rearing systems. Wild males always achieved more matings than any of the mass reared males. Mating competitiveness of males from the IS, although surprisingly not from the SS, was significantly greater than that of males from the MS. Our results indicate that these slight changes in the adult holding conditions can significantly reduce the harmful effects of mass rearing on the mating performance of sterile flies. (author) [Spanish] Se ha demostrado que las condiciones de cria masiva afectan el comportamiento de apareamiento de la mosca del Mediterraneo Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Nosotros evaluamos el efecto de ligeros cambios en las condiciones en las que los adultos son mantenidos para la produccion de huevos, en el desempeno de apareamiento de las moscas esteriles. La colonizacion se inicio con moscas silvestres colectadas como larvas en cerezas de cafe (Coffea arabica L.) infestadas. Cuando las pupas estuvieron cerca de la emergencia de los adultos, se dividieron en tres grupos al azar y los adultos recien emergidos fueron criados en las siguientes condiciones: (1) Sistema Metapa (MS, testigo), consistente en jaulas con marco de aluminio de 70 x 45 x 15 cm, cubiertas con malla, con una densidad de 2,200 moscas por jaula y una relacion de sexos inicial de 1:1; (2); Sistema Insertos (IS), con el mismo tipo de jaula, densidad de moscas, y relacion de sexos que en el MS, pero conteniendo 12 piezas de plexiglas (23 x 8.5 cm) para proporcionar superficie horizontal al interior de la jaula; y (3) Sistema de Relacion de Sexos (SS), igual que el IS, pero en este caso la relacion inicial macho: hembra fue de 4:1, tres dias despues se introdujeron hembras recien emergidas para tener una relacion de 3:1 y en el 6 dia se anadio otro grupo de hembras para tener una relacion final de sexos de 2:1, que equivale a una densidad final de 1,675 moscas por jaula. Los huevos

  20. Changes in singing behavior of male black-capped chickadees ( Parus atricapillus ) following mate removal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ken Otter; Laurene Ratcliffe

    1993-01-01

    We removed the mates of ten male black-capped chickadees (Pares atricapillus) during the nest-building period to determine the effect of female presence on dawn singing. During the first dawn chorus following mate removal, males sang significantly longer, increased movement within their territory, and increased the percentage of their territory covered while singing. After the female was returned, these parameters returned

  1. TERRITORIALITY AND THE DETERMINANTS OF MALE MATING SUCCESS IN THE SOUTHERN AFRICAN WHYDAHS (VIDUA)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phoebe Barnard

    1989-01-01

    Barnard, P. 1989. Territoriality and the determinants of male mating success in the southern African whydahs (Vidua). Ostrich 60: 103–117.Variation in the ecological attributes of traditional mating sites defended by male Pintailed (V. macroura, PTW), Shafttailed (V. regia, STW) and Paradise Whydah (V. paradisaea, PW) was analysed using data from a three year study in South Africa. Differences in sexual

  2. Mechanisms of Mating-Behavior Deterioration in Early Aging Male C. elegans

    E-print Network

    Guo, Xiaoyan

    2014-08-06

    adulthood, as the mating potency of 3-day-old wild-type males is significantly lower than 1-day-old males. Meanwhile, using both pharmacological tests and calcium imaging, I showed that the excitability of the mating circuit increased during early adulthood...

  3. Effects of body size on male mating tactics and paternity in black bears, Ursus americanus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adrienne I. Kovach; Roger A. Powell

    2003-01-01

    The reproductive behaviour of large, solitary mammals is difficult to study. Owing to their secretive nature and wide-ranging habits, aspects of male mating behaviour are poorly documented in solitary than in social species. We used radiotelemetry and microsatellite DNA analysis to investigate the influence of body size on male mating tac- tics and short-term reproductive success in the black bear,

  4. Reproductive defence priorities of male willow ptarmigan ( Lagopus lagopus ): enhancing mate survival or extending paternity options?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathy Martin

    1984-01-01

    Cock willow ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopus) closely guard their mates from predators and conspecific males, and vigorously defend their nests and young. In view of potential costs and benefits of behavioural guarding descisions, I designed a test to examine if, when and how males altered defence priorities. Cock willow ptarmigan were very attentive to their mates throughout the breeding season, unaccompanied

  5. Females prefer carotenoid colored males as mates in the pentamorphic livebearing fish, Poecilia parae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Godfrey R. Bourne; Felix Breden; Teresa C. Allen

    2003-01-01

    The first results of female preference and chosen male mating success in a new model organism, the pentamorphic livebearing fish, Poecilia parae, are presented. Poecilia parae is a relative of the guppy, P. reticulata, and is assumed to have similar reproductive behavior. We tested the hypothesis that P. parae females, like female guppies, prefer caretenoid colored males as mates. Here

  6. Anim. Behav., 1996, 52, 12251236 Male mate preferences in a gynogenetic species complex of Amazon mollies

    E-print Network

    Ryan, Michael J.

    . Poecilia mexicana males, alternatively, showed high mate attraction to P. formosa when these females were. number: A7425R) Abstract. Female Amazon mollies, Poecilia formosa, are gynogenetic and mate with males of a sexual species, P. latipinna or P. mexicana, for successful reproduction. It was found that both species

  7. Fertilization dynamics of sperm from different male mating tactics in bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus)

    E-print Network

    Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht

    Fertilization dynamics of sperm from different male mating tactics in bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus (Lepomis macrochirus Rafinesque, 1819) mâles en fonction de deux tactiques d'accouplement, celles de l the fertilization dynamics of alternative mating tactics (cuckolders and parentals) of male bluegill (Lepomis

  8. Variations in mitochondrial DNA organisation between normal and male-sterile cytoplasms of maize.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, R D; Kemble, R J; Flavell, R B

    1980-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA from male-sterile lines of maize carrying S cytoplasm contains two small DNA species which are absent from N (fertile) and other male-sterile cytoplasms. Portions of these species have been purified and amplified by constructing recombinant plasmids in vitro. Probes made with these plasmids have been used to demonstrate; i) a homologous region in the N mitochondrial genome, which may indicate the origin of the S specific DNA species. ii) two other DNA species present in low amounts in S cytoplasm only. iii) the absence of strong homology to the S specific DNA species in mitochondria from C and T male-sterile cytoplasms. Images PMID:7433134

  9. Feminization of pheromone-sensing neurons affects mating decisions in Drosophila males.

    PubMed

    Lu, Beika; Zelle, Kathleen M; Seltzer, Raya; Hefetz, Abraham; Ben-Shahar, Yehuda

    2014-01-01

    The response of individual animals to mating signals depends on the sexual identity of the individual and the genetics of the mating targets, which represent the mating social context (social environment). However, how social signals are sensed and integrated during mating decisions remains a mystery. One of the models for understanding mating behaviors in molecular and cellular terms is the male courtship ritual in the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster). We have recently shown that a subset of gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs) that are enriched in the male appendages and express the ion channel ppk23 play a major role in the initiation and maintenance of male courtship via the perception of cuticular contact pheromones, and are likely to represent the main chemosensory pathway that influences mating decisions by males. Here we show that genetic feminization of ppk23-expressing GRNs in male flies resulted in a significant increase in male-male sexual attraction without an apparent impact on sexual attraction to females. Furthermore, we show that this increase in male-male sexual attraction is sensory specific, which can be modulated by variable social contexts. Finally, we show that feminization of ppk23-expressing sensory neurons lead to major transcriptional shifts, which may explain the altered interpretation of the social environment by feminized males. Together, these data indicate that the sexual cellular identity of pheromone sensing GRNs plays a major role in how individual flies interpret their social environment in the context of mating decisions. PMID:24463366

  10. Feminization of pheromone-sensing neurons affects mating decisions in Drosophila males

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Beika; Zelle, Kathleen M.; Seltzer, Raya; Hefetz, Abraham; Ben-Shahar, Yehuda

    2014-01-01

    Summary The response of individual animals to mating signals depends on the sexual identity of the individual and the genetics of the mating targets, which represent the mating social context (social environment). However, how social signals are sensed and integrated during mating decisions remains a mystery. One of the models for understanding mating behaviors in molecular and cellular terms is the male courtship ritual in the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster). We have recently shown that a subset of gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs) that are enriched in the male appendages and express the ion channel ppk23 play a major role in the initiation and maintenance of male courtship via the perception of cuticular contact pheromones, and are likely to represent the main chemosensory pathway that influences mating decisions by males. Here we show that genetic feminization of ppk23-expressing GRNs in male flies resulted in a significant increase in male–male sexual attraction without an apparent impact on sexual attraction to females. Furthermore, we show that this increase in male–male sexual attraction is sensory specific, which can be modulated by variable social contexts. Finally, we show that feminization of ppk23-expressing sensory neurons lead to major transcriptional shifts, which may explain the altered interpretation of the social environment by feminized males. Together, these data indicate that the sexual cellular identity of pheromone sensing GRNs plays a major role in how individual flies interpret their social environment in the context of mating decisions. PMID:24463366

  11. X-ray-induced sterility in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) and male longevity following irradiation.

    PubMed

    Yamada, H; Parker, A G; Oliva, C F; Balestrino, F; Gilles, J R L

    2014-07-01

    The mosquito Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1895) is a potent vector of several arboviral diseases, most notably chikungunya and dengue fever. In the context of the sterile insect technique (SIT), the sterilization of the male mosquitoes before their release can be achieved by gamma-ray irradiation. As gamma-ray irradiators are becoming increasingly problematic to purchase and transport, the suitability of an X-ray irradiator as an alternative for the sterilization of Ae. albopictus males was studied. The sterilization of up to 200,000 pupae at one time can be achieved with relative ease, and the sterility results obtained were comparable with those achieved by gamma irradiation, where 99% sterility is induced with a dose of 40 Gy. A significant reduction of longevity was observed in the latter stages of the males' life after irradiation treatments, especially at doses > 40 Gy, which is consistent with the negative effects on longevity induced by similar radiation doses using gamma rays. Females irradiated at 40 Gy were not only 100% sterile, but also failed to oviposit entirely, i.e., all of the females laid 0 eggs. Overall, it was found that the X-ray irradiator is generally suitable for the sterilization process for sterile insect technique programs, as it showed a high processing capacity, practicality, high effectiveness, and reproducibility. PMID:25118413

  12. Natural genetic variation in complex mating behaviors of male Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Ruedi, Elizabeth A; Hughes, Kimberly A

    2008-07-01

    Mating behavior, including courtship and copulation, is a main component of male fitness, especially in species with no parental care. Variation in this behavior can thus be a target for mate choice and sexual selection, and can lead to evolution. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has well-documented complex male courtship comprised of a sequence behaviors, and is an ideal model for behavior-genetic analysis. In order to evaluate genetic differences in the temporal pattern of mating behavior, we developed a high-throughput method that allows us to document the progression of male courtship and copulation using an ordinal scale (male mating progression scale, MMP). Using this method, we document natural genetic variation in the temporal pattern of behavior that was not detected using other metrics. This method was robust enough to detect genetic variation in this trait for males placed with both virgin and mated female targets. PMID:18369720

  13. Female and Male Moths Display Different Reproductive Behavior when Facing New versus Previous Mates

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Qin; Xu, Jin; Ye, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Multiple mating allows females to obtain material (more sperm and nutrient) and/or genetic benefits. The genetic benefit models require sperm from different males to fertilize eggs competitively or the offspring be fathered by multiple males. To maximize genetic benefits from multiple mating, females have evolved strategies to prefer novel versus previous mates in their subsequent matings. However, the reproductive behavior during mate encounter, mate choice and egg laying in relation to discrimination and preference between sexes has been largely neglected. In the present study, we used novel and previous mate treatments and studied male and female behavior and reproductive output in Spodoptera litura. The results of this study do not support the sperm and nutrient replenishment hypotheses because neither the number of mates nor the number of copulations achieved by females significantly increased female fecundity, fertility and longevity. However, females showed different oviposition patterns when facing new versus previous mates by slowing down oviposition, which allows the last male has opportunities to fertilize her eggs and the female to promote offspring diversity. Moreover, females that have novel males present called earlier and more than females that have their previous mates present, whereas no significant differences were found on male courtship between treatments. These results suggest that S. litura females can distinguish novel from previous mates and prefer the former, whereas males generally remate regardless of whether the female is a previous mate or not. In S. litura, eggs are laid in large clusters and offspring competition, inbreeding and disease transfer risks are thus increased. Therefore, offspring diversity should be valuable for S. litura, and genetic benefits should be the main force behind the evolution of female behavioral strategies found in the present study. PMID:25290195

  14. Evaluating the potential of the sterile insect technique for malaria control: relative fitness and mating compatibility between laboratory colonized and a wild population of Anopheles arabiensis from the Kruger National Park, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The successful suppression of a target insect population using the sterile insect technique (SIT) partly depends on the premise that the laboratory insects used for mass rearing are genetically compatible with the target population, that the mating competitiveness of laboratory reared males is at least comparable to that of their wild counterparts, and that mass rearing and sterilization processes do not in themselves compromise male fitness to a degree that precludes them from successfully competing for mates in the wild. This study investigated the fitness and sexual cross-compatibility between samples of field collected and laboratory reared An. arabiensis under laboratory conditions. Results The physiological and reproductive fitness of the MALPAN laboratory strain is not substantially modified with respect to the field population at Malahlapanga. Further, a high degree of mating compatibility between MALPAN and the Malahlapanga population was established based on cross-mating experiments. Lastly, the morphological characteristics of hybrid ovarian polytene chromosomes further support the contention that the MALPAN laboratory colony and the An. arabiensis population at Malahlapanga are genetically homogenous and therefore compatible. Conclusions It is concluded that the presence of a perennial and isolated population of An. arabiensis at Malahlapanga presents a unique opportunity for assessing the feasibility of SIT as a malaria vector control option. The MALPAN laboratory colony has retained sufficient enough measures of reproductive and physiological fitness to present as a suitable candidate for male sterilization, mass rearing and subsequent mass release of sterile males at Malahlapanga in order to further assess the feasibility of SIT in a field setting. PMID:22041133

  15. Genetics of Reproductive Isolation in the Drosophila simulans Clade: Complex Epistasis Underlying Hybrid Male Sterility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric L. Cabot; Andrew W. Davis; Norman A. Johnson; Chung-I Wu

    We have analyzed the sterility associated with introgressions of the distal one-fourth of the X chrc- mosome from either Drosophila mauritiana or Drosophila sechellia into the genome of Drosophila simu- lans using a series of visible and DNA markers. Because in Drosophila hybrids, male sterility is usually complete and is often tightly linked with each of several markers used in

  16. Effects of a parasitic nematode on male mate choice in a livebearing fish with a coercive mating system (western mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis).

    PubMed

    Deaton, Raelynn

    2009-01-01

    I examined the effects of the parasitic larval nematode, Eustrongylides ignotus, on male mate choice in the western mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis. I hypothesized that parasite presence influences male mate choice either directly (via reduction in male mating behavior due to presence of parasite in females) or indirectly (via reduction in male mating behavior due to reduced condition of infected females). Specifically, I tested the predictions that (1) males would mate preferentially with uninfected over infected females (scoring both mating attempts and association time with females); (2) parasitized females would be in poorer condition than non-parasitized females (measured as soluble fat stores); and (3) parasitized females would have reduced fecundity (measured as number of developing embryos). Males preferred to mate with non-parasitized over parasitized females, but showed no differences in association time between females. The nematode did not decrease female body condition, but did decrease female mass, and appeared to decrease female fecundity via reduction in broods (# embryos). Results support that parasites affect male mate choice in mosquitofish; however, the mechanisms used by males to differentiate between parasitized and non-parasitized females remain untested. This study provides the first empirical evidence of parasite affects on male mate choice in livebearing fishes, and suggest a potentially important role for parasite-mediated sexual selection in organisms that use coercive mating as the primary mechanism of obtaining mates. PMID:18765273

  17. Alternative phenotypes of male mating behaviour in the two-spotted spider mite.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yukie; Sabelis, Maurice W; Egas, Martijn; Faraji, Farid

    2013-09-01

    Severe intraspecific competition for mates selects for aggressive individuals but may also lead to the evolution of alternative phenotypes that do not act aggressively, yet manage to acquire matings. The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, shows male mate-guarding behaviour and male-male combat for available females. This may provide opportunity for weaker males to avoid fighting by adopting alternative mating behaviour such as sneaker or satellite tactics as observed in other animals. We investigated male precopulatory behaviour in the two-spotted spider mite by means of video-techniques and found three types of male mating behaviour: territorial, sneaker and opportunistic. Territorial and sneaker males associate with female teleiochrysales and spend much time guarding them. Territorial males are easily disturbed by rival males and engage themselves in fights with them. However, sneaker males are not at all disturbed by rival males, never engage in fights and, strikingly, never face attack by territorial males. Opportunistic males wander around in search of females that are in the teleiochrysalis stage but very close to or at emergence. To quickly classify any given mate-guarding male as territorial or sneaker we developed a method based on the instantaneous response of males to disturbance by a live male mounted on top of a brush. We tested this method against the response of the same males to natural disturbance by two or three other males. Because this method proved to be successful, we used it to collect territorial and sneaker males, and subjected them to morphological analysis to assess whether the various behavioural phenotypes are associated with different morphological characters. However, we found no statistical differences between territorial and sneaker males, concerning the length of the first legs, the stylets, the pedipalps or the body. PMID:23423424

  18. Variation in the Male Pheromones and Mating Success of Wild Caught Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Scott, David; Shields, Alicia; Straker, Michaela; Dalrymple, Heidi; Dhillon, Priya K.; Harbinder, Singh

    2011-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster males express two primary cuticular hydrocarbons (male-predominant hydrocarbons). These act as sex pheromones by influencing female receptivity to mating. The relative quantities of these hydrocarbons vary widely among natural populations and can contribute to variation in mating success. We tested four isofemale lines collected from a wild population to assess the effect of intrapopulation variation in male-predominant hydrocarbons on mating success. The receptivity of laboratory females to males of the four wild-caught lines varied significantly, but not consistently in the direction predicted by variation in male-predominant hydrocarbons. Receptivity of the wild-caught females to laboratory males also varied significantly, but females from lines with male-predominant hydrocarbon profiles closer to a more cosmopolitan one did not show a correspondingly strong mating bias toward a cosmopolitan male. Among wild-caught lines, the male-specific ejaculatory bulb lipid, cis-vaccenyl acetate, varied more than two-fold, but was not associated with variation in male mating success. We observed a strong inverse relationship between the receptivity of wild-caught females and the mating success of males from their own lines, when tested with laboratory flies of the opposite sex. PMID:21858189

  19. Premature dissolution of the microsporocyte callose wall causes male sterility in transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed Central

    Worrall, D; Hird, D L; Hodge, R; Paul, W; Draper, J; Scott, R

    1992-01-01

    Male sterility in a petunia cytoplasmic male sterile line has been attributed to the early appearance of active callase, a beta-1,3-glucanase, in the anther locule. This leads to premature dissolution of the callose walls surrounding the microsporogenous cells. We have mimicked this aspect of the petunia line in transgenic tobacco by engineering the secretion of a modified pathogenesis-related vacuolar beta-1,3-glucanase from the tapetum prior to the appearance of callase activity in the locule. Plants expressing the modified glucanase from tapetum-specific promoters exhibited reduced male fertility, ranging from complete to partial male sterility. Callose appearance and distribution are normal in the male sterile transgenic plants up to prophase I, whereupon callose is prematurely degraded. Meiosis and cell division occur normally. The resultant microspores have an abnormally thin cell wall that lacks sculpturing. The tapetum shows hypertrophy. Male sterility is probably caused by bursting of the aberrant microspores at a time corresponding to microspore release. These results demonstrate that premature callose degradation is sufficient to cause male sterility and suggest that callose is essential for the formation of a normal microspore cell wall. PMID:1392594

  20. Determinants of male reproductive health disorders: the Men in Australia Telephone Survey (MATeS)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The relationship between reproductive health disorders and lifestyle factors in middle-aged and older men is not clear. The aim of this study is to describe lifestyle and biomedical associations as possible causes of erectile dysfunction (ED), prostate disease (PD), lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and perceived symptoms of androgen deficiency (pAD) in a representative population of middle-aged and older men, using the Men in Australia Telephone Survey (MATeS). Methods A representative sample (n = 5990) of men aged 40+ years, stratified by age and State, was contacted by random selection of households, with an individual response rate of 78%. All men participated in a 20-minute computer-assisted telephone interview exploring general and reproductive health. Associations between male reproductive health disorders and lifestyle and biomedical factors were analysed using multivariate logistic regression (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]). Variables studied included age, body mass index, waist circumference, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, co-morbid disease and medication use for hypertension, high cholesterol and symptoms of depression. Results Controlling for age and a range of lifestyle and co-morbid exposures, sedentary lifestyle and being underweight was associated with an increased likelihood of ED (1.4 [1.1-1.8]; 2.9 [1.5-5.8], respectively) and pAD (1.3 [1.1-1.7]; 2.7 [1.4-5.0], respectively. Diabetes and cardiovascular disease were both associated with ED, with hypertension strongly associated with LUTS and pAD. Current smoking (inverse association) and depressive symptomatology were the only variables independently associated with PD. All reproductive disorders showed consistent associations with depression (measured either by depressive symptomatology or medication use) in both age-adjusted and multivariate analyses. Conclusion A range of lifestyle factors, more often associated with chronic disease, were significantly associated with male reproductive health disorders. Education strategies directed to improving general health may also confer benefits to male reproductive health. PMID:20181284

  1. Effect of mating activity and dominance rank on male masturbation among free-ranging male rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Dubuc, Constance; Coyne, Sean P; Maestripieri, Dario

    2013-11-01

    The adaptive function of male masturbation is still poorly understood, despite its high prevalence in humans and other animals. In non-human primates, male masturbation is most frequent among anthropoid monkeys and apes living in multimale-multifemale groups with a promiscuous mating system. In these species, male masturbation may be a non-functional by-product of high sexual arousal or be adaptive by providing advantages in terms of sperm competition or by decreasing the risk of sexually transmitted infections. We investigated the possible functional significance of male masturbation using behavioral data collected on 21 free-ranging male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) at the peak of the mating season. We found some evidence that masturbation is linked to low mating opportunities: regardless of rank, males were most likely to be observed masturbating on days in which they were not observed mating, and lower-ranking males mated less and tended to masturbate more frequently than higher-ranking males. These results echo the findings obtained for two other species of macaques, but contrast those obtained in red colobus monkeys (Procolobus badius) and Cape ground squirrels (Xerus inauris). Interestingly, however, male masturbation events ended with ejaculation in only 15% of the observed masturbation time, suggesting that new hypotheses are needed to explain masturbation in this species. More studies are needed to establish whether male masturbation is adaptive and whether it serves similar or different functions in different sexually promiscuous species. PMID:24187414

  2. Fine mapping of a male sterility gene MS-cd1 in Brassica oleracea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xinmei Zhang; Jian Wu; Hui Zhang; Yuan Ma; Aiguang Guo; Xiaowu Wang

    2011-01-01

    A dominant male sterility (DGMS) line 79-399-3, developed from a spontaneous mutation in Brassica oleracea var. capitata, has been widely used in production of hybrid cultivars in China. In this line, male sterility is controlled by a dominant\\u000a gene Ms-cd1. In the present study, fine mapping of Ms-cd1 was conducted by screening a segregating population Ms79-07 with 2,028 individuals developed

  3. Mitochondrial DNA variation within P-type cytoplasmic male sterility of Plantago lanceolata L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CAROLINA F M GROENENDIJK; JOHANNES M SANDBRINK; JAN VAN BREDERODE; JOS M M VAN DAMME

    1997-01-01

    MtDNA restriction fragment polymorphisms were found between cytoplasmic male-sterility types P and R of Plantago lanceolata with the homologous probe pPl311 and maize mtDNA fragments derived from the regions of atp1, cox1 and cox2. No mtDNA differences were observed between male-sterile and restored plants with the same cytoplasmic type. The consistency of the polymorphisms was studied in 83 plants from

  4. A genetic study of partial male sterility in sorghum

    E-print Network

    Holland, Richard Franklin

    1952-01-01

    ~ Cytcplasaic Naia Sterility 0 3 ~ 0 3 Naia Steru. ity Iadnced by Son~tapioca Interactioa . . 9 NITRRldLS kED NSTHODS XKPlEINtSTLL ESSULTS ~ ~ ~ Preseatatioa of Data . Perceat Seed Set oa Parental Yarietieo . Seed Set Distribution ea yl Plants... . Rehavior of Partial Sterility in P2 Populations. Indication ef Nsclear and Cyteplasaio Iateraotioa ia Daoheresses . ~ . ~ . . ~ ~ ~ . . ~ . ~ ~ ~ ~ 14 17 ~ j7 18 18 ~ 18 ~ 20 Reharicr of PI and P& Parents ia Intercresseo. Ssdregotioa of Seed...

  5. Variation in Male Fertilities and Pairwise Mating Probabilities in Picea glauca

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Schoen; S. C. Stewart

    1987-01-01

    Frequencies of multilocus male gametes in seeds collected from clones in several blocks of a white spruce seed orchard were analyzed as part of a 2-yr study of mating system variation in this species. Observed frequencies of male gamete types departed significantly from those expected assuming equal male fertilities among clones. Male gamete frequencies in seed crops were significantly hetero-

  6. Mate choice when males are in patches: optimal strategies and good rules of thumb

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John M. C. Hutchinson; Konrad Halupka

    2004-01-01

    In standard mate-choice models, females encounter males sequentially and decide whether to inspect the quality of another male or to accept a male already inspected. What changes when males are clumped in patches and there is a significant cost to travel between patches? We use stochastic dynamic programming to derive optimum strategies under various assumptions. With zero costs to returning

  7. Transgenic induction of mitochondrial rearrangements for cytoplasmic male sterility in crop plants

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Ajay Pal S.; Abdelnoor, Ricardo V.; Mackenzie, Sally A.

    2007-01-01

    Stability of the mitochondrial genome is controlled by nuclear loci. In plants, nuclear genes suppress mitochondrial DNA rearrangements during development. One nuclear gene involved in this process is Msh1. Msh1 appears to be involved in the suppression of illegitimate recombination in plant mitochondria. To test the hypothesis that Msh1 disruption leads to the type of mitochondrial DNA rearrangements associated with naturally occurring cytoplasmic male sterility in plants, a transgenic approach for RNAi was used to modulate expression of Msh1 in tobacco and tomato. In both species, these experiments resulted in reproducible mitochondrial DNA rearrangements and a condition of male (pollen) sterility. The male sterility was, in each case, heritable, associated with normal female fertility, and apparently maternal in its inheritance. Segregation of the transgene did not reverse the male sterile phenotype, producing stable, nontransgenic male sterility. The reproducible transgenic induction of mitochondrial rearrangements in plants is unprecedented, providing a means to develop novel cytoplasmic male sterile lines for release as non-GMO or transgenic materials. PMID:17261806

  8. The evolution of optimal female mating rate changes the coevolutionary dynamics of female resistance and male persistence

    PubMed Central

    Kazanc?o?lu, Erem; Alonzo, Suzanne H.

    2012-01-01

    Mating decisions usually involve conflict of interests between sexes. Accordingly, males benefit from increased number of matings, whereas costs of mating favour a lower mating rate for females. The resulting sexual conflict underlies the coevolution of male traits that affect male mating success (‘persistence’) and female traits that affect female mating patterns (‘resistance’). Theoretical studies on the coevolutionary dynamics of male persistence and female resistance assumed that costs of mating and, consequently, the optimal female mating rate are evolutionarily constant. Costs of mating, however, are often caused by male ‘persistence’ traits that determine mating success. Here, we present a model where the magnitude of costs of mating depend on, and evolve with, male persistence. We find that allowing costs of mating to depend on male persistence results in qualitatively different coevolutionary dynamics. Specifically, we find that male traits such as penis spikes that harm females are not predicted to exhibit runaway selection with female resistance, in contrast to previous theory that predicts indefinite escalation. We argue that it is essential to determine when and to what extent costs of mating are caused by male persistence in order to understand and accurately predict coevolutionary dynamics of traits involved in mating decisions. PMID:22777021

  9. Two recessive genes controlling thermophotoperiod-sensitive male sterility in wheat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. X. Guo; D. F. Sun; Z. B. Tan; D. F. Rong; C. D. Li

    2006-01-01

    Male sterility of wheat-breeding line 337S (Triticum aestivum L.) is sensitive to both short day-length\\/low temperature and long day-length\\/high temperature. 337S was crossed with the\\u000a common wheat variety, Huamai No. 8 and the F1 was highly fertile. The F2 population segregated in a 15:1 ratio for fertility\\/sterility in 243 individuals under long day-length\\/high-temperature.\\u000a The two thermophotoperiod-responsive male sterile genes were

  10. Low Mate Encounter Rate Increases Male Risk Taking in a Sexually Cannibalistic Praying Mantis

    PubMed Central

    Brown, William D.; Muntz, Gregory A.; Ladowski, Alexander J.

    2012-01-01

    Male praying mantises are forced into the ultimate trade-off of mating versus complete loss of future reproduction if they fall prey to a female. The balance of this trade-off will depend both on (1) the level of predatory risk imposed by females and (2) the frequency of mating opportunities for males. We report the results of a set of experiments that examine the effects of these two variables on male risk-taking behavior and the frequency of sexual cannibalism in the praying mantis Tenodera sinensis. We experimentally altered the rate at which males encountered females and measured male approach and courtship behavior under conditions of high and low risk of being attacked by females. We show that male risk taking depends on prior access to females. Males with restricted access to females showed greater risk-taking behavior. When males were given daily female encounters, they responded to greater female-imposed risk by slowing their rate of approach and remained a greater distance from a potential mate. In contrast, males without recent access to mates were greater risk-takers; they approached females more rapidly and to closer proximity, regardless of risk. In a second experiment, we altered male encounter rate with females and measured rates of sexual cannibalism when paired with hungry or well-fed females. Greater risk-taking behavior by males with low mate encounter rates resulted in high rates of sexual cannibalism when these males were paired with hungry females. PMID:22558146

  11. Instability in mitochondrial membranes in Polima cytoplasmic male sterility of Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Liu, Tongkun; Duan, Weike; Song, Xiaoming; Shi, Gongjun; Zhang, Jingyi; Deng, Xiaohui; Zhang, Shuning; Hou, Xilin

    2014-06-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is an important factor to observe heterosis in Brassica rapa. Although several studies have documented the rearrangements of mitochondrial DNA and dysfunction in the mitochondria have been observed in most types of CMS, the basis of the molecular mechanisms involved in these processes and other effects on CMS remain unclear. In this study, suppression subtractive hybridization was performed in the flowers of an alloplasmic Polima CMS system from B. rapa ssp. chinensis to identify genes that are differentially expressed between fertile and sterile plants. A total of 443 clones were isolated (156 were upregulated in fertile buds, and 287 were upregulated in sterile ones). Real-time RT-PCR further demonstrated the credibility of SSH. Among these genes, many membrane protein genes (LTP12, PIP2A, and GRP14) were inhibited in the sterile male line. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) assay was then performed. Results showed that the sterile MMP was unstable and failed to create a potential difference; thus, mitochondrial dysfunction occurred. Moreover, abnormal microtubules and photosynthetic pathways were found in sterile male cells. Unstable MMP, nutritional deficiency, and abnormal microtubules were the causes of Polima CMS in Brassica campestris. H2O2, MDA, and O(2-), accumulated as byproducts of energy metabolism disorder in sterile male cells. PMID:24652098

  12. Multiple mating in Calopteryx maculata (Odonata: Calopterygidae) and the advantage of non-contact guarding by males

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Alcock

    1979-01-01

    1. (1)Both males and females in a population of Calopteryx maculata mated more than once in the course of a single afternoon. The possibility that females might mate with an intruder or with a neighbouring territory owner may have favoured the evolution of guarding behaviour by males. Territorial males employed non-contact guarding of their mates. They perched on vegetation overlooking

  13. Mating in the red-sided garter snake, Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis : differential effects on male and female sexual behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joan M. Whittier; Robert T. Mason; David Crews

    1985-01-01

    Female red-sided garter snakes, Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis, become unattractive to most males after mating in the field and in the laboratory. Male red-sided garter snakes vary in their latencies to court attractive females following copulation, with courtship resuming in minutes to hours. Unsuccessful males in mating balls disperse from mating pairs, but are not residually inhibited from courting attractive females.

  14. Female extrapair mating behavior can evolve via indirect selection on males

    PubMed Central

    Forstmeier, Wolfgang; Martin, Katrin; Bolund, Elisabeth; Schielzeth, Holger; Kempenaers, Bart

    2011-01-01

    In many species that form socially monogamous pair bonds, a considerable proportion of the offspring is sired by extrapair males. This observation has remained a puzzle for evolutionary biologists: although mating outside the pair bond can obviously increase the offspring production of males, the benefits of such behavior to females are less clear, yet females are known to actively solicit extrapair copulations. For more than two decades adaptionist explanations have dominated the discussions, yet remain controversial, and genetic constraint arguments have been dismissed without much consideration. An intriguing but still untested hypothesis states that extrapair mating behavior by females may be affected by the same genetic variants (alleles) as extrapair mating behavior by males, such that the female behavior could evolve through indirect selection on the male behavior. Here we show that in the socially monogamous zebra finch, individual differences in extrapair mating behavior have a hereditary component. Intriguingly, this genetic basis is shared between the sexes, as shown by a strong genetic correlation between male and female measurements of extrapair mating behavior. Hence, positive selection on males to sire extrapair young will lead to increased extrapair mating by females as a correlated evolutionary response. This behavior leads to a fundamentally different view of female extrapair mating: it may exist even if females obtain no net benefit from it, simply because the corresponding alleles were positively selected in the male ancestors. PMID:21670288

  15. Consequences of snowy winters on male mating strategies and reproduction in a mountain ungulate.

    PubMed

    Apollonio, Marco; Brivio, Francesca; Rossi, Iva; Bassano, Bruno; Grignolio, Stefano

    2013-09-01

    Alternative mating tactics (AMTs) are intrasexual variants in mating behaviour of several species ranging from arthropods to mammals. Male AMTs coexist between and within populations. In particular, male ungulates rarely adopt just one tactic throughout their lifetime. Tactics commonly change according to internal factors (age, body size, condition) and external conditions (weather, resources, predation, animal density). However, the influence of weather has not yet been investigated in upper vertebrates. Such influence may be relevant in species whose rutting period occurs late in fall or in winter, when environmental conditions and the snow cover in particular may vary considerably. We detected two AMTs in Alpine ibex (Capra ibex) males: older and full-grown males mainly adopted the tending tactic, while younger males usually pursued an alternative one (coursing tactic). Weather was found to influence the use of AMTs by males: in snowy mating seasons, the coursing tactic was no longer used due to difficulties in moving through deep snow. In snowy rutting periods, males appeared to delay or even avoid mating activities and a decrease of births was reported in the second part of the following birth season. Snow cover may have a negative effect on population dynamics by reducing the recruitment and on population genetic variability, as a consequence of poorer mating opportunities. Studies on factors affecting mating behaviour and leading to a reduced availability of mates and a decrease in female productivity are especially relevant in species, like Alpine ibex, whose genetic variability is low. PMID:23669063

  16. Mating Experience and Food Deprivation Modulate Odor Preference and Dispersal in Drosophila melanogaster Males

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shu-Ping; Guo, Wei-Yan; Muhammad, Shahid Arain; Chen, Rui-Rui; Mu, Li-Li; Li, Guo-Qing

    2014-01-01

    Rotting fruits offer all of the known resources required for the livelihood of Drosophila melanogaster Meigen (Diptera: Drosophilidae). During fruit fermentation, carbohydrates and proteins are decomposed to produce volatile alcohols and amines, respectively. It is hypothesized that D. melanogaster adults can detect these chemical cues at a distance to identify and locate the decaying fruits. In the present paper, we compared the olfactory responses and movement of male flies varying in mating status and nutritional state to methanol, ethanol, and ammonia sources using a glass Y-tube olfactometer. In general, ethanol vapor at low to moderate concentrations repelled more hungry mated males than satiated ones. In contrast, methanol showed little difference in the attractiveness to males at different nutritional states and mating status. Moreover, ammonia attracted more hungry mated males. The attractiveness increased almost linearly with ammonia concentration from lowest to highest. When ammonia and artificial diet were put together in the odor arm, the responses of male flies to mixed odor mimicked the response to ammonia. Furthermore, odorant concentration, mating status, and nutritional state affected the flies' dispersal. Mated and starved males dispersed at a higher rate than virgin and satiated ones. Thus, our results showed that starved, mated males increased dispersal and preferred ammonia that originated from protein. PMID:25368075

  17. Mating experience and food deprivation modulate odor preference and dispersal in Drosophila melanogaster males.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shu-Ping; Guo, Wei-Yan; Muhammad, Shahid Arain; Chen, Rui-Rui; Mu, Li-Li; Li, Guo-Qing

    2014-01-01

    Rotting fruits offer all of the known resources required for the livelihood of Drosophila melanogaster Meigen (Diptera: Drosophilidae). During fruit fermentation, carbohydrates and proteins are decomposed to produce volatile alcohols and amines, respectively. It is hypothesized that D. melanogaster adults can detect these chemical cues at a distance to identify and locate the decaying fruits. In the present paper, we compared the olfactory responses and movement of male flies varying in mating status and nutritional state to methanol, ethanol, and ammonia sources using a glass Y-tube olfactometer. In general, ethanol vapor at low to moderate concentrations repelled more hungry mated males than satiated ones. In contrast, methanol showed little difference in the attractiveness to males at different nutritional states and mating status. Moreover, ammonia attracted more hungry mated males. The attractiveness increased almost linearly with ammonia concentration from lowest to highest. When ammonia and artificial diet were put together in the odor arm, the responses of male flies to mixed odor mimicked the response to ammonia. Furthermore, odorant concentration, mating status, and nutritional state affected the flies' dispersal. Mated and starved males dispersed at a higher rate than virgin and satiated ones. Thus, our results showed that starved, mated males increased dispersal and preferred ammonia that originated from protein. PMID:25368075

  18. Situation exploitation: higher male mating success when female resistance is reduced by feeding.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Klaus; Naylor, Richard A; Siva-Jothy, Michael T

    2009-01-01

    Optimal male and female mating rates rarely coincide. Males often shift the rate in their favor by either increased signaling and by overcoming female resistance to copulation. The concept of sensory exploitation posits that males produce signals that mimic naturally selected benefits and so deceitfully attract females. However, males also have to overcome female resistance to actual copulation. Males may do so by copulating during situations when the female's ability to resist is decreased because of competing naturally selected demands. Males of the common bedbug, Cimex lectularius, an obligate blood feeder, mate at a rate, and in a manner that is harmful to females. Females have to feed regularly to produce eggs, and during feeding female body volume increases by 300%. Choice trials using unfed and either fed or experimentally enlarged but unfed females showed that the increased postfeeding body volume of females attracted more male mating attempts, strongly reduced female resistance to male mating attempts and resulted in a net increase in female mating rate. Our results, therefore, suggest that males have increased mating success in a situation that females cannot avoid because it is naturally selected. Such "situation exploitation" of low resistance may be a common phenomenon. PMID:18752607

  19. Streptococcal L-forms isolated from Drosophila paulistorum semispecies cause sterility in male progeny.

    PubMed Central

    Somerson, N L; Ehrman, L; Kocka, J P; Gottlieb, F J

    1984-01-01

    The Drosophila paulistorum complex contains six semispecies that do not normally interbreed. In the laboratory, crosses between semispecies produce fertile daughters and sterile sons. Microbial endosymbionts have been observed in all D. paulistorum flies that display this male sterility. Streptococcal L-forms have been isolated from the Andean-Brazilian (Mesitas) and Transitional (Santa Marta) semispecies and cultured in artificial medium. Transfer of these L-forms from their native hosts into reciprocal semispecies resulted in sterile male progeny. When L-forms were inoculated into the semispecies from which they had been isolated, most of the male progeny were fertile. Control streptococcal L-forms did not show this sterility pattern. PMID:6582483

  20. Conspicuous Female Ornamentation and Tests of Male Mate Preference in Threespine Sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus).

    PubMed

    Wright, Daniel Shane; Pierotti, Michele E R; Rundle, Howard D; McKinnon, Jeffrey S

    2015-01-01

    Sexual selection drives the evolution of exaggerated male ornaments in many animal species. Female ornamentation is now acknowledged also to be common but is generally less well understood. One example is the recently documented red female throat coloration in some threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) populations. Although female sticklebacks often exhibit a preference for red male throat coloration, the possibility of sexual selection on female coloration has been little studied. Using sequential and simultaneous mate choice trials, we examined male mate preferences for female throat color, as well as pelvic spine color and standard length, using wild-captured threespine sticklebacks from the Little Campbell River, British Columbia. In a multivariate analysis, we found no evidence for a population-level mate preference in males, suggesting the absence of directional sexual selection on these traits arising from male mate choice. Significant variation was detected among males in their preference functions, but this appeared to arise from differences in their mean responsiveness across mating trials and not from variation in the strength (i.e., slope) of their preference, suggesting the absence of individual-level preferences as well. When presented with conspecific intruder males, male response decreased as intruder red throat coloration increased, suggesting that males can discriminate color and other aspects of phenotype in our experiment and that males may use these traits in intrasexual interactions. The results presented here are the first to explicitly address male preference for female throat color in threespine sticklebacks. PMID:25806520

  1. Conspicuous Female Ornamentation and Tests of Male Mate Preference in Threespine Sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus)

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Daniel Shane; Pierotti, Michele E. R.; Rundle, Howard D.; McKinnon, Jeffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    Sexual selection drives the evolution of exaggerated male ornaments in many animal species. Female ornamentation is now acknowledged also to be common but is generally less well understood. One example is the recently documented red female throat coloration in some threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) populations. Although female sticklebacks often exhibit a preference for red male throat coloration, the possibility of sexual selection on female coloration has been little studied. Using sequential and simultaneous mate choice trials, we examined male mate preferences for female throat color, as well as pelvic spine color and standard length, using wild-captured threespine sticklebacks from the Little Campbell River, British Columbia. In a multivariate analysis, we found no evidence for a population-level mate preference in males, suggesting the absence of directional sexual selection on these traits arising from male mate choice. Significant variation was detected among males in their preference functions, but this appeared to arise from differences in their mean responsiveness across mating trials and not from variation in the strength (i.e., slope) of their preference, suggesting the absence of individual-level preferences as well. When presented with conspecific intruder males, male response decreased as intruder red throat coloration increased, suggesting that males can discriminate color and other aspects of phenotype in our experiment and that males may use these traits in intrasexual interactions. The results presented here are the first to explicitly address male preference for female throat color in threespine sticklebacks. PMID:25806520

  2. Clonal growth is enhanced in the absence of a mating morph: a comparative study of fertile stylar polymorphic and sterile monomorphic populations of Nymphoides montana (Menyanthaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Haddadchi, Azadeh; Fatemi, Mohammad; Gross, C. L.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Many aquatic species with stylar polymorphisms have the capacity for clonal and sexual reproduction and are sensitive to the balance of the two reproductive modes when there are a limited number of mating morphs within a population. This study asked how the clonal and sexual reproductive modes perform in populations that contain only a single morph and where fitness gain through sexual reproduction is rare. In clonal aquatic Nymphoides montana, polymorphic populations normally contain two mating morphs in equal frequencies. Populations are sexually fertile and appear to be maintained by pollen transfer between the two partners. However, in a monomorphic population of N. montana where mating opportunities are unavailable, female and male function is impaired and clonality maintains the population. Here, the consequences of intraspecific variation in sexuality were explored between monomorphic and polymorphic N. montana populations in eastern Australia. Methods Comparative measurements of male and female fertility, total dry mass and genotypic diversity using ISSR markers were made between populations with variable sexuality. Key Results and Conclusions Very few seeds were produced in the monomorphic population under natural and glasshouse conditions due to dysfunctional pollen and ovules. Stigma–anther separation was minimal in the monomorphic population, which may be a consequence of the relaxed selective pressures that regulate the maintenance of sexual function. However, clonal reproduction was favoured at the expense of sexual reproduction in the monomorphic population; this may facilitate the establishment of sterility throughout the population via resource reallocation or pleiotropic effects. The ISSR results showed that the monomorphic population was one large, single genotype, unlike the multi-genotypic fertile polymorphic populations. Evolutionary loss of sex in a clonal population in which a mating morph is absent was evident; under these conditions clonal growth may assure reproduction and expand the population via spreading stolons. PMID:24287813

  3. Geographical variation in reproductive character displacement in mate choice by male sailfin mollies.

    PubMed

    Gabor, C R; Ryan, M J

    2001-05-22

    Female Amazon mollies, Poecilia formosa, are a unisexual species that reproduce by gynogenesis. They must coexist and mate with males of other species (usually the mollies Poecilia latipinna or Poecilia mexicana) to induce embryogenesis, but inheritance is strictly maternal. We examined the mating preference of the male sailfin molly, P. latipinna, for female sailfin mollies versus Amazon mollies, P. formosa. We compared the mating preferences of sympatric and allopatric populations collected throughout the Gulf Coast of North America. Male P. latipinna from six populations sympatric with Amazon mollies showed a significantly greater strength of preference for conspecific sailfin females than males from five populations that were allopatric with Amazon mollies. These results provide strong evidence for reproductive character displacement of male mate choice in sympatry. Furthermore, the large geographical range of populations that we tested revealed variation among populations within sympatry and allopatry, indicating that it is important to evaluate a large number of populations when examining reproductive character displacement. PMID:11375091

  4. Geographical variation in reproductive character displacement in mate choice by male sailfin mollies.

    PubMed Central

    Gabor, C. R.; Ryan, M. J.

    2001-01-01

    Female Amazon mollies, Poecilia formosa, are a unisexual species that reproduce by gynogenesis. They must coexist and mate with males of other species (usually the mollies Poecilia latipinna or Poecilia mexicana) to induce embryogenesis, but inheritance is strictly maternal. We examined the mating preference of the male sailfin molly, P. latipinna, for female sailfin mollies versus Amazon mollies, P. formosa. We compared the mating preferences of sympatric and allopatric populations collected throughout the Gulf Coast of North America. Male P. latipinna from six populations sympatric with Amazon mollies showed a significantly greater strength of preference for conspecific sailfin females than males from five populations that were allopatric with Amazon mollies. These results provide strong evidence for reproductive character displacement of male mate choice in sympatry. Furthermore, the large geographical range of populations that we tested revealed variation among populations within sympatry and allopatry, indicating that it is important to evaluate a large number of populations when examining reproductive character displacement. PMID:11375091

  5. Cost of reproduction in Callosobruchus maculatus: effects of mating on male longevity and the effect of male mating status on female longevity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satu Paukku; Janne S. Kotiaho

    2005-01-01

    One of the most studied life-history trade-offs is that resulting from the cost of reproduction: a trade-off arises when reproduction diverts limited resources from other life-history traits. We examine the cost of reproduction in male, and the effect of male mating status on female Callosobruchus maculatus seed beetles. Cost of reproduction for male C. maculatus was manifested as reduced longevity.

  6. Strong reproductive skew among males in the multiply mated swordtail Xiphophorus multilineatus (Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Luo, J; Sanetra, M; Schartl, M; Meyer, A

    2005-01-01

    Male swordtails in the genus Xiphophorus display a conspicuous ventral elongation of the caudal fin, the sword, which arose through sexual selection due to female preference. Females mate regularly and are able to store sperm for at least 6 months. If multiple mating is frequent, this would raise the intriguing question about the role of female choice and male-male competition in shaping the mating system of these fishes. Size-dependent alternate mating strategies occur in Xiphophorus; one such strategy is courtship with a sigmoid display by large dominant males, while the other is gonopodial thrusting, in which small subordinate males sneak copulations. Using microsatellite markers, we observed a frequency of multiple paternity in wild-caught Xiphophorus multilineatus in 28% of families analyzed, but the actual frequency of multiple mating suggested by the correction factor PrDM was 33%. The number of fathers contributing genetically to the brood ranged from one to three. Compared to other species in the family Poeciliidae, both frequency and degree of multiple paternity were low. Paternity was found to be highly skewed, with one male on average contributing more than 70% to the offspring. Hence in this Xiphophorus mating system, typically one male dominates and sneaker males do not appear to be particularly effective. Postcopulatory mechanisms, however, such as sperm competition, are also indicated by our data, using sex-linked phenotypes among the offspring. PMID:15743903

  7. Role of nutritional reserves and body size in Anopheles gambiae males mating success.

    PubMed

    Maïga, Hamidou; Niang, Abdoulaye; Sawadogo, Simon P; Dabiré, Roch K; Lees, Rosemary Susan; Gilles, Jeremie R L; Tripet, Frédéric; Diabaté, Abdoulaye

    2014-04-01

    A better knowledge of the different parameters that account for male mating success in the wild is critical to the development of genetic control strategies. In this study, we measured energy budgets (total sugar and glycogen) as the daily energetic investment in swarming males of An. gambiae s.s. M and S molecular forms from two different field locations, VK7 and Soumousso. We also looked at the difference between energetic reserves in mated males compared to unmated ones, and assessed wing length in both molecular forms to explore whether this phenotypic trait was involved in swarming behavior or mating success. The current study showed that the energetic cost of 25 min of swarming was around 50% of the male's sugar (M form: 48.5%, S form: 56.2%) and glycogen (M form: 53.1%, S form: 59%) reserves. However, no difference in carbohydrate content was observed between mated and unmated males. Mated males were found to be bigger than unmated ones, while intermediate size of males is advantageous in mating system, both in M and S molecular forms and when collected in two different locations. Regardless of the collection location, no difference in wing size was observed in swarming males collected early or late during a particular swarm. The results are discussed in the context sexual selection in different ecological locations. PMID:24021933

  8. Transgenic male mating advantage provides opportunity for Trojan gene effect in a fish.

    PubMed

    Howard, Richard D; DeWoody, J Andrew; Muir, William M

    2004-03-01

    Genetically modified (GM) strains now exist for many organisms, producing significant promise for agricultural production. However, if these organisms have some fitness advantage, they may also pose an environmental harm when released. High mating success of GM males relative to WT males provides such an important fitness advantage. Here, we provide documentation that GM male medaka fish modified with salmon growth hormone possess an overwhelming mating advantage. GM medaka offspring possess a survival disadvantage relative to WT, however. When both of these fitness components are included in our model, the transgene is predicted to spread if GM individuals enter wild populations (because of the mating advantage) and ultimately lead to population extinction (because of the viability disadvantage). Mating trials indicate that WT males use alternative mating tactics in an effort to counter the mating advantage of GM males, and we use genetic markers to ascertain the success of these alternative strategies. Finally, we model the impact of alternative mating tactics by WT males on transgene spread. Such tactics may reduce the rate of transgene spread, but not the outcome. PMID:14976259

  9. Evolution of male mating behavior: male spadefoot toads preferentially associate with conspecific males

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karin S. Pfennig; Katrina Rapa; Regan McNatt

    2000-01-01

    The evolution of male breeding aggregations is difficult to explain because males may reduce their reproductive success by\\u000a associating with their closest competitors. We examined aggregative behavior by male New Mexico spadefoot toads, Spea multiplicata, which form breeding choruses in rain-filled pools. We specifically asked whether males are attracted to conspecific calls\\u000a and, if so, whether they preferentially associate with

  10. When not to copy: female fruit flies use sophisticated public information to avoid mated males

    PubMed Central

    Loyau, Adeline; Blanchet, Simon; Van Laere, Pauline; Clobert, Jean; Danchin, Etienne

    2012-01-01

    Semen limitation (lack of semen to fertilize all of a female's eggs) imposes high fitness costs to female partners. Females should therefore avoid mating with semen-limited males. This can be achieved by using public information extracted from watching individual males' previous copulating activities. This adaptive preference should be flexible given that semen limitation is temporary. We first demonstrate that the number of offspring produced by males Drosophila melanogaster gradually decreases over successive copulations. We then show that females avoid mating with males they just watched copulating and that visual public cues are sufficient to elicit this response. Finally, after males were given the time to replenish their sperm reserves, females did not avoid the males they previously saw copulating anymore. These results suggest that female fruit flies may have evolved sophisticated behavioural processes of resistance to semen-limited males, and demonstrate unsuspected adaptive context-dependent mate choice in an invertebrate. PMID:23105967

  11. [Importance of adult protein ingestion on the mating success of Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann males (Diptera: Tephritidae)].

    PubMed

    Silva Neto, Alberto M da; Dias, Vanessa S; Joachim-Bravo, Iara S

    2010-01-01

    The importance of the protein ingestion during the adult stage on the mating success of males of Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann was evaluated in experiments of laboratory and field cage. In laboratory, the effects of protein ingestion during the first four or 12 days of the male adult life was assessed by the following parameters: mating success (capacity of being chosen by the female) and the number of males that give out pheromonal signals. Some experiments of mating success had been carried through with males in different ratios. In these tests, the number of males which had ingested protein (an unique male) was remained constant and the number of males fed without protein was gradually increased from 1:1 to 1:5. In the field cages, the mating success experiments were done using a 1:1 ratio. The results showed that the protein ingestion in the first four days of life did not influence any of the analyzed parameters. When the period of ingestion of protein was extended to 12 days, protein-fed males fed produced more pheromonal signals and had a higher mating success when at a 1:1 ratio in laboratory and field cage assays. In laboratory, females randomly chose males in any other tested ratio (1:2, 1:3, 1:4 and 1:5), indicating that the female may lose the perception to identify the male who ingested protein in the first 12 days. PMID:20498961

  12. Genetics of Drosophila simulans male mating discrimination in crosses with D. melanogaster

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M C Carracedo; A Asenjo; P Casares

    2003-01-01

    The genetic bases of sexual isolation between Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans have been mainly studied in females, and there is little information about the role of the males in interspecific mating discrimination. Using D. simulans synthetic lines with compound chromosomes from a population of the Seychelles Islands (high frequency of interspecific mating) and a multimarker strain (low frequency), we

  13. Predators and Mates: Conflicting Selection on the Size of Male Pacific Treefrogs (Pseudacris Regilla)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael F. Benard

    2007-01-01

    Despite the large amount of work on frog mating systems, the potential role of predators as an agent of selection on breeding adults has received very little study. Here, I use data from multiple populations of Pacific Treefrogs (Pseudacris regilla) to demonstrate that sexual selection from mating success favors larger males, but natural selection from predation by giant water bugs

  14. Genetic Dissimilarity between Mates, but Not Male Heterozygosity, Influences Divorce in Schistosomes

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Genetic Dissimilarity between Mates, but Not Male Heterozygosity, Influences Divorce the relative influence of genetic similarity and heterozygosity in divorce and re-mating in the monogamous and similarity were predetermined before infection. Divorce rate increased significantly when females were given

  15. Mating frequency in male chickens : crosses among selected and unselected lines

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , Virginia 24061, U.S.A. Summary The mode of inheritance of mating behavior and blood testosterone levels were examined in lines of chickens selected for high and low mating frequency and the randombred among them. Circulating plasma testosterone levels of a random sample of all males appeared

  16. INVESTIGATION Genetic Architecture of Male Sterility and Segregation

    E-print Network

    Dean, Matthew D.

    , my analysis provides a comprehensive look at the genetic architecture of all components of a hybrid incompatibility underlying F1 hybrid sterility. Such an analysis would likely be unfeasible for most species pairs between populations is key to understand- ing speciation. Over the past two decades, we have gained a good

  17. Male and female mate choice affects offspring quality in a sex-role-reversed pipefish.

    PubMed Central

    Sandvik, M; Rosenqvist, G; Berglund, A

    2000-01-01

    Where both sexes invest substantially in offspring, both females and males should discriminate between potential partners when choosing mates. The degree of choosiness should relate to the costs of choice and to the potential benefits to be gained. We measured offspring quality from experimentally staged matings with preferred and non-preferred partners in a sex-role-reversed pipefish, Syngnathus typhle L. Here, a substantial male investment in offspring results in a lower potential reproductive rate in males than in females, and access to males limits female reproductive success rather than vice versa. Thus, males are choosier than females and females compete more intensely over mates than do males. Broods from preferred matings were superior at escaping predation, when either males or females were allowed to choose a partner. However, only 'choosing' females benefited in terms of faster-growing offspring. Our results have important implications for mate-choice research: here we show that even the more competitive and less choosy sex may contribute significantly to sexual selection through mate choice. PMID:11413626

  18. A CHARACTER DEMONSTRATING THE OCCURRENCE OF MATING IN MALE CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM (LEPIDOPTERA: PYRALIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The reproductive system of adult male Cactoblastis cactorum, the cactus moth, was examined to determine whether the mating status of males could be ascertained. In unmated males, the posterior portion of the primary ductus ejaculatorius simplex is opaque yellow in color and contains many small footb...

  19. Male mate-locating behavior in Euphydryas chalcedona (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) related to pupation site preferences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald L. Rutowski; George W. Gilchrist; Barbara Terkanian

    1988-01-01

    Males of the checkerspot butterfly (Euphydryas chalcedona)patrol and perch near but not on the larval foodplant in search of females. Experiments with tethered butterflies show that searching males chase virgin females for longer times than they do mated females or males. The larvae leave the larval food-plant to pupate. The correspondence between the distance from the larval foodplant to pupation

  20. ORIGINAL PAPER Do sex-changing male snails use mate choice to get a jump

    E-print Network

    ORIGINAL PAPER Do sex-changing male snails use mate choice to get a jump on their ``size advantage, it is a common and obvious trait for male choice; size preference has been observed in species from fish (Ptacek may gain a ``size advantage'' from that sex change; that is, as males become larger, they become

  1. Transgenic male mating advantage provides opportunity for Trojan gene effect in a fish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard D. Howard; J. Andrew Dewoody; William M. Muir

    2004-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) strains now exist for many organisms, producing significant promise for agricultural production. However, if these organisms have some fitness advantage, they may also pose an environmental harm when released. High mating success of GM males relative to WT males provides such an important fitness advantage. Here, we provide documentation that GM male medaka fish modified with salmon

  2. Experimental Evidence for Male Sequential Mate Preference in a Lekking Species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noam Y. Werner; Arnon Lotem

    2006-01-01

    In lekking species females visit male aggregations solely to copulate or have their eggs fertilized. Because lekking males do not contribute to parental care, evolutionary theory does not expect them to be choosy. However, we show here that in the cichlid fish Astatotilapia flaviijosephi the lekking males exhibit sequential mate preference that strongly suggests a trade-off between present and future

  3. Mating success of resident versus non-resident males in a territorial butterfly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Bergman; Karl Gotthard; David Berger; Martin Olofsson; Darrell J. Kemp; Christer Wiklund

    2007-01-01

    Male-male competition over territorial ownership suggests that winning is associated with considerable benefits. In the speckled wood butterfly, Pararge aegeria, males fight over sunspot territories on the forest floor; winners gain sole residency of a sunspot, whereas losers patrol the forest in search of females. It is currently not known whether residents experience greater mating success than non- residents, or

  4. Anim. Behav., 1996, 51, 12691277 Mate guarding constrains foraging activity of male baboons

    E-print Network

    Alberts, Susan C

    Anim. Behav., 1996, 51, 1269­1277 Mate guarding constrains foraging activity of male baboons SUSAN consortships, individual travel distance and duration of feeding bouts, for wild male baboons, Papio of species that live in multi-male, multi-female groups, including savannah baboons (Hall & DeVore 1965

  5. REGISTRATION OF TWO CYTOPLASMIC MALE-STERILE AND EIGHT FERTILITY RESTORATION SUNFLOWER GENETIC STOCKS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Male-sterile plants were identified in the wild H. annuus L. accessions PI 413178 and PI 413180, and maintained by backcrossing with the inbred line HA 89. Male-fertile progenies from crosses between cms plants of the two PIs and 12 USDA inbred lines indicated the presence of fertility restoration g...

  6. REGISTRATION OF SEVEN CYTOPLASMIC MALE-STERILE AND FOUR FERTILITY RESTORATION SUNFLOWER GERMPLASMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cms ANN14 originated from one male-sterile plant identified in a Native American landrace PI 432513, and is a BC5 bulk with the pedigree of cms PI 432513/6*HA 89. Restoration genes for cms PI 432513 were found in 'Armavir', 'VNIIMK', 'P21', and male-fertile plants of PI 432513. F2 segregation ratios...

  7. Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) are commonly infected by the protozoan parasite, Ophryocystis elektroschirra. This study examined the effect of infection on monarch mating contests and mating success. Monarch mating behavior involves males chasing

    E-print Network

    Gittleman, John

    Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) are commonly infected by the protozoan parasite that because infected monarchs are often in poorer condition than healthy butterflies, and mating Methods Questions ·Do infected monarchs mate less often than healthy butterflies? ·Do infected males

  8. Female Medflies Mate Selectively with Young Males but Gain No Apparent Fitness Benefits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Todd E. Shelly; James Edu; Elaine Pahio

    2011-01-01

    Species in which female choice is not strongly shaped by male-controlled resources present a challenge to sexual selection\\u000a research, because it is typically difficult to identify the male phenotypic cues used in female mate selection or the fitness\\u000a benefits accruing from such selection. In such species, mate selection is presumably based on direct benefits associated with\\u000a sperm quantity or quality

  9. Natural Genetic Variation in Complex Mating Behaviors of Male Drosophila melanogaster

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth A. Ruedi; Kimberly A. Hughes

    2008-01-01

    Mating behavior, including courtship and copulation, is a main component of male fitness, especially in species with no parental\\u000a care. Variation in this behavior can thus be a target for mate choice and sexual selection, and can lead to evolution. The\\u000a fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has well-documented complex male courtship comprised of a sequence behaviors, and is an ideal model

  10. A possible non-sexual origin of mate preference: are male guppies mimicking fruit?

    PubMed Central

    Rodd, F Helen; Hughes, Kimberly A; Grether, Gregory F; Baril, Colette T

    2002-01-01

    In most animals, the origins of mating preferences are not clear. The "sensory-bias" hypothesis proposes that biases in female sensory or neural systems are important in triggering sexual selection and in determining which male traits will become elaborated into sexual ornaments. Subsequently, other mechanisms can evolve for discriminating between high- and low-quality mates. Female guppies (Poecilia reticulata) generally show a preference for males with larger, more chromatic orange spots. It has been proposed that this preference originated because it enabled females to obtain high-quality mates. We present evidence for an alternative hypothesis, that the origin of the preference is a pleiotropic effect of a sensory bias for the colour orange, which might have arisen in the context of food detection. In field and laboratory experiments, adult guppies of both sexes were more responsive to orange-coloured objects than to objects of other colours, even outside a mating context. Across populations, variation in attraction to orange objects explained 94% of the inter-population variation in female mate preference for orange coloration on males. This is one of the first studies to show both an association between a potential trigger of a mate-choice preference and a sexually selected trait, and also that an innate attraction to a coloured inanimate object explains almost all of the observed variation in female mate choice. These results support the "sensory-bias" hypothesis for the evolution of mating preferences. PMID:11886639

  11. PLASMON MUTATIONS IN CYTOPLASMIC MALE-STERILE PEARL MILLET, PENNISETUM TYPHOIDES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WILLIAM M. CLEMENT

    Spontaneous mutations from sterile to fertile were demonstrated in four different cytoplasmic male-sterile stocks of pearl millet. One stock, ASM-3, was of African origin, and the other three, LMS-lA, ASM-5, and ASM-7, all had the same cyptoplasm of Indian origin, but differed in nuclear make-up. These reversions were shown to be plasmon mutations, rather than genic in na- ture. ASM-3

  12. Female mate preferences for male body size and shape promote sexual isolation in threespine sticklebacks.

    PubMed

    Head, Megan L; Kozak, Genevieve M; Boughman, Janette W

    2013-07-01

    Female mate preferences for ecologically relevant traits may enhance natural selection, leading to rapid divergence. They may also forge a link between mate choice within species and sexual isolation between species. Here, we examine female mate preference for two ecologically important traits: body size and body shape. We measured female preferences within and between species of benthic, limnetic, and anadromous threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus species complex). We found that mate preferences differed between species and between contexts (i.e., within vs. between species). Within species, anadromous females preferred males that were deep bodied for their size, benthic females preferred larger males (as measured by centroid size), and limnetic females preferred males that were more limnetic shaped. In heterospecific mating trials between benthics and limnetics, limnetic females continued to prefer males that were more limnetic like in shape when presented with benthic males. Benthic females showed no preferences for size when presented with limnetic males. These results show that females use ecologically relevant traits to select mates in all three species and that female preference has diverged between species. These results suggest that sexual selection may act in concert with natural selection on stickleback size and shape. Further, our results suggest that female preferences may track adaptation to local environments and contribute to sexual isolation between benthic and limnetic sticklebacks. PMID:23919161

  13. Male Condition, Female Choice, and Extreme Variation in Repeated Mating in a Scaly Cricket, Ornebius aperta (Orthoptera: Gryllidae: Mogoplistinae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maydianne C. B. Andrade; Andrew C. Mason

    2000-01-01

    Mating in the scaly cricket Ornebius aperta often includes the transfer of many spermatophores to individual females during extended copulatory interactions. We manipulated male condition in staged matings to determine whether this could explain variation in the number of repeated copulations seen across pairs. Males on a high nutrient diet were in good condition, were more likely to mate repeatedly,

  14. Interdependent effects of male and female body size plasticity on mating behaviour of predatory mites

    PubMed Central

    Walzer, Andreas; Schausberger, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The adaptive canalization hypothesis predicts that traits with low phenotypic plasticity are more fitness relevant, because they have been canalized via strong past selection, than traits with high phenotypic plasticity. Based on differing male body size plasticities of the predatory mites Phytoseiulus persimilis (low plasticity) and Neoseiulus californicus (high plasticity), we accordingly hypothesized that small male body size entails higher costs in female choice and male–male competition in P. persimilis than N. californicus. Males of both species are highly polygynous but females differ in the level of polyandry (low level in P. persimilis; medium level in N. californicus). We videotaped the mating interactions in triplets of either P. persimilis or N. californicus, consisting of a virgin female (small or standard-sized) and a small and a standard-sized male. Mating by both small and standard-sized P. persimilis females was biased towards standard-sized males, resulting from the interplay between female preference for standard-sized males and the inferiority of small males in male–male competition. In contrast, mating by N. californicus females was equally balanced between small and standard-sized males. Small N. californicus males were more aggressive (‘Napoleon complex’) in male–male competition, reducing the likelihood of encounter between the standard-sized male and the female, and thus counterbalancing female preference for standard-sized males. Our results support the hypothesis that male body size is more important to fitness in the low-level polyandrous P. persimilis than in the medium-level polyandrous N. californicus and provide a key example of the implications of sexually selected body size plasticity on mating behaviour. PMID:25673881

  15. Alternative mating tactics in the yellow dung fly: resolving mechanisms of small-male advantage off pasture

    PubMed Central

    Gress, Brian E.; Waltzer, Ryan J.; Lüpold, Stefan; Droge-Young, Elizabeth M.; Manier, Mollie K.; Pitnick, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Recent work suggests that the yellow dung fly mating system may include alternative patroller–competitor mating tactics in which large males compete for gravid females on dung, whereas small, non-competitive males search for females at foraging sites. Small males obtain most matings off pasture, yet the behavioural mechanism(s) giving rise to this pattern are unknown. We investigated the male and female behaviours that determine mating success in this environment by conducting field mating experiments and found small males to benefit from several attributes specific to the off-pasture mating environment. First, small males from foraging sites exhibited higher mating propensity, indicating that large males away from dung may be depleted of energy and/or sperm. Second, small males were more discriminating, being significantly less likely to attempt with non-gravid females, which are absent on dung but common off pasture. Third, non-gravid females were generally more likely to actively struggle and reject mating attempts; however, such behaviours occurred disproportionately more often with large males. Female Scathophaga stercoraria thus appear to preferentially mate with small males when off pasture. These findings challenge assumptions about male–female interactions in systems with alternative mating tactics and reveal hidden processes that may influence selection patterns in the field. PMID:24225455

  16. Choosy males from the underground: male mating preferences in surface- and cave-dwelling Atlantic mollies (Poecilia mexicana).

    PubMed

    Plath, Martin; Seggel, Uta; Burmeister, Heike; Heubel, Katja U; Schlupp, Ingo

    2006-03-01

    Atlantic mollies (Poecilia mexicana) inhabit a variety of surface habitats, but they also occur in a sulfur cave in southern Mexico. We examined male mate choice relative to female body size in the cave population and in the most closely related surface-dwelling population from a nearby river. Males from both populations were either light- or dark-reared and could choose between two differently sized females either on the basis of visual cues in light or on the basis of solely nonvisual cues in darkness. Sexual preferences were estimated from the degree of association. Cave molly males always showed a preference for the larger female, both in light and in darkness. Among the surface males, only light-reared males showed a preference in the visual cues test, but not in darkness. In a control experiment, we demonstrated that male association preferences directly translate into actual mating preferences. Apparently, using visual cues for mate choice is the ancestral state in this system, and using nonvisual cues has evolved as a novel trait in the cave population. We discuss the evolution of nonvisual male mate choice in the context of changed environmental conditions, namely the absence of light, hypoxia, and toxic hydrogen sulfide in the cave. PMID:16404589

  17. Choosy males from the underground: male mating preferences in surface- and cave-dwelling Atlantic mollies ( Poecilia mexicana)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plath, Martin; Seggel, Uta; Burmeister, Heike; Heubel, Katja U.; Schlupp, Ingo

    2006-03-01

    Atlantic mollies ( Poecilia mexicana) inhabit a variety of surface habitats, but they also occur in a sulfur cave in southern Mexico. We examined male mate choice relative to female body size in the cave population and in the most closely related surface-dwelling population from a nearby river. Males from both populations were either light- or dark-reared and could choose between two differently sized females either on the basis of visual cues in light or on the basis of solely nonvisual cues in darkness. Sexual preferences were estimated from the degree of association. Cave molly males always showed a preference for the larger female, both in light and in darkness. Among the surface males, only light-reared males showed a preference in the visual cues test, but not in darkness. In a control experiment, we demonstrated that male association preferences directly translate into actual mating preferences. Apparently, using visual cues for mate choice is the ancestral state in this system, and using nonvisual cues has evolved as a novel trait in the cave population. We discuss the evolution of nonvisual male mate choice in the context of changed environmental conditions, namely the absence of light, hypoxia, and toxic hydrogen sulfide in the cave.

  18. Female crickets assess relatedness during mate guarding and bias storage of sperm towards unrelated males.

    PubMed

    Tuni, C; Beveridge, M; Simmons, L W

    2013-06-01

    Recent evidence shows that females exert a post-copulatory fertilization bias in favour of unrelated males to avoid the genetic incompatibilities derived from inbreeding. One of the mechanisms suggested for fertilization biases in insects is female control over transport of sperm to the sperm-storage organs. We investigated post-copulatory inbreeding-avoidance mechanisms in females of the cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus. We assessed the relative contribution of related and unrelated males to the sperm stores of double-mated females. To demonstrate unequivocally that biased sperm storage results from female control rather than cryptic male choice, we manipulated the relatedness of mated males and of males performing post-copulatory mate guarding. Our results show that when guarded by a related male, females store less sperm from their actual mate, irrespective of the relatedness of the mating male. Our data support the notion that inhibition of sperm storage by female crickets can act as a form of cryptic female choice to avoid the severe negative effects of inbreeding. PMID:23745826

  19. The Indirect Benefits of Mating with Attractive Males Outweigh the Direct Costs

    E-print Network

    Megan L. Head; John Hunt; Michael D. Jennions; Robert Brooks

    The fitness consequences of mate choice are a source of ongoing debate in evolutionary biology. Recent theory predicts that indirect benefits of female choice due to offspring inheriting superior genes are likely to be negated when there are direct costs associated with choice, including any costs of mating with attractive males. To estimate the fitness consequences of mating with males of varying attractiveness, we housed female house crickets, Acheta domesticus, with either attractive or unattractive males and measured a variety of direct and indirect fitness components. These fitness components were combined to give relative estimates of the number of grandchildren produced and the intrinsic rate of increase (relative net fitness). We found that females mated to attractive males incur a substantial survival cost. However, these costs are cancelled out and may be outweighed by the benefits of having offspring with elevated fitness. This benefit is due predominantly, but not exclusively, to the effect of an increase in sons ’ attractiveness. Our results suggest that the direct costs that females experience when mating with attractive males can be outweighed by indirect benefits. They also reveal the value of estimating the net fitness consequences of a mating strategy by including measures of offspring quality in estimates of fitness.

  20. Low-oxygen atmospheric treatment improves the performance of irradiation-sterilized male cactus moths used in SIT.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As part of Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) programs, irradiation can effectively induce sterility in insects by damaging genomic DNA. However, irradiation also induces other off-target side effects that reduce the quality and performance of sterilized males. Thus, treatments that reduce off-target ef...

  1. Male mating rate is constrained by seminal fluid availability in bedbugs, Cimex lectularius.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Klaus; Naylor, Richard; Siva-Jothy, Michael T

    2011-01-01

    Sexual selection, differences in reproductive success between individuals, continues beyond acquiring a mating partner and affects ejaculate size and composition (sperm competition). Sperm and seminal fluid have very different roles in sperm competition but both components encompass production costs for the male. Theoretical models predict that males should spend ejaculate components prudently and differently for sperm and seminal fluid but empirical evidence for independent variation of sperm number and seminal fluid volume is scarce. It is also largely unknown how sperm and seminal fluid variation affect future mating rate. In bedbugs we developed a protocol to examine the role of seminal fluids in ejaculate allocation and its effect on future male mating rate. Using age-related changes in sperm and seminal fluid volume we estimated the lowest capacity at which mating activity started. We then showed that sexually active males allocate 12% of their sperm and 19% of their seminal fluid volume per mating and predicted that males would be depleted of seminal fluid but not of sperm. We tested (and confirmed) this prediction empirically. Finally, the slightly faster replenishment of seminal fluid compared to sperm did not outweigh the faster decrease during mating. Our results suggest that male mating rate can be constrained by the availability of seminal fluids. Our protocol might be applicable to a range of other organisms. We discuss the idea that economic considerations in sexual conflict research might benefit from distinguishing between costs and benefits that are ejaculate dose-dependent and those that are frequency-dependent on the mating rate per se. PMID:21779378

  2. Male Mating Rate Is Constrained by Seminal Fluid Availability in Bedbugs, Cimex lectularius

    PubMed Central

    Reinhardt, Klaus; Naylor, Richard; Siva-Jothy, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    Sexual selection, differences in reproductive success between individuals, continues beyond acquiring a mating partner and affects ejaculate size and composition (sperm competition). Sperm and seminal fluid have very different roles in sperm competition but both components encompass production costs for the male. Theoretical models predict that males should spend ejaculate components prudently and differently for sperm and seminal fluid but empirical evidence for independent variation of sperm number and seminal fluid volume is scarce. It is also largely unknown how sperm and seminal fluid variation affect future mating rate. In bedbugs we developed a protocol to examine the role of seminal fluids in ejaculate allocation and its effect on future male mating rate. Using age-related changes in sperm and seminal fluid volume we estimated the lowest capacity at which mating activity started. We then showed that sexually active males allocate 12% of their sperm and 19% of their seminal fluid volume per mating and predicted that males would be depleted of seminal fluid but not of sperm. We tested (and confirmed) this prediction empirically. Finally, the slightly faster replenishment of seminal fluid compared to sperm did not outweigh the faster decrease during mating. Our results suggest that male mating rate can be constrained by the availability of seminal fluids. Our protocol might be applicable to a range of other organisms. We discuss the idea that economic considerations in sexual conflict research might benefit from distinguishing between costs and benefits that are ejaculate dose-dependent and those that are frequency-dependent on the mating rate per se. PMID:21779378

  3. A test of male mating and hunting success in the kestrel: the advantages of smallness?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harri Hakkarainen; Esa Huhta; Katriina Lahti; Päivi Lundvall; Tapio Mappes; Pasi Tolonen; Jürgen Wiehn

    1996-01-01

    We tested female choice for male wing and tarsus length and body mass in the kestrel (Falco tinnunculus), a species in which males average about 10% smaller than females. We also studied how male characters are related to their\\u000a hunting success. In the laboratory, females preferred lighter males with shorter tarsi as mates, if the difference in those\\u000a characters between

  4. Misleading mollies: surface- but not cave-dwelling Poecilia mexicana males deceive competitors about mating preferences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Plath; Stephanie Richter; Ingo Schlupp; Ralph Tiedemann

    2010-01-01

    Individuals providing misleading information to conspecifics may benefit from deception at the receiver's expense. A recent\\u000a study (Plath et al., Curr Biol 18:1138–1141, 2008c) suggested that male Atlantic mollies (Poecilia mexicana) deceive rival males about their preferred mate. Here, we contrasted potentially deceptive behavior in surface-dwelling P. mexicana males to males of the cave form of that species (the cave

  5. Males are selective too: mating, but not courtship, with sequential females influences choosiness in male field crickets ( Gryllus bimaculatus )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip W. Bateman; Patricia A. Fleming

    2006-01-01

    Mate choice experiments have generally focused on female choice; few have considered that males can also be selective. We\\u000a examined courtship in male field crickets sequentially introduced to four females of differing size. Large (L) and small (S)\\u000a females were introduced in order of either LSLS or SLSL. We demonstrate that naive males invest equally (courtship effort)\\u000a in the first

  6. Costs of mate-guarding in wild male long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis): physiological stress and aggression.

    PubMed

    Girard-Buttoz, Cédric; Heistermann, Michael; Rahmi, Erdiansyah; Agil, Muhammad; Fauzan, Panji Ahmad; Engelhardt, Antje

    2014-09-01

    Mate-guarding is an important determinant of male reproductive success in a number of species. However, it is known to potentially incur costs. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of mate-guarding on male physiological stress and aggression in long-tailed macaques, a species in which males mate-guard females to a lesser extent than predicted by the Priority of Access model (PoA). The study was carried out during two mating periods on three groups of wild long-tailed macaques in Indonesia by combining behavioral observations with non-invasive measurements of fecal glucocorticoid (fGC) levels. Mate-guarding was associated with a general rise in male stress hormone levels but, from a certain threshold of mate-guarding onwards, increased vigilance time was associated with a decrease in stress hormone output. Mate-guarding also increased male-male aggression rate and male vigilance time. Overall, alpha males were more physiologically stressed than other males independently of mating competition. Increased glucocorticoid levels during mate-guarding are most likely adaptive since it may help males to mobilize extra-energy required for mate-guarding and ultimately maintain a balanced energetic status. However, repeated exposure to high levels of stress over an extended period is potentially deleterious to the immune system and thus may carry costs. This potential physiological cost together with the cost of increased aggression mate-guarding male face may limit the male's ability to mate-guard females, explaining the deviance from the PoA model observed in long-tailed macaques. Comparing our results to previous findings we discuss how ecological factors, reproductive seasonality and rank achievement may modulate the extent to which costs of mate-guarding limit male monopolization abilities. PMID:25236888

  7. No evidence for the effect of MHC on male mating success in the brown bear.

    PubMed

    Kuduk, Katarzyna; Babik, Wieslaw; Bellemain, Eva; Valentini, Alice; Zedrosser, Andreas; Taberlet, Pierre; Kindberg, Jonas; Swenson, Jon E; Radwan, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    Mate choice is thought to contribute to the maintenance of the spectacularly high polymorphism of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) genes, along with balancing selection from parasites, but the relative contribution of the former mechanism is debated. Here, we investigated the association between male MHC genotype and mating success in the brown bear. We analysed fragments of sequences coding for the peptide-binding region of the highly polymorphic MHC class I and class II DRB genes, while controlling for genome-wide effects using a panel of 18 microsatellite markers. Male mating success did not depend on the number of alleles shared with the female or amino-acid distance between potential mates at either locus. Furthermore, we found no indication of female mating preferences for MHC similarity being contingent on the number of alleles the females carried. Finally, we found no significant association between the number of MHC alleles a male carried and his mating success. Thus, our results provided no support for the role of mate choice in shaping MHC polymorphism in the brown bear. PMID:25470381

  8. No Evidence for the Effect of MHC on Male Mating Success in the Brown Bear

    PubMed Central

    Kuduk, Katarzyna; Babik, Wieslaw; Bellemain, Eva; Valentini, Alice; Zedrosser, Andreas; Taberlet, Pierre; Kindberg, Jonas; Swenson, Jon E.; Radwan, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    Mate choice is thought to contribute to the maintenance of the spectacularly high polymorphism of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) genes, along with balancing selection from parasites, but the relative contribution of the former mechanism is debated. Here, we investigated the association between male MHC genotype and mating success in the brown bear. We analysed fragments of sequences coding for the peptide-binding region of the highly polymorphic MHC class I and class II DRB genes, while controlling for genome-wide effects using a panel of 18 microsatellite markers. Male mating success did not depend on the number of alleles shared with the female or amino-acid distance between potential mates at either locus. Furthermore, we found no indication of female mating preferences for MHC similarity being contingent on the number of alleles the females carried. Finally, we found no significant association between the number of MHC alleles a male carried and his mating success. Thus, our results provided no support for the role of mate choice in shaping MHC polymorphism in the brown bear. PMID:25470381

  9. Courtship raises male fertilization success through post-mating sexual selection in a spider

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Jutta M.; Lesmono, Kristiani

    2009-01-01

    Courtship is well known for its positive effects on mating success. However, in polyandrous species, sexual selection continues to operate after copulation. Cryptic female choice is expected under unpredictable mating rates in combination with sequential mate encounters. However, there are very few accounts of the effects of courtship on cryptic female choice, and the available evidence is often correlative. Mature Argiope bruennichi females are always receptive and never attack or reject males before mating, although sexual cannibalism after mating occurs regularly. Still, males usually perform an energetic vibratory display prior to copulation. We tested the hypothesis that beneficial effects of courtship arise cryptically, during or after mating, resulting in increased paternity success under polyandry. Manipulating courtship duration experimentally, we found that males that mated without display had a reduced paternity share even though no differences in post-copulatory cannibalism or copulation duration were detected. This suggests that the paternity advantage associated with courtship arose through female-mediated processes after intromission, meeting the definition of cryptic female choice. PMID:19515667

  10. Courtship raises male fertilization success through post-mating sexual selection in a spider.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Jutta M; Lesmono, Kristiani

    2009-09-01

    Courtship is well known for its positive effects on mating success. However, in polyandrous species, sexual selection continues to operate after copulation. Cryptic female choice is expected under unpredictable mating rates in combination with sequential mate encounters. However, there are very few accounts of the effects of courtship on cryptic female choice, and the available evidence is often correlative. Mature Argiope bruennichi females are always receptive and never attack or reject males before mating, although sexual cannibalism after mating occurs regularly. Still, males usually perform an energetic vibratory display prior to copulation. We tested the hypothesis that beneficial effects of courtship arise cryptically, during or after mating, resulting in increased paternity success under polyandry. Manipulating courtship duration experimentally, we found that males that mated without display had a reduced paternity share even though no differences in post-copulatory cannibalism or copulation duration were detected. This suggests that the paternity advantage associated with courtship arose through female-mediated processes after intromission, meeting the definition of cryptic female choice. PMID:19515667

  11. Male sterility in triploid dandelions: asexual females vs asexual hermaphrodites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P G Meirmans; P H Van Tienderen

    2006-01-01

    Male reproductive output, pollen in plants and sperm in animals has been shown to constitute a substantial cost for many organisms. In parthenogenetic hermaphrodites, selection is therefore expected to reduce the allocation of resources to male reproductive output. However, sustained production of pollen or sperm has been observed in numerous asexual hermaphrodites. We studied the widespread production of pollen by

  12. Effect of adult screwworm male size on mating competence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Screwworms, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), were devastating pests in parts of North America and Central America before their eradication by means of the sterile insect technique (SIT). Now, a barrier is maintained to prevent re-entry of screwworms from endemic regions t...

  13. Mating success of resident versus non-resident males in a territorial butterfly

    PubMed Central

    Bergman, Martin; Gotthard, Karl; Berger, David; Olofsson, Martin; Kemp, Darrell J; Wiklund, Christer

    2007-01-01

    Male–male competition over territorial ownership suggests that winning is associated with considerable benefits. In the speckled wood butterfly, Pararge aegeria, males fight over sunspot territories on the forest floor; winners gain sole residency of a sunspot, whereas losers patrol the forest in search of females. It is currently not known whether residents experience greater mating success than non-residents, or whether mating success is contingent on environmental conditions. Here we performed an experiment in which virgin females of P. aegeria were allowed to choose between a resident and a non-resident male in a large enclosure containing one territorial sunspot. Resident males achieved approximately twice as many matings as non-residents, primarily because matings were most often preceded by a female being discovered when flying through a sunspot. There was no evidence that territorial residents were more attractive per se, with females seen to reject them as often as non-residents. Furthermore, in the cases where females were discovered outside of the sunspot, they were just as likely to mate with non-residents as residents. We hypothesize that the proximate advantage of territory ownership is that light conditions in a large sunspot greatly increase the male's ability to detect and intercept passing receptive females. PMID:17472909

  14. Male mate choice, sexual conflict and strategic allocation of copulations in a lekking bird.

    PubMed Central

    Saether, S. A.; Fiske, P.; Kålås, J. A.

    2001-01-01

    The males of lekking species are not expected to be choosy about mating because a reduced reproductive rate due to lost mating opportunities should outweigh any benefits of male choice. Females have traditionally not been expected to be competitive in this system since their reproduction has usually been assumed to be unconstrained by male availability. Here we show that, in contrast to these predictions, males are choosy and females may be competitive in the lekking great snipe Gallinago media. Males preferred by many females often refused to copulate with and even chased away females that the male had already copulated with, whereas females seemed to compete for repeated copulations. We conclude that choosiness may sometimes pay for popular males in those lekking species where females copulate repeatedly. Apparently, evolutionary conflicts of interest between individuals may cause a richer repertoire of behavioural adaptations than, to our knowledge, hitherto realized. PMID:11600073

  15. Male Texas Horned Lizards increase daily movements and area covered in spring: A mate searching strategy?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stark, R.C.; Fox, S.F.; David, M.L., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Texas Horned Lizards, Phrynosoma cornutum, were tracked using fluorescent powder to determine exact daily movements. Daily linear movements and daily space use were compared between adult males and females. Lizards that traveled the greatest linear distances also covered the largest areas. In Oklahoma, adults emerge from hibernation in late April and early May and mate soon afterward. Males traveled significantly greater distances (and covered significantly larger areas in a day) than females in May but not after May. We propose that males move more and cover more area than females early in the mating season to intercept receptive females. Copyright 2005 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  16. Correlated changes in male plumage coloration and female mate choice in cardueline finches

    E-print Network

    McGraw, Kevin J.

    Correlated changes in male plumage coloration and female mate choice in cardueline finches GEOFFREY to male ornamental coloration in two species of cardueline finch (the American goldfinch, Carduelis elaborate, ancestral colour pattern. Previous research on another cardueline finch taxon (a subspecies

  17. FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH REDUCED FERTILITY AND IMPLANTATION RATES IN FEMALES MATED TO ACRYLAMIDE TREATED MALES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of studies was conducted to examine the role of copulatory dysfunction, spermatotoxicity, and/or impaired fertilization in the reduced rates of fertility and implantation observed in females mated to acrylamid-treated male rats. In initial experiments, males were gavaged...

  18. Male Mating Rate Is Constrained by Seminal Fluid Availability in Bedbugs, Cimex lectularius

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Klaus Reinhardt; Richard Naylor; Michael T. Siva-Jothy

    2011-01-01

    Sexual selection, differences in reproductive success between individuals, continues beyond acquiring a mating partner and affects ejaculate size and composition (sperm competition). Sperm and seminal fluid have very different roles in sperm competition but both components encompass production costs for the male. Theoretical models predict that males should spend ejaculate components prudently and differently for sperm and seminal fluid but

  19. Mate choice in the grey partridge, Perdix perdix : role of physical and behavioural male traits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LAURA BEANI; FRANCESCO DESSÌ-FULGHERI

    1995-01-01

    The brown breast patch of the male grey partridge, the species' most conspicuous sexually dimorphic trait, was totally or partly bleached out, to test its influence on female preference. In mate-choice experiments, patch size (which was unaffected by early testosterone treatment) appeared to be unimportant: artificially and naturally bred females primarily selected males on the basis of their vocal performance.

  20. Song repertoire size predicts initial mating success in male song sparrows, Melospiza melodia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JANE M. REID; PETER ARCESE; ALICE L. E. V. CASSIDY; SARA M. HIEBERT; JAMES N. M. SMITH; PHILIP K. STODDARD; AMY B. MARR; LUKAS F. KELLER

    2004-01-01

    Male song sparrows sing repertoires of 4-13 distinct song types and have proved a valuable model for testing hypotheses concerning the function and evolution of song complexity. Captive female song sparrows solicit more copulations in response to playback of larger repertoires, yet it remains unclear whether male repertoire size influences female mate choice in natural situations. We used long-term data

  1. Red coloration of male northern cardinals correlates with mate quality and territory quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. LaReesa Wolfenbarger

    1999-01-01

    I investigated how mate quality and territory quality influence an extravagant ornament in a socially monogamous species that defends multipurpose territories. Northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis) are a highly dichromatic, socially monogamous species, and males are a brilliant red. I conducted a 3-year field study of northern cardinals and found that redder males produced more offspring in a breeding season. Two

  2. Sociosexual behavior, male mating tactics, and the reproductive cycle of giraffe Giraffa camelopardalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fred B. Bercovitch; Meredith J. Bashaw; Susan M. del Castillo

    2006-01-01

    Female distribution exerts a major impact on male mating tactics. Giraffe cows have a reproductive cycle, and a social system, that should favor a male roaming reproductive tactic. We conducted a 2-year study of female Rothschild's giraffe (G. c. rothschildi) reproductive endocrinology in order to characterize attributes of the reproductive cycle and investigate how female endocrine and behavioral cues influence

  3. Male size, mating success, and mating strategy in the mosquitofish Gambusia affinis (Poeciliidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Austin L. Hughes

    1985-01-01

    In laboratory choice experiments, receptive female western mosquitofish Gambusia affinis affinis (deprived of contact with males ?30 days) preferred the larger of two males. When two males differing in size were placed with a receptive female, the larger was generally able to monopolize access to her, but not when the female was not receptive. In other experiments, a single male

  4. Male Enchenopa treehoppers (Hemiptera: Membracidae) vary mate-searching behavior but not signaling behavior in response to spider silk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowler-Finn, Kasey D.; Al-Wathiqui, Nooria; Cruz, Daniel; Al-Wathiqui, Mishal; Rodríguez, Rafael L.

    2014-03-01

    Finding and attracting mates can impose costs on males in terms of increased encounters with, and attraction of, predators. To decrease the likelihood of predation, males may modify mate-acquisition efforts in two main ways: they may reduce mate-searching efforts or they may reduce mate-attraction efforts. The specific behavior that males change in the presence of predator cues should depend upon the nature of risk imposed by the type of predator present in the environment. For example, sit-and-wait predators impose greater costs to males moving in search of mates. Here, we test whether cues of the presence of a sit-and-wait predator lead to a reduction in mate-searching but not mate-acquisition behavior. We used a member of the Enchenopa binotata complex of treehoppers—a clade of vibrationally communicating insects in which males fly in search of mates and produce mate-attraction signals when they land on plant stems. We tested for changes in mate-searching and signaling behaviors when silk from a web-building spider was present or absent. We found that males delayed flight when spider silk was present but only if they were actively searching for mates. These results suggest that males have been selected to reduce predation risk by adjusting how they move about their environment according to the cues of sit-and-wait predators.

  5. The mate choice brain: comparing gene profiles between female choice and male coercive poeciliids.

    PubMed

    Lynch, K S; Ramsey, M E; Cummings, M E

    2012-03-01

    Genes that mediate mate preferences potentially play a key role in promoting and maintaining biological diversity. In this study, we compare mate preference behavior in two related poeciliid fishes with contrasting behavioral phenotypes and relate these behavioral differences to gene profiles in the brain. Results reveal that one poeciliid fish, the Northern swordtail, exhibits robust mate preference as compared to the Western mosquitofish, which utilizes a coercive mating system. Female swordtails display no significant difference in association time between male- and female-exposure trials, whereas female mosquitofish spend significantly less time associating with males relative to females. Furthermore, the preference strength for large males is significantly lower in female mosquitofish relative to swordtails. We then examine expression of three candidate genes previously shown to be associated with mate preference behavior in female swordtails and linked to neural plasticity in other vertebrates: neuroserpin (NS), neuroligin-3 (NLG-3) and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R). Whole brain gene expression patterns reveal that two genes (NS and NLG-3) are positively associated with mate preference behavior in female swordtails, a pattern opposing that of the mosquitofish. In mosquitofish females, these genes are downregulated when females express biases toward males yet are elevated in association with total motor activity patterns under asocial conditions, suggesting that the presence of males in mosquitofish species may inhibit expression of these genes. Both gene expression and female behavioral responses to males exhibit opposing patterns between these species, suggesting that this genetic pathway may potentially act as a substrate for the evolution of mate preference behavior. PMID:22008245

  6. Species-isolating mechanisms in a mating system with male mate choice (garter snakes, Thamnophis spp.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Shine; Benjamin Phillips; Heather Waye; Michael Lemaster; Robert T. Mason

    2004-01-01

    Reproductive isolation between sympatric taxa can be maintained by specific mate-recognition behaviours or by ecological divergence that reduces interspecific contact during reproduction. Common garter snakes, Thamnophis sirtalis (L., 1758), and plains garter snakes, Thamnophis radix (Baird and Girard, 1853), are sympatric over large areas, but morphological data suggest that the prezygotic isolation between these two species partially breaks down in

  7. Sterile Insect Technique and F1 Sterility in the European Grapevine Moth, Lobesia botrana

    PubMed Central

    Saour, George

    2014-01-01

    Newly emerged adults of the European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis and Schiffermuller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), were irradiated with various doses of gamma radiation and crossed to unirradiated counterparts of the opposite sex. Fecundity was decreased when unirradiated females were mated with either 300- or 350-Gy-irradiated males. Adult males that were irradiated with 400 Gy and mated with unirradiated females retained a residual fertility of 2.7%. The radiation dose at which irradiated females were found to be 100% sterile when mated with unirradiated males was 150 Gy. The inherited effects in the F1 progeny of irradiated male parents were examined at 100, 150, and 200 Gy. Fecundity and fertility of the F1 progeny of males irradiated with 150 Gy and inbred or crossed with irradiated and unirradiated moths were also recorded. A significant reduction in fertility was observed when F1 males mated with either F1 or unirradiated females. According to sterility index, F1 females who mated with F1 males had greater sterility than when F1 females were crossed to 150-Gy-irradiated males. Based upon the results of this study, 150 Gy of gamma radiation would be the optimal dose to use in a sterile insect technique and F1 sterility program against L. botrana. PMID:25373155

  8. Effects of pre-irradiation conditioning of Medfly pupae (Diptera: Tephritidae): Hypoxia and quality of sterile males

    SciTech Connect

    Nestel, D.; Nemny-Lavy, E. [Department of Entomology, Institute of Plant Protection, Agricultural Research Organization, Volcani Center, P.O. Box 6, 50250 Beit-Dagan (Israel); Islam, S.M.; Wornoayporn, V.; Caceres, C. [Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, International Atomic Energy Agency, Agency's Laboratories, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)

    2007-03-15

    Irradiation of pupae in sterile insect technique (SIT) projects is usually undertaken in hypoxic atmospheres, which have been shown to lessen the deleterious effects of irradiation on the quality of adult sterile flies. Although this is the accepted technology in most mass-rearing and sterilization facilities, to date no information has been generated on the actual levels of oxygen (O{sub 2}) in pupae-packing containers during irradiation. The present study utilized recently-developed technology to investigate the O{sub 2} level inside bags in which pupae of Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) are packed prior to irradiation, the ability of pupae to create hypoxic environments in these bags, and the effect of O{sub 2} atmospheres on the quality of irradiated males. Pupae, 1 d before adult emergence, were shown to deplete the O{sub 2} level in sealed bags in approximately 1 h. The rate of O{sub 2} consumption was dependent upon pupal age and incubation temperature. Incubation temperature did not significantly affect the quality of pupae or mating capacity of resultant adult males if pupae were irradiated under maximal hypoxic conditions inside packing bags. In contrast, mating competitiveness drastically decreased when pupae were irradiated under ambient O{sub 2} conditions, with the packing bag open. There was no difference in the mating capacity of males when pupae were irradiated in sealed bags under either 10% or 2% O{sub 2} levels, or under maximal hypoxia. Normal doses of fluorescent dye, applied to pupae to mark sterile flies, did not affect the ability of pupae to create hypoxic conditions inside packing bags, nor the quality control parameters of either pupae or adults. Current practices in mass-rearing facilities are discussed in the light of these results. (author) [Spanish] La irradiacion de pupas en proyectos de mosca esteril usualmente se hace bajo condiciones de hipoxia. Esta condicion ha demostrado ser menos detrimente a la calidad de las moscas que la irradiacion en atmosferas con proporcion normal de oxigeno. Aunque esta ha sido por mucho tiempo parte del protocolo de irradiacion en plantas de produccion de mosca esteril, hasta ahora no se ha medido el contenido de oxigeno dentro de los recipientes de empaque de pupa durante la irradiacion. El presente estudio investigo los contenidos de O{sub 2} en los contenedores de pupas de la mosca de las frutas del Mediterraneo (Ceratitis capitata Wiedeman), la habilidad de pupas de crear hipoxia dentro de los contenedores, y los efectos del contenido de O{sub 2} durante la irradiacion del contenedor en la calidad y capacidad de apareamiento de moscas esteriles. Pupas de un dia antes de emerger como adultos crearon atmosferas de maxima hipoxia dentro del empaque en aproximadamente una hora. La proporcion de consumo de O{sub 2} en contenedores sellados es dependiente de la edad de la pupa, y de la temperatura de incubacion. La temperatura de incubacion no afecto significativamente la calidad ni la capacidad de apareamiento de machos derivados de pupas irradiadas bajo condiciones de hipoxia. Sin embargo, la capacidad de apareamiento de machos irradiados como pupas en contenedores abiertos y en condiciones oxigenadas fue drasticamente afectada. En comparacion a los resultados anteriores, atmosferas de 2% y 10% O{sub 2} durante la irradiacion no afectaron la capacidad de apareamiento de moscas esteriles. Polvo fluorescente, aplicado a pupas para marcar las moscas esteriles, no tuvo efectos sobre la capacidad de las pupas de crear hipoxia. Los resultados de este estudio se discuten en base a las practicas actuales de produccion e irradiacion. (author)

  9. Female Japanese Quail (Coturnix japonica) Mated With Males That Harassed Them Are Unlikely to Lay Fertilized Eggs

    E-print Network

    Galef Jr., Bennett G.

    Female Japanese Quail (Coturnix japonica) Mated With Males That Harassed Them Are Unlikely to Lay of courtship and mating in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) suggest that females avoid conspecific males the authors show that a female quail choosing between a previous sex partner and an unfamiliar male avoids

  10. Tied to the nest: male black-capped chickadees decrease dawn chorus movement behaviour when their mate is fertile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer R. Foote; Lauren P. Fitzsimmons; Daniel J. Mennill; Laurene M. Ratcliffe

    2008-01-01

    Male songbirds typically mate-guard by closely following the female during her fertile period. At dawn, males may sing near the nest or roost to direct their chorus at mates. Recent evidence suggests males may also be involved in singing interactions with neighbours during the dawn chorus. We used a 16- channel acoustic location system to examine the movement behaviour of

  11. Audience effects in the Atlantic molly (Poecilia mexicana)–prudent male mate choice in response to perceived sperm competition risk?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Madlen Ziege; Kristin Mahlow; Carmen Hennige-Schulz; Claudia Kronmarck; Ralph Tiedemann; Bruno Streit; Martin Plath

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Multidirectional interactions in social networks can have a profound effect on mate choice behavior; e.g., Poecilia mexicana males show weaker expression of mating preferences when being observed by a rival. This may be an adaptation to reduce sperm competition risk, which arises because commonly preferred female phenotypes will receive attention also from surrounding males, and\\/or because other males can

  12. Why do territorial male Tengmalm's owls fail to obtain a mate?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harri Hakkarainen; Erkki Korpimäki

    1998-01-01

    Non-breeding may occur because non-breeders are immature or somehow physiologically incapable of breeding, or because of\\u000a a lack of resources (e.g. food resources, mating partners) needed to breed. There is, however, a lack of experimental evidence\\u000a on whether bachelor males possessing territories and nest-sites are able to breed when supplemented with extra food or provided\\u000a with mating partners. In vole-eating

  13. Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Signaling Regulates Mating Behavior in Caenorhabditis elegans Males

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas J D Gower; Denise S Walker; Howard A Baylis

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Complex,behavior requires the coordinated action of the ,nervous system and non-neuronal targets. Male mating in C. elegansconsists of a series of defined behavioral steps that lead to the physiological outcomes,required for successful impregnation. We demonstrate ,that signaling mediated ,by inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) is required at several points during mating. Disruption of IP3 receptor (itr-1) function results in dramatic loss

  14. INSECT-MEDIATED SEED-SET EVALUATION OF 21 SOYBEAN LINES SEGREGATING FOR MALE STERILITY AT 10 DIFFERENT LOCI

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The first requirement to establish a successful hybrid soybean program is the availability of a stable male-sterile, female-fertile system. Male sterility has been an important tool in soybean breeding programs to improve traits such as yield, seed-protein and seed-oil content, and seed size. Howeve...

  15. Novel composition of mitochondrial genomes in Petunia somatic hybrids derived from cytoplasmic male sterile and fertile plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maury L. Boeshore; Irit Lifshitz; Maureen R. Hanson; Shamay Izhar

    1983-01-01

    The mitochondrial genomes of petunia somatic hybrid plants, which were derived from the fusion of male fertile P. hybrida protoplasts with cytoplasmic male sterile P. parodii protoplasts, were analyzed by endonuclease restriction and Southern blot hybridization analyses. We studied sterile and fertile somatic hybrids to address two main questions. First, is there any correlation between the mitochondrial DNA restriction banding

  16. MOLECULAR MAPPING OF A NUCLEAR MALE-STERILITY GENE IN SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.) USING TRAP AND SSR MARKERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A nuclear male-sterile mutant, NMS 360, possesses a single recessive gene, ms9, controlling male sterility. The present study identified DNA markers linked to the ms9 gene in an F2 population derived from the cross of NMS 360 x RHA 271 and maps the ms9 gene to an existing sunflower SSR linkage map. ...

  17. Production of male- and female-sterile plants through reproductive tissue ablation.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Nicole; Felsheim, Roderick; Smith, Alan G

    2009-05-15

    Male and female sterilities have many useful applications in horticultural crops, including reducing the invasive potential of new ornamentals, elimination of pollen allergens and redirecting resources from seeds to vegetative growth. In this study, we tested a male- and female-sterility (MS; FS) gene construct in Nicotiana tabacum to evaluate its effectiveness and effect on phenotype. Three T1 Nicotiana tabacum lines expressing the MS (p108:barnase) and FS (sp41:barnase) genes (MS/FS lines) and a control Nicotiana tabacum line (WT GUS) were measured for plant height, leaf length and width, corolla length, number of nodes on the main stem and stem diameter. No significant differences were found in these growth measurements between MS/FS lines and WT GUS. No pollen was observed on any of the lines carrying the MS and FS genes, indicating that the male sterility was complete. Seed set was greatly reduced or completely eliminated in plants with the MS and FS genes, after heavy pollinations of mature flowers with WT GUS pollen. However, pollinations of immature flowers resulted in very low seed set. This may be due to the nature of the promoter controlling expression of the FS gene as it had the highest expression levels at anthesis. The combination of male- and female-sterility genes was effective in eliminating seed set in all the lines examined and has direct application for reducing invasiveness of ornamental plants. PMID:19070936

  18. All male strains and chemical stimulants: Two ways to boost sterile mailes in SIT programs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical abstract: Genetic and chemical means have been developed to significantly improve the effectiveness of the sterile insect technique against tephritid fruit flies in recent years. Beginning with the development of genetic sexing techniques some 25 years ago, all-male strains of several spe...

  19. Identification of fertiity restores for S male-sterile maize: beyond PPRs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nuclear genes are essential for expression of the mitochondrial genome and for the function of mitochondrial protein complexes. Interaction of the plant mitochondrial and nuclear genetic systems is exemplified by mitochondrial-encoded cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) under the control of nuclear fe...

  20. Molecular mapping of three nuclear male sterility mutant genes in cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The nuclear male sterility (NMS) trait is a useful tool for sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) breeding and genetic programs. Previously, we induced NMS mutants in cultivated line HA 89. The mutants possessed single recessive genes, ms6, ms7, and ms8, respectively, in NMS HA 89-872, NMS HA 89-552, and...

  1. ORIENTAL FRUIT FLY: MALES-ONLY STERILE FLY RELEASES IN HAWAII

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beginning in late August, 2004, we began a program to release sterile male oriental fruit flies, Bactrocera dorsalis, in a citrus orchard in central Oahu, Hawaii. This program follows the encouraging results obtained with the melon fly genetic sexing strain on the islands of Hawaii, Maui, and Oahu. ...

  2. Meiotic studies in a series of 1100 infertile and sterile males

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Egozcue; C. Templado; F. Vidal; J. Navarro; F. Morer-Fargas; S. Marina

    1983-01-01

    Meiotic studies have been carried out in a series of 1100 infertile and sterile males. Of these, 599 cases have been studies in testicular biopsy, and 501, in semen samples. This is the largest meiotic series published so far. The incidence of meiotic anomalies was 4.3%. The most frequent chromosome abnormality was desynapsis (3.7%). However, the number of cases with

  3. Expression of kenaf mitochondrial chimeric genes HM184 causes male sterility in transgenic tobacco plants.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanhong; Liao, Xiaofang; Huang, Zhipeng; Chen, Peng; Zhou, Bujin; Liu, Dongmei; Kong, Xiangjun; Zhou, Ruiyang

    2014-03-11

    Abstract Chimeric genes resulting from the rearrangement of a mitochondrial genome were generally thought to be a causal factor in the occurrence of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS). In the study, earlier we reported that identifying a 47?bp deletion at 3'- flanking of atp9 that was linked to male sterile cytoplasm in kenaf. The truncated fragment was fused with atp9, a mitochondrial transit signal (MTS) and/or GFP, comprised two chimeric genes MTS-HM184-GFP and MTS-HM184. The plant expression vector pBI121 containing chimeric genes were then introduced to tobacco plants by Agrobacterium-mediated T-DNA transformation. The result showed that certain transgenic plants were male sterility or semi-sterility, while some were not. The expression analysis further demonstrated that higher level of expression were showed in the sterility plants, while no expression or less expression in fertility plants, the levels of expression of semi-sterility were in between. And the sterile plant (containing MTS-HM184-GFP) had abnormal anther produced malformed/shriveled pollen grains stained negative that failed to germinate (0%), the corresponding fruits was shrunken, the semi-sterile plants having normal anther shape produced about 10-50% normal pollen grains, the corresponding fruits were not full, and the germination rate was 58%. Meanwhile these transgenic plants which altered on fertility were further analyzed in phenotype. As a result, the metamorphosis leaves were observed in the seedling stage, the plant height of transgenic plants was shorter than wild type. The growth duration of transgenic tobacco was delayed 30-45 days compared to the wild type. The copy numbers of target genes of transgenic tobacco were analyzed using the real-time quantitative method. The results showed that these transgenic plants targeting-expression in mitochondrial containing MTS-HM184-GFP had 1 copy and 2 copies, the other two plants containing MTS-HM184 both had 3 copies, but 0 copy in wild type. In summary, the two manual chimeric genes might be related to male sterility in kenaf. PMID:24617462

  4. Inheritance of male fertility restoration of the cytoplasmic-nuclear male-sterile line NJCMS1A of soybean [ Glycine max (L) Merr.

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. N. Bai; J. Y. Gai

    2005-01-01

    At present, no report on inheritance of male fertility restoration has been released, yet more than 10 cytoplasmic-nuclear male-sterile soybean lines as well as their maintainers and restorers have been developed. Based on our previous work, 25 restorers for the male-sterile line NJCMS1A were identified and the inheritance of male fertility restoration for these restorers was studied. The results showed

  5. Low Incidence of Miscarriage Induced by the Scent of Male Littermates of Original Mates: Male Kinship Reduces the Bruce Effect in Female Mice, Mus musculus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuting; Liu, Dingzhen

    2013-01-01

    The scent of a novel male can elicit pregnancy block in recently mated female mice (Mus musculus), a phenomenon known as the Bruce effect. Despite abundant literature on the Bruce effect in rodents, it remains unclear whether males related to a female’s original mate can induce the Bruce effect in out-bred, communally living mice. We investigated this question using Kunming (KM) male mice of varying genetic relatedness. Recently mated females were subjected to three treatments: exposure to the urine of the mate, urine of the mate’s male littermate, and urine of a male unrelated to the mate. It was found that the urine of male littermates of the females’ mates did not elicit more pregnancy block than that of the females’ mates. However, the urine of novel males caused a higher rate of female miscarriage than that of the females’ mates. By using a habituation-dishabituation paradigm, we found that unmated females could discriminate the urine scents of two male littermates from those of a novel male unrelated to the littermates. To understand how females use urinary cues to discriminate between males with different genetic relationships, we used gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to examine the volatile composition of urine from males with varying relatedness. It was found that KM male littermates shared similar volatile compositions in their urine. Our results suggest that male kinship reduces the Bruce effect in female KM mice, and provide additional evidence for mate choice being partly mediated by the Bruce effect in KM mice. PMID:23874716

  6. Risky foraging leads to cost-free mate guarding in male teal Anas crecca

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthieu Guillemain; Céline Arzel; Pierre Legagneux; Johan Elmberg; Hervé Fritz; Michel Lepley; Christophe Pin; Antoine Arnaud; Grégoire Massez

    2007-01-01

    Mate guarding by males is common in species with long-lasting pair bonds. We tested if the need to guard females affected\\u000a foraging depth in male teal (Anas crecca), and if they were more vigilant than females when foraging with submerged eyes (preventing monitoring of competing males\\u000a and predators). These predictions were not supported, suggesting that foraging depth selection is primarily

  7. Sex Combs are Important for Male Mating Success in Drosophila melanogaster

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chen Siang Ng; Artyom Kopp

    2008-01-01

    The sex comb is one of the most rapidly evolving male-specific traits in Drosophila, making it an attractive model to study sexual selection and developmental evolution. Drosophila males use their sex combs to grasp the females’ abdomen and genitalia and to spread their wings prior to copulation. To test\\u000a the role of this structure in male mating success in Drosophila

  8. Testosterone positively associated with both male mating effort and paternal behavior in savanna baboons (Papio cynocephalus)

    PubMed Central

    Onyango, Patrick Ogola; Gesquiere, Laurence R.; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C.

    2012-01-01

    Testosterone (T) is often positively associated with male sexual behavior and negatively associated with paternal care. These associations have primarily been demonstrated in species where investment in paternal care begins well after mating activity is complete, when offspring are hatched or born. Different patterns may emerge in studies of species where investment in mating and paternal care overlap temporally, for instance in non-seasonal breeders in which males mate with multiple females sequentially and may simultaneously have multiple offspring of different ages. In a 9-year data set on levels of T in male baboons, fecal concentrations of T (fT) were positively associated with both mate guarding (“consortship”) – a measure of current reproductive activity – and with the number of immature offspring a male had in his social group – a measure of past reproductive activity and an indicator of likely paternal behavior. To further examine the relationship between T and potential paternal behavior, we next drew on an intensive 8-month study of male behavior, and found that fathers were more likely to be in close proximity to their offspring than expected by chance. Because male baboons are known to provide paternal care, and because time in proximity to offspring would facilitate such care, this suggests that T concentrations in wild male baboons may be associated with both current reproductive activity and with current paternal behavior. These results are consistent with the predicted positive association between T a mating effort but not nd with a negative association between T a paternal care; in male baboons, high levels of nd T occur in males that are differentially associating with their offspring. PMID:23206991

  9. Genetic Architecture of Autosome-Mediated Hybrid Male Sterility in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Marin, I.

    1996-01-01

    Several estimators have been developed for assesing the number of sterility factors in a chromosome based on the sizes of fertile and sterile introgressed fragments. Assuming that two factors are required for producing sterility, simulations show that one of these, twice the inverse of the relative size of the largest fertile fragment, provides good average approximations when as few as five fertile fragments are analyzed. The estimators have been used for deducing the number of factors from previous data on several pairs of species. A particular result contrasts with the authors' interpretations: instead of the high number of sterility factors suggested, only a few per autosome are estimated in both reciprocal crosses involving Drosophila buzzatii and D. koepferae. It has been possible to map these factors, between three and six per chromosome, in the autosomes 3 and 4 of these species. Out of 203 introgressions of different fragments or combinations of fragments, the outcome of at least 192 is explained by the mapped zones. These results suggest that autosome-mediated sterility in the male hybrids of these species is mediated by a few epistatic factors, similarly to X-mediated sterility in the hybrids of other Drosophila species. PMID:8846896

  10. Independent effects of male and female density on sexual harassment, female fitness, and male competition for mates in the western mosquitofish Gambusia affinis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chad C. Smith

    2007-01-01

    Operational sex ratio (the ratio of sexually active males to fertilizable females) has a major influence on male competition\\u000a for mates and male–female interactions. The contributions of male and female density per se to mating system dynamics, however,\\u000a are rarely examined, and the fitness consequences are often inferred rather than quantified. Male mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) compete aggressively and frequently harass

  11. Inbreeding depresses sperm competitiveness, but not fertilization or mating success in male Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Michalczyk, Lukasz; Martin, Oliver Y; Millard, Anna L; Emerson, Brent C; Gage, Matthew J G

    2010-11-22

    As populations decline to levels where reproduction among close genetic relatives becomes more probable, subsequent increases in homozygous recessive deleterious expression and/or loss of heterozygote advantage can lead to inbreeding depression. Here, we measure how inbreeding across replicate lines of the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum impacts on male reproductive fitness in the absence or presence of male-male competition. Effects on male evolution from mating pattern were removed by enforcing monogamous mating throughout. After inbreeding across eight generations, we found that male fertility in the absence of competition was unaffected. However, we found significant inbreeding depression of sperm competitiveness: non-inbred males won 57 per cent of fertilizations in competition, while inbred equivalents only sired 42 per cent. We also found that the P(2) 'offence' role in sperm competition was significantly more depressed under inbreeding than sperm 'defence' (P(1)). Mating behaviour did not explain these differences, and there was no difference in the viability of offspring sired by inbred or non-inbred males. Sperm length variation was significantly greater in the ejaculates of inbred males. Our results show that male ability to achieve normal fertilization success was not depressed under strong inbreeding, but that inbreeding depression in these traits occurred when conditions of sperm competition were generated. PMID:20554548

  12. Inbreeding depresses sperm competitiveness, but not fertilization or mating success in male Tribolium castaneum

    PubMed Central

    Michalczyk, ?ukasz; Martin, Oliver Y.; Millard, Anna L.; Emerson, Brent C.; Gage, Matthew J. G.

    2010-01-01

    As populations decline to levels where reproduction among close genetic relatives becomes more probable, subsequent increases in homozygous recessive deleterious expression and/or loss of heterozygote advantage can lead to inbreeding depression. Here, we measure how inbreeding across replicate lines of the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum impacts on male reproductive fitness in the absence or presence of male–male competition. Effects on male evolution from mating pattern were removed by enforcing monogamous mating throughout. After inbreeding across eight generations, we found that male fertility in the absence of competition was unaffected. However, we found significant inbreeding depression of sperm competitiveness: non-inbred males won 57 per cent of fertilizations in competition, while inbred equivalents only sired 42 per cent. We also found that the P2 ‘offence’ role in sperm competition was significantly more depressed under inbreeding than sperm ‘defence’ (P1). Mating behaviour did not explain these differences, and there was no difference in the viability of offspring sired by inbred or non-inbred males. Sperm length variation was significantly greater in the ejaculates of inbred males. Our results show that male ability to achieve normal fertilization success was not depressed under strong inbreeding, but that inbreeding depression in these traits occurred when conditions of sperm competition were generated. PMID:20554548

  13. Choosy males from the underground: male mating preferences in surface- and cave-dwelling Atlantic mollies ( Poecilia mexicana )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Plath; Uta Seggel; Heike Burmeister; Katja U. Heubel; Ingo Schlupp

    2006-01-01

    Atlantic mollies (Poecilia mexicana) inhabit a variety of surface habitats, but they also occur in a sulfur cave in southern Mexico. We examined male mate choice\\u000a relative to female body size in the cave population and in the most closely related surface-dwelling population from a nearby\\u000a river. Males from both populations were either light- or dark-reared and could choose between

  14. Audience Effect Alters Male Mating Preferences in Zebra Finches (Taeniopygia guttata)

    PubMed Central

    Dubois, Frédérique; Belzile, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    The social environment of animals strongly influences the mating preferences of both the choosing and the observing individuals. Notably, there is recent evidence that polygamous males decrease their selectivity when being observed by competitors in order to direct their rivals’ attention away from their true interest and, consequently, reduce sperm competition risk. Yet, other mechanisms, whose importance remains unexplored, could induce similar effects. In monogamous species with mutual choice, particularly, if males adjust their selectivity according to the risk of being rejected by their preferred mate, they should as well become less selective when potential rivals are present. Here, we investigated whether the presence of bystanders modifies male mating preferences when the risk of sperm competition is low, by carrying out mate-choice experiments with male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) whose preferences for two females were measured twice: with and without an audience. We found that the presence of potential rivals had no effect on the males’ choosiness. However, with an audience, they spent more time with the female that was considered as the less attractive one in the control condition. These findings support the hypothesis that monogamous males alter their mate choice decisions in the presence of a male audience to reduce the risk of remaining unpaired. Thus, our results indicate that several explanations can account for the changes in male preferences due to the presence of competitors and highlight the importance of assessing the relative role of each mechanism potentially involved, to be able to make conclusions about the effect of an audience on signal evolution. PMID:22916298

  15. Effect of probiotic adult diets on fitness components of sterile male Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) under laboratory and field cage conditions.

    PubMed

    Niyazi, Nuri; Lauzon, Carol R; Shelly, Todd E

    2004-10-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of probiotic adult diets, i.e., adult diets containing viable symbiotic intestinal bacteria, on the pheromone-calling activity, mating success, life expectancy, and survival of mass-reared male Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), as an avenue for improving the field performance of sterile males in release programs to eradicate, suppress, or prevent spread of wild populations. The effect of inoculation of two standard adult diets (sugar-yeast granulate [SY] and sugar agar [s]) and two experimental formulations (yeast-reduced granulate [Sy] and yeast-enhanced sugar agar [sy]) with Enterobacter agglomerans and Klebsiella pneumoniae (typically occurring in the gut of wild flies) on the different fitness components was assessed in the laboratory and on field-caged host trees. We found that, in the laboratory, males reared on the probiotic yeast-enhanced agar, sy, had a significant mating advantage over competitors fed the standard s agar (probiotic and control) or noninoculated sy agar; no effect of probiotic enrichment (or lowering the yeast content) was found with the granular diets. Mating test results obtained in the field were inconsistent with laboratory data in that no differences in the numbers of matings were observed between males reared on any of the probiotic and control agar diets (or the SY granulate), whereas males feeding on the probiotic modified granulate, Sy, scored significantly more matings than their control competitors. The pheromone-calling activity of males maintained on the granular diets was not affected by probiotic enrichment on any of the seven observation days. Agar-fed males, however, "called" more frequently on days 6 and 7 (but not on days 1-5) when their diet contained the probiotic load. Laboratory survival of granulate-fed males was found to be significantly prolonged with probiotic inoculation and lowering the yeast content of the standard SY granulate (but not with probiotic inoculation of sy). Similarly, males reared on the probiotic and control modified agars (sy) survived significantly longer than those feeding on the standard s agars (inoculated and control). Again, the results obtained in the field were inconsistent, because no differences between treated and control males were found for any of the diets. The findings are discussed in the light of other published studies on adult nutrition and behavioral ecology in C. capitata. PMID:15568345

  16. Do Male Desert Gobies Compromise Offspring Care to Attract Additional Mating Opportunities?

    PubMed Central

    Symons, Nicholas; Svensson, P. Andreas; Wong, Bob B. M.

    2011-01-01

    Males often play a critical role in offspring care but the time and energy invested in looking after young can potentially limit their ability to seek out additional mating opportunities. Recent studies, however, suggest that a conflict between male parental effort and mating effort may not always be inevitable, especially if breeding occurs near the nest, or if parental behaviours are under sexual selection. Accordingly, we set out to experimentally investigate male care and courtship in the desert goby Chlamydogobius eremius, a nest-guarding fish with exclusive paternal care. Despite courtship occurring near the nest, we found that when egg-tending males were given the opportunity to attract additional females, they fanned their eggs less often, engaged in shorter fanning bouts, and spent more of their time outside their nests courting. Our findings highlight the importance of understanding the circumstances under which reproductive tradeoffs are expected to occur and how these, in turn, operate to influence male reproductive decisions. PMID:21687677

  17. Melanic body colour and aggressive mating behaviour are correlated traits in male mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki).

    PubMed

    Horth, Lisa

    2003-05-22

    Correlated traits are important from an evolutionary perspective as natural selection acting on one trait may indirectly affect other traits. Further, the response to selection can be constrained or hastened as a result of correlations. Because mating behaviour and body colour can dramatically affect fitness, a correlation between them can have important fitness ramifications. In this work, melanic (black) male mosquitofishes (Gambusia holbrooki) with temperature-sensitive body-colour expression are bred in captivity. Half of the sons of each melanic sire are reared at 19 degrees C (and express a black body colour) and half are reared at 31 degrees C (and express a silver body colour). The two colour morphs are placed in the same social setting and monitored for behavioural differences. Mating behaviour and colour are correlated traits. Mating behaviour differs markedly between the two phenotypes, despite high genetic relatedness. Melanic (black) phenotypes are more aggressive towards females, chasing them and attempting more matings than their silver siblings. Females avoid melanic-male mating attempts more than silver-male mating attempts. When males with temperature-sensitive colour expression are melanic and aggressive, they probably experience a very different selective regime in nature from when they are silver and less aggressive. Under some conditions (e.g. predation), melanic coloration and/or aggression is advantageous compared with silver coloration and/or less aggressive behaviour. However, under different conditions (e.g. high-frequency melanism), melanism and/or aggression appears to be disadvantageous and melanic males have reduced survival and reproduction. Selective advantages to each morph under different conditions may enable the long-term persistence of this temperature-sensitive genotype. PMID:12803892

  18. Courtship among males due to a male-sterile mutation in Drosophila melanogaster

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey C. Hall

    1978-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster males carrying the fruitless mutation have been studied in their interactions with males and females. Mutant males—expressing a single recessive factor on the third chromosome—court mutant or wild-type males about 7 times more frequently than wild-type males court each other. Courtship by a fruitless male of a wild-type male is sustained and takes up an amount of time

  19. Female house mice avoid fertilization by t haplotype incompatible males in a mate choice experiment

    PubMed Central

    Manser, A; König, B; Lindholm, A K

    2015-01-01

    The t haplotype in house mice is a well-known selfish genetic element with detrimental, nonadditive fitness consequences to its carriers: recessive lethal mutations cause t/t homozygotes to perish in utero. Given the severe genetic incompatibility imposed by the t haplotype, we predict females to avoid fertilization by t haplotype incompatible males. Indeed, some of the strongest evidence for compatibility mate choice is related to the t haplotype in house mice. However, all previous evidence for compatibility mate choice in this system is based on olfactory preference. It is so far unknown how general these preferences are and whether they are relevant in an actual mating context. Here, we assess female compatibility mate choice related to t haplotypes in a setting that – for the first time – allowed females to directly interact and mate with males. This approach enabled us to analyse female behaviour during the testing period, and the resulting paternity success and fitness consequences of a given choice. We show that genetic incompatibilities arising from the t haplotype had severe indirect fitness consequences and t females avoided fertilization by t incompatible males. The results are inconclusive whether this avoidance of t fertilization by t females was caused by pre- or post-copulatory processes. PMID:25494878

  20. ASYMMETRY AND POLYMORPHISM OF HYBRID MALE STERILITY DURING THE EARLY STAGES OF SPECIATION IN HOUSE MICE

    PubMed Central

    Good, Jeffrey M.; Handel, Mary Ann; Nachman, Michael W.

    2010-01-01

    House mice offer a powerful system for dissecting the genetic basis of phenotypes that isolate species in the early stages of speciation. We used a series of reciprocal crosses between wild-derived strains of Mus musculus and M. domesticus to examine F1 hybrid male sterility, one of the primary phenotypes thought to isolate these species. We report four main results. First, we found significantly smaller testes and fewer sperm in hybrid male progeny of most crosses. Second, in some crosses hybrid male sterility was asymmetric and depended on the species origin of the X chromosome. These observations confirm and extend previous findings, underscoring the central role that the M. musculus X chromosome plays in reproductive isolation. Third, comparisons among reciprocal crosses revealed polymorphism at one or more hybrid incompatibilities within M. musculus. Fourth, the spermatogenic phenotype of this polymorphic interaction appears distinct from previously described hybrid incompatibilities between these species. These data build on previous studies of speciation in house mice and show that the genetic basis of hybrid male sterility is fairly complex, even at this early stage of divergence. PMID:18005156

  1. Characterization and mapping of a new male sterility mutant of anther advanced dehiscence (t) in rice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Li, Yunfeng; Zhang, Jian; Shen, Fucheng; Huang, Yuanxin; Wu, Zhiwei

    2008-03-01

    Anther dehiscence is very important for pollen maturation and release. The mutants of anther dehiscence in rice (Oryza sativa L.) are few, and related research remains poor. A male sterility mutant of anther dehiscence in advance, add(t), has been found in Minghui 63 and its sterility is not sensitive to thermo-photo. To learn the character of sterilization and the function of the add(t) gene, the morphological and cytological studies on the anther and pollen, the ability of the pistil being fertilized, inheritance of the mutant, and mapping of add(t) gene have been conducted. The anther size is normal but the color is white in the mutant against the natural yellow in the wild-type. The pollen is malformed, unstained, and small in the KI-I(2) solution. The anther dehiscence is in advance at the bicellular pollen stage. A crossing test indicated that the grain setting ratio of the add(t) is significantly lower than that of the CMS line 2085A. The ability of the pistil being fertilized is most probably decreased by the add(t) gene. The male sterility is controlled by a single recessive gene of add(t). This gene is mapped between the markers of R02004 (InDel) and RM300 (SSR) on chromosome 2, and the genetic distance from the add(t) gene to these markers is 0.78 cM and 4.66 cM, respectively. PMID:18355761

  2. The role of testosterone in male downy woodpeckers in winter home range use, mate interactions and female foraging behaviour

    PubMed Central

    KELLAM, JAMES S.; LUCAS, JEFFREY R.; WINGFIELD, JOHN C.

    2006-01-01

    Studies of the role of testosterone (T) in birds have typically focused on sexual or aggressive behaviours of males during the breeding period, but males of nonmigratory species may invest in mate and territory long before breeding, and the influence of T in facilitating nonbreeding-season behaviours is poorly understood. We gave free-living male downy woodpeckers, Picoides pubescens, T-implants during the winter to determine whether elevated levels of T increased a male’s ability to exclusively occupy territory-based resources, and whether elevated T strengthened a male’s investment in an existing pair bond relationship. We also explored how a female’s foraging efficiency might be affected by her mate’s behaviour if he had elevated T. We found little difference between control and T-implanted males with regard to home range exclusivity. Surprisingly, male–male display rates were significantly lower in T-implanted males than in controls. Regarding male–female interactions, T-implanted males that experienced high incursion rates from other males maintained more frequent spatial association with their mate, suggesting that T facilitates male behaviours that could restrict the mate’s access to other male birds. Female mates of T-males showed reduced foraging rates, but because male–female aggression was similar between treatment groups, the cause for this reduction is unknown. The results indicate that exogenous T during winter affects a variety of behaviours in male woodpeckers, and proximate influences on pair bond maintenance in winter may be a fruitful avenue for future research. PMID:16932805

  3. MULTIPLE-MATING OF MALE AND FEMALE CODLING MOTH (LEPIDOPTERA: TORTRICIDAE) IN APPLE ORCHARDS TREATED WITH SEX PHEROMONE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted with codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), to evaluate the mating status of male and female moths in apple, Malus domestica (Borkhausen), orchards treated with and without sex pheromone dispensers. Laboratory studies first examined the effect of multiple mating of male and femal...

  4. Male characteristics, parental quality and the study of mate choice in the red-winged blackbird ( Agelaius phoeniceus )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher G. Eckert; Patrick J. Weatherhead

    1987-01-01

    A demonstration of adaptive mate choice by females in resource-defence mating systems requires clear predictions as to how females should rank “breeding situations” (defined by the quality of both the resident male and the territory he defends) so as to maximize their fitness. Since male quality is only weakly correlated with territory quality in red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), ranking breeding

  5. Is mate choice in Drosophila males guided by olfactory or gustatory pheromones?

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Is mate choice in Drosophila males guided by olfactory or gustatory pheromones? Claude Everaerts.Everaerts@u-bourgogne.fr (C. Everaerts). Key words: courtship; cuticular hydrocarbon; discrimination; Drosophila melanogaster, published in "Animal Behaviour (2010) in press" #12;2 Drosophila melanogaster flies use both olfactory

  6. Testosterone positively associated with both male mating effort and paternal behavior in savanna baboons (Papio cynocephalus)

    E-print Network

    Alberts, Susan C

    baboons (Papio cynocephalus) Patrick Ogola Onyango a, , Laurence R. Gesquiere a , Jeanne Altmann a 2012 Available online 30 November 2012 Keywords: Testosterone Mating effort Paternal behavior Baboons simultaneously have multiple offspring of different ages. In a 9-year data set on levels of T in male baboons

  7. Patterns of biomass allocation to male and female functions in plants with different mating systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert William Cruden; David L. Lyon

    1985-01-01

    Using dry weight biomass we examined the patterns of investment in male and female functions (prezygotic cost) in plants with different mating systems. All the flower parts of both xenogamous and facultatively xenogamous species were heavier, i.e., larger, than those of facultatively autogamous species. Likewise, the dry weights of all the flower parts of xenogamous species exceeded those of facultatively

  8. Male Drosophila melanogaster have higher mating success when adapted to their thermal environment

    E-print Network

    Agrawal, Aneil F.

    Male Drosophila melanogaster have higher mating success when adapted to their thermal environment E attractive to females. The sentiment that sexual and natural selection often act to reinforce one another has S O C I E T Y F O R E V O L U T I O N A R Y B I O L O G Y Keywords: adaptation; Drosophila; sexual

  9. Behaviour 149 (2012) 869879 brill.com/beh Male permissiveness in a unisexualbisexual mating

    E-print Network

    Gabor, Caitlin - Department of Biology, Texas State University

    2012-01-01

    - erospecific females does not lead to fitness benefits for the males. Here, we focused on the Poecilia latipinna­P. formosa­P. mexicana mating complex, where P. formosa is a gynogenetic species of hybrid origin and P. latipinna and P. mexicana are its parent species and sexual hosts (sperm donors). We examined

  10. Male mask size is correlated with mating success in the common yellowthroat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin J. Thusius; Kara A. Peterson; Peter O. Dunn; Linda A. Whittingham

    2001-01-01

    Many socially monogamous species have sexually dimorphic traits. The evolution of these traits is puzzling as sexual selection is often thought to be relatively weak in monogamous species. However, sexual selection in monogamous species could be stronger than generally believed if the males possessing more dimorphic traits gain a reproductive advantage by increasing the probability of: (1) gaining a mate,

  11. Ape Society: Trading Favours An alpha-male chimpanzee allots mating opportunities with receptive

    E-print Network

    Ape Society: Trading Favours An alpha-male chimpanzee allots mating opportunities with receptive that trade is routine among animals. In particular, catarrhine primates (Old World monkeys and apes) use considered a way for monkeys and apes to build up credit with potential allies, credit that will later

  12. Methoprene modulates the effect of diet on male melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitate, performance at mating aggregations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of dietary protein (P) and the topical application of juvenile hormone analogue (methoprene (M)) on mating behaviour of male melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, was assessed in the laboratory and in field cages. Age, dietary protein and methoprene application improved the sexual success and...

  13. Strong Reproductive Skew Among Males in the Multiply Mated Swordtail Xiphophorus multilineatus (Teleostei)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Luo; M. SANETRA; M. SCHARTL; A. MEYER

    2005-01-01

    Male swordtails in the genus Xiphophorus display a conspicuous ventral elongation of the caudal fin, the sword, which arose through sexual selection due to female preference. Females mate regularly and are able to store sperm for at least 6 months. If multiplemating isfrequent,this wouldraise theintriguing question abouttherole offemalechoice andmale-malecompetition inshapingthematingsystemofthesefishes.Size-dependentalternatematingstrategiesoccurin Xiphophorus;onesuchstrategyis courtship with a sigmoid display by large dominant males,

  14. Mate availability and intruder pressure as determinants of territory size in male bushbuck ( Tragelaphus scriptus )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Torsten Wronski; Martin Plath

    2006-01-01

    The relative importance of mate availability and intruder pressure for the regulation of territory size in adult male bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus) was investigated over a period of 3 years in a free-ranging population. The relationships between territory area and two variables, namely, access to females and intruder pressure by three different male age classes (territory holders, young-adult bachelors, subadult floaters) were

  15. Mating success in brood-guarding male rock bass, Ambloplites rupestris : the effect of body size

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alberto M. Sabat

    1994-01-01

    The hypothesis that variation in a paternal trait associated with offspring survival will result in female mate choice based on that trait was tested in rock bass,Ambloplites rupestris, a temperate fresh water fish with uniparental male care. The number of eggs acquired by 108 nesting male rock bass, in Cranberry Lake (New York State, U.S.A.), was estimated in two different

  16. Programmed cell death promotes male sterility in the functional dioecious Opuntia stenopetala (Cactaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Rentería, Lluvia; Orozco-Arroyo, Gregorio; Cruz-García, Felipe; García-Campusano, Florencia; Alfaro, Isabel; Vázquez-Santana, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The sexual separation in dioecious species has interested biologists for decades; however, the cellular mechanism leading to unisexuality has been poorly understood. In this study, the cellular changes that lead to male sterility in the functionally dioecious cactus, Opuntia stenopetala, are described. Methods The spatial and temporal patterns of programmed cell death (PCD) were determined in the anthers of male and female flowers using scanning electron microscopy analysis and histological observations, focusing attention on the transition from bisexual to unisexual development. In addition, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling assays were used as an indicator of DNA fragmentation to corroborate PCD. Key results PCD was detected in anthers of both female and male flowers, but their patterns differed in time and space. Functionally male individuals developed viable pollen, and normal development involved PCD on each layer of the anther wall, which occurred progressively from the inner (tapetum) to the outer layer (epidermis). Conversely, functional female individuals aborted anthers by premature and displaced PCD. In anthers of female flowers, the first signs of PCD, such as a nucleus with irregular shape, fragmented and condensed chromatin, high vacuolization and condensed cytoplasm, occurred at the microspore mother cell stage. Later these features were observed simultaneously in all anther wall layers, connective tissue and filament. Neither pollen formation nor anther dehiscence was detected in female flowers of O. stenopetala due to total anther disruption. Conclusions Temporal and spatial changes in the patterns of PCD are responsible for male sterility of female flowers in O. stenopetala. Male fertility requires the co-ordination of different events, which, when altered, can lead to male sterility and to functionally unisexual individuals. PCD could be a widespread mechanism in the determination of functionally dioecious species. PMID:23877075

  17. Heritable variation underlies behavioural types in the mating context in male bluefin killifish

    PubMed Central

    McGhee, Katie E.; Travis, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    In many species, consistent behavioural differences among individuals are linked to fitness variation. Determining the environmental and genetic factors that mould these behavioural types is crucial to understanding how behaviours might respond to selection. Male bluefin killifish, Lucania goodei, show extensive consistent behavioural variation in their levels of courtship, male-directed aggression and female-directed aggression, resulting in a range of fitness-related behavioural types coexisting within a population. To determine whether the behavioural components underlying a male’s stable behavioural type in the mating context are heritable and genetically correlated, we performed paternal half-sib crosses. Using animal models, we found that all three of these mating behaviours were moderately heritable (h2 = 0.17–0.29) and courtship behaviour was also heritable as a binomial trait (court yes/no: h2 = 0.50). Including effects of dam identity/common rearing environment experienced by full sibs decreased model fit, suggesting that early social interactions might contribute to behavioural types. In addition, we found evidence consistent with the possibility that the positive phenotypic correlations among mating behaviours are underlain by positive genetic correlations. Thus, it is possible that the seemingly maladaptive aggression that males direct towards females during social interactions persist due to genetic constraints and direct selection on both male-directed aggression and courtship behaviour. PMID:24187377

  18. Unique DNA associated with mitochondria in the “S”-type cytoplasm of male-sterile maize

    PubMed Central

    Pring, D. R.; Levings, C. S.; Hu, W. W. L.; Timothy, D. H.

    1977-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNAs were prepared from maize lines with normal cytoplasm and with the T, C, S, and EP sources of male-sterile cytoplasms. Agarose gel electrophoresis of these preparations revealed a main high-molecular-weight DNA band. In addition, the S cytoplasm was characterized by the presence of two faster migrating DNAs of molecular weight 3.42 to 3.48 × 106 and 4.01 to 4.10 × 106. Electron microscopy showed these unique DNAs to be of different length, but their molecular configuration was not clearly established. It is possible that these unique DNAs represent physical evidence of an episomal system previously postulated to function in the S male-sterile cytoplasm. Images PMID:16592420

  19. Induction of male sterility in plants by metabolic engineering of the carbohydrate supply

    PubMed Central

    Goetz, Marc; Godt, Dietmute E.; Guivarc'h, Anne; Kahmann, Uwe; Chriqui, Dominique; Roitsch, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    Extracellular invertase mediates phloem unloading via an apoplastic pathway. The gene encoding isoenzyme Nin88 from tobacco was cloned and shown to be characterized by a specific spatial and temporal expression pattern. Tissue-specific antisense repression of Nin88 under control of the corresponding promoter in tobacco results in a block during early stages of pollen development, thus, causing male sterility. This result demonstrates a critical role of extracellular invertase in pollen development and strongly supports the essential function of extracellular sucrose cleavage for supplying carbohydrates to sink tissues via the apoplast. The specific interference with phloem unloading, the sugar status, and metabolic signaling during pollen formation will be a potentially valuable approach to induce male sterility in various crop species for hybrid seed production. PMID:11371651

  20. Mobile mating disruption of light brown apple moths using pheromone-treated sterile Mediterranean fruit flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Public opposition to aerial application of sex pheromone for mating disruption of light brown apple moth (Epiphyas postvittana, LBAM) in California stopped its further use in the ca. $74 million eradication programme in 2008, underscoring the need for other eradication tactics. We demonstrate that ...

  1. Differences in male mating response and female flight sounds in Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Duhrkopf, R E; Hartberg, W K

    1992-09-01

    Aedes aegypti (L.) and Ae. albopictus (Skuse) showed similar rates and timing of insemination in the laboratory. Laboratory attempts at interspecific mating were unsuccessful. Because Ae. aegypti males are known to locate females by flight sounds, male response to sound was compared in the two species. Ae. aegypti males responded to female flight sounds with stereotypical orientation and mating behavior, whereas Ae. albopictus males seldom responded. Recorded flight sounds of females were sampled via computer digitization and compared. Ae. aegypti females produced louder sounds with more harmonics than Ae. albopictus. Males were tested for their ability to discriminate between the sounds of the two species. Ae. albopictus males did not respond to recordings of either Ae. albopictus or Ae. aegypti females. Ae. aegypti males responded preferentially to the recorded sounds of Ae. aegypti females. Thus, males of the two species use different mechanisms in locating mates. Ae. aegypti males rely more on sound than do Ae. albopictus males. PMID:1404257

  2. Relationship of Metabolism of Reactive Oxygen Species with Cytoplasmic Male Sterility in Pepper( Capsicum annuum L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming-Hua DENG; Jin-Fen WEN; Jin-Long HUO; Hai-Shan ZHU; Xiong-Ze DAI; Zhu-Qing ZHANG; Hui ZHOU; Xue-Xiao ZOU

    Pepper cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) line 9704A is one of the CMS types used for hybrid pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) production in China. Our previous studies suggested that CMS-9704A may suffer from oxidative stress as its cyanide-resistant respiration is lower than that of the maintainer line. To elucidate the metabolic mechanism of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the CMS-pepper anthers,

  3. The effect of male sterility on oil content and seed yield in sunflowers (Helianthus annuus L.)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    and their isogenic maintainers under self pollination (1.25 % more oil, 4.11 g/plant more seed) ans cross pollination (1.13 % more oil, 7.56 g/plant more seed). The greater oil content and seed yield of male sterile to 55 % oil and we have found plants with more than 60 % oil. Oil content is a highly heritable

  4. Combining Cytoplasmic Male Sterility and Xenia Increases Grain Yield of Maize Hybrids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Urs Weingartner; Olivier Kaeser; Muhua Long; Peter Stamp

    2002-01-01

    mays L.) hybrids. Open pollinated field experiments were conducted single-crosses. in six environments in Switzerland in 1998 and 1999; the design was In summary, previous studies have shown that the a split-plot. The effect of CMS on grain yield was statistically signifi- effect of male sterility on grain yield seemed to be modi- cant (P 0.05). Three CMS hybrids in

  5. Sex Ratio Meiotic Drive as a Plausible Evolutionary Mechanism for Hybrid Male Sterility

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Linbin; Xiao, Hailian; Tao, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Biological diversity on Earth depends on the multiplication of species or speciation, which is the evolution of reproductive isolation such as hybrid sterility between two new species. An unsolved puzzle is the exact mechanism(s) that causes two genomes to diverge from their common ancestor so that some divergent genes no longer function properly in the hybrids. Here we report genetic analyses of divergent genes controlling male fertility and sex ratio in two very young fruitfly species, Drosophila albomicans and D. nasuta. A majority of the genetic divergence for both traits is mapped to the same regions by quantitative trait loci mappings. With introgressions, six major loci are found to contribute to both traits. This genetic colocalization implicates that genes for hybrid male sterility have evolved primarily for controlling sex ratio. We propose that genetic conflicts over sex ratio may operate as a perpetual dynamo for genome divergence. This particular evolutionary mechanism may largely contribute to the rapid evolution of hybrid male sterility and the disproportionate enrichment of its underlying genes on the X chromosome – two patterns widely observed across animals. PMID:25822261

  6. Mating increases neuronal tyrosine hydroxylase expression and selectively gates transmission of male chemosensory information in female mice.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Gillian A; Patel, Ronak; Walsh, Alison; Davies, Owain; Martínez-Ricós, Joana; Brennan, Peter A

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to chemosensory signals from unfamiliar males can terminate pregnancy in recently mated female mice. The number of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons in the main olfactory bulb has been found to increase following mating and has been implicated in preventing male-induced pregnancy block during the post-implantation period. In contrast, pre-implantation pregnancy block is mediated by the vomeronasal system, and is thought to be prevented by selective inhibition of the mate's pregnancy blocking chemosignals, at the level of the accessory olfactory bulb. The objectives of this study were firstly to identify the level of the vomeronasal pathway at which selective inhibition of the mate's pregnancy blocking chemosignals occurs. Secondly, to determine whether a post-mating increase in tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons is observed in the vomeronasal system, which could play a role in preventing pre-implantation pregnancy block. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that mating induced an increase in tyrosine-hydroxylase positive neurons in the arcuate hypothalamus of BALB/c females, and suppressed c-Fos expression in these neurons in response to mating male chemosignals. This selective suppression of c-Fos response to mating male chemosignals was not apparent at earlier levels of the pregnancy-blocking neural pathway in the accessory olfactory bulb or corticomedial amygdala. Immunohistochemical staining revealed an increase in the number of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons in the accessory olfactory bulb of BALB/c female mice following mating. However, increased dopamine-mediated inhibition in the accessory olfactory bulb is unlikely to account for the prevention of pregnancy block to the mating male, as tyrosine hydroxylase expression did not increase in females of the C57BL/6 strain, which show normal mate recognition. These findings reveal an association of mating with increased dopaminergic modulation in the pregnancy block pathway and support the hypothesis that mate recognition prevents pregnancy block by suppressing the activation of arcuate dopamine release. PMID:23936125

  7. Molecular aspects of cytoplasmic male sterility in perennial ryegrass ( Lolium perenne L.): mtDNA and RNA differences between plants with male-sterile and fertile cytoplasm and restriction mapping of their atp6 and coxI homologous regions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. J. A. Rouwendal; J. Creemers-Molenaar; F. A. Krens

    1992-01-01

    Lolium perenne L. male-sterile and fertile cytoplasms contain different mitochondrial genomes, as revealed by Southern hybridization with a number of heterologous mitochondrial probes. In addition, transcriptional patterns of atp6 and coxI genes distinguish both cytoplasmic types. The majority of the L. perenne sequences from male-sterile and fertile cytoplasm showing homology with these two genes has been cloned and mapped by

  8. Carotenoids, oxidative stress and female mating preference for longer lived males

    PubMed Central

    Pike, Thomas W; Blount, Jonathan D; Bjerkeng, Bjørn; Lindström, Jan; Metcalfe, Neil B

    2007-01-01

    Some of the most spectacular exaggerated sexual ornaments are carotenoid dependent. It has been suggested that such ornaments have evolved because carotenoid pigments are limiting for both signal expression and in their role as antioxidants and immunostimulants. An implicit assumption of this hypothesis is that males which can afford to produce more elaborate carotenoid-dependent displays are signalling their enhanced ability to resist parasites, disease or oxidative stress and hence would be predicted to live longer. Therefore, in species with carotenoid-dependent ornaments where a parent's future longevity is crucial for determining offspring survival, there should be a mating preference for partners that present the lowest risk of mortality during the breeding attempt, as signalled by the ability to allocate carotenoids to sexual displays. In an experimental study using three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus), we show that when dietary carotenoid intake is limited, males attempt to maintain their sexual ornament at the expense of body carotenoids and hence suffer from reduced reproductive investment and a shorter lifespan. These males also suffer from an increased susceptibility to oxidative stress, suggesting that this may constitute the mechanism underlying the increased rate of ageing. Furthermore, in pairwise mate-choice trials, females preferred males that had a greater access to carotenoids and chance of surviving the breeding season, suggesting that females can make adaptive mate choice decisions based on a male's carotenoid status and potential future longevity. PMID:17439854

  9. Genetic Variation and Covariation in Male Attractiveness and Female Mating Preferences in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Ratterman, Nicholas L.; Rosenthal, Gil G.; Carney, Ginger E.; Jones, Adam G.

    2013-01-01

    How mating preferences evolve remains one of the major unsolved mysteries in evolutionary biology. One major impediment to the study of ornament-preference coevolution is that many aspects of the theoretical literature remain loosely connected to empirical data. Theoretical models typically streamline mating preferences by describing preference functions with a single parameter, a modeling convenience that may veil important aspects of preference evolution. Here, we use a high-throughput behavioral assay in Drosophila melanogaster to quantify attractiveness and multiple components of preferences in both males and females. Females varied genetically with respect to how they ranked males in terms of attractiveness as well as the extent to which they discriminated among different males. Conversely, males showed consistent preferences for females, suggesting that D. melanogaster males tend to rank different female phenotypes in the same order in terms of attractiveness. Moreover, we reveal a heretofore undocumented positive genetic correlation between male attractiveness and female choosiness, which is a measure of the variability in a female’s response to different male phenotypes. This genetic correlation sets the stage for female choosiness to evolve via a correlated response to selection on male traits and potentially adds a new dimension to the Fisherian sexual selection process. PMID:24212081

  10. Poeciliid male mate preference is influenced by female size but not by fecundity

    PubMed Central

    Schlupp, Ingo

    2013-01-01

    While female mate preference is very well studied, male preference has only recently begun to receive significant attention. Its existence is found in numerous taxa, but empirical research has mostly been limited to a descriptive level and does not fully address the factors influencing its evolution. We attempted to address this issue using preference functions by comparing the strength of male preference for females of different sizes in nine populations of four poeciliid species. Due to environmental constraints (water toxicity and surface versus cave habitat), females from these populations vary in the degree to which their size is correlated to their fecundity. Hence, they vary in how their size signals their quality as mates. Since female size is strongly correlated with fecundity in this subfamily, males were sequentially presented with conspecific females of three different size categories and the strength of their preference for each was measured. Males preferred larger females in all populations, as predicted. However, the degree to which males preferred each size category, as measured by association time, was not correlated with its fecundity. In addition, cave males discriminated against smaller females more than surface males. Assuming that male preference is correlated with female fitness, these results suggest that factors other than fecundity have a strong influence on female fitness in these species. PMID:24010018

  11. Does divergence in female mate choice affect male size distributions in two cave fish populations?

    PubMed

    Tobler, Michael; Schlupp, Ingo; Plath, Martin

    2008-10-23

    Sexual selection by female choice can maintain male traits that are counter selected by natural selection. Alteration of the potential for sexual selection can thus lead to shifts in the expression of male traits. We investigated female mate choice for large male body size in a fish (Poecilia mexicana) that, besides surface streams, also inhabits two caves. All four populations investigated, exhibited an ancestral visual preference for large males. However, only one of the cave populations also expressed this female preference in darkness. Hence, the lack of expression of female preference in darkness in the other cave population leads to relaxation of sexual selection for large male body size. While P. mexicana populations with size-specific female mate choice are characterized by a pronounced male size variation, the absence of female choice in one cave coincides with the absence of large bodied males in that population. Our results suggest that population differences in the potential for sexual selection may affect male trait variation. PMID:18559308

  12. Directional transfer of a multiple-allele male sterile line in Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis (L.) Makino var. rosularis Tsen et Lee

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiu Shi; Zhang, Xi; Li, Cheng Yu; Liu, Zhi Yong; Feng, Hui

    2014-01-01

    To produce hybrid seeds of Wutacai (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis (L.) Makino var. rosularis Tsen et Lee), a “directional transfer program” was designed to breed the multiple-allele male sterile line of Wutacai. A multiple-allele male sterile line of Naibaicai (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis L., S01) was used as the male sterile resource, and an inbred line of Wutacai (WT01) was used as the target line. Recurrent backcrossing was employed to transfer the male sterility and other botanical traits simultaneously, while the genotype was identified through test crossing. The male sterility was successfully transferred from S01 to WT01. A new male sterile line, GMS-3, with similar botanical traits to WT01, was bred. Four hybrid combinations were generated with GMS-3 as the female parent. One hybrid (C1) that contained the most desirable traits was developed from the new male sterile line. PMID:24987301

  13. Organizational differences between cytoplasmic male sterile and male fertile Brassica mitochondrial genomes are confined to a single transposed locus.

    PubMed Central

    L'Homme, Y; Brown, G G

    1993-01-01

    Comparison of the physical maps of male fertile (cam) and male sterile (pol) mitochondrial genomes of Brassica napus indicates that structural differences between the two mtDNAs are confined to a region immediately upstream of the atp6 gene. Relative to cam mtDNA, pol mtDNA possesses a 4.5 kb segment at this locus that includes a chimeric gene that is cotranscribed with atp6 and lacks an approximately 1kb region located upstream of the cam atp6 gene. The 4.5 kb pol segment is present and similarly organized in the mitochondrial genome of the common nap B.napus cytoplasm; however, the nap and pol DNA regions flanking this segment are different and the nap sequences are not expressed. The 4.5 kb CMS-associated pol segment has thus apparently undergone transposition during the evolution of the nap and pol cytoplasms and has been lost in the cam genome subsequent to the pol-cam divergence. This 4.5 kb segment comprises the single DNA region that is expressed differently in fertile, pol CMS and fertility restored pol cytoplasm plants. The finding that this locus is part of the single mtDNA region organized differently in the fertile and male sterile mitochondrial genomes provides strong support for the view that it specifies the pol CMS trait. Images PMID:8388101

  14. Post-Mating Interactions and Their Effects on Fitness of Female and Male Echinothrips americanus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), a New Insect Pest in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-Wei; Jiang, Hong-Xue; Zhang, Xiao-Chen; Shelton, Anthony M.; Feng, Ji-Nian

    2014-01-01

    Post-mating, sexual interactions of opposite sexes differ considerably in different organisms. Post-mating interactions such as re-mating behavior and male harassment can affect the fitness of both sexes. Echinothrips americanus is a new insect pest in Mainland China, and little is known about its post-mating interactions. In this study, we observed re-mating frequency and male harassment frequency and their effects on fitness parameters and offspring sex ratios of E. americanus females. Furthermore, we tested the impact of mating and post-mating interactions on fitness parameters of males. Our results revealed that the re-mating frequency in female adults was extremely low during a 30-day period. However, post-mating interactions between females and males, consisting mainly of male harassment and female resistance, did occur and significantly reduced female longevity and fecundity. Interestingly, increased access to males did not affect the ratio of female offspring. For males, mating dramatically reduced their longevity. However, post-mating interactions with females had no effects on the longevity of mated males. These results enrich our basic knowledge about female and male mating and post-mating behaviors in this species and provide important information about factors that may influence population regulation of this important pest species. PMID:24489956

  15. Reed bunting females increase fitness through extra-pair mating with genetically dissimilar males

    PubMed Central

    Suter, Stefan M; Keiser, Martin; Feignoux, Raoul; Meyer, Dietrich R

    2007-01-01

    Females of many socially monogamous species accept or even actively seek copulations outside the social pair bond. As females cannot increase the number of offspring with promiscuous behaviour, the question arises why they engage in extra-pair mating. We used microsatellite data to determine paternity, heterozygosity and genetic relatedness in the reed bunting (Emberiza schoeniclus), a species with high levels of extra-pair paternity (EPP). We found that extra-pair young (EPY) were more heterozygous than within-pair young (WPY). The high heterozygosity of the EPY resulted from a low genetic similarity between females and their extra-pair mates. EPY were heavier and larger when compared with their maternal half-siblings shortly before they left the nest. Recapture data indicated a higher fledgling survival of EPY compared with WPY. Our data suggest that reed bunting females increase the viability of their offspring and thus fitness through extra-pair mating with genetically dissimilar males. PMID:17785270

  16. Audience effects in the Atlantic molly (Poecilia mexicana)–prudent male mate choice in response to perceived sperm competition risk?

    PubMed Central

    Ziege, Madlen; Mahlow, Kristin; Hennige-Schulz, Carmen; Kronmarck, Claudia; Tiedemann, Ralph; Streit, Bruno; Plath, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Background Multidirectional interactions in social networks can have a profound effect on mate choice behavior; e.g., Poecilia mexicana males show weaker expression of mating preferences when being observed by a rival. This may be an adaptation to reduce sperm competition risk, which arises because commonly preferred female phenotypes will receive attention also from surrounding males, and/or because other males can copy the focal male's mate choice. Do P. mexicana males indeed respond to perceived sperm competition risk? We gave males a choice between two females and repeated the tests under one of the following conditions: (1) an empty transparent cylinder was presented (control); (2) another ("audience") male inside the cylinder observed the focal male throughout the 2nd part, or (3) the audience male was presented only before the tests, but could not eavesdrop during the actual choice tests (non-specific sperm competition risk treatments); (4) the focal male could see a rival male interact sexually with the previously preferred, or (5) with the non-preferred female before the 2nd part of the tests (specific sperm competition risk treatments). Results The strength of individual male preferences declined slightly also during the control treatment (1). However, this decrease was more than two-fold stronger in audience treatment (2), i.e., with non-specific sperm competition risk including the possibility for visual eavesdropping by the audience male. No audience effect was found in treatments (3) and (5), but a weak effect was also observed when the focal male had seen the previously preferred female sexually interact with a rival male (treatment 4; specific sperm competition risk). Conclusion When comparing the two 'non-specific sperm competition risk' treatments, a very strong effect was found only when the audience male could actually observe the focal male during mate choice [treatment (2)]. This suggests that focal males indeed attempt to conceal their mating preferences so as to prevent surrounding males from copying their mate choice. When there is no potential for eavesdropping [treatment (3)], non-specific specific sperm competition risk seems to play a minor or no role. Our results also show that P. mexicana males tend to share their mating effort more equally among females when the resource value of their previously preferred mate decreases after mating with a rival male (perceived specific sperm competition risk), but this effect is comparatively weak. PMID:19698098

  17. A potential role of male and female androgen in species recognition in a unisexual-bisexual mating complex.

    PubMed

    Gabor, Caitlin R; Grober, Matthew S

    2010-04-01

    Hormones play a critical role in the regulation of vertebrate mating behavior, including receptivity, and several components of mate choice. However, less is known about the role of these chemical messengers in mediating behavior associated with premating reproductive isolation. The bisexual-unisexual mating complex of sailfin mollies, Poecilia latipinna, and Amazon mollies, Poecilia formosa (sexual parasites of sailfins) has been a model system for studying ultimate mechanisms of species recognition. However proximate mechanisms, such as variation in hormone levels, have not been examined. We paired male sailfin mollies with either female conspecifics or Amazon mollies and obtained water-borne hormone samples before and after mating for all fish. We measured 11-ketotestosterone, testosterone, and estradiol from the water samples. As expected from previous studies, males mated with conspecifics more frequently than with Amazon mollies. 11-Ketotestosterone production by males increased when they mated with female sailfin mollies who themselves also showed elevated production of 11-ketotestosterone. This increase in male and female 11-ketotestosterone levels was not seen when males mated with Amazon mollies. This unique endocrine interaction represents a potential proximate mechanism for species recognition by male sailfin mollies. We found no significant change in testosterone or estradiol under these conditions suggesting that a single hormone mediates bidirectional interactions between males and females during courtship. PMID:20100486

  18. Extra-pair mating, male plumage coloration and sexual selection in yellow warblers (Dendroica petechia)

    PubMed Central

    Yezerinac, S. M.; Weatherhead, P. J.

    1997-01-01

    Extra-pair mating has been proposed as a source of sexual selection responsible for secondary sexual traits that are common among socially monogamous birds, although supporting evidence is scant. In the socially monogamous yellow warbler, males are larger than females, and unlike females, have extensive reddish streaking on their breasts. Using DNA fingerprinting we show that within-pair parentage was positively related to male size, and that extra-pair mating success was positively related to the amount of streaking on the breast. To our knowledge, this is the first intraspecific evidence of an association between a male plumage ornament and gains of extra-pair paternity that is apparently independent of age. This study confirms that extra-pair mating can be an important mechanism of sexual selection even when the most successful sires are commonly cuckolded, and refutes a previous hypothesis that the variation in plumage and behaviour among male yellow warblers is an example of alternative, equally successful, evolutionarily stable strategies (ESS). More generally, the demonstrated independence of within-pair and extra-pair success and their associated traits indicates that where animals have multiple secondary sexual traits, different traits may be selected by different mechanisms that contribute to total reproductive success.

  19. Individual consistency in exploratory behaviour and mating tactics in male guppies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Jennifer L.; Phillips, Samuel C.; Evans, Jonathan P.

    2013-10-01

    While behavioural plasticity is considered an adaptation to fluctuating social and environmental conditions, many animals also display a high level of individual consistency in their behaviour over time or across contexts (generally termed ‘personality’). However, studies of animal personalities that include sexual behaviour, or functionally distinct but correlated traits, are relatively scarce. In this study, we tested for individual behavioural consistency in courtship and exploratory behaviour in male guppies ( Poecilia reticulata) in two light environments (high vs. low light intensity). Based on previous work on guppies, we predicted that males would modify their behaviour from sneak mating tactics to courtship displays under low light conditions, but also that the rank orders of courtship effort would remain unchanged (i.e. highly sexually active individuals would display relatively high levels of courtship under both light regimes). We also tested for correlations between courtship and exploratory behaviour, predicting that males that had high display rates would also be more likely to approach a novel object. Although males showed significant consistency in their exploratory and mating behaviour over time (1 week), we found no evidence that these traits constituted a behavioural syndrome. Furthermore, in contrast to previous work, we found no overall effect of the light environment on any of the behaviours measured, although males responded to the treatment on an individual-level basis, as reflected by a significant individual-by-environment interaction. The future challenge is to investigate how individual consistency across different environmental contexts relates to male reproductive success.

  20. Male-specific (Z)-9-tricosene stimulates female mating behaviour in the spider Pholcus beijingensis

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yong-Hong; Zhang, Jian-Xu; Li, Shu-Qiang

    2010-01-01

    Chemical signals play an important role in spider sexual communication, yet the chemistry of spider sex pheromones remains poorly understood. Chemical identification of male-produced pheromone-mediating sexual behaviour in spiders has also, to our knowledge, not been reported before. This study aimed to examine whether chemically mediated strategies are used by males of the spider Pholcus beijingensis for increasing the probability of copulation. Based on data from gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis, electroantennography assay and a series of behavioural tests, we verified that (Z)-9-tricosene is a male-specific compound in the spider P. beijingensis. This compound acts as an aphrodisiac: it increases the likelihood that a female will mate. Mate-searching males release (Z)-9-tricosene to stimulate sexual behaviour of conspecific females. In the two-choice assay, however, sexually receptive females show no preference to the chambers containing (Z)-9-tricosene. This indicates that the male pheromone of P. beijingensis is not an attractant per se to the conspecific females. This is, to our knowledge, the first identification of a male-produced aphrodisiac pheromone in spiders. PMID:20462911

  1. Effects of Nuclear Genomes on Anther Development in Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Chicories (Cichorium intybus L.): Morphological Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Habarugira, Ildephonse; Hendriks, Theo; Quillet, Marie-Christine; Hilbert, Jean-Louis; Rambaud, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    The Cichorium intybus flower development in fertile, cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS 524) and various phenotypes carrying the 524 male sterile cytoplasm was investigated macroscopically and by light microscopy. The development was similar in fertile and in male sterile florets up to meiosis, and then it was affected in anther wall structure and pollen grain development in male sterile floret. In the male sterile plants, the tapetum intrusion after meiosis was less remarkable, the microspores started to abort at vacuolate stage, the connective tissue collapsed, and endothecium failed to expand normally and did not undergo cell wall lignification, which prevented anther opening since the septum and stomium were not disrupted. Crosses undertaken in order to introduce the CMS 524 into two different nuclear backgrounds gave rise to morphologically diversified progenies due to different nuclear-mitochondrial interactions. Macroscopic and cytological investigations showed that pollen-donor plants belonging to Jupiter population had potential capacity to restore fertility while the CC line could be considered as a sterility maintainer. PMID:25861678

  2. Ontogenetic shifts in male mating preference and morph-specific polyandry in a female colour polymorphic insect

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sexual conflict over mating rates may favour the origin and maintenance of phenotypes with contrasting reproductive strategies. The damselfly Ischnura elegans is characterised by a female colour polymorphism that consists of one androchrome and two gynochrome female morphs. Previous studies have shown that the polymorphism is genetic and to a high extent maintained by negative frequency-dependent mating success that varies temporally and spatially. However, the role of learning in male mating preferences has received little attention. We used molecular markers to investigate differences in polyandry between female morphs. In addition, we experimentally investigated innate male mating preferences and experience-dependent shifts in male mating preferences for female morphs. Results Field and molecular data show that androchrome females were less polyandrous than gynochrome females. Interestingly, we found that naïve males showed significantly higher sexual preferences to androchrome than to gynochrome females in experimental trials. In contrast, experienced males showed no preference for androchrome females. Conclusions The ontogenetic change in male mate preferences occurs most likely because of learned mate recognition after experience with females, which in this case does not result in a preference for one of the morphs, but rather in the loss of an innate preference for androchrome females. PMID:23742182

  3. Defining the Genetic Architecture Underlying Female- and Male-Mediated Nonrandom Mating and Seed Yield Traits in Arabidopsis1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Ann Louise; Fitz Gerald, Jonathan Nesbit; Telligman, Megan; Roshanmanesh, Jacob; Swanson, Robert John

    2011-01-01

    Postpollination nonrandom mating among compatible mates is a widespread phenomenon in plants and is genetically undefined. In this study, we used the recombinant inbred line (RIL) population between Landsberg erecta and Columbia (Col) accessions of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) to define the genetic architecture underlying both female- and male-mediated nonrandom mating traits. To map the genetic loci responsible for male-mediated nonrandom mating, we performed mixed pollinations with Col and RIL pollen on Col pistils. To map the genetic loci responsible for female-mediated nonrandom mating, we performed mixed pollinations with Col and Landsberg erecta pollen on RIL pistils. With these data, we performed composite interval mapping to identify two quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that control male-mediated nonrandom mating. We detected epistatic interactions between these two loci. We also explored female- and male-mediated traits involved in seed yield in mixed pollinations. We detected three female QTLs and one male QTL involved in directing seed number per fruit. To our knowledge, the results of these experiments represent the first time the female and male components of seed yield and nonrandom mating have been separately mapped. PMID:22007025

  4. Field observations on male mating behavior in surface- and cave- dwelling Atlantic mollies (Poecilia mexicana, Poeciliidae) Freilandbeobachtungen zum Paarungsverhalten der Männchen oberirdischer und höhlenbewohnender Atlantikkärpflinge (Poecilia mexicana, Poeciliidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Plath; Katja Heubel; Ingo Schlupp

    Summary: We investigated male mating behavior in surface- and cave-dwelling Atlantic mollies, Poecilia mexicana, in their natural habitats. In previous laboratory experiments, size-dependent male mating behavior was found, and male sexual activity was negatively correlated with male body size in the surface form, but was positively correlated with male size in the cave form. In the field, however, in both

  5. Postembryonic development of mating behavior in the male cricket Gryllus bimaculatus DeGeer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masaki Sakai; Takao Katayama; Yasuo Taoda

    1990-01-01

    The intact male nymph cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus DeGeer, was found to show mating-like behavior, that is, courtship-like behavior (CSLB) and copulation-like behavior (CPLB), in the 7th and 8th (last) instars. The 8th instar nymph exhibited less CSLB and CPLB than the adult but much more than the 7th instar nymph. The movement patterns of CSLB and CPLB were essentially the

  6. Age-specific Effects of Novel Mutations in Drosophila Melanogaster II. Fecundity and Male Mating Ability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul D. Mack; Vanessa K. Lester; Daniel E. L. Promislow

    2000-01-01

    Evolutionary theories of senescence assume that mutations with age-specific effects exist, yet until now, there has been little\\u000a experimental evidence to support this assumption. In this study, we allowed mutations to accumulate in an outbred, wild population\\u000a of Drosophila melanogaster to test for age-specific differences in both male mating ability and fecundity. We assayed for age-specific effects of mutations\\u000a after

  7. Natural variation in male-induced ‘cost-of-mating’ and allele-specific association with male reproductive genes in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Fiumera, Anthony C; Dumont, Bethany L; Clark, Andrew G

    2006-01-01

    One of the most sharply defined sexual conflicts arises when the act of mating is accompanied by an inflated risk of death. Several reports have documented an increased death rate of female Drosophila as a result of recurrent mating. Transgenic and mutation experiments have further identified components of seminal fluid that are at least in part responsible for this toxicity. Variation among males in their tendency for matings to be toxic to their partners has also been documented, but here for the first time we identify polymorphism within particular genes conferring differential post-mating female mortality. Such polymorphism is important, as it raises the challenge of whether sexual conflict models can provide means for maintenance of polymorphism. Using a set of second chromosome extraction lines, we scored differences in post-mating female fecundity and longevity subsequent to mating, and identified significant among-line differences. Seventy polymorphisms in ten male reproductive genes were scored and permutation tests were used to identify significant associations between genotype and phenotype. One polymorphism upstream of PEBII and an amino acid substitution in CG17331 were both associated with male-induced female mortality. The same allele of CG17331 that is toxic to females also induces greater refractoriness to remating in the females, providing an example of an allele-specific sexual conflict. Postcopulatory sexual selection could lead to sexual conflict by favouring males that prevent their mates from mating, even when there is a viability cost to those females. PMID:16612893

  8. Artificial Stimulation of Cephalic Cholinergic Sensory Neurons Induces Mating-Like Motor Responses in Male Caenorhabditis elegans

    E-print Network

    Midkiff, James

    2012-12-06

    sources and integrates these inputs to compute the decision of whether or not to mate. Mating behavior in the C. elegans male is regulated at a number of steps by cholinergic signaling from various sensory and sensory-motor neurons, but a comprehensive...

  9. Tomato Male sterile 1035 is essential for pollen development and meiosis in anthers

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Hee-Jin; Kang, Jin-Ho; Zhao, Meiai; Kwon, Jin-Kyung; Choi, Hak-Soon; Bae, Jung Hwan; Lee, Hyun-ah; Joung, Young-Hee; Choi, Doil; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl

    2014-01-01

    Male fertility in flowering plants depends on proper cellular differentiation in anthers. Meiosis and tapetum development are particularly important processes in pollen production. In this study, we showed that the tomato male sterile (ms10 35) mutant of cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) exhibited dysfunctional meiosis and an abnormal tapetum during anther development, resulting in no pollen production. We demonstrated that Ms10 35 encodes a basic helix–loop–helix transcription factor that is specifically expressed in meiocyte and tapetal tissue from pre-meiotic to tetrad stages. Transgenic expression of the Ms10 35 gene from its native promoter complemented the male sterility of the ms10 35 mutant. In addition, RNA-sequencing-based transcriptome analysis revealed that Ms10 35 regulates 246 genes involved in anther development processes such as meiosis, tapetum development, cell-wall degradation, pollen wall formation, transport, and lipid metabolism. Our results indicate that Ms10 35 plays key roles in regulating both meiosis and programmed cell death of the tapetum during microsporogenesis. PMID:25262227

  10. Engineering Cytoplasmic Male Sterility via the Chloroplast Genome by Expression of ?-Ketothiolase1

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Oscar N.; Daniell, Henry

    2005-01-01

    While investigating expression of the polydroxybutyrate pathway in transgenic chloroplasts, we addressed the specific role of ?-ketothiolase. Therefore, we expressed the phaA gene via the chloroplast genome. Prior attempts to express the phaA gene in transgenic plants were unsuccessful. We studied the effect of light regulation of the phaA gene using the psbA promoter and 5? untranslated region, and evaluated expression under different photoperiods. Stable transgene integration into the chloroplast genome and homoplasmy were confirmed by Southern analysis. The phaA gene was efficiently transcribed in all tissue types examined, including leaves, flowers, and anthers. Coomassie-stained gel and western blots confirmed hyperexpression of ?-ketothiolase in leaves and anthers, with proportionately high levels of enzyme activity. The transgenic lines were normal except for the male-sterile phenotype, lacking pollen. Scanning electron microscopy revealed a collapsed morphology of the pollen grains. Floral developmental studies revealed that transgenic lines showed an accelerated pattern of anther development, affecting their maturation, and resulted in aberrant tissue patterns. Abnormal thickening of the outer wall, enlarged endothecium, and vacuolation affected pollen grains and resulted in the irregular shape or collapsed phenotype. Reversibility of the male-sterile phenotype was observed under continuous illumination, resulting in viable pollen and copious amount of seeds. This study results in the first engineered cytoplasmic male-sterility system in plants, offers a new tool for transgene containment for both nuclear and organelle genomes, and provides an expedient mechanism for F1 hybrid seed production. PMID:16009998

  11. The role of testosterone in male downy woodpeckers in winter home range use, mate interactions and female foraging behaviour.

    PubMed

    Kellam, James S; Lucas, Jeffrey R; Wingfield, John C

    2006-03-01

    Studies of the role of testosterone (T) in birds have typically focused on sexual or aggressive behaviours of males during the breeding period, but males of nonmigratory species may invest in mate and territory long before breeding, and the influence of T in facilitating nonbreeding-season behaviours is poorly understood. We gave free-living male downy woodpeckers, Picoides pubescens, T-implants during the winter to determine whether elevated levels of T increased a male's ability to exclusively occupy territory-based resources, and whether elevated T strengthened a male's investment in an existing pair bond relationship. We also explored how a female's foraging efficiency might be affected by her mate's behaviour if he had elevated T. We found little difference between control and T-implanted males with regard to home range exclusivity. Surprisingly, male-male display rates were significantly lower in T-implanted males than in controls. Regarding male-female interactions, T-implanted males that experienced high incursion rates from other males maintained more frequent spatial association with their mate, suggesting that T facilitates male behaviours that could restrict the mate's access to other male birds. Female mates of T-males showed reduced foraging rates, but because male-female aggression was similar between treatment groups, the cause for this reduction is unknown. The results indicate that exogenous T during winter affects a variety of behaviours in male woodpeckers, and proximate influences on pair bond maintenance in winter may be a fruitful avenue for future research. PMID:16932805

  12. Neuropeptides affecting the transfer of juvenile hormones from males to females during mating in Spodoptera frugiperda.

    PubMed

    Hassanien, Intisar T E; Grötzner, Manuela; Meyering-Vos, Martina; Hoffmann, Klaus H

    2014-07-01

    In the polyandric moth, Spodopterafrugiperda, juvenile hormone (JH) is transferred from the male accessory reproductive glands (AG) to the female bursa copulatrix (BC) during copulation (see Hassanien et al., 2014). Here we used the RNA interference technique to study the role of allatoregulating neuropeptides in controlling the synthesis and transfer of JH during mating. Knockdown of S. frugiperda allatostatin C (Spofr-AS type C) in freshly emerged males leads to an accumulation of JH in the AG beyond that in the control and mating results in a higher transport of JH I and JH II into the female BC. Knockdown of S. frugiperda allatotropin 2 (Spofr-AT2) significantly reduces the amount of JH in the AG as well as its transfer into the female BC during copulation. Knockdown of S. frugiperda allatostatin A (Spofr-AS type A) and S. frugiperda allatotropin (Spofr-AT; Hassanien et al., 2014) only slightly affects the accumulation of JH in the AG and its transfer from the male to the female. We conclude that Spofr-AS type C and Spofr-AT2 act as true allatostatin and true allatotropin, respectively, on the synthesis of JH I and JH II in the male AG. Moreover, both peptides seem to control the synthesis of JH III in the corpora allata of adult males and its release into the hemolymph. PMID:24852671

  13. Male mate choice scales female ornament allometry in a cichlid fish

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Studies addressing the adaptive significance of female ornamentation have gained ground recently. However, the expression of female ornaments in relation to body size, known as trait allometry, still remains unexplored. Here, we investigated the allometry of a conspicuous female ornament in Pelvicachromis taeniatus, a biparental cichlid that shows mutual mate choice and ornamentation. Females feature an eye-catching pelvic fin greatly differing from that of males. Results We show that allometry of the female pelvic fin is scaled more positively in comparison to other fins. The pelvic fin exhibits isometry, whereas the other fins (except the caudal fin) show negative allometry. The size of the pelvic fin might be exaggerated by male choice because males prefer female stimuli that show a larger extension of the trait. Female pelvic fin size is correlated with individual condition, suggesting that males can assess direct and indirect benefits. Conclusions The absence of positive ornament allometry might be a result of sexual selection constricted by natural selection: fins are related to locomotion and thus may be subject to viability selection. Our study provides evidence that male mate choice might scale the expression of a female sexual ornament, and therefore has implications for the understanding of the relationship of female sexual traits with body size in species with conventional sex-roles. PMID:20932273

  14. The genetic mating system of a sea spider with male-biased sexual size dimorphism: evidence for paternity skew despite random mating success.

    PubMed

    Barreto, Felipe S; Avise, John C

    2011-08-01

    Male-biased size dimorphism is usually expected to evolve in taxa with intense male-male competition for mates, and it is hence associated with high variances in male mating success. Most species of pycnogonid sea spiders exhibit female-biased size dimorphism, and are notable among arthropods for having exclusive male parental care of embryos. Relatively little, however, is known about their natural history, breeding ecology, and mating systems. Here we first show that Ammothella biunguiculata, a small intertidal sea spider, exhibits male-biased size dimorphism. Moreover, we combine genetic parentage analysis with quantitative measures of sexual selection to show that male body size does not appear to be under directional selection. Simulations of random mating revealed that mate acquisition in this species is largely driven by chance factors, although actual paternity success is likely non-randomly distributed. Finally, the opportunity for sexual selection (I(s)), an indirect metric for the potential strength of sexual selection, in A. biunguiculata males was less than half of that estimated in a sea spider with female-biased size dimorphism, suggesting the direction of size dimorphism may not be a reliable predictor of the intensity of sexual selection in this group. We highlight the suitability of pycnogonids as model systems for addressing questions relating parental investment and sexual selection, as well as the current lack of basic information on their natural history and breeding ecology. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00265-011-1170-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:21874083

  15. Acoustic experience shapes alternative mating tactics and reproductive investment in male field crickets.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Nathan W; Gray, Brian; Zuk, Marlene

    2010-05-11

    Developmental plasticity allows juvenile animals to assess environmental cues and adaptively shape behavioral and morphological traits to maximize fitness in their adult environment. Sexual signals are particularly conspicuous cues, making them likely candidates for mediating such responses. Plasticity in male reproductive traits is a common phenomenon, but empirical evidence for signal-mediated plasticity in males is lacking. We tested whether experience of acoustic sexual signals during juvenile stages influences the development of three adult traits in the continuously breeding field cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus: male mating tactics, reproductive investment, and condition. All three traits were affected by juvenile acoustic experience. Males of this species produce a long-range calling song to attract receptive females, but they can also behave as satellites by parasitizing other males' calls. Males reared in an environment mimicking a population with many calling males were less likely to exhibit satellite behavior, invested more in reproductive tissues, and attained higher condition than males reared in a silent environment. These results contrast with other studies and demonstrate how the effects of juvenile social experience on adult male morphology, reproductive investment, and behavior may subsequently influence sexual selection and phenotypic evolution. PMID:20417103

  16. Direct and correlated responses to artificial selection on male mating frequency in the stalk-eyed fly Cyrtodiopsis dalmanni

    E-print Network

    Cotton, Sam

    subjected male stalk-eyed flies to artificial selection for increased (`high') and decreased (`low') mating symmetric in the high and low lines, revealing high additive genetic variation for, and no significant generations of selection. High line males had significantly larger accessory glands than low line males

  17. A recessive gene controlling male sterility sensitive to short daylength/low temperature in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiao-dong; Sun, Dong-fa; Rong, De-fu; Peng, Jun-hua; Li, Cheng-dao

    2011-01-01

    Utilization of a two-line breeding system via photoperiod-thermo sensitive male sterility has a great potential for hybrid production in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). 337S is a novel wheat male sterile line sensitive to both short daylength/low temperature and long daylength/high temperature. Five F2 populations derived from the crosses between 337S and five common wheat varieties were developed for genetic analysis. All F1’s were highly fertile while segregation occurred in the F2 populations with a ratio of 3 fertile:1 sterile under short daylength/low temperature. It is shown that male sterility in 337S was controlled by a single recessive gene, temporarily designated as wptms3. Bulked segregant analysis (BSA) coupled with simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers was applied to map the sterile gene using one mapping population. The wptms3 gene was mapped to chromosome arm 1BS and flanked by Xgwm413 and Xgwm182 at a genetic distance of 3.2 and 23.5 cM, respectively. The accuracy and efficiency of marker-assisted selection were evaluated and proved essential for identifying homozygous recessive male sterile genotypes of the wptms3 gene in F2 generation. PMID:22042660

  18. The effect of male coloration on female mate choice in closely related Lake Victoria cichlids ( Haplochromis nyererei complex)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ole Seehausen; Jacques J. M. van Alphen

    1998-01-01

    We studied the effect of male coloration on interspecific female mate choice in two closely related species of haplochromine\\u000a cichlids from Lake Victoria. The species differ primarily in male coloration. Males of one species are red, those of the other\\u000a are blue. We recorded the behavioral responses of females to males of both species in paired male trials under white

  19. Energetic costs of male reproduction in a scramble competition mating system.

    PubMed

    Lane, Jeffrey E; Boutin, Stan; Speakman, John R; Humphries, Murray M

    2010-01-01

    1. The assumption that the primary limitations on reproductive success differ between the sexes is inherent in traditional sexual selection theory. Although the energy that can be allocated to reproduction is assumed to be the main limitation to females, the ability to attract and defend oestrous females is assumed to be the primary limitation to males. 2. Estimates of the energetic costs of reproduction in male mammals are, however, limited and have largely been obtained from sexually dimorphic species exhibiting female defence mating systems. These studies often reveal that the energetic cost of male reproduction is similar to or even exceeds that of females, and therefore challenge long-held assumptions of inter-sexual reproductive limitations, but their generality is little known. 3. We coupled measurements of energy expenditure with detailed behavioural observations of reproductive male North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). This species displays minimal sexual dimorphism and exhibits a scramble competition mating system, under which sexual selection favours enhanced mate searching effort by males. 4. We conducted the study over 2 years characterized by a substantial variation in upcoming natural food availability and across two study populations that experienced either natural food abundance or an ad libitum food-supplementation to investigate the influence of resource availability on male reproductive energy expenditure. 5. Under natural conditions, mean energy expenditure of males across the 2 years was high, approximating that of females during lactation. Furthermore, in the anticipation of high upcoming natural food availability and resultant offspring survival, expenditure approximately doubled (from 290 +/- 7 to 579 +/- 73 kJ day(-1)). When current food availability (and consequently the density of receptive females) was experimentally elevated, males displayed the highest levels of energy expenditure we recorded (873 +/- 98 kJ day(-1)). 6. Our results provide compelling evidence that the energy available for reproductive allocation places a strong limitation on reproduction in male North American red squirrels and contribute to previous work suggesting that high and limiting energetic costs of male reproduction may be a general feature of mammalian reproduction. PMID:19674182

  20. EVALUATION OF INSECT-MEDIATED SEED-SET AMONG MALE-STERILE SOYBEAN LINES SEGREGATING FOR THE MS6 ALLELE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Currently there is no economical way to produce large quantities of F1 hybrid soybean seed in the USA. One of the fundamental requirements is the availability of a stable male-sterile, female-fertile system. However, the more challenging barrier is the efficient transfer of pollen from the male pare...

  1. Genetics of hybrid male sterility between Drosophila sibling species: a complex web of epistasis is revealed in interspecific studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael F. Palopoli; Chung-I Wu

    1995-01-01

    To study the genetic differences responsible for the sterility of their male hybrids, we introgressed small segments of an X chromosome from Drosophila simulans into a pure Drosophila mauritiana genetic background, then assessed the fertility of males carrying heterospecific introgressions of varying size. Although this analysis examined less than 20% of the X chromosome (roughly 5% of the euchromatic portion

  2. Mate choice when males are in patches: optimal strategies and good rules of thumb.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, John M C; Halupka, Konrad

    2004-11-01

    In standard mate-choice models, females encounter males sequentially and decide whether to inspect the quality of another male or to accept a male already inspected. What changes when males are clumped in patches and there is a significant cost to travel between patches? We use stochastic dynamic programming to derive optimum strategies under various assumptions. With zero costs to returning to a male in the current patch, the optimal strategy accepts males above a quality threshold which is constant whenever one or more males in the patch remain uninspected; this threshold drops when inspecting the last male in the patch, so returns may occur only then and are never to a male in a previously inspected patch. With non-zero within-patch return costs, such a two-threshold rule still performs extremely well, but a more gradual decline in acceptance threshold is optimal. Inability to return at all need not decrease performance by much. The acceptance threshold should also decline if it gets harder to discover the last males in a patch. Optimal strategies become more complex when mean male quality varies systematically between patches or years, and females estimate this in a Bayesian manner through inspecting male qualities. It can then be optimal to switch patch before inspecting all males on a patch, or, exceptionally, to return to an earlier patch. We compare performance of various rules of thumb in these environments and in ones without a patch structure. A two-threshold rule performs excellently, as do various simplifications of it. The best-of-N rule outperforms threshold rules only in non-patchy environments with between-year quality variation. The cutoff rule performs poorly. PMID:15363935

  3. An eye for beauty: lateralized visual stimulation of courtship behavior and mate preferences in male zebra finches, Taeniopygia guttata.

    PubMed

    Templeton, Jennifer J; McCracken, Brianna G; Sher, Melissa; Mountjoy, D James

    2014-02-01

    Research on intersexual selection focuses on traits that have evolved for attracting mates and the consequences of mate choice. However, little is known about the cognitive and neural mechanisms that allow choosers to discriminate among potential mates and express an attraction to specific traits. Preferential use of the right eye during lateral displays in zebra finches, and lateralized expression of intermediate early genes in the left hemisphere during courtship led us to hypothesize that: (1) visual information from each eye differentially mediates courtship responses to potential mates; and (2) the ability to discriminate among mates and prefer certain mates over others is lateralized in the right eye/left hemisphere system of zebra finch brains. First, we exposed male zebra finches to females when using left, right or both eyes. Males courted more when the right eye was available than when only the left eye was used. Secondly, male preference for females - using beak color to indicate female quality - was tested. Right-eyed and binocular males associated with and courted orange-beaked more than gray-beaked females; whereas left-eyed males showed no preference. Lateral displays and eye use in male zebra finches increase their attractiveness and ability to assess female quality, potentially enhancing reproductive success. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: CO3 2013. PMID:24239504

  4. Male mate choice relies on major histocompatibility complex class I in a sex-role-reversed pipefish.

    PubMed

    Roth, O; Sundin, J; Berglund, A; Rosenqvist, G; Wegner, K M

    2014-05-01

    Mate choice for compatible genes is often based on genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Although MHC-based mate choice is commonly observed in female choice, male mate choice remains elusive. In particular, if males have intense paternal care and are thus the choosing sex, male choice for females with dissimilar MHC can be expected. Here, we investigated whether male mate choice relies on MHC class I genes in the sex-role reversed pipefish Syngnathus typhle. In a mate choice experiment, we determined the relative importance of visual and olfactory cues by manipulating visibility and olfaction. We found that pipefish males chose females that maximize sequence-based amino acid distance between MHC class I genotypes in the offspring when olfactory cues were present. Under visual cues, large females were chosen, but in the absence of visual cues, the choice pattern was reversed. The use of sex-role reversed species thus revealed that sexual selection can lead to the evolution of male mate choice for MHC class I genes. PMID:24725009

  5. A larger brain confers a benefit in a spatial mate search learning task in male guppies

    PubMed Central

    Corral-Lopez, Alberto; Amcoff, Mirjam; Kolm, Niclas

    2015-01-01

    Brain size varies dramatically among vertebrates, and selection for increased cognitive abilities is thought to be the key force underlying the evolution of a large brain. Indeed, numerous comparative studies suggest positive relationships between cognitively demanding aspects of behavior and brain size controlled for body size. However, experimental evidence for the link between relative brain size and cognitive ability is surprisingly scarce and to date stems from a single study on brain size selected guppies (Poecilia reticulata), where large-brained females were shown to outperform small-brained females in a numerical learning assay. Because the results were inconclusive for males in that study, we here use a more ecologically relevant test of male cognitive ability to investigate whether or not a relatively larger brain increases cognitive ability also in males. We compared mate search ability of these artificially selected large- and small-brained males in a maze and found that large-brained males were faster at learning to find a female in a maze. Large-brained males decreased the time spent navigating the maze faster than small-brained males and were nearly twice as fast through the maze after 2 weeks of training. Our results support that relatively larger brains are better also for males in some contexts, which further substantiates that variation in vertebrate brain size is generated through the balance between energetic costs and cognitive benefits.

  6. Sperm selection and genetic incompatibility: does relatedness of mates affect male success in sperm competition?

    PubMed Central

    Stockley, P.

    1999-01-01

    Sperm selection may be said to occur if females influence the relative success of ejaculates competing to fertilize their ova. Most evidence that female animals or their ova are capable of sperm selection relates to male genetic incompatibility, although relatively few studies focus on competition between conspecific males. Here I look for evidence of sperm selection with respect to relatedness of mates. Reduced fitness or inbreeding effects in offspring resulting from copulations between close relatives are well documented. If females are capable of sperm selection, they might therefore be expected to discriminate against the sperm of sibling males during sperm competition. I describe an experimental protocol designed to test for evidence of sperm selection while controlling for inbreeding effects. Using decorated field crickets (Gryllodes supplicans), I found that sibling males achieved lower fertilization success in competition with a male unrelated to the female than in competition with another sibling more frequently than expected by chance, although the mean paternity values did not differ significantly between treatments. The tendancy for sibling males to achieve relatively lower fertilization success in competition with males unrelated to the female could not be explained by the effects of increased ejaculate allocation, female control of sperm transfer or inbreeding. This study therefore provides some evidence in support of the idea that female insects (or their ova) may be capable of selection against sperm on the basis of genetic similarity of conspecific males.

  7. A low molecular weight proteome comparison of fertile and male sterile 8 anthers of Zea mays

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dongxue; Adams, Christopher M.; Fernandes, John F.; Egger, Rachel L.; Walbot, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Summary During maize anther development, somatic locular cells differentiate to support meiosis in the pollen mother cells. Meiosis is an important event during anther growth and is essential for plant fertility as pollen contains the haploid sperm. A subset of maize male sterile mutants exhibit meiotic failure, including ms8 (male sterile 8) in which meiocytes arrest as dyads and the locular somatic cells exhibit multiple defects. Systematic proteomic profiles were analysed in biological triplicates plus technical triplicates comparing ms8 anthers with fertile sibling samples at both the premeiotic and meiotic stages; proteins from 3.5 to 20 kDa were fractionated by 1-D PAGE, cleaved with Lys-C and then sequenced using a LTQ Orbitrap Velos MS paradigm. Three hundred and 59proteins were identified with two or more assigned peptides in which each of those peptides were counted at least two or more times (0.4% peptide false discovery rate (FDR) and 0.2% protein FDR); 2761 proteins were identified with one or more assigned peptides (0.4% peptide FDR and 7.6% protein FDR). Stage-specific protein expression provides candidate stage markers for early anther development, and proteins specifically expressed in fertile compared to sterile anthers provide important clues about the regulation of meiosis. 49% of the proteins detected by this study are new to an independent whole anther proteome, and many small proteins missed by automated maize genome annotation were validated; these outcomes indicate the value of focusing on low molecular weight proteins. The roles of distinctive expressed proteins and methods for mass spectrometry of low molecular weight proteins are discussed. PMID:22748129

  8. Male-sterility induction in transgenic tobacco plants with an unedited atp9 mitochondrial gene from wheat.

    PubMed Central

    Hernould, M; Suharsono, S; Litvak, S; Araya, A; Mouras, A

    1993-01-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility in plants is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. We have proposed that a nuclear-encoded chimeric peptide formed by mitochondrial sequences when imported into the mitochondria may impair organelle function and induce male sterility in plants. A model developed to test this hypothesis is reported here. Assuming that the editing process in higher plant mitochondria reflects a requirement for producing active proteins, we have used edited and unedited coding sequences of wheat ATP synthase subunit 9 (atp9) fused to the coding sequence of a yeast coxIV transit peptide. Transgenic plants containing unedited atp9 exhibited either fertile, semifertile, or male-sterile phenotypes; controls containing edited atp9 or only the selectable marker gave fertile plants. Pollen fertility ranged from 31% to 75% in fertile plants, 10% to 20% in semifertile plants, and < 2% in male-sterile plants. Genetic and molecular data showed that the chimeric plasmid containing the transgene is inherited as a Mendelian trait. The transgenic protein is imported into the mitochondria. The production and frequency of semifertile or male-sterile transgenic plants conform to the proposed hypothesis. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7681593

  9. Expression of a pathogen-induced cysteine protease (AdCP) in tapetum results in male sterility in transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Pawan; Singh, Naveen Kumar; Kumar, Dilip; Vijayan, Sambasivam; Ahmed, Israr; Kirti, Pulugurtha Bharadwaja

    2014-06-01

    Usable male sterility systems have immense potential in developing hybrid varieties in crop plants, which can also be used as a biological safety containment to prevent horizontal transgene flow. Barnase-Barstar system developed earlier was the first approach to engineer male sterility in plants. In an analogous situation, we have evolved a system of inducing pollen abortion and male sterility in transgenic tobacco by expressing a plant gene coding for a protein with known developmental function in contrast to the Barnase-Barstar system, which deploys genes of prokaryotic origin, i.e., from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. We have used a plant pathogen-induced gene, cysteine protease for inducing male sterility. This gene was identified in the wild peanut, Arachis diogoi differentially expressed when it was challenged with the late leaf spot pathogen, Phaeoisariopsis personata. Arachis diogoi cysteine protease (AdCP) was expressed under the strong tapetum-specific promoter (TA29) and tobacco transformants were generated. Morphological and histological analysis of AdCP transgenic plants showed ablated tapetum and complete pollen abortion in three transgenic lines. Furthermore, transcript analysis displayed the expression of cysteine protease in these male sterile lines and the expression of the protein was identified in western blot analysis using its polyclonal antibody raised in the rabbit system. PMID:24615687

  10. Could sterile males be used to vector a microbiological control agent? The case of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus and Beauveria bassiana.

    PubMed

    Llácer, E; Santiago-Álvarez, C; Jacas, J A

    2013-04-01

    Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) is the most threatening pest of palms worldwide. The potential of gamma-irradiated males to spread a pathogenic strain of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Clavicipitaceae) to control this pest was studied. First, the effects of gamma irradiation (15 and 25 Gy) on the mating success and performance of adult males irradiated at age one day were studied in the laboratory. Although male longevity decreased after irradiation (118.6 vs. 244.7 days for irradiated and control males, respectively) and their testes suffered from the treatment, fecundity of mated females did not depend on the irradiation status of the male (86.8 ± 5.5 eggs in 15 days). However, egg hatching was significantly lower in couples with irradiated males (31.4% vs. 86.5% for irradiated and control couples, respectively), and this value decreased after a second mating (6.1% vs. 85.9%). Therefore, irradiation did not affect male sexual competiveness but sperm quality. Second, a semi-field assay was carried out to evaluate infestation in young Phoenix canariensis caused by different combinations of couples with irradiated and/or B. bassiana-challenged males. The number of immature stages found in infested palms was significantly higher when females mated with untreated males and lower when mated with irradiated males (either B. bassiana-infected or not). Some females from the fungus-challenged treatments showed post-mortem hyphal growth, and this horizontal transmission proves that irradiated males could act as a vector for B. bassiana and should be considered as a new method to improve the biological control of R. ferrugineus. PMID:23034248

  11. Photosynthetic characteristics of leaves of male-sterile and hermaphrodite sex types of Plantago lanceolata grown under conditions of contrasting nitrogen and light availabilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pieter Poot; Jorn Pilon; Pens L. T

    1996-01-01

    Plantago lanceolata is it gynodioecious species: In natural populations male steriles (MS) coexist with hermaphrodites (H). Since male steriles have a reproductive disadvantage, without any compensation for their loss in male function by an increase in female function, they are expected to disappear from the population. In this study we investigated the possibility that differences in ecologically important photosynthetic characteristics,

  12. Male ornament variation in a sexually dimorphic seabird with variable male mating success

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephanie G. Wright; Donald C. Dearborn

    2009-01-01

    Questions: Are sex-specific ornaments necessarily under sexual selection? Could previous sexual selection have eliminated meaningful variation in male ornaments, as envisioned by the lek paradox? Background: The lek paradox proposes that sexual selection on a trait can become limited by the availability of genetic variation. If prolonged directional selection leads to an exhaustion of genetic variation in male ornaments, selection

  13. Exposure to Orange (Citrus sinensis L.) Trees, Fruit, and Oil Enhances Mating Success of Male Mediterranean Fruit Flies (Ceratitis capitata [Wiedemann])

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Todd Shelly; Charmian Dang; Susan Kennelly

    2004-01-01

    Previous laboratory tests revealed that exposure to oranges (Citrus sinensis L.) increased the mating success of male Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (medfly). This advantage may have resulted from male exposure to a-copaene (a sesquiterpene hydrocarbon and known male attractant) in the peel, as pure a-copaene has been shown to increase the mating success of male medflies. Working with

  14. Differential allocation in a lekking bird: females lay larger eggs and are more likely to have male chicks when they mate with less related males

    PubMed Central

    Sardell, Rebecca J.; DuVal, Emily H.

    2014-01-01

    The differential allocation hypothesis predicts increased investment in offspring when females mate with high-quality males. Few studies have tested whether investment varies with mate relatedness, despite evidence that non-additive gene action influences mate and offspring genetic quality. We tested whether female lekking lance-tailed manakins (Chiroxiphia lanceolata) adjust offspring sex and egg volume in response to mate attractiveness (annual reproductive success, ARS), heterozygosity and relatedness. Across 968 offspring, the probability of being male decreased with increasing parental relatedness but not father ARS or heterozygosity. This correlation tended to diminish with increasing lay-date. Across 162 offspring, egg volume correlated negatively with parental relatedness and varied with lay-date, but was unrelated to father ARS or heterozygosity. Offspring sex and egg size were unrelated to maternal age. Comparisons of maternal half-siblings in broods with no mortality produced similar results, indicating differential allocation rather than covariation between female quality and relatedness or sex-specific inbreeding depression in survival. As males suffer greater inbreeding depression, overproducing females after mating with related males may reduce fitness costs of inbreeding in a system with no inbreeding avoidance, while biasing the sex of outbred offspring towards males may maximize fitness via increased mating success of outbred sons. PMID:24225457

  15. FEMALE PRAIRIE VOLE MATE-CHOICE IS AFFECTED BY THE MALES’ BIRTH LITTER COMPOSITION

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, J. Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Experimental testing and retrospective examination of breeding records were used to examine the influence of sex composition and/or size of males’ birth litters on female mate-choice. Sexually naïve female prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) avoided males derived from all-male litters, but showed no preference for, or aversion to, males from single-male litters or from more typical mixed-sex litters. Examination of the pregnancy status of females after two weeks of pairing with a male allowed us to estimate the probabilites of a pups’ intrauterine position relative to siblings for various litter sizes. The typical prairie vole pup derived from a mixed-sex litter comprised of 4.4 pups, and had a 13% chance of being isolated from siblings in utero and a 22% chance of being between siblings in utero. Pups from single-sex litters tended to be larger at weaning than did pups from mixed-sex litters; however, male size did not influence female choice behavior. These results suggest that some aspect of the perinatal experience of prairie vole pups from single sex litters can influence social interactions later in life. PMID:20434472

  16. MASS MATING BEHAVIOR OF HELIOTHIS VIRESCENS (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE) MALES CAPTURED IN PHEROMONE TRAPS MATED WITH LABORATORY-REARED FEMALES: MEASURES OF REPRODUCTION, EGG PRODUCTION AND ADULT MORTALITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Testing the offspring of field-captured bollworm (Helicoverpa zea) moths offers reliable indicators of their natural behavior and susceptibility to insecticides. In this study laboratory-reared females mass mated for one to five days with pheromone trap-captured (wild) or laboratory-reared males wer...

  17. Evidence for a receiver bias underlying female preference for a male mating pheromone in sea lamprey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchinger, Tyler J.; Wang, Huiyong; Li, Weiming; Johnson, Nicholas S.

    2013-01-01

    Receiver bias models suggest that a male sexual signal became exaggerated to match a pre-existing sensory, perceptual or cognitive disposition of the female. Accordingly, these models predict that females of related taxa possessing the ancestral state of signalling evolved preference for the male trait in a non-sexual context. We postulated that female preference for the male-released bile alcohol mating pheromone, 3 keto petromyzonol sulfate (3kPZS), of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) evolved as a result of a receiver bias. In particular, we propose that migratory silver lamprey (Ichthyomyzon unicuspis), a basal member of the Petromyzontidae, evolved a preference for 3kPZS released by stream-resident larvae as a means of identifying productive habitat for offspring. Larval silver lamprey released 3kPZS at rates sufficient to be detected by migratory lampreys. Females responded to 3kPZS by exhibiting upstream movement behaviours relevant in a migratory context, but did not exhibit proximate behaviours important to mate search and spawning. Male silver lamprey did not release 3kPZS at rates sufficient to be detected by females in natural high-volume stream environments. We infer that female silver lamprey cue onto 3kPZS excreted by stream-resident larvae as a mechanism to locate habitat conducive to offspring survival and that males do not signal with 3kPZS. We suggest that this female preference for a male signal in a non-sexual context represents a bias leading to the sexual signalling observed in sea lamprey.

  18. Evidence for a receiver bias underlying female preference for a male mating pheromone in sea lamprey

    PubMed Central

    Buchinger, T. J.; Wang, H.; Li, W.; Johnson, N. S.

    2013-01-01

    Receiver bias models suggest that a male sexual signal became exaggerated to match a pre-existing sensory, perceptual or cognitive disposition of the female. Accordingly, these models predict that females of related taxa possessing the ancestral state of signalling evolved preference for the male trait in a non-sexual context. We postulated that female preference for the male-released bile alcohol mating pheromone, 3 keto petromyzonol sulfate (3kPZS), of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) evolved as a result of a receiver bias. In particular, we propose that migratory silver lamprey (Ichthyomyzon unicuspis), a basal member of the Petromyzontidae, evolved a preference for 3kPZS released by stream-resident larvae as a means of identifying productive habitat for offspring. Larval silver lamprey released 3kPZS at rates sufficient to be detected by migratory lampreys. Females responded to 3kPZS by exhibiting upstream movement behaviours relevant in a migratory context, but did not exhibit proximate behaviours important to mate search and spawning. Male silver lamprey did not release 3kPZS at rates sufficient to be detected by females in natural high-volume stream environments. We infer that female silver lamprey cue onto 3kPZS excreted by stream-resident larvae as a mechanism to locate habitat conducive to offspring survival and that males do not signal with 3kPZS. We suggest that this female preference for a male signal in a non-sexual context represents a bias leading to the sexual signalling observed in sea lamprey. PMID:24068361

  19. Motile Male Gametes of the Araphid Diatom Tabularia fasciculata Search Randomly for Mates

    PubMed Central

    Edgar, Robyn; Drolet, David; Ehrman, James M.; Kaczmarska, Irena

    2014-01-01

    Sexuality in the marine araphid diatom Tabularia involves an unusual type of gamete, not only among diatoms but possibly in all of nature. The non-flagellated male gamete is free and vigorously motile, propelled by pseudopodia. However, the cues (if any) in their search for compatible female gametes and the general search patterns to locate them are unknown. We tracked and compared male gamete movements in the presence and absence of receptive female gametes. Path linearity of male movement was not affected by presence of female gametes. Male gametes did not move towards female gametes regardless of their proximity to each other, suggesting that the detection range for a compatible mate is very small compared to known algal examples (mostly spermatozoids) and that mate recognition requires (near) contact with a female gamete. We therefore investigated how male gametes move to bring insight into their search strategy and found that it was consistent with the predictions of a random-walk model with changes in direction coming from an even distribution. We further investigated the type of random walk by determining the best-fit distribution on the tail of the move length distribution and found it to be consistent with a truncated power law distribution with an exponent of 2.34. Although consistent with a Lévy walk search pattern, the range of move lengths in the tail was too narrow for Lévy properties to emerge and so would be best described as Brownian motion. This is somewhat surprising because female gametes were often outnumbered by male gametes, thus contrary to the assumption that a Brownian search mode may be most optimal with an abundant target resource. This is also the first mathematically analysed search pattern of a non-flagellated protistan gamete, supporting the notion that principles of Brownian motion have wide application in biology. PMID:24991803

  20. Do sex-changing male snails use mate choice to get a jump on their “size advantage”?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olivia V. Ambrogio; Jan A. Pechenik

    2009-01-01

    Individuals of species that change sex from male to female may gain a “size advantage” from that sex change; that is, as males\\u000a become larger, they become female, thus increasing their fecundity with their size. However, males could also gain an early\\u000a and different reproductive size advantage by choosing large females as mates. While male preference for large females has

  1. Male sterility in Arabidopsis induced by overexpression of a MYC5-SRDX chimeric repressor.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Pablo; Browse, John

    2015-03-01

    Jasmonate hormone (JA) plays critical roles in both plant defense and reproductive development. Arabidopsis thaliana plants deficient in JA-biosynthesis or -signaling are male-sterile, with defects in stamen and pollen development. MYC2, MYC3 and MYC4 are JAZ-interacting bHLH transcription factors that play a major role in controlling JA responses in vegetative tissue, but are not likely to play a role in reproductive tissue. We found that a closely related transcription factor, MYC5 (bHLH28), was able to induce JAZ promoters that control some of the early JA-responsive genes in a Daucus carota (carrot) protoplast expression system. A G-box sequence in the JAZ2 promoter was necessary and sufficient for induction by MYC5 (as it is for MYC2, MYC3 and MYC4), and induction of JAZ genes was repressed by co-expression of a stabilized, JAZ1?Jas repressor. Two allelic myc5 mutants exhibited no overt phenotype; however, transgenic lines expressing MYC5 fused to an SRDX (SUPERMAN repressive domain X) motif phenocopied mutants defective in JA signaling. In particular, MYC5-SRDX plants were male-sterile, with defects in stamen filament elongation, anther dehiscence and pollen viability. Importantly, expression of MYB21 and other transcription factors required for stamen and pollen maturation was strongly reduced in stamens of MYC5-SRDX plants relative to the wild type. Taken together, these results indicate that MYC5, probably together with other, redundant transcription factors, may be activated by JA signaling to induce the expression of MYB21 and components required for male fertility. PMID:25627909

  2. Genetic loss or pharmacological blockade of testes-expressed taste genes causes male sterility

    PubMed Central

    Mosinger, Bedrich; Redding, Kevin M.; Parker, M. Rockwell; Yevshayeva, Valeriya; Yee, Karen K.; Dyomina, Katerina; Li, Yan; Margolskee, Robert F.

    2013-01-01

    TAS1R taste receptors and their associated heterotrimeric G protein gustducin are involved in sugar and amino acid sensing in taste cells and in the gastrointestinal tract. They are also strongly expressed in testis and sperm, but their functions in these tissues were previously unknown. Using mouse models, we show that the genetic absence of both TAS1R3, a component of sweet and amino acid taste receptors, and the gustducin ?-subunit GNAT3 leads to male-specific sterility. To gain further insight into this effect, we generated a mouse model that expressed a humanized form of TAS1R3 susceptible to inhibition by the antilipid medication clofibrate. Sperm formation in animals without functional TAS1R3 and GNAT3 is compromised, with malformed and immotile sperm. Furthermore, clofibrate inhibition of humanized TAS1R3 in the genetic background of Tas1r3?/?, Gnat3?/? doubly null mice led to inducible male sterility. These results indicate a crucial role for these extraoral “taste” molecules in sperm development and maturation. We previously reported that blocking of human TAS1R3, but not mouse TAS1R3, can be achieved by common medications or chemicals in the environment. We hypothesize that even low levels of these compounds can lower sperm count and negatively affect human male fertility, which common mouse toxicology assays would not reveal. Conversely, we speculate that TAS1R3 and GNAT3 activators may help infertile men, particularly those that are affected by some of the mentioned inhibitors and/or are diagnosed with idiopathic infertility involving signaling pathway of these receptors. PMID:23818598

  3. Paternal care and male mate-attraction effort in the European starling is adjusted to clutch size.

    PubMed Central

    Komdeur, Jan; Wiersma, Popko; Magrath, Michael

    2002-01-01

    In facultative polygynous birds with biparental care, a trade-off may occur between male parental care and attraction of additional mates. If there is a cost associated with reduced male parental care, the relative benefit of mate attraction may be predicted to decrease as the size of a male's clutch or brood increases. We tested this prediction in monogamous pairs of facultatively polygynous European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). The larger the clutch, the more time the male spent incubating and the less time he spent attracting an additional female (i.e. singing near and carrying green nesting material into adjacent empty nest-boxes). Reduced paternal incubation resulted in lower overall incubation (the female did not compensate) and lower hatching success. Immediately after experimental reduction of clutches, males spent significantly less time incubating and more time singing and carrying greenery, and vice versa for experimentally enlarged clutches. Males with experimentally reduced clutches attracted a second female more often than males with experimentally enlarged clutches. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to provide experimental evidence for an adjustment of paternal care and male mate-attraction effort to clutch size. However, a trade-off between paternal nestling provisioning and mate attraction was not revealed, probably due to the absence of unpaired females by that time in the breeding season. Experiments showed that the relative contribution of the male and female to nestling provisioning was unrelated to brood size. PMID:12065042

  4. Altered volatile profile associated with precopulatory mate guarding attracts spider mite males.

    PubMed

    Oku, Keiko; Weldegergis, Berhane T; Poelman, Erik H; De Jong, Peter W; Dicke, Marcel

    2015-02-01

    Proximate factors affecting animal behavior include stimuli generated by conspecifics. In spider mites of the genus Tetranychus (Acari: Tetranychidae), males guard pre-reproductive quiescent females, because only the first mating results in fertilization. In a dual-choice experiment, more adult males of T. urticae were attracted to females guarded by a male than to solitary females. Because spider mites are known to perceive volatiles, we hypothesized that guarded and solitary females differ in the volatile blends emitted. To test this hypothesis, headspace volatiles of guarded females, solitary females, and solitary males were collected, respectively. GC/MS analysis detected octanal, methyl salicylate, ethyl 4-ethoxybenzoate, and methyl cis-dihydrojasmonate in all of the groups. Orthogonal Projection to Latent Structures Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA) of the blends clearly discriminated guarded females from solitary females, supporting our hypothesis. Individual compounds did not show significant difference in emission rates for guarded females vs. solitary females, suggesting that differences lay in the total blend composition. OPLS-DA did not discriminate between the blends emitted by guarded females and solitary males. In conclusion, the differences in the volatile blends are likely to mediate male discrimination between guarded and solitary females. PMID:25612522

  5. Effects of egg testosterone on female mate choice and male sexual behavior in the pheasant.

    PubMed

    Bonisoli-Alquati, Andrea; Matteo, Angelo; Ambrosini, Roberto; Rubolini, Diego; Romano, Maria; Caprioli, Manuela; Dessì-Fulgheri, Francesco; Baratti, Mariella; Saino, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating that sex steroids in the eggs, besides affecting progeny phenotype and behavior in the short term, also have enduring effects until adulthood, when they may translate into differences in reproductive strategies and success. Maternal steroids transfer may therefore affect both agonistic behavior and mate choice decisions, either through the promotion of body size and condition or through a priming effect on the neuroendocrine system. However, owing to the prevalence of a short-term perspective, relevance of maternal transfer of sex steroids to sexual selection processes has been seldom studied. Here we investigate the effects of an experimental increase in egg testosterone on male dominance and copulation success in the ring-necked pheasant, Phasianus colchicus, a polygynous galliform with multiple male ornamental traits, in captivity. We found that females from testosterone (T) injected eggs copulated less than control females. Males from T-injected eggs obtained more copulations than control males, specifically with control females. The effect of male 'ordinary' and secondary sexual traits on either dominance or copulation frequency did not depend on early exposure to T, nor did T treatment affect male dominance. Present results demonstrate that variation in the early hormonal environment set up by mothers affects sexual behavior of the offspring, which might translate into fitness differences. PMID:21029735

  6. Chemical defense: Bestowal of a nuptial alkaloidal garment by a male moth on its mate

    PubMed Central

    Conner, William E.; Boada, Ruth; Schroeder, Frank C.; González, Andrés; Meinwald, Jerrold; Eisner, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Males of the moth Cosmosoma myrodora (Arctiidae) acquire pyrrolizidine alkaloid by feeding on the excrescent fluids of certain plants (for instance, Eupatorium capillifolium). They incorporate the alkaloid systemically and as a result are protected against spiders. The males have a pair of abdominal pouches, densely packed with fine cuticular filaments, which in alkaloid-fed males are alkaloid laden. The males discharge the filaments on the female in bursts during courtship, embellishing her with alkaloid as a result. The topical investiture protects the female against spiders. Alkaloid-free filaments, from alkaloid-deprived males, convey no such protection. The males also transmit alkaloid to the female by seminal infusion. The systemic alkaloid thus received, which itself may contribute to the female's defense against spiders, is bestowed in part by the female on the eggs. Although paternal contribution to egg defense had previously been demonstrated for several arctiid moths, protective nuptial festooning of a female by its mate, such as is practiced by C. myrodora, appears to be without parallel among insects. PMID:11114202

  7. Co-Evolution of the Mating Position and Male Genitalia in Insects: A Case Study of a Hangingfly

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Qionghua; Hua, Baozhen

    2013-01-01

    Hangingflies are unique for the male providing a nuptial gift to the female during mating and taking a face-to-face hanging copulation with the female. Their male genitalia are peculiar for an extremely elongated penisfilum, a pair of well-developed epandrial lobes (9th tergum), and a pair of degenerated gonostyli. However, the co-evolution of their face-to-face copulation behavior and the male genitalia has rarely been studied hitherto. In this paper the mating behavior of the hangingfly Bittacus planus Cheng, 1949 was observed under laboratory conditions, and the morphology of the male and female external genitalia was investigated using light and scanning electron microscopy. The male provides an insect prey as a nuptial gift to the female in courtship and mating process, and commits a face-to-face copulation. During copulation, the male abdomen twists temporarily about 180° to accommodate their face-to-face mating position. The aedeagal complex has an extremely elongated penisfilum, corresponding to the elongated spermathecal duct of the female. The well-developed epandrial lobes serve as claspers to grasp the female subgenital plate during copulation, replacing the function of gonostyli, which are greatly reduced in Bittacidae. The modified proctiger assists the penisfilum to stretch and to enter into the female spermathecal duct. The possible reasons why this species might mate face-to-face are briefly discussed. PMID:24312490

  8. Why small males have big sperm: dimorphic squid sperm linked to alternative mating behaviours

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Sperm cells are the target of strong sexual selection that may drive changes in sperm structure and function to maximize fertilisation success. Sperm evolution is regarded to be one of the major consequences of sperm competition in polyandrous species, however it can also be driven by adaptation to the environmental conditions at the site of fertilization. Strong stabilizing selection limits intra-specific variation, and therefore polymorphism, among fertile sperm (eusperm). Here we analyzed reproductive morphology differences among males employing characteristic alternative mating behaviours, and so potentially different conditions of sperm competition and fertilization environment, in the squid Loligo bleekeri. Results Large consort males transfer smaller (average total length = 73 ?m) sperm to a female's internal sperm storage location, inside the oviduct; whereas small sneaker males transfer larger (99 ?m) sperm to an external location around the seminal receptacle near the mouth. No significant difference in swimming speed was observed between consort and sneaker sperm. Furthermore, sperm precedence in the seminal receptacle was not biased toward longer sperm, suggesting no evidence for large sperm being favoured in competition for space in the sperm storage organ among sneaker males. Conclusions Here we report the first case, in the squid Loligo bleekeri, where distinctly dimorphic eusperm are produced by different sized males that employ alternative mating behaviours. Our results found no evidence that the distinct sperm dimorphism was driven by between- and within-tactic sperm competition. We propose that presence of alternative fertilization environments with distinct characteristics (i.e. internal or external), whether or not in combination with the effects of sperm competition, can drive the disruptive evolution of sperm size. PMID:21831296

  9. Improving mating performance of mass-reared sterile Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) through changes in adult holding conditions: demography and mating competitiveness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Liedo; S. Salgado; A. Oropeza; J. Toledo

    2007-01-01

    Mass rearing conditions affect the mating behavior of Mediterranean fruit flies (medflies) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). We evaluated the effect of slight changes in the adult holding conditions of adult flies maintained for egg production on their mating performance. Colonization was initiated from wild flies collected as larvae from infested coffee berries (Coffea arabica L.). When pupae were close to adult

  10. Effect of mating disruption and lure load on the number of Plodia interpunctella males captured in pheromone traps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using Indianmeal moth Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) males released under controlled conditions, we found that, in either the presence or absence of a commercial mating disruption dispensers, the number of males captured in traps baited with synthetic pheromone lures increased with doses of up to 30...

  11. A PDF/NPF neuropeptide signaling circuitry of male Drosophila melanogaster controls rival-induced prolonged mating

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Woo Jae; Jan, Lily Yeh; Jan, Yuh Nung

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY A primary function of males for many species involves mating with females for reproduction. Drosophila melanogaster males respond to the presence of other males by prolonging mating duration to increase the chance of passing on their genes. To understand the basis of such complex behaviors, we examine the genetic network and neural circuits that regulate rival-induced longer mating duration (LMD). Here we identify a small subset of clock neurons in the male brain that regulate LMD via neuropeptide signaling. LMD requires the function of pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) in four s-LNv neurons and its receptor PDFR in two LNd neurons per hemisphere, as well as the function of neuropeptide F (NPF) in two neurons within the sexually dimorphic LNd region and its receptor NPFR1 in four s-LNv neurons per hemisphere. Moreover, rival exposure modifies the neuronal activities of a subset of clock neurons involved in neuropeptide signaling for LMD. PMID:24314729

  12. Genome Barriers between Nuclei and Mitochondria Exemplified by Cytoplasmic Male Sterility

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Sota; Toriyama, Kinya

    2008-01-01

    Since plants retain genomes of an extremely large size in mitochondria (200–2,400 kb), and mitochondrial protein complexes are comprised of chimeric structures of nuclear- and mitochondrial-encoded subunits, coordination of gene expression between the nuclei and mitochondria is indispensable for sound plant development. It has been well documented that the nucleus regulates organelle gene expression. This regulation is called anterograde regulation. On the other hand, recent studies have demonstrated that signals emitted from organelles regulate nuclear gene expression. This process is known as retrograde signaling. Incompatibility caused by genome barriers between a nucleus and foreign mitochondria destines the fate of pollen to be dead in cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), and studies of CMS confirm that pollen fertility is associated with anterograde/retrograde signaling. This review summarizes the current perspectives in CMS and fertility restoration, mainly from the viewpoint of anterograde/retrograde signaling. PMID:18625609

  13. Evaluation of strategies for the release of male sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) in Lake Superior for a proposed sterile-male-release program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaye, C.A.; Heinrich, J.W.; Hanson, L.H.; McDonald, R.B.; Slade, J.W.; Genovese, J.H.; Swink, W.D.

    2003-01-01

    Successful implementation of a sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) control technique that uses sterilized males to reduce reproduction presently depends on the importation of large numbers of males outside of the target population. Strategies were examined for releasing male sea lampreys from Lakes Michigan and Huron into the Lake Superior spawning population and the ability of these introduced males to compete with resident males and spawn with resident females. During 1987, 553 (9%) of 6,324 imported fertile males released at 12 shoreline and one offshore site in Lake Superior were recaptured. Most remained within 20 km of the release site and entered the first stream encountered. During 1988, 393 (18%) of 2,208 imported fertile males released directly into three spawning rivers were recaptured. In both cases, animals released early during the spawning run were more likely to be recaptured than those released later. Introduced males successfully competed with resident males and spawned with resident females. Demonstrating that male sea lampreys could reproduce successfully when relocated supported subsequent large-scale field trials of the sterile-male-release technique.

  14. Responsiveness of expectant male cotton-top tamarins, Saguinus oedipus, to mate's pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Toni E; Washabaugh, Kate F; Snowdon, Charles T

    2004-02-01

    In the cotton-top tamarin, a primate where paternal care is critical to the survival of the offspring, we found that expectant fathers experienced multiple hormonal changes during their mate's pregnancy. Fathers that had experienced several previous births showed significant changes in urinary estrogens, androgens, prolactin and cortisol in the last 2 months before birth, whereas less-experienced fathers (LEF) did not. The female's midpregnancy rise in glucocorticoids was followed within 1-2 weeks by a peak of cortisol and corticosterone in her paired male in 70% of all males and 100% of all experienced males. Examination of behavioral interactions between the pairs did not reveal changes in rates of interactions between the experienced pairs over pregnancy. However, the less-experienced pairs had significantly higher levels of affiliative and sexual interactions. Therefore, behavioral communication between the pair did not appear to account for the hormonal changes occurring within the experienced fathers (EF). The midpregnancy rise of glucocorticoids in females may stimulate a glucocorticoid response in male tamarins and thereby activate other hormonal changes in males to prepare them for their parenting role. PMID:15019794

  15. Mate choice for a male carotenoid-based ornament is linked to female dietary carotenoid intake and accumulation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The coevolution of male traits and female mate preferences has led to the elaboration and diversification of sexually selected traits; however the mechanisms that mediate trait-preference coevolution are largely unknown. Carotenoid acquisition and accumulation are key determinants of the expression of male sexually selected carotenoid-based coloration and a primary mechanism maintaining the honest information content of these signals. Carotenoids also influence female health and reproduction in ways that may alter the costs and benefits of mate choice behaviours and thus provide a potential biochemical link between the expression of male traits and female preferences. To test this hypothesis, we manipulated the dietary carotenoid levels of captive female house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus) and assessed their mate choice behavior in response to color-manipulated male finches. Results Females preferred to associate with red males, but carotenoid supplementation did not influence the direction or strength of this preference. Females receiving a low-carotenoid diet were less responsive to males in general, and discrimination among the colorful males was positively linked to female plasma carotenoid levels at the beginning of the study when the diet of all birds was carotenoid-limited. Conclusions Although female preference for red males was not influenced by carotenoid intake, changes in mating responsiveness and discrimination linked to female carotenoid status may alter how this preference is translated into choice. The reddest males, with the most carotenoid rich plumage, tend to pair early in the breeding season. If carotenoid-related variations in female choice behaviour shift the timing of pairing, then they have the potential to promote assortative mating by carotenoid status and drive the evolution of carotenoid-based male plumage coloration. PMID:22233462

  16. [Study of male mating behavior in some Drosophila melanogaster strains in experiments with fertilized females].

    PubMed

    Subocheva, E A; Romanova, N I; Kim, A I

    2004-07-01

    Male courtship ritual is among the main behavioral characteristics of Drosophila. This is a complex, genetically determined process consisting of four general stages: orientation, vibration, licking, and attempts at copulation (or successful copulation). Several genes are known that control some stages of this behavior. Most of them have pleiotropic effects and are involved in other biological processes. Earlier, we have shown that a mutation in locus flamenco (20A1-3), which controls transposition and infectivity of retrotransposon gypsy (MDG4), is involved in the genetic control of behavior. In strains mutant for this locus, the male mating activity is decreased and the structure of courtship ritual is changed. To understand the mechanisms of these changes, it is important to study all behavioral stages in genetically identical strains. For this purpose, the normal allele of gene flamenco from the X chromosome of the wild-type strain (stock) Canton S was introduced into strain SS carrying flamMS. This offers new opportunities in studying the role of gene flamenco in the control of mating behavior in Drosophila. PMID:15458200

  17. Female house sparrows "count on" male genes: experimental evidence for MHC-dependent mate preference in birds

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Females can potentially assess the quality of potential mates using their secondary sexual traits, and obtain "good genes" that increase offspring fitness. Another potential indirect benefit from mating preferences is genetic compatibility, which does not require extravagant or viability indicator traits. Several studies with mammals and fish indicate that the genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) influence olfactory cues and mating preferences, and such preferences confer genetic benefits to offspring. We investigated whether individual MHC diversity (class I) influences mating preferences in house sparrows (Passer domesticus). Results Overall, we found no evidence that females preferred males with high individual MHC diversity. Yet, when we considered individual MHC allelic diversity of the females, we found that females with a low number of alleles were most attracted to males carrying a high number of MHC alleles, which might reflect a mating-up preference by allele counting. Conclusions This is the first experimental evidence for MHC-dependent mating preferences in an avian species to our knowledge. Our findings raise questions about the underlying mechanisms through which birds discriminate individual MHC diversity among conspecifics, and they suggest a novel mechanism through which mating preferences might promote the evolution of MHC polymorphisms and generate positive selection for duplicated MHC loci. PMID:21320306

  18. The evolution of males: support for predictions from sex allocation theory using mating arrays of sagittaria latifolia (alismataceae).

    PubMed

    Perry, Laura E; Dorken, Marcel E

    2011-10-01

    Investment in male function should often yield diminishing fitness returns, subjecting the evolution of male phenotypes to substantial constraints. In plants, the subdivision of male function via the gradual presentation of pollen might minimize these constraints by preventing the saturation of receptive stigmas. Here, we report on an investigation of (1) patterns of investment in male function by plants in hermaphroditic (monoecious) and dioecious populations of Sagittaria latifolia, and (2) patterns of siring success by males versus hermaphrodites in experimental mating arrays. We show that in natural populations, males from dioecious populations had greater investment in male function than hermaphrodites in monoecious populations. However, as a proportion of total flower production, males presented substantially fewer flowers at once than hermaphrodites. In comparison with hermaphrodites, therefore, males prolonged the period over which they presented pollen. In mating arrays comprised of females, males, and hermaphrodites, siring success by males increased linearly with flower production. This finding is consistent with the existence of a linear gain curve for male function in S. latifolia and supports the idea that the gradual deployment of male function enables plants to avoid diminishing returns on the investment in male function. PMID:21967421

  19. Registration of N614, A3N615, N616, and N617 Shattercane Genetic Stocks with cytoplasmic or nuclear male-sterility and juicy or dry midribs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four shattercane [Sorghum bicolor subsp. drummondii (Nees ex Steud) de Wet & Harlan] genetic stocks, N614, A3N615, N616, N617 (Reg. No. XXX, PI 665683 to 665686), with A3 cytoplasmic male-sterility or nuclear male-sterility gene ms3 containing either juicy (dd) or dry (DD) culms were developed joint...

  20. A light and electron microscopy analysis of the events leading to male sterility in Ogu-INRA CMS of rapeseed (Brassica napus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pablo Gonzalez-Melendi; Magalie Uyttewaal; C. N. Morcillo; JoseRamon Hernandez Mora; Susana Fajardo; Franc xoise Budar; M. Mercedes Lucas

    2008-01-01

    Ogura cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) occurs natu- rally in radish and has been introduced into rapeseed (Brassica napus) by protoplast fusion. As with all CMS systems, it involves a constitutively expressed mito- chondrial gene which induces male sterility to other- wise hermaphroditic plants (so they become females) and a nuclear gene named restorer of fertility that restores pollen production in

  1. Morphological and Cytological Study in a New Type of Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Line CMS-GIG2 in Sunflower (Helianthus annuus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in sunflower anthers, termed lemon CMS-GIG2, has been further confirmed by crossing with the maintenance line and restoration line of CMS-PET1, both of which maintain the male sterility of CMS-GIG2. Light microscopy observation of anther sections showed that bo...

  2. Cytological and comparative proteomic analyses on male sterility in Brassica napus L. induced by the chemical hybridization agent monosulphuron ester sodium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Male sterility induced by a chemical hybridization agent (CHA) is an important tool for utilizing crop heterosis. Monosulphuron ester sodium (MES), a new acetolactate synthase-inhibitor herbicide belonging to the sulphonylurea family, has been developed as an effective CHA to induce male sterility i...

  3. A comparison of the vegetative growth of male-sterile and hermaphroditic lines of Plantago lanceolata in relation to N supply

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PIETER POOT; TOMMY VAN DEN BROEK; JOS M. M. VAN DAMME; HANS LAMBERS

    1997-01-01

    Gynodioecy is a dimorphic breeding system in which hermaphrodites coexist with male steriles in natural populations. Theoretical models predict that without any compensation in female fitness, male steriles will quickly disappear from a population. The amount of compensation required depends upon the mode of inheritance. In this study we investigated whether performance, during early vegetative growth, could play a role

  4. Assembly and analysis of a male sterile rubber tree mitochondrial genome reveals DNA rearrangement events and a novel transcript

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis, is an important plant species that is commercially grown to produce latex rubber in many countries. The rubber tree variety BPM 24 exhibits cytoplasmic male sterility, inherited from the variety GT 1. Results We constructed the rubber tree mitochondrial genome of a cytoplasmic male sterile variety, BPM 24, using 454 sequencing, including 8 kb paired-end libraries, plus Illumina paired-end sequencing. We annotated this mitochondrial genome with the aid of Illumina RNA-seq data and performed comparative analysis. We then compared the sequence of BPM 24 to the contigs of the published rubber tree, variety RRIM 600, and identified a rearrangement that is unique to BPM 24 resulting in a novel transcript containing a portion of atp9. Conclusions The novel transcript is consistent with changes that cause cytoplasmic male sterility through a slight reduction to ATP production efficiency. The exhaustive nature of the search rules out alternative causes and supports previous findings of novel transcripts causing cytoplasmic male sterility. PMID:24512148

  5. Capture of Anastrepha suspensa and sterile male Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in multilure traps versus phase 4 traps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field trials were conducted in south Florida to compare capture of wild Caribbean fruit flies, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), and sterile male Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), in Multilure traps, which are McPhail-type traps that use an aqueous solution to retain attracted fli...

  6. Fertility restoration of the sorghum A3 male-sterile cytoplasm through a sporophytic mechanism derived from sudangrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fertility restoration of sorghum lines carrying the IS1112C (A3 group) sorghum male-sterile cytoplasm in the line A3Tx398 has been documented as a two-gene gametophytic mechanism involving complementary action of restoring alleles designated Rf3 and Rf4, as derived from IS1112C. Fertility restorat...

  7. Courtship song, male agonistic encounters, and female mate choice in the house cricket, Acheta domesticus (Orthoptera: Gryllidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Mindy Nelson; Thomas G. Nolen

    1997-01-01

    Whether female crickets choose among males based on characteristics of the courtship song is uncertain, but in many species,\\u000a males not producing courtship song do not mate. In the house cricket,Acheta domesticus, we examined whether a female chose or rejected a male based on his size, latency to chirp, latency to produce courtship\\u000a song, or rate of the high-frequency pulse

  8. Alternative mating tactics in male white-faced dragonflies ( Leucorrhinia intacta ): plasticity of tactical options and consequences for reproductive success

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward C. Waltz; Larry L. Wolf

    1988-01-01

    Summary Alternative tactics used by males to obtain mates usually are associated with genetic and\\/or phenotypic differences between the behavioral morphs. This system of white-faced dragonfly (Leucorrhinia intacta) alternatives is characterized by plasticity of tactical options for individual males. Males may act either as territorials, and defend small perch-centered territories on the study pond, or they act as transients, spending

  9. Isolation and characterization of the cytoplasmic male sterility-associated orf456 gene of chili pepper ( Capsicum annuum L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dong Hwan Kim; Jeong Gu Kang; Byung-Dong Kim

    2007-01-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in plants is known to be associated with novel open reading frames (ORFs) that result from\\u000a recombination events in the mitochondrial genome. In this study Southern and Northern blot analyses using several mitochondrial\\u000a DNA probes were conducted to detect the presence of differing band patterns between male fertile and CMS lines of chili pepper\\u000a (Capsicum annuum

  10. A CAPS marker associated with the partial restoration of cytoplasmic male sterility in chili pepper ( Capsicum annuum L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jundae Lee; Jae Bok Yoon; Hyo Guen Park

    2008-01-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), an economically important trait for hybrid seed production in many crops, is a maternally\\u000a inherited trait in which a plant fails to produce functional anthers, pollen grains, or male gametes. It has long been reported\\u000a that the restoration of CMS in chili pepper is controlled by a major nuclear gene termed restorer-of-fertility (Rf), along with several

  11. Overexpression of AtTTP Affects ARF17 Expression and Leads to Male Sterility in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Zhi-Hao; Zhang, Cheng; Xu, Xiao-Feng; Zhu, Jun; Zhou, Que; Ma, Li-Juan; Niu, Jin; Yang, Zhong-Nan

    2015-01-01

    Callose synthesis is critical for the formation of the pollen wall pattern. CalS5 is thought to be the major synthethase for the callose wall. In the Arabidopsis anther, ARF17 regulates the expression of CalS5 and is the target of miR160. Plants expressing miR160-resistant ARF17 (35S:5mARF17 lines) with increased ARF17 mRNA levels display male sterility. Here we report a zinc finger family gene, AtTTP, which is involved in miR160 maturation and callose synthesis in Arabidopsis. AtTTP is expressed in microsporocytes, tetrads and tapetal cells in the anther. Over-expression lines of AtTTP (AtTTP-OE line) exhibited reduced male fertility. CalS5 expression was tremendously reduced and the tetrad callose wall became much thinner in the AtTTP-OE line. Northern blotting hybridization and quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that miR160 was decreased, while the expression of ARF17 was increased in the AtTTP-OE line. Based on these results, we propose that AtTTP associates with miR160 in order to regulate the ARF17 expression needed for callose synthesis and pollen wall formation. PMID:25822980

  12. Selective advantage for IIIM males over YM males in cage competition, mating competition, and pupal emergence in Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Hamm, Ronda L; Gao, Jian-Rong; Lin, George Guan-Hua; Scott, Jeffrey G

    2009-04-01

    In the house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae), sex is usually determined by a dominant factor, M, located on the Y chromosome. However, there are autosomal male (A(M)) populations in which the M factor is located on one or more of the five autosomes (I-V), most commonly on the third chromosome. Herein we report the use of isogenic strains to determine the relative fitness of Y(M) versus III(M) males in three different experiments. First, cages were started with 50% Y(M) and 50% III(M) males, and the frequencies of Y(M) and III(M) males were evaluated across generations. Second, mating competition studies were preformed with these isogenic strains. Third, the relative emergence rates of III(M) versus Y(M) male pupae held at three temperatures for 3 d were examined. All three studies indicate that III(M) males have a greater fitness than Y(M) males. In the cage competition studies, >90% of the males were III(M) after seven generations. III(M) males were more likely to mate than Y(M) males, and a higher percent of III(M) males emerged after being held as pupae at 4, 16, or 28 degrees C for 3 d. The implications of these studies to the distribution of III(M) and Y(M) males in field populations are discussed. PMID:19389301

  13. Influence of the Male Ejaculate on Post-Mating Prezygotic Barriers in Field Crickets

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Erica L.; Andrés, Jose A.; Harrison, Richard G.

    2012-01-01

    Post-copulatory interactions between males and females involve highly coordinated, complex traits that are often rapidly evolving and divergent between species. Failure to produce and deposit eggs may be a common post-mating prezygotic barrier, yet little is known about what prevents the induction of egg-laying between species. The field crickets, Gryllus firmus and G. pennsylvanicus are isolated by a one-way reproductive incompatibility; G. pennsylvanicus males fail to fertilize G. firmus eggs or to induce normal egg-laying in G. firmus females. We use experimental crosses to elucidate the role of accessory gland-derived vs. testis-derived components of the G. firmus male ejaculate on egg-laying in conspecific and heterospecific crosses. Using surgical castrations to create ‘spermless’ males that transfer only seminal fluid proteins (SFPs) we test whether G. firmus male SFPs can induce egg-laying in conspecific crosses and rescue egg-laying in crosses between G. pennsylvanicus males and G. firmus females. We find G. firmus SFPs induce only a small short-term egg-laying response and that SFPs alone cannot explain the normal induction of egg-laying. Gryllus firmus SFPs also do not rescue the heterospecific cross. Testis-derived components, such as sperm or prostaglandins, most likely stimulate egg-laying or act as transporters for SFPs to targets in the female reproductive tract. These results highlight the utility of experimental approaches for investigating the phenotypes that act as barriers between species and suggest that future work on the molecular basis of the one-way incompatibility between G. firmus and G. pennsylvanicus should focus on divergent testis-derived compounds or proteins in addition to SFPs. PMID:23071547

  14. Enhancing mating performance after juvenile hormone treatment in Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera:Tephritidae): a differential response in males and females acts as a physiological sexing system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methoprene treatment can reduce the time required for sexual maturation in Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) (Wiedemann) males under laboratory conditions, supporting its use as a treatment for sterile males within the context of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). Here we evaluated sexu...

  15. Evolution of mate-harm, longevity and behaviour in male fruit flies subjected to different levels of interlocus conflict

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Interlocus conflict predicts (a) evolution of traits, beneficial to males but detrimental to females and (b) evolution of aging and life-span under the influence of the cost of bearing these traits. However, there are very few empirical investigations shedding light on these predictions. Those that do address these issues, mostly reported response of male reproductive traits or the lack of it and do not address the life-history consequence of such evolution. Here, we test both the above mentioned predictions using experimental evolution on replicate populations of Drosophila melanogaster. We present responses observed after >45 generations of altered levels of interlocus conflict (generated by varying the operational sex ratio). Results Males from the male biased (high conflict, M-regime) regime evolved higher spontaneous locomotor activity and courtship frequency. Females exposed to these males were found to have higher mortality rate. Males from the female biased regime (low conflict, F-regime) did not evolve altered courtship frequency and activity. However, progeny production of females continuously exposed to F-males was significantly higher than the progeny production of females exposed to M-males indicating that the F-males are relatively benign towards their mates. We found that males from male biased regime lived shorter compared to males from the female biased regime. Conclusion F-males (evolving under lower levels of sexual conflict) evolved decreased mate harming ability indicating the cost of maintenance of the suit of traits that cause mate-harm. The M-males (evolving under higher levels sexual conflict) caused higher female mortality indicating that they had evolved increased mate harming ability, possibly as a by product of increased reproduction related activity. There was a correlated evolution of life-history of the M and F-males. M-regime males lived shorter compared to the males from F-regime, possibly due to the cost of investing more in reproductive traits. In combination, these results suggest that male reproductive traits and life-history traits can evolve in response to the altered levels of interlocus sexual conflict. PMID:24073883

  16. Sexually dimorphic neurons in the ventromedial hypothalamus govern mating in both sexes and aggression in males

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Cindy F.; Chiang, Michael; Gray, Daniel C.; Prabhakaran, Mahalakshmi; Alvarado, Maricruz; Juntti, Scott A.; Unger, Elizabeth K.; Wells, James A.; Shah, Nirao M.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Sexual dimorphisms in the brain underlie behavioral sex differences, but the function of individual sexually dimorphic neuronal populations is poorly understood. Neuronal sexual dimorphisms typically represent quantitative differences in cell number, gene expression, or other features, and it is unknown if these dimorphisms control sex-typical behavior in one sex exclusively or in both sexes. The progesterone receptor (PR) controls female sexual behavior, and we find many sex differences in number, distribution, or projections of PR-expressing neurons in the adult mouse brain. We have ablated one such PR-expressing neuronal population located in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) using a novel genetic strategy. Ablation of these neurons in females greatly diminishes sexual receptivity. Strikingly, the corresponding ablation in males reduces mating and aggression. Our findings reveal the functions of a molecularly-defined, sexually dimorphic neuronal population in the brain. Moreover we show that sexually dimorphic neurons can control distinct sex-typical behaviors in both sexes. PMID:23663785

  17. Transgenic male-sterile plant induced by an unedited atp9 gene is restored to fertility by inhibiting its expression with antisense RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Zabaleta, E; Mouras, A; Hernould, M; Suharsono; Araya, A

    1996-01-01

    We have previously shown that the expression of an unedited atp9 chimeric gene correlated with male-sterile phenotype in transgenic tobacco plant. To study the relationship between the expression of chimeric gene and the male-sterile trait, hemizygous and homozygous transgenic tobacco lines expressing the antisense atp9 RNA were constructed. The antisense producing plants were crossed with a homozygous male-sterile line, and the F1 progeny was analyzed. The offspring from crosses between homozygous lines produced only male-fertile plants, suggesting that the expression antisense atp9 RNA abolishes the effect of the unedited chimeric gene. In fact, the plants restored to male fertility showed a dramatic reduction of the unedited atp9 transcript levels, resulting in normal flower development and seed production. These results support our previous observation that the expression of unedited atp9 gene can induce male sterility. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8855343

  18. Intergenerational effects of parental personality and relationship traits on mate choice among gay male and lesbian offspring.

    PubMed

    van Eeden-Moorefield, Brad; Lindsey, Elizabeth W

    2005-01-01

    Data from 33 lesbian and 54 gay male cohabiting couples were used to examine the relation between parental identification and mate selection. Theories of mate selection and parental identification are reviewed. Effects of gender and sexual orientation as they relate to parental identification and mate selection in gay male and lesbian couples also are reviewed. The results demonstrate significant associations between the similarity of perceived parental personality and relationship styling traits with those of the partner. Socio-economic status, age, and culture also were significantly associated between parents and partners. Taken together, the results demonstrate little support for any specific theory and allude to the need for further research in this area. Limitations and implications are discussed. PMID:16048888

  19. Juvenile rank can predict male-typical adult mating behavior in female sheep treated prenatally with testosterone.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Eila K; Flak, Jonathan N; Ye, Wen; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Lee, Theresa M

    2009-04-01

    Previous research with female sheep indicates that exposure to excess testosterone for 60 days (from Gestational Days 30-90 of the 147-day gestation) leads to virilized genitalia, severe neuroendocrine deficits, as well as masculinization and defeminization of sexual behavior (T60 females). In contrast, 30 days of testosterone exposure (Gestational Days 60-90) produce animals with female-typical genitalia, less severe neuroendocrine alterations, and variable gender patterns of sexual behavior (T30 females). Variation in adult sexual behavior of male ungulates is influenced by early social experience, but this has never been tested in females. Here we investigate the influence of rank in the dominance hierarchy on the expression of adult sexual behavior in females. Specifically, we hypothesized that juvenile rank would predict the amount of male- and female-typical mating behavior exhibited by adult female sheep. This hypothesis was tested in two treatment groups and their controls (group 1: T60 females; group 2: T30 females). Dominance hierarchies were determined by observing competition over resources. Both groups of prenatal testosterone-treated females were higher ranking than controls (T60: P = 0.05; T30: P < 0.01). During the breeding season, both T60 and T30 females exhibited more male-typical mating behavior than did controls; however, the T30 animals also exhibited female-typical behavior. For the T60 group, prenatal treatment, not juvenile rank, best predicted male-typical sex behavior (P = 0.007), while juvenile rank better predicted male mating behavior for the T30 group (P = 0.006). Rank did not predict female mating behavior in the hormone-treated or control ewes. We conclude that the effect of prenatal testosterone exposure on adult male-specific but not female-specific mating behavior is modulated by juvenile social experiences. PMID:19122184

  20. Dominance, access to females, and mating success among coresident male mantled howlers (Alouatta palliata) at La Pacifica, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Corewyn, Lisa C

    2015-04-01

    The priority-of-access (POA) model posits that high dominance rank increases male mating success by increasing access to fertile females. However, the relationship between rank, access to females, and subsequent mating success is variable in primates, and there are few studies representing Neotropical taxa. The purpose here was to test the parameters of the POA model in an asynchronously breeding Neotropical primate, Alouatta palliata, to contribute to our understanding of the relationship between dominance and reproductive strategies in platyrrhines. I collected data on adult males within two large, multimale-multifemale groups exhibiting clear dominance hierarchies at La Pacifica, Costa Rica. Females were classified as sexually receptive (SR) or potentially cycling (PC) based on behavioral and birth data. Access to mates was measured based on total time in proximity to SR/PC females, and mating success was measured based on copulation frequency. Results did not support the predictions of the POA model in that first-ranked males maintained lower than expected time in proximity to SR females, did not consistently maintain the greatest proportion of time in proximity to PC females, obtained lower than expected copulation rates, and did not obtain the highest copulation rates compared to subordinates in either group. Deviations from the POA model were significantly affected by varying operational sex ratios only when considering the lower numbers of available SR females in one group. Alternative reproductive tactics by subordinate males such as tolerance by first-ranked males appeared to be operating, allowing subordinates to obtain mating success when they would otherwise be unable to do so. The study also highlighted how factors such as operational sex ratio may limit the willingness or ability of dominant males to monopolize access to females, and can vary both within and between groups in a population. Am. J. Primatol. 77:388-400, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25452246

  1. Changes in blood testosterone concentrations after surgical and chemical sterilization of male free-roaming dogs in southern Chile.

    PubMed

    Vanderstichel, R; Forzán, M J; Pérez, G E; Serpell, J A; Garde, E

    2015-04-01

    There is a growing interest in chemical sterilization as an alternative to surgical castration in large-scale sterilization campaigns to control canine populations. An important step toward understanding the short-term and long-term effects of chemical sterilants is to determine their impact on blood testosterone concentrations, particularly as these could influence dog behavior after treatment. A field trial was conducted with 118 free-roaming male dogs in the Chilean Patagonia, where 36 dogs were chemically sterilized using EsterilSol, 39 dogs were surgically castrated, and 43 dogs remained intact as controls. Blood testosterone levels were determined at four time periods: on enrollment 6 months before treatment (t-6m), at the time of treatment (t0, within one hour after surgical castration or chemical sterilization and during a concurrent 2-week period for the control group), four (t+4m), and six (t+6m) months after treatment. Intrinsic and temporal factors were evaluated; age was significantly associated with testosterone, where dogs 2- to 4-year-old had the highest testosterone concentrations (P = 0.036), whereas body weight and body condition scores were not associated with testosterone; testosterone concentration was not influenced by time of day, month, or season. After treatment (t+4m and t+6m), all of the surgically castrated dogs had testosterone concentrations below 1.0 ng/mL. On the basis of this cut point (<1 ng/mL), testosterone remained unchanged in 66% of the chemically sterilized dogs at both t+4m and t+6m; it remained low for 22% of dogs at both t+4m and t+6m; it was unchanged at t+4m but low at t+6m in 9% of dogs; and, it was low at t+4m but reverted back to unchanged at t+6m in one dog (3%). Incidentally, testosterone in chemically sterilized dogs increased dramatically within 1 hour of treatment (t0), more than doubling (131%) the concentration of control dogs at the time of treatment (t0), likely because of severe necrosis of interstitial cells. The use of EsterilSol as a method of sterilizing dogs had a variable effect on blood testosterone concentrations. Approximately, 30% of chemically sterilized dogs had a reduced testosterone concentration (actual maximum, 1 ng/mL) after 6 months, similar to that of surgically castrated dogs. Most chemically sterilized dogs, however, showed no long-term changes in blood testosterone concentrations. PMID:25557187

  2. Irradiation of Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae) revisited: optimizing sterility induction.

    PubMed

    Toledo, Jorge; Rull, Juan; Oropeza, Azucena; Hernández, Emilio; Liedo, Pablo

    2004-04-01

    The effects of irradiation doses increasing from 0 to 100 Gy (1 Gy is energy absorbed in J kg(-1) of irradiated material) on fertility, flight ability, survival, and sterile male mating performance were evaluated for mass-reared Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart). High sterility values (> 98.2%) for irradiated males were obtained for doses as low as 25 Gy. Egg hatch was inhibited for irradiated males crossed with irradiated females at a low dose of 20 Gy. However, we estimated that to achieve 99.9% sterility (standard goal of many sterile insect technique programs), irradiation doses had to be increased to a dose between 50 and 75 Gy. At doses of 25 Gy and greater, we observed a decreasing trend in adult flight ability and an increasing trend in adult mortality. Such differences were greater for pupae irradiated at a young age compared those irradiated 24 h before emergence. Our single most relevant finding was that sterility induction (i.e., oviposition of nonfertilized eggs) was two times greater for males irradiated at low doses (40 Gy) than for males irradiated at high doses (80 Gy) when used at a 3:1:1 sterilized male to fertile male to fertile female ratio. Males irradiated at high doses may have been outcompeted by unirradiated males when courting unirradiated females. Implications of our findings for sterile insect technique programs are discussed. PMID:15154459

  3. Brain control of mating behavior in the male cricket Gryllus bimaculatus DeGeer: the center for inhibition of copulation actions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y Matsumoto; M Sakai

    2000-01-01

    We re-examined the functional role of the brain and suboesophageal ganglion (SOG) in inhibiting mating behavior in the male cricket Gryllus bimaculatus DeGeer. Experiments were conducted by using mimetic stimulation to elicit copulation actions. To induce a change in the male internal state from a sexually responsive state to a sexually unresponsive state in the mating stage, noxious stimulation, head

  4. A randomized, controlled, multicenter contraceptive efficacy clinical trial of the intravas device, a nonocclusive surgical male sterilization

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Wen-Hong; Liang, Xiao-Wei; Gu, Yi-Qun; Wu, Wei-Xiong; Bo, Li-Wei; Zheng, Tian-Gui; Chen, Zhen-Wen

    2014-01-01

    Because of unavoidable complications of vasectomy, this study was undertaken to assess the efficacy and safety of male sterilization with a nonobstructive intravas device (IVD) implanted into the vas lumen by a mini-surgical method compared with no-scalpel vasectomy (NSV). IVDs were categorized into two types: IVD-B has a tail used for fixing to the vas deferens (fixed wing) whereas IVD-A does not. A multicenter prospective randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in China. The study was comprised of 1459 male volunteers seeking vasectomy who were randomly assigned to the IVD-A (n = 487), IVD-B (n = 485) or NSV (n = 487) groups and underwent operation. Follow-up included visits at the 3rd–6th and 12th postoperative months. The assessments of the subjects involved regular physical examinations (including general and andrological examinations) and semen analysis. The subjects’ partners also underwent monitoring for pregnancy by monthly interviews regarding menstruation and if necessary, urine tests. There were no significant differences in pregnancy rates (0.65% for IVD-A, 0 for IVD-B and 0.21% for NSV) among the three groups (P > 0.05). The cumulative rates of complications at the 12th postoperative month were zero, 0.9% and 1.7% in the three groups, respectively. In conclusion, IVD male sterilization exhibits a low risk of long-term adverse events and was found to be effective as a male sterilization method, similar to the NSV technique. IVD male sterilization is expected to be a novel contraceptive method. PMID:24589454

  5. A randomized, controlled, multicenter contraceptive efficacy clinical trial of the intravas device, a nonocclusive surgical male sterilization.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wen-Hong; Liang, Xiao-Wei; Gu, Yi-Qun; Wu, Wei-Xiong; Bo, Li-Wei; Zheng, Tian-Gui; Chen, Zhen-Wen

    2014-01-01

    Because of unavoidable complications of vasectomy, this study was undertaken to assess the efficacy and safety of male sterilization with a nonobstructive intravas device (IVD) implanted into the vas lumen by a mini-surgical method compared with no-scalpel vasectomy (NSV). IVDs were categorized into two types: IVD-B has a tail used for fixing to the vas deferens (fixed wing) whereas IVD-A does not. A multicenter prospective randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in China. The study was comprised of 1459 male volunteers seeking vasectomy who were randomly assigned to the IVD-A (n = 487), IVD-B (n = 485) or NSV (n = 487) groups and underwent operation. Follow-up included visits at the 3 rd -6 th and 12 th postoperative months. The assessments of the subjects involved regular physical examinations (including general and andrological examinations) and semen analysis. The subjects' partners also underwent monitoring for pregnancy by monthly interviews regarding menstruation and if necessary, urine tests. There were no significant differences in pregnancy rates (0.65% for IVD-A, 0 for IVD-B and 0.21% for NSV) among the three groups (P > 0.05). The cumulative rates of complications at the 12 th postoperative month were zero, 0.9% and 1.7% in the three groups, respectively. In conclusion, IVD male sterilization exhibits a low risk of long-term adverse events and was found to be effective as a male sterilization method, similar to the NSV technique. IVD male sterilization is expected to be a novel contraceptive method. PMID:24589454

  6. Variability of Female Responses to Conspecific vs. Heterospecific Male Mating Calls in Polygynous Deer: An Open Door to Hybridization?

    PubMed Central

    Wyman, Megan T.; Charlton, Benjamin D.; Locatelli, Yann; Reby, David

    2011-01-01

    Males of all polygynous deer species (Cervinae) give conspicuous calls during the reproductive season. The extreme interspecific diversity that characterizes these vocalizations suggests that they play a strong role in species discrimination. However, interbreeding between several species of Cervinae indicates permeable interspecific reproductive barriers. This study examines the contribution of vocal behavior to female species discrimination and mating preferences in two closely related polygynous deer species known to hybridize in the wild after introductions. Specifically, we investigate the reaction of estrous female red deer (Cervus elaphus) to playbacks of red deer vs. sika deer (Cervus nippon) male mating calls, with the prediction that females will prefer conspecific calls. While on average female red deer preferred male red deer roars, two out of twenty females spent more time in close proximity to the speaker broadcasting male sika deer moans. We suggest that this absence of strict vocal preference for species-specific mating calls may contribute to the permeability of pre-zygotic reproductive barriers observed between these species. Our results also highlight the importance of examining inter-individual variation when studying the role of female preferences in species discrimination and intraspecific mate selection. PMID:21887242

  7. BEHAVIORAL MECHANISMS OF MATING ACCELERATION AFTER EXPOSURE OF MALE C. CAPITATA (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE) TO GINGER AND ORANGE OIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The behavioral mechanism of mating acceleration after exposure of male Mediterranean fruit flies to ginger root oil (GO) or to orange peel oil (OO) was studied in the laboratory. Exposure to both oils increased the frequency of sexual signaling. In a wind tunnel females were attracted at similar rat...

  8. Male mate location behaviour and encounter sites in a community of tropical butterflies: taxonomic and site associations and distinctions.

    PubMed

    Tiple, Ashish D; Padwad, Sonali V; Dapporto, Leonardo; Dennis, Roger L H

    2010-12-01

    Male mate location behaviour and encounter sites have been studied in 72 butterfly species at Nagpur, India, and related to taxonomy, morphology, habitat and population parameters. Species can be placed in three broad classes of mate location behaviour: invariant patrolling, invariant perching, and perch-patrol, the latter associated with increasing site fidelity, territorial defence and male assemblages. Significant taxonomic differences occur, closely related species tending to share mate location behaviours. Morphological differences are found with heavier and larger butterflies displaying greater site fidelity and territorial defence, and differences occur between individuals of species which both perch and patrol. Invariant patrolling is particularly associated with tracks through vegetation, host planttrack distributions, and high female to male numbers observed on transects; invariant perching is linked more to edge features than patrolling, and to lower population counts on transects. Species which perch-patrol, defend territories and establish male assemblages are associated with more complex vegetation structures, and have encounter sites at vegetation edges, landforms and predictable resource (host plant) concentrations. Attention is drawn to the importance of distinctive mate encounter sites for the conservation of butterfly species' habitats. PMID:21289445

  9. Sterile insect technique and Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae): assessing the utility of aromatherapy in a Hawaiian coffee field.

    PubMed

    Shelly, Todd E; McInnis, Donald O; Rodd, Charles; Edu, James; Pahio, Elaine

    2007-04-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is widely used in integrated programs against tephritid fruit fly pests, particularly the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Unfortunately, the mass-rearing procedures inherent to the SIT often lead to a reduction in the mating ability of the released males. One potential solution involves the prerelease exposure of males to particular attractants. In particular, exposure of male Mediterranean fruit flies to ginger, Zingiber officinale Roscoe, root oil (GRO) has been shown to increase mating success in laboratory and field cage trials. Here, we describe a field experiment that compares the level of egg sterility observed in two Hawaiian coffee, Coffea arabica L., plots, with GRO-exposed, sterile males released in one (treated) plot and nonexposed, sterile males released in the other (control) plot. Once per week in both plots over a 13-wk period, sterile males were released, trap captures were scored to estimate relative abundance of sterile and wild males, and coffee berries were collected and dissected in the laboratory to estimate the incidence of unhatched (sterile) eggs. Data on wild fly abundance and the natural rate of egg hatch also were collected in a remote area that received no sterile males. Despite that sterile:wild male ratios were significantly lower in the treated plot than in the control plot, the incidence of sterile eggs was significantly higher in the treated plot than in the control plot. Correspondingly, significantly higher values of Fried's competitiveness index (C) were found, on average, for treated than control sterile males. This study is the first to identify an association between the GRO "status" of sterile males and the incidence of egg sterility in the field and suggests that prerelease, GRO exposure may represent a simple and inexpensive means to increase the effectiveness of Mediterranean fruit fly SIT programs. PMID:17461047

  10. Proteomic analyses of male contributions to honey bee sperm storage and mating

    PubMed Central

    Collins, A M; Caperna, T J; Williams, V; Garrett, W M; Evans, J D

    2006-01-01

    Honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) queens mate early in life and store sperm for years. Male bees likely contribute significantly to sperm survival. Proteins were extracted from seminal vesicles and semen of mature drones, separated by electrophoresis, and analysed by peptide mass fingerprinting. Computer searches against three databases, general species, honey bees and fruit flies, were performed. Spectra were used to query the recently generated honey bee genome protein list as well as general species and fruit fly databases. Of the 69 unique honey bee proteins found, 66 are also in Drosophila melanogaster. Two proteins only matched honey bee genes and one is a widespread protein lost from the fly genome. There is over-representation of genes implicated in the glycolysis pathway. Metabolism-associated proteins were found primarily in the seminal vesicle. Male accessory gland proteins as identified in Drosophila rarely had orthologs among proteins found in the honey bee. A complete listing of gel spots chosen including honey bee genome matches and Mascot searches of MALDI-TOF results with statistics is in the Supplementary table. MALDI-TOF spectra and more complete Mascot peptide mass fingerprinting data are available on request. Supplementary figs 1–3 show the stained protein gels. PMID:17069630

  11. Heaven It's My Wife! Male Canaries Conceal Extra-Pair Courtships but Increase Aggressions When Their Mate Watches

    PubMed Central

    Ung, Davy; Amy, Mathieu; Leboucher, Gérard

    2011-01-01

    Many animals live in a communication network, an environment where individuals can obtain information about competitors or potential mates by observing interactions between conspecifics. In such an environment, interactants might benefit by changing their signalling behaviour in the presence of an audience. This audience effect seems widespread among species, has been observed during various types of interaction (e.g. intra-sexual vs. inter-sexual interaction) and varies according to the social context (e.g. gender, hierarchical or mating status of the audience). However, the way individuals might adapt their signalling behaviour to a combination of these factors remains poorly understood. To address this question, we studied how the presence of an audience affects the behaviour of male domestic canaries Serinus canaria during two types of interactions: (i) an extra-pair interaction and (ii) a male-male competition for food. Males were observed under three conditions: (a) in the absence of audience, (b) in the presence of their mate or (c) of a familiar female. Our results show that male domestic canaries minutely adapt their courting and agonistic behaviours to a combination of: (i) the type of interaction (extra-pair interaction/male-male competition), (ii) the social context (mate, familiar female or nobody in audience) and (iii) the behaviours of both the audience and the interactant. These results highlight the ability of animals to subtly adapt their behaviour to the social environment. This also raises questions about the cognitive foundations and evolution of these processes especially considering that canaries are known neither for having high cognitive abilities nor for being a typical example for the social intelligence hypothesis. PMID:21857945

  12. Reversion of Texas male-sterile cytoplasm maize in culture to give fertile, T-toxin resistant plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. I. S. Brettell; E. Thomas; D. S. Ingram

    1980-01-01

    Plants carrying Texas male-sterile (Tms) cytoplasm are normally sensitive to Drechslera maydis T-toxin. Tissue cultures were initiated from immature embryos of maize carrying Tms-cytoplasm, and plants were regenerated after selection for resistance to T-toxin. Fertile, T-toxin resistant plants were obtained from the unselected control cultures as well as from the selected material. In addition, one regenerant from an unselected culture

  13. Remating by female Mediterranean fruit flies (Ceratitis capitata, Diptera: Tephritidae): temporal patterns and modulation by male condition.

    PubMed

    Gavriel, Sagi; Gazit, Yoav; Yuval, Boaz

    2009-07-01

    We determined the temporal pattern of female remating in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, and how mating with sterile males affects remating. In addition, we examined the hypotheses that sterile male nutrition and age affect the subsequent receptivity of their mates. Temporally, female receptivity varied significantly throughout the experimental period. Relatively high levels of remating (14%) on the days following the first copulation were followed by a decline, with a significantly low point (4.1%) 2 weeks after mating. Subsequently, receptivity is gradually restored (18%) 3 and 4 weeks after the initial copulation. When females were first mated to sterile males, significantly higher remating percentages were recorded. The ability of sterile males to inhibit receptivity of both wild and laboratory reared females on the day of first mating was significantly improved when they were fed a nutrient rich diet. Male age at first mating also affected female receptivity: sterile males of intermediate age (11 days old) inhibited female remating significantly more than younger or older flies. Although further studies are needed to determine the relative roles of natural and sexual selection in modulating patterns of female sexual receptivity, the Sterile Insect Technique may be improved by releasing well nourished, older sterile males. PMID:19482138

  14. Cytoplasmic Male Sterility-Associated Chimeric Open Reading Frames Identified by Mitochondrial Genome Sequencing of Four Cajanus Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Tuteja, Reetu; Saxena, Rachit K.; Davila, Jaime; Shah, Trushar; Chen, Wenbin; Xiao, Yong-Li; Fan, Guangyi; Saxena, K. B.; Alverson, Andrew J.; Spillane, Charles; Town, Christopher; Varshney, Rajeev K.

    2013-01-01

    The hybrid pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) breeding technology based on cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is currently unique among legumes and displays major potential for yield increase. CMS is defined as a condition in which a plant is unable to produce functional pollen grains. The novel chimeric open reading frames (ORFs) produced as a results of mitochondrial genome rearrangements are considered to be the main cause of CMS. To identify these CMS-related ORFs in pigeonpea, we sequenced the mitochondrial genomes of three C. cajan lines (the male-sterile line ICPA 2039, the maintainer line ICPB 2039, and the hybrid line ICPH 2433) and of the wild relative (Cajanus cajanifolius ICPW 29). A single, circular-mapping molecule of length 545.7 kb was assembled and annotated for the ICPA 2039 line. Sequence annotation predicted 51 genes, including 34 protein-coding and 17 RNA genes. Comparison of the mitochondrial genomes from different Cajanus genotypes identified 31 ORFs, which differ between lines within which CMS is present or absent. Among these chimeric ORFs, 13 were identified by comparison of the related male-sterile and maintainer lines. These ORFs display features that are known to trigger CMS in other plant species and to represent the most promising candidates for CMS-related mitochondrial rearrangements in pigeonpea. PMID:23792890

  15. Reversible male sterility in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) by artificial microRNA-mediated silencing of general transcription factor genes.

    PubMed

    Toppino, Laura; Kooiker, Maarten; Lindner, Matias; Dreni, Ludovico; Rotino, Giuseppe L; Kater, Martin M

    2011-08-01

    Since decades, plant male sterility is considered a powerful tool for biological containment to minimize unwanted self-pollination for hybrid seed production. Furthermore, prevention of pollen dispersal also answers to concerns regarding transgene flow via pollen from Genetically Modified (GM) crops to traditional crop fields or wild relatives. We induced male sterility by suppressing endogenous general transcription factor genes, TAFs, using anther-specific promoters combined with artificial microRNA (amiRNA) technology (Schwab et al., 2006). The system was made reversible by the ethanol inducible expression of an amiRNA-insensitive form of the target gene. We provide proof of concept in eggplant, a cultivated crop belonging to the Solanaceae family that includes many important food crops. The transgenic eggplants that we generated are completely male sterile and fertility can be fully restored by short treatments with ethanol, confirming the efficiency but also the reliability of the system in view of open field cultivation. By combining this system with induced parthenocarpy (Rotino et al., 1997), we provide a novel example of complete transgene containment in eggplant, which enables biological mitigation measures for the benefit of coexistence or biosafety purposes for GM crop cultivation. PMID:20955179

  16. Bioreplicated visual features of nanofabricated buprestid beetle decoys evoke stereotypical male mating flights.

    PubMed

    Domingue, Michael J; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh; Pulsifer, Drew P; Hall, Loyal P; Badding, John V; Bischof, Jesse L; Martín-Palma, Raúl J; Imrei, Zoltán; Janik, Gergely; Mastro, Victor C; Hazen, Missy; Baker, Thomas C

    2014-09-30

    Recent advances in nanoscale bioreplication processes present the potential for novel basic and applied research into organismal behavioral processes. Insect behavior potentially could be affected by physical features existing at the nanoscale level. We used nano-bioreplicated visual decoys of female emerald ash borer beetles (Agrilus planipennis) to evoke stereotypical mate-finding behavior, whereby males fly to and alight on the decoys as they would on real females. Using an industrially scalable nanomolding process, we replicated and evaluated the importance of two features of the outer cuticular surface of the beetle's wings: structural interference coloration of the elytra by multilayering of the epicuticle and fine-scale surface features consisting of spicules and spines that scatter light into intense strands. Two types of decoys that lacked one or both of these elements were fabricated, one type nano-bioreplicated and the other 3D-printed with no bioreplicated surface nanostructural elements. Both types were colored with green paint. The light-scattering properties of the nano-bioreplicated surfaces were verified by shining a white laser on the decoys in a dark room and projecting the scattering pattern onto a white surface. Regardless of the coloration mechanism, the nano-bioreplicated decoys evoked the complete attraction and landing sequence of Agrilus males. In contrast, males made brief flying approaches toward the decoys without nanostructured features, but diverted away before alighting on them. The nano-bioreplicated decoys were also electroconductive, a feature used on traps such that beetles alighting onto them were stunned, killed, and collected. PMID:25225359

  17. Bioreplicated visual features of nanofabricated buprestid beetle decoys evoke stereotypical male mating flights

    PubMed Central

    Domingue, Michael J.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh; Pulsifer, Drew P.; Hall, Loyal P.; Badding, John V.; Bischof, Jesse L.; Martín-Palma, Raúl J.; Imrei, Zoltán; Janik, Gergely; Mastro, Victor C.; Hazen, Missy; Baker, Thomas C.

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in nanoscale bioreplication processes present the potential for novel basic and applied research into organismal behavioral processes. Insect behavior potentially could be affected by physical features existing at the nanoscale level. We used nano-bioreplicated visual decoys of female emerald ash borer beetles (Agrilus planipennis) to evoke stereotypical mate-finding behavior, whereby males fly to and alight on the decoys as they would on real females. Using an industrially scalable nanomolding process, we replicated and evaluated the importance of two features of the outer cuticular surface of the beetle’s wings: structural interference coloration of the elytra by multilayering of the epicuticle and fine-scale surface features consisting of spicules and spines that scatter light into intense strands. Two types of decoys that lacked one or both of these elements were fabricated, one type nano-bioreplicated and the other 3D-printed with no bioreplicated surface nanostructural elements. Both types were colored with green paint. The light-scattering properties of the nano-bioreplicated surfaces were verified by shining a white laser on the decoys in a dark room and projecting the scattering pattern onto a white surface. Regardless of the coloration mechanism, the nano-bioreplicated decoys evoked the complete attraction and landing sequence of Agrilus males. In contrast, males made brief flying approaches toward the decoys without nanostructured features, but diverted away before alighting on them. The nano-bioreplicated decoys were also electroconductive, a feature used on traps such that beetles alighting onto them were stunned, killed, and collected. PMID:25225359

  18. Male reproductive biology of Aedes mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Oliva, Clelia F; Damiens, David; Benedict, Mark Q

    2014-04-01

    Among Aedes mosquitoes are species responsible for transmission of serious pathogens to humans. To cope with the current threats to long-term effectiveness of the traditional vector control methods, non-conventional control strategies are being developed. These include autocidal control such as the release of sterile males (sterile insect technique) and the release of Wolbachia-infected males to induce sexual sterility (incompatible insect technique) and pathogen-refractory strain replacement variations using Wolbachia. Sterile male types of techniques particularly depend on released males' ability to successfully mate with wild females. For that reason, a good understanding of male mating biology, including a thorough understanding of the reproductive system and mating capacity, increases the likelihood of success of such genetic vector control programmes. Here we review the literature concerning the reproduction of Aedes mosquitoes with an emphasis on the male biology. We consider sexual maturation, mate finding, insemination, male reproductive capacity, and the occurrence of multiple matings. We also discuss which parameters are of greatest importance for the successful implementation of autocidal control methods and propose questions for future research. PMID:24308996

  19. No Evidence for Heritability of Male Mating Latency or Copulation Duration across Social Environments in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Michelle L.; Evans, Jonathan P.; Garcia-Gonzalez, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    A key assumption underpinning major models of sexual selection is the expectation that male sexual attractiveness is heritable. Surprisingly, however, empirical tests of this assumption are relatively scarce. Here we use a paternal full-sib/half-sib breeding design to examine genetic and environmental variation in male mating latency (a proxy for sexual attractiveness) and copulation duration in a natural population of Drosophila melanogaster. As our experimental design also involved the manipulation of the social environment within each full-sibling family, we were able to further test for the presence of genotype-by-environment interactions (GEIs) in these traits, which have the potential to compromise mate choice for genetic benefits. Our experimental manipulation of the social environment revealed plastic expression of both traits; males exposed to a rival male during the sensitive period of adult sexual maturation exhibited shorter mating latencies and longer copulation durations than those who matured in isolation. However, we found no evidence for GEIs, and no significant additive genetic variation underlying these traits in either environment. These results undermine the notion that the evolution of female choice rests on covariance between female preference and male displays, an expectation that underpins indirect benefit models such as the good genes and sexy sons hypotheses. However, our results may also indicate depletion of genetic variance in these traits in the natural population studied, thus supporting the expectation that traits closely aligned with reproductive fitness can exhibit low levels of additive genetic variance. PMID:24155948

  20. The C. elegans Male Exercises Directional Control during Mating through Cholinergic Regulation of Sex-Shared Command Interneurons

    PubMed Central

    Sherlekar, Amrita L.; Janssen, Abbey; Siehr, Meagan S.; Koo, Pamela K.; Caflisch, Laura; Boggess, May; Lints, Robyn

    2013-01-01

    Background Mating behaviors in simple invertebrate model organisms represent tractable paradigms for understanding the neural bases of sex-specific behaviors, decision-making and sensorimotor integration. However, there are few examples where such neural circuits have been defined at high resolution or interrogated. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we exploit the simplicity of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to define the neural circuits underlying the male’s decision to initiate mating in response to contact with a mate. Mate contact is sensed by male-specific sensilla of the tail, the rays, which subsequently induce and guide a contact-based search of the hermaphrodite’s surface for the vulva (the vulva search). Atypically, search locomotion has a backward directional bias so its implementation requires overcoming an intrinsic bias for forward movement, set by activity of the sex-shared locomotory system. Using optogenetics, cell-specific ablation- and mutant behavioral analyses, we show that the male makes this shift by manipulating the activity of command cells within this sex-shared locomotory system. The rays control the command interneurons through the male-specific, decision-making interneuron PVY and its auxiliary cell PVX. Unlike many sex-shared pathways, PVY/PVX regulate the command cells via cholinergic, rather than glutamatergic transmission, a feature that likely contributes to response specificity and coordinates directional movement with other cholinergic-dependent motor behaviors of the mating sequence. PVY/PVX preferentially activate the backward, and not forward, command cells because of a bias in synaptic inputs and the distribution of key cholinergic receptors (encoded by the genes acr-18, acr-16 and unc-29) in favor of the backward command cells. Conclusion/Significance Our interrogation of male neural circuits reveals that a sex-specific response to the opposite sex is conferred by a male-specific pathway that renders subordinate, sex-shared motor programs responsive to mate cues. Circuit modifications of these types may make prominent contributions to natural variations in behavior that ultimately bring about speciation. PMID:23577128

  1. Natural Variation in the Strength and Direction of Male Mating Preferences for Female Pheromones in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Pischedda, Alison; Shahandeh, Michael P.; Cochrane, Wesley G.; Cochrane, Veronica A.; Turner, Thomas L.

    2014-01-01

    Many animal species communicate using chemical signals. In Drosophila, cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) are involved in species and sexual identification, and have long been thought to act as stimulatory pheromones as well. However, a previous study reported that D. melanogaster males were more attracted to females that were lacking CHCs. This surprising result is consistent with several evolutionary hypotheses but is at odds with other work demonstrating that female CHCs are attractive to males. Here, we investigated natural variation in male preferences for female pheromones using transgenic flies that cannot produce CHCs. By perfuming females with CHCs and performing mate choice tests, we found that some male genotypes prefer females with pheromones, some have no apparent preference, and at least one male genotype prefers females without pheromones. This variation provides an excellent opportunity to further investigate the mechanistic causes and evolutionary implications of divergent pheromone preferences in D. melanogaster males. PMID:24489930

  2. Size-dependent male mating behaviour and sexual harassment in a population of Atlantic mollies ( Poecilia mexicana ) from a sulphur creek

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Plath; Anja Brümmer; Jakob Parzefall; Ingo Schlupp

    2006-01-01

    The Atlantic molly Poecilia mexicana inhabits a variety of habitats. In previous studies, small males from clear-water populations showed considerably more sexual behaviours than large males. Males from a sulphur creek, the El Azufre, or from a sulphur cave (cave molly) showed comparatively low sexual activity, and typical size-dependent mating behaviour was either absent or large males showed even more

  3. Using bulked extremes and recessive class to map genes for photoperiod-sensitive genic male sterility in rice.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Q; Shen, B Z; Dai, X K; Mei, M H; Saghai Maroof, M A; Li, Z B

    1994-01-01

    Photoperiod-sensitive genic male sterile (PS-GMS) rice has a number of desirable characteristics for hybrid rice production. In this study we made use of a published rice genetic linkage map to determine the locations of PSGMS genes and we have characterized the effects of these genes on sterility by using molecular markers. A two-step approach was designed for mapping the genes: (i) identifying possible PSGMS gene-containing chromosome regions with bulked DNA from extreme fertile and extreme sterile plants of a very large F2 population and (ii) determining the map locations of the genes in extreme sterile individuals. We show that this mapping method is much more cost effective and statistically efficient than using a random sample of an F2 population. We identified two chromosomal regions each containing a PSGMS locus, one designated pms1 on chromosome 7 and one designated pms2 on chromosome 3. The existence of these two loci was confirmed by a large sample assay and with data on rationing progenies of the F2 plants. A marker-based analysis shows that the effect of pms1 is 2-3 times larger than that of pms2 and that dominance is almost complete at both loci. Implications in the breeding of PSGMS rice lines are discussed. Images PMID:7915844

  4. A paternity advantage for speedy males? Sperm precedence patterns and female re-mating frequencies in a sexually cannibalistic praying mantid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katherine L. BarryGregory; Gregory I. Holwell; Marie E. Herberstein

    2011-01-01

    Scramble competition polygyny is expected when females and\\/or resources are widely dispersed and not easily monopolized by\\u000a males, or when there is an abundance of mates during an extremely restricted reproductive period. Additional factors such\\u000a as first male sperm precedence or low female re-mating rate might further explain the propensity of males to engage in scramble\\u000a competition. The sexually cannibalistic

  5. Cytological and Comparative Proteomic Analyses on Male Sterility in Brassica napus L. Induced by the Chemical Hybridization Agent Monosulphuron Ester Sodium

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhanjie; Cui, Jianmin; Hu, Shengwu; Zhao, Huixian; Chen, Mingshun

    2013-01-01

    Male sterility induced by a chemical hybridization agent (CHA) is an important tool for utilizing crop heterosis. Monosulphuron ester sodium (MES), a new acetolactate synthase-inhibitor herbicide belonging to the sulphonylurea family, has been developed as an effective CHA to induce male sterility in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). To understand MES-induced male sterility in rapeseed better, comparative cytological and proteomic analyses were conducted in this study. Cytological analysis indicated that defective tapetal cells and abnormal microspores were gradually generated in the developing anthers of MES-treated plants at various development stages, resulting in unviable microspores and male sterility. A total of 141 differentially expressed proteins between the MES-treated and control plants were revealed, and 131 of them were further identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. Most of these proteins decreased in abundance in tissues of MES-treated rapeseed plants, and only a few increased. Notably, some proteins were absent or induced in developing anthers after MES treatment. These proteins were involved in several processes that may be crucial for tapetum and microspore development. Down-regulation of these proteins may disrupt the coordination of developmental and metabolic processes, resulting in defective tapetum and abnormal microspores that lead to male sterility in MES-treated plants. Accordingly, a simple model of CHA-MES-induced male sterility in rapeseed was established. This study is the first cytological and dynamic proteomic investigation on CHA-MES-induced male sterility in rapeseed, and the results provide new insights into the molecular events of male sterility. PMID:24244648

  6. Improvement of the recessive genic male sterile lines with a subgenomic background in Brassica napus by molecular marker-assisted selection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhen Huang; Lu Xiao; Xiaoling Dun; Shengqian Xia; Bin Yi; Jing Wen; Jinxiong Shen; Chaozhi Ma; Jinxing Tu; Jinling Meng; Tingdong Fu

    Both the pollination control system and genetic distance are major factors in the utilization of crop heterosis. The recessive\\u000a genic male sterile line (RGMS) 7-7365A (Bnms3ms3ms4ms4) has been widely applied to hybrid seed production because it can generate a completely male sterile population by crossing\\u000a with the 7-7365C temporary line (Bnms3ms3rfrf). In this study, the sterile genes of 7-7365A were

  7. Influence of methoprene and protein on survival, maturation and sexual performance of male Ceratitis capitata (Diptera:Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), like many other polifagous tephritids (Diptera: Tephritidae), adopts a lek as mating system. The sterile insect technique (SIT) requires the release of sterile males able to survive on the field, to compete with wild males, and attrac...

  8. Transcriptional Profiles of Mating-Responsive Genes from Testes and Male Accessory Glands of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata

    PubMed Central

    Scolari, Francesca; Gomulski, Ludvik M.; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Siciliano, Paolo; Meraldi, Alice; Falchetto, Marco; Bonomi, Angelica; Manni, Mosè; Gabrieli, Paolo; Malovini, Alberto; Bellazzi, Riccardo; Aksoy, Serap; Gasperi, Giuliano; Malacrida, Anna R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Insect seminal fluid is a complex mixture of proteins, carbohydrates and lipids, produced in the male reproductive tract. This seminal fluid is transferred together with the spermatozoa during mating and induces post-mating changes in the female. Molecular characterization of seminal fluid proteins in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, is limited, although studies suggest that some of these proteins are biologically active. Methodology/Principal Findings We report on the functional annotation of 5914 high quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from the testes and male accessory glands, to identify transcripts encoding putative secreted peptides that might elicit post-mating responses in females. The ESTs were assembled into 3344 contigs, of which over 33% produced no hits against the nr database, and thus may represent novel or rapidly evolving sequences. Extraction of the coding sequences resulted in a total of 3371 putative peptides. The annotated dataset is available as a hyperlinked spreadsheet. Four hundred peptides were identified with putative secretory activity, including odorant binding proteins, protease inhibitor domain-containing peptides, antigen 5 proteins, mucins, and immunity-related sequences. Quantitative RT-PCR-based analyses of a subset of putative secretory protein-encoding transcripts from accessory glands indicated changes in their abundance after one or more copulations when compared to virgin males of the same age. These changes in abundance, particularly evident after the third mating, may be related to the requirement to replenish proteins to be transferred to the female. Conclusions/Significance We have developed the first large-scale dataset for novel studies on functions and processes associated with the reproductive biology of Ceratitis capitata. The identified genes may help study genome evolution, in light of the high adaptive potential of the medfly. In addition, studies of male recovery dynamics in terms of accessory gland gene expression profiles and correlated remating inhibition mechanisms may permit the improvement of pest management approaches. PMID:23071645

  9. Gene expression divergence and nucleotide differentiation between males of different color morphs and mating strategies in the ruff

    PubMed Central

    Ekblom, Robert; Farrell, Lindsay L; Lank, David B; Burke, Terry

    2012-01-01

    By next generation transcriptome sequencing, it is possible to obtain data on both nucleotide sequence variation and gene expression. We have used this approach (RNA-Seq) to investigate the genetic basis for differences in plumage coloration and mating strategies in a non-model bird species, the ruff (Philomachus pugnax). Ruff males show enormous variation in the coloration of ornamental feathers, used for individual recognition. This polymorphism is linked to reproductive strategies, with dark males (Independents) defending territories on leks against other Independents, whereas white morphs (Satellites) co-occupy Independent's courts without agonistic interactions. Previous work found a strong genetic component for mating strategy, but the genes involved were not identified. We present feather transcriptome data of more than 6,000 de-novo sequenced ruff genes (although with limited coverage for many of them). None of the identified genes showed significant expression divergence between males, but many genetic markers showed nucleotide differentiation between different color morphs and mating strategies. These include several feather keratin genes, splicing factors, and the Xg blood-group gene. Many of the genes with significant genetic structure between mating strategies have not yet been annotated and their functions remain to be elucidated. We also conducted in-depth investigations of 28 pre-identified coloration candidate genes. Two of these (EDNRB and TYR) were specifically expressed in black- and rust-colored males, respectively. We have demonstrated the utility of next generation transcriptome sequencing for identifying and genotyping large number of genetic markers in a non-model species without previous genomic resources, and highlight the potential of this approach for addressing the genetic basis of ecologically important variation. PMID:23145334

  10. Large males dominate: ecology, social organization, and mating system of wild cavies, the ancestors of the guinea pig

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthias Asher; Tanja Lippmann; Jörg T. Epplen; Cornelia Kraus; Fritz Trillmich; Norbert Sachser

    2008-01-01

    Ecological factors differently affect male and female animals and thereby importantly influence their life history and reproductive\\u000a strategies. Caviomorph rodents are found in a wide range of habitats in South America and different social and mating systems\\u000a have evolved in closely related species. This permits to study the impact of ecological factors on social evolution. In this\\u000a study, we investigated

  11. On being the right size: male contributions and multiple mating in social Hymenoptera

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. H. Crozier; R. E. Page

    1985-01-01

    A number of hypotheses for the occurrence of multiple mating by queens of social Hymenoptera are reviewed in the light of Cole's (1983) observation that polyandrous species tend to have larger colonies than single-mating ones. Most of these hypotheses cannot be definitively excluded, but only three of them appear sufficiently general, plausible and predictive to be useful guides to further

  12. Male care, mate switching, and future reproductive success in a double-brooded passerine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Bart

    1990-01-01

    Summary Little is known of the factors that cause monogamous, double-brooded birds to keep the same mates, or switch mates, between nesting attempts within one breeding season. Only one factor, success or failure of the first attempt, has been investigated, and it appears to be important in some species but unimportant in others. Kendeigh (1941) mentioned another possible factor in

  13. Male and female condition influence mating performance and sexual receptivity in two tropical fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) with contrasting life histories

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Aluja; J. Rull; J. Sivinski; G. Trujillo; D. Pérez-Staples

    2009-01-01

    Recent recognition of widespread polyandry in insects has generated considerable interest in understanding why females mate multiple times and in identifying factors that affect mating rate and inhibit female remating. However, little attention has been paid to understanding the question from both a female and male perspective, particularly with respect to factors that may simultaneously influence female remating rates. Here,

  14. Effects of the juvenile hormone analogue methoprene and dietary protein on male melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera:Tephritidae) mating success

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of access to dietary protein (P) and the topical application of a juvenile hormone analogue (methoprene (M)) on mating behaviour of male melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae was assessed in the laboratory and in field cages. Age, dietary protein and methoprene application increased the mating...

  15. Why Does Size Matter? A Test of the Benefits of Female Mate Choice in a Teleost Fish Based on Morphological and Physiological Indicators of Male Quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2009-01-01

    In female mate choice, a female chooses a reproductive partner based on direct or indirect benefits to the female. While sexual selection theory regarding female mate choice is well developed, there are few mechanistic studies of the process by which fe- males evaluate reproductive partners. Using paternal-care- providing smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) as a model, the purpose of this study

  16. Irradiation of adult Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae): egg sterility in parental and F1 generations.

    PubMed

    Jang, Eric B; McInnis, Donald O; Kurashima, Rick; Woods, Bill; Suckling, David M

    2012-02-01

    Adult Epiphyas postvittana Walker were irradiated using a Cobalt 60 source to determine the dose needed to achieve complete egg sterility of mated female moths, and egg sterility of female moths mated to F1 generation males. Adult male and female E. postvittana were irradiated at 100, 200, 250, and 300 Gy and their fertility (when crossed with normal moths) was compared with nonirradiated moths. Viable progeny (determined by egg hatch) were found at doses of 100 and 200 Gy, but very little at 250 and 300 Gy. In particular, there was no survival of female progeny into the F1 generation. Males irradiated at 250 and 300 Gy had very low egg eclosion rates (2.25 and 1.86% at 250 and 300 Gy, respectively) when mated with normal females. The F2 generation from those male progeny had a mean percent hatched of < 1.02%. Based on our results, a dose of 250-300 Gy is recommended for irradiation of E. postvittana adults used for sterile insect technique (SIT) if sterility of parental moths is the desired outcome. Our data also suggests that inclusion of F1 hybrid sterility rather than parental generation sterility into programs using the SIT may allow for doses lower than what we have reported, especially during initial phases of an eradication program where increase fitness of moths might be desirable. Further research is needed to verify the use of F1 hybrid sterility in light brown apple moth SIT programs. PMID:22420255

  17. Comparison of chloroplast DNA between photoperiod-sensitive genic male sterile (PGMS) rice Nongken58S and its derivative sterile lines.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guang-Wen; Chen, Jue-Liang; Ou, Li-Jun; Lu, Xiang-Yang; Chen, Liang-Bi

    2006-06-01

    The ORF100, ORF29-TrnC(GCA) spacer, rps16 gene intron and TrnT(UGU)-TrnL(UAA) spacer of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) of 6 photoperiod-sensitive genic male sterile (PGMS) rice, Nongken58S and its 5 derivatives, were amplified and sequenced. According to the result of ORF100 and ORF29-TrnC(GCA) spacer analysis, the cpDNA of japonica PGMS line Nongken58S was Japonica, and among those PGMS lines derived from Nongken58S, cpDNA of japonica 7001S and 3 indica lines 1103S, Peiai64S and Guangzhan63S were that of japonica, which was in accordance with the cytoplasm pedigree provided by their breeders. But the cpDNA of indica PGMS line W6154S was that of indica, which disaccorded with the cytoplasm pedigree, so we conjectured that the breeders had used the PGMS line as the male parent. Basing on the result of sequence analysis, we found single nucleotide polymorphism in rps16 gene intron and TrnT(UGU)-TrnL(UAA) spacer of these 5 japonica PGMS lines. PMID:16775395

  18. Transgenic technologies to induce sterility.

    PubMed

    Catteruccia, Flaminia; Crisanti, Andrea; Wimmer, Ernst A

    2009-01-01

    The last few years have witnessed a considerable expansion in the number of tools available to perform molecular and genetic studies on the genome of Anopheles mosquitoes, the vectors of human malaria. As a consequence, knowledge of aspects of the biology of mosquitoes, such as immunity, reproduction and behaviour, that are relevant to their ability to transmit disease is rapidly increasing, and could be translated into concrete benefits for malaria control strategies. Amongst the most important scientific advances, the development of transgenic technologies for Anopheles mosquitoes provides a crucial opportunity to improve current vector control measures or design novel ones. In particular, the use of genetic modification of the mosquito genome could provide for a more effective deployment of the sterile insect technique (SIT) against vector populations in the field. Currently, SIT relies on the release of radiation sterilized males, which compete with wild males for mating with wild females. The induction of sterility in males through the genetic manipulation of the mosquito genome, already achieved in a number of other insect species, could eliminate the need for radiation and increase the efficiency of SIT-based strategies. This paper provides an overview of the mechanisms already in use for inducing sterility by transgenesis in Drosophila and other insects, and speculates on possible ways to apply similar approaches to Anopheles mosquitoes. PMID:19917077

  19. Male genital size reflects a tradeoff between attracting mates and avoiding predators in two live-bearing fish species

    PubMed Central

    Langerhans, R. Brian; Layman, Craig A.; DeWitt, Thomas J.

    2005-01-01

    Male genitalia may experience more rapid, divergent evolution than any other animal character, but why? Research during the past several decades has culminated in the view that genital diversification primarily results from postmating sexual selection (e.g., sperm competition or cryptic female choice). However, the potential roles of premating sexual selection (e.g., mate choice) and natural selection have received little attention. We examined the possible importance of these mechanisms by investigating divergence in male genitalia among populations differing in predator regime for two species of live-bearing fish (Gambusia affinis in Texas and Gambusia hubbsi in The Bahamas). When controlled for body size, males exhibited a larger gonopodium (sperm-transfer organ) in predator-free environments than in predatory environments, a trend that persisted across space (multiple populations), time (multiple years), and species. By conducting laboratory experiments with G. affinis, we found that premating sexual selection seems to favor larger male genitalia (females exhibited mating preference for males having larger gonopodia), but natural selection in the presence of predatory fishes seems to favor reduced genital size (larger gonopodium size was associated with reduced burst-swimming performance, an important antipredator behavior). Although postmating sexual selection is widely presumed to be the most important mechanism driving genital diversification, these findings suggest that alternative mechanisms, particularly for organisms that cannot retract their genitalia, may also prove important. PMID:15894618

  20. Fitness improvement of mass-reared sterile males of Ceratitis capitata (Vienna 8 strain) (Diptera: Tephritidae) after gut enrichment with probiotics.

    PubMed

    Hamden, Heithem; Guerfali, Meriem M'Saad; Fadhl, Selma; Saidi, Mouldi; Chevrier, Claude

    2013-04-01

    Successful mass rearing is crucial for sterile insect technique programs. It has been shown that the sterilizing process using gammaradiation results in damage to midgut tissue, cellular organelles, and gut microbiota of flies. This can be responsible for the inferiority of sterile males compared with wild males. A bacteria-enhanced diet could contribute to the improvement of the fly's fitness. We investigated ways of increasing the competitiveness of mass-reared Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) sterile males. We tested the hypothesis that the addition of beneficial bacteria to the larvae's diet would lead to a significant increase in their levels in the gut of the sterile adults and consequently improve their size and fitness. As expected, enriching the diet of mass-rearing Vienna-8 strain larvae with beneficial bacteria (Klebsiella pneumonia, Enterobacter spp., and Citrobacter freundii) resulted in increase in the number of Enterobacteriacae communities inhabiting the male's gut and a subsequent significant increase in the size of males and other morphometric traits and enhanced sexual performance of males at emergence. PMID:23786049

  1. Cytological attributes of sperm bundles unique to F1 progeny of irradiated male lepidoptera: Relevance to sterile insect technique programs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The unique genetic phenomena responsible for inherited F1 sterility in Lepidoptera and some other arthropods also provide advantages for the use of inherited sterility instead of full sterility in a sterile insect technique (SIT) program. Lepidopteran females generally can be completely sterilized ...

  2. Clinical Evaluation of Non-surgical Sterilization of Male Cats with Single Intra-testicular Injection of Calcium Chloride

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Calcium chloride solution is an established injectable sterilant in dogs and other mammals. With cat populations a continuing problem, we sought to explore its first use in cats. Six cats per group were injected with 5%, 10% or 20% calcium chloride dihydrate in saline solution with lignocaine hydrochloride, a local anaesthetic. Results At the 60th day post-injection, cat testes were collected and showed complete testicular necrosis and replacement by fibrous tissue; very low sperm counts; and reduction of serum testosterone by at least 70% in 20% dose. Androgenic enzyme activities and their expressions were also reduced in all the treated groups along with intra-testicular testosterone concentration was also low. Increased testicular lipid peroxidation, with reduced antioxidants and mitochondrial membrane potential, were evident following calcium chloride treatments. However, there were no apparent changes in serum concentrations of cortisol, fasting blood sugar level, blood urea nitrogen, packed cell volume, or total serum protein following calcium chloride injection, suggesting that this method of sterilization is not associated with any general stress response. Conclusion Calcium chloride solution demonstrates potential for androgenesis-eliminating nonsurgical sterilization of male cats in addition to its proven efficacy in dogs and other mammals. PMID:21774835

  3. Silencing of meiosis-critical genes for engineering male sterility in plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Engineering sterile traits in plants through the tissue-specific expression of a cytotoxic gene provides an effective way for containing transgene flow; however, the microbial origin of cytotoxic genes has raised concerns. In an attempt to develop a safe alternative, we have chosen the meiosis-crit...

  4. Male Movement and Body Size Affect Mate Acquisition in the Eastern Massasauga (Sistrurus catenatus)

    E-print Network

    Shepard, Don

    of ornamentation, parental care, and social bonds make them ideal candi- dates for such studies (Schuett, 1997 and mating system theory have come from a limited group of organisms (Thornhill and Alcock, 1983; Andersson

  5. Effect of Mating Activity and Dominance Rank on Male Masturbation Among Free-Ranging Male Rhesus Macaques

    E-print Network

    Maestripieri, Dario

    frequent among anthropoid monkeys and apes living in multimale­multifemale groups with a promiscuous mating or be adaptive by providing advantages in terms of sperm competition or by decreasing the risk of sexually colobus monkeys (Procolobus badius) and Cape ground squirrels (Xerus inauris). Interestingly, however

  6. Mating in bighorn sheep: frequent male reproduction via a high-risk “unconventional” tactic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John T. Hogg; Stephen H. Forbes

    1997-01-01

    Rocky Mountain bighorn rams use three distinct tactics in competition for mates. Two tactics (tending and blocking) feature\\u000a defense and cooperative mating over a relatively prolonged consort period (up to 3 days). In the coursing tactic, subordinate\\u000a rams fight dominants for temporary copulatory access (lasting seconds) to defended ewes. By combining population-wide genetic\\u000a (microsatellite) exclusion of paternity, behavioral data and

  7. Plasticity in juvenile hormone in male burying beetles during breeding: physiological consequences of the loss of a mate.

    PubMed

    Panaitof, S Carmen; Scott, Michelle Pellissier; Borst, David W

    2004-08-01

    Burying beetles, Nicrophorus orbicollis, have facultative biparental care. They bury and prepare small vertebrate carcasses that provide food for their young. Here we establish the juvenile hormone (JH) profiles of paired females, paired males and single males and investigate some of the environmental and social factors that may affect these profiles. Before larvae hatch JH profiles of paired males and females were similar. However, after larvae hatch and during brood care, JH titers of females were very high and those of single males were significantly higher than those of paired males. We tested the hypothesis that higher JH was a response to the need for increased parental care by manipulating brood size. Although JH titers of single males caring for small versus large broods were not significantly different, when comparing JH titers and larval growth (a measure of parental effort), a significant positive correlation emerged. In contrast, we found that food quality had no effect on JH levels suggesting that increased feeding by males and females after carcass discovery cannot explain the elevation of JH. The regulation of JH in male burying beetles appears thus to be dependent on the presence of a mate and on critical stimuli from young. PMID:15288205

  8. Males and Females Contribute Unequally to Offspring Genetic Diversity in the Polygynandrous Mating System of Wild Boar

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-González, Javier; Costa, Vânia; Santos, Pedro; Slate, Jon; Carranza, Juan; Fernández-Llario, Pedro; Zsolnai, Attila; Monteiro, Nuno M.; Anton, István; Buzgó, József; Varga, Gyula; Beja-Pereira, Albano

    2014-01-01

    The maintenance of genetic diversity across generations depends on both the number of reproducing males and females. Variance in reproductive success, multiple paternity and litter size can all affect the relative contributions of male and female parents to genetic variation of progeny. The mating system of the wild boar (Sus scrofa) has been described as polygynous, although evidence of multiple paternity in litters has been found. Using 14 microsatellite markers, we evaluated the contribution of males and females to genetic variation in the next generation in independent wild boar populations from the Iberian Peninsula and Hungary. Genetic contributions of males and females were obtained by distinguishing the paternal and maternal genetic component inherited by the progeny. We found that the paternally inherited genetic component of progeny was more diverse than the maternally inherited component. Simulations showed that this finding might be due to a sampling bias. However, after controlling for the bias by fitting both the genetic diversity in the adult population and the number of reproductive individuals in the models, paternally inherited genotypes remained more diverse than those inherited maternally. Our results suggest new insights into how promiscuous mating systems can help maintain genetic variation. PMID:25541986

  9. Pair and extra-pair mating success relative to male quality in red-winged blackbirds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. J. Weatherhead; P. T. Boag

    1995-01-01

    We tested whether the reproductive success of male red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) varied with male secondary sexual traits or with haematozoa prevalence, and whether these patterns were consistent with females preferring genetically superior males. We also determined whether the traits that correlated with male success on their own territories were also correlated with male success at siring young on other

  10. Quantitative Genetic Analyses of Male Color Pattern and Female Mate Choice in a Pair of Cichlid Fishes of Lake Malawi, East Africa

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Baoqing; Daugherty, Daniel W.; Husemann, Martin; Chen, Ming; Howe, Aimee E.; Danley, Patrick D.

    2014-01-01

    The traits involved in sexual selection, such as male secondary sexual characteristics and female mate choice, often co-evolve which can promote population differentiation. However, the genetic architecture of these phenotypes can influence their evolvability and thereby affect the divergence of species. The extraordinary diversity of East African cichlid fishes is often attributed to strong sexual selection and thus this system provides an excellent model to test predictions regarding the genetic architecture of sexually selected traits that contribute to reproductive isolation. In particular, theory predicts that rapid speciation is facilitated when male sexual traits and female mating preferences are controlled by a limited number of linked genes. However, few studies have examined the genetic basis of male secondary sexual traits and female mating preferences in cichlids and none have investigated the genetic architecture of both jointly. In this study, we artificially hybridized a pair of behaviorally isolated cichlid fishes from Lake Malawi and quantified both melanistic color pattern and female mate choice. We investigated the genetic architecture of both phenotypes using quantitative genetic analyses. Our results suggest that 1) many non-additively acting genetic factors influence melanistic color patterns, 2) female mate choice may be controlled by a minimum of 1–2 non-additive genetic factors, and 3) F2 female mate choice is not influenced by male courting effort. Furthermore, a joint analysis of color pattern and female mate choice indicates that the genes underlying these two traits are unlikely to be physically linked. These results suggest that reproductive isolation may evolve rapidly owing to the few genetic factors underlying female mate choice. Hence, female mate choice likely played an important role in the unparalleled speciation of East African cichlid fish. PMID:25494046

  11. Accepting unrelated broods helps replacement male yellow-headed blackbirds attract mates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David F. Gori; Jennifer Caselle

    1996-01-01

    Replacement male yellow-headed blackbirds (Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus) did not destroy broods sired by the previous territorial male and they showed no aggression toward females with unrelated broods. To test whether their tolerance of unrelated young was misdirected normal parental care, we removed males from experimental territories after primary nests were completed but before secondary nests were initiated. Replacement males fed young

  12. Comprehensive Analysis of Genic Male Sterility-Related Genes in Brassica rapa Using a Newly Developed Br300K Oligomeric Chip

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xiangshu; Feng, Hui; Xu, Ming; Lee, Jeongyeo; Kim, Yeon Ki; Lim, Yong Pyo; Piao, Zhongyun; Park, Young Doo; Ma, Hong; Hur, Yoonkang

    2013-01-01

    To identify genes associated with genic male sterility (GMS) that could be useful for hybrid breeding in Chinese cabbage (Brassicarapa ssp. pekinensis), floral bud transcriptome analysis was carried out using a B. rapa microarray with 300,000 probes (Br300K). Among 47,548 clones deposited on a Br300K microarray with seven probes of 60 nt length within the 3' 150 bp region, a total of 10,622 genes were differentially expressed between fertile and sterile floral buds; 4,774 and 5,848 genes were up-regulated over 2-fold in fertile and sterile buds, respectively. However, the expression of 1,413 and 199 genes showed fertile and sterile bud-specific features, respectively. Genes expressed specifically in fertile buds, possibly GMS-related genes, included homologs of several Arabidopsis male sterility-related genes, genes associated with the cell wall and synthesis of its surface proteins, pollen wall and coat components, signaling components, and nutrient supplies. However, most early genes for pollen development, genes for primexine and callose formation, and genes for pollen maturation and anther dehiscence showed no difference in expression between fertile and sterile buds. Some of the known genes associated with Arabidopsis pollen development showed similar expression patterns to those seen in this study, while others did not. BrbHLH89 and BrMYP99 are putative GMS genes. Additionally, 17 novel genes identified only in B. rapa were specifically and highly expressed only in fertile buds, implying the possible involvement in male fertility. All data suggest that Chinese cabbage GMS might be controlled by genes acting in post-meiotic tapetal development that are different from those known to be associated with Arabidopsis male sterility. PMID:24039743

  13. Exogenous Androgen during Development Alters Adult Partner Preference and Mating Behavior in Gonadally Intact Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Henley, C.L.; Nunez, A.A.; Clemens, L.G.

    2010-01-01

    In the rat, neonatal administration of testosterone propionate to a castrated male causes masculinization of behavior. However, if an intact male is treated neonatally with testosterone (hyper-androgen condition), male sexual behavior in adulthood is disrupted. There is a possibility that the hyper-androgen treatment is suppressing male sexual behavior by altering the male’s partner preference and thereby reducing his motivation to approach the female. If so, this would suggest that exposure to supra-physiological levels of androgen during development may result in the development of male-oriented partner preference in the male. To test this idea, male rats were treated either postnatally or prenatally with testosterone, and partner preference and sexual behavior were examined in adulthood. The principal finding of this study was that increased levels of testosterone during early postnatal life, but not prenatal, decreased male sexual behavior and increased the amount of time a male spent with a stimulus male, without affecting the amount of time spent with a stimulus female during partner preference tests. Thus, the reduction in male sexual behavior produced by early exposure to high levels of testosterone is not likely due to a reduction in the male’s motivation to approach a receptive female. PMID:20171967

  14. Coevolution of male mating signal and female preference during early lineage divergence of the Hawaiian cricket, Laupala cerasina.

    PubMed

    Grace, Jaime L; Shaw, Kerry L

    2011-08-01

    Sexual selection is a powerful evolutionary force shaping mate choice phenotypes, initiating phenotypic shifts resulting in (or reinforcing) population divergence and speciation when such shifts reduce mating probabilities among divergent populations. In the Hawaiian cricket genus Laupala, pulse rate of male calling song, a conspicuous mating signal, differs among species, potentially behaving as a speciation phenotype. Populations of the widespread species Laupala cerasina show variation in pulse rate. We document the degree of population differentiation in three features of calling song: pulse rate, pulse duration, and carrier frequency. All show significant population differentiation, with pulse rate showing the greatest heterogeneity. A Mantel test found no relationship between geographic distance and pulse rate divergence, indicating that a simple model of greater divergence with increasing distance cannot explain the observed pattern of differentiation. We demonstrate that female preference functions for pulse rate are unimodal, and that preference means show significant differentiation among populations. Furthermore, estimates of pulse rate preference correlate significantly with mean pulse rates across populations, indicating song and preference coevolve in a stepwise manner. This correlated divergence between signal and preference suggests that sexual selection facilitates the establishment of sexual isolation, reduced gene flow, and population differentiation, prerequisites for speciation. PMID:21790568

  15. The Evolutionary Consequences of Disrupted Male Mating Signals: An Agent-Based Modelling Exploration of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals in the Guppy

    PubMed Central

    Senior, Alistair McNair; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Grimm, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Females may select a mate based on signalling traits that are believed to accurately correlate with heritable aspects of male quality. Anthropogenic actions, in particular chemicals released into the environment, are now disrupting the accuracy of mating signals to convey information about male quality. The long-term prediction for disrupted mating signals is most commonly loss of female preference. Yet, this prediction has rarely been tested using quantitative models. We use agent-based models to explore the effects of rapid disruption of mating signals. In our model, a gene determines survival. Males signal their level of genetic quality via a signal trait, which females use to select a mate. We allowed this system of sexual selection to become established, before introducing a disruption between the male signal trait and quality, which was similar in nature to that induced by exogenous chemicals. Finally, we assessed the capacity of the system to recover from this disruption. We found that within a relatively short time frame, disruption of mating signals led to a lasting loss of female preference. Decreases in mean viability at the population-level were also observed, because sexual-selection acting against newly arising deleterious mutations was relaxed. The ability of the population to recover from disrupted mating signals was strongly influenced by the mechanisms that promoted or maintained genetic diversity in traits under sexual selection. Our simple model demonstrates that environmental perturbations to the accuracy of male mating signals can result in a long-term loss of female preference for those signals within a few generations. What is more, the loss of this preference can have knock-on consequences for mean population fitness. PMID:25047080

  16. Molecular cloning, sequence characterization of a novel pepper gene NADP-ICDH and its effect on cytoplasmic male sterility.

    PubMed

    Deng, M H; Wen, J F; Huo, J L; Zhu, H S; Dai, X Z; Zhang, Z Q; Zhou, H; Zou, X X

    2012-01-01

    NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP-ICDH) is an important enzyme involved in energy metabolism. The complete coding sequence of the pepper (Capsicum annuum) NADP-ICDH gene was amplified using a reverse transcriptase PCR based on the conserved sequence information of the tomato and other Solanaceae plants and known highly homologous pepper ESTs. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that the pepper NADP-ICDH gene encodes a protein of 415 amino acids that has high homology with the proteins of seven species, Solanum tuberosum (100%), Citrus limon (98%), Daucus carota (98%), Nicotiana tabacum (98%), Vitis vinifera (99%), Arabidopsis thaliana (97%), and Oryza sativa (98%). Tissue expression analysis demonstrated that the pepper NADP-ICDH gene is over expressed in flower, pericarp and seed, moderately in placenta, weakly in stem and leaf, hardly expressed in root. At the abortion stages, activities and expression levels of NADP-ICDH in anthers of a sterile line were strongly reduced, while those in an F(1) hybrid remained normal. Activities and expression levels of NADP-ICDH were too low to maintain balanced energy metabolism in the sterile line, which indicated that stable transcripts of NADP-ICDH are necessary to maintain energy metabolism at a normal level. When the restorer gene was transferred to the cytoplasmic male sterile line, activities and expression level of NADP-ICDH were regulated by the restorer gene and became stable. The restorer gene likely plays an important role in keeping the balance of the energy metabolism within normal levels during microspore development. PMID:22653649

  17. Humor Ability Reveals Intelligence, Predicts Mating Success, and Is Higher in Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greengross, Gil; Miller, Geoffrey

    2011-01-01

    A good sense of humor is sexually attractive, perhaps because it reveals intelligence, creativity, and other "good genes" or "good parent" traits. If so, intelligence should predict humor production ability, which in turn should predict mating success. In this study, 400 university students (200 men and 200 women) completed measures of abstract…

  18. Multimodal signalling: structural ultraviolet reflectance predicts male mating success better than pheromones in the butterfly

    E-print Network

    Rutowski, Ronald L.

    pheromones in the butterfly Colias eurytheme L. (Pieridae) RANDI S. PAPKE, DARRELL J. KEMP & RONALD L ultraviolet (UV) reflectance and pheromones in the butterfly Colias eurytheme. Both traits are important in mediating interspecific interactions and pheromones have been implicated in intra- specific mate choice. UV

  19. The reproductive biology of male cottonmouths (Agkistrodon piscivorus): do plasma steroid hormones predict the mating season?

    PubMed

    Graham, Sean P; Earley, Ryan L; Hoss, Shannon K; Schuett, Gordon W; Grober, Matthew S

    2008-01-01

    To better understand the proximate causation of the two major types of mating seasons described for North American pitvipers, we conducted a field study of the cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus) in Georgia from September 2003 to May 2005 that included an extensive observational regime and collection of tissues for behavioral, anatomical, histological, and hormone analysis. Enzyme immunoassays (EIA) of plasma samples and standard histological procedures were conducted on reproductive tissues. Evidence from the annual testosterone (T) and sexual segment of the kidney (SSK) cycle and their relationship to the spermatogenic cycle provide correlative evidence of a unimodal mating pattern in this species of pitviper, as these variables consistently predict the mating season in all snake species previously examined under natural conditions. In most reptiles studied to date, high plasma levels of T and corticosterone (CORT) coincide during the mating period, making the cottonmouth an exception to this trend; we suggest two possible explanations for increased CORT during spring (regulation of a spring basking period), and decreased CORT during summer (avoiding reproductive behavioral inhibition), in this species. PMID:18823979

  20. How do caring parents respond to mate loss? Differential response by males and females

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Per T. Smiseth; Carolyn Dawson; Elizabeth Varley; Allen J. Moore

    2005-01-01

    Game theory has been used to provide theoretical solutions for the evolutionary stability of biparental care given sexual conflict between parents. Existing models predict that, should one parent reduce its care, the mate should adjust its care facultatively to compensate partially. This has been tested mostly on birds with equivocal results. To examine the generality of this prediction, we tested

  1. The effect of vegetation density on male mate guarding and extra-territorial forays in the yellow-breasted chat (Icteria virens)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mays, Herman L.; Ritchison, Gary

    Extra-pair paternity is widely documented in birds, but the behaviors that lead to extra-pair copulations (EPCs) have been less well studied, particularly in territorial songbirds. We studied the behaviors associated with extra-territorial forays (ETFs) and male mate guarding in a socially monogamous, but genetically promiscuous, neotropical migrant passerine, the yellow-breasted chat (Icteria virens). Focal observations and radiotelemetry revealed that both males and females engaged in ETFs. 65% of the females in our study engaged in at least one foray onto a neighboring territory. 50% of males also were observed engaging in ETFs, but males were much more conspicuous during these intrusions compared to females. Females preferred to remain close to the ground in areas where vegetation was the densest. Female behavior was difficult to observe during ETFs but females sometimes interacted with neighboring extra-pair males. Males attempted to guard their mates by remaining close to them and following them during extra-territorial intrusions. We observed instances in which a male attacked his mate and appeared to herd her back to his territory. However a male's ability to maintain close proximity to his mate was significantly and negatively correlated with vegetation density. Our results suggest that the behaviors which lead to extra-pair encounters are influenced by the behavior of all participants and are modified by the characteristics of the habitat.

  2. Casanovas are liars: behavioral syndromes, sperm competition risk, and the evolution of deceptive male mating behavior in live-bearing fishes

    PubMed Central

    Bierbach, David

    2013-01-01

    Male reproductive biology can by characterized through competition over mates as well as mate choice. Multiple mating and male mate choice copying, especially in internally fertilizing species, set the stage for increased sperm competition, i.e., sperm of two or more males can compete for fertilization of the female’s ova. In the internally fertilizing fish Poecilia mexicana, males respond to the presence of rivals with reduced expression of mating preferences (audience effect), thereby lowering the risk of by-standing rivals copying their mate choice. Also, males interact initially more with a non-preferred female when observed by a rival, which has been interpreted in previous studies as a strategy to mislead rivals, again reducing sperm competition risk (SCR). Nevertheless, species might differ consistently in their expression of aggressive and reproductive behaviors, possibly due to varying levels of SCR. In the current study, we present a unique data set comprising ten poeciliid species (in two cases including multiple populations) and ask whether species can be characterized through consistent differences in the expression of aggression, sexual activity and changes in mate choice under increased SCR. We found consistent species-specific differences in aggressive behavior, sexual activity as well as in the level of misleading behavior, while decreased preference expression under increased SCR was a general feature of all but one species examined. Furthermore, mean sexual activity correlated positively with the occurrence of potentially misleading behavior. An alternative explanation for audience effects would be that males attempt to avoid aggressive encounters, which would predict stronger audience effects in more aggressive species. We demonstrate a positive correlation between mean aggressiveness and sexual activity (suggesting a hormonal link as a mechanistic explanation), but did not detect a correlation between aggressiveness and audience effects. Suites of correlated behavioral tendencies are termed behavioral syndromes, and our present study provides correlational evidence for the evolutionary significance of SCR in shaping a behavioral syndrome at the species level across poeciliid taxa. PMID:24627773

  3. Casanovas are liars: behavioral syndromes, sperm competition risk, and the evolution of deceptive male mating behavior in live-bearing fishes.

    PubMed

    Bierbach, David; Makowicz, Amber M; Schlupp, Ingo; Geupel, Holger; Streit, Bruno; Plath, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Male reproductive biology can by characterized through competition over mates as well as mate choice. Multiple mating and male mate choice copying, especially in internally fertilizing species, set the stage for increased sperm competition, i.e., sperm of two or more males can compete for fertilization of the female's ova. In the internally fertilizing fish Poecilia mexicana, males respond to the presence of rivals with reduced expression of mating preferences (audience effect), thereby lowering the risk of by-standing rivals copying their mate choice. Also, males interact initially more with a non-preferred female when observed by a rival, which has been interpreted in previous studies as a strategy to mislead rivals, again reducing sperm competition risk (SCR). Nevertheless, species might differ consistently in their expression of aggressive and reproductive behaviors, possibly due to varying levels of SCR. In the current study, we present a unique data set comprising ten poeciliid species (in two cases including multiple populations) and ask whether species can be characterized through consistent differences in the expression of aggression, sexual activity and changes in mate choice under increased SCR. We found consistent species-specific differences in aggressive behavior, sexual activity as well as in the level of misleading behavior, while decreased preference expression under increased SCR was a general feature of all but one species examined. Furthermore, mean sexual activity correlated positively with the occurrence of potentially misleading behavior. An alternative explanation for audience effects would be that males attempt to avoid aggressive encounters, which would predict stronger audience effects in more aggressive species. We demonstrate a positive correlation between mean aggressiveness and sexual activity (suggesting a hormonal link as a mechanistic explanation), but did not detect a correlation between aggressiveness and audience effects. Suites of correlated behavioral tendencies are termed behavioral syndromes, and our present study provides correlational evidence for the evolutionary significance of SCR in shaping a behavioral syndrome at the species level across poeciliid taxa. PMID:24627773

  4. RNase Z(S1) processes UbL40 mRNAs and controls thermosensitive genic male sterility in rice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hai; Zhou, Ming; Yang, Yuanzhu; Li, Jing; Zhu, Liya; Jiang, Dagang; Dong, Jingfang; Liu, Qinjian; Gu, Lianfeng; Zhou, Lingyan; Feng, Mingji; Qin, Peng; Hu, Xiaochun; Song, Chengli; Shi, Jinfeng; Song, Xianwei; Ni, Erdong; Wu, Xiaojin; Deng, Qiyun; Liu, Zhenlan; Chen, Mingsheng; Liu, Yao-Guang; Cao, Xiaofeng; Zhuang, Chuxiong

    2014-01-01

    Thermosensitive genic male-sterile (TGMS) lines, which are male-sterile at restrictive (high) temperatures but male-fertile at permissive (low) temperatures, have been widely used in breeding two-line hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.). Here we find that mutation of thermosensitive genic male sterile 5 (tms5) in rice causes the TGMS trait through a loss of RNase Z(S1) function. We show that RNase Z(S1) processes the mRNAs of three ubiquitin fusion ribosomal protein L40 (UbL40) genes into multiple fragments in vitro and in vivo. In tms5 mutants, high temperature results in increased levels of UbL40 mRNAs. Overaccumulation of UbL40 mRNAs causes defective pollen production and male sterility. Our results uncover a novel mechanism of RNase Z(S1)-mediated UbL40 mRNA regulation and shows that loss of this regulation produces TGMS in rice, a finding with potential applications in hybrid crop breeding. PMID:25208476

  5. The transfer of 'Polima' cytoplasmic male sterility from oilseed rape (Brassica napus) to broccoli (B. oleracea) by protoplast fusion.

    PubMed

    Yarrow, S A; Burnett, L A; Wildeman, R P; Kemble, R J

    1990-08-01

    Protoplast fusion was utilised to transfer Polima type cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) from Brassica napus, canola cv. Polima Karat (Pol-Karat) to B. oleracea, broccoli, var. "Green Comet". Southern and RFLP analysis confirmed that four cybrids possessed nuclear genomes of broccoli with Polima mitochondria and chloroplasts. A fifth cybrid was a nuclear hybrid between broccoli and Pol-Karat, with Polima mitochondria and chloroplasts of broccoli. The broccoli type cybrids were morphologically similar to "Green Comet", while the hybrid type was an intermediate of the two fusion parents. Flowers on the cybrids were distinctive in that although they possessed a morphology typical of Polima, they had very reduced petals. The broccoli type cybrids exhibited some female fertility, albeit low, establishing potential for F1 hybrid production. PMID:24226699

  6. Relationship between male sterility and ?-1,3-glucanase activity and callose deposition-related gene expression in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Liu, H Z; Zhang, G S; Zhu, W W; Ba, Q S; Niu, N; Wang, J W; Ma, S C; Wang, J S

    2015-01-01

    In previous studies, we first isolated one different protein ?-1,3-glucanase using two-dimensional electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry from normal wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and chemical hybridization agent-induced male sterility (CIMS) wheat. In this experiment, ?-1,3-glucanase activity and the expression of a callose deposition-related gene, UDP-glucose phosphorylase (UGPase), were determinate in normal, CIMS, and genetic male sterility (GS) wheat. ?-1,3-glucanase activity was significantly different between the fertile and sterile lines during callose synthesis and degradation, but there was no difference between CIMS and GS wheat. The UGPase gene of callose deposition was highly expressed in the meiophase and sharply decreased in the tetrad stage. However, the expression of the UGPase gene was significantly different between the fertile and sterile lines. These data indicated that ?-1,3-glucanase activity and the expression of the UGPase gene play important roles in the male sterility of wheat. Consequently, pollen mother cells (PMCs) might degenerate at the early meiosis stage, and differences in UGPase gene expression and ?-1,3-glucanase activity might eventually result in complete pollen collapse. In addition, the critical period of anther abortion might be the meiosis stage to the tetrad stage rather than what we previously thought, the mononuclear period. PMID:25729993

  7. Reproductive Ecology of Male and Female Strobili and Mating System in Two Different Populations of Pinus roxburghii

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Chandra Mohan; Khanduri, Vinod Prasad; Ghildiyal, Sunil Kumar

    2012-01-01

    We studied several flowering traits, namely, male-female cone phenology, male-female cone production per tree, mating system, sex ratio, air-borne pollen grains and pollen migration, over four successive years in two different natural populations of P. roxburghii from Garhwal Himalaya, India. Assessment of each trait mentioned except pollen dispersion was done by selecting five representative trees randomly in each population. The pollen migration was studied on naturally isolated source trees. The pollen trapping was done in all directions up to 2.5?km. The average reproductive period in P. roxburghii was 36 days with 3–5 days protandry. There were significant year and population effects for male and female cone output and pollen grains production per tree. In mass production year (1999), an average production of pollen cone per tree was estimated as 42.44 ± 8.32 × 103 at lower altitude and 28.1 ± 0.89 × 103 at higher altitude. The controlled pollination results in high level of outcrossing with 90% seed setting. We conclude that the high male-female ratio and tremendous pollen production capacity in P. roxburghii indicate high male competition among trees within populations. The isolation strip of 600?m is considered minimal for the management of seed orchard. PMID:22654581

  8. Methoprene application and diet protein supplementation to male melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, modifies female remating behavior

    PubMed Central

    ul Haq, Ihsan; Vreysen, Marc J B; Teal, P E A; Hendrichs, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Methoprene (an analogue of juvenile hormone) application and feeding on a protein diet is known to enhance male melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae), mating success. In this study, we investigated the effect of these treatments on male B. cucurbitae's ability to inhibit female remating. While 14-d-old females were fed on protein diet, 6-d-old males were exposed to one of the following treatments: (i) topical application of methoprene and fed on a protein diet; (ii) no methoprene but fed on a protein diet; (iii) methoprene and sugar-fed only; and (iv) sugar-fed, 14-d-old males acted as controls. Treatments had no effect on a male's ability to depress the female remating receptivity in comparison to the control. Females mated with protein-deprived males showed higher remating receptivity than females first mated with protein-fed males. Methoprene and protein diet interaction had a positive effect on male mating success during the first and second mating of females. Significantly more females first mated with sugar-fed males remated with protein-fed males and females first mated with methoprene treated and protein-fed males were more likely to remate with similarly treated males. Females mating latency (time to start mating) was significantly shorter with protein-fed males, and mating duration was significantly longer with protein-fed males compared with protein-deprived males. These results are discussed in the context of methoprene and/or dietary protein as prerelease treatment of sterile males in area-wide control of melon fly integrating the sterile insect technique (SIT). PMID:24376160

  9. Comparative expression profiling of miRNA during anther development in genetic male sterile and wild type cotton

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Genetic male sterility (GMS) in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) plays an important role in the utilization of hybrid vigor. However, the molecular mechanism of the GMS is still unclear. While numerous studies have demonstrated that microRNAs (miRNA) regulate flower and anther development, whether different small RNA regulations exist in GMS and its wild type is unclear. A deep sequencing approach was used to investigate the global expression and complexity of small RNAs during cotton anther development in this study. Results Three small RNA libraries were constructed from the anthers of three development stages each from fertile wild type (WT) and its GMS mutant cotton, resulting in nearly 80 million sequence reads. The total number of miRNAs and short interfering RNAs in the three WT libraries was significantly greater than that in the corresponding three mutant libraries. Sixteen conserved miRNA families were identified, four of which comprised the vast majority of the expressed miRNAs during anther development. In addition, six conserved miRNA families were significantly differentially expressed during anther development between the GMS mutant and its WT. Conclusions The present study is the first to deep sequence the small RNA population in G. hirsutum GMS mutant and its WT anthers. Our results reveal that the small RNA regulations in cotton GMS mutant anther development are distinct from those of the WT. Further results indicated that the differently expressed miRNAs regulated transcripts that were distinctly involved in anther development. Identification of a different set of miRNAs between the cotton GMS mutant and its WT will facilitate our understanding of the molecular mechanisms for male sterility. PMID:23597285

  10. Inter-population variation in male mating behaviours in the sailfin mollie, Poecilia latipinna

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARGARET B. PTACEK; JOSEPH TRAVIS

    1996-01-01

    Abstract. Male sailfin mollies show size-dependent variation in sexual behaviour. The level of variation between six north Florida populations in rates of condition-dependent behaviours was estimated and whether behavioural variation is ordered with respect to male body size distributions was determined. In five of six populations, courtship display rates increased with male length, supporting previous evidence. Several results were not

  11. The effects of male mating behaviour and food provisioning on breeding success in snow buntings Plectrophenax nivalis in the high Arctic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katrine S. Hoset; Yngve Espmark; Marie Lier; Tommy Haugan; Morten I. Wedege; Arne Moksnes

    2009-01-01

    For passerine birds breeding in the Arctic, paternal effort in parental care is necessary for successful breeding. Behavioural\\u000a strategies, such as mate guarding, to ensure paternity should therefore also be common in this environment. In order to investigate\\u000a the relation between such behaviour and breeding success, when controlling for the effect of environmental factors, we recorded\\u000a male mate-guarding behaviour, parental

  12. Multi-male mating and female choice increase offspring growth in the spider Neriene litigiosa (Linyphiidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PAUL J. WATSON

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this controlled-breeding study was to investigate the viability consequences of female choice and sequential polyandry for offspring in a way that would separate the influences of these two aspects of female sexual behaviour. Female sierra dome spiders,Neriene litigiosa(=Linyphia litigiosa) typically mate two to three times before production of their first batch of eggs, although some females (ca16%)

  13. The effects on domestic infestations of Cimex lectularius bedbugs of interspecific mating with C. hemipterus.

    PubMed

    Newberry, K

    1989-10-01

    Interspecific mating between male Cimex hemipterus and female C. lectularius bedbugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) occurs freely in the laboratory, even when many female C. hemipterus are available. Longevity and fertile egg production of female C. lectularius are reduced by mating with male C. hemipterus. In KwaZulu, South Africa, a correlation exists between the percentage of C. lectularius females which are interspecifically mated and the predominance of C. hemipterus in mixed domestic infestations of these bedbugs. When C. hemipterus constitutes over 75% of the infestation, the majority of C. lectularius females lay only sterile eggs. PMID:2519691

  14. Targeted sequence capture provides insight into genome structure and genetics of male sterility in a gynodioecious diploid strawberry, Fragaria vesca ssp. bracteata (Rosaceae).

    PubMed

    Tennessen, Jacob A; Govindarajulu, Rajanikanth; Liston, Aaron; Ashman, Tia-Lynn

    2013-08-01

    Gynodioecy is a sexual system wherein females coexist with hermaphrodites. It is of interest not only because male-sterile plants are advantageous in plant breeding but also because it can be a crucial step in the evolutionary transition to entirely separate sexes (dioecy) from a hermaphroditic ancestor. The gynodioecious diploid wild strawberry, Fragaria vesca ssp. bracteata (Rosaceae), is a member of a clade with both dioecious and cultivated species, making it an ideal model in which to study the genetics of male sterility. To create a genetic map of F. v. ssp. bracteata, we identified informative polymorphisms from genomic sequencing (3-5x coverage) of two outbred plants from the same population. Using targeted enrichment, we sequenced 200 bp surrounding each of 6575 polymorphisms in 48 F1 offspring, yielding genotypes at 98% of targeted sites with mean coverage >100x, plus more than 600-kb high-coverage nontargeted sequence. With the resulting linkage map of 7802 stringently filtered markers (5417 targeted), we assessed recombination rates and genomic incongruities. Consistent with past work in strawberries, male sterility is dominant, segregates 1:1, and maps to a single location in the female. Further mapping an additional 55 offspring places male sterility in a gene-dense, 338-kb region of chromosome 4. The region is not syntenic with the sex-determining regions in the closely related octoploids, F. chiloensis and F. virginiana, suggesting either independent origins or translocation. The 57 genes in this region do not include protein families known to control male sterility and thus suggest alternate mechanisms for the suppression of male function. PMID:23749450

  15. Targeted Sequence Capture Provides Insight into Genome Structure and Genetics of Male Sterility in a Gynodioecious Diploid Strawberry, Fragaria vesca ssp. bracteata (Rosaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Tennessen, Jacob A.; Govindarajulu, Rajanikanth; Liston, Aaron; Ashman, Tia-Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Gynodioecy is a sexual system wherein females coexist with hermaphrodites. It is of interest not only because male-sterile plants are advantageous in plant breeding but also because it can be a crucial step in the evolutionary transition to entirely separate sexes (dioecy) from a hermaphroditic ancestor. The gynodioecious diploid wild strawberry, Fragaria vesca ssp. bracteata (Rosaceae), is a member of a clade with both dioecious and cultivated species, making it an ideal model in which to study the genetics of male sterility. To create a genetic map of F. v. ssp. bracteata, we identified informative polymorphisms from genomic sequencing (3?5x coverage) of two outbred plants from the same population. Using targeted enrichment, we sequenced 200 bp surrounding each of 6575 polymorphisms in 48 F1 offspring, yielding genotypes at 98% of targeted sites with mean coverage >100x, plus more than 600-kb high-coverage nontargeted sequence. With the resulting linkage map of 7802 stringently filtered markers (5417 targeted), we assessed recombination rates and genomic incongruities. Consistent with past work in strawberries, male sterility is dominant, segregates 1:1, and maps to a single location in the female. Further mapping an additional 55 offspring places male sterility in a gene-dense, 338-kb region of chromosome 4. The region is not syntenic with the sex-determining regions in the closely related octoploids, F. chiloensis and F. virginiana, suggesting either independent origins or translocation. The 57 genes in this region do not include protein families known to control male sterility and thus suggest alternate mechanisms for the suppression of male function. PMID:23749450

  16. Munching Mates

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Update (AAAS; )

    2006-01-16

    The male redback spider makes the ultimate sacrifice for his children, he lets his mate eat him. University of Toronto behavioral ecologist Maydianne Andrade studies this unusual strategy. She has found that more than 80 percent of wild males die of starvation or predation during their search for a female, without ever finding even one.

  17. A 610 KB YAC CLONE HARBORS 7 CM OF TOMATO (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM) DNA THAT INCLUDES THE MALE STERILE 14 GENE AND A HOTSPOT FOR RECOMBINATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pollen development requires both sporophytic and gametophytic gene expression. We are using a map-based cloning technique to isolate sporophytic genes which, when mutant, cause pollen abortion and a male sterile (ms) phenotype in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). We have genetically characterized on...

  18. Genetics of Reproductive Isolation in the Drosophila simulans Clade: DNA Marker-Aisisted Mapping and Characterization of a Hybrid-Male Sterility Gene, Odysseus (Ods)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel E. Perez; Chung-I WU; Norman A. Johnson; Mao-Lien Wu

    In this study, we address the question of whether there exist major genes that cause complete male sterility in the interspecific hybrids of Drosophila and, if they do, how these genes may be characterized at the molecular level. Our approach is to introgress small segments of the X chromosome from Drosophila mauritzana (or Drosophila sechellia) into Drosophila simulans by repeated

  19. The production of male-sterile wheat plants through split barnase expression is promoted by the insertion of introns and flexible peptide linkers.

    PubMed

    Kempe, Katja; Rubtsova, Myroslava; Riewe, David; Gils, Mario

    2013-12-01

    The successful use of transgenic plants depends on the strong and stable expression of the heterologous genes. In this study, three introns (PSK7-i1 and PSK7-i3 from Petunia and UBQ10-i1 from Arabidopsis) were tested for their ability to enhance the tapetum-specific expression of a split barnase transgene. We also analyzed the effects of introducing multiple copies of flexible peptide linkers that bridged the fusion domains of the assembled protein. The barnase fragments were assembled into a functional cytotoxin via intein-mediated trans-splicing, thus leading to male sterility through pollen ablation. A total of 14 constructs carrying different combinations of introns and peptide linkers were transformed into wheat plants. The resulting populations (between 41 and 301 independent plants for each construct) were assayed for trait formation. Depending on which construct was used, there was an increase of up to fivefold in the proportion of plants exhibiting male sterility compared to the populations harboring unmodified constructs. Furthermore, the average barnase copy number in the plants displaying male sterility could be reduced. The metabolic profiles of male-sterile transgenic plants and non-transgenic plants were compared using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The profiles generated from leaf tissues displayed no differences, thus corroborating the anther specificity of barnase expression. The technical advances achieved in this study may be a valuable contribution for future improvement of transgenic crop systems. PMID:23720222

  20. Sexual selection in a moth: effect of symmetry on male mating success in the wild

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chiharu Koshio; Makoto Muraji; Haruki Tatsuta; Shin-ichi Kudo

    2007-01-01

    Sexual selection is generally caused by female choice and male--male competition. In female choice process, female preference is favored indirectly and\\/or directly by sexual selection. In indirect selection, females expressing the preference might gain indirect genetic benefits. In direct selection, females expressing the preference might gain direct benefits or avoid male-imposed costs. The white-tailed zygaenid moth Elcysma westwoodii is monandrous,