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1

The Sterile Insect Technique for Controlling Populations of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) on Reunion Island: Mating Vigour of Sterilized Males  

PubMed Central

Reunion Island suffers from high densities of the chikungunya and dengue vector Aedes albopictus. The sterile insect technique (SIT) offers a promising strategy for mosquito-borne diseases prevention and control. For such a strategy to be effective, sterile males need to be competitive enough to fulfil their intended function by reducing wild mosquito populations in natura. We studied the effect of irradiation on sexual maturation and mating success of males, and compared the sexual competitiveness of sterile versus wild males in the presence of wild females in semi-field conditions. For all untreated or sterile males, sexual maturation was completed within 13 to 20 h post-emergence and some males were able to inseminate females when 15 h old. In the absence of competition, untreated and sterile males were able to inseminate the same number of virgin females during 48 h, in small laboratory cages: an average of 93% of females was inseminated no matter the treatment, the age of males, and the sex ratio. Daily mating success of single sterile males followed the same pattern as for untreated ones, although they inseminated significantly fewer females after the ninth day. The competitiveness index of sterile males in semi-field conditions was only 0.14 when they were released at 1-day old, but improved to 0.53 when the release occurred after a 5-day period in laboratory conditions. In SIT simulation experiments, a 5?1 sterile to wild male ratio allowed a two-fold reduction of the wild population’s fertility. This suggests that sterile males could be sufficiently competitive to mate with wild females within the framework of an SIT component as part of an AW-IPM programme for suppressing a wild population of Ae. albopictus in Reunion Island. It will be of interest to minimise the pre-release period in controlled conditions to ensure a good competitiveness without increasing mass rearing costs. PMID:23185329

Oliva, Clelia F.; Jacquet, Maxime; Gilles, Jeremie; Lemperiere, Guy; Maquart, Pierre-Olivier; Quilici, Serge; Schooneman, Francois; Vreysen, Marc J. B.; Boyer, Sebastien

2012-01-01

2

Mass rearing history negatively affects mating success of male Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) reared for sterile insect technique programs.  

PubMed

Mating competitiveness and sterility induction into cohorts of wild Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae) was compared among wild and laboratory flies reared for use in the sterile insect technique Mexican program. Laboratory flies stemming from an 11-yr-old bisexual strain were either not irradiated, irradiated at 3 krad (low dose), or irradiated at 8 krad. In 30 by 30 by 30-cm Plexiglas cages, where a cohort of laboratory flies (male and female) irradiated at different doses (0, 3, and 8 krad) was introduced with a cohort of wild flies, males and females of each type mated randomly among themselves. Compared with nonirradiated laboratory and wild males, irradiated males, irrespective of dose (3 or 8 krad), induced shorter refractory periods and greater mating frequency in wild females. Nevertheless, laboratory flies irradiated at a low dose induced greater sterility into cohorts of wild flies than laboratory flies irradiated at a high dose. In a 3 by 3 by 3-m walk-in cage, wild males gained significantly more matings with wild females than nonirradiated and irradiated laboratory males a finding that revealed a strong effect of strain on mating performance. Mating incompatibility of the laboratory strain might have obscured the effect of reduced irradiation doses on male mating performance in the walk-in cage. Our results highlight an urgent need to replace the A. ludens strain currently used by the Mexican fruit fly eradication campaign and at least suggest that reducing irradiation doses result in an increase in sterility induction in wild populations. PMID:16334318

Rull, Juan; Brunel, Odette; Mendez, Maria Elena

2005-10-01

3

Precocious sexual signalling and mating in Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) sterile males achieved through juvenile hormone treatment and protein supplements.  

PubMed

Sexual maturation of Anastrepha fraterculus is a long process. Methoprene (a mimic of juvenile hormone) considerably reduces the time for sexual maturation in males. However, in other Anastrepha species, this effect depends on protein intake at the adult stage. Here, we evaluated the mating competitiveness of sterile laboratory males and females that were treated with methoprene (either the pupal or adult stage) and were kept under different regimes of adult food, which varied in the protein source and the sugar:protein ratio. Experiments were carried out under semi-natural conditions, where laboratory flies competed over copulations with sexually mature wild flies. Sterile, methoprene-treated males that reached sexual maturity earlier (six days old), displayed the same lekking behaviour, attractiveness to females and mating competitiveness as mature wild males. This effect depended on protein intake. Diets containing sugar and hydrolyzed yeast allowed sterile males to compete with wild males (even at a low concentration of protein), while brewer´s yeast failed to do so even at a higher concentration. Sugar only fed males were unable to achieve significant numbers of copulations. Methoprene did not increase the readiness to mate of six-day-old sterile females. Long pre-copulatory periods create an additional cost to the management of fruit fly pests through the sterile insect technique (SIT). Our findings suggest that methoprene treatment will increase SIT effectiveness against A. fraterculus when coupled with a diet fortified with protein. Additionally, methoprene acts as a physiological sexing method, allowing the release of mature males and immature females and hence increasing SIT efficiency. PMID:22929968

Liendo, M C; Devescovi, F; Bachmann, G E; Utgés, M E; Abraham, S; Vera, M T; Lanzavecchia, S B; Bouvet, J P; Gómez-Cendra, P; Hendrichs, J; Teal, P E A; Cladera, J L; Segura, D F

2013-02-01

4

Prerelease exposure to methyl eugenol increases the mating competitiveness of sterile males of the oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in a Hawaiian orchard.  

PubMed

Males of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), are strongly attracted to methyl eugenol (ME), and recent work demonstrated that ingestion of this chemical enhances male mating success, apparently owing its role as a precursor in the synthesis of the male sex pheromone. The current study expanded upon earlier laboratory and field-cage experiments by assessing whether prerelease exposure to ME increased the mating competitiveness of mass-reared, sterile males in Hawaiian orchards. Releases of sterile males from a pupal color-based sexing strain were made weekly in two fruit orchards over 8 mo, with the sterile males at one site given ME for 24 h before release (treated) and the sterile males at the other site given no ME before release (control). Fruits were collected periodically during the study period, and eggs were dissected and incubated to score hatch rate. At both sites, releases of sterile males increased the proportion of unhatched eggs well above prerelease levels, but the incidence of egg sterility was consistently, and statistically, greater in the orchard receiving ME-exposed males. Computed over the entire release period, the average value of Fried's competitive index (that characterizes the mating success of sterile males relative to their wild counterparts) for ME-treated males was 3.5 times greater than that for control males, although this difference was not statistically significant. However, when computed over the period during which egg sterility values were elevated and stable, presumably when females inseminated before the releases were rare or absent, the competitive indices were significantly higher for ME-treated sterile males. The implications of these results for implementing the Sterile Insect Technique against this species are discussed. PMID:22299359

McInnis, D; Kurashima, R; Shelly, T; Komatsu, J; Edu, J; Pahio, E

2011-12-01

5

Is elytral color polymorphism in sweetpotato weevil (Coleoptera: Brentidae) a visible marker for sterile insect technique? Comparison of male mating behavior.  

PubMed

The sterile insect technique (SIT) is widely used for suppressing or eradicating target pest insect populations. In the eradication programs using the SIT, a large number of sterile insects are marked and released in the field. In Japan, Cylas fonnrmicarius (F.) group (Coleoptera: Brentidae) weevils are marked with a fluorescent powder dye to monitor the progress of such programs. However, this monitoring technique is not fully effective because of the disappearance or contamination of the dye. Therefore, an alternative marking method is required. Currently, a rare color morph such as piceous elytra (PE) is used for visible marking of C. formicarius group weevils. A PE-monomorphic strain has previously been established by artificial selection from a small locally distributed population; this can lead to reduced survival and genetic changes in behavioral traits due to inbreeding depression. In this study, we evaluated the survival rate and mating behavior of PE males of C. formicarius group. The characteristics of the PE males were similar to those of the wild strain (WS) males. Thus, we considered that PE males were suitable for visible marking in the eradication programs using the SIT. PMID:21510188

Shiromoto, Keiko; Kumano, Norikuni; Kuriwada, Takashi; Haraguchi, Dai

2011-04-01

6

Inheritance of the trait of male sterility in Cryptomeria japonica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Matings of male-sterileC. japonica and fertile eliteC. japonica, as well as backcross seedlings of male-sterile trees, were carried out to clarify the genetic trait of male sterility of\\u000a theC. japonica. The seeds from male-sterileC. japonica were germinated in an incubator and grown them in the greenhouse between 1994 and 1997. The seedlings were treated with 100\\u000a ppm gibberellin at early

Hideaki Taira; Maki Saito; Yoshihiko Furuta

1999-01-01

7

Genetically engineered cytoplasmic male sterility.  

PubMed

Cytoplasmic male sterility, conditioned by some maternally inherited plant mitochondrial genomes, is the most expedient method to produce uniform populations of pollen-sterile plants on a commercial scale. Plant mitochondrial genomes are not currently amenable to genetic transformation, but genetic manipulation of the plastid genome allows engineering of maternally inherited traits in some species. A recent study has shown that the Acinetobacter beta-ketothiolase gene, expressed in the Nicotiana tabacum plastid, conditions maternally inherited male sterility, laying the groundwork for new approaches to control pollen fertility in crop plants. PMID:16356756

Chase, Christine D

2006-01-01

8

Assessment of effect of partial sterility on mating performance in sweetpotato weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).  

PubMed

The sterile insect technique (SIT) is widely used to suppress or eradicate target pest insect populations. Although the effectiveness of SIT depends on the ability of released sterile males to mate with and inseminate wild females, the use of gamma radiation to induce sterility negatively impacts reproductive cells as well as somatic cells. Consequently, sterilization by irradiation drastically diminishes mating performance over time. In the current study, we evaluated the effect of irradiation dose intensity on fertility, mating propensity, and mating competitiveness in sweetpotato weevil, Cylas formicarius elegantulus (Summers) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), for 16 d after irradiation. Although the mating propensity of males irradiated with 200 Gy, the dose currently used to induce complete sterility of C. f. elegantulus in the SIT program in Okinawa Prefecture, was equal to that of nonirradiated weevils for the first 6 d, the mating propensity of males irradiated with doses between of 75 and 150 Gy was maintained for the first 12 d. The potential fertilization ability of weevils was highly depressed compared with the control weevils, even in those treated with 75 Gy. Mating performance was severely compromised in weevils that were irradiated with a dose of 100 Gy or more. These results demonstrate that partial sterilization can be highly advantageous in eradication programs for the sweetpotato weevil. We discuss the advantages of the application of partial irradiation in insect eradication programs. PMID:21309223

Kumano, N; Kuriwada, T; Shiromoto, K; Haraguchi, D; Kohama, T

2010-12-01

9

Mating in the monogamous male: Behavioral consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

In monogamous mammals, males typically show selective affiliation with a single mate, high levels of paternal care, and aggression towards conspecifics to protect mate and offspring. We have previously described how selective aggression and affiliation increase after mating in the male prairie vole, Microtus ochrogaster. The current studies further explored the behavioral changes that follow mating in the male of

Thomas R. Insel; Stephanie Preston; James T. Winslow

1995-01-01

10

Mating Resets Male Cricket Aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

An animal’s motivational state can significantly impact its behavior. We examined the effects of mating on the aggression\\u000a of male Acheta domesticus crickets. Pairs of males were allowed to establish dominance and subordinance and were then physically separated. Subordinate\\u000a males were then allowed to either copulate with a female or to have chemo-tactile contact with, but to not copulate with,

Kathleen A. Killian; Janelle R. Allen

2008-01-01

11

Sperm precedence in female apple maggots alternately mated to normal and irradiated males  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dose of irradiation (Cesium 137) of 3 krad was sufficient to sterilize both sexes of the apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh). When the irradiated male (IM) mated with normal female (NF), egg production was not reduced compared with a normal mating, but the eggs were not viable. Also, two matings of 1 NF with either 2 IM or with

H. S. Myers; B. D. Barry; J. A. Burnside; R. H. Rhode

1976-01-01

12

Mating in the monogamous male: behavioral consequences.  

PubMed

In monogamous mammals, males typically show selective affiliation with a single mate, high levels of paternal care, and aggression towards conspecifics to protect male and offspring. We have previously described how selective aggression and affiliation increase after mating in the male prairie vole, Microtus ochrogaster. The current studies further explored the behavioral changes that follow mating in the male of this species. The first set of experiments tested males on several behavioral measures after 24 h of either mating, social (but not sexual) exposure, or no social contact. After 24 h of mating, but not after the other two conditions, aggression and affiliation (partner preference) increased as previously reported. In addition, mated animals showed increased exploration of the open arms of a plus maze, consistent with decreased fearfulness. There were no group differences in paternal behavior (which was high in all three conditions) or analgesia (assessed by tail flick latency). To determine the minimum amount of mating necessary for the induction of aggression, males were tested in a resident-intruder paradigm after 1,6, or 24 h of mating. Although 1 h of mating was associated with a transient increase in the frequency of threats and attacks, the full spectrum of enduring aggression was observed only in the males given 24 h of mating. In a final experiment, the behavioral consequences of mating were studied in males of the closely related montane vole (Microtus montanus) which does not pair bond. Males of this nonmonogamous vole species did not show increased aggression, partner preference, or alterations in plus maze exploration following 24 h of mating. These results demonstrate the importance of prolonged mating for the induction of pair bonding in the monogamous male and they suggest that increases in aggression and affiliation are associated with decreased fearfulness in pair bonded males. PMID:7777594

Insel, T R; Preston, S; Winslow, J T

1995-04-01

13

Exploitative male mating strategies: Personality, mating orientation, and relationship status  

E-print Network

M.G. Lewis a, , Judith A. Easton a , Cari D. Goetz a , David M. Buss a a The University of Texas Adaptive individual differences Evolutionary psychology a b s t r a c t Previous research suggests menExploitative male mating strategies: Personality, mating orientation, and relationship status David

Pillow, Jonathan

14

Effect of irradiation on mating ability in the male sweetpotato weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).  

PubMed

The sterile insect technique (SIT) is widely used for suppressing or eradicating target pest insect populations. The effectiveness of SIT depends on the ability of released sterile males to mate with and inseminate wild females. Irradiation is the effective manner to sterilize mass-reared insects. The negative impacts of this procedure are not limited to damage on reproductive cells. Gamma-radiation damages the epithelial tissue of midgut, which affects the alimentation in insects. Irradiated males alter their mating behavior over time because of the depression of metabolic activity by sterilization. In this study, we evaluated the male mating performance and sexually compatibility of irradiated male Cylas formicarius elegantulus (Summers) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) with a 200-Gy dose, as currently used in the SIT program in Okinawa Prefecture, throughout 16 d after irradiation in the laboratory. The mating ability of irradiated males did not differ from that of control males for about a week. However, the mating ability of irradiated male drastically decreased thereafter. We consider that irradiated male C. formicarius elegantulus with a 200-Gy dose had no major effect on male mating behavior approximately for a week after irradiation. PMID:18767728

Kumano, N; Haraguchi, D; Kohama, T

2008-08-01

15

Transfer of Ogu cytoplasmic male sterility to Brassica juncea and improvement of the male sterile line through somatic cell fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male sterility conferred by ogu cytoplasm of Raphanus sativus has been transferred to Brassica juncea cv ‘RLM 198’ from male-sterile B. napus through repeated backcrossing and selection. The male-sterile B. juncea is, however, highly chlorotic and late. It has low female (seed) fertility and small contorted pods. To rectify these defects, protoplasts of the male sterile were fused with normal

P. B. Kirti; S. S. Banga; S. Prakash; V. L. Chopra

1995-01-01

16

Estimating SIT-driven population reduction in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, from sterile mating.  

PubMed

Area-wide sterile insect technique (SIT) programs assume that offspring reduction of the target population correlates with the mating success of the sterile males released. However, there is a lack of monitoring tools to prove the success of these programs in real-time. Field-cage tests were conducted under the environmental conditions of the Mediterranean coast of Spain to estimate: (a) the mating success of sterile Vienna-8 (V8) Ceratitis capitata males using molecular markers and (b) their efficacy to reduce C. capitata populations under six release ratios of wild females to wild males to V8 males (1:0:0, 1:1:0, 1:1:1, 1:1:5, 1:1:10, and 1:1:20). Statistical models were developed to predict: (a) the number of females captured in traps, (b) sperm ID (sterile or not) in spermathecae of the trapped females, and (c) the viable offspring produced, using release ratio and temperature as predictors. The number of females captured was affected by relative humidity. However, its influence in the model was low. Female captures were significantly higher in ratios 1:0:0 compared to ratios where V8 males were released. The proportion of V8 sperm in spermathecae increased with temperature and with the number of V8 males released, but leveled off between ratios 1:1:10 and 1:1:20. In all seasons, except winter (no offspring), viable offspring increased with temperature and was lowest for ratio 1:1:20. For the first time, a strong negative relationship between proportion of V8 sperm detected by molecular tools and C. capitata offspring was established. The models obtained should contribute to enhance the efficacy of SIT programs against this pest. PMID:24444376

Juan-Blasco, M; Sabater-Muñoz, B; Pla, I; Argilés, R; Castañera, P; Jacas, J A; Ibáñez-Gual, M V; Urbaneja, A

2014-04-01

17

Mating tactics and mate choice in relation to age and social rank in male mountain goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

In polygynous mammals, mating success of males often depends on intense male-male competition and the use of alternative mating tactics. Because reproduction incurs substantial energetic costs and risks of fight injuries, mate selection by males should be expected, particularly when females vary in their ability to produce offspring but can only be defended 1 at a time. Here, we investigated

Julien Mainguy; Steeve D. Côté; Etienne Cardinal; Mélina Houle

2008-01-01

18

Suppression of Pest Lepidoptera by Releasing Partially Sterile Males  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses population growth models to calculate the theoretical suppression of reproduction achieved by releasing irradiated male moths carrying genetic sterility factors. Shows that releasing partially sterile males should be more effective than releasing fully sterile males. Discusses the costs and advantages of applying this approach to the control…

Knipling. E. F.

1970-01-01

19

Age-Dependent Male Mating Investment in Drosophila pseudoobscura  

PubMed Central

Male mating investment can strongly influence fitness gained from a mating. Yet, male mating investment often changes with age. Life history theory predicts that mating investment should increase with age, and males should become less discriminatory about their mate as they age. Understanding age-dependent changes in male behavior and their effects on fitness is important for understanding how selection acts in age-structured populations. Although the independent effects of male or female age have been studied in many species, how these interact to influence male mating investment and fitness is less well understood. We mated Drosophila pseudoobscura males of five different age classes (4-, 8-, 11-, 15-, 19-day old) to either young (4-day) or old (11-day) females, and measured copulation duration and early post-mating fecundity. Along with their independent effects, we found a strong interaction between the effects of male and female ages on male mating investment and fitness from individual matings. Male mating investment increased with male age, but this increase was more prominent in matings with young females. Male D. pseudoobscura made smaller investments when mating with old females. The level of such discrimination based on female age, however, also changed with male age. Intermediate aged males were most discriminatory, while the youngest and the oldest males did not discriminate between females of different ages. We also found that larger male mating investments resulted in higher fitness payoffs. Our results show that male and female ages interact to form a complex pattern of age-specific male mating investment and fitness. PMID:24586373

Dhole, Sumit; Pfennig, Karin S.

2014-01-01

20

Male motion coordination in anopheline mating swarms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Anopheles gambiae species complex comprises the primary vectors of malaria in much of sub-Saharan Africa. Most of the mating in these species occurs in swarms composed almost entirely of males. Intermittent, organized patterns in such swarms have been observed, but a detailed description of male-male interactions has not previously been available. We identify frequent, time-varying interactions characterized by periods of parallel flight in data from 8 swarms of Anopheles gambiae and 3 swarms of Anopheles coluzzii filmed in 2010 and 2011 in the village of Donéguébogou, Mali. We use the cross correlation of flight direction to quantify these interactions and to induce interaction graphs, which show that males form synchronized subgroups whose size and membership change rapidly. A swarming model with damped springs between each male and the swarm centroid shows good agreement with the correlation data, provided that local interactions represented by damping of relative velocity between males are included.

Shishika, Daigo; Manoukis, Nicholas C.; Butail, Sachit; Paley, Derek A.

2014-09-01

21

Male motion coordination in anopheline mating swarms  

PubMed Central

The Anopheles gambiae species complex comprises the primary vectors of malaria in much of sub-Saharan Africa. Most of the mating in these species occurs in swarms composed almost entirely of males. Intermittent, organized patterns in such swarms have been observed, but a detailed description of male-male interactions has not previously been available. We identify frequent, time-varying interactions characterized by periods of parallel flight in data from 8 swarms of Anopheles gambiae and 3 swarms of Anopheles coluzzii filmed in 2010 and 2011 in the village of Donéguébogou, Mali. We use the cross correlation of flight direction to quantify these interactions and to induce interaction graphs, which show that males form synchronized subgroups whose size and membership change rapidly. A swarming model with damped springs between each male and the swarm centroid shows good agreement with the correlation data, provided that local interactions represented by damping of relative velocity between males are included. PMID:25212874

Shishika, Daigo; Manoukis, Nicholas C.; Butail, Sachit; Paley, Derek A.

2014-01-01

22

Reduction in sea lamprey hatching success due to release of sterilized males  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Male sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus), sterilized by injection with bisazir, were released in Lake Superior tributaries from 1991 to 1996 and exclusively in the St. Marys River (the outflow from Lake Superior to Lake Huron) since 1997 as an alternative to chemical control. To determine effectiveness in reducing reproductive potential through the time of hatch, males were observed on nests and egg viability was determined in nests in selected Lake Superior tributaries and the St. Marys River. The proportions of sterilized males observed on nests were not significantly different than their estimated proportion in the population for all streams and years combined or for the St. Marys River alone. It was concluded that sterilized males survive, appear on the spawning grounds, and nest at near their estimated proportion in the population. There was a significant reduction in egg viability corresponding with release of sterilized males for all streams and years combined or for the St. Marys River alone. In the St. Marys River from 1993 to 2000, the percent reduction in egg viability was significantly correlated with the observed proportion of sterile males on nests. It was further concluded that sterilized males remain sterile through nesting and attract and mate with females. Reduction in reproductive potential in the St. Marys River due to both removal of females by traps and sterile-male-release ranged from 34 to 92% from 1993 to 2001 and averaged 64%. From 1999 to 2001, when the program stabilized, reductions ranged from 71 to 92% and averaged 81%. The current release of sterile males in the St. Marys River effectively reduced reproductive potential through the time of hatch and did so near theoretical levels based on numbers released, estimates of population size, and the assumptions of full sterility and competitiveness.

Bergstedt, Roger A.; McDonald, Rodney B.; Twohey, Michael B.; Mullett, Katherine M.; Young, Robert J.; Heinrich, John W.

2003-01-01

23

Covariation and repeatability of male mating effort and mating preferences in a promiscuous fish.  

PubMed

Although mate choice by males does occur in nature, our understanding of its importance in driving evolutionary change remains limited compared with that for female mate choice. Recent theoretical models have shown that the evolution of male mate choice is more likely when individual variation in male mating effort and mating preferences exist and positively covary within populations. However, relatively little is known about the nature of such variation and its maintenance within natural populations. Here, using the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata) as a model study system, we report that mating effort and mating preferences in males, based on female body length (a strong correlate of fecundity), positively covary and are significantly variable among subjects. Individual males are thus consistent, but not unanimous, in their mate choice. Both individual mating effort (including courtship effort) and mating preference were significantly repeatable. These novel findings support the assumptions and predictions of recent evolutionary models of male mate choice, and are consistent with the presence of additive genetic variation for male mate choice based on female size in our study population and thus with the opportunity for selection and further evolution of large female body size through male mate choice. PMID:23919148

Godin, Jean-Guy J; Auld, Heather L

2013-07-01

24

Covariation and repeatability of male mating effort and mating preferences in a promiscuous fish  

PubMed Central

Although mate choice by males does occur in nature, our understanding of its importance in driving evolutionary change remains limited compared with that for female mate choice. Recent theoretical models have shown that the evolution of male mate choice is more likely when individual variation in male mating effort and mating preferences exist and positively covary within populations. However, relatively little is known about the nature of such variation and its maintenance within natural populations. Here, using the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata) as a model study system, we report that mating effort and mating preferences in males, based on female body length (a strong correlate of fecundity), positively covary and are significantly variable among subjects. Individual males are thus consistent, but not unanimous, in their mate choice. Both individual mating effort (including courtship effort) and mating preference were significantly repeatable. These novel findings support the assumptions and predictions of recent evolutionary models of male mate choice, and are consistent with the presence of additive genetic variation for male mate choice based on female size in our study population and thus with the opportunity for selection and further evolution of large female body size through male mate choice. PMID:23919148

Godin, Jean-Guy J; Auld, Heather L

2013-01-01

25

Variation in male mate choice in Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

Male mate choice has been reported in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, even though males of this species were previously thought to maximise their fitness by mating with all available females. To understand the evolution of male mate choice it is important to understand variation in male mating preferences. Two studies, using different stock populations and different methods, have reported contrasting patterns of variation in male mate choice in D. melanogaster. Two possible explanations are that there are evolved differences in each stock population or that the methods used to measure choice could have biased the results. We investigated these hypotheses here by repeating the methods used in one study in which variable male mate choice was found, using the stock population from the other study in which choice was not variable. The results showed a significant resource-independent male preference for less fecund, smaller females, which contrasts with previous observations of male mate choice. This indicates that different selection pressures between populations have resulted in evolved differences in the expression of male mate choice. It also reveals phenotypic plasticity in male mate choice in response to cues encountered in each choice environment. The results highlight the importance of variation in male mate choice, and of identifying mechanisms in order to understand the evolution of mate choice under varying ecological conditions. PMID:23405271

Edward, Dominic A; Chapman, Tracey

2013-01-01

26

Variation in Male Mate Choice in Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

Male mate choice has been reported in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, even though males of this species were previously thought to maximise their fitness by mating with all available females. To understand the evolution of male mate choice it is important to understand variation in male mating preferences. Two studies, using different stock populations and different methods, have reported contrasting patterns of variation in male mate choice in D. melanogaster. Two possible explanations are that there are evolved differences in each stock population or that the methods used to measure choice could have biased the results. We investigated these hypotheses here by repeating the methods used in one study in which variable male mate choice was found, using the stock population from the other study in which choice was not variable. The results showed a significant resource-independent male preference for less fecund, smaller females, which contrasts with previous observations of male mate choice. This indicates that different selection pressures between populations have resulted in evolved differences in the expression of male mate choice. It also reveals phenotypic plasticity in male mate choice in response to cues encountered in each choice environment. The results highlight the importance of variation in male mate choice, and of identifying mechanisms in order to understand the evolution of mate choice under varying ecological conditions. PMID:23405271

Edward, Dominic A.; Chapman, Tracey

2013-01-01

27

Male mating strategies and the mating system of great-tailed grackles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Great-tailed grackles (Quiscalus mexicanus) are sexually dimorphic, dichromatic, colonially nesting blackbirds. In this study, males pursued three basic types of conditional mating strategies, each of which employed a different set of mating tactics. Territorial males defended one or more trees in which several females nested. They achieved reproductive success by siring the offspring of their social mates and through extrapair

Kristine Johnson; Emily DuVal; Megan Kielt; Colin Hughesd

2000-01-01

28

Sperm competition in the damselfly Enallagma hageni Walsh (Odonata: Coenagrionidae): benefits of multiple mating to males and females  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sperm competition was investigated in the non-territorial damselfly, Enallagma hageni. Using irradiated (sterile) male techniques, the last male to mate was found to fertilize up to 95% \\u000a$${\\\\text{(}}\\\\bar x = {\\\\text{80\\\\% )}}$$\\u000a of the eggs of the first clutch laid after mating. Dissection of females collected before, during, and after copula showed that a male removes a maximum of 87%

Ola M. Fincke

1984-01-01

29

Cytoplasmic male sterility in Brassicaceae crops  

PubMed Central

Brassicaceae crops display strong hybrid vigor, and have long been subject to F1 hybrid breeding. Because the most reliable system of F1 seed production is based on cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), various types of CMS have been developed and adopted in practice to breed Brassicaceae oil seed and vegetable crops. CMS is a maternally inherited trait encoded in the mitochondrial genome, and the male sterile phenotype arises as a result of interaction of a mitochondrial CMS gene and a nuclear fertility restoring (Rf) gene. Therefore, CMS has been intensively investigated for gaining basic insights into molecular aspects of nuclear-mitochondrial genome interactions and for practical applications in plant breeding. Several CMS genes have been identified by molecular genetic studies, including Ogura CMS from Japanese radish, which is the most extensively studied and most widely used. In this review, we discuss Ogura CMS, and other CMS systems, and the causal mitochondrial genes for CMS. Studies on nuclear Rf genes and the cytoplasmic effects of alien cytoplasm on general crop performance are also reviewed. Finally, some of the unresolved questions about CMS are highlighted. PMID:24987289

Yamagishi, Hiroshi; Bhat, Shripad R.

2014-01-01

30

Density affects mating mode and large male mating advantage in a fiddler crab  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fiddler crabs show two different mating modes: either females search and crabs mate underground in male burrows, or males\\u000a search and crabs mate on the surface near female burrows. We explored the relationship between crab density, body size, the\\u000a searching behavior of both sexes, and the occurrence of both mating modes in the fiddler crab Uca uruguayensis. We found that

Pablo D. RibeiroPedro; Pedro Daleo; Oscar O. Iribarne

2010-01-01

31

A character demonstrating the occurrence of mating in male Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)  

SciTech Connect

The reproductive system of adult male Cactoblastis cactorum, the cactus moth, was examined to determine whether the mating status of males could be ascertained. In unmated males, the posterior portion of the primary ductus ejaculatorius simplex is opaque yellow in color and contains many small football-shaped hyaline granules 3-5 x 5-10 {mu}m in size. In mated males, the posterior simplex is clear and contains no granules. The presence or absence of these characters was found to be highly reliable and should be of value in determining mating status in marked-recaptured males of this species in a sterile insect release program directed against Cactoblastis. (author)

Marti, O.G.; Carpenter, J.E. [United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Crop Protection and Management Research Service, P.O. Box 748, Tifton, GA 31793 (United States)

2007-03-15

32

Mass Rearing History and Irradiation Affect Mating Performance of the Male Fruit Fly, Anastrepha obliqua  

PubMed Central

As an initial step to improve the efficiency of the sterile insect technique applied to eradicate, suppress, and control wild Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in mango producing areas of Mexico, the effect of radiation dose and mass rearing history on male mating performance was examined. Field cage tests in which both male and female laboratory flies were irradiated at different doses (0, 40, and 80 Gy) were released with cohorts of wild flies of both sexes, revealing that both mass rearing history and irradiation affected male mating performance. Laboratory males were accepted for copulation by wild females less frequently than wild males. Copulations involving laboratory males were shorter than those involving wild males. Irradiated males mated less frequently with wild females than wild males, and irradiated females appeared to be less able to reject courting males of both origins. High levels of fertility for untreated laboratory females crossed with males irradiated at different doses may reflect problems in mass rearing affecting homogeneity of pupal age before irradiation, and possibly masked a dose effect. Proposed remedial measures to improve male mating performance are discussed. PMID:22957485

Rull, Juan; Encarnacion, Nery; Birke, Andrea

2012-01-01

33

Incubation feeding by male Scarlet Tanagers: a mate removal experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incubation feeding, where males feed their mates, is a common behavior in birds and may improve female condition, nest attentiveness, and nesting success. We used behavioral observations and a temporary mate removal experiment to test the female nutrition hypothesis for incubation feeding by male Scarlet Tanagers (Piranga olivacea). All males (N = 20) were observed incubation feeding and fed females

Paul H. Klatt; Bridget J. M. Stutchbury; Melissa L. Evans

2008-01-01

34

Inbreeding depression and male-mating behavior in Drosophila melanogaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have been relatively few studies designed to investigate the effects of inbreeding on behavioral traits. To study this\\u000a phenomenon, five experimental lines ofDrosophila melanogaster made isogenic for chromosome 2 were evaluated for their male-mating ability and, subsequently, male courtship behavior. All\\u000a lines showed significant reductions in overall mating ability, and males from all of these lines displayed impaired mating

P. S. Miller; J. Glasner; P. W. Hedrick

1993-01-01

35

Sequential male mate choice under sperm competition risk  

PubMed Central

Male eagerness to mate is a central paradigm of sexual selection theory. However, limited sperm supplies mean that male sexual restraint might sometimes be favored under promiscuous mating. Here, we demonstrate dynamic plasticity in male mating effort when females are encountered sequentially under varying sperm competition risk. Rather than showing consistent eagerness to mate, male house mice (Mus musculus domesticus) instead tailor their mating effort according to likely reproductive payoffs. They are significantly less likely to mate when sperm competition is certain and potential reproductive payoffs low, but dramatically increase investment if they do choose to mate under such circumstances. By contrast, male mice are significantly more likely to mate in situations simulating extra-territorial copulations, where future risk of competition is high but so too are potential reproductive rewards. Differential mating propensity appears to be the primary mechanism by which male house mice allocate sperm adaptively under sperm competition risk because we find no evidence for facultative adjustment of sperm numbers per ejaculate or ejaculation frequency in response to female-related cues. We conclude that sequential male mate choice under sperm competition risk could be a widespread but often unappreciated mechanism of strategic sperm allocation. PMID:24822023

2014-01-01

36

Mating experience and juvenile hormone enhance sexual signaling and mating in male Caribbean fruit flies.  

PubMed

Young mated male Caribbean fruit flies [Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)] have greater sexual prowess than their virgin counterparts. After mating for the first time, 6- to 7-day-old males released twice as much sex pheromone and acquired another mate in less than half the time required by virgin males of the same age. Mass spectroscopic analysis of extracts of hemolymph from mated and virgin 7-day-old males resulted in identification of juvenile hormone III bisepoxide and juvenile hormone III in a ratio of 2.5:1. Extracts from mated males contained 3-fold more juvenile hormone than did extracts from virgins. Enhancement of sexual signaling, pheromone release, and mating was induced by topical application of juvenile hormone, methoprene, or fenoxycarb. Newly eclosed adult males treated with juvenoids engaged in sexual signaling, released pheromone, and mated at significantly earlier ages than control males. We conclude that juvenile hormone mediated a positive feedback system that imparted a competitive advantage, guaranteeing that males who mated at an early age would out-compete virgins of the same age for mating opportunities. Additionally, the results support the hypothesis that juvenile hormone is a pivotal hormone coordinating the development of sexual signaling and reproductive maturity in these flies. PMID:10706642

Teal, P E; Gomez-Simuta, Y; Proveaux, A T

2000-03-28

37

Mating experience and juvenile hormone enhance sexual signaling and mating in male Caribbean fruit flies  

PubMed Central

Young mated male Caribbean fruit flies [Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)] have greater sexual prowess than their virgin counterparts. After mating for the first time, 6- to 7-day-old males released twice as much sex pheromone and acquired another mate in less than half the time required by virgin males of the same age. Mass spectroscopic analysis of extracts of hemolymph from mated and virgin 7-day-old males resulted in identification of juvenile hormone III bisepoxide and juvenile hormone III in a ratio of 2.5:1. Extracts from mated males contained 3-fold more juvenile hormone than did extracts from virgins. Enhancement of sexual signaling, pheromone release, and mating was induced by topical application of juvenile hormone, methoprene, or fenoxycarb. Newly eclosed adult males treated with juvenoids engaged in sexual signaling, released pheromone, and mated at significantly earlier ages than control males. We conclude that juvenile hormone mediated a positive feedback system that imparted a competitive advantage, guaranteeing that males who mated at an early age would out-compete virgins of the same age for mating opportunities. Additionally, the results support the hypothesis that juvenile hormone is a pivotal hormone coordinating the development of sexual signaling and reproductive maturity in these flies. PMID:10706642

Teal, P. E. A.; Gomez-Simuta, Y.; Proveaux, A. T.

2000-01-01

38

Mate guarding and gallivanting by male hoary marmots ( Marmota caligata )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven years data on the vernal behavior of hoarty marmots, Marmota caligata, suggest that males engage in a two-part reproductive strategy, which consists of guarding their mates against possible copulation with additional males, and also gallivanting — wandering about in search of additional reproductive opportunities for themselves. Data are presented which support seven predictions derived from the assumption that mate

David P. Barash

1981-01-01

39

Investigation of methods for sterilization of potting compounds and mated surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of using formaldehyde-liberating synthetic resins or polymers for the sterilization of potting compounds, mated and occluded areas, and spacecraft surfaces was demonstrated. The detailed study of interrelated parameters of formaldehyde gas sterilization revealed that efficient cycle conditions can be developed for the sterilization of spacecraft components. It was determined that certain parameters were more important than others in the development of cycles for specific applications. The use of formaldehyde gas for the sterilization of spacecraft components provides NASA with a highly efficient method which is inexpensive, reproducible, easily quantitated, materials compatible, operationally simple, generally non-hazardous and not thermally destructive.

Tulius, J. J.; Daley, D. J.; Phillips, G. B.

1972-01-01

40

Dual reproductive cost of aging in male medflies: dramatic decrease in mating competitiveness and gradual reduction in mating performance  

PubMed Central

Although age-based effects on the reproductive success of males have been reported in several animal taxa the cost of aging on male mating success in lekking species has not been fully explored. We used the Mediterranean fruit fly, a lekking species, to investigate possible cost of aging on male reproductive success. We performed no choice and choice mating tests to test the hypothesis that aging does not affect the mating performance (mating success in conditions lacking competition) or the mating competitiveness (mating success against younger rivals) of males. The mating probability of older males decreased significantly when competing with younger males. Aging gradually reduced the mating performance of males but older males were still accepted as mating partners in conditions lacking competition. Therefore, older males are capable of performing the complete repertoire of sexual performance but fail to be chosen by females in the presence of young rivals. Older males achieved shorter copulations than younger ones, and female readiness to mate was negatively affected by male age. Older and younger males transferred similar amount of spermatozoids to female spermathecae. Females stored spermatozoids asymmetrically in the two spermathecae regardless the age of their mating partner. Aging positively affected the amount of spermatozoids in testes of both mated and non mated males. No significant differences were observed on the amount of spermatozoids between mated and non mated males. PMID:21801728

Papanastasiou, Stella A.; Diamantidis, Alexandros D.; Nakas, Christos T.; Carey, James R.; Papadopoulos, Nikos T.

2011-01-01

41

A genetic study of partial male sterility in sorghum  

E-print Network

'ale-sterile plants are of the constitution- M ? s ~ Plant s which either lack the deed. nant sterility gene, carry the dombumt suppressor~ or possess the nonsterile cyto olasm are male-fertile. Due to complete selective fertilisation, the suppressor gene...'ale-sterile plants are of the constitution- M ? s ~ Plant s which either lack the deed. nant sterility gene, carry the dombumt suppressor~ or possess the nonsterile cyto olasm are male-fertile. Due to complete selective fertilisation, the suppressor gene...

Holland, Richard Franklin

2012-06-07

42

Unexpected male choosiness for mates in a spider  

PubMed Central

Sexual selection theory traditionally considers choosiness for mates to be negatively related to intra-sexual competition. Males were classically considered to be the competing, but not the choosy, sex. However, evidence of male choosiness is now accumulating. Male choosiness is expected to increase with an individual's competitive ability, and to decrease as intra-sexual competition increases. However, such predictions have never been tested in field conditions. Here, we explore male mate choice in a spider by studying size-assortative pairing in two natural sites that strongly differ in the level of male–male competition. Unexpectedly, our results demonstrate that mate choice shifts from opportunism to high selectivity as competition between males increases. Males experiencing weak competition did not exhibit size-related mating preferences. By contrast, when competition was intense we found strong size-assortative pairing due to male choice: while larger, more competitive males preferentially paired with larger, more fecund females, smaller males chose smaller females. Thus, we show that mating preferences of males vary with their competitive ability. The distinct preferences exhibited by males of different sizes seem to be an adaptive response to the lower reproductive opportunities arising from increased competition between males. PMID:17956845

Bel-Venner, M.C; Dray, S; Allaine, D; Menu, F; Venner, S

2007-01-01

43

Mating alters gene expression patterns in Drosophila melanogaster male heads  

PubMed Central

Background Behavior is a complex process resulting from the integration of genetic and environmental information. Drosophila melanogaster rely on multiple sensory modalities for reproductive success, and mating causes physiological changes in both sexes that affect reproductive output or behavior. Some of these effects are likely mediated by changes in gene expression. Courtship and mating alter female transcript profiles, but it is not known how mating affects male gene expression. Results We used Drosophila genome arrays to identify changes in gene expression profiles that occur in mated male heads. Forty-seven genes differed between mated and control heads 2 hrs post mating. Many mating-responsive genes are highly expressed in non-neural head tissues, including an adipose tissue called the fat body. One fat body-enriched gene, female-specific independent of transformer (fit), is a downstream target of the somatic sex-determination hierarchy, a genetic pathway that regulates Drosophila reproductive behaviors as well as expression of some fat-expressed genes; three other mating-responsive loci are also downstream components of this pathway. Another mating-responsive gene expressed in fat, Juvenile hormone esterase (Jhe), is necessary for robust male courtship behavior and mating success. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that mating causes changes in male head gene expression profiles and supports an increasing body of work implicating adipose signaling in behavior modulation. Since several mating-induced genes are sex-determination hierarchy target genes, additional mating-responsive loci may be downstream components of this pathway as well. PMID:20937114

2010-01-01

44

Anther developmental defects in Arabidopsis thaliana male-sterile mutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

We identified Arabidopsis thaliana sterility mutants by screening T-DNA and EMS-mutagenized lines and characterized several male-sterile mutants with defects\\u000a specific for different anther processes. Approximately 44 and 855 sterile mutants were uncovered from the T-DNA and EMS screens,\\u000a respectively. Several mutants were studied in detail with defects that included the establishment of anther morphology, microspore\\u000a production, pollen differentiation, and anther

Paul M. Sanders; Anhthu Q. Bui; Koen Weterings; Katherine N. McIntire; Yung-Chao Hsu; Pei Yun Lee; Mai Thy Truong; T. P. Beals; R. B. Goldberg

1999-01-01

45

Dual reproductive cost of aging in male Medflies: dramatic decrease in mating competitiveness and gradual reduction in mating performance.  

PubMed

Although age-based effects on the reproductive success of males have been reported in several animal taxa the cost of aging on male mating success in lekking species has not been fully explored. We used the Mediterranean fruit fly, a lekking species, to investigate possible cost of aging on male reproductive success. We performed no choice and choice mating tests to test the hypothesis that aging does not affect the mating performance (mating success in conditions lacking competition) or the mating competitiveness (mating success against younger rivals) of males. The mating probability of older males decreased significantly when competing with younger males. Aging gradually reduced the mating performance of males but older males were still accepted as mating partners in conditions lacking competition. Therefore, older males are capable of performing the complete repertoire of sexual performance but fail to be chosen by females in the presence of young rivals. Older males achieved shorter copulations than younger ones, and female readiness to mate was negatively affected by male age. Older and younger males transferred similar amount of spermatozoids to female spermathecae. Females stored spermatozoids asymmetrically in the two spermathecae regardless the age of their mating partner. Aging positively affected the amount of spermatozoids in testes of both mated and nonmated males. No significant differences were observed on the amount of spermatozoids between mated and nonmated males. PMID:21801728

Papanastasiou, Stella A; Diamantidis, Alexandros D; Nakas, Christos T; Carey, James R; Papadopoulos, Nikos T

2011-10-01

46

Inaccurate mate recognition as a mating strategy of a 'pioneer male'  

PubMed Central

Heterosubspecific mating experiments were carried out between two subspecies of cabbage butterflies, British Pieris rapae rapae and Japanese P. rapae crucivora, to examine how accurately males recognize the mates. The two subspecies are different in that the wings of female P. rapae rapae reflect little UV light, whereas those of female P. rapae crucivora are strongly UV-reflective. The wing colouration of P. rapae crucivora involving UV is believed to be critical in mate recognition. The results showed that males of both subspecies displayed mating behaviours, to and copulated with, females of both subspecies. Furthermore, P. rapae crucivora males exhibited mating behaviours and attempted to copulate with females of Pieris melete with low UV reflectance which are critically different from P. rapae crucivora females with high UV reflectance. Based on these findings, we propose the “pioneer male” hypothesis, which argues that such inaccurate mate recognition may sometimes be selectively beneficial for males and thus an adaptive mating strategy. The “pioneer male” was discussed in terms of its possible role in the evolution. PMID:19521057

Obara, Yoshiaki; Majerus, Mike E. N.

2009-01-01

47

Species-isolating mechanisms in a mating system with male mate choice (garter snakes,  

E-print Network

, Thamnophis sirtalis (L., 1758), and plains garter snakes, Thamnophis radix (Baird and Girard, 1853 couleuvres des plaines, Thamnophis radix (Baird et Girard, 1853), vivent en sympatrie sur un importantSpecies-isolating mechanisms in a mating system with male mate choice (garter snakes, Thamnophis

Mason, Robert T.

48

Metabolically engineered male sterility in rapeseed ( Brassica napus L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male sterility is of special interest as a mechanism allowing hybrid breeding, especially in important crops such as rapeseed\\u000a (Brassica napus). Male sterile plants are also suggested to be used as a biological safety method to prevent the spread of transgenes, a\\u000a risk that is high in the case of rapeseed due to the mode of pollination, out-crossing by wind

Thomas Engelke; J. Hirsche; T. Roitsch

2011-01-01

49

SWORDTAIL MATE CHOICE AND REPRODUCTIVE ALLOCATION: EFFECTS OF MALE CONDITION  

E-print Network

imply that the female only expects to mate once for that period of time. To alleviate error in the choice tests, the male subjects should have developed secondary sexual characteristics (swords, body bars, dorsal fin height) or been raised in mixed... imply that the female only expects to mate once for that period of time. To alleviate error in the choice tests, the male subjects should have developed secondary sexual characteristics (swords, body bars, dorsal fin height) or been raised in mixed...

Simpson, Suzanne

2011-04-26

50

Female Mate Choice is Influenced by Male Sport Participation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual selection theory argues that females invest more heavily in reproduction than males and thus tend to be choosier in terms of mate choice. Sport may provide a context within which females can gain information about male quality to inform this choice. Males may be able to display attractive traits such as athleticism, strength, and physique to females while participating

Albrecht I. Schulte-Hostedde; Mark A. Eys; Krista Johnson

2008-01-01

51

Low-oxygen atmospheric treatment improves the performance of irradiation-sterilized male cactus moths used in SIT.  

PubMed

As part of sterile insect technique (SIT) programs, irradiation can effectively induce sterility in insects by damaging genomic DNA. However, irradiation also induces other off-target side effects that reduce the quality and performance of sterilized males. Thus, treatments that reduce off-target effects of irradiation on male performance while maintaining sterility can improve the feasibility and economy of SIT programs. Exposure to ionizing radiation induces the formation of damaging free radicals in biological systems that may reduce sterile male performance. Here, we test whether exposure to an anoxic environment for 1 h before and during irradiation improves male performance, while maintaining sterility in males of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg). We show that exposure to 1 h of anoxia increases the moth's antioxidant capacity and that irradiation in anoxia after 1 h of anoxic conditioning decreases irradiation-induced oxidative damage to the moth's lipids and proteins. Anoxia treatment that reduced oxidative damage after irradiation also produced moths with greater flight performance, mating success, and longevity, while maintaining F1 male sterility at acceptable levels for SIT. We conclude that anoxia pretreatment followed by irradiation in anoxia is an efficient way to improve the quality of irradiated moths and perhaps lower the number of moths needed for release SIT moth operations. PMID:24665701

López-Martínez, Giancarlo; Carpenter, James E; Hight, Stephen D; Hahn, Daniel A

2014-02-01

52

Mitochondrially-targeted expression of a cytoplasmic male sterility-associated orf220 gene causes male sterility in Brassica juncea  

PubMed Central

Background The novel chimeric open reading frame (orf) resulting from the rearrangement of a mitochondrial genome is generally thought to be a causal factor in the occurrence of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS). Both positive and negative correlations have been found between CMS-associated orfs and the occurrence of CMS when CMS-associated orfs were expressed and targeted at mitochondria. Some orfs cause male sterility or semi-sterility, while some do not. Little is currently known about how mitochondrial factor regulates the expression of the nuclear genes involved in male sterility. The purpose of this study was to investigate the biological function of a candidate CMS-associated orf220 gene, newly isolated from cytoplasmic male-sterile stem mustard, and show how mitochondrial retrograde regulated nuclear gene expression is related to male sterility. Results It was shown that the ORF220 protein can be guided to the mitochondria using the mitochondrial-targeting sequence of the ? subunit of F1-ATPase (atp2-1). Transgenic stem mustard plants expressed the chimeric gene containing the orf220 gene and a mitochondrial-targeting sequence of the ? subunit of F1-ATPase (atp2-1). Transgenic plants were male-sterile, most being unable to produce pollen while some could only produce non-vigorous pollen. The transgenic stem mustard plants also showed aberrant floral development identical to that observed in the CMS stem mustard phenotype. Results obtained from oligooarray analysis showed that some genes related to mitochondrial energy metabolism were down-regulated, indicating a weakening of mitochondrial function in transgenic stem mustard. Some genes related to pollen development were shown to be down-regulated in transgenic stem mustard and the expression of some transcription factor genes was also altered. Conclusion The work presented furthers our understanding of how the mitochondrially-targeted expression of CMS-associated orf220 gene causes male sterility through retrograde regulation of nuclear gene expression in Brassica juncea. PMID:20974011

2010-01-01

53

Remating behavior in Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) females is affected by male juvenile hormone analog treatment but not by male sterilization.  

PubMed

The sterile insect technique (SIT) has been proposed as an area-wide method to control the South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann). This technique requires sterilization, a procedure that affects, along with other factors, the ability of males to modulate female sexual receptivity after copulation. Numerous pre-release treatments have been proposed to counteract the detrimental effects of irradiation, rearing and handling and increase SIT effectiveness. These include treating newly emerged males with a juvenile hormone mimic (methoprene) or supplying protein to the male's diet to accelerate sexual maturation prior to release. Here, we examine how male irradiation, methoprene treatment and protein intake affect remating behavior and the amount of sperm stored in inseminated females. In field cage experiments, we found that irradiated laboratory males were equally able to modulate female remating behavior as fertile wild males. However, females mated with 6-day-old, methoprene-treated males remated more and sooner than females mated with naturally matured males, either sterile or wild. Protein intake by males was not sufficient to overcome reduced ability of methoprene-treated males to induce refractory periods in females as lengthy as those induced by wild and naturally matured males. The amount of sperm stored by females was not affected by male irradiation, methoprene treatment or protein intake. This finding revealed that factors in addition to sperm volume intervene in regulating female receptivity after copulation. Implications for SIT are discussed. PMID:23340454

Abraham, S; Liendo, M C; Devescovi, F; Peralta, P A; Yusef, V; Ruiz, J; Cladera, J L; Vera, M T; Segura, D F

2013-06-01

54

Manipulation of the microbiota of mass-reared Mediterranean fruit flies Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) improves sterile male sexual performance.  

PubMed

The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a method of biological control whereby millions of factory reared sterile male insects are released into the field. This technique is commonly used to combat the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata, Diptera: Tephritidae). Sterile medfly males are less competent in attracting and mating with wild females, a property commonly linked to the irradiation process responsible for the sterilization. As bacteria are important partners in the fly's life cycle, we used molecular analytical methods to study the community structure of the gut microbiota in irradiated male medflies. We find that the sterilizing irradiation procedure affects the gut bacterial community structure of the Mediterranean fruit fly. Although the Enterobacteriaceae family remains the dominant bacterial group present in the gut, the levels of Klebsiella species decreases significantly in the days after sterilization. In addition, we detected substantial differences in some bacterial species between the mass rearing strain Vienna 8 and the wild strain. Most notable among these are the increased levels of the potentially pathogenic species Pseudomonas in the industrial strain. Testing the hypothesis that regenerating the original microbiota community could result in enhanced competitiveness of the sterile flies, we found that the addition of the bacterial species Klebsiella oxytoca to the postirradiation diet enables colonization of these bacteria in the gut while resulting in decreased levels of the Pseudomonas sp. Feeding on diets containing bacteria significantly improved sterile male performance in copulatory tests. Further studies will determine the feasibility of bacterial amelioration in SIT operations. PMID:19617877

Ben Ami, Eyal; Yuval, Boaz; Jurkevitch, Edouard

2010-01-01

55

Multiple mating in a lekking bird: why do peahens mate with more than one male and with the same male more than once?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 50% of marked peahens (Pavo cristatus) mate more than once with lek males. Some females mate with more than one male, others copulate repeatedly with the same male. The frequency of courtship also shows marked variation. Some females repeatedly engage males in courtship interactions after they have succesfully copulated with them. The likelihood of mating with more than one

Marion Petrie; Marion Hall; Tim Halliday; Helen Budgey; Chris Pierpoint

1992-01-01

56

Mating order and reproductive success in male Columbian ground squirrels (Urocitellus columbianus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple mating by females is common in many mammalian species, often resulting in mixed paternity litters. In such mating systems, mating order, male age, and male body mass frequently play an important role in determining male reproductive success. We tested for these effects on male reproductive success in Columbian ground squirrels (Urocitellus columbianus). The mating activity of estrous females was

Shirley Raveh; Dik Heg; F. Stephen Dobson; David W. Coltman; Jamieson C. Gorrell; Adele Balmer; Peter Neuhaus

2010-01-01

57

Courtship Disruptions and Male Mating Strategies: Examples from Female-Defense Mating Systems.  

PubMed

Males frequently interrupt the copulation attempts of other males, and these courtship disruptions may limit the extent to which a few males are able to monopolize mating access to females. Males actively defend sexually receptive females in many species in which females form dense aggregations during the breeding season. Across and within such species there is considerable variation in the mating tactics adopted by males, with males in some cases defending groups of females and in other cases sequentially consorting with individual females. Colonial blackbirds have been central to studying this mating system, and we develop a conceptual model for how courtship disruption may account for variation in male mating tactics in this group. Our model assumes that the frequency of disruptions increases with greater colony size. As a consequence, successful copulations are less likely to occur at large colonies than at small colonies, and males are expected to switch from defending multiple females at the colony to consorting individual females away from it. Results from two species of blackbird support the basic assumptions of this model. In one species, the Montezuma oropendola, disruptions occur rarely and males defend groups of females, whereas in the other species, the yellow-rumped cacique, disruptions are frequent and males defend single females. Moreover, consistent with a key prediction, within each species, males associated with small colonies remain at the colony and defend groups of females, whereas males spend little time defending groups of females at large colonies and rarely attempt copulations there. This model has the potential to explain variation in male mating strategies and female monopolization for other taxa in which females form breeding aggregations. PMID:10600615

Webster; Robinson

1999-12-01

58

The evolution and significance of male mate choice  

E-print Network

preferences can be exerted by either rejecting or accepting courting females [12] or by choosing to court some- ences between males and females in parental investment [16]. However, it is now realised that male mate choice can evolve under a wider range of circumstances than pre- dicted by parental investment alone (e

59

Male mate choice and sperm allocation in a sexual/asexual mating complex of Poecilia (Poeciliidae, Teleostei)  

PubMed Central

Male mate choice is critical for understanding the evolution and maintenance of sexual/asexual mating complexes involving sperm-dependent, gynogenetic species. Amazon mollies (Poecilia formosa) require sperm to trigger embryogenesis, but the males (e.g. Poecilia mexicana) do not contribute genes. Males benefit from mating with Amazon mollies, because such matings make males more attractive to conspecific females, but they might control the cost of such matings by providing less sperm to Amazon mollies. We examined this at the behavioural and sperm levels. P. mexicana males preferred to mate with, and transferred more sperm to conspecific females. However, if males mated with P. formosa, sperm was readily transferred. This underscores the importance of male choice in this system. PMID:17148157

Schlupp, I; Plath, M

2005-01-01

60

DNA Loss at the Ceratocystis fimbriata Mating Locus Results in Self-Sterility  

PubMed Central

Fungi have evolved a remarkable diversity of reproductive strategies. Some of these, most notably those of the model fungi, have been well studied but others are poorly understood. The latter is also true for uni-directional mating type switching, which has been reported in only five fungal genera, including Ceratocystis. Mating type switching allows a self-fertile fungal isolate to produce both self-fertile and self-sterile offspring. This study considered the molecular nature of uni-directional mating type switching in the type species of Ceratocystis, C. fimbriata. To do this, the genome of C. fimbriata was first examined for the presence of mating type genes. Three mating genes (MAT1-1-1, MAT1-2-1 and MAT1-1-2) were found in an atypical organisation of the mating type locus. To study the effect that uni-directional switching has on this locus, several self-sterile offspring were analysed. Using a combination of next generation and conventional Sanger sequencing, it was shown that a 3581 base pair (bp) region had been completely deleted from the MAT locus. This deletion, which includes the entire MAT1-2-1 gene, results in the permanent loss of self-fertility, rendering these isolates exclusively self-sterile. Our data also suggest that the deletion mechanism is tightly controlled and that it always occurs at the same genomic position. Two 260 bp direct repeats flanking the deleted region are strongly implicated in the process, although the exact mechanism behind the switching remains unclear. PMID:24651494

Wilken, P. Markus; Steenkamp, Emma T.; Wingfield, Michael J.; de Beer, Z. Wilhelm; Wingfield, Brenda D.

2014-01-01

61

Polygyny, mate-guarding, and posthumous fertilization as alternative male mating strategies.  

PubMed

Alternative male mating strategies within populations are thought to be evolutionarily stable because different behaviors allow each male type to successfully gain access to females. Although alternative male strategies are widespread among animals, quantitative evidence for the success of discrete male strategies is available for only a few systems. We use nuclear microsatellites to estimate the paternity rates of three male lizard strategies previously modeled as a rock-paper-scissors game. Each strategy has strengths that allow it to outcompete one morph, and weaknesses that leave it vulnerable to the strategy of another. Blue-throated males mate-guard their females and avoid cuckoldry by yellow-throated "sneaker" males, but mate-guarding is ineffective against aggressive orange-throated neighbors. The ultradominant orange-throated males are highly polygynous and maintain large territories; they overpower blue-throated neighbors and cosire offspring with their females, but are often cuckolded by yellow-throated males. Finally, yellow-throated sneaker males sire offspring via secretive copulations and often share paternity of offspring within a female's clutch. Sneaker males sire more offspring posthumously, indicating that sperm competition may be an important component of their strategy. PMID:11106369

Zamudio, K R; Sinervo, B

2000-12-19

62

Phenotypic correlates and survival consequences of male mating success in lek-mating greater prairie-chickens ( Tympanuchus cupido )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female choice and male–male aggression are two modes of sexual selection that can lead to elaboration of male morphological\\u000a and behavioral traits. In lek-mating species, male mating success is often strongly skewed, and it is puzzling why variation\\u000a in male traits is still observed given directional female choice. If male traits correlated with reproductive success are\\u000a honest signals of male

Jacqueline K. Nooker; Brett K. Sandercock

2008-01-01

63

The molecular basis of cytoplasmic male sterility and fertility restoration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is a maternally inherited condition in which a plant is unable to produce functional pollen. It occurs in many plant species and is often associated with chimeric mitochondrial open reading frames. In a number of cases, transcripts originating from these altered open reading frames are translated into unique proteins that appear to interfere with mitochondrial function

Patrick S Schnable; Roger P Wise

1998-01-01

64

The heritability of multiple male mating in a promiscuous mammal.  

PubMed

The tendency of females to mate with multiple males is often explained by direct and indirect benefits that could outweigh the many potential costs of multiple mating. However, behaviour can only evolve in response to costs and benefits if there is sufficient genetic variation on which selection can act. We followed 108 mating chases of 85 North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) during 4 years, to measure each female's degree of multiple male mating (MMM), and used an animal model analysis of our multi-generational pedigree to provide what we believe is the first estimate of the heritability of MMM in the wild. Female red squirrels were highly polyandrous, mating with an average of 7.0 ± 0.2 males on their day of oestrus. Although we found evidence for moderate levels of additive genetic variation (CV(A) = 5.1), environmental variation was very high (CV(E) = 32.3), which resulted in a very low heritability estimate (h(2) < 0.01). So, while there is genetic variation in this trait, the large environmental variation suggests that any costs or benefits associated with differences among females in MMM are primarily owing to environmental and not genetic differences, which could constrain the evolutionary response to natural selection on this trait. PMID:21159688

McFarlane, S Eryn; Lane, Jeffrey E; Taylor, Ryan W; Gorrell, Jamieson C; Coltman, David W; Humphries, Murray M; Boutin, Stan; McAdam, Andrew G

2011-06-23

65

The heritability of multiple male mating in a promiscuous mammal  

PubMed Central

The tendency of females to mate with multiple males is often explained by direct and indirect benefits that could outweigh the many potential costs of multiple mating. However, behaviour can only evolve in response to costs and benefits if there is sufficient genetic variation on which selection can act. We followed 108 mating chases of 85 North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) during 4 years, to measure each female's degree of multiple male mating (MMM), and used an animal model analysis of our multi-generational pedigree to provide what we believe is the first estimate of the heritability of MMM in the wild. Female red squirrels were highly polyandrous, mating with an average of 7.0 ± 0.2 males on their day of oestrus. Although we found evidence for moderate levels of additive genetic variation (CVA = 5.1), environmental variation was very high (CVE = 32.3), which resulted in a very low heritability estimate (h2 < 0.01). So, while there is genetic variation in this trait, the large environmental variation suggests that any costs or benefits associated with differences among females in MMM are primarily owing to environmental and not genetic differences, which could constrain the evolutionary response to natural selection on this trait. PMID:21159688

McFarlane, S. Eryn; Lane, Jeffrey E.; Taylor, Ryan W.; Gorrell, Jamieson C.; Coltman, David W.; Humphries, Murray M.; Boutin, Stan; McAdam, Andrew G.

2011-01-01

66

Genetics and Evolution of Hybrid Male Sterility in House Mice  

PubMed Central

Comparative genetic mapping provides insights into the evolution of the reproductive barriers that separate closely related species. This approach has been used to document the accumulation of reproductive incompatibilities over time, but has only been applied to a few taxa. House mice offer a powerful system to reconstruct the evolution of reproductive isolation between multiple subspecies pairs. However, studies of the primary reproductive barrier in house mice—hybrid male sterility—have been restricted to a single subspecies pair: Mus musculus musculus and Mus musculus domesticus. To provide a more complete characterization of reproductive isolation in house mice, we conducted an F2 intercross between wild-derived inbred strains from Mus musculus castaneus and M. m. domesticus. We identified autosomal and X-linked QTL associated with a range of hybrid male sterility phenotypes, including testis weight, sperm density, and sperm morphology. The pseudoautosomal region (PAR) was strongly associated with hybrid sterility phenotypes when heterozygous. We compared QTL found in this cross with QTL identified in a previous F2 intercross between M. m. musculus and M. m. domesticus and found three shared autosomal QTL. Most QTL were not shared, demonstrating that the genetic basis of hybrid male sterility largely differs between these closely related subspecies pairs. These results lay the groundwork for identifying genes responsible for the early stages of speciation in house mice. PMID:22554891

White, Michael A.; Stubbings, Maria; Dumont, Beth L.; Payseur, Bret A.

2012-01-01

67

The mating system of a bee fly (Diptera: Bombyliidae). II. Factors affecting male territorial and mating success  

Microsoft Academic Search

Males of an undescribed bombyliidfly (Comptosia sp.)occupy traditional territories on a Southeast Queensland hilltop, to which females come solely for the purpose of mating. Territorial fights between males involve aerial collisions during which modified spines on the wing margins produce scars on the bodies of opponents. Territory owners and mating males are not different in size or age from the

Gary Dodson; David Yeates

1990-01-01

68

Fighting and mating behaviors of dimorphic males in the ant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colony composition inCardiocondyla wroughtoni and the fighting and mating behaviors of 2 types of males, alates and ergatoids, are described. This species is polygynous,\\u000a with a mean of 7.0 queens per nest, and forms polycalic colonies. Within nests, ergatoid males fight with each other, leading\\u000a to the death of all but one in single nests. On the other hand, alate

Kyoichi Kinomura; Katsusuke Yamauchi

1987-01-01

69

Sexual conflict in the house sparrow: interference between polygynously mated females versus asymmetric male investment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reproductive success of female house sparrows mated with polygynous males depended to some extent on the aid received from their mates. Polygynous males fed nestlings at the same rate as monogamous males although polygynous males gave aid almost exclusively to one of their mates (the “preferred”). As a consequence, the number and quality of young raised by “preferred” females

José P. Veiga

1990-01-01

70

Sexual selection in lekking sage grouse: phenotypic correlates of male mating success  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mate choice cues in sage grouse were reinvestigated by analyzing relationships between male mating success and a range of suggested cues. Display cues were implicated by significant relationships between mating status (whether or not a male mated) and lek attendance, display rate (corrected for effects of female proximity and time of day) and an acoustic component related to temporal and

R. M. Gibson; J. W. Bradbury

1985-01-01

71

Male antler flies ( Protopiophila litigata ; Diptera: Piophilidae) are more selective than females in mate choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated mate choice in the antler fly (Protopiophila litigata Bonduriansky), which forms mating aggregations and oviposits exclusively on discarded cervid antlers, by pairing males with nongravid females and by collecting copulating pairs on antlers. Because females probably receive larger ejaculates (which they partly ingest after mating) and more effective protection (mate guarding) from large males than from small ones,

Russell Bonduriansky; Ronald J. Brooks

1998-01-01

72

Extreme Costs of Mating for Male Two-Spot Ladybird Beetles  

PubMed Central

Male costs of mating are now thought to be widespread. The two-spot ladybird beetle (Adalia bipunctata) has been the focus of many studies of mating and sexual selection, yet the costs of mating for males are unknown. The mating system of A. bipunctata involves a spermatophore nuptial gift ingested by females after copulation. In this study, we investigate the cost to males of mating and of transferring spermatophores in terms of lifespan, ejaculate production and depletion of nutritional reserves. We found that males faced a strong trade-off between mating and survival, with males that were randomly assigned to mate a single time experiencing a 53% reduction in post-mating lifespan compared to non-mating males. This is among the most severe survival costs of a single mating yet reported. However, spermatophore transfer did not impact male survival. Instead, the costs associated with spermatophores appeared as a reduced ability to transfer spermatophores in successive matings. Furthermore, males ingested more food following spermatophore transfer than after matings without spermatophores, suggesting that spermatophore transfer depletes male nutritional reserves. This is to our knowledge the first report of an effect of variation in copulatory behaviour on male foraging behaviour. Overall, our study highlights the advantages of assessing mating costs using multiple currencies, and suggests that male A. bipunctata should exhibit mate choice. PMID:24339980

Perry, Jennifer C.; Tse, Crystal T.

2013-01-01

73

Testosterone positively associated with both male mating effort and paternal behavior in savanna baboons (Papio cynocephalus)  

E-print Network

Testosterone positively associated with both male mating effort and paternal behavior in savanna 2012 Available online 30 November 2012 Keywords: Testosterone Mating effort Paternal behavior Baboons Testosterone (T) is often positively associated with male sexual behavior and negatively associated

Alberts, Susan C

74

Male Age Affects Female Mate Preference and Reproductive Performance in the Cabbage Beetle, Colaphellus bowringi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of male age on female mate preference and reproductive performance in the cabbage beetle, Colaphellus bowringi was examined, using male and female adults of varying ages (young, middle-aged and old) after a single mating. In a simultaneous\\u000a choice test, females of all age class preferentially mated with middle-aged males. Mating duration was positively related\\u000a to male age. Longevity

Xing-Ping Liu; Jing Xu; Hai-Min He; Xian-Ju Kuang; Fang-Sen Xue

2011-01-01

75

Fluctuating asymmetry, size and mating success in males of Ischnura elegans (Vander Linden) (Odonata: Coenagrionidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluctuating asymmetry (FA) is thought to be an indicator of developmental stability and negatively related to male mating success in many animal taxa. We investigated the relationships between mating success of males, body size and FA for both wing length and number of setae on the legs in the damselfly Ischnura elegans. Males were classified as mated or unmated at

Gianmaria Carchini; Flavia Chiarotti; Marco Di Domenico; Giacomo Paganotti

2000-01-01

76

Swarming and mating behavior of a mayfly Baetis bicaudatus suggest stabilizing selection for male body size  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large size often confers a fitness advantage to female insects because fecundity increases with body size. However, the fitness benefits of large size for male insects are less clear. We investigated the mating behavior of the mayfly Baetis bicaudatus to determine whether the probability of male mating success increased with body size. Males formed mating aggregations (swarms) ranging from a

Barbara L. Peckarsky; Angus R. McIntosh; Christopher C. Caudill; Jonas Dahl

2002-01-01

77

Mating success and potential male-worker conflict in a male-dimorphic ant  

PubMed Central

Background Males of many species adjust their reproductive tactics with regard to their condition and status. For example, large males may develop weapons and fight for access to females, whereas small or undernourished males do not express costly weapons or ornaments and sneak copulations. Different condition-dependent reproductive tactics may be associated with unequal average fitness, but the tactic chosen by a given male under given circumstances is thought to result in the highest possible fitness return. The ant species Cardiocondyla obscurior exhibits an environment-controlled polymorphism of docile, winged males and aggressive "ergatoid" males. Ergatoid males, which can replenish their sperm supply throughout their lives, engage in lethal fighting, and attempt to monopolize all female sexuals available in their nests, were previously assumed to gain higher lifetime reproductive success than the peaceful, winged males, which disperse to mate away from the nest and whose spermatogenesis is limited to the first days of adult life. However, precise data on male mating success have as yet not been available. Here, we compare the average mating success of the two male morphs, taking the high mortality rate of immature ergatoid males into account. Because individuals in insect societies may have opposing interests about their own development, we also investigate whether the interests of male larvae coincide with those of the workers and the rest of the society. Results When the survival probability of males is taken into account, winged males are more likely to mate multiply and in consequence have a higher estimated average mating success than ergatoid males. Therefore, male larvae are expected to prefer developing into winged instead of ergatoid adults. Conclusion Though male larvae can expect a higher average mating success when developing into winged males, most colonies produce only ergatoid males under standard conditions. This might point at a novel type of potential kin conflict within the social insect colony. Because workers in insect societies usually control male larval development, ergatoid male production under normal conditions probably reflects the optimal allocation strategy of workers to maximise their inclusive fitness. PMID:17623070

Schrempf, Alexandra; Darrouzet, Eric; Heinze, Jurgen

2007-01-01

78

Sterilization.  

PubMed

Male and female sterilization is a safe and effective form of permanent contraception. The number of patients accepting this method has rapidly increased over the last ten years and is likely to continue. In some countries the rate has plateaued out: in the USA it has been 31 per cent of all married women for the last eight years. Before sterilization it is important that adequate counselling is given to both partners and that the decision is not hurried. This is emphasized by the number of women and men requesting reversal of sterilization (thought to be between 0.1 and 10 per cent of all sterilizations). These requests for reversal usually come from couples who have remarried, tend to be younger, have fewer live children, have had more abortions, less schooling and are poor users of contraception. In these high-risk patients counselling and time to make the decision is essential. Other studies indicate that regret after puerperal sterilization may be commoner, but the risks of further pregnancies have to be weighed against sterilization regret. The methodology of male sterilization has changed little in the last ten years; it is simple and usually done under local anaesthesia. In contrast, female sterilization methods are constantly being refined, from laparotomy to laparoscopy and from extensive tubal destruction or excision to minimal tubal damage. The common methods now are mini-laparotomy and laparoscopy under local or general anaesthesia, with tubal occlusion by clips, rings or bipolar or thermal coagulation. There is no place now for unipolar diathermy, because of the higher complication rate, especially for major complications such as bowel burns. Recent multicentre studies comparing different methods give low rates for immediate morbidity and surgical complications (0.8 to 2.5 per cent of cases). Technical failure is rare but often due to a pre-existing condition, for example obesity or previous pelvic disease. Some failures are due, however, to difficulties with the instruments, especially at laparoscopy; here further developments and the use of teaching aids for those in training will help to reduce problems. Mortality from female sterilization is low, at 2 to 10 per 100 000 procedures; however, half is due in part to anaesthetic complications (hypoventilation), which can be avoided by intubation, and others are due to pre-existing medical conditions. Long-term follow-up has now shown that sterilization does not cause an increase in menstrual blood loss.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:6239731

Newton, J R

1984-12-01

79

Absence of the prion protein homologue Doppel causes male sterility  

PubMed Central

The agent that causes prion diseases is thought to be identical with PrPSc, a conformer of the normal prion protein PrPC. PrPC-deficient mice do not exhibit major pathologies, perhaps because they express a protein termed Dpl, which shares significant biochemical and structural homology with PrPC. To investigate the physiological function of Dpl, we generated mice harbouring a homozygous disruption of the Prnd gene that encodes Dpl. Dpl deficiency did not interfere with embryonic and postnatal development, but resulted in male sterility. Dpl protein was expressed at late stages of spermiogenesis, and spermatids of Dpl mutants were reduced in numbers, immobile, malformed and unable to fertilize oocytes in vitro. Mechanical dissection of the zona pellucida partially restored in vitro fertilization. We conclude that Dpl regulates male fertility by controlling several aspects of male gametogenesis and sperm–egg interaction. PMID:12110578

Behrens, Axel; Genoud, Nicolas; Naumann, Heike; Rulicke, Thomas; Janett, Fredi; Heppner, Frank L.; Ledermann, Birgit; Aguzzi, Adriano

2002-01-01

80

Male Mating Competitiveness of a Wolbachia-Introgressed Aedes polynesiensis Strain under Semi-Field Conditions  

PubMed Central

Background Lymphatic filariasis (LF), a global public health problem affecting approximately 120 million people worldwide, is a leading cause of disability in the developing world including the South Pacific. Despite decades of ongoing mass drug administration (MDA) in the region, some island nations have not yet achieved the threshold levels of microfilaremia established by the World Health Organization for eliminating transmission. Previously, the generation of a novel Aedes polynesiensis strain (CP) infected with an exogenous type of Wolbachia has been described. The CP mosquito is cytoplasmically incompatible (i.e., effectively sterile) when mated with wildtype mosquitoes, and a strategy was proposed for the control of A. polynesiensis populations by repeated, inundative releases of CP males to disrupt fertility of wild females. Such a strategy could lead to suppression of the vector population and subsequently lead to a reduction in the transmission of filarial worms. Methodology/Principal Findings CP males and F1 male offspring from wild-caught A. polynesiensis females exhibit near equal mating competitiveness with F1 females under semi-field conditions. Conclusions/Significance While laboratory experiments are important, prior projects have demonstrated the need for additional testing under semi-field conditions in order to recognize problems before field implementation. The results reported here from semi-field experiments encourage forward progression toward small-scale field releases. PMID:21829750

Bossin, Hervé; Dobson, Stephen L.

2011-01-01

81

Mating success of male bushy-tailed woodrats: when bigger is not always better  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the factors that regulate mating opportunities of male bushy-tailed woodrats (Neotoma cinerea), we used stepwise multiple regression on measurable morphological and behavioral traits. DNA fingerprinting was used to determine the paternity of juveniles, allowing mating success (the number of females mated with), and reproductive success (the number of offspring fathered) to be quantified. Both measures of male success

Michael G. Topping; John S. Millar

1999-01-01

82

Why Do Male Tree Weta Aggressively Evict Females from Galleries After Mating?  

E-print Network

Why Do Male Tree Weta Aggressively Evict Females from Galleries After Mating? Clint D. Kelly directly with the female, males in some ensiferan orthopterans (crickets and allies) provide nutritious 203 #12;post-copulatory aggression toward recently mated females and forcibly evict their mates from

Gwynne, Darryl T.

83

Male versus female mate searching in fiddler crabs: a comparative analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a comparative analysis of mate searching in fiddler crabs, genus Uca. Several ecological factors determine which sex will search for mates and how complex male signaling will be. Female searching is most tightly correlated with mating in male burrows. Female searching is associated with high burrow density, small body size, and large soil size. These factors explain variation

Sandra L. Vehrencampb

84

Fine mapping of the recessive genic male-sterile gene (Bnms1) in Brassica napus L.  

PubMed

A recessive genic male sterility (RGMS) system, S45 AB, has been developed from spontaneous mutation in Brassica napus canola variety Oro, and is being used for hybrid cultivar development in China. The male sterility of S45 was controlled by two duplicated recessive genes, named as Bnms1 and Bnms2. In this study, a NIL (near-isogenic line) population from the sib-mating of S45 AB was developed and used for the fine mapping of the Bnms1 gene, in which the recessive allele was homozygous at the second locus. AFLP technology combined with BSA (bulked segregant analysis) was used. From a survey of 2,560 primer combinations (+3/+3 selective bases), seven AFLP markers linked closely to the target gene were identified, of which four were successfully converted to sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers. For further analysis, a population of 1,974 individuals was used to map the Bnms1 gene. On the fine map, Bnms1 gene was flanked by two SCAR markers, SC1 and SC7, with genetic distance of 0.1 cM and 0.3 cM, respectively. SC1 was subsequently mapped on linkage group N7 using doubled-haploid mapping populations derived from the crosses Tapidor x Ningyou7 and DH 821 x DHBao 604, available at IMSORB, UK, and our laboratory, respectively. Linkage of an SSR marker, Na12A02, with the Bnms1 gene further confirmed its location on linkage group N7. Na12A02, 2.6 cM away from Bnms1, was a co-dominant marker. These molecular markers developed from this research will facilitate the marker-assisted selection of male sterile lines and the fine map lays a solid foundation for map-based cloning of the Bnms1 gene. PMID:16804725

Yi, Bin; Chen, Yuning; Lei, Shaolin; Tu, Jinxing; Fu, Tingdong

2006-08-01

85

Male and female crickets use different decision rules in response to mating signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Males that produce conspicuous mating signals may attract competitors in addition to sexually receptive females. In many species, for example, females use male calls to locate and choose mates and males respond to competitors' signals by modulating signal production or changing location, thereby escalating or decreasing competition. Do these different receivers make decisions using male signals in the same way?

Anne S. Leonard; Ann V. Hedrick

2009-01-01

86

Do male breeding displays function to attract mates or defend territories? The explanatory role of mate and site fidelity  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Many shorebirds show elaborate breeding displays that include aerial flights and ground displays accompanied by song. The mate attraction hypothesis suggests that breeding displays function to attract mates and maintain pair bonds, whereas the territory defense hypothesis suggests breeding displays function in defining and defending nesting and feeding territories. We tested these hypotheses in the Western Sandpiper (Calidris mauri) by contrasting the duration and level of male breeding displays among pairs that differed in their mate and site fidelity. As predicted by the mate attraction hypothesis, males performed the highest number of song sequences during pair formation, and males paired with their mate of a prior year sang less than males paired to new mates. Further, site-faithful males mated to a new but experienced mate displayed significantly more than remated males or males new to the area. This suggests a male's prior familiarity with an area and his neighbors does not lessen his display rate as was predicted under the territory defense hypothesis. Limited support for the territory defense hypothesis came from observations of males performing breeding displays with neighboring males along nest territory boundaries. This behavior was short-lived, however, as males abandoned nesting areas after pair-formation and used adjacent or disjointed feeding areas during egg-laying and incubation. Male aggression (i.e., aerial and ground chases), as opposed to breeding displays, appeared to be the principal means of maintaining territory boundaries. Indeed, the rate at which males chased other males remained fairly constant and high throughout the breeding season. Male chasing behavior may also serve as a paternity guard to protect against extra-pair copulations. Our study also found that a female's prior breeding experience in an area correlated with a reduced display rate by her mate, particularly if that mate was new to the area. This indicates female characteristics may not only drive nest initiation, as has been shown in other studies, but are important in determining the duration and extent of male display. Received: 7 February 2000, accepted 10 March 2000.

Lanctot, R.B.; Sandercock, B.K.; Kempenaers, B.

2000-01-01

87

Multiple Mating and Reproductive Success of Male and Female Apple Maggot Flies, Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mature male and female apple maggot flies mated frequently on a field-caged host tree during a 14-day study. Each sex averaged one mating per day (mean of 1.0 ± 0.1), but some females mated up to eight times per day and some males up to six times per day. Reproductive success was estimated based both on observed numbers of matings

Susan B. Opp; Ronald J. Prokopy

2000-01-01

88

Genetic analysis of male fertility restoration in wild cytoplasmic male sterility G of beet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) has been used in the breeding of sugar beet for decades but is also more generally an important feature of the reproductive system in its wild relative, Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima. Among the several CMSs found in wild populations, the G CMS is a mitochondrial variant of the respiratory chain. The segregants derived from a cross

Pascal Touzet; Nathalie Hueber; Alexandra Bürkholz; Stephen Barnes; Joël Cuguen

2004-01-01

89

The effect of age on the mating competitiveness of male Glossina fuscipes fuscipes and G. palpalis palpalis  

PubMed Central

The effect of age on male Glossina fuscipes fuscipes, Newstead, and Glossina palpalis palpalis, Austin (Diptera: Glossinidae) competiveness were investigated with a view to estimate optimal age for sterile male release. Sterile insect technique involves the mass production, sterilization and sequential release of males of the target species to out compete the wild male population. Mating between released sterile males and wild females produce inviable progeny and the population is reduced over several generations to unsustainable levels. It is vital that the released male are of high quality and are sexually competitive. Age is one parameter affecting the sexual competiveness of the male tsetse fly. The optimal release age was estimated by assessing sexual competitiveness of flies of different age categories, 1, 5, 8 and 13-days after adult eclosion. A walk-in field-cage was used in order to approximate as closely as possible the actual field scenario during sterile insect release programes. It was shown that 8 and 13-day old males mated significantly more frequently, i.e. were more competitive, in the presence of equal numbers of 1 and 5-day old males. The age of male tsetse flies significantly affected competitiveness in both species studied. The ability of G. f. fuscipes to inseminate was not age dependent, and insemination occurred in all females that mated regardless of male age. In G. p. palpalis, however, 1-day old males were least able to inseminate. Mating duration was not significantly affected by age in both species. Eight to thirteen day old males of the test species are here recommended as the optimal sterile male release age. Résumé L'effet de l'âge sur la compétitivité des mâles de Glossina fuscipes fuscipes et de Glossina palpalis palpalis a été étudié en vue de déterminer l'âge optimal pour le lâcher de mâles stériles. La technique de l'insecte stérile (TIS) consiste en une production de masse, en la stérilisation et au lâchage de mâles de l'espèce cible afin qu'ils competissent avec la population de mâles sauvages. L'accouplement entre mâles stériles lâches et femelles sauvages ne produit pas de progéniture, ce qui conduit au bout de plusieurs générations à une réduction de la population à un niveau non sur vivable. Il est primordial que les mâles lâches soient de bonne qualité et sexuellement compétitifs. L'âge est l'un des paramètres affectant la compétitivité des mouches tsetse mâles. Il était donc nécessaire d'estimer l'âge optimal pour lâcher des mâles en comparant la compétitivité de différentes catégories d?âges (1, 5, 8 et 13 jours après leur émergence). La méthode dite du « field-cage » a été utilisée afin d'étudier le comportement des mâles TIS dans les conditions aussi proches que possible de la réalité. Il a été démontré que les mâles de 8 et 13 jours s'accouplent plus fréquemment que les mâles de 1 a 5 jours. Pour les deux espèces étudiées, l'âge affecte significativement la compétitivité des tsetse mâles. La capacité des mâles de G. f. fuscipes à inséminer n'est pas fonction de l'âge ; toutes les femelles accouplées sont inséminées. Chez G. p. palpalis cependant, les mâles de 1 jours sont les moins inséminées. La durée de l'accouplement n'est pas significativement affectée par l'âge dans les deux espèces. Les mâles de 8 et 13 jours des deux espèces testées sont les plus recommandés pour le lâcher des mâles stériles. PMID:15841229

Abila, P. P.; Kiendrebeogo, M.; Mutika, G.N.; Parker, A.G.; Robinson, A.S.

2003-01-01

90

Mating behavior, male sensory cilia, and polycystins in Caenorhabditis elegans.  

PubMed

The investigation of Caenorhabditis elegans males and the male-specific sensory neurons required for mating behaviors has provided insight into the molecular function of polycystins and mechanisms that are needed for polycystin ciliary localization. In humans, polycystin 1 and polycystin 2 are needed for kidney function; loss of polycystin function leads to autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Polycystins localize to cilia in C. elegans and mammals, a finding that has guided research into ADPKD. The discovery that the polycystins form ciliary receptors in male-specific neurons needed for mating behaviors has also helped to unlock insights into two additional exciting new areas: the secretion of extracellular vesicles; and mechanisms of ciliary specialization. First, we will summarize the studies done in C. elegans regarding the expression, localization, and function of the polycystin 1 and 2 homologs, LOV-1 and PKD-2, and discuss insights gained from this basic research. Molecules that are co-expressed with the polycystins in the male-specific neurons may identify evolutionarily conserved molecular mechanisms for polycystin function and localization. We will discuss the finding that polycystins are secreted in extracellular vesicles that evoke behavioral change in males, suggesting that such vesicles provide a novel form of communication to conspecifics in the environment. In humans, polycystin-containing extracellular vesicles are secreted in urine and can be taken up by cilia, and quickly internalized. Therefore, communication by polycystin-containing extracellular vesicles may also use mechanisms that are evolutionarily conserved from nematode to human. Lastly, different cilia display structural and functional differences that specialize them for particular tasks, despite the fact that virtually all cilia are built by a conserved intraflagellar transport (IFT) mechanism and share some basic structural features. Comparative analysis of the male-specific cilia with the well-studied cilia of the amphid and phasmid neurons has allowed identification of molecules that specialize the male cilia. We will discuss the molecules that shape the male-specific cilia. The cell biology of cilia in male-specific neurons demonstrates that C. elegans can provide an excellent model of ciliary specialization. PMID:24977333

O'Hagan, Robert; Wang, Juan; Barr, Maureen M

2014-09-01

91

Female sticklebacks use male coloration in mate choice and hence avoid parasitized males  

Microsoft Academic Search

AN important problem in evolutionary biology since the time of Darwin has been to understand why females preferentially mate with males handicapped by secondary sexual ornaments1-3. One hypothesis of sexual selection theory is that these ornaments reliably reveal the male's condition4-6, which can be affected for example by parasites4,7-13. Here we show that in the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) the

Manfred Milinski; Theo C. M. Bakker

1990-01-01

92

Male mating preference for female survivorship in the seaweed fly Gluma musgravei (Diptera: Coelopidae).  

PubMed Central

The seaweed fly mating system is characterized by pre-mating struggles during which females exhibit a mate rejection response involving kicking, shaking and abdominal curling. Males must resist rejection until females become passive and allow copulation to take place. However, despite the vigorous nature of the struggle males frequently dismount passive females without attempting copulation. Here we show that rejected females suffered higher post-encounter mortality rates than those accepted by males in the seaweed fly Gluma musgravei. Furthermore, we show that males also preferentially mounted females with higher future longevity. We propose that this male mate choice for female survivorship has evolved as a result of females often having to survive for long periods after mating until suitable oviposition sites become available. Such male preferences for female survivorship may be common in species in which oviposition must sometimes be substantially delayed after mating. PMID:11410151

Dunn, D W; Crean, C S; Gilburn, A S

2001-01-01

93

Testosterone correlates of mate guarding, singing and aggressive behaviour in male barn swallows, Hirundo rustica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual and social behaviour in male birds is largely controlled by gonadal secretions, most notably testosterone. In this paper the relationships between natural testosterone plasma concentrations and mate guarding, singing and rates of aggression in male barn swallows are reported. Behaviour of individually marked male swallows was observed in three breeding colonies. Individual mate-guarding rate was positively correlated with individual

N. SAINO; A. P. MØLLER

1995-01-01

94

Adaptive significance of postcopulatory guarding of mates and nonmates by male Calopteryx maculata (Odonata)  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The postcopulatory behavior of the damselfly Calopteryx maculata (De Beauvois) (Odonata: Calopterygidae) was studied in field populations to determine the adaptive significance of guarding of ovipositing females by males. Of particular interest was an explanation for the guarding of ovipositing nonmates by males. A promiscuous mating system and the large variation in mating success (Table 1) among territorial males indicated

Jonathan K. Waage

1979-01-01

95

Size-dependent response to conspeci c mating calls by male crickets  

E-print Network

Size-dependent response to conspeci c mating calls by male crickets Moshe Ki£awi* and David A. Gray features of a male house cricket's (Acheta domesticus) mating call are positively associated with its size their aggressive intentions or territory defence capabilities to other males. Conversely, they may attempt

Gray, David A.

96

MALE DOMINANCE, FEMALE MATE CHOICE, AND INTERSEXUAL CONFLICT IN THE ROSE BITTERLING ( RHODEUS OCELLATUS )  

Microsoft Academic Search

An intersexual conflict arises when males and females differ in their reproductive interests. Although experimental studies have shown that females often mate with dominant males, it may not always be in the interest of a female to do so. Here we investigated the impact of male dominance on female mate choice and offspring growth and survival in the rose bitterling

Mara Casalini; Muna Agbali; Martin Reichard; Markéta Kone?ná; Anna Bryjová; Carl Smith

2009-01-01

97

Sequential search and the influence of male quality on female mating decisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  ?The patterns of phenotypic association between mated males and females depend on the decision rules that individuals employ\\u000a during search for a mate. We generalize the sequential search rule and examine how the shape of the function that relates\\u000a a male character to the benefit of a mating decision influences the threshold value of the male trait that induces females

Daniel D. Wiegmann

1999-01-01

98

Mating Tactics and Reproductive Success in Male Columbian Ground Squirrels (Urocitellus columbianus).  

E-print Network

??The widespread discovery of multiple mating tactics, particularly among males, highlights the diverse ways sexual selection may operate within a population. In polygynandrous populations, multiple… (more)

Balmer, Adele

2010-01-01

99

Female Preferences for Unmated Versus Mated Males in Two Species of Voles (Microtus ochrogaster and Microtus montanus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

One criterion of mate choice, female preferences for unmated versus mated males, was examined for prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster), a generally monogamous species, and montane voles (M. montanus), a generally polygamous species. In tether tests and anesthetization tests, prairie vole females preferentially associated with unmated males over males that had been mated for three ejaculations prior to testing. When mated

John D. Pierce; Donald A. Dewsbury

1991-01-01

100

Male Mating History and Body Size Influence Female Fecundity and Longevity of the Dengue Vector Aedes aegypti  

PubMed Central

Male reproductive success is dependent on insemination success and reproductive output. During mating, male mosquitoes transfer not just sperm, but also seminal fluid proteins that may have profound effects on mated female biology and behavior. In this study, we investigated the role of male body size and mating history on semen depletion, female longevity and reproductive success in Aedes aegypti L. Small and large males were mated in rapid succession with up to five females. Our results indicate that large males had greater mating capacity than small males. A reduction in fecundity by more than 50% was observed in females that were fourth to mate with small males in comparison to females that mated earlier in sequence. For females mated to large males, this reduction became evident for females that mated fifth in sequence. No loss of fertility (measured as hatch rate) was observed in females that were 3rd-5th in mating sequence compared to females mated to virgin males. When females were maintained on a low-quality (5% sucrose) diet, those mated to virgin males had a greater longevity compared to females mated third in sequence. We conclude that small males experience more rapid seminal depletion than large males, and discuss the role of semen depletion in the mated female. Our results contribute towards a better understanding of the complexity of Ae. aegypti mating biology and provide refined estimates of mating capacity for genetic control efforts. PMID:21485355

Helinski, Michelle E.H.; Harrington, Laura C.

2014-01-01

101

Hormonal contraceptive use and mate retention behavior in women and their male partners  

E-print Network

Hormonal contraceptive use and mate retention behavior in women and their male partners Lisa L Available online 18 November 2011 Keywords: Mate retention behavior MRI-SF Hormonal contraception Mate guarding Hormones Estradiol Female hormonal contraceptive use has been associated with a variety

Little, Tony

102

Oxytocin receptor density is associated with male mating tactics and social monogamy  

PubMed Central

Despite its well-described role in female affiliation, the influence of oxytocin on male pairbonding is largely unknown. However, recent human studies indicate that this nonapeptide has a potent influence on male behaviors commonly associated with monogamy. Here we investigated the distribution of oxytocin receptors (OTR) throughout the forebrain of the socially monogamous male prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). Because males vary in both sexual and spatial fidelity, we explored the extent to which OTR predicted monogamous or non-monogamous patterns of space use, mating success and sexual fidelity in free-living males. We found that monogamous males expressed higher OTR density in the nucleus accumbens than non-monogamous males, a result that mirrors species differences in voles with different mating systems. OTR density in the posterior portion of the insula predicted mating success. Finally, OTR in the hippocampus and septohippocampal nucleus, which are nuclei associated with spatial memory, predicted patterns of space use and reproductive success within mating tactics. Our data highlight the importance of oxytocin receptor in neural structures associated with pairbonding and socio-spatial memory in male mating tactics. The role of memory in mating systems is often neglected, despite the fact that mating tactics impose an inherently spatial challenge for animals. Identifying mechanisms responsible for relating information about the social world with mechanisms mediating pairbonding and mating tactics is crucial to fully appreciate the suite of factors driving mating systems. PMID:22285648

Ophir, Alexander G.; Gessel, Ana; Zheng, Da-Jiang; Phelps, Steven M.

2012-01-01

103

Sterilizing effects of cobalt-60 and cesium-137 radiation on male sea lampreys  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Male spawning-run sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus were exposed to various doses of cobalt-60 or cesium-137 radiation in an attempt to sterilize them for use in a program for controlling sea lampreys through the release of sterile males. Males captured and irradiated during the early part of the upstream migration were not effectively sterilized at the doses tested. After irradiation, the sea lampreys were more susceptible to fungal infections by Saprolegnia sp., and many died without attempting to spawn. Males captured and irradiated during the middle and late parts of the spawning migration were effectively sterilized at a dose of 2,000 rads. However, some radiation-induced mortality was observed in males captured and irradiated during the middle part of the spawning migration. Radiation is not as effective as the chemosterilant bisazir for sterilizing male sea lampreys.

Hanson, L. H.

1990-01-01

104

No evidence for faster male hybrid sterility in population crosses of an intertidal copepod (Tigriopus californicus).  

PubMed

Two different forces are thought to contribute to the rapid accumulation of hybrid male sterility that has been observed in many inter-specific crosses, namely the faster male and the dominance theories. For male heterogametic taxa, both faster male and dominance would work in the same direction to cause the rapid evolution of male sterility; however, for taxa lacking differentiated sex chromosomes only the faster male theory would explain the rapid evolution of male hybrid sterility. It is currently unknown what causes the faster evolution of male sterility, but increased sexual selection on males and the sensitivity of genes involved in male reproduction are two hypotheses that could explain the observation. Here, patterns of hybrid sterility in crosses of genetically divergent copepod populations are examined to test potential mechanisms of faster male evolution. The study species, Tigriopus californicus, lacks differentiated, hemizygous sex chromosomes and appears to have low levels of divergence caused by sexual selection acting upon males. Hybrid sterility does not accumulate more rapidly in males than females in these crosses suggesting that in this taxon male reproductive genes are not inherently more prone to disruption in hybrids. PMID:17701279

Willett, Christopher S

2008-06-01

105

Pushy males and choosy females: courtship disruption and mate choice in the lekking great snipe  

PubMed Central

We studied the effects of male disruptive behaviour on female mate choice and male mating success in the great snipe, Gallinago media, a lekking bird. Harassment from neighbouring males, a widespread behaviour in lekking animals, was the most prevalent cause of females leaving a male territory. Several lines of evidence show that females did not prefer to mate with males able to protect them from harassment. Males that obtained mating success were no less likely to suffer disruptions and females were no less likely to be disrupted when with their preferred male. Females returned to the male they later mated with, despite being repeatedly chased away by neighbours. The probability that an individual female returned and solicited mating from a male was 15 times higher for the male she was chased away from compared to the neighbour that chased her away. Females returned as often or more to the territory owner after being disrupted, compared to after leaving the territory without being harassed. Our results suggest that female great snipes are extremely choosy, but also that females do not gain direct benefits (harassment avoidance) by mating with certain males. Females appear to have neither direct nor indirect preferences for dominance that could give them such benefits: females appeared choosy despite, not because of, harassment. If females gain indirect benefits (genetically superior offspring) by being choosy, this is also likely to be unrelated to any dominance among males.

ther, S. A. S; Fiske, P.; s, J. A. K l

1999-01-01

106

Male dominance, female mate choice, and intersexual conflict in the rose bitterling (Rhodeus ocellatus).  

PubMed

An intersexual conflict arises when males and females differ in their reproductive interests. Although experimental studies have shown that females often mate with dominant males, it may not always be in the interest of a female to do so. Here we investigated the impact of male dominance on female mate choice and offspring growth and survival in the rose bitterling (Rhodeus ocellatus), a freshwater fish with a resource-based mating system. Three experimental mating trials were conducted using males of known dominance rank, but with different levels of constraint on male behavior. Thus, females were able to choose among; (1) males that were isolated from each other; (2) males that could see and smell each other, but could not directly interact; (3) males that could interact fully. Using a combination of behavioral observation and parentage analyses it was shown that female preferences did not correspond with male dominance and that male aggression and dominance constrained female mate choice, resulting in a potential intersexual conflict. The survival of offspring to independence was significantly correlated with female mate preferences, but not with male dominance. A lack of strong congruence in female preference for males suggested a role for parental haplotype compatibility in mate choice. PMID:19154367

Casalini, Mara; Agbali, Muna; Reichard, Martin; Konecná, Markéta; Bryjová, Anna; Smith, Carl

2009-02-01

107

Hybridization using cytoplasmic male sterility and herbicide tolerance from nuclear genes  

SciTech Connect

An improved process is described for producing a substantially homogeneous population of plants of a predetermined hybrid variety of a crop which is capable of undergoing both self-pollination and cross-pollination. This process comprises: growing in a first planting area a substantially random population of cytoplasmic male sterile plants which exhibit tolerance to at least one herbicide attributable solely to homozygous dominant nuclear genes, and male fertile plants which are capable of pollinating the cytoplasmic male sterile plants and which lack the herbicide tolerance because the presence of homozygous recessive nuclear genes for such trait. The cytoplasmic male sterile plants and the male fertile plants are pollinated with pollen derived from the male fertile plants. Seed is formed on the cytoplasmic male sterile plants and on the male fertile plants. Harvesting in bulk the seed is formed on the plants of the first planting area.

Beversdorf, W.D.; Erickson, L.R.; Grant, I.

1987-04-14

108

Role of no scalpel vasectomy in male sterilization.  

PubMed

No Scalpel Vasectomy (NSV) is a modern method of delivery, ligation and excision of vas deference without use of a knife. It provides a permanent sterilization option for male. It is a safe, effective method of vasectomy with low complication and greater patient compliance. To evaluate effectiveness and its acceptance of the procedure data were collected on men who accepted NSV between Jan'2008 to Mar'09. Demographic information, motivating factors, educational status and surgical complications were recorded. The cases were done in rural hospitals & Primary health centers as camp procedure. A total of 649 vasectomies performed using NSV method from Jan'08 to Mar'09. The mean age of the acceptors was 35 years with 4 numbers of children on average. Complications included bleeding during surgery in 4 cases (0.6%), haematoma in one case (0.2%), and superficial wound infection occurred in two cases (0.3%) and scrotal pain in 4 cases (0.6%). NSV is an effective, minimal access method of vas delivery, ligation and excision. It provides safe and effective contraceptive option to male population with minimal complications. Doctors, health workers along with the simplicity of procedure and early return to work are great motivating factors. It is easily performed as camp procedure in a simple medical setup. Doctors can be effectively trained hands on during the camp procedure. PMID:23904714

Bhuyan, K; Ali, Ilias; Barua, S J

2012-08-01

109

A lover, not a fighter: mating causes male crickets to lose fights  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both resource-holding potential (RHP) and experience in aggressive contests are known to affect future aggressive behaviour.\\u000a However, few studies have examined the effects of mating experience on agonistic behaviour, despite the fact that dominant\\u000a males usually acquire more matings. We investigated the effect of mating experience on male aggressive behaviour including\\u000a the relationship between RHP and fighting success in the

Kevin A. Judge; Janice J. Ting; Jonathan Schneider; Mark J. Fitzpatrick

2010-01-01

110

Male but not female pipefish copy mate choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

If mate choice is costly, an individual may reduce the costs of choice by observing and copying the mate choice of others. Although copying has received much attention during the past 10 years, evidence of copying is not very strong, partly because of problems with distinguishing copying from other mechanisms creating similar mating patterns. I conducted an aquarium experiment using

Maria Sandvik Widemo

2005-01-01

111

No Correlation Between Ectoparasitism and Male Mating Success in a Damselfly: Why Parasite Behavior Matters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mating success of individually marked male damselflies parasitized by water mites was closely followed. The number of ectoparasites could be determined exactly from knowledge of the parasite's life cycle. In contrast to previous studies, no correlation between water mite infestation and male mating success was revealed. The reasons for this discrepancy may be explained by the inclusion of the

Jens Rolff; Heike Antvogel; Ilona Schrimpf

2000-01-01

112

Effects of body size on male mating tactics and paternity in black bears, Ursus americanus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reproductive behaviour of large, solitary mammals is difficult to study. Owing to their secretive nature and wide-ranging habits, aspects of male mating behaviour are poorly documented in solitary than in social species. We used radiotelemetry and microsatellite DNA analysis to investigate the influence of body size on male mating tac- tics and short-term reproductive success in the black bear,

Adrienne I. Kovach; Roger A. Powell

2003-01-01

113

Changes in singing behavior of male black-capped chickadees ( Parus atricapillus ) following mate removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

We removed the mates of ten male black-capped chickadees (Pares atricapillus) during the nest-building period to determine the effect of female presence on dawn singing. During the first dawn chorus following mate removal, males sang significantly longer, increased movement within their territory, and increased the percentage of their territory covered while singing. After the female was returned, these parameters returned

Ken Otter; Laurene Ratcliffe

1993-01-01

114

Reproductive defence priorities of male willow ptarmigan ( Lagopus lagopus ): enhancing mate survival or extending paternity options?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cock willow ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopus) closely guard their mates from predators and conspecific males, and vigorously defend their nests and young. In view of potential costs and benefits of behavioural guarding descisions, I designed a test to examine if, when and how males altered defence priorities. Cock willow ptarmigan were very attentive to their mates throughout the breeding season, unaccompanied

Kathy Martin

1984-01-01

115

Alarm calling best predicts mating and reproductive success in ornamented male fowl, Gallus gallus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of female mate choice in fowl typically invoke ornament size as the best predictor of male repro- ductive success. The strongest evidence comes from experiments in which a hen is presented with two unfamiliar and physically separated males that she can evaluate and mate with for up to 120 min. This design controls for prior experience and maleemale competition,

David R. Wilson; Karen L. Bayly; Ximena J. Nelson; Michael Gillings; Christopher S. Evans

2008-01-01

116

Effects of Visual Exposure to the Opposite Sex: Cognitive Aspects of Mate Attraction in Human Males  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research is an investigation into the cognitive aspects of mate attraction in human males. Two experiments demonstrate that visual exposure to women (in person or within photo- graphs) can prime large changes in the attitudes, mood states, and personality trait descriptions of male participants. These changes, furthermore, are such that participants show greater conformity to female mate preferences as

James R. Roney

2003-01-01

117

Food and the deceptive acquisition of mates by polygynous male harriers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female northern harriers Circus cyaneus are polygynous, marsh-nesting raptors, whose mate choices are enigmatic. I determined the mate choice cues employed by females by correlating the order in which males were chosen with characters that 1) significantly influenced reproductive success; 2) were assessable prior to settlement; and 3) varied between breeding situations. Only nest sites and male provisioning performance met

R. E. Simmons

1988-01-01

118

Feminization of pheromone-sensing neurons affects mating decisions in Drosophila males  

PubMed Central

Summary The response of individual animals to mating signals depends on the sexual identity of the individual and the genetics of the mating targets, which represent the mating social context (social environment). However, how social signals are sensed and integrated during mating decisions remains a mystery. One of the models for understanding mating behaviors in molecular and cellular terms is the male courtship ritual in the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster). We have recently shown that a subset of gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs) that are enriched in the male appendages and express the ion channel ppk23 play a major role in the initiation and maintenance of male courtship via the perception of cuticular contact pheromones, and are likely to represent the main chemosensory pathway that influences mating decisions by males. Here we show that genetic feminization of ppk23-expressing GRNs in male flies resulted in a significant increase in male–male sexual attraction without an apparent impact on sexual attraction to females. Furthermore, we show that this increase in male–male sexual attraction is sensory specific, which can be modulated by variable social contexts. Finally, we show that feminization of ppk23-expressing sensory neurons lead to major transcriptional shifts, which may explain the altered interpretation of the social environment by feminized males. Together, these data indicate that the sexual cellular identity of pheromone sensing GRNs plays a major role in how individual flies interpret their social environment in the context of mating decisions. PMID:24463366

Lu, Beika; Zelle, Kathleen M.; Seltzer, Raya; Hefetz, Abraham; Ben-Shahar, Yehuda

2014-01-01

119

Female and Male Moths Display Different Reproductive Behavior when Facing New versus Previous Mates  

PubMed Central

Multiple mating allows females to obtain material (more sperm and nutrient) and/or genetic benefits. The genetic benefit models require sperm from different males to fertilize eggs competitively or the offspring be fathered by multiple males. To maximize genetic benefits from multiple mating, females have evolved strategies to prefer novel versus previous mates in their subsequent matings. However, the reproductive behavior during mate encounter, mate choice and egg laying in relation to discrimination and preference between sexes has been largely neglected. In the present study, we used novel and previous mate treatments and studied male and female behavior and reproductive output in Spodoptera litura. The results of this study do not support the sperm and nutrient replenishment hypotheses because neither the number of mates nor the number of copulations achieved by females significantly increased female fecundity, fertility and longevity. However, females showed different oviposition patterns when facing new versus previous mates by slowing down oviposition, which allows the last male has opportunities to fertilize her eggs and the female to promote offspring diversity. Moreover, females that have novel males present called earlier and more than females that have their previous mates present, whereas no significant differences were found on male courtship between treatments. These results suggest that S. litura females can distinguish novel from previous mates and prefer the former, whereas males generally remate regardless of whether the female is a previous mate or not. In S. litura, eggs are laid in large clusters and offspring competition, inbreeding and disease transfer risks are thus increased. Therefore, offspring diversity should be valuable for S. litura, and genetic benefits should be the main force behind the evolution of female behavioral strategies found in the present study. PMID:25290195

Lu, Qin; Xu, Jin; Ye, Hui

2014-01-01

120

Visual Cues in Mate Recognition by Males of the Damselfly, Coenagrion puella (L.) (Odonata: Coenagrionidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coenagrion puella males search actively for mates and are not aggressive to other males. To study the role of visual cues in male–female discrimination, four types of models were used: (1) bodies of intact insects, (2) models of painted males, (3) models of male–female chimerae, and (4) models of female body parts. Abdomen coloration pattern and presence of wings were

S. N. Gorb

1998-01-01

121

Evaluating the potential of the sterile insect technique for malaria control: relative fitness and mating compatibility between laboratory colonized and a wild population of Anopheles arabiensis from the Kruger National Park, South Africa  

PubMed Central

Background The successful suppression of a target insect population using the sterile insect technique (SIT) partly depends on the premise that the laboratory insects used for mass rearing are genetically compatible with the target population, that the mating competitiveness of laboratory reared males is at least comparable to that of their wild counterparts, and that mass rearing and sterilization processes do not in themselves compromise male fitness to a degree that precludes them from successfully competing for mates in the wild. This study investigated the fitness and sexual cross-compatibility between samples of field collected and laboratory reared An. arabiensis under laboratory conditions. Results The physiological and reproductive fitness of the MALPAN laboratory strain is not substantially modified with respect to the field population at Malahlapanga. Further, a high degree of mating compatibility between MALPAN and the Malahlapanga population was established based on cross-mating experiments. Lastly, the morphological characteristics of hybrid ovarian polytene chromosomes further support the contention that the MALPAN laboratory colony and the An. arabiensis population at Malahlapanga are genetically homogenous and therefore compatible. Conclusions It is concluded that the presence of a perennial and isolated population of An. arabiensis at Malahlapanga presents a unique opportunity for assessing the feasibility of SIT as a malaria vector control option. The MALPAN laboratory colony has retained sufficient enough measures of reproductive and physiological fitness to present as a suitable candidate for male sterilization, mass rearing and subsequent mass release of sterile males at Malahlapanga in order to further assess the feasibility of SIT in a field setting. PMID:22041133

2011-01-01

122

Plasticity in adult development: experience with young males enhances mating competence in adult male cowbirds, Molothrus ater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The social environment can play an important role in organizing organisms' behavioural development. We studied the effect on adult male cowbirds' communication and mating- related behaviour of being housed in social groups with juvenile males. In two large outdoor aviaries, we housed adult males, juvenile females and adult females either with or without juvenile males. Conditions remained intact from

David J. White; Andrew P. King; Meredith J. West

2002-01-01

123

Effect of Mating Activity and Dominance Rank on Male Masturbation Among Free-Ranging Male Rhesus Macaques  

E-print Network

Effect of Mating Activity and Dominance Rank on Male Masturbation Among Free-Ranging Male Rhesus: 10.1111/eth.12146 Abstract The adaptive function of male masturbation is still poorly understood, despite its high prevalence in humans and other animals. In non-human primates, male masturbation is most

Maestripieri, Dario

124

Hybrid male sterility in rice controlled by interaction between divergent alleles of two adjacent genes  

PubMed Central

Sterility is common in hybrids between divergent populations, such as the indica and japonica subspecies of Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa). Although multiple loci for plant hybrid sterility have been identified, it remains unknown how alleles of the loci interact at the molecular level. Here we show that a locus for indica-japonica hybrid male sterility, Sa, comprises two adjacent genes, SaM and SaF, encoding a small ubiquitin-like modifier E3 ligase-like protein and an F-box protein, respectively. Most indica cultivars contain a haplotype SaM+SaF+, whereas all japonica cultivars have SaM?SaF? that diverged by nucleotide variations in wild rice. Male semi-sterility in this heterozygous complex locus is caused by abortion of pollen carrying SaM?. This allele-specific gamete elimination results from a selective interaction of SaF+ with SaM?, a truncated protein, but not with SaM+ because of the presence of an inhibitory domain, although SaM+ is required for this male sterility. Lack of any one of the three alleles in recombinant plants does not produce male sterility. We propose a two-gene/three-component interaction model for this hybrid male sterility system. The findings have implications for overcoming male sterility in inter-subspecific hybrid rice breeding. PMID:19033192

Long, Yunming; Zhao, Lifeng; Niu, Baixiao; Su, Jing; Wu, Hao; Chen, Yuanling; Zhang, Qunyu; Guo, Jingxin; Zhuang, Chuxiong; Mei, Mantong; Xia, Jixing; Wang, Lan; Wu, Haibin; Liu, Yao-Guang

2008-01-01

125

Genetic determination of male sterility in gynodioecious Silene nutans.  

PubMed

Gynodioecy, the coexistence of female and hermaphrodite plants within a species, is often under nuclear-cytoplasmic sex determination, involving cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) genes and nuclear restorers. A good knowledge of CMS and restorer polymorphism is essential for understanding the evolution and maintenance of gynodioecy, but reciprocal crossing studies remain scarce. Although mitochondrial diversity has been studied in a few gynodioecious species, the relationship between mitotype diversity and CMS status is poorly known. From a French sample of Silene nutans, a gynodioecious species whose sex determination remains unknown, we chose the four most divergent mitotypes that we had sampled at the cytochrome b gene and tested by reciprocal crosses whether they carry distinct CMS genes. We show that gynodioecy in S. nutans is under nuclear-cytoplasmic control, with at least two different CMSs and up to four restorers with epistatic interactions. Female occurrence and frequency were highly dependent on the mitotype, suggesting that the level of restoration varies greatly among CMSs. Two of the mitotypes, which have broad geographic distributions, represent different CMSs and are very unequally restored. We discuss the dynamics of gynodioecy at the large-scale meta-population level. PMID:20808324

Garraud, C; Brachi, B; Dufay, M; Touzet, P; Shykoff, J A

2011-05-01

126

Genetic determination of male sterility in gynodioecious Silene nutans  

PubMed Central

Gynodioecy, the coexistence of female and hermaphrodite plants within a species, is often under nuclear–cytoplasmic sex determination, involving cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) genes and nuclear restorers. A good knowledge of CMS and restorer polymorphism is essential for understanding the evolution and maintenance of gynodioecy, but reciprocal crossing studies remain scarce. Although mitochondrial diversity has been studied in a few gynodioecious species, the relationship between mitotype diversity and CMS status is poorly known. From a French sample of Silene nutans, a gynodioecious species whose sex determination remains unknown, we chose the four most divergent mitotypes that we had sampled at the cytochrome b gene and tested by reciprocal crosses whether they carry distinct CMS genes. We show that gynodioecy in S. nutans is under nuclear–cytoplasmic control, with at least two different CMSs and up to four restorers with epistatic interactions. Female occurrence and frequency were highly dependent on the mitotype, suggesting that the level of restoration varies greatly among CMSs. Two of the mitotypes, which have broad geographic distributions, represent different CMSs and are very unequally restored. We discuss the dynamics of gynodioecy at the large-scale meta-population level. PMID:20808324

Garraud, C; Brachi, B; Dufay, M; Touzet, P; Shykoff, J A

2011-01-01

127

Variation in the Male Pheromones and Mating Success of Wild Caught Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

Drosophila melanogaster males express two primary cuticular hydrocarbons (male-predominant hydrocarbons). These act as sex pheromones by influencing female receptivity to mating. The relative quantities of these hydrocarbons vary widely among natural populations and can contribute to variation in mating success. We tested four isofemale lines collected from a wild population to assess the effect of intrapopulation variation in male-predominant hydrocarbons on mating success. The receptivity of laboratory females to males of the four wild-caught lines varied significantly, but not consistently in the direction predicted by variation in male-predominant hydrocarbons. Receptivity of the wild-caught females to laboratory males also varied significantly, but females from lines with male-predominant hydrocarbon profiles closer to a more cosmopolitan one did not show a correspondingly strong mating bias toward a cosmopolitan male. Among wild-caught lines, the male-specific ejaculatory bulb lipid, cis-vaccenyl acetate, varied more than two-fold, but was not associated with variation in male mating success. We observed a strong inverse relationship between the receptivity of wild-caught females and the mating success of males from their own lines, when tested with laboratory flies of the opposite sex. PMID:21858189

Scott, David; Shields, Alicia; Straker, Michaela; Dalrymple, Heidi; Dhillon, Priya K.; Harbinder, Singh

2011-01-01

128

Mothers matter! Maternal support, dominance status and mating success in male bonobos (Pan paniscus)  

PubMed Central

Variation in male mating success is often related to rank differences. Males who are unable to monopolize oestrous females alone may engage in coalitions, thus enhancing their mating success. While studies on chimpanzees and dolphins suggest that coalitions are independent of kinship, information from female philopatric species shows the importance of kin support, especially from mothers, on the reproductive success of females. Therefore, one might expect a similar effect on sons in male philopatric species. We evaluate mating success determinants in male bonobos using data from nine male individuals from a wild population. Results reveal a steep, linear male dominance hierarchy and a positive correlation between dominance status and mating success. In addition to rank, the presence of mothers enhances the mating success of sons and reduces the proportion of matings by the highest ranking male. Mothers and sons have high association rates and mothers provide agonistic aid to sons in conflicts with other males. As bonobos are male-philopatric and adult females occupy high dominance status, maternal support extends into adulthood and females have the leverage to intervene in male conflicts. The absence of female support to unrelated males suggests that mothers gain indirect fitness benefits by supporting their sons. PMID:20810444

Surbeck, Martin; Mundry, Roger; Hohmann, Gottfried

2011-01-01

129

Male Sex Interspecies Divergence and Down Regulation of Expression of Spermatogenesis Genes in Drosophila Sterile Hybrids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male sex genes have shown a pattern of rapid interspecies divergence at both the coding and gene expression level. A common\\u000a outcome from crosses between closely-related species is hybrid male sterility. Phenotypic and genetic studies in Drosophila sterile hybrid males have shown that spermatogenesis arrest is postmeiotic with few exceptions, and that most misregulated\\u000a genes are involved in late stages

Vignesh Sundararajan; Alberto Civetta

2011-01-01

130

Does mating prevent monogamous males from seeking other females? A study in prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster).  

PubMed

Male prairie voles form pair bonds under laboratory conditions, but show a variety of mating tactics in nature. We tested them in the laboratory to determine if their decision to reproduce with a single or multiple females is related to how they process sensory information from females. Three groups of mated males were tested for their attentiveness toward two females and their odors. Males given a choice to investigate a box holding their mate or a box holding a sexually receptive female spent more time with the box of the sexually receptive female than that of their mate. Similar results were found when females were removed and replaced by their odors. However, males did not attend preferentially to the sexually receptive female under all circumstances. When given a choice between a sexually unreceptive and a sexually receptive female, males did not display a difference in their attentiveness. Furthermore, males tested in presence of their mate were more attentive to the odor of the sexually receptive female than males tested in presence of a sexually unreceptive female. The data suggest that access to the mate's sensory cues may influence male's decision to seek females other than his mate. PMID:24140461

Rodriguez, Natalia A; Legzim, Karine M; Aliou, Fayeza; Al-Naimi, Omar Ali S; Bamshad, Maryam

2013-11-01

131

Cytoplasmic male sterility in Mimulus hybrids has pleiotropic effects on corolla and pistil traits  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms underlying genetic associations have important consequences for evolutionary outcomes, but distinguishing linkage from pleiotropy is often difficult. Here, we use a fine mapping approach to determine the genetic basis of association between cytonuclear male sterility and other floral traits in Mimulus hybrids. Previous work has shown that male sterility in hybrids between Mimulus guttatus and Mimulus nasutus is due to interactions between a mitochondrial gene from M. guttatus and two tightly linked nuclear restorer alleles on Linkage Group 7, and that male sterility is associated with reduced corolla size. In the present study, we generated a set of nearly isogenic lines segregating for the restorer region and male sterility, but with unique flanking introgressions. Male-sterile flowers had significantly smaller corollas, longer styles and greater stigmatic exsertion than fertile flowers. Because these effects were significant regardless of the genotypic composition of introgressions flanking the restorer region, they suggest that these floral differences are a direct byproduct of the genetic incompatibility causing anther abortion. In addition, we found a non-significant but intriguing trend for male-sterile plants to produce more seeds per flower than fertile siblings after supplemental pollination. Such pleiotropic effects may underlie the corolla dimorphism frequently observed in gynodioecious taxa and may affect selection on cytoplasmic male sterility genes when they initially arise. PMID:21245895

Barr, C M; Fishman, L

2011-01-01

132

Do female garter snakes evade males to avoid harassment or to enhance mate quality?  

PubMed

Females of many species behave in ways that make it difficult for males to locate, court, and inseminate them. Two hypotheses have been advanced to explain such behavior: either a female thereby minimizes costs of harassment (sexual conflict model) or by playing "hard to get" she discourages inferior suitors (indirect mate choice model). Our studies of garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) at a communal den in Manitoba support an interpretation of sexual conflict rather than indirect mate choice. Female snakes dispersed rapidly from the den through areas with relatively few males rather than waiting for additional courtship. Many females dispersed without mating. Experimental (pheromonal) manipulation of the intensity of courtship accelerated rates of female dispersal rather than delaying dispersal, as would be predicted if females wait to obtain matings. The behaviors of females escaping from courting groups were maximally effective in losing their suitors regardless of the number of courting males or whether or not the female was capable of mating (recently mated females cannot mate again because of a mating plug). In total, our data are most consistent with the hypothesis that female garter snakes at communal dens evade males to escape harassment rather than to enhance mate quality. PMID:15937746

Shine, Richard; Wall, Michael; Langkilde, Tracy; Mason, Robert T

2005-06-01

133

Females remate more frequently when mated with sperm-deficient males.  

PubMed

Polyandry is a source of sexual conflict and males often try to limit female promiscuity. Consequently, male manipulation of receptivity via antiaphrodisiacs and copulatory plugs that prevent female remating can be a source of sexual conflict. This sexual conflict may be intensified when females must remate for fertility insurance. Male red-sided garter snakes produce a large, gelatinous copulatory plug that has been proposed to 1) physically prevent remating and 2) contain an antiaphrodisiac that reduces female receptivity. These males may become sperm depleted because of their dissociated reproductive pattern. If a female mates with a sperm deficient male and is also rendered unreceptive to further mating, then this represents a serious conflict. We tested whether female remating frequency is affected when females are mated with a male that produces a sperm-less copulatory plug. We show that females are significantly more likely to remate after mating with vasectomized males than intact males, even though vasectomized males still produce a copulatory plug. These results suggest that the ejaculate material of the plug does not contain an antiaphrodisiac. Instead, females may use sperm as a cue for post-copulatory mate assessment and seek to remate for the direct benefit of fertility insurance if they have mated with sperm-depleted males. J. Exp. Zool. 321A: 603-609, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25366702

Friesen, Christopher R; Uhrig, Emily J; Mason, Robert T

2014-12-01

134

Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Contributes to Hybrid Incompatibility Between Subspecies of Arabidopsis lyrata  

PubMed Central

In crosses between evolutionarily diverged populations, genomic incompatibilities may result in sterile hybrids, indicating evolution of reproductive isolation. In several plant families, crosses within a population can also lead to male sterile progeny because of conflict between the maternally and biparentally inherited genomes. We examined hybrid fertility between subspecies of the perennial outcrossing self-incompatible Lyrate rockcress (Arabidopsis lyrata) in large reciprocal F2 progenies and three generations of backcrosses. In one of the reciprocal F2 progenies, almost one-fourth of the plants were male-sterile. Correspondingly, almost one-half of the plants in one of the four reciprocal backcross progenies expressed male sterility. In an additional four independent F2 and backcross families, three segregated male sterility. The observed asymmetrical hybrid incompatibility is attributable to male sterility factors in one cytoplasm, for which the other population lacks effective fertility restorers. Genotyping of 96 molecular markers and quantitative trait locus mapping revealed that only 60% of the plants having the male sterile cytoplasm and lacking the corresponding restorers were phenotypically male-sterile. Genotyping data showed that there is only one restorer locus, which mapped to a 600-kb interval at the top of chromosome 2 in a region containing a cluster of pentatricopeptide repeat genes. Male fertility showed no trade-off with seed production. We discuss the role of cytoplasm and genomic conflict in incipient speciation and conclude that cytoplasmic male sterility–lowering hybrid fitness is a transient effect with limited potential to form permanent reproductive barriers between diverged populations of hermaphrodite self-incompatible species. PMID:23935000

Aalto, Esa A.; Koelewijn, Hans-Peter; Savolainen, Outi

2013-01-01

135

A theoretical study on the evolution of male parental care and female multiple mating: Effects of female mate choice and male care bias  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male parental care and female multiple mating are seen in many species in spite of the cost they entail. Moreover, they even coexist in some species though polyandry, by reducing paternity confidence of caregiving males, seems to hinder the evolution of paternal care. Previous studies have investigated the coevolutionary process of paternal care and polyandry under various simplifying assumptions, including

Motohide Seki; Joe Yuichiro Wakano; Yasuo Ihara

2007-01-01

136

Effect of mating activity and dominance rank on male masturbation among free-ranging male rhesus macaques  

PubMed Central

The adaptive function of male masturbation is still poorly understood, despite its high prevalence in humans and other animals. In non-human primates, male masturbation is most frequent among anthropoid monkeys and apes living in multimale-multifemale groups with a promiscuous mating system. In these species, male masturbation may be a non-functional by-product of high sexual arousal or be adaptive by providing advantages in terms of sperm competition or by decreasing the risk of sexually transmitted infections. We investigated the possible functional significance of male masturbation using behavioral data collected on 21 free-ranging male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) at the peak of the mating season. We found some evidence that masturbation is linked to low mating opportunities: regardless of rank, males were most likely to be observed masturbating on days in which they were not observed mating, and lower-ranking males mated less and tended to masturbate more frequently than higher-ranking males. These results echo the findings obtained for two other species of macaques, but contrast those obtained in red colobus monkeys (Procolobus badius) and Cape ground squirrels (Xerus inauris). Interestingly, however, male masturbation events ended with ejaculation in only 15% of the observed masturbation time, suggesting that new hypotheses are needed to explain masturbation in this species. More studies are needed to establish whether male masturbation is adaptive and whether it serves similar or different functions in different sexually promiscuous species. PMID:24187414

Dubuc, Constance; Coyne, Sean P.; Maestripieri, Dario

2013-01-01

137

Adult female hamsters avoid interspecific mating after exposure to heterospecific males  

Microsoft Academic Search

When females mate with a heterospecific male, they do not usually produce viable offspring. Thus, there is a selective pressure\\u000a for females to avoid interspecific mating. In many species, females innately avoid heterospecific males; females can also\\u000a imprint on their parents to avoid later sexual interactions with heterospecific males. However, it was previously unknown\\u000a whether adult females can learn to

Javier delBarco-Trillo; M. E. McPhee; Robert E. Johnston

2010-01-01

138

Male vigilance in white-tailed ptarmigan, Lagopus leucurus : mate guarding or predator detection?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male white-tailed ptarmigan accompany their mates 88-92% of sightings before the onset of incubation, and while accompanying their mates, spend 22-30% of their time displaying vigilant behaviour. Two hypotheses to explain the function of male vigilance before onset of incubation were examined in white-tailed ptarmigan. The protection of paternity hypothesis proposes that male vigilance minimizes the threat of cuckoldry, thereby

THOMAS ARTISS; KATHY MARTIN

1995-01-01

139

The adaptiveness of intense contact mate guarding by males of the emerald damselfly, Lestes sponsa (Odonata, Lestidae): The male’s perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the mating system of the emerald damselflyLestes sponsa. All males showed intense contact mate guarding by holding the female in tendem during the entire oviposition period. Our\\u000a findings support the predictions made by Alcock (1994) about the occurrence of intense mate guarding: (1) a high female receptivity\\u000a after copulation, (2) a high male capacity to resist takeovers, (3)

Robby Stoks; Luc De Bruyn; Erik Matthysen

1997-01-01

140

Mating Experience and Food Deprivation Modulate Odor Preference and Dispersal in Drosophila melanogaster Males  

PubMed Central

Rotting fruits offer all of the known resources required for the livelihood of Drosophila melanogaster Meigen (Diptera: Drosophilidae). During fruit fermentation, carbohydrates and proteins are decomposed to produce volatile alcohols and amines, respectively. It is hypothesized that D. melanogaster adults can detect these chemical cues at a distance to identify and locate the decaying fruits. In the present paper, we compared the olfactory responses and movement of male flies varying in mating status and nutritional state to methanol, ethanol, and ammonia sources using a glass Y-tube olfactometer. In general, ethanol vapor at low to moderate concentrations repelled more hungry mated males than satiated ones. In contrast, methanol showed little difference in the attractiveness to males at different nutritional states and mating status. Moreover, ammonia attracted more hungry mated males. The attractiveness increased almost linearly with ammonia concentration from lowest to highest. When ammonia and artificial diet were put together in the odor arm, the responses of male flies to mixed odor mimicked the response to ammonia. Furthermore, odorant concentration, mating status, and nutritional state affected the flies' dispersal. Mated and starved males dispersed at a higher rate than virgin and satiated ones. Thus, our results showed that starved, mated males increased dispersal and preferred ammonia that originated from protein. PMID:25368075

Wang, Shu-Ping; Guo, Wei-Yan; Muhammad, Shahid Arain; Chen, Rui-Rui; Mu, Li-Li; Li, Guo-Qing

2014-01-01

141

Variation in Male Fertilities and Pairwise Mating Probabilities in Picea glauca  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frequencies of multilocus male gametes in seeds collected from clones in several blocks of a white spruce seed orchard were analyzed as part of a 2-yr study of mating system variation in this species. Observed frequencies of male gamete types departed significantly from those expected assuming equal male fertilities among clones. Male gamete frequencies in seed crops were significantly hetero-

D. J. Schoen; S. C. Stewart

1987-01-01

142

Multiple mating in Calopteryx maculata (Odonata: Calopterygidae) and the advantage of non-contact guarding by males  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. (1)Both males and females in a population of Calopteryx maculata mated more than once in the course of a single afternoon. The possibility that females might mate with an intruder or with a neighbouring territory owner may have favoured the evolution of guarding behaviour by males. Territorial males employed non-contact guarding of their mates. They perched on vegetation overlooking

John Alcock

1979-01-01

143

Mating in the red-sided garter snake, Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis : differential effects on male and female sexual behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female red-sided garter snakes, Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis, become unattractive to most males after mating in the field and in the laboratory. Male red-sided garter snakes vary in their latencies to court attractive females following copulation, with courtship resuming in minutes to hours. Unsuccessful males in mating balls disperse from mating pairs, but are not residually inhibited from courting attractive females.

Joan M. Whittier; Robert T. Mason; David Crews

1985-01-01

144

INTRODUCTION Understanding both male and female mating beha-  

E-print Network

). If populations differ in, for example, sex ratio, density, resource avail- ability, the presence of predators in determining mating out- comes, is essential if we are to determine the relative importance of the two sexes of sexual selection and in the optimal mating rate for either or both of the two sexes (e.g. Kokko & Rankin

145

Ultrastructure in Microspore Abortion of Genic Male Sterile Line in Sesame ( Sesamum indicum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the abortion mechanism of genic male sterile (GMS) line in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.), a comparative study was conducted on the fertile and sterile microsporogenesis of ms86-1 using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. According to the morphologic characteristics of the microspores, the developmental process of sesame pollen could be tentatively divided into 7 stages, namely microsporocyte formation, microsporocyte

Xiao-Li YANG; Hai-Yang ZHANG; Wang-Zhen GUO; Yong-Zhan ZHENG; Hong-Mei MIAO; Li-Bin WEI; Tian-Zhen ZHANG

2008-01-01

146

Histology of sterile male and female cones in Pinus monticola (western white pine)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two years of histological samples were collected from a Pinus monticola Dougl. (western white pine) tree identified as not producing mature pollen or seed cones. Anatomical information was collected to the ultrastructural level, to assess possible mechanisms for pollen and cone abortion resulting in sterility. Development of male and female gametophytes in the sterile western white pine tree was arrested

Vivienne R. Wilson; John N. Owens

2003-01-01

147

Transgenic male mating advantage provides opportunity for Trojan gene effect in a fish.  

PubMed

Genetically modified (GM) strains now exist for many organisms, producing significant promise for agricultural production. However, if these organisms have some fitness advantage, they may also pose an environmental harm when released. High mating success of GM males relative to WT males provides such an important fitness advantage. Here, we provide documentation that GM male medaka fish modified with salmon growth hormone possess an overwhelming mating advantage. GM medaka offspring possess a survival disadvantage relative to WT, however. When both of these fitness components are included in our model, the transgene is predicted to spread if GM individuals enter wild populations (because of the mating advantage) and ultimately lead to population extinction (because of the viability disadvantage). Mating trials indicate that WT males use alternative mating tactics in an effort to counter the mating advantage of GM males, and we use genetic markers to ascertain the success of these alternative strategies. Finally, we model the impact of alternative mating tactics by WT males on transgene spread. Such tactics may reduce the rate of transgene spread, but not the outcome. PMID:14976259

Howard, Richard D; DeWoody, J Andrew; Muir, William M

2004-03-01

148

Role of nutritional reserves and body size in Anopheles gambiae males mating success.  

PubMed

A better knowledge of the different parameters that account for male mating success in the wild is critical to the development of genetic control strategies. In this study, we measured energy budgets (total sugar and glycogen) as the daily energetic investment in swarming males of An. gambiae s.s. M and S molecular forms from two different field locations, VK7 and Soumousso. We also looked at the difference between energetic reserves in mated males compared to unmated ones, and assessed wing length in both molecular forms to explore whether this phenotypic trait was involved in swarming behavior or mating success. The current study showed that the energetic cost of 25 min of swarming was around 50% of the male's sugar (M form: 48.5%, S form: 56.2%) and glycogen (M form: 53.1%, S form: 59%) reserves. However, no difference in carbohydrate content was observed between mated and unmated males. Mated males were found to be bigger than unmated ones, while intermediate size of males is advantageous in mating system, both in M and S molecular forms and when collected in two different locations. Regardless of the collection location, no difference in wing size was observed in swarming males collected early or late during a particular swarm. The results are discussed in the context sexual selection in different ecological locations. PMID:24021933

Maïga, Hamidou; Niang, Abdoulaye; Sawadogo, Simon P; Dabiré, Roch K; Lees, Rosemary Susan; Gilles, Jeremie R L; Tripet, Frédéric; Diabaté, Abdoulaye

2014-04-01

149

Predators and Mates: Conflicting Selection on the Size of Male Pacific Treefrogs (Pseudacris Regilla)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the large amount of work on frog mating systems, the potential role of predators as an agent of selection on breeding adults has received very little study. Here, I use data from multiple populations of Pacific Treefrogs (Pseudacris regilla) to demonstrate that sexual selection from mating success favors larger males, but natural selection from predation by giant water bugs

Michael F. Benard

2007-01-01

150

Gene expression divergence and nucleotide differentiation between males of different color morphs and mating  

E-print Network

and mating strategies in a non-model bird species, the ruff (Philoma- chus pugnax). Ruff males show enormous other Independents, whereas white morphs (Satellites) co-occupy Independent's courts without agonistic-group gene. Many of the genes with significant genetic structure between mating strategies have not yet been

151

Multi-male mating, probability of conception, and litter size in the prairie vole ( Microtus ochrogaster)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a mating experiment in the laboratory using prairie voles, Microtus ochrogaster, to document that multi-male mating (MMM) can occur in this supposedly monogamous species and to test two hypotheses for the advantages of MMM in female mammals. The two hypotheses are that MMM (1) increases the probability of pregnancy and (2) increases litter size. We also tested the

Jerry O. Wolff; Aimee S. Dunlap

2002-01-01

152

Adult female hamsters require long and sustained exposures to heterospecific males to avoid interspecific mating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interspecific mating normally decreases female fitness. In many species, females avoid heterospecific males innately or by\\u000a imprinting on their parents. Alternatively, adult females could learn to discriminate against heterospecific males after exposure\\u000a to such males. For example, Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) females learn to discriminate between conspecific males and Turkish hamster (M. brandti) males during adulthood by exposure to males

Javier delBarco-Trillo; Robert E. Johnston

2011-01-01

153

When not to copy: female fruit flies use sophisticated public information to avoid mated males  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Semen limitation (lack of semen to fertilize all of a female's eggs) imposes high fitness costs to female partners. Females should therefore avoid mating with semen-limited males. This can be achieved by using public information extracted from watching individual males' previous copulating activities. This adaptive preference should be flexible given that semen limitation is temporary. We first demonstrate that the number of offspring produced by males Drosophila melanogaster gradually decreases over successive copulations. We then show that females avoid mating with males they just watched copulating and that visual public cues are sufficient to elicit this response. Finally, after males were given the time to replenish their sperm reserves, females did not avoid the males they previously saw copulating anymore. These results suggest that female fruit flies may have evolved sophisticated behavioural processes of resistance to semen-limited males, and demonstrate unsuspected adaptive context-dependent mate choice in an invertebrate.

Loyau, Adeline; Blanchet, Simon; van Laere, Pauline; Clobert, Jean; Danchin, Etienne

2012-10-01

154

Research to Support Sterile-male-release and Genetic Alteration Techniques for Sea Lamprey Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated pest management of sea lampreys in the Laurentian Great Lakes has recently been enhanced by addition of a sterile-male-release program, and future developments in genetic approaches may lead to additional methods for reducing sea lamprey reproduction. We review the development, implementation, and evaluation of the sterile-male-release technique (SMRT) as it is being applied against sea lampreys in the Great

Roger A. Bergstedt; Michael B. Twohey

2007-01-01

155

A Moricandia arvensis– based cytoplasmic male sterility and fertility restoration system in Brassica juncea  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cytoplasmic male-sterility system has been developed in mustard (Brassica juncea) following repeated backcrossings of the somatic hybrid Moricandia arvensis (2n=28, MM)+B. juncea (2n=36, AABB), carrying mitochondria and chloroplasts from M. arvensis, to Brassica juncea. Cytoplasmic male-sterile (CMS) plants are similar to normal B. juncea; however, the leaves exhibit severe chlorosis resulting in delayed flowering. Flowers are normal with slender,

S. Prakash; P. B. Kirti; S. R. Bhat; K. Gaikwad; V. D. Kumar; V. L. Chopra

1998-01-01

156

Copper reduced mating behaviour in male shore crabs (Carcinus maenas (L.)).  

PubMed

Many crustaceans use pheromones to find mates and induce mating behaviours. If pollutants impair the ability to detect chemosensory cues and respond to pheromone signals, they could profoundly affect mating. In a series of laboratory experiments, the effect of copper (0, 0.1 or 0.5 mg Cu(II) per litre for 5 days) on specific components of the mating behaviour of male shore crab Carcinus maenas was investigated, as well as differences in sensitivity between red and green colour morphs. The results show that copper exposure clearly altered the response of C. maenas males to a pheromone stimulus (pre-moult female urine) presented alone, together with a dummy female (a sponge injected with pre-moult female urine) or with a real female. Crabs exposed to the highest copper treatment took more than twice as long to initiate search activity after pheromone introduction and their search behaviour was less directed. When offered a dummy female, male crabs showed decreased pheromone discrimination in both copper treatments. Stroking was the only mating behaviour significantly affected, with a 90% reduction in red crabs in the highest copper treatment. Additionally, crabs of the highest copper treatment more often pinched the dummy female (non-mating behaviour). Finally, male crabs exposed to copper more often pinched pre-moult females and it took about three times longer to establish cradle-carrying. Thus, copper affects the ability of males to detect female pheromones, perform specific mating behaviours and to form pairs. PMID:16942808

Krång, Anna-Sara; Ekerholm, Mattias

2006-10-25

157

Male and female mate choice affects offspring quality in a sex-role-reversed pipefish.  

PubMed Central

Where both sexes invest substantially in offspring, both females and males should discriminate between potential partners when choosing mates. The degree of choosiness should relate to the costs of choice and to the potential benefits to be gained. We measured offspring quality from experimentally staged matings with preferred and non-preferred partners in a sex-role-reversed pipefish, Syngnathus typhle L. Here, a substantial male investment in offspring results in a lower potential reproductive rate in males than in females, and access to males limits female reproductive success rather than vice versa. Thus, males are choosier than females and females compete more intensely over mates than do males. Broods from preferred matings were superior at escaping predation, when either males or females were allowed to choose a partner. However, only 'choosing' females benefited in terms of faster-growing offspring. Our results have important implications for mate-choice research: here we show that even the more competitive and less choosy sex may contribute significantly to sexual selection through mate choice. PMID:11413626

Sandvik, M; Rosenqvist, G; Berglund, A

2000-01-01

158

Transgenic induction of mitochondrial rearrangements for cytoplasmic male sterility in crop plants  

PubMed Central

Stability of the mitochondrial genome is controlled by nuclear loci. In plants, nuclear genes suppress mitochondrial DNA rearrangements during development. One nuclear gene involved in this process is Msh1. Msh1 appears to be involved in the suppression of illegitimate recombination in plant mitochondria. To test the hypothesis that Msh1 disruption leads to the type of mitochondrial DNA rearrangements associated with naturally occurring cytoplasmic male sterility in plants, a transgenic approach for RNAi was used to modulate expression of Msh1 in tobacco and tomato. In both species, these experiments resulted in reproducible mitochondrial DNA rearrangements and a condition of male (pollen) sterility. The male sterility was, in each case, heritable, associated with normal female fertility, and apparently maternal in its inheritance. Segregation of the transgene did not reverse the male sterile phenotype, producing stable, nontransgenic male sterility. The reproducible transgenic induction of mitochondrial rearrangements in plants is unprecedented, providing a means to develop novel cytoplasmic male sterile lines for release as non-GMO or transgenic materials. PMID:17261806

Sandhu, Ajay Pal S.; Abdelnoor, Ricardo V.; Mackenzie, Sally A.

2007-01-01

159

Transgenic induction of mitochondrial rearrangements for cytoplasmic male sterility in crop plants.  

PubMed

Stability of the mitochondrial genome is controlled by nuclear loci. In plants, nuclear genes suppress mitochondrial DNA rearrangements during development. One nuclear gene involved in this process is Msh1. Msh1 appears to be involved in the suppression of illegitimate recombination in plant mitochondria. To test the hypothesis that Msh1 disruption leads to the type of mitochondrial DNA rearrangements associated with naturally occurring cytoplasmic male sterility in plants, a transgenic approach for RNAi was used to modulate expression of Msh1 in tobacco and tomato. In both species, these experiments resulted in reproducible mitochondrial DNA rearrangements and a condition of male (pollen) sterility. The male sterility was, in each case, heritable, associated with normal female fertility, and apparently maternal in its inheritance. Segregation of the transgene did not reverse the male sterile phenotype, producing stable, nontransgenic male sterility. The reproducible transgenic induction of mitochondrial rearrangements in plants is unprecedented, providing a means to develop novel cytoplasmic male sterile lines for release as non-GMO or transgenic materials. PMID:17261806

Sandhu, Ajay Pal S; Abdelnoor, Ricardo V; Mackenzie, Sally A

2007-02-01

160

Fitting It All Together: How Courtship- and Mating-Responsive Genes Affect Drosophila melanogaster Male Behavior  

E-print Network

by utilizing microarray technology to assess courtship- or mating-induced gene expression changes in Drosophila male whole bodies or heads. Mutations in candidate loci were tested for effects on reproductive behaviors and present the first data showing...

Ellis, Lisa Lynn

2011-10-21

161

Evolution of male mating behavior: male spadefoot toads preferentially associate with conspecific males  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of male breeding aggregations is difficult to explain because males may reduce their reproductive success by\\u000a associating with their closest competitors. We examined aggregative behavior by male New Mexico spadefoot toads, Spea multiplicata, which form breeding choruses in rain-filled pools. We specifically asked whether males are attracted to conspecific calls\\u000a and, if so, whether they preferentially associate with

Karin S. Pfennig; Katrina Rapa; Regan McNatt

2000-01-01

162

A Cryptic Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Unveils a Possible Gynodioecious Past for Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

Gynodioecy, the coexistence of hermaphrodites and females (i.e. male-sterile plants) in natural plant populations, most often results from polymorphism at genetic loci involved in a particular interaction between the nuclear and cytoplasmic genetic compartments (cytonuclear epistasis): cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS). Although CMS clearly contributes to the coevolution of involved nuclear loci and cytoplasmic genomes in gynodioecious species, the occurrence of CMS genetic factors in the absence of sexual polymorphism (cryptic CMS) is not easily detected and rarely taken in consideration. We found cryptic CMS in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana after crossing distantly related accessions, Sha and Mr-0. Male sterility resulted from an interaction between the Sha cytoplasm and two Mr-0 genomic regions located on chromosome 1 and chromosome 3. Additional accessions with either nuclear sterility maintainers or sterilizing cytoplasms were identified from crosses with either Sha or Mr-0. By comparing two very closely related cytoplasms with different male-sterility inducing abilities, we identified a novel mitochondrial ORF, named orf117Sha, that is most likely the sterilizing factor of the Sha cytoplasm. The presence of orf117Sha was investigated in worldwide natural accessions. It was found mainly associated with a single chlorotype in accessions belonging to a clade predominantly originating from Central Asia. More than one-third of accessions from this clade carried orf117Sha, indicating that the sterilizing-inducing cytoplasm had spread in this lineage. We also report the coexistence of the sterilizing cytoplasm with a non-sterilizing cytoplasm at a small, local scale in a natural population; in addition a correlation between cytotype and nuclear haplotype was detected in this population. Our results suggest that this CMS system induced sexual polymorphism in A. thaliana populations, at the time when the species was mainly outcrossing. PMID:23658632

Gobron, Nicolas; Waszczak, Cezary; Simon, Matthieu; Hiard, Sophie; Boivin, Stéphane; Charif, Delphine; Ducamp, Aloïse; Wenes, Estelle; Budar, Françoise

2013-01-01

163

Instability in mitochondrial membranes in Polima cytoplasmic male sterility of Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis.  

PubMed

Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is an important factor to observe heterosis in Brassica rapa. Although several studies have documented the rearrangements of mitochondrial DNA and dysfunction in the mitochondria have been observed in most types of CMS, the basis of the molecular mechanisms involved in these processes and other effects on CMS remain unclear. In this study, suppression subtractive hybridization was performed in the flowers of an alloplasmic Polima CMS system from B. rapa ssp. chinensis to identify genes that are differentially expressed between fertile and sterile plants. A total of 443 clones were isolated (156 were upregulated in fertile buds, and 287 were upregulated in sterile ones). Real-time RT-PCR further demonstrated the credibility of SSH. Among these genes, many membrane protein genes (LTP12, PIP2A, and GRP14) were inhibited in the sterile male line. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) assay was then performed. Results showed that the sterile MMP was unstable and failed to create a potential difference; thus, mitochondrial dysfunction occurred. Moreover, abnormal microtubules and photosynthetic pathways were found in sterile male cells. Unstable MMP, nutritional deficiency, and abnormal microtubules were the causes of Polima CMS in Brassica campestris. H2O2, MDA, and O(2-), accumulated as byproducts of energy metabolism disorder in sterile male cells. PMID:24652098

Li, Ying; Liu, Tongkun; Duan, Weike; Song, Xiaoming; Shi, Gongjun; Zhang, Jingyi; Deng, Xiaohui; Zhang, Shuning; Hou, Xilin

2014-06-01

164

ALTERNATIVE MATING STRATEGIES IN MALE MORPHOTYPES OF THE FRESHWATER PRAWN MACROBRACHIUM ROSENBERGH (DE MAN)  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Males in a mature, single-age, pond population of the freshwater prawn Macro brachium rosenbergii,can be divided into three distinct morphological types, repre sentingthreephasesin the maledevelopmentalpathway(Brodyet a!., 1980).Behavioral and physical characteristicsof all three morphotypeswere examined with regardto mating behavior and reproductiveprobabilities. Two alternativemating strategiesare described.The largest,dominant males ac tively courtand protectthe femalespriorto mating.Malesof the intermediatecategory demonstrate,a reduced,rate of reproductive,activities in

Ziva Ra'anan; Amir Sagi

165

The sterile-male-release technique in Great Lakes sea lamprey management  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The implementation of a sterile-male-release technique from 1991 through 1999 and evaluation of its effectiveness in the Great Lakes sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) management program is reviewed. Male sea lampreys were injected with the chemosterilant bisazir (P,P-bis(1-aziridinyl)-N- methylphosphinothioic amide) using a robotic device. Quality assurance testing indicated the device delivered a consistent and effective dose of bisazir. Viability of embryos in an untreated control group was 64% compared to 1% in a treatment group. A task force developed nine hypotheses to guide implementation and evaluation of the technique. An annual average of 26,000 male sea lampreys was harvested from as many as 17 Great Lakes tributaries for use in the technique. An annual average of 16,100 sterilized males was released into 33 tributaries of Lake Superior to achieve a theoretical 59% reduction in larval production during 1991 to 1996. The average number of sterile males released in the St. Marys River increased from 4,000 during 1991 to 1996 to 20,100 during 1997 to 1999. The theoretical reduction in reproduction when combined with trapping was 57% during 1991 to 1996 and 86% during 1997 to 1999. Evaluation studies demonstrated that sterilized males were competitive and reduced production of larvae in streams. Field studies and simulation models suggest reductions in reproduction will result in fewer recruits, but there is risk of periodic high recruitment events independent of sterile-male release. Strategies to reduce reproduction will be most reliable when low densities of reproducing females are achieved. Expansion of the technique is limited by access to additional males for sterilization. Sterile-male release and other alternative controls are important in delivering integrated pest management and in reducing reliance on pesticides.

Twohey, M. B.; Heinrich, J. W.; Seelye, J. G.; Fredricks, K. T.; Bergstedt, R. A.; Kaye, C. A.; Scholefield, R. J.; McDonald, R. B.; Christie, G. C.

2003-01-01

166

The sterile-male-release technique in Great Lakes sea lamprey management  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The implementation of a sterile-male-release technique from 1991 through 1999 and evaluation of its effectiveness in the Great Lakes sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) management program is reviewed. Male sea lampreys were injected with the chemosterilant bisazir (P,P-bis(1-aziridinyl)-N-methylphosphinothioic amide) using a robotic device. Quality assurance testing indicated the device delivered a consistent and effective dose of bisazir. Viability of embryos in an untreated control group was 64% compared to 1% in a treatment group. A task force developed nine hypotheses to guide implementation and evaluation of the technique. An annual average of 26,000 male sea lampreys was harvested from as many as 17 Great Lakes tributaries for use in the technique. An annual average of 16,100 sterilized males was released into 33 tributaries of Lake Superior to achieve a theoretical 59% reduction in larval production during 1991 to 1996. The average number of sterile males released in the St. Marys River increased from 4,000 during 1991 to 1996 to 20,100 during 1997 to 1999. The theoretical reduction in reproduction when combined with trapping was 57% during 1991 to 1996 and 86% during 1997 to 1999. Evaluation studies demonstrated that sterilized males were competitive and reduced production of larvae in streams. Field studies and simulation models suggest reductions in reproduction will result in fewer recruits, but there is risk of periodic high recruitment events independent of sterile-male release. Strategies to reduce reproduction will be most reliable when low densities of reproducing females are achieved. Expansion of the technique is limited by access to additional males for sterilization. Sterile-male release and other alternative controls are important in delivering integrated pest management and in reducing reliance on pesticides.

Twohey, Michael B.; Heinrich, John W.; Seelye, James G.; Fredricks, Kim T.; Bergstedt, Roger A.; Kaye, Cheryl A.; Scholefield, Ron J.; McDonald, Rodney B.; Christie, Gavin C.

2003-01-01

167

Transgenic male mating advantage provides opportunity for Trojan gene effect in a fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified (GM) strains now exist for many organisms, producing significant promise for agricultural production. However, if these organisms have some fitness advantage, they may also pose an environmental harm when released. High mating success of GM males relative to WT males provides such an important fitness advantage. Here, we provide documentation that GM male medaka fish modified with salmon

Richard D. Howard; J. Andrew Dewoody; William M. Muir

2004-01-01

168

Courting male garter snakes ( Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis ) use multiple cues to identify potential mates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mating aggregations of red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) in Manitoba provide a unique opportunity to identify the cues that attract a male snake and induce him to court. The snakes are abundant, tolerate human presence, and males direct courtship to a subset of other males (\\

R. Shine; R. T. Mason

2001-01-01

169

Genetic Dissimilarity between Mates, but Not Male Heterozygosity, Influences Divorce in Schistosomes  

E-print Network

Genetic Dissimilarity between Mates, but Not Male Heterozygosity, Influences Divorce of vertebrate hosts with controlled larval populations of parasites, where sex and individual genetic diversity of the intensity of male-male competition. We found however no evidence for females attempting to maximize

Boyer, Edmond

170

Mating success of resident versus non-resident males in a territorial butterfly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male-male competition over territorial ownership suggests that winning is associated with considerable benefits. In the speckled wood butterfly, Pararge aegeria, males fight over sunspot territories on the forest floor; winners gain sole residency of a sunspot, whereas losers patrol the forest in search of females. It is currently not known whether residents experience greater mating success than non- residents, or

Martin Bergman; Karl Gotthard; David Berger; Martin Olofsson; Darrell J. Kemp; Christer Wiklund

2007-01-01

171

Male mate-locating behavior in Euphydryas chalcedona (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) related to pupation site preferences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Males of the checkerspot butterfly (Euphydryas chalcedona)patrol and perch near but not on the larval foodplant in search of females. Experiments with tethered butterflies show that searching males chase virgin females for longer times than they do mated females or males. The larvae leave the larval food-plant to pupate. The correspondence between the distance from the larval foodplant to pupation

Ronald L. Rutowski; George W. Gilchrist; Barbara Terkanian

1988-01-01

172

Male coercion and the costs of promiscuous mating for female chimpanzees  

E-print Network

with the females that they are relatively more aggressive towards. Third, there must be a cost to male aggress 02138, USA For reasons that are not yet clear, male aggression against females occurs frequently among primates with promiscuous mating systems. Here, we test the sexual coercion hypothesis that male aggression

Wrangham, Richard W.

173

Female mate preferences for male body size and shape promote sexual isolation in threespine sticklebacks.  

PubMed

Female mate preferences for ecologically relevant traits may enhance natural selection, leading to rapid divergence. They may also forge a link between mate choice within species and sexual isolation between species. Here, we examine female mate preference for two ecologically important traits: body size and body shape. We measured female preferences within and between species of benthic, limnetic, and anadromous threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus species complex). We found that mate preferences differed between species and between contexts (i.e., within vs. between species). Within species, anadromous females preferred males that were deep bodied for their size, benthic females preferred larger males (as measured by centroid size), and limnetic females preferred males that were more limnetic shaped. In heterospecific mating trials between benthics and limnetics, limnetic females continued to prefer males that were more limnetic like in shape when presented with benthic males. Benthic females showed no preferences for size when presented with limnetic males. These results show that females use ecologically relevant traits to select mates in all three species and that female preference has diverged between species. These results suggest that sexual selection may act in concert with natural selection on stickleback size and shape. Further, our results suggest that female preferences may track adaptation to local environments and contribute to sexual isolation between benthic and limnetic sticklebacks. PMID:23919161

Head, Megan L; Kozak, Genevieve M; Boughman, Janette W

2013-07-01

174

Mapping individual variation in male mating preference space: multiple choice in a color polymorphic cichlid fish.  

PubMed

Sexual selection theory largely rests on the assumption that populations contain individual variation in mating preferences and that individuals are consistent in their preferences. However, there are few empirical studies of within-population variation and even fewer have examined individual male mating preferences. Here, we studied a color polymorphic population of the Lake Victoria cichlid fish Neochromis omnicaeruleus, a species in which color morphs are associated with different sex-determining factors. Wild-caught males were tested in three-way choice trials with multiple combinations of different females belonging to the three color morphs. Compositional log-ratio techniques were applied to analyze individual male mating preferences. Large individual variation in consistency, strength, and direction of male mating preferences for female color morphs was found and hierarchical clustering of the compositional data revealed the presence of four distinct preference groups corresponding to the three color morphs in addition to a no-preference class. Consistency of individual male mating preferences was higher in males with strongest preferences. We discuss the implications of these findings for our understanding of the mechanisms underlying polymorphism in mating preferences. PMID:19473391

Pierotti, Michele E R; Martín-Fernández, Josep A; Seehausen, Ole

2009-09-01

175

Sex in the dark: determinants and consequences of mixed male mating tactics in Microcebus murinus , a small solitary nocturnal primate  

Microsoft Academic Search

In mammals with solitary females, the potential for males to monopolize matings is relatively low, and scramble competition polygyny is presumed to be the predominant mating system. However, combinations of male traits and mating tactics within this type of polygyny have been described. The main aim of our study was to identify the relative importance of, and interactions among, potential

Manfred Eberle; Peter M. Kappeler

2004-01-01

176

Male Mating Rate Is Constrained by Seminal Fluid Availability in Bedbugs, Cimex lectularius  

PubMed Central

Sexual selection, differences in reproductive success between individuals, continues beyond acquiring a mating partner and affects ejaculate size and composition (sperm competition). Sperm and seminal fluid have very different roles in sperm competition but both components encompass production costs for the male. Theoretical models predict that males should spend ejaculate components prudently and differently for sperm and seminal fluid but empirical evidence for independent variation of sperm number and seminal fluid volume is scarce. It is also largely unknown how sperm and seminal fluid variation affect future mating rate. In bedbugs we developed a protocol to examine the role of seminal fluids in ejaculate allocation and its effect on future male mating rate. Using age-related changes in sperm and seminal fluid volume we estimated the lowest capacity at which mating activity started. We then showed that sexually active males allocate 12% of their sperm and 19% of their seminal fluid volume per mating and predicted that males would be depleted of seminal fluid but not of sperm. We tested (and confirmed) this prediction empirically. Finally, the slightly faster replenishment of seminal fluid compared to sperm did not outweigh the faster decrease during mating. Our results suggest that male mating rate can be constrained by the availability of seminal fluids. Our protocol might be applicable to a range of other organisms. We discuss the idea that economic considerations in sexual conflict research might benefit from distinguishing between costs and benefits that are ejaculate dose-dependent and those that are frequency-dependent on the mating rate per se. PMID:21779378

Reinhardt, Klaus; Naylor, Richard; Siva-Jothy, Michael T.

2011-01-01

177

The Population Dynamical Implications of Male-Biased Parasitism in Different Mating Systems  

PubMed Central

Although there is growing evidence that males tend to suffer higher levels of parasitism than females, the implications of this for the population dynamics of the host population are not yet understood. Here we build on an established ‘two-sex’ model and investigate how increased susceptibility to infection in males affects the dynamics, under different mating systems. We investigate the effect of pathogenic disease at different case mortalities, under both monogamous and polygynous mating systems. If the case mortality is low, then male-biased parasitism appears similar to unbiased parasitism in terms of its effect on the population dynamics. At higher case mortalities, we identified significant differences between male-biased and unbiased parasitism. A host population may therefore be differentially affected by male-biased and unbiased parasitism. The dynamical outcome is likely to depend on a complex interaction between the host's mating system and demography, and the parasite virulence. PMID:17637840

Miller, Martin R.; White, Andrew; Wilson, Kenneth; Boots, Michael

2007-01-01

178

Courtship raises male fertilization success through post-mating sexual selection in a spider  

PubMed Central

Courtship is well known for its positive effects on mating success. However, in polyandrous species, sexual selection continues to operate after copulation. Cryptic female choice is expected under unpredictable mating rates in combination with sequential mate encounters. However, there are very few accounts of the effects of courtship on cryptic female choice, and the available evidence is often correlative. Mature Argiope bruennichi females are always receptive and never attack or reject males before mating, although sexual cannibalism after mating occurs regularly. Still, males usually perform an energetic vibratory display prior to copulation. We tested the hypothesis that beneficial effects of courtship arise cryptically, during or after mating, resulting in increased paternity success under polyandry. Manipulating courtship duration experimentally, we found that males that mated without display had a reduced paternity share even though no differences in post-copulatory cannibalism or copulation duration were detected. This suggests that the paternity advantage associated with courtship arose through female-mediated processes after intromission, meeting the definition of cryptic female choice. PMID:19515667

Schneider, Jutta M.; Lesmono, Kristiani

2009-01-01

179

Courtship raises male fertilization success through post-mating sexual selection in a spider.  

PubMed

Courtship is well known for its positive effects on mating success. However, in polyandrous species, sexual selection continues to operate after copulation. Cryptic female choice is expected under unpredictable mating rates in combination with sequential mate encounters. However, there are very few accounts of the effects of courtship on cryptic female choice, and the available evidence is often correlative. Mature Argiope bruennichi females are always receptive and never attack or reject males before mating, although sexual cannibalism after mating occurs regularly. Still, males usually perform an energetic vibratory display prior to copulation. We tested the hypothesis that beneficial effects of courtship arise cryptically, during or after mating, resulting in increased paternity success under polyandry. Manipulating courtship duration experimentally, we found that males that mated without display had a reduced paternity share even though no differences in post-copulatory cannibalism or copulation duration were detected. This suggests that the paternity advantage associated with courtship arose through female-mediated processes after intromission, meeting the definition of cryptic female choice. PMID:19515667

Schneider, Jutta M; Lesmono, Kristiani

2009-09-01

180

Showing Off in Humans: Male Generosity as a Mating Signal  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined people's charity contributions while in the presence of an observer of the same sex, opposite sex, or no observer. Inspired by costly signaling theory, we hypothesized that men would be more generous in the presence of a potential mate. Men and women played a number of experimental games in which they could earn money. On completion of these

Wendy Iredale; Mark Van Vugt; Robin Dunbar

181

Costs influence male mate choice in a freshwater fish  

E-print Network

for correspondence (bob.wong@anu.edu.au). Recd 06.01.03; Accptd 29.01.03; Online 06.03.03 It is well known to predators (Gibson & Langen 1996). These costs, in turn, may affect the rules choosy individuals use to dis among potential mates is important for both sexes. Females are typically the choosier sex but, under

Keogh, Scott

182

Choosy males from the underground: male mating preferences in surface- and cave-dwelling Atlantic mollies (Poecilia mexicana).  

PubMed

Atlantic mollies (Poecilia mexicana) inhabit a variety of surface habitats, but they also occur in a sulfur cave in southern Mexico. We examined male mate choice relative to female body size in the cave population and in the most closely related surface-dwelling population from a nearby river. Males from both populations were either light- or dark-reared and could choose between two differently sized females either on the basis of visual cues in light or on the basis of solely nonvisual cues in darkness. Sexual preferences were estimated from the degree of association. Cave molly males always showed a preference for the larger female, both in light and in darkness. Among the surface males, only light-reared males showed a preference in the visual cues test, but not in darkness. In a control experiment, we demonstrated that male association preferences directly translate into actual mating preferences. Apparently, using visual cues for mate choice is the ancestral state in this system, and using nonvisual cues has evolved as a novel trait in the cave population. We discuss the evolution of nonvisual male mate choice in the context of changed environmental conditions, namely the absence of light, hypoxia, and toxic hydrogen sulfide in the cave. PMID:16404589

Plath, Martin; Seggel, Uta; Burmeister, Heike; Heubel, Katja U; Schlupp, Ingo

2006-03-01

183

Species-isolating mechanisms in a mating system with male mate choice (garter snakes, Thamnophis spp.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reproductive isolation between sympatric taxa can be maintained by specific mate-recognition behaviours or by ecological divergence that reduces interspecific contact during reproduction. Common garter snakes, Thamnophis sirtalis (L., 1758), and plains garter snakes, Thamnophis radix (Baird and Girard, 1853), are sympatric over large areas, but morphological data suggest that the prezygotic isolation between these two species partially breaks down in

Richard Shine; Benjamin Phillips; Heather Waye; Michael Lemaster; Robert T. Mason

2004-01-01

184

Meiotic disturbances related to human male sterility J. M. LUCIANI, A. STAHL  

E-print Network

of each anomaly, we would like to consider in more detail three groups : males with Klinefelter's syndrome, 47, XYY patients and those males with autosomal anomalies. Aside from these mitotic aberrations constitution. 1. Klinefelter's syndrome. - The role of certain gonosomal anomalies in relation to sterility

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

185

Meiotic Sex Chromosome Inactivation Is Disrupted in Sterile Hybrid Male House Mice  

PubMed Central

In male mammals, the X and Y chromosomes are transcriptionally silenced in primary spermatocytes by meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI) and remain repressed for the duration of spermatogenesis. Here, we test the longstanding hypothesis that disrupted MSCI might contribute to the preferential sterility of heterogametic hybrid males. We studied a cross between wild-derived inbred strains of Mus musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus in which sterility is asymmetric: F1 males with a M. m. musculus mother are sterile or nearly so while F1 males with a M. m. domesticus mother are normal. In previous work, we discovered widespread overexpression of X-linked genes in the testes of sterile but not fertile F1 males. Here, we ask whether this overexpression is specifically a result of disrupted MSCI. To do this, we isolated cells from different stages of spermatogenesis and measured the expression of several genes using quantitative PCR. We found that X overexpression in sterile F1 primary spermatocytes is coincident with the onset of MSCI and persists in postmeiotic spermatids. Using a series of recombinant X genotypes, we then asked whether X overexpression in hybrids is controlled by cis-acting loci across the X chromosome. We found that it is not. Instead, one large interval in the proximal portion of the M. m. musculus X chromosome is associated with both overexpression and the severity of sterility phenotypes in hybrids. These results demonstrate a strong association between X-linked hybrid male sterility and disruption of MSCI and suggest that trans-acting loci on the X are important for the transcriptional regulation of the X chromosome during spermatogenesis. PMID:23307891

Campbell, Polly; Good, Jeffrey M.; Nachman, Michael W.

2013-01-01

186

Vibratory communication in the jumping spider Phidippus clarus: polyandry, male courtship signals, and mating success  

Microsoft Academic Search

The jumping spider Phidippus clarus uses signals that combine visual and substrate-borne vibrations, which predict the outcome of male--male competition and are important to copulation success. We investigated the function of males' substrate-borne vibrations by examining phenotypic correlates of vibratory signal traits and assessing whether these affect female mating and remating decisions. Virgin females were first paired with males, and

Senthurran Sivalinghem; Michael M. Kasumovic; Andrew C. Mason; Maydianne C. B. Andrade; Damian O. Elias

2010-01-01

187

Mating success of resident versus non-resident males in a territorial butterfly  

PubMed Central

Male–male competition over territorial ownership suggests that winning is associated with considerable benefits. In the speckled wood butterfly, Pararge aegeria, males fight over sunspot territories on the forest floor; winners gain sole residency of a sunspot, whereas losers patrol the forest in search of females. It is currently not known whether residents experience greater mating success than non-residents, or whether mating success is contingent on environmental conditions. Here we performed an experiment in which virgin females of P. aegeria were allowed to choose between a resident and a non-resident male in a large enclosure containing one territorial sunspot. Resident males achieved approximately twice as many matings as non-residents, primarily because matings were most often preceded by a female being discovered when flying through a sunspot. There was no evidence that territorial residents were more attractive per se, with females seen to reject them as often as non-residents. Furthermore, in the cases where females were discovered outside of the sunspot, they were just as likely to mate with non-residents as residents. We hypothesize that the proximate advantage of territory ownership is that light conditions in a large sunspot greatly increase the male's ability to detect and intercept passing receptive females. PMID:17472909

Bergman, Martin; Gotthard, Karl; Berger, David; Olofsson, Martin; Kemp, Darrell J; Wiklund, Christer

2007-01-01

188

Mating success of resident versus non-resident males in a territorial butterfly.  

PubMed

Male-male competition over territorial ownership suggests that winning is associated with considerable benefits. In the speckled wood butterfly, Pararge aegeria, males fight over sunspot territories on the forest floor; winners gain sole residency of a sunspot, whereas losers patrol the forest in search of females. It is currently not known whether residents experience greater mating success than non-residents, or whether mating success is contingent on environmental conditions. Here we performed an experiment in which virgin females of P. aegeria were allowed to choose between a resident and a non-resident male in a large enclosure containing one territorial sunspot. Resident males achieved approximately twice as many matings as non-residents, primarily because matings were most often preceded by a female being discovered when flying through a sunspot. There was no evidence that territorial residents were more attractive per se, with females seen to reject them as often as non-residents. Furthermore, in the cases where females were discovered outside of the sunspot, they were just as likely to mate with non-residents as residents. We hypothesize that the proximate advantage of territory ownership is that light conditions in a large sunspot greatly increase the male's ability to detect and intercept passing receptive females. PMID:17472909

Bergman, Martin; Gotthard, Karl; Berger, David; Olofsson, Martin; Kemp, Darrell J; Wiklund, Christer

2007-07-01

189

A Cytoplasmic Male SterilityAssociated Mitochondrial Peptide in Common Bean Is Post-Translationally Regulated  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytoplasmic male sterility in the common bean plant is associated with a dominant mitochondrial mutation designated pvs-orf239 (for Phaseolus vulgaris sterility sequence open reading frame 239). The sequence is transcribed in both veg- etative and reproductive tissues, but the translation product, ORF239, is present only in reproductive tissues. We present evidence to support a model of post-translational regulation of ORF239

Rodrigo Sarria; Anna Lyznik; C. Eduardo Vallejos; Sally A. Mackenzie

1998-01-01

190

Female-borne cues affecting Psyttalia concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) male behavior during courtship and mating.  

PubMed

Knowledge of the mechanisms that regulate courtship and mating behavior in Psyttalia concolor (Szépligeti)-a koinobiont endophagous solitary parasitoid of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), and of other fruit flies-is essential to its mass rearing and management. Augmentative releases of P. concolor for olive fruit fly control started in the Mediterranean areas in the 1950s and still continue with limited success. We determined the influence of visual and chemical cues on courtship and mating behavior of this braconid and the possible effect of the mating status of males and females in the perception of these cues. Our results suggest that integration of visual and chemical stimuli are fundamental for mate location and courtship. Indeed, the optimal response of the male was achieved when physical and chemical cues were simultaneously presented and vision and olfaction worked synergistically. PMID:23955889

Canale, Angelo; Benelli, Giovanni; Lucchi, Andrea

2013-06-01

191

The role of the male's cerci in copulation and mate guarding in decorated crickets (Gryllodes sigillatus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cerci are paired, sensory appendages extending from the terminal abdominal segment of crickets. While the cerci are acutely sensitive to air currents and thereby function in the detection of potential predators, they are also known to play a role in co-ordinating movements of males and females during copulation. The role of the male's cerci at four stages of the mating

Markus S. Ritz; Scott K. Sakaluk

2002-01-01

192

Red coloration of male northern cardinals correlates with mate quality and territory quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

I investigated how mate quality and territory quality influence an extravagant ornament in a socially monogamous species that defends multipurpose territories. Northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis) are a highly dichromatic, socially monogamous species, and males are a brilliant red. I conducted a 3-year field study of northern cardinals and found that redder males produced more offspring in a breeding season. Two

L. LaReesa Wolfenbarger

1999-01-01

193

Song repertoire size predicts initial mating success in male song sparrows, Melospiza melodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male song sparrows sing repertoires of 4-13 distinct song types and have proved a valuable model for testing hypotheses concerning the function and evolution of song complexity. Captive female song sparrows solicit more copulations in response to playback of larger repertoires, yet it remains unclear whether male repertoire size influences female mate choice in natural situations. We used long-term data

JANE M. REID; PETER ARCESE; ALICE L. E. V. CASSIDY; SARA M. HIEBERT; JAMES N. M. SMITH; PHILIP K. STODDARD; AMY B. MARR; LUKAS F. KELLER

2004-01-01

194

The Population Dynamical Implications of Male-Biased Parasitism in Different Mating Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there is growing evidence that males tend to suffer higher levels of parasitism than females, the implications of this for the population dynamics of the host population are not yet understood. Here we build on an established ‘two-sex’ model and investigate how increased susceptibility to infection in males affects the dynamics, under different mating systems. We investigate the effect

Martin R. Miller; Andrew White; Kenneth Wilson; Michael Boots; Alison Galvani

2007-01-01

195

Mutual Mate Assessment in Wolf Spiders: Differences in the Cues Used by Males and Females  

E-print Network

.edu Introduction Darwin (1871) originally proposed that males typically invest relatively little in parental care production and parental care and so they should be more selective of their mates (Darwin 1871; Trivers 1972 1992; Schneider et al. 2001), a situation which puts even more pressure on males to make a careful

Persons, Matthew H.

196

A polycystic kidney-disease gene homologue required for male mating behaviour in C. elegans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stereotyped mating behaviour of the Caenorhabditis elegans male is made up of several substeps: response, backing, turning, vulva location, spicule insertion and sperm transfer. The complexity of this behaviour is reflected in the sexually dimorphic anatomy and nervous system. Behavioural functions have been assigned to most of the male-specific sensory neurons by means of cell ablations; for example, the

Maureen M. Barr; Paul W. Sternberg

1999-01-01

197

An experimental approach to altering mating tactics in male horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative reproductive tactics are often correlated with phenotype, density, environment, or social context. Male horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus) have two mating tactics that are associated with phenotype. Males in good condition arrive at the nesting beach and spawn while attached to females, whereas those in poorer condition come ashore unattached and crowd around the nesting couples as satellites, fertilizing eggs

H. Jane Brockmann

2002-01-01

198

Mate choice in the grey partridge, Perdix perdix : role of physical and behavioural male traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The brown breast patch of the male grey partridge, the species' most conspicuous sexually dimorphic trait, was totally or partly bleached out, to test its influence on female preference. In mate-choice experiments, patch size (which was unaffected by early testosterone treatment) appeared to be unimportant: artificially and naturally bred females primarily selected males on the basis of their vocal performance.

LAURA BEANI; FRANCESCO DESSÌ-FULGHERI

1995-01-01

199

Female ornamentation and male mate choice in dark-eyed juncos  

E-print Network

or may not influence attractiveness in the other. In the dark-eyed junco, Junco hyemalis, outer tailFemale ornamentation and male mate choice in dark-eyed juncos WENDY L. WOLF, JOSEPH M. CASTO, VAL. During courtship, male juncos spread their tails, revealing their tail white, and a previous experiment

Casto, Joseph M.

200

FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH REDUCED FERTILITY AND IMPLANTATION RATES IN FEMALES MATED TO ACRYLAMIDE TREATED MALES  

EPA Science Inventory

A series of studies was conducted to examine the role of copulatory dysfunction, spermatotoxicity, and/or impaired fertilization in the reduced rates of fertility and implantation observed in females mated to acrylamid-treated male rats. In initial experiments, males were gavaged...

201

Release of thiotepa sterilized males into caged populations of Aedes aegypti: life table analysis.  

PubMed

Successful SIT trials against mosquitoes in the 1960-70s were achieved by sterilizing male mosquitoes using chemosterilants. Their use was discontinued after concerns were raised about the effect of residues on non-target organisms, although scant evidence has been published. Irradiation is an expensive process; chemosterilization could be an affordable option for implementing SIT programs in developing countries. We compare life table parameters of three Aedes aegypti populations comprising different ratios of thiotepa-treated and non-treated males in order to identify the impact on reproductive potential of the presence of sterile males. No difference was observed in the survival of the treated and untreated males. The release of thiotepa sterilized males into caged Ae. aegypti populations had no effect on death or survival probability of the individuals in the cages but the fecundity of females was significantly reduced, as evaluated by hatch rate and stable age structure parameters. The significant decreases in net reproduction rate, finite rate of natural increase and intrinsic rate of natural increase in populations including sterile males are sufficient to indicate that such populations would not be able to proliferate in natural conditions. This suggests that release of Ae. aegypti thiotepa-treated males could be effective in reducing the reproductive capability of the target population and consequently contribute to vector control. PMID:24513037

Gato, René; Companioni, Ariamys; Bruzón, Rosa Y; Menéndez, Zulema; González, Aileen; Rodríguez, Misladys

2014-04-01

202

Male and female mate choice affects offspring quality in a sex-role-reversed pipefish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Where both sexes invest substantially in o¡spring, both females and males should discriminate between potential partners when choosing mates. The degree of choosiness should relate to the costs of choice and to the potential bene¢ts to be gained. We measured o¡spring quality from experimentally staged matings with preferred and non-preferred partners in a sex-role-reversed pipe¢sh, Syngnathus typhle L. Here, a

Maria Sandvik; Gunilla Rosenqvist; Anders Berglund

2000-01-01

203

Mate choice among sympatric fur seals: female preference for conphenotypic males  

Microsoft Academic Search

When closely related species breed in sympatry, and where hybrids have lower fitness, reinforcement theory predicts that\\u000a selection should favour mechanisms that reduce the probability of interspecific matings. If this situation arises among species\\u000a that exhibit resource defence polygyny where males and females of different species reside in the same territories, there\\u000a may be some conflict between mate choice based

S. D. Goldsworthy; D. J. Boness; R. C. Fleischer

1999-01-01

204

Breeding male sterile lines of dutch onion varieties as a preliminary to the breeding of hybrid varieties  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.By means of test crossings to American male sterile varieties N ms ms plants were found in Netherlands onion varieties.2.In 14 man-days of searching in commercial seed plots 92 male sterile plants (S ms ms) were found. From these plants male sterile descendants were gained.3.From the S ms ms and N ms ms plants of the Netherlands variety Primeur a

O. Banga; J. Petiet

1958-01-01

205

Fluctuating asymmetry, size and mating success in males of Ischnura elegans (Vander Linden) (Odonata: Coenagrionidae).  

PubMed

Fluctuating asymmetry (FA) is thought to be an indicator of developmental stability and negatively related to male mating success in many animal taxa. We investigated the relationships between mating success of males, body size and FA for both wing length and number of setae on the legs in the damselfly Ischnura elegans. Males were classified as mated or unmated at the time of sampling. Fluctuating asymmetry, expressed as right-left differences, showed normal distributions without evidence of directional asymmetry or antisymmetry. Univariate analyses showed a significant negative correlation between size and mating success, and significant negative correlations between FA and mating success for both characters. On the other hand, with a multivariate analysis, new to studies on FA, the effect of body size was still significant but FA did not reach significance for either character. We conclude that the multivariate analysis should be used to assess the role of the different factors affecting mating success. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:10640379

Carchini; Chiarotti; Di Domenico M; Paganotti

2000-01-01

206

Sexual selection for male dominance reduces opportunities for female mate choice in the European bitterling (Rhodeus sericeus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual selection involves two main mechanisms: intrasexual competition for mates and intersexual mate choice. We experimentally separated intrasexual (male-male interference competition) and intersexual (female choice) components of sexual selection in a freshwater fish, the European bitterling ( Rhodeus sericeus ). We compared the roles of multiple morphological and behavioural traits in male success in both components of sexual com- petition,

M. REICHARD; J. BRYJA; M. ONDRACKOVA; M. DAVIDOVA; P. KANIEWSKA; C. SMITH

2005-01-01

207

Tied to the nest: male black-capped chickadees decrease dawn chorus movement behaviour when their mate is fertile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male songbirds typically mate-guard by closely following the female during her fertile period. At dawn, males may sing near the nest or roost to direct their chorus at mates. Recent evidence suggests males may also be involved in singing interactions with neighbours during the dawn chorus. We used a 16- channel acoustic location system to examine the movement behaviour of

Jennifer R. Foote; Lauren P. Fitzsimmons; Daniel J. Mennill; Laurene M. Ratcliffe

2008-01-01

208

Variation in fecal testosterone levels, inter-male aggression, dominance rank and age during mating and post-mating periods in wild adult male ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta).  

PubMed

In primate species exhibiting seasonal reproduction, patterns of testosterone excretion in adult males are variable: in some species, peaks correlate with female receptivity periods and heightened male-male aggression over access to estrous females, in others, neither heightened aggression nor marked elevations in testosterone have been noted. In this study, we examined mean fecal testosterone ( f T) levels and intermale aggression in wild adult male ring-tailed lemurs residing in three groups at Beza Mahafaly Reserve, Madagascar. Results obtained from mating and post-mating season 2003 were compared to test Wingfield et al. [1990. Am Nat 136:829-846] "challenge hypothesis", which predicts a strong positive relationship between male testosterone levels and male-male competition for access to receptive females during breeding season. f T levels and rates of intermale aggression were significantly higher during mating season compared to the post-mating period. Mean f T levels and aggression rates were also higher in the first half of the mating season compared with the second half. Number of males in a group affected rates of intermale agonism, but not mean f T levels. The highest-ranking males in two of the groups exhibited higher mean f T levels than did lower-ranking males, and young males exhibited lower f T levels compared to prime-aged and old males. In the post-mating period, mean male f T levels did not differ between groups, nor were there rank or age effects. Thus, although male testosterone levels rose in relation to mating and heightened male-male aggression, f T levels fell to baseline breeding levels shortly after the early mating period, and to baseline non-breeding levels immediately after mating season had ended, offsetting the high cost of maintaining both high testosterone and high levels of male-male aggression in the early breeding period. PMID:17427976

Gould, L; Ziegler, T E

2007-12-01

209

Testosterone positively associated with both male mating effort and paternal behavior in savanna baboons (Papio cynocephalus)  

PubMed Central

Testosterone (T) is often positively associated with male sexual behavior and negatively associated with paternal care. These associations have primarily been demonstrated in species where investment in paternal care begins well after mating activity is complete, when offspring are hatched or born. Different patterns may emerge in studies of species where investment in mating and paternal care overlap temporally, for instance in non-seasonal breeders in which males mate with multiple females sequentially and may simultaneously have multiple offspring of different ages. In a 9-year data set on levels of T in male baboons, fecal concentrations of T (fT) were positively associated with both mate guarding (“consortship”) – a measure of current reproductive activity – and with the number of immature offspring a male had in his social group – a measure of past reproductive activity and an indicator of likely paternal behavior. To further examine the relationship between T and potential paternal behavior, we next drew on an intensive 8-month study of male behavior, and found that fathers were more likely to be in close proximity to their offspring than expected by chance. Because male baboons are known to provide paternal care, and because time in proximity to offspring would facilitate such care, this suggests that T concentrations in wild male baboons may be associated with both current reproductive activity and with current paternal behavior. These results are consistent with the predicted positive association between T a mating effort but not nd with a negative association between T a paternal care; in male baboons, high levels of nd T occur in males that are differentially associating with their offspring. PMID:23206991

Onyango, Patrick Ogola; Gesquiere, Laurence R.; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C.

2012-01-01

210

Functional Dissection of the Sensory Rays in Caenorhabditis elegans Male Mating Behavior  

E-print Network

tail ventrally along the hermaphrodite cuticle. B. Scanning. The male proceeds to back along the hermaphrodite cuticle in search of the vulva. C. Turning. If he reaches the head or tail end of his mate, the male performs a sharp ventral turn... to reach the opposite side of the hermaphrodite, then resumes scanning. D. Prodding and insertion. When the male locates the vulva (dashed white line), he ceases backwards locomotion and prods rapidly against the vulva opening to part the vulva walls...

Koo, Pamela Kristine

2012-02-14

211

Spatial distribution of mate-searching males in the damselfly, Cercion c. calamorum (Odonata: Zygoptera)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both sexes of the coenagrionid damselflyCercion c. calamorum meet at, or near, ponds for oviposition. Spatial distribution of mate-searching males at a study pond was established with\\u000a the following 2 simple and independent rules: (1) males don't go far from the roosting sites of the previous night; (2) once\\u000a males reach one of the oviposition sites, the length of their

Tetsuyuki Uéda

1994-01-01

212

Mating tactics and male wing dimorphism in the damselfly, Mnais pruinosa costalis selys (Odonata: Calopterygidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Males of the damselfly,Mnais pruinosa costalis, exhibit wing color dimorphism: one form has orange wings, and the other hyaline wings which resemble female wings. The former\\u000a is usually territorial and the latter uses sneaky mate securing tactics. When orange-winged males failed to establish territory,\\u000a they became floaters that day. Hyaline-winged males perched around their territories and often, formed in tandem

Mamoru Watanabe; Masao Taguchi

1990-01-01

213

Risky foraging leads to cost-free mate guarding in male teal Anas crecca  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mate guarding by males is common in species with long-lasting pair bonds. We tested if the need to guard females affected\\u000a foraging depth in male teal (Anas crecca), and if they were more vigilant than females when foraging with submerged eyes (preventing monitoring of competing males\\u000a and predators). These predictions were not supported, suggesting that foraging depth selection is primarily

Matthieu Guillemain; Céline Arzel; Pierre Legagneux; Johan Elmberg; Hervé Fritz; Michel Lepley; Christophe Pin; Antoine Arnaud; Grégoire Massez

2007-01-01

214

Low Incidence of Miscarriage Induced by the Scent of Male Littermates of Original Mates: Male Kinship Reduces the Bruce Effect in Female Mice, Mus musculus  

PubMed Central

The scent of a novel male can elicit pregnancy block in recently mated female mice (Mus musculus), a phenomenon known as the Bruce effect. Despite abundant literature on the Bruce effect in rodents, it remains unclear whether males related to a female’s original mate can induce the Bruce effect in out-bred, communally living mice. We investigated this question using Kunming (KM) male mice of varying genetic relatedness. Recently mated females were subjected to three treatments: exposure to the urine of the mate, urine of the mate’s male littermate, and urine of a male unrelated to the mate. It was found that the urine of male littermates of the females’ mates did not elicit more pregnancy block than that of the females’ mates. However, the urine of novel males caused a higher rate of female miscarriage than that of the females’ mates. By using a habituation-dishabituation paradigm, we found that unmated females could discriminate the urine scents of two male littermates from those of a novel male unrelated to the littermates. To understand how females use urinary cues to discriminate between males with different genetic relationships, we used gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to examine the volatile composition of urine from males with varying relatedness. It was found that KM male littermates shared similar volatile compositions in their urine. Our results suggest that male kinship reduces the Bruce effect in female KM mice, and provide additional evidence for mate choice being partly mediated by the Bruce effect in KM mice. PMID:23874716

Wang, Yuting; Liu, Dingzhen

2013-01-01

215

Inbreeding depresses sperm competitiveness, but not fertilization or mating success in male Tribolium castaneum.  

PubMed

As populations decline to levels where reproduction among close genetic relatives becomes more probable, subsequent increases in homozygous recessive deleterious expression and/or loss of heterozygote advantage can lead to inbreeding depression. Here, we measure how inbreeding across replicate lines of the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum impacts on male reproductive fitness in the absence or presence of male-male competition. Effects on male evolution from mating pattern were removed by enforcing monogamous mating throughout. After inbreeding across eight generations, we found that male fertility in the absence of competition was unaffected. However, we found significant inbreeding depression of sperm competitiveness: non-inbred males won 57 per cent of fertilizations in competition, while inbred equivalents only sired 42 per cent. We also found that the P(2) 'offence' role in sperm competition was significantly more depressed under inbreeding than sperm 'defence' (P(1)). Mating behaviour did not explain these differences, and there was no difference in the viability of offspring sired by inbred or non-inbred males. Sperm length variation was significantly greater in the ejaculates of inbred males. Our results show that male ability to achieve normal fertilization success was not depressed under strong inbreeding, but that inbreeding depression in these traits occurred when conditions of sperm competition were generated. PMID:20554548

Michalczyk, Lukasz; Martin, Oliver Y; Millard, Anna L; Emerson, Brent C; Gage, Matthew J G

2010-11-22

216

Inbreeding depresses sperm competitiveness, but not fertilization or mating success in male Tribolium castaneum  

PubMed Central

As populations decline to levels where reproduction among close genetic relatives becomes more probable, subsequent increases in homozygous recessive deleterious expression and/or loss of heterozygote advantage can lead to inbreeding depression. Here, we measure how inbreeding across replicate lines of the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum impacts on male reproductive fitness in the absence or presence of male–male competition. Effects on male evolution from mating pattern were removed by enforcing monogamous mating throughout. After inbreeding across eight generations, we found that male fertility in the absence of competition was unaffected. However, we found significant inbreeding depression of sperm competitiveness: non-inbred males won 57 per cent of fertilizations in competition, while inbred equivalents only sired 42 per cent. We also found that the P2 ‘offence’ role in sperm competition was significantly more depressed under inbreeding than sperm ‘defence’ (P1). Mating behaviour did not explain these differences, and there was no difference in the viability of offspring sired by inbred or non-inbred males. Sperm length variation was significantly greater in the ejaculates of inbred males. Our results show that male ability to achieve normal fertilization success was not depressed under strong inbreeding, but that inbreeding depression in these traits occurred when conditions of sperm competition were generated. PMID:20554548

Michalczyk, Lukasz; Martin, Oliver Y.; Millard, Anna L.; Emerson, Brent C.; Gage, Matthew J. G.

2010-01-01

217

Fighting success and attractiveness as predictors of male mating success in the black field cricket, Teleogryllus commodus : the effectiveness of no-choice tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Females are generally assumed to prefer larger, more dominant males. However, a growing number of studies that control for male-male competition have shown no correlation between dominance and attractiveness. Aggressive males can interfere with female mate preference either by physically coercing females into mating or by driving submissive males away and restricting mate choice. The most common method of assessing

Michelle A. Shackleton; Michael D. Jennions; John Hunt

2005-01-01

218

Sterile Insect Technique and F1 Sterility in the European Grapevine Moth, Lobesia botrana  

PubMed Central

Newly emerged adults of the European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis and Schiffermuller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), were irradiated with various doses of gamma radiation and crossed to unirradiated counterparts of the opposite sex. Fecundity was decreased when unirradiated females were mated with either 300- or 350-Gy-irradiated males. Adult males that were irradiated with 400 Gy and mated with unirradiated females retained a residual fertility of 2.7%. The radiation dose at which irradiated females were found to be 100% sterile when mated with unirradiated males was 150 Gy. The inherited effects in the F1 progeny of irradiated male parents were examined at 100, 150, and 200 Gy. Fecundity and fertility of the F1 progeny of males irradiated with 150 Gy and inbred or crossed with irradiated and unirradiated moths were also recorded. A significant reduction in fertility was observed when F1 males mated with either F1 or unirradiated females. According to sterility index, F1 females who mated with F1 males had greater sterility than when F1 females were crossed to 150-Gy-irradiated males. Based upon the results of this study, 150 Gy of gamma radiation would be the optimal dose to use in a sterile insect technique and F1 sterility program against L. botrana.

Saour, George

2014-01-01

219

Audience Effect Alters Male Mating Preferences in Zebra Finches (Taeniopygia guttata)  

PubMed Central

The social environment of animals strongly influences the mating preferences of both the choosing and the observing individuals. Notably, there is recent evidence that polygamous males decrease their selectivity when being observed by competitors in order to direct their rivals’ attention away from their true interest and, consequently, reduce sperm competition risk. Yet, other mechanisms, whose importance remains unexplored, could induce similar effects. In monogamous species with mutual choice, particularly, if males adjust their selectivity according to the risk of being rejected by their preferred mate, they should as well become less selective when potential rivals are present. Here, we investigated whether the presence of bystanders modifies male mating preferences when the risk of sperm competition is low, by carrying out mate-choice experiments with male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) whose preferences for two females were measured twice: with and without an audience. We found that the presence of potential rivals had no effect on the males’ choosiness. However, with an audience, they spent more time with the female that was considered as the less attractive one in the control condition. These findings support the hypothesis that monogamous males alter their mate choice decisions in the presence of a male audience to reduce the risk of remaining unpaired. Thus, our results indicate that several explanations can account for the changes in male preferences due to the presence of competitors and highlight the importance of assessing the relative role of each mechanism potentially involved, to be able to make conclusions about the effect of an audience on signal evolution. PMID:22916298

Dubois, Frederique; Belzile, Alexandra

2012-01-01

220

Effects of pre-irradiation conditioning of Medfly pupae (Diptera: Tephritidae): Hypoxia and quality of sterile males  

SciTech Connect

Irradiation of pupae in sterile insect technique (SIT) projects is usually undertaken in hypoxic atmospheres, which have been shown to lessen the deleterious effects of irradiation on the quality of adult sterile flies. Although this is the accepted technology in most mass-rearing and sterilization facilities, to date no information has been generated on the actual levels of oxygen (O{sub 2}) in pupae-packing containers during irradiation. The present study utilized recently-developed technology to investigate the O{sub 2} level inside bags in which pupae of Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) are packed prior to irradiation, the ability of pupae to create hypoxic environments in these bags, and the effect of O{sub 2} atmospheres on the quality of irradiated males. Pupae, 1 d before adult emergence, were shown to deplete the O{sub 2} level in sealed bags in approximately 1 h. The rate of O{sub 2} consumption was dependent upon pupal age and incubation temperature. Incubation temperature did not significantly affect the quality of pupae or mating capacity of resultant adult males if pupae were irradiated under maximal hypoxic conditions inside packing bags. In contrast, mating competitiveness drastically decreased when pupae were irradiated under ambient O{sub 2} conditions, with the packing bag open. There was no difference in the mating capacity of males when pupae were irradiated in sealed bags under either 10% or 2% O{sub 2} levels, or under maximal hypoxia. Normal doses of fluorescent dye, applied to pupae to mark sterile flies, did not affect the ability of pupae to create hypoxic conditions inside packing bags, nor the quality control parameters of either pupae or adults. Current practices in mass-rearing facilities are discussed in the light of these results. (author) [Spanish] La irradiacion de pupas en proyectos de mosca esteril usualmente se hace bajo condiciones de hipoxia. Esta condicion ha demostrado ser menos detrimente a la calidad de las moscas que la irradiacion en atmosferas con proporcion normal de oxigeno. Aunque esta ha sido por mucho tiempo parte del protocolo de irradiacion en plantas de produccion de mosca esteril, hasta ahora no se ha medido el contenido de oxigeno dentro de los recipientes de empaque de pupa durante la irradiacion. El presente estudio investigo los contenidos de O{sub 2} en los contenedores de pupas de la mosca de las frutas del Mediterraneo (Ceratitis capitata Wiedeman), la habilidad de pupas de crear hipoxia dentro de los contenedores, y los efectos del contenido de O{sub 2} durante la irradiacion del contenedor en la calidad y capacidad de apareamiento de moscas esteriles. Pupas de un dia antes de emerger como adultos crearon atmosferas de maxima hipoxia dentro del empaque en aproximadamente una hora. La proporcion de consumo de O{sub 2} en contenedores sellados es dependiente de la edad de la pupa, y de la temperatura de incubacion. La temperatura de incubacion no afecto significativamente la calidad ni la capacidad de apareamiento de machos derivados de pupas irradiadas bajo condiciones de hipoxia. Sin embargo, la capacidad de apareamiento de machos irradiados como pupas en contenedores abiertos y en condiciones oxigenadas fue drasticamente afectada. En comparacion a los resultados anteriores, atmosferas de 2% y 10% O{sub 2} durante la irradiacion no afectaron la capacidad de apareamiento de moscas esteriles. Polvo fluorescente, aplicado a pupas para marcar las moscas esteriles, no tuvo efectos sobre la capacidad de las pupas de crear hipoxia. Los resultados de este estudio se discuten en base a las practicas actuales de produccion e irradiacion. (author)

Nestel, D.; Nemny-Lavy, E. [Department of Entomology, Institute of Plant Protection, Agricultural Research Organization, Volcani Center, P.O. Box 6, 50250 Beit-Dagan (Israel); Islam, S.M.; Wornoayporn, V.; Caceres, C. [Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, International Atomic Energy Agency, Agency's Laboratories, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)

2007-03-15

221

The adaptive significance of non-contact mate guarding by males of the dragonfly, Nannophya pygmaea Rambur (Odonata: Libellulidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

InNannophya pygmaea, ovipositing females were frequently disturbed by conspecific males. Disturbed females often copulated with one of these\\u000a males or flew away from the pool. Females which flew away from the pool due to male disturbance often returned later the same\\u000a day and mated with different males. A territorial male would guard his ovipositing mate by hovering above her, presumably

Yoshitaka Tsubaki; Tomohiro Ono

1985-01-01

222

Mating Increases Neuronal Tyrosine Hydroxylase Expression and Selectively Gates Transmission of Male Chemosensory Information in Female Mice  

PubMed Central

Exposure to chemosensory signals from unfamiliar males can terminate pregnancy in recently mated female mice. The number of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons in the main olfactory bulb has been found to increase following mating and has been implicated in preventing male-induced pregnancy block during the post-implantation period. In contrast, pre-implantation pregnancy block is mediated by the vomeronasal system, and is thought to be prevented by selective inhibition of the mate’s pregnancy blocking chemosignals, at the level of the accessory olfactory bulb. The objectives of this study were firstly to identify the level of the vomeronasal pathway at which selective inhibition of the mate’s pregnancy blocking chemosignals occurs. Secondly, to determine whether a post-mating increase in tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons is observed in the vomeronasal system, which could play a role in preventing pre-implantation pregnancy block. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that mating induced an increase in tyrosine-hydroxylase positive neurons in the arcuate hypothalamus of BALB/c females, and suppressed c-Fos expression in these neurons in response to mating male chemosignals. This selective suppression of c-Fos response to mating male chemosignals was not apparent at earlier levels of the pregnancy-blocking neural pathway in the accessory olfactory bulb or corticomedial amygdala. Immunohistochemical staining revealed an increase in the number of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons in the accessory olfactory bulb of BALB/c female mice following mating. However, increased dopamine-mediated inhibition in the accessory olfactory bulb is unlikely to account for the prevention of pregnancy block to the mating male, as tyrosine hydroxylase expression did not increase in females of the C57BL/6 strain, which show normal mate recognition. These findings reveal an association of mating with increased dopaminergic modulation in the pregnancy block pathway and support the hypothesis that mate recognition prevents pregnancy block by suppressing the activation of arcuate dopamine release. PMID:23936125

Matthews, Gillian A.; Patel, Ronak; Walsh, Alison; Davies, Owain; Martinez-Ricos, Joana; Brennan, Peter A.

2013-01-01

223

Do Male Desert Gobies Compromise Offspring Care to Attract Additional Mating Opportunities?  

PubMed Central

Males often play a critical role in offspring care but the time and energy invested in looking after young can potentially limit their ability to seek out additional mating opportunities. Recent studies, however, suggest that a conflict between male parental effort and mating effort may not always be inevitable, especially if breeding occurs near the nest, or if parental behaviours are under sexual selection. Accordingly, we set out to experimentally investigate male care and courtship in the desert goby Chlamydogobius eremius, a nest-guarding fish with exclusive paternal care. Despite courtship occurring near the nest, we found that when egg-tending males were given the opportunity to attract additional females, they fanned their eggs less often, engaged in shorter fanning bouts, and spent more of their time outside their nests courting. Our findings highlight the importance of understanding the circumstances under which reproductive tradeoffs are expected to occur and how these, in turn, operate to influence male reproductive decisions. PMID:21687677

Symons, Nicholas; Svensson, P. Andreas; Wong, Bob B. M.

2011-01-01

224

Characterisation and expression of the mitochondrial genome of a new type of cytoplasmic male-sterile sunflower  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new cytoplasmic male sterile sunflower, CMS3 [44], was characterised in relation to the Petiolaris (PET1) cytoplasmic male-sterile sunflower, CMS89 [25]. Southern blot analysis showed that the mitochondrial genome of CMS3 contains unique rearrangements in at least five loci (atp6, atp9, atpA, nad1+5 and coxIII) compared to the PET1 sterile and the fertile cytoplasms. Transcripts of two (coxIII and atp6)

Mariana Spassova; Françoise Moneger; Christopher J. Leaver; Peter Petrov; Atanas Atanassov; H. John J. Nijkamp; Jacques Hille

1994-01-01

225

Production of male- and female-sterile plants through reproductive tissue ablation.  

PubMed

Male and female sterilities have many useful applications in horticultural crops, including reducing the invasive potential of new ornamentals, elimination of pollen allergens and redirecting resources from seeds to vegetative growth. In this study, we tested a male- and female-sterility (MS; FS) gene construct in Nicotiana tabacum to evaluate its effectiveness and effect on phenotype. Three T1 Nicotiana tabacum lines expressing the MS (p108:barnase) and FS (sp41:barnase) genes (MS/FS lines) and a control Nicotiana tabacum line (WT GUS) were measured for plant height, leaf length and width, corolla length, number of nodes on the main stem and stem diameter. No significant differences were found in these growth measurements between MS/FS lines and WT GUS. No pollen was observed on any of the lines carrying the MS and FS genes, indicating that the male sterility was complete. Seed set was greatly reduced or completely eliminated in plants with the MS and FS genes, after heavy pollinations of mature flowers with WT GUS pollen. However, pollinations of immature flowers resulted in very low seed set. This may be due to the nature of the promoter controlling expression of the FS gene as it had the highest expression levels at anthesis. The combination of male- and female-sterility genes was effective in eliminating seed set in all the lines examined and has direct application for reducing invasiveness of ornamental plants. PMID:19070936

Gardner, Nicole; Felsheim, Roderick; Smith, Alan G

2009-05-15

226

HYBRID DYSGENESIS IN DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER: A SYNDROME OF ABERRANT TRAITS INCLUDING MUTATION, STERILITY AND MALE RECOMBINATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

A syndrome of associated aberrant traits is described in Drosophila mel- anogaster. Six of these traits, mutation, sterility, male recombination, trans- mission ratio distortion, chromosomal aberrations and local increases in female recombination, have previously been reported. A seventh trait, nondisjunc- tion, is described for the first time. All of the traits we have examined are found nonreciprocally in F, hybrids.

MARGARET G. KIDWELL; JAMES F. KIDWELL; JOHN A. SVED

227

Meiotic studies in a series of 1100 infertile and sterile males  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meiotic studies have been carried out in a series of 1100 infertile and sterile males. Of these, 599 cases have been studies in testicular biopsy, and 501, in semen samples. This is the largest meiotic series published so far. The incidence of meiotic anomalies was 4.3%. The most frequent chromosome abnormality was desynapsis (3.7%). However, the number of cases with

J. Egozcue; C. Templado; F. Vidal; J. Navarro; F. Morer-Fargas; S. Marina

1983-01-01

228

A Quantitative Genetic Analysis of Nuclear-Cytoplasmic Male Sterility in Structured Populations of Silene vulgaris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gynodioecy, the coexistence of functionally female and hermaphroditic morphs within plant popula- tions, often has a complicated genetic basis involving several cytoplasmic male-sterility factors and nuclear restorers. This complexity has made it difficult to study the genetics and evolution of gynodioecy in natural populations. We use a quantitative genetic analysis of crosses within and among populations of Silene vulgaris to

Douglas R. Taylor; Matthew S. Olson; David E. McCauley

229

Restoration of fertility by antisense RNA in genetically engineered male sterile tobacco plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transgenic tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum L.) expressing the rolC gene of Agrobacterium rhizogenes under the transcriptional control of the 35S RNA promoter are male sterile. When these plants are genetically crossed with others containing the rolC gene linked in antisense orientation to the 35S RNA promoter, hybrid progeny display restoration of male fertility. Moreover, hybrid progeny are revertant for other

Thomas Schmülling; Horst Röhrig; Silke Pilz; Richard Walden; Jeff Schell

1993-01-01

230

Do unattractive friends make you look better? Context-dependent male mating preferences in the guppy.  

PubMed

Recent theory predicts that in species where females tend to mate with the relatively most ornamented males, males may increase their attractiveness to females, and hence mating success, by preferentially associating with females that are surrounded by less ornamented competitors. Despite this prediction, we still lack explicit experimental evidence that males strategically prefer females surrounded by less attractive competitors to maximize their relative attractiveness. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive test of this hypothesis in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a species where a female's perception of a male's attractiveness depends on his coloration relative to that of surrounding males. We found that males preferentially associated with females that were surrounded by relatively drab competitors, and that the strength of an individual male's preference was negatively correlated with his level of ornamentation. A series of control experiments made it possible to exclude the potentially confounding effects of male-male competition or social motivations when drawing these conclusions. The ability of males to choose social context to increase their relative attractiveness has important evolutionary consequences, for example, by contributing towards the maintenance of variability in male sexual ornamentation despite the strong directional selection exerted by female preferences. PMID:23407839

Gasparini, Clelia; Serena, Giovanna; Pilastro, Andrea

2013-04-01

231

Do unattractive friends make you look better? Context-dependent male mating preferences in the guppy  

PubMed Central

Recent theory predicts that in species where females tend to mate with the relatively most ornamented males, males may increase their attractiveness to females, and hence mating success, by preferentially associating with females that are surrounded by less ornamented competitors. Despite this prediction, we still lack explicit experimental evidence that males strategically prefer females surrounded by less attractive competitors to maximize their relative attractiveness. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive test of this hypothesis in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a species where a female's perception of a male's attractiveness depends on his coloration relative to that of surrounding males. We found that males preferentially associated with females that were surrounded by relatively drab competitors, and that the strength of an individual male's preference was negatively correlated with his level of ornamentation. A series of control experiments made it possible to exclude the potentially confounding effects of male–male competition or social motivations when drawing these conclusions. The ability of males to choose social context to increase their relative attractiveness has important evolutionary consequences, for example, by contributing towards the maintenance of variability in male sexual ornamentation despite the strong directional selection exerted by female preferences. PMID:23407839

Gasparini, Clelia; Serena, Giovanna; Pilastro, Andrea

2013-01-01

232

Enigmatic ornamentation eases male reliance on courtship performance for mating success  

E-print Network

have a mating advantage, whereas at high courtship rates, males with less foreleg ornamentation have with intricate structures, conspicuous coloration, specific pigment patterns and/or other forms of sexual was the proposal that such traits as the peacock's tail evolved in response to selection via female choice. Indeed

Rodríguez, Rafael Lucas

233

ORIGINAL PAPER A lover, not a fighter: mating causes male crickets  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER A lover, not a fighter: mating causes male crickets to lose fights Kevin A. Judge aggressive behaviour including the relationship between RHP and fighting success in the fall field cricket . Resource- holding potential . Social experience . Weaponry. Field cricket Introduction Aggressive

Gwynne, Darryl T.

234

Polygynous mating impairs body condition and homeostasis in male reindeer ( Rangifer tarandus tarandus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reindeer are polygynous ruminants that breed when plant growth declines in the Arctic. We studied seven males (2 years and older) in two herds with a total of 34 females to describe the costs and consequences of mating or rut. Body mass declined between September and November and did not recover through winter even though food was available ad libitum.

P. S. Barboza; D. W. Hartbauer; W. E. Hauer; J. E. Blake

2004-01-01

235

The Population Dynamical Implications of Male-Biased Parasitism in Different Mating Systems  

E-print Network

The Population Dynamical Implications of Male-Biased Parasitism in Different Mating Systems Martin R. Miller1 *, Andrew White2 , Kenneth Wilson3 , Michael Boots1 1 Department of Animal and Plant of this for the population dynamics of the host population are not yet understood. Here we build on an established `two

White, Andrew

236

Seismic signals are crucial for male mating success in a visual specialist jumping spider (Araneae: Salticidae)  

E-print Network

Seismic signals are crucial for male mating success in a visual specialist jumping spider (Araneae in an incomplete characterization of the communication system. Jumping spiders (Salticidae) have remarkable visual as sensory specialists. Such is the case for vision in jumping spiders (Salticidae) (Peckham & Peckham 1889

Hoy, Ronald R.

237

Male and Female Mating Behavior is Dependent on Social Context in the Butterfly Bicyclus anynana  

E-print Network

February 2014 # Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014 Abstract Reproduction is often more costly females. Reproduction costs to females, however, can be reduced through nuptial gifts provided by males. These gifts, by increasing female survival or fecundity, can promote the evolution of mutual mate choice

Monteiro, Antónia

238

Male mask size is correlated with mating success in the common yellowthroat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many socially monogamous species have sexually dimorphic traits. The evolution of these traits is puzzling as sexual selection is often thought to be relatively weak in monogamous species. However, sexual selection in monogamous species could be stronger than generally believed if the males possessing more dimorphic traits gain a reproductive advantage by increasing the probability of: (1) gaining a mate,

Kevin J. Thusius; Kara A. Peterson; Peter O. Dunn; Linda A. Whittingham

2001-01-01

239

Patterns of biomass allocation to male and female functions in plants with different mating systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using dry weight biomass we examined the patterns of investment in male and female functions (prezygotic cost) in plants with different mating systems. All the flower parts of both xenogamous and facultatively xenogamous species were heavier, i.e., larger, than those of facultatively autogamous species. Likewise, the dry weights of all the flower parts of xenogamous species exceeded those of facultatively

Robert William Cruden; David L. Lyon

1985-01-01

240

MULTI-MALE MATING BY PAIRED AND UNPAIRED FEMALE PRAIRIE VOLES (MICROTUS OCHROGASTER)  

E-print Network

MULTI-MALE MATING BY PAIRED AND UNPAIRED FEMALE PRAIRIE VOLES (MICROTUS OCHROGASTER) by JERRY O is not clear. Also, whether MMM occurs in the reportedly socially monogamous prairie vole, Microtus ochrogaster of the female in MMM in the prairie vole, Microtus ochrogaster. We chose the prairie vole because of its

Dunlap, Aimee Sue

241

Male characteristics, parental quality and the study of mate choice in the red-winged blackbird ( Agelaius phoeniceus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

A demonstration of adaptive mate choice by females in resource-defence mating systems requires clear predictions as to how females should rank “breeding situations” (defined by the quality of both the resident male and the territory he defends) so as to maximize their fitness. Since male quality is only weakly correlated with territory quality in red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), ranking breeding

Christopher G. Eckert; Patrick J. Weatherhead

1987-01-01

242

The timing of spawning and egg production as constraints on male mating success in a simultaneously hermaphroditic fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolutionary stability of simultaneous hermaphroditism depends in part on the existence of constraints on the potential for male mating success. In the seabasses (Serranidae), several species of simultaneous hermaphrodites divide each day's clutch of eggs into parcels that are spawned sequentially and alternately with a partner. This behavior is thought to be one source of constraint on male mating

Eric A. Fischer; Preston D. Hardison

1987-01-01

243

Male sterility and double heterozygosity for chromosomal inversion.  

PubMed

A meiotic analysis has been carried out on male mice heterozygous for one of two inversions in Chromosome 2, In(2)5Rk and In(2)2H, as well as on double heterozygotes for these two overlapping inversions. Electron microscopic observation of synaptonemal complexes revealed that heterosynapsis had occurred in a large number of spermatocytes, producing a small number of cells with an inversion loop. Heterozygous carriers of a single inversion loop reproduced quite normally, whereas doubly heterozygous carriers of a double loop showed a reduction in spermatogenesis. These data shed new light on the role of inversions in speciation. PMID:7835090

Rumpler, Y; Gabriel-Robez, O; Volobouev, V; Yu, W; Rasamimanana, P; de Perdigo, A

1995-01-01

244

Effects of extreme variation in female morph frequencies on the mating behaviour of male damselflies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female-limited polymorphism is often attributed to selection to avoid excessive male mating attempts. It is encountered in\\u000a various taxonomic groups, but is particularly common in damselflies, where one female morph (andromorph) typically resembles\\u000a the conspecific male in colour pattern, while the other(s) (gynomorph(s)) do not. Two sets of theories have been proposed\\u000a to explain the phenomenon in damselflies, which can

Janice J. Ting; Jessica Bots; Felipe Pérez Jvostov; Hans van Gossum; Thomas N. Sherratt

2009-01-01

245

Mating success in brood-guarding male rock bass, Ambloplites rupestris : the effect of body size  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypothesis that variation in a paternal trait associated with offspring survival will result in female mate choice based on that trait was tested in rock bass,Ambloplites rupestris, a temperate fresh water fish with uniparental male care. The number of eggs acquired by 108 nesting male rock bass, in Cranberry Lake (New York State, U.S.A.), was estimated in two different

Alberto M. Sabat

1994-01-01

246

Factors influencing male mating success in bur oak, Quercus macrocarpa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application. Genotyping at DNA microsatellite loci identified pollen donors of a large sample of acorns and saplings in one stand of bur oak. The data were used to test if several character- istics of pollen donors were correlated with reproductive success. Male reproductive success could not be completely explained by any factor tested, including distance from maternal tree, direction of

BEVERLY D. DOW; MARY V. ASHLEY

1998-01-01

247

Factors influencing male mating success in bur oak, Quercus macrocarpa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollen donors of acorns and saplings in a stand of bur oak were identified by paternity exclusion using microsatellite genotype analysis. Here we examine the influence of several factors likely to affect reproductive success of males with wind-dispersed pollen, including distance of pollen donor from maternal tree, genetic relatedness of pollen donor to maternal tree, direction of pollen donor relative

Beverly D. Dow; Mary V. Ashley

1998-01-01

248

The role of testosterone in male downy woodpeckers in winter home range use, mate interactions and female foraging behaviour  

PubMed Central

Studies of the role of testosterone (T) in birds have typically focused on sexual or aggressive behaviours of males during the breeding period, but males of nonmigratory species may invest in mate and territory long before breeding, and the influence of T in facilitating nonbreeding-season behaviours is poorly understood. We gave free-living male downy woodpeckers, Picoides pubescens, T-implants during the winter to determine whether elevated levels of T increased a male’s ability to exclusively occupy territory-based resources, and whether elevated T strengthened a male’s investment in an existing pair bond relationship. We also explored how a female’s foraging efficiency might be affected by her mate’s behaviour if he had elevated T. We found little difference between control and T-implanted males with regard to home range exclusivity. Surprisingly, male–male display rates were significantly lower in T-implanted males than in controls. Regarding male–female interactions, T-implanted males that experienced high incursion rates from other males maintained more frequent spatial association with their mate, suggesting that T facilitates male behaviours that could restrict the mate’s access to other male birds. Female mates of T-males showed reduced foraging rates, but because male–female aggression was similar between treatment groups, the cause for this reduction is unknown. The results indicate that exogenous T during winter affects a variety of behaviours in male woodpeckers, and proximate influences on pair bond maintenance in winter may be a fruitful avenue for future research. PMID:16932805

KELLAM, JAMES S.; LUCAS, JEFFREY R.; WINGFIELD, JOHN C.

2006-01-01

249

Hybridization using cytoplasmic male sterility, cytoplasmic herbicide tolerance, and herbicide tolerance from nuclear genes  

SciTech Connect

An improved process is described for producing a substantially homogeneous population of plants of a predetermined hybrid variety of crop which is capable of undergoing self-pollination and cross-pollination. The process comprises: growing in a first planting area a substantially random population of cytoplasmic male sterile plants which exhibit cytoplasmic herbicide tolerance to at least one Type A herbicide and exhibit tolerance to at least one Type B herbicide which is attributable solely to homozygous dominant nuclear genes and male fertile plants which are homozygous recessive maintainer plants for the cytoplasmic male sterile plants and which lack the cytoplasmic herbicide tolerance to at least one Type A herbicide and exhibit tolerance to at least one Type B herbicide attributable solely to the homozygous dominant nuclear genes.

Beversdorf, W.D.; Erickson, L.R.; Grant, I.

1987-04-14

250

Sexual Signalling in Propithecus verreauxi: Male "Chest Badge" and Female Mate Choice  

PubMed Central

Communication, an essential prerequisite for sociality, involves the transmission of signals. A signal can be defined as any action or trait produced by one animal, the sender, that produces a change in the behaviour of another animal, the receiver. Secondary sexual signals are often used for mate choice because they may inform on a potential partner's quality. Verreaux's sifaka (Propithecus verreauxi) is characterized by the presence of two different morphs of males (bimorphism), which can show either a stained or clean chest. The chest becomes stained by secretions of the sternal gland during throat marking (rubbing throat and chest on a vertical substrate while smearing the scent deposition). The role of the chest staining in guiding female mate choice was previously hypothesized but never demonstrated probably due to the difficulty of observing sifaka copulations in the wild. Here we report that stained-chested males had a higher throat marking activity than clean-chested males during the mating season, but not during the birth season. We found that females copulated more frequently with stained-chested males than the clean-chested males. Finally, in agreement with the biological market theory, we found that clean-chested males, with a lower scent-releasing potential, offered more grooming to females. This “grooming for sex” tactic was not completely unsuccessful; in fact, half of the clean-chested males copulated with females, even though at low frequency. In conclusion, the chest stain, possibly correlated with different cues targeted by females, could be one of the parameters which help females in selecting mates. PMID:22615982

Dall'Olio, Stefania; Norscia, Ivan; Antonacci, Daniela; Palagi, Elisabetta

2012-01-01

251

Sexual cooperation and conflict in butterflies: a male-transferred anti-aphrodisiac reduces harassment of recently mated females.  

PubMed Central

Sexual selection theory predicts that the different selection pressures on males and females result in sexual conflict. However, in some instances males and females share a common interest which could lead to sexual cooperation. In the pierid butterfly Pieris napi the male and the recently mated female share a common interest in reducing female harassment by other males soon after mating. Here we show that P. napi males transfer an anti-aphrodisiac to the female at mating, methyl-salicylate (MeS), which is a volatile substance which mated females emit when courted and which makes males quickly abandon them. A 13C-labelling experiment demonstrated that only males synthesize MeS. The effect of this antiaphrodisiac is so strong that most males will refrain from mating with virgin females to whom MeS has been artificially applied. In P. napi, males also transfer nutrients to females at mating. This increases female fecundity and longevity and so females benefit from remating. Hence, sexual cooperation gradually turns to conflict. Future research is required to reveal which sex controls the gradual decrease in the MeS titre which is necessary for allowing mated females to regain attractiveness and remate. PMID:10972120

Andersson, J; Borg-Karlson, A K; Wiklund, C

2000-01-01

252

Sexual cooperation and conflict in butterflies: a male-transferred anti-aphrodisiac reduces harassment of recently mated females.  

PubMed

Sexual selection theory predicts that the different selection pressures on males and females result in sexual conflict. However, in some instances males and females share a common interest which could lead to sexual cooperation. In the pierid butterfly Pieris napi the male and the recently mated female share a common interest in reducing female harassment by other males soon after mating. Here we show that P. napi males transfer an anti-aphrodisiac to the female at mating, methyl-salicylate (MeS), which is a volatile substance which mated females emit when courted and which makes males quickly abandon them. A 13C-labelling experiment demonstrated that only males synthesize MeS. The effect of this antiaphrodisiac is so strong that most males will refrain from mating with virgin females to whom MeS has been artificially applied. In P. napi, males also transfer nutrients to females at mating. This increases female fecundity and longevity and so females benefit from remating. Hence, sexual cooperation gradually turns to conflict. Future research is required to reveal which sex controls the gradual decrease in the MeS titre which is necessary for allowing mated females to regain attractiveness and remate. PMID:10972120

Andersson, J; Borg-Karlson, A K; Wiklund, C

2000-07-01

253

Cuticular Hydrocarbon Content that Affects Male Mate Preference of Drosophila melanogaster from West Africa  

PubMed Central

Intraspecific variation in mating signals and preferences can be a potential source of incipient speciation. Variable crossability between Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans among different strains suggested the abundance of such variations. A particular focus on one combination of D. melanogaster strains, TW1(G23) and Mel6(G59), that showed different crossabilities to D. simulans, revealed that the mating between females from the former and males from the latter occurs at low frequency. The cuticular hydrocarbon transfer experiment indicated that cuticular hydrocarbons of TW1 females have an inhibitory effect on courtship by Mel6 males. A candidate component, a C25 diene, was inferred from the gas chromatography analyses. The intensity of male refusal of TW1 females was variable among different strains of D. melanogaster, which suggested the presence of variation in sensitivity to different chemicals on the cuticle. Such variation could be a potential factor for the establishment of premating isolation under some conditions. PMID:22536539

Takahashi, Aya; Fujiwara-Tsujii, Nao; Yamaoka, Ryohei; Itoh, Masanobu; Ozaki, Mamiko; Takano-Shimizu, Toshiyuki

2012-01-01

254

Carotenoids, oxidative stress and female mating preference for longer lived males  

PubMed Central

Some of the most spectacular exaggerated sexual ornaments are carotenoid dependent. It has been suggested that such ornaments have evolved because carotenoid pigments are limiting for both signal expression and in their role as antioxidants and immunostimulants. An implicit assumption of this hypothesis is that males which can afford to produce more elaborate carotenoid-dependent displays are signalling their enhanced ability to resist parasites, disease or oxidative stress and hence would be predicted to live longer. Therefore, in species with carotenoid-dependent ornaments where a parent's future longevity is crucial for determining offspring survival, there should be a mating preference for partners that present the lowest risk of mortality during the breeding attempt, as signalled by the ability to allocate carotenoids to sexual displays. In an experimental study using three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus), we show that when dietary carotenoid intake is limited, males attempt to maintain their sexual ornament at the expense of body carotenoids and hence suffer from reduced reproductive investment and a shorter lifespan. These males also suffer from an increased susceptibility to oxidative stress, suggesting that this may constitute the mechanism underlying the increased rate of ageing. Furthermore, in pairwise mate-choice trials, females preferred males that had a greater access to carotenoids and chance of surviving the breeding season, suggesting that females can make adaptive mate choice decisions based on a male's carotenoid status and potential future longevity. PMID:17439854

Pike, Thomas W; Blount, Jonathan D; Bjerkeng, Bj?rn; Lindstrom, Jan; Metcalfe, Neil B

2007-01-01

255

UV-Deprived Coloration Reduces Success in Mate Acquisition in Male Sand Lizards (Lacerta agilis)  

PubMed Central

Background Recent work on animal signals has revealed a wide occurrence of UV signals in tetrapods, in particular birds, but also in lizards (and perhaps other Squamate reptiles). Our previous work on the Swedish sand lizard (Lacerta agilis) has verified, both in correlative selection analyses in the wild and with laboratory and field experiments, the importance of the green ‘badge’ on the body sides of adult males for securing mating opportunities, probably mostly through deterring rival males rather than attracting females. The role of UV in communication has, however, never been examined. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we show that when measured immediately after spring skin shedding, there is also signaling in the UV. By UV-depriving the signal (reflectance) with sun block chemicals fixated with permeable, harmless spray dressing, we show that males in the control group (spray dressing only) had significantly higher success in mate acquisition than UV-deprived males. Conclusions/Significance These results suggest that at least two colour traits in sand lizards, badge area and UV, contribute to rival deterrence and/or female choice on UV characters, which elevates success in mate acquisition in UV intact male sand lizards. PMID:21602928

Olsson, Mats; Andersson, Staffan; Wapstra, Erik

2011-01-01

256

Discovery of a novel cytoplasmic male-sterility and its restorer lines in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).  

PubMed

A male-sterile (MS) radish (Raphanus sativus L.) was found in an accession collected from Uzbekistan. Unlike Ogura MS radishes in which no pollen grain is typically visible during anthesis, a small number of pollen grains stuck together in the dehiscing anthers was observed in the newly identified MS radish. Fluorescein diacetate tests and scanning electron micrographs showed that pollen grains in the new MS radish were severely deformed and non-viable. Cytological examination of pollen development stages showed a clear difference in the defective stage from that seen in Ogura male-sterility. Reciprocal cross-pollination with diverse male-fertile lines indicated that pollen grains of the new MS radish were completely sterile, and the female organs were fully fertile. When the new MS radish and Ogura MS lines were cross-pollinated with a set of eight breeding lines, all F1 progeny originating from crosses with the new MS radish were male-sterile. In contrast, most of the F1 progeny resulting from crosses with Ogura MS lines were male-fertile. These results demonstrated that factors associated with induction of the newly identified male-sterility are different from those of Ogura male-sterility. The lack of restorer lines for the newly identified male-sterility led us to predict that it might be a complete cytoplasmic male-sterility without restorer-of-fertility genes in nuclear genomes. However, cross-pollination with more diverse radish germplasm identified one accession introduced from Russia that could completely restore fertility, proving the existence of restorer-of-fertility gene(s) for the new male-sterility. Meanwhile, the PCR amplification profile of molecular markers for the classification of radish mitochondrial genome types revealed that the new MS radish contained a novel mitotype. PMID:18597066

Lee, Young-Pyo; Park, Suhyung; Lim, Chaewan; Kim, Hyojung; Lim, Heerae; Ahn, Youngsoon; Sung, Soon-Kee; Yoon, Moo-Kyoung; Kim, Sunggil

2008-10-01

257

ASYMMETRY AND POLYMORPHISM OF HYBRID MALE STERILITY DURING THE EARLY STAGES OF SPECIATION IN HOUSE MICE  

PubMed Central

House mice offer a powerful system for dissecting the genetic basis of phenotypes that isolate species in the early stages of speciation. We used a series of reciprocal crosses between wild-derived strains of Mus musculus and M. domesticus to examine F1 hybrid male sterility, one of the primary phenotypes thought to isolate these species. We report four main results. First, we found significantly smaller testes and fewer sperm in hybrid male progeny of most crosses. Second, in some crosses hybrid male sterility was asymmetric and depended on the species origin of the X chromosome. These observations confirm and extend previous findings, underscoring the central role that the M. musculus X chromosome plays in reproductive isolation. Third, comparisons among reciprocal crosses revealed polymorphism at one or more hybrid incompatibilities within M. musculus. Fourth, the spermatogenic phenotype of this polymorphic interaction appears distinct from previously described hybrid incompatibilities between these species. These data build on previous studies of speciation in house mice and show that the genetic basis of hybrid male sterility is fairly complex, even at this early stage of divergence. PMID:18005156

Good, Jeffrey M.; Handel, Mary Ann; Nachman, Michael W.

2010-01-01

258

Poeciliid male mate preference is influenced by female size but not by fecundity  

PubMed Central

While female mate preference is very well studied, male preference has only recently begun to receive significant attention. Its existence is found in numerous taxa, but empirical research has mostly been limited to a descriptive level and does not fully address the factors influencing its evolution. We attempted to address this issue using preference functions by comparing the strength of male preference for females of different sizes in nine populations of four poeciliid species. Due to environmental constraints (water toxicity and surface versus cave habitat), females from these populations vary in the degree to which their size is correlated to their fecundity. Hence, they vary in how their size signals their quality as mates. Since female size is strongly correlated with fecundity in this subfamily, males were sequentially presented with conspecific females of three different size categories and the strength of their preference for each was measured. Males preferred larger females in all populations, as predicted. However, the degree to which males preferred each size category, as measured by association time, was not correlated with its fecundity. In addition, cave males discriminated against smaller females more than surface males. Assuming that male preference is correlated with female fitness, these results suggest that factors other than fecundity have a strong influence on female fitness in these species. PMID:24010018

Schlupp, Ingo

2013-01-01

259

Testing the correlated response hypothesis for the evolution and maintenance of male mating preferences in Drosophila serrata.  

PubMed

Mate preferences are abundant throughout the animal kingdom with female preferences receiving the most empirical and theoretical attention. Although recent work has acknowledged the existence of male mate preferences, whether they have evolved and are maintained as a direct result of selection on males or indirectly as a genetically correlated response to selection for female choice remains an open question. Using the native Australian species Drosophila serrata in which mutual mate choice occurs for a suite of contact pheromones (cuticular hydrocarbons or CHCs), we empirically test key predictions of the correlated response hypothesis. First, within the context of a quantitative genetic breeding design, we estimated the degree to which the trait values favoured by male and female choice are similar both phenotypically and genetically. The direction of sexual selection on male and female CHCs differed statistically, and the trait combinations that maximized male and female mating success were not genetically correlated, suggesting that male and female preferences target genetically different signals. Second, despite detecting significant genetic variance in female preferences, we found no evidence for genetic variance in male preferences and, as a consequence, no detectable correlation between male and female mating preferences. Combined, these findings are inconsistent with the idea that male mate choice in D. serrata is simply a correlated response to female choice. Our results suggest that male and female preferences are genetically distinct traits in this species and may therefore have arisen via different evolutionary processes. PMID:25078542

Gosden, T P; Rundle, H D; Chenoweth, S F

2014-10-01

260

Post-mating interactions and their effects on fitness of female and male Echinothrips americanus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), a new insect pest in China.  

PubMed

Post-mating, sexual interactions of opposite sexes differ considerably in different organisms. Post-mating interactions such as re-mating behavior and male harassment can affect the fitness of both sexes. Echinothrips americanus is a new insect pest in Mainland China, and little is known about its post-mating interactions. In this study, we observed re-mating frequency and male harassment frequency and their effects on fitness parameters and offspring sex ratios of E. americanus females. Furthermore, we tested the impact of mating and post-mating interactions on fitness parameters of males. Our results revealed that the re-mating frequency in female adults was extremely low during a 30-day period. However, post-mating interactions between females and males, consisting mainly of male harassment and female resistance, did occur and significantly reduced female longevity and fecundity. Interestingly, increased access to males did not affect the ratio of female offspring. For males, mating dramatically reduced their longevity. However, post-mating interactions with females had no effects on the longevity of mated males. These results enrich our basic knowledge about female and male mating and post-mating behaviors in this species and provide important information about factors that may influence population regulation of this important pest species. PMID:24489956

Li, Xiao-Wei; Jiang, Hong-Xue; Zhang, Xiao-Chen; Shelton, Anthony M; Feng, Ji-Nian

2014-01-01

261

Programmed cell death promotes male sterility in the functional dioecious Opuntia stenopetala (Cactaceae)  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The sexual separation in dioecious species has interested biologists for decades; however, the cellular mechanism leading to unisexuality has been poorly understood. In this study, the cellular changes that lead to male sterility in the functionally dioecious cactus, Opuntia stenopetala, are described. Methods The spatial and temporal patterns of programmed cell death (PCD) were determined in the anthers of male and female flowers using scanning electron microscopy analysis and histological observations, focusing attention on the transition from bisexual to unisexual development. In addition, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling assays were used as an indicator of DNA fragmentation to corroborate PCD. Key results PCD was detected in anthers of both female and male flowers, but their patterns differed in time and space. Functionally male individuals developed viable pollen, and normal development involved PCD on each layer of the anther wall, which occurred progressively from the inner (tapetum) to the outer layer (epidermis). Conversely, functional female individuals aborted anthers by premature and displaced PCD. In anthers of female flowers, the first signs of PCD, such as a nucleus with irregular shape, fragmented and condensed chromatin, high vacuolization and condensed cytoplasm, occurred at the microspore mother cell stage. Later these features were observed simultaneously in all anther wall layers, connective tissue and filament. Neither pollen formation nor anther dehiscence was detected in female flowers of O. stenopetala due to total anther disruption. Conclusions Temporal and spatial changes in the patterns of PCD are responsible for male sterility of female flowers in O. stenopetala. Male fertility requires the co-ordination of different events, which, when altered, can lead to male sterility and to functionally unisexual individuals. PCD could be a widespread mechanism in the determination of functionally dioecious species. PMID:23877075

Flores-Renteria, Lluvia; Orozco-Arroyo, Gregorio; Cruz-Garcia, Felipe; Garcia-Campusano, Florencia; Alfaro, Isabel; Vazquez-Santana, Sonia

2013-01-01

262

Increased predation risk while mate guarding as a cost of reproduction for male broad-headed skinks ( Eumeces laticeps )  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   We investigated antipredatory costs associated with mate guarding as potential costs of reproduction for male broad-headed\\u000a skinks. Mate guarding by male lizards may increase fitness by preventing loss of fertilizations of the guarded female's eggs\\u000a to other males, but it may have several costs. In addition to lost opportunities to search for additional females, risk of\\u000a injury while fighting

William E. Cooper Jr; Laurie J. Vitt

2002-01-01

263

Blind sterile 2 (bs2), a hypomorphic mutation in Agps, results in cataracts and male sterility in mice.  

PubMed

Blind sterile 2 (bs2) is a spontaneous autosomal recessive mouse mutation exhibiting cataracts and male sterility. Detailed clinical and histological evaluation revealed that bs2 mice have cataracts resulting from severely disrupted lens fiber cells. Analysis of bs2 testes revealed the absence of mature sperm and the presence of large multinucleate cells within the lumens of seminiferous tubules. Linkage analysis mapped the bs2 locus to mouse chromosome 2, approximately 45cM distal from the centromere. Fine mapping established a 3.1Mb bs2 critical region containing 19 candidate genes. Sequence analysis of alkylglycerone-phosphate synthase (Agps), a gene within the bs2 critical region, revealed a G to A substitution at the +5 position of intron 14. This mutation results in two abundantly expressed aberrantly spliced Agps transcripts: Agps(?exon14) lacking exon 14 or Agps(exon?13-14) lacking both exons 13 and 14 as well as full-length Agps transcript. Agps is a peroxisomal enzyme which catalyzes the formation of the ether bond during the synthesis of ether lipids. Both aberrantly spliced Agps(?exon14) and Agps(exon?13-14) transcripts led to a frame shift, premature stop and putative proteins lacking the enzymatic FAD domain. We present evidence that bs2 mice have significantly decreased levels of ether lipids. Human mutations in Agps result in rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata type 3 (RCDP3), a disease for which bs2 is the only genetic model. Thus, bs2 is a hypomorphic mutation in Agps, and represents a useful model for investigation of the tissue specificity of ether lipid requirements which will be particularly valuable for elucidating the mechanism of disease phenotypes resulting from ether lipid depletion. PMID:21353609

Liegel, R; Chang, B; Dubielzig, R; Sidjanin, D J

2011-05-01

264

The effect of male sterility on oil content and seed yield in sunflowers (Helianthus annuus L.)  

E-print Network

The effect of male sterility on oil content and seed yield in sunflowers (Helianthus annuus L stérilité mâle sur la teneur en huile et le rendement en grains chez le tournesol (Helian- thus annuus L différences entre mâle-stérile et mâle- fertile ne soient pas dues au cytoplasme mâle-stérile de Helianthus

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

265

Relationship of Metabolism of Reactive Oxygen Species with Cytoplasmic Male Sterility in Pepper( Capsicum annuum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pepper cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) line 9704A is one of the CMS types used for hybrid pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) production in China. Our previous studies suggested that CMS-9704A may suffer from oxidative stress as its cyanide-resistant respiration is lower than that of the maintainer line. To elucidate the metabolic mechanism of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the CMS-pepper anthers,

Ming-Hua DENG; Jin-Fen WEN; Jin-Long HUO; Hai-Shan ZHU; Xiong-Ze DAI; Zhu-Qing ZHANG; Hui ZHOU; Xue-Xiao ZOU

266

Metabolism of reactive oxygen species in cotton cytoplasmic male sterility and its restoration  

Microsoft Academic Search

To elucidate reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism of cotton cytoplasmic male sterility and the effects of restorer gene\\u000a on the metabolism of ROS, the metabolism changes in the production and scavenging of ROS and gene expression related to ROS-scavenging\\u000a enzymes were investigated in the anther mitochondria of CMS line, maintainer line and hybrid F1. During the abortion preliminary stage (sporogenous

Peidong Jiang; Xiaoquan Zhang; Yunguo Zhu; Wei Zhu; Haiyan Xie; Xuede Wang

2007-01-01

267

Molecular analysis of a new cytoplasmic male sterile genotype in sunflower  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitochondrial DNA from 1 fertile and 6 cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) sunflower genotypes was studied. The CMS genotypes had been obtained either by specific crosses between different Helianthus species or by mutagenesis. CMS-associated restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) were found in the vicinity of the atpA locus, generated by various restriction enzymes. The organization of the mitochondrial genes 26S rRNA,

Mariana Spassova; Michail Christov; Natasha Bohorova; Peter Petrov; Kalin Dudov; Atanas Atanassov; H. John J. Nijkamp; Jaques Hille

1992-01-01

268

Cytoplasmic male sterility-regulated novel microRNAs from maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

In higher plants, microRNA (miRNA) is involved in regulation of developmental processes, including sexual organ development.\\u000a Seven novel miRNA families with one known miRNA were isolated by constructing a small RNA library from a mixture of anther\\u000a from a cytoplasmic male sterile line and its maintainer. Two miRNAs are conserved in plant species. A total of 18 potential\\u000a targets were

Yaou Shen; Zhiming Zhang; Haijian Lin; Hailan Liu; Jie Chen; Hua Peng; Moju Cao; Tingzhao Rong; Guangtang Pan

2011-01-01

269

Audience effects in the Atlantic molly (Poecilia mexicana)-prudent male mate choice in response to perceived sperm competition risk?  

PubMed Central

Background Multidirectional interactions in social networks can have a profound effect on mate choice behavior; e.g., Poecilia mexicana males show weaker expression of mating preferences when being observed by a rival. This may be an adaptation to reduce sperm competition risk, which arises because commonly preferred female phenotypes will receive attention also from surrounding males, and/or because other males can copy the focal male's mate choice. Do P. mexicana males indeed respond to perceived sperm competition risk? We gave males a choice between two females and repeated the tests under one of the following conditions: (1) an empty transparent cylinder was presented (control); (2) another ("audience") male inside the cylinder observed the focal male throughout the 2nd part, or (3) the audience male was presented only before the tests, but could not eavesdrop during the actual choice tests (non-specific sperm competition risk treatments); (4) the focal male could see a rival male interact sexually with the previously preferred, or (5) with the non-preferred female before the 2nd part of the tests (specific sperm competition risk treatments). Results The strength of individual male preferences declined slightly also during the control treatment (1). However, this decrease was more than two-fold stronger in audience treatment (2), i.e., with non-specific sperm competition risk including the possibility for visual eavesdropping by the audience male. No audience effect was found in treatments (3) and (5), but a weak effect was also observed when the focal male had seen the previously preferred female sexually interact with a rival male (treatment 4; specific sperm competition risk). Conclusion When comparing the two 'non-specific sperm competition risk' treatments, a very strong effect was found only when the audience male could actually observe the focal male during mate choice [treatment (2)]. This suggests that focal males indeed attempt to conceal their mating preferences so as to prevent surrounding males from copying their mate choice. When there is no potential for eavesdropping [treatment (3)], non-specific specific sperm competition risk seems to play a minor or no role. Our results also show that P. mexicana males tend to share their mating effort more equally among females when the resource value of their previously preferred mate decreases after mating with a rival male (perceived specific sperm competition risk), but this effect is comparatively weak. PMID:19698098

Ziege, Madlen; Mahlow, Kristin; Hennige-Schulz, Carmen; Kronmarck, Claudia; Tiedemann, Ralph; Streit, Bruno; Plath, Martin

2009-01-01

270

Differential Proteomic Analysis of Anthers between Cytoplasmic Male Sterile and Maintainer Lines in Capsicum annuum L  

PubMed Central

Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), widely used in the production of hybrid seeds, is a maternally inherited trait resulting in a failure to produce functional pollen. In order to identify some specific proteins associated with CMS in pepper, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) was applied to proteomic analysis of anthers/buds between a CMS line (designated NA3) and its maintainer (designated NB3) in Capsicum annuum L. Thirty-three spots showed more than 1.5-fold in either CMS or its maintainer. Based on mass spectrometry, 27 spots representing 23 distinct proteins in these 33 spots were identified. Proteins down-regulated in CMS anthers/buds includes ATP synthase D chain, formate dehydrogenase, alpha-mannosidas, RuBisCO large subunit-binding protein subunit beta, chloroplast manganese stabilizing protein-II, glutathione S-transferase, adenosine kinase isoform 1T-like protein, putative DNA repair protein RAD23-4, putative caffeoyl-CoA 3-O-methyltransferase, glutamine synthetase (GS), annexin Cap32, glutelin, allene oxide cyclase, etc. In CMS anthers/buds, polyphenol oxidase, ATP synthase subunit beta, and actin are up-regulated. It was predicted that male sterility in NA3 might be related to energy metabolism turbulence, excessive ethylene synthesis, and suffocation of starch synthesis. The present study lays a foundation for future investigations of gene functions associated with pollen development and cytoplasmic male sterility, and explores the molecular mechanism of CMS in pepper. PMID:24264042

Wu, Zhiming; Cheng, Jiaowen; Qin, Cheng; Hu, Zhiqun; Yin, Caixia; Hu, Kailin

2013-01-01

271

Differential proteomic analysis of anthers between cytoplasmic male sterile and maintainer lines in Capsicum annuum L.  

PubMed

Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), widely used in the production of hybrid seeds, is a maternally inherited trait resulting in a failure to produce functional pollen. In order to identify some specific proteins associated with CMS in pepper, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) was applied to proteomic analysis of anthers/buds between a CMS line (designated NA3) and its maintainer (designated NB3) in Capsicum annuum L. Thirty-three spots showed more than 1.5-fold in either CMS or its maintainer. Based on mass spectrometry, 27 spots representing 23 distinct proteins in these 33 spots were identified. Proteins down-regulated in CMS anthers/buds includes ATP synthase D chain, formate dehydrogenase, alpha-mannosidas, RuBisCO large subunit-binding protein subunit beta, chloroplast manganese stabilizing protein-II, glutathione S-transferase, adenosine kinase isoform 1T-like protein, putative DNA repair protein RAD23-4, putative caffeoyl-CoA 3-O-methyltransferase, glutamine synthetase (GS), annexin Cap32, glutelin, allene oxide cyclase, etc. In CMS anthers/buds, polyphenol oxidase, ATP synthase subunit beta, and actin are up-regulated. It was predicted that male sterility in NA3 might be related to energy metabolism turbulence, excessive ethylene synthesis, and suffocation of starch synthesis. The present study lays a foundation for future investigations of gene functions associated with pollen development and cytoplasmic male sterility, and explores the molecular mechanism of CMS in pepper. PMID:24264042

Wu, Zhiming; Cheng, Jiaowen; Qin, Cheng; Hu, Zhiqun; Yin, Caixia; Hu, Kailin

2013-01-01

272

Cryptic forcible insemination: male snakes exploit female physiology, anatomy, and behavior to obtain coercive matings.  

PubMed

Whether males can inseminate uncooperative females is a central determinant of mating system evolution that profoundly affects the interpretation of phenomena such as multiple mating by females, mate choice, reproductive seasonality, and courtship tactics. Forcible insemination is usually inferred from direct physical battles between the sexes and has been dismissed on intuitive grounds for many kinds of animals. For example, snakes have elongate flexible bodies (making it difficult for a male to restrain a female physically), males are typically smaller than females, and copulation requires female cloacal gaping to enable intromission. Male garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis) do not display any overt aggression during courtship and simply lie over the female and exhibit rhythmic pulsating caudocephalic waves of muscular contraction; previous studies have interpreted this behavior as a mechanism for eliciting female receptivity. In contrast, we show that male garter snakes forcibly inseminate females. They do so by taking advantage of specific features of snake physiology, respiratory anatomy, and antipredator behavior. The snake lung extends along most of the body, with the large posterior section (the saccular lung) lacking any respiratory exchange surface. Rhythmic caudocephalic waves by courting male garter snakes push anoxic air from the saccular lung forward and across the respiratory surfaces such that females cannot obtain oxygen. Their stress response involves cloacal gaping, which functions in other contexts to repel predators by extruding feces and musk but in this situation permits male intromission. Thus, superficially benign courtship behaviors may involve cryptic coercion even in species for which intuition dismisses any possibility of forcible insemination. PMID:14618542

Shine, Richard; Langkilde, Tracy; Mason, Robert T

2003-11-01

273

Defining the Genetic Architecture Underlying Female- and Male-Mediated Nonrandom Mating and Seed Yield Traits in Arabidopsis1[OA  

PubMed Central

Postpollination nonrandom mating among compatible mates is a widespread phenomenon in plants and is genetically undefined. In this study, we used the recombinant inbred line (RIL) population between Landsberg erecta and Columbia (Col) accessions of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) to define the genetic architecture underlying both female- and male-mediated nonrandom mating traits. To map the genetic loci responsible for male-mediated nonrandom mating, we performed mixed pollinations with Col and RIL pollen on Col pistils. To map the genetic loci responsible for female-mediated nonrandom mating, we performed mixed pollinations with Col and Landsberg erecta pollen on RIL pistils. With these data, we performed composite interval mapping to identify two quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that control male-mediated nonrandom mating. We detected epistatic interactions between these two loci. We also explored female- and male-mediated traits involved in seed yield in mixed pollinations. We detected three female QTLs and one male QTL involved in directing seed number per fruit. To our knowledge, the results of these experiments represent the first time the female and male components of seed yield and nonrandom mating have been separately mapped. PMID:22007025

Carlson, Ann Louise; Fitz Gerald, Jonathan Nesbit; Telligman, Megan; Roshanmanesh, Jacob; Swanson, Robert John

2011-01-01

274

Ontogenetic shifts in male mating preference and morph-specific polyandry in a female colour polymorphic insect  

PubMed Central

Background Sexual conflict over mating rates may favour the origin and maintenance of phenotypes with contrasting reproductive strategies. The damselfly Ischnura elegans is characterised by a female colour polymorphism that consists of one androchrome and two gynochrome female morphs. Previous studies have shown that the polymorphism is genetic and to a high extent maintained by negative frequency-dependent mating success that varies temporally and spatially. However, the role of learning in male mating preferences has received little attention. We used molecular markers to investigate differences in polyandry between female morphs. In addition, we experimentally investigated innate male mating preferences and experience-dependent shifts in male mating preferences for female morphs. Results Field and molecular data show that androchrome females were less polyandrous than gynochrome females. Interestingly, we found that naïve males showed significantly higher sexual preferences to androchrome than to gynochrome females in experimental trials. In contrast, experienced males showed no preference for androchrome females. Conclusions The ontogenetic change in male mate preferences occurs most likely because of learned mate recognition after experience with females, which in this case does not result in a preference for one of the morphs, but rather in the loss of an innate preference for androchrome females. PMID:23742182

2013-01-01

275

Postembryonic development of mating behavior in the male cricket Gryllus bimaculatus DeGeer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intact male nymph cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus DeGeer, was found to show mating-like behavior, that is, courtship-like behavior (CSLB) and copulation-like behavior (CPLB), in the 7th and 8th (last) instars. The 8th instar nymph exhibited less CSLB and CPLB than the adult but much more than the 7th instar nymph. The movement patterns of CSLB and CPLB were essentially the

Masaki Sakai; Takao Katayama; Yasuo Taoda

1990-01-01

276

Molecular aspects of cytoplasmic male sterility in perennial ryegrass ( Lolium perenne L.): mtDNA and RNA differences between plants with male-sterile and fertile cytoplasm and restriction mapping of their atp6 and coxI homologous regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lolium perenne L. male-sterile and fertile cytoplasms contain different mitochondrial genomes, as revealed by Southern hybridization with a number of heterologous mitochondrial probes. In addition, transcriptional patterns of atp6 and coxI genes distinguish both cytoplasmic types. The majority of the L. perenne sequences from male-sterile and fertile cytoplasm showing homology with these two genes has been cloned and mapped by

G. J. A. Rouwendal; J. Creemers-Molenaar; F. A. Krens

1992-01-01

277

Male-specific (Z)-9-tricosene stimulates female mating behaviour in the spider Pholcus beijingensis  

PubMed Central

Chemical signals play an important role in spider sexual communication, yet the chemistry of spider sex pheromones remains poorly understood. Chemical identification of male-produced pheromone-mediating sexual behaviour in spiders has also, to our knowledge, not been reported before. This study aimed to examine whether chemically mediated strategies are used by males of the spider Pholcus beijingensis for increasing the probability of copulation. Based on data from gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis, electroantennography assay and a series of behavioural tests, we verified that (Z)-9-tricosene is a male-specific compound in the spider P. beijingensis. This compound acts as an aphrodisiac: it increases the likelihood that a female will mate. Mate-searching males release (Z)-9-tricosene to stimulate sexual behaviour of conspecific females. In the two-choice assay, however, sexually receptive females show no preference to the chambers containing (Z)-9-tricosene. This indicates that the male pheromone of P. beijingensis is not an attractant per se to the conspecific females. This is, to our knowledge, the first identification of a male-produced aphrodisiac pheromone in spiders. PMID:20462911

Xiao, Yong-Hong; Zhang, Jian-Xu; Li, Shu-Qiang

2010-01-01

278

Love Is Blind: Indiscriminate Female Mating Responses to Male Courtship Pheromones in Newts (Salamandridae)  

PubMed Central

Internal fertilization without copulation or prolonged physical contact is a rare reproductive mode among vertebrates. In many newts (Salamandridae), the male deposits a spermatophore on the substrate in the water, which the female subsequently takes up with her cloaca. Because such an insemination requires intense coordination of both sexes, male newts have evolved a courtship display, essentially consisting of sending pheromones under water by tail-fanning towards their potential partner. Behavioral experiments until now mostly focused on an attractant function, i.e. showing that olfactory cues are able to bring both sexes together. However, since males start their display only after an initial contact phase, courtship pheromones are expected to have an alternative function. Here we developed a series of intraspecific and interspecific two-female experiments with alpine newt (Ichthyosaura alpestris) and palmate newt (Lissotriton helveticus) females, comparing behavior in male courtship water and control water. We show that male olfactory cues emitted during tail-fanning are pheromones that can induce all typical features of natural female mating behavior. Interestingly, females exposed to male pheromones of their own species show indiscriminate mating responses to conspecific and heterospecific females, indicating that visual cues are subordinate to olfactory cues during courtship. PMID:23457580

Matthijs, Severine; Du Four, Dimitri; Janssenswillen, Sunita; Willaert, Bert; Bossuyt, Franky

2013-01-01

279

Individual consistency in exploratory behaviour and mating tactics in male guppies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While behavioural plasticity is considered an adaptation to fluctuating social and environmental conditions, many animals also display a high level of individual consistency in their behaviour over time or across contexts (generally termed ‘personality’). However, studies of animal personalities that include sexual behaviour, or functionally distinct but correlated traits, are relatively scarce. In this study, we tested for individual behavioural consistency in courtship and exploratory behaviour in male guppies ( Poecilia reticulata) in two light environments (high vs. low light intensity). Based on previous work on guppies, we predicted that males would modify their behaviour from sneak mating tactics to courtship displays under low light conditions, but also that the rank orders of courtship effort would remain unchanged (i.e. highly sexually active individuals would display relatively high levels of courtship under both light regimes). We also tested for correlations between courtship and exploratory behaviour, predicting that males that had high display rates would also be more likely to approach a novel object. Although males showed significant consistency in their exploratory and mating behaviour over time (1 week), we found no evidence that these traits constituted a behavioural syndrome. Furthermore, in contrast to previous work, we found no overall effect of the light environment on any of the behaviours measured, although males responded to the treatment on an individual-level basis, as reflected by a significant individual-by-environment interaction. The future challenge is to investigate how individual consistency across different environmental contexts relates to male reproductive success.

Kelley, Jennifer L.; Phillips, Samuel C.; Evans, Jonathan P.

2013-10-01

280

A test for negative frequency-dependent mating success as a function of male colour pattern in the  

E-print Network

A test for negative frequency-dependent mating success as a function of male colour pattern particularly high levels of variation. We tested for negative frequency-dependent mating success between yellow in the bluefin killifish REBECCA C. FULLER* and ASHLEY M. JOHNSON Department of Animal Biology, School

Fuller, Rebecca

281

Variable male potential rate of reproduction: high male mating capacity as an adaptation to parasite-induced excess of females?  

PubMed Central

Numerous animals are known to harbour intracytoplasmic symbionts that gain transmission to a new host generation via female eggs and not male sperm. Bacteria of the genus Wolbachia are a typical example. They infect a large range of arthropod species and manipulate host reproduction in several ways. In terrestrial isopods (woodlice), Wolbachia are responsible for converting males into females (feminization (F)) in some species, or for infertility in certain host crosses in other species (cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI)). Wolbachia with the F phenotype impose a strong excess of females on their host populations, while Wolbachia expressing CI do not. Here, we test the possibility that male mating capacity (MC) is correlated with Wolbachia-induced phenotype. We show that males of isopod hosts harbouring F Wolbachia possess a strong MC (i.e. are able to mate with several females in a short time), while those of species harbouring CI Wolbachia possess a weaker MC. This pattern may be explained either by the selection of high MC following the increase in female-biased sex ratios, or because the F phenotype would lead to population extinction in species where MC is not sufficiently high. This last hypotheses is nevertheless more constrained by population structure. PMID:12965021

Moreau, Jerome; Rigaud, Thierry

2003-01-01

282

Variable male potential rate of reproduction: high male mating capacity as an adaptation to parasite-induced excess of females?  

PubMed

Numerous animals are known to harbour intracytoplasmic symbionts that gain transmission to a new host generation via female eggs and not male sperm. Bacteria of the genus Wolbachia are a typical example. They infect a large range of arthropod species and manipulate host reproduction in several ways. In terrestrial isopods (woodlice), Wolbachia are responsible for converting males into females (feminization (F)) in some species, or for infertility in certain host crosses in other species (cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI)). Wolbachia with the F phenotype impose a strong excess of females on their host populations, while Wolbachia expressing CI do not. Here, we test the possibility that male mating capacity (MC) is correlated with Wolbachia-induced phenotype. We show that males of isopod hosts harbouring F Wolbachia possess a strong MC (i.e. are able to mate with several females in a short time), while those of species harbouring CI Wolbachia possess a weaker MC. This pattern may be explained either by the selection of high MC following the increase in female-biased sex ratios, or because the F phenotype would lead to population extinction in species where MC is not sufficiently high. This last hypotheses is nevertheless more constrained by population structure. PMID:12965021

Moreau, Jérôme; Rigaud, Thierry

2003-07-22

283

Mating increases male's interest in other females: a cognitive study in socially monogamous prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster).  

PubMed

To determine whether socio-sexual interactions with females influence the male prairie vole's cognitive processing, three groups of males were simultaneously exposed to sensory stimuli of a control and a focal female then tested for their behavioral and neuronal responsiveness to the female cues. From the control female, all males received distal cues. From the focal female, the Unmated males received distal cues, the Unmated-Contact males received all cues but did not mate with her, and the Mated-Contact males received all cues and mated with her. Males were tested for their attentiveness to enclosures holding each female and for their memory of the females' previous location. Males' brains were then examined to localize activated regions following exposure to the odor of familiar versus unfamiliar focal females. The Mated-Contact males spent more time in the cage of the control female attending to her enclosure than in the cage of the focal female. Exposure to odors of unfamiliar focal females activated the cingulate cortex of Unmated-Contact males. There was a negative correlation between the level of neuronal activation in the retrosplenial cortex of males that were exposed to the odors of a familiar focal female and their attentiveness to the enclosure of the control female. The data suggest that the effect of socio-sexual interactions with a female on males' cognition depends on the type of sensory signals males receive from females and how individual males perceive those signals. PMID:21888956

Parker, Jamie T; Rodriguez, Natalia; Lawal, Basirat; Delevan, Christine J; Bamshad, Maryam

2011-10-01

284

Analysis of seed set and stigma receptivity among cytoplasmic male sterile sorghum Sorghum bicolor [(L.) Moench] cultivars  

E-print Network

ANALYSIS OP SEED SET AND STIGMA RECEPTIVITY AMONG CYTOPLASMIC MALE STERILE SORGHUM SORGHUM 8ICOLOR [(L. ) MOENCH] CULTIVARS A Thesis JOHN ROBERT JASTER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AAM University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OP SCIENCE December 1985 Major Subject: Agronomy ANALYSIS OF SEED SET AND STIGMA RECEPTIVITY AMONG CYTOPLASMIC MALE STERILE SORGHUM SORGHUM 8/COLOR [(L. ) MOENCH] CULTIVARS A Thesis JOHN ROBERT JASTER Approved...

Jaster, John Robert

2012-06-07

285

Combining ability and heterosis as influenced by male-sterility inducing cytoplasms in sorghum [ Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation was carried out to assess the efficiency of A2 cytoplasmic-nuclear male-sterility (CMS) system in comparison to the widely used A1 cytoplasm in terms of general combining ability (gca) effects of male-sterile (A-) lines and mean performance, specific combining ability (sca) effects and mid-parent heterosis of hybrids for days to 50% flowering, plant height and grain yield at International

Belum V. S. Reddy; S. Ramesh; P. Sanjana Reddy; B. Ramaiah

2007-01-01

286

Effects of breeding success, mate fidelity and senescence on breeding dispersal of male and female blue-footed boobies.  

PubMed

1. Understanding the effects of individual and population factors on variation in breeding dispersal (the movement of individuals between successive breeding sites) is key to identifying the strategies behind breeders' movements. Dispersal is often influenced by multiple factors and these can be confounded with each other. We used 13 years of data on the locations, mates, breeding success and ages of individuals to tease apart the factors influencing breeding dispersal in a colonially breeding long-lived seabird, the blue-footed booby Sula nebouxii. 2. Breeding dispersal varied among and within years. Males dispersed further in years of higher population density, and late breeding males and females dispersed further than early breeders. This temporal variation related to changes in competition for territory was taken into account in all tests of individual factors influencing breeding dispersal. 3. Individuals that retained their mates from the previous year dispersed shorter distances than those that changed their mates. 4. The effect of previous breeding success depended on mate fidelity. Unsuccessful breeding induced greater dispersal in birds that changed their mates but not in birds that retained their mates, indicating that breeders who change mates may take their own previous breeding experience into account during habitat selection. Faithful individuals may have to stay close to their previous sites to encounter their mates. 5. Male divorcees dispersed over shorter distances than their former mates, possibly because males contribute more than females to establishing territories. 6. Dispersal of males and females declined with increasing age over the first 10-11 years of life, then increased in old age, possibly due to senescent decay in the ability to compete for mates and territories. PMID:17439464

Kim, Sin-Yeon; Torres, Roxana; Rodríguez, Cristina; Drummond, Hugh

2007-05-01

287

Male and female synchrony and the regulation of mating in flowering plants.  

PubMed Central

Successful mating clearly requires synchronous development of the male and female sexual organs. Evidence is accumulating that this synchrony of development also persists after pollination, with both pollen and pistil following complex, but highly integrated developmental pathways. The timing of the male-female interaction is crucial for the pistil, which, far from being a mature passive structure, is engaged in a continuing programme of development: only being receptive to the advances of the pollen for a relatively short window of time. This developmental programme is most conspicuous in the ovary, and this review focuses on the interaction between the male and female tissues in this structure. The review first considers pollen tube development in the ovary, concentrating of the mechanisms by which its growth is modulated at various control points associated with structures within the ovary. Second, alterations to this 'normal' developmental programme are reviewed and considered in the context of a breakdown of developmental synchrony. Finally, the consequences of male-female developmental synchrony and asynchrony are explored. Clearly, a synchronous male-female relationship leads to a successful fertilization. However, lack of synchrony also occurs, and could emerge as a powerful tool to investigate the regulation of mating. PMID:12831467

Herrero, M

2003-01-01

288

Taurine enhances the sexual response and mating ability in aged male rats.  

PubMed

It has been demonstrated that taurine is abundant in male reproductive organs, and can be biosynthesized by testis, but the taurine concentration will reduce with aging. The levels of serum LH, T, NOS, and NO were found to be obviously increased by taurine supplementation in aged rats in our previous study. In addition, aging will result in a significant decline in sexual response and function, which may be attributed to the androgen deficiency. Furthermore, NO has been proposed as a crucial mediator of penile erection. That makes us hypothesize that there is potential relationship between taurine decline and erection dysfunction in aged males. So the primary aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of taurine on male sexuality in rats. Taurine was offered in water to male aged (20 months old) rats for 110 days. The effects of taurine on the sexual response, mating ability, levels of serum reproductive hormones, and penile NOS and NO levels were investigated. The results showed that taurine can significantly reduce the EL and ML; obviously increase the ERF, MF, IF, and EJF; stimulate the secretion of GnRH, LH, and T; and elevate penis NOS and NO level in aged rats. The results indicated that taurine can enhance the sexual response and mating ability in aged male rats by increasing the level of testosterone and NO, but the exact mechanism of which needs to be further investigated. PMID:23392896

Yang, Jiancheng; Lin, Shumei; Feng, Ying; Wu, Gaofeng; Hu, Jianmin

2013-01-01

289

Y-Linked male sterile mutations induced by P element in Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed Central

The Y chromosome in Drosophila melanogaster is composed of highly repetitive sequences and is essential only in the male germ line. We employed P-element insertional mutagenesis to induce male sterile mutations in the Y chromosome. By using a combination of two modifiers of position effect variegation, adding an extra Y chromosome and increasing temperature, we isolated 61 P(ry+) elements in the Y chromosome. Six of these Y-linked insertions (approximately 10%) induced male sterile mutations that are mapped to two genes on the long and one on the short arms of the Y chromosome. These mutations are revertible to the wild type in a cell-autonomous and germ-line-dependent manner, consistent with previously defined Y-linked gene functions. Phenotypes associated with these P-induced mutations are similar to those resulting from deletions of the Y chromosome regions corresponding to the male fertility genes. Three alleles of the kl-3 gene on the Y long arm result in loss of the axonemal outer dynein arms in the spermatid tail, while three ks-2 alleles on the Y short arm induce defects at early postmeiotic stages. The recovery of the ms(Y) mutations induced by single P-element insertions will facilitate our effort to understand the structural and functional properties of the Y chromosome. PMID:9755204

Zhang, P; Stankiewicz, R L

1998-01-01

290

Cytoplasmic male sterility: a window to the world of plant mitochondrial-nuclear interactions.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial function depends on the coordinate action of nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. The genetic dissection of these interactions presents special challenges in obligate aerobes, because the viability of these organisms depends on mitochondrial respiration. The plant trait cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is determined by the mitochondrial genome and is associated with a pollen sterility phenotype that can be suppressed or counteracted by nuclear genes known as restorer-of-fertility genes. Here, I review the nature and the origin of the genes that determine CMS, together with recent investigations that have exploited CMS to provide new insights into plant mitochondrial-nuclear communication. These studies have implicated mitochondrial signaling pathways, including those involved in regulating cell death and nuclear gene expression, in the elaboration of CMS. The molecular cloning of nuclear genes that restore fertility (i.e. restorer-of-fertility genes) has identified genes encoding pentatricopeptide-repeat proteins as key regulators of plant mitochondrial gene expression. PMID:17188396

Chase, Christine D

2007-02-01

291

The role of testosterone in male downy woodpeckers in winter home range use, mate interactions and female foraging behaviour.  

PubMed

Studies of the role of testosterone (T) in birds have typically focused on sexual or aggressive behaviours of males during the breeding period, but males of nonmigratory species may invest in mate and territory long before breeding, and the influence of T in facilitating nonbreeding-season behaviours is poorly understood. We gave free-living male downy woodpeckers, Picoides pubescens, T-implants during the winter to determine whether elevated levels of T increased a male's ability to exclusively occupy territory-based resources, and whether elevated T strengthened a male's investment in an existing pair bond relationship. We also explored how a female's foraging efficiency might be affected by her mate's behaviour if he had elevated T. We found little difference between control and T-implanted males with regard to home range exclusivity. Surprisingly, male-male display rates were significantly lower in T-implanted males than in controls. Regarding male-female interactions, T-implanted males that experienced high incursion rates from other males maintained more frequent spatial association with their mate, suggesting that T facilitates male behaviours that could restrict the mate's access to other male birds. Female mates of T-males showed reduced foraging rates, but because male-female aggression was similar between treatment groups, the cause for this reduction is unknown. The results indicate that exogenous T during winter affects a variety of behaviours in male woodpeckers, and proximate influences on pair bond maintenance in winter may be a fruitful avenue for future research. PMID:16932805

Kellam, James S; Lucas, Jeffrey R; Wingfield, John C

2006-03-01

292

Energetic costs of male reproduction in a scramble competition mating system.  

PubMed

1. The assumption that the primary limitations on reproductive success differ between the sexes is inherent in traditional sexual selection theory. Although the energy that can be allocated to reproduction is assumed to be the main limitation to females, the ability to attract and defend oestrous females is assumed to be the primary limitation to males. 2. Estimates of the energetic costs of reproduction in male mammals are, however, limited and have largely been obtained from sexually dimorphic species exhibiting female defence mating systems. These studies often reveal that the energetic cost of male reproduction is similar to or even exceeds that of females, and therefore challenge long-held assumptions of inter-sexual reproductive limitations, but their generality is little known. 3. We coupled measurements of energy expenditure with detailed behavioural observations of reproductive male North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). This species displays minimal sexual dimorphism and exhibits a scramble competition mating system, under which sexual selection favours enhanced mate searching effort by males. 4. We conducted the study over 2 years characterized by a substantial variation in upcoming natural food availability and across two study populations that experienced either natural food abundance or an ad libitum food-supplementation to investigate the influence of resource availability on male reproductive energy expenditure. 5. Under natural conditions, mean energy expenditure of males across the 2 years was high, approximating that of females during lactation. Furthermore, in the anticipation of high upcoming natural food availability and resultant offspring survival, expenditure approximately doubled (from 290 +/- 7 to 579 +/- 73 kJ day(-1)). When current food availability (and consequently the density of receptive females) was experimentally elevated, males displayed the highest levels of energy expenditure we recorded (873 +/- 98 kJ day(-1)). 6. Our results provide compelling evidence that the energy available for reproductive allocation places a strong limitation on reproduction in male North American red squirrels and contribute to previous work suggesting that high and limiting energetic costs of male reproduction may be a general feature of mammalian reproduction. PMID:19674182

Lane, Jeffrey E; Boutin, Stan; Speakman, John R; Humphries, Murray M

2010-01-01

293

Sperm reflux and its role in multiple mating in males of a butterfly Polygonia c-aureum Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae).  

PubMed

The relationship between sperm quantity in the duplex and that in the vasa deferentia was examined in the Asian comma butterfly, Polygonia c-aureum. In virgin males, the number of eupyrene sperm bundles in the duplex increased linearly with age, whereas that in the vasa deferentia was consistently small. However, numerous sperm were found in the vasa deferentia of males immediately after mating. The number of eupyrene sperm bundles in the vasa deferentia after mating significantly increased with age and with increasing the time interval between matings. From these and other results, it was suggested that some sperm in the duplex were moved back to the vasa deferentia during mating, and that such sperm reflux provides a means to save sperm for multiple mating. PMID:12770378

Hiroyoshi, S; Mitsuhashi, J

1999-02-01

294

An eye for beauty: lateralized visual stimulation of courtship behavior and mate preferences in male zebra finches, Taeniopygia guttata.  

PubMed

Research on intersexual selection focuses on traits that have evolved for attracting mates and the consequences of mate choice. However, little is known about the cognitive and neural mechanisms that allow choosers to discriminate among potential mates and express an attraction to specific traits. Preferential use of the right eye during lateral displays in zebra finches, and lateralized expression of intermediate early genes in the left hemisphere during courtship led us to hypothesize that: (1) visual information from each eye differentially mediates courtship responses to potential mates; and (2) the ability to discriminate among mates and prefer certain mates over others is lateralized in the right eye/left hemisphere system of zebra finch brains. First, we exposed male zebra finches to females when using left, right or both eyes. Males courted more when the right eye was available than when only the left eye was used. Secondly, male preference for females - using beak color to indicate female quality - was tested. Right-eyed and binocular males associated with and courted orange-beaked more than gray-beaked females; whereas left-eyed males showed no preference. Lateral displays and eye use in male zebra finches increase their attractiveness and ability to assess female quality, potentially enhancing reproductive success. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: CO3 2013. PMID:24239504

Templeton, Jennifer J; McCracken, Brianna G; Sher, Melissa; Mountjoy, D James

2014-02-01

295

Contextual cues and vaginocervical stimuli are integrated in the medial amygdala during mating in female syrian hamsters  

Microsoft Academic Search

In rodents, though ovulation is spontaneous, vaginocervical stimulation (VCS) is required for the induction of the neuroendocrine reflex (NER) that supports pregnancy, or in the case of sterile mating, pseudopregnancy. Rodents have species-specific mating stimulation requirements for NER induction. Additionally, the female receives male distal stimulation during mating (i.e. auditory, olfactory, visual), which can modulate the effects of VCS during

Deborah Nell Shelley

2003-01-01

296

Avoidance of interspecific mating in female Syrian hamsters is stronger toward familiar than toward unfamiliar heterospecific males  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult Syrian hamster females (Mesocricetus auratus) learn to discriminate against familiar heterospecific males (Turkish hamster, M. brandti). We investigated whether females learn to avoid any heterospecific male after exposure to just one heterospecific male.\\u000a We predicted that, after being exposed to one heterospecific male, a female would avoid mating not only with that familiar\\u000a male but also with any unfamiliar

Javier delBarco-Trillo; Robert E. Johnston

2011-01-01

297

The effect of male coloration on female mate choice in closely related Lake Victoria cichlids ( Haplochromis nyererei complex)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the effect of male coloration on interspecific female mate choice in two closely related species of haplochromine\\u000a cichlids from Lake Victoria. The species differ primarily in male coloration. Males of one species are red, those of the other\\u000a are blue. We recorded the behavioral responses of females to males of both species in paired male trials under white

Ole Seehausen; Jacques J. M. van Alphen

1998-01-01

298

Male discrimination of female mucous trails permits assortative mating in a marine snail species.  

PubMed

Recent research has shown the potential for nonallopatric speciation, but we lack an adequate understanding of the mechanisms of prezygotic barriers and how these evolve in the presence of gene flow. The marine snail Littorina saxatilis has distinct ecotypes in different shore microhabitats. Ecotypes hybridize in contact zones, but gene flow is impeded by assortative mating. Earlier studies have shown that males and females of the same ecotype copulate for longer than mates of different ecotype. Here we report a new mechanism that further contributes to reproductive isolation between ecotypes in the presence of gene flow. This mechanism is linked to the ability of males to track potential partners by following their mucous trail. We show that cliff ecotype males follow the trails of females of the same ecotype for longer than females of the alternate (boulder) ecotype. In addition, cliff males are more likely to follow the mucous trail in the correct direction if the trail is laid by a cliff-female. The capacity to discriminate the ecotype of female mucous trails combined with differential copulation times creates a strong prezygotic reproductive barrier between ecotypes of L. saxatilis that reduces gene flow from cliff to boulder ecotypes by >/=80%. PMID:18786192

Johannesson, Kerstin; Havenhand, Jon N; Jonsson, Per R; Lindegarth, Mats; Sundin, Annika; Hollander, Johan

2008-12-01

299

Selection on male size, leg length and condition during mate search in a sexually highly dimorphic orb-weaving spider.  

PubMed

Mate search plays a central role in hypotheses for the adaptive significance of extreme female-biased sexual size dimorphism (SSD) in animals. Spiders (Araneae) are the only free-living terrestrial taxon where extreme SSD is common. The "gravity hypothesis" states that small body size in males is favoured during mate search in species where males have to climb to reach females, because body length is inversely proportional to achievable speed on vertical structures. However, locomotive performance of males may also depend on relative leg length. Here we examine selection on male body size and leg length during mate search in the highly dimorphic orb-weaving spider Argiope aurantia, using a multivariate approach to distinguish selection targeted at different components of size. Further, we investigate the scaling relationships between male size and energy reserves, and the differential loss of reserves. Adult males do not feed while roving, and a size-dependent differential energy storage capacity may thus affect male performance during mate search. Contrary to predictions, large body size was favoured in one of two populations, and this was due to selection for longer legs. Male size was not under selection in the second population, but we detected direct selection for longer third legs. Males lost energy reserves during mate search, but this was independent of male size and storage capacity scaled isometrically with size. Thus, mate search is unlikely to lead to selection for small male size, but the hypothesis that relatively longer legs in male spiders reflect a search-adapted morphology is supported. PMID:15619098

Foellmer, Matthias W; Fairbairn, Daphne J

2005-02-01

300

No size or density effect on alternative mate-locating tactics in the tropical damselfly Hetaerina rosea males (Odonata: Calopterygidae).  

PubMed

Males of the damselfly Hetaerina rosea may defend mating sites along river margins (resident males) or, alternatively, wander among different areas presumably searching for mates (nonterritorial males). Although the occurrence of territorial and nonterritorial males of H. rosea is very common in Brazil, studies examining which factors may be responsible for the adoption of alternative mate-locating tactics in this species are inexistent. We investigated the relationship between the adoption of these alternative mate-locating tactics by males of H. rosea and two possible causes: body weight and male abundance. We carried the study in three areas: sites 1, 2 and 3. Samples were monthly undertaken in sites 1 and 2 between September/2001 and August/2002 and in site 3 between May/1999 and January/2001. Using the scan method with fixed areas and mark-resighting techniques, we did not find any relationship between the proportion of nonterritorial males and male abundance per month on sites 2 (n=6) and 3 (n=7), indicating that the adoption of alternative mate-locating tactics is not affected by competition for territories. In the same way, nonterritorial and resident males showed similar body and thoracic weight measures (n=30 and n=27 for sites 2 and 3 respectively). Maybe the nonterritorial tactic is adopted by individuals searching for better territories or males that were evicted from their defended sites. The absence of relationship between weight and male territorial status is in accordance with other Hetaerina species. However, other traits not investigated here such as parasitic load, fat content and age may influence the adoption of different mate-acquisition tactics in H. rosea males. PMID:19637713

Peixoto, Paulo Enrique C; De Marco, Paulo

2009-01-01

301

Sexual size dimorphism in the American rubyspot: male body size predicts male competition and mating success  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual differences in body size are widespread among animals, and various explanations for the evolution and maintenance of sexual size dimorphism have been proposed. We investigated the effects of sexual selection and fecundity selection on the sizes of males and females, respectively, in American rubyspots, Hetaerina americana. Males are larger than females and have large red spots at the base

M. A. Serrano-Meneses; A. Córdoba-Aguilar; V. Méndez; S. J. Layen; T. Székely

2007-01-01

302

Male ornament variation in a sexually dimorphic seabird with variable male mating success  

Microsoft Academic Search

Questions: Are sex-specific ornaments necessarily under sexual selection? Could previous sexual selection have eliminated meaningful variation in male ornaments, as envisioned by the lek paradox? Background: The lek paradox proposes that sexual selection on a trait can become limited by the availability of genetic variation. If prolonged directional selection leads to an exhaustion of genetic variation in male ornaments, selection

Stephanie G. Wright; Donald C. Dearborn

2009-01-01

303

PRE-MATING COMMUNICATION AND HYBRIDIZATION BETWEEN TWO MEADOW KATYDIDS, ORCHELIMUM NIGRIPES AND O. PULCHELLUM (ORTHOPTERA: TETTIGONIIDAE): MALE CALLING SONG AND ASYMMETRIC FEMALE PREFERENCE  

E-print Network

I investigated the role of male calling song and female preference on mate choice and pre-mating isolation in Orchelimum nigripes and O. pulchellum. In Chapter 1, I show that the calls of O. nigripes and O. pulchellum ...

Miller, Ginger

2010-12-06

304

Evaluation of male inter-troop transfer as a mating strategy among ring-tailed lemurs on St. Catherines Island, USA.  

PubMed

One commonly cited function of dispersal is to increase mating opportunities. In this study, I evaluated the hypothesis that male inter-troop transfer is used as a mating strategy in ring-tailed lemurs, Lemur catta, on St. Catherines Island (SCI), Ga., USA. I measured male mating success and inter-troop transfer behavior across 5 years in a population consisting of 4 lemur groups on SCI. Data strongly supported dispersal as a successful mating strategy of natal males, because these males did not mate within their natal groups, but always mated in their new groups of entry. For secondary male dispersal (transfers between 2 non-natal groups), data on 2 males collected in breeding seasons immediately prior to and following transfer show that their individual mating success measures increased following a transfer. Data revealed that among non-natal males, high-ranking males on SCI were more likely to transfer between groups than lower-ranking males, which is somewhat contrary to the more common trend among primates of lower-ranking males transferring more frequently. In sum, male primary dispersal appears to function as a mating strategy among male L. catta on SCI, with indications that secondary dispersal may also be successful at increasing male mating success. PMID:20720432

Parga, Joyce A

2010-01-01

305

Evidence for a receiver bias underlying female preference for a male mating pheromone in sea lamprey  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Receiver bias models suggest that a male sexual signal became exaggerated to match a pre-existing sensory, perceptual or cognitive disposition of the female. Accordingly, these models predict that females of related taxa possessing the ancestral state of signalling evolved preference for the male trait in a non-sexual context. We postulated that female preference for the male-released bile alcohol mating pheromone, 3 keto petromyzonol sulfate (3kPZS), of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) evolved as a result of a receiver bias. In particular, we propose that migratory silver lamprey (Ichthyomyzon unicuspis), a basal member of the Petromyzontidae, evolved a preference for 3kPZS released by stream-resident larvae as a means of identifying productive habitat for offspring. Larval silver lamprey released 3kPZS at rates sufficient to be detected by migratory lampreys. Females responded to 3kPZS by exhibiting upstream movement behaviours relevant in a migratory context, but did not exhibit proximate behaviours important to mate search and spawning. Male silver lamprey did not release 3kPZS at rates sufficient to be detected by females in natural high-volume stream environments. We infer that female silver lamprey cue onto 3kPZS excreted by stream-resident larvae as a mechanism to locate habitat conducive to offspring survival and that males do not signal with 3kPZS. We suggest that this female preference for a male signal in a non-sexual context represents a bias leading to the sexual signalling observed in sea lamprey.

Buchinger, Tyler J.; Wang, Huiyong; Li, Weiming; Johnson, Nicholas S.

2013-01-01

306

Evidence for a receiver bias underlying female preference for a male mating pheromone in sea lamprey  

PubMed Central

Receiver bias models suggest that a male sexual signal became exaggerated to match a pre-existing sensory, perceptual or cognitive disposition of the female. Accordingly, these models predict that females of related taxa possessing the ancestral state of signalling evolved preference for the male trait in a non-sexual context. We postulated that female preference for the male-released bile alcohol mating pheromone, 3 keto petromyzonol sulfate (3kPZS), of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) evolved as a result of a receiver bias. In particular, we propose that migratory silver lamprey (Ichthyomyzon unicuspis), a basal member of the Petromyzontidae, evolved a preference for 3kPZS released by stream-resident larvae as a means of identifying productive habitat for offspring. Larval silver lamprey released 3kPZS at rates sufficient to be detected by migratory lampreys. Females responded to 3kPZS by exhibiting upstream movement behaviours relevant in a migratory context, but did not exhibit proximate behaviours important to mate search and spawning. Male silver lamprey did not release 3kPZS at rates sufficient to be detected by females in natural high-volume stream environments. We infer that female silver lamprey cue onto 3kPZS excreted by stream-resident larvae as a mechanism to locate habitat conducive to offspring survival and that males do not signal with 3kPZS. We suggest that this female preference for a male signal in a non-sexual context represents a bias leading to the sexual signalling observed in sea lamprey. PMID:24068361

Buchinger, T. J.; Wang, H.; Li, W.; Johnson, N. S.

2013-01-01

307

FEMALE PRAIRIE VOLE MATE-CHOICE IS AFFECTED BY THE MALES' BIRTH LITTER COMPOSITION  

PubMed Central

Experimental testing and retrospective examination of breeding records were used to examine the influence of sex composition and/or size of males’ birth litters on female mate-choice. Sexually naïve female prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) avoided males derived from all-male litters, but showed no preference for, or aversion to, males from single-male litters or from more typical mixed-sex litters. Examination of the pregnancy status of females after two weeks of pairing with a male allowed us to estimate the probabilites of a pups’ intrauterine position relative to siblings for various litter sizes. The typical prairie vole pup derived from a mixed-sex litter comprised of 4.4 pups, and had a 13% chance of being isolated from siblings in utero and a 22% chance of being between siblings in utero. Pups from single-sex litters tended to be larger at weaning than did pups from mixed-sex litters; however, male size did not influence female choice behavior. These results suggest that some aspect of the perinatal experience of prairie vole pups from single sex litters can influence social interactions later in life. PMID:20434472

Curtis, J. Thomas

2010-01-01

308

Female prairie vole mate-choice is affected by the males' birth litter composition.  

PubMed

Experimental testing and retrospective examination of breeding records were used to examine the influence of sex composition and/or size of males' birth litters on female mate-choice. Sexually naïve female prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) avoided males derived from all-male litters, but showed no preference for, or aversion to, males from single-male litters or from more typical mixed-sex litters. Examination of the pregnancy status of females after two weeks of pairing with a male allowed us to estimate the probabilites of a pups' intrauterine position relative to siblings for various litter sizes. The typical prairie vole pup derived from a mixed-sex litter comprised of 4.4 pups, and had a 13% chance of being isolated from siblings in utero and a 22% chance of being between siblings in utero. Pups from single-sex litters tended to be larger at weaning than did pups from mixed-sex litters; however, male size did not influence female choice behavior. These results suggest that some aspect of the perinatal experience of prairie vole pups from single sex litters can influence social interactions later in life. PMID:20434472

Curtis, J Thomas

2010-08-01

309

Effect of increased male and female age at mating on the reproductive performance of Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Crambidae: Lepidoptera).  

PubMed

The success of mating disruption using synthetic sex pheromones depends not only on preventing mating, but also on delayed mating in the target insect. Using the rice leaffolder moth, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée), we determined the effect of increased age at mating imposed on males only (male treatment), females only (female treatment),or on both sexes simultaneously (both sexes treatment). These increased age treatments had a negative effect on the percentage of mating, the total number of eggs, and the hatchability. The female reproductive performance in C. medinalis was decreased with increased moths' age. The both sexes treatment had the most potent negative effect on reproductive performance. Longevity of mated moths and duration of the preoviposition period in C. medinalis were not significantly different among these increased age treatments. The underlying mechanisms causing a decline in female reproductive performance of C. medinalis when increased age was imposed on males versus females and the potential of using mating disruption strategies to control the populations in paddy fields are discussed. PMID:25195432

Kawazu, Kei; Shintani, Yoshinori; Tatsuki, Sadahiro

2014-08-01

310

Paternal care and male mate-attraction effort in the European starling is adjusted to clutch size.  

PubMed Central

In facultative polygynous birds with biparental care, a trade-off may occur between male parental care and attraction of additional mates. If there is a cost associated with reduced male parental care, the relative benefit of mate attraction may be predicted to decrease as the size of a male's clutch or brood increases. We tested this prediction in monogamous pairs of facultatively polygynous European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). The larger the clutch, the more time the male spent incubating and the less time he spent attracting an additional female (i.e. singing near and carrying green nesting material into adjacent empty nest-boxes). Reduced paternal incubation resulted in lower overall incubation (the female did not compensate) and lower hatching success. Immediately after experimental reduction of clutches, males spent significantly less time incubating and more time singing and carrying greenery, and vice versa for experimentally enlarged clutches. Males with experimentally reduced clutches attracted a second female more often than males with experimentally enlarged clutches. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to provide experimental evidence for an adjustment of paternal care and male mate-attraction effort to clutch size. However, a trade-off between paternal nestling provisioning and mate attraction was not revealed, probably due to the absence of unpaired females by that time in the breeding season. Experiments showed that the relative contribution of the male and female to nestling provisioning was unrelated to brood size. PMID:12065042

Komdeur, Jan; Wiersma, Popko; Magrath, Michael

2002-01-01

311

Production of engineered long-life and male sterile Pelargonium plants  

PubMed Central

Background Pelargonium is one of the most popular garden plants in the world. Moreover, it has a considerable economic importance in the ornamental plant market. Conventional cross-breeding strategies have generated a range of cultivars with excellent traits. However, gene transfer via Agrobacterium tumefaciens could be a helpful tool to further improve Pelargonium by enabling the introduction of new genes/traits. We report a simple and reliable protocol for the genetic transformation of Pelargonium spp. and the production of engineered long-life and male sterile Pelargonium zonale plants, using the pSAG12::ipt and PsEND1::barnase chimaeric genes respectively. Results The pSAG12::ipt transgenic plants showed delayed leaf senescence, increased branching and reduced internodal length, as compared to control plants. Leaves and flowers of the pSAG12::ipt plants were reduced in size and displayed a more intense coloration. In the transgenic lines carrying the PsEND1::barnase construct no pollen grains were observed in the modified anther structures, which developed instead of normal anthers. The locules of sterile anthers collapsed 3–4?days prior to floral anthesis and, in most cases, the undeveloped anther tissues underwent necrosis. Conclusion The chimaeric construct pSAG12::ipt can be useful in Pelargonium spp. to delay the senescence process and to modify plant architecture. In addition, the use of engineered male sterile plants would be especially useful to produce environmentally friendly transgenic plants carrying new traits by preventing gene flow between the genetically modified ornamentals and related plant species. These characteristics could be of interest, from a commercial point of view, both for pelargonium producers and consumers. PMID:22935247

2012-01-01

312

A low molecular weight proteome comparison of fertile and male sterile 8 anthers of Zea mays  

PubMed Central

Summary During maize anther development, somatic locular cells differentiate to support meiosis in the pollen mother cells. Meiosis is an important event during anther growth and is essential for plant fertility as pollen contains the haploid sperm. A subset of maize male sterile mutants exhibit meiotic failure, including ms8 (male sterile 8) in which meiocytes arrest as dyads and the locular somatic cells exhibit multiple defects. Systematic proteomic profiles were analysed in biological triplicates plus technical triplicates comparing ms8 anthers with fertile sibling samples at both the premeiotic and meiotic stages; proteins from 3.5 to 20 kDa were fractionated by 1-D PAGE, cleaved with Lys-C and then sequenced using a LTQ Orbitrap Velos MS paradigm. Three hundred and 59proteins were identified with two or more assigned peptides in which each of those peptides were counted at least two or more times (0.4% peptide false discovery rate (FDR) and 0.2% protein FDR); 2761 proteins were identified with one or more assigned peptides (0.4% peptide FDR and 7.6% protein FDR). Stage-specific protein expression provides candidate stage markers for early anther development, and proteins specifically expressed in fertile compared to sterile anthers provide important clues about the regulation of meiosis. 49% of the proteins detected by this study are new to an independent whole anther proteome, and many small proteins missed by automated maize genome annotation were validated; these outcomes indicate the value of focusing on low molecular weight proteins. The roles of distinctive expressed proteins and methods for mass spectrometry of low molecular weight proteins are discussed. PMID:22748129

Wang, Dongxue; Adams, Christopher M.; Fernandes, John F.; Egger, Rachel L.; Walbot, Virginia

2014-01-01

313

Navigation by Male Crab Spiders Misumenoides formosipes (Araneae: Thomisidae): Floral Cues May Aid in Locating Potential Mates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The crab spider Misumenoides formosipes is an ambush predator whose males search for relatively sedentary females within a heterogeneous habitat. Females are receptive\\u000a to mating immediately after their adult molt and a male biased adult sex ratio together with precopulatory guarding places\\u000a a premium on male ability to locate females quickly. It is unknown what cues males use to find

Leo M. Stellwag; Gary N. Dodson

2010-01-01

314

The genetic polymorphism linked to mate-securing strategies in the male damselfly Mnais costalis Selys (Odonata: Calopterygidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative male mate-securing strategies are widespread among animal taxa, but there are few well-documented examples of genetic polymorphisms for them. In the Japanese calopterygid damselfly Mnais costalis, males occur as either orange-winged territorial fighter males, or clear-winged non-territorial sneaker males. It has previously been suggested that this behavioral polymorphism is genetically controlled. However, there was no direct evidence for this.

Yoshitaka Tsubaki

2003-01-01

315

Co-Evolution of the Mating Position and Male Genitalia in Insects: A Case Study of a Hangingfly  

PubMed Central

Hangingflies are unique for the male providing a nuptial gift to the female during mating and taking a face-to-face hanging copulation with the female. Their male genitalia are peculiar for an extremely elongated penisfilum, a pair of well-developed epandrial lobes (9th tergum), and a pair of degenerated gonostyli. However, the co-evolution of their face-to-face copulation behavior and the male genitalia has rarely been studied hitherto. In this paper the mating behavior of the hangingfly Bittacus planus Cheng, 1949 was observed under laboratory conditions, and the morphology of the male and female external genitalia was investigated using light and scanning electron microscopy. The male provides an insect prey as a nuptial gift to the female in courtship and mating process, and commits a face-to-face copulation. During copulation, the male abdomen twists temporarily about 180° to accommodate their face-to-face mating position. The aedeagal complex has an extremely elongated penisfilum, corresponding to the elongated spermathecal duct of the female. The well-developed epandrial lobes serve as claspers to grasp the female subgenital plate during copulation, replacing the function of gonostyli, which are greatly reduced in Bittacidae. The modified proctiger assists the penisfilum to stretch and to enter into the female spermathecal duct. The possible reasons why this species might mate face-to-face are briefly discussed. PMID:24312490

Gao, Qionghua; Hua, Baozhen

2013-01-01

316

Juvenile hormone titre and egg production in Tenebrio molitor infected by Hymenolepis diminuta: effect of male and/or female infection, male age and mating.  

PubMed

Infection of Tenebrio molitor with Hymenolepis diminuta induces curtailment of female fertility. We examined ovulation and oviposition, and associated titres of juvenile hormone (JH), in relation to parasitism and mating. Oviposition was significantly increased in infected mated and virgin beetles by days 6 and 9 post-emergence. Ovulation was not changed by infection; by the end of the 18-day experiment, the total number of laid eggs was not significantly altered. On day 6, JH levels were significantly higher in virgin infected insects, compared to non-infected controls (236+/-37.7 and 107+/-9.62 pg/g wet weight). Oviposition increased after mating, but total eggs ovulated remained the same. JH levels were higher in mated females on days 12 and 18 post-emergence, for infected and control insects. Previous studies suggested that male reproductive potential might rise following infection, because uninfected females lay more eggs when mated to infected males. We tested whether this caused an increase in female JH. Males were mated on days 5 or 12, when significant changes in their reproductive physiology begin to be observed, and are maximal, respectively. However, male age was of greater significance in promoting JH levels in females (p=0.001), than infection status of either partner (p=0.33). PMID:12804718

Cole, T J; Eggleston, P; Hurd, H

2003-06-01

317

Cytogenetics of Flower Modification of a Cytoplasmic Male-Sterile Tobacco  

PubMed Central

Plants combining the cytoplasm of Nicotiana debneyi and the 48 chromosomes from N. tabacum are male sterile. Early backcross generations of the amphidiploid hybrid to male N. tabacum produced a great variety of plants from which a series of phenotypes with characteristic flower forms and transmission rates have been isolated. Type 1A possesses completely feminized stamens and deeply split corollas, breeds true when backcrossed to normal males and carries 48 N. tabacum chromosomes. Other phenotypes, 2C, 3E and 4H, range toward normal morphology of corollas and stamens. Like 1A, 2C forms no anther tissue and has 48 chromosomes. This type is transmitted to 36.3% of the backcross progeny, the remainder being of type 1A; presumably 2C carries a chromosome segment from N. debneyi that is responsible for the partial restoration of flower structure. In contrast, both 3E and 4H produce anthers and possess an extra chromosome. The extra chromosomes are transmitted to only 19.9% and 7.1% of the progeny, respectively. Significantly, the extra chromosomes found in the anther-forming types are nucleolus organizing and carry a satellite from N. debneyi. On the basis of these observations, we surmise that differentiation of anthers in plants with N. debneyi cytoplasm may depend on the presence of a nucleolus-organizing chromosome from that species. This chromosome is unstable; unaltered, it conditions a highly restored phenotype (4H), but when structurally modified, it may control different phenotypic expressions. Other examples of satellited restorer chromosomes had been reported for different cytoplasmically male-sterile combinations; therefore, the phenomenon may have more general significance. PMID:17249061

Gerstel, D. U.; Burns, J. A.; Sand, S. A.

1980-01-01

318

Variation in a female sexual attractiveness pheromone controls male mate choice in garter snakes.  

PubMed

Male red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) display a courtship preference for larger females during the breeding season. Utilizing behavioral experiments and chemical analyses, we tested the hypothesis that males can discriminate among females of varying size solely by means of the sexual attractiveness pheromone, a previously characterized sex pheromone composed of a homologous series of long-chain saturated and omega-9 cis-unsaturated methyl ketones contained in the skin lipids of females. When presented with skin lipid extracts from large and small females, a greater proportion of males displayed courtship behaviors to large female extracts. This demonstrates that there is an intrinsic property of the female skin lipids that allows males to differentiate among large and small females. Analysis of the sexual attractiveness pheromone revealed that the necessary variation exists for this pheromone to function as a reliable indicator to males of female body size. Specifically, we observed a strong correlation between female snout-vent length and the relative concentration of saturated and omega-9 cis-unsaturated methyl ketones composing the pheromone; smaller females expressed pheromone profiles higher in saturated methyl ketones. while larger females expressed pheromone profiles dominated by unsaturated methyl ketones. The results of this study suggest that male red-sided garter snakes utilize compositional variation in the female sexual attractiveness pheromone to differentiate among potential mates of varying size. PMID:12184402

LeMaster, Michael P; Mason, Robert T

2002-06-01

319

Effects of egg testosterone on female mate choice and male sexual behavior in the pheasant.  

PubMed

Evidence is accumulating that sex steroids in the eggs, besides affecting progeny phenotype and behavior in the short term, also have enduring effects until adulthood, when they may translate into differences in reproductive strategies and success. Maternal steroids transfer may therefore affect both agonistic behavior and mate choice decisions, either through the promotion of body size and condition or through a priming effect on the neuroendocrine system. However, owing to the prevalence of a short-term perspective, relevance of maternal transfer of sex steroids to sexual selection processes has been seldom studied. Here we investigate the effects of an experimental increase in egg testosterone on male dominance and copulation success in the ring-necked pheasant, Phasianus colchicus, a polygynous galliform with multiple male ornamental traits, in captivity. We found that females from testosterone (T) injected eggs copulated less than control females. Males from T-injected eggs obtained more copulations than control males, specifically with control females. The effect of male 'ordinary' and secondary sexual traits on either dominance or copulation frequency did not depend on early exposure to T, nor did T treatment affect male dominance. Present results demonstrate that variation in the early hormonal environment set up by mothers affects sexual behavior of the offspring, which might translate into fitness differences. PMID:21029735

Bonisoli-Alquati, Andrea; Matteo, Angelo; Ambrosini, Roberto; Rubolini, Diego; Romano, Maria; Caprioli, Manuela; Dessì-Fulgheri, Francesco; Baratti, Mariella; Saino, Nicola

2011-01-01

320

Mutation in CSA creates a new photoperiod-sensitive genic male sterile line applicable for hybrid rice seed production  

PubMed Central

Rice is a major staple food worldwide. Making hybrid rice has proved to be an effective strategy to significantly increase grain yield. Current hybrid rice technologies rely on male sterile lines and have been used predominantly in indica cultivars. However, intrinsic problems exist in the implementation of these technologies, such as limited germplasms and unpredictable conversions from sterility to fertility in the field. Here, we describe a photoperiod-controlled male sterile line, carbon starved anther (csa), which contains a mutation in an R2R3 MYB transcription regulator of pollen development. This mutation was introduced into indica and japonica rice, and it rendered male sterility under short-day conditions and male fertility under long-day conditions in both lines. Furthermore, F1 plants of csa and a restorer line JP69 exhibited heterosis (hybrid vigor), suggesting the feasibility of using this mutation to create hybrid rice. The csa-based photoperiod-sensitive male sterile line allows the establishment of a stable two-line hybrid system, which promises to have a significant impact on agriculture. PMID:23256151

Zhang, Hui; Xu, Chenxi; He, Yi; Zong, Jie; Yang, Xijia; Si, Huamin; Sun, Zongxiu; Hu, Jianping; Liang, Wanqi; Zhang, Dabing

2013-01-01

321

Mutation in CSA creates a new photoperiod-sensitive genic male sterile line applicable for hybrid rice seed production.  

PubMed

Rice is a major staple food worldwide. Making hybrid rice has proved to be an effective strategy to significantly increase grain yield. Current hybrid rice technologies rely on male sterile lines and have been used predominantly in indica cultivars. However, intrinsic problems exist in the implementation of these technologies, such as limited germplasms and unpredictable conversions from sterility to fertility in the field. Here, we describe a photoperiod-controlled male sterile line, carbon starved anther (csa), which contains a mutation in an R2R3 MYB transcription regulator of pollen development. This mutation was introduced into indica and japonica rice, and it rendered male sterility under short-day conditions and male fertility under long-day conditions in both lines. Furthermore, F(1) plants of csa and a restorer line JP69 exhibited heterosis (hybrid vigor), suggesting the feasibility of using this mutation to create hybrid rice. The csa-based photoperiod-sensitive male sterile line allows the establishment of a stable two-line hybrid system, which promises to have a significant impact on agriculture. PMID:23256151

Zhang, Hui; Xu, Chenxi; He, Yi; Zong, Jie; Yang, Xijia; Si, Huamin; Sun, Zongxiu; Hu, Jianping; Liang, Wanqi; Zhang, Dabing

2013-01-01

322

Sexual selection for male dominance reduces opportunities for female mate choice in the European bitterling (Rhodeus sericeus).  

PubMed

Sexual selection involves two main mechanisms: intrasexual competition for mates and intersexual mate choice. We experimentally separated intrasexual (male-male interference competition) and intersexual (female choice) components of sexual selection in a freshwater fish, the European bitterling (Rhodeus sericeus). We compared the roles of multiple morphological and behavioural traits in male success in both components of sexual competition, and their relation to male reproductive success, measured as paternity of offspring. Body size was important for both female choice and male-male competition, though females also preferred males that courted more vigorously. However, dominant males often monopolized females regardless of female preference. Subordinate males were not excluded from reproduction and sired some offspring, possibly through sneaked ejaculations. Male dominance and a greater intensity of carotenoid-based red colouration in their iris were the best predictors of male reproductive success. The extent of red iris colouration and parasite load did not have significant effects on female choice, male dominance or male reproductive success. No effect of parasite load on the expression of red eye colouration was detected, though this may have been due to low parasite prevalence in males overall. In conclusion, we showed that even though larger body size was favoured in both intersexual and intrasexual selection, male-male interference competition reduced opportunities for female choice. Females, despite being choosy, had limited control over the paternity of their offspring. Our study highlights the need for reliable measures of male reproductive success in studies of sexual selection. PMID:15813791

Reichard, M; Bryja, J; Ondracková, M; Dávidová, M; Kaniewska, P; Smith, C

2005-04-01

323

Sexual cannibalism and mate choice decisions in wolf spiders: influence of male size and secondary sexual characters  

E-print Network

Sexual cannibalism and mate choice decisions in wolf spiders: influence of male size and secondary; published online 11 November 2004; MS. number: A9539R) Sexual cannibalism may influence expression, probability of attempted premating cannibalism varied with male size, body condition, tuft size, fluctuating

Persons, Matthew H.

324

Safe sex: male-female coalitions and pre-copulatory mate-guarding in a fiddler crab  

PubMed Central

In fiddler crabs both males and females defend territories that are essential for survival. Given pronounced sexual dimorphism in weaponry, how do weaponless females defend their territory from well-armed males? Using observational data and two simple experiments, we test whether male Uca annulipes protect their female neighbours from conspecific intruders. We show that males defend their female neighbours against male but not female intruders. We also show that females sometimes mate with their immediate neighbours. Male defence of female neighbours appears to represent both pre-copulatory mate-guarding and a territorial coalition. Males who ensure that their neighbour remains female could benefit through increased opportunity for future reproductive success and lower boundary maintenance costs. PMID:19889695

Milner, Richard N. C.; Jennions, Michael D.; Backwell, Patricia R. Y.

2010-01-01

325

Female house sparrows "count on" male genes: experimental evidence for MHC-dependent mate preference in birds  

PubMed Central

Background Females can potentially assess the quality of potential mates using their secondary sexual traits, and obtain "good genes" that increase offspring fitness. Another potential indirect benefit from mating preferences is genetic compatibility, which does not require extravagant or viability indicator traits. Several studies with mammals and fish indicate that the genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) influence olfactory cues and mating preferences, and such preferences confer genetic benefits to offspring. We investigated whether individual MHC diversity (class I) influences mating preferences in house sparrows (Passer domesticus). Results Overall, we found no evidence that females preferred males with high individual MHC diversity. Yet, when we considered individual MHC allelic diversity of the females, we found that females with a low number of alleles were most attracted to males carrying a high number of MHC alleles, which might reflect a mating-up preference by allele counting. Conclusions This is the first experimental evidence for MHC-dependent mating preferences in an avian species to our knowledge. Our findings raise questions about the underlying mechanisms through which birds discriminate individual MHC diversity among conspecifics, and they suggest a novel mechanism through which mating preferences might promote the evolution of MHC polymorphisms and generate positive selection for duplicated MHC loci. PMID:21320306

2011-01-01

326

Hybrid male sterility in rice controlled by interaction between divergent alleles of two adjacent genes  

E-print Network

hybrid sterility reproductive barrier two-gene/three-component model Hybrid sterility is the most common increases in rice. How- ever, the partial or complete sterility of the hybrids forms a reproductive barrier in indica-japonica hy- brids has been cloned recently (19). Plant hybrid sterility is thought to be caused

Nachman, Michael

327

Mating Competitiveness of Anopheles arabiensis Males as a Function of Transgenic State and Genetic Similarity to Females  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted mating competitions between wild-type and heterozygous transgenic Anopheles arabiensis males that were produced by repeated backcrosses of a transposable element expressing the ?2-tubulin eGFP marker into two genetic backgrounds. These competed for genetically similar or dissimilar females in ratios of 1:1:3.\\u000a We analyzed the effect of genetic similarity, transgenic state and stock on mating frequency. We observed no

P. I. Howell; M. Q. Benedict

2009-01-01

328

Mate choice for a male carotenoid-based ornament is linked to female dietary carotenoid intake and accumulation  

PubMed Central

Background The coevolution of male traits and female mate preferences has led to the elaboration and diversification of sexually selected traits; however the mechanisms that mediate trait-preference coevolution are largely unknown. Carotenoid acquisition and accumulation are key determinants of the expression of male sexually selected carotenoid-based coloration and a primary mechanism maintaining the honest information content of these signals. Carotenoids also influence female health and reproduction in ways that may alter the costs and benefits of mate choice behaviours and thus provide a potential biochemical link between the expression of male traits and female preferences. To test this hypothesis, we manipulated the dietary carotenoid levels of captive female house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus) and assessed their mate choice behavior in response to color-manipulated male finches. Results Females preferred to associate with red males, but carotenoid supplementation did not influence the direction or strength of this preference. Females receiving a low-carotenoid diet were less responsive to males in general, and discrimination among the colorful males was positively linked to female plasma carotenoid levels at the beginning of the study when the diet of all birds was carotenoid-limited. Conclusions Although female preference for red males was not influenced by carotenoid intake, changes in mating responsiveness and discrimination linked to female carotenoid status may alter how this preference is translated into choice. The reddest males, with the most carotenoid rich plumage, tend to pair early in the breeding season. If carotenoid-related variations in female choice behaviour shift the timing of pairing, then they have the potential to promote assortative mating by carotenoid status and drive the evolution of carotenoid-based male plumage coloration. PMID:22233462

2012-01-01

329

MULTI-MALE MATING BY PAIRED AND UNPAIRED FEMALE PRAIRIE VOLES (MICROTUS OCHROGASTER)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Promiscuous mating is common in female rodents; however what role the female plays in this choice of mates is not clear. Also, whether MMM occurs in the reportedly socially monogamous prairie vole, Microtus ochrogaster, and what role mate-guarding plays in deterring MMM is not known. We conducted two experiments to determine if female prairie voles that were not mate-guarded

Jerry O. Wolff; Stephen G. Mech; Aimee S. Dunlap; Karen E. Hodges

2002-01-01

330

Alternative mating tactics in male white-faced dragonflies ( Leucorrhinia intacta ): plasticity of tactical options and consequences for reproductive success  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Alternative tactics used by males to obtain mates usually are associated with genetic and\\/or phenotypic differences between the behavioral morphs. This system of white-faced dragonfly (Leucorrhinia intacta) alternatives is characterized by plasticity of tactical options for individual males. Males may act either as territorials, and defend small perch-centered territories on the study pond, or they act as transients, spending

Edward C. Waltz; Larry L. Wolf

1988-01-01

331

Genome Barriers between Nuclei and Mitochondria Exemplified by Cytoplasmic Male Sterility  

PubMed Central

Since plants retain genomes of an extremely large size in mitochondria (200–2,400 kb), and mitochondrial protein complexes are comprised of chimeric structures of nuclear- and mitochondrial-encoded subunits, coordination of gene expression between the nuclei and mitochondria is indispensable for sound plant development. It has been well documented that the nucleus regulates organelle gene expression. This regulation is called anterograde regulation. On the other hand, recent studies have demonstrated that signals emitted from organelles regulate nuclear gene expression. This process is known as retrograde signaling. Incompatibility caused by genome barriers between a nucleus and foreign mitochondria destines the fate of pollen to be dead in cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), and studies of CMS confirm that pollen fertility is associated with anterograde/retrograde signaling. This review summarizes the current perspectives in CMS and fertility restoration, mainly from the viewpoint of anterograde/retrograde signaling. PMID:18625609

Fujii, Sota; Toriyama, Kinya

2008-01-01

332

Open Field Release of Genetically Engineered Sterile Male Aedes aegypti in Malaysia  

PubMed Central

Background Dengue is the most important mosquito-borne viral disease. In the absence of specific drugs or vaccines, control focuses on suppressing the principal mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti, yet current methods have not proven adequate to control the disease. New methods are therefore urgently needed, for example genetics-based sterile-male-release methods. However, this requires that lab-reared, modified mosquitoes be able to survive and disperse adequately in the field. Methodology/Principal Findings Adult male mosquitoes were released into an uninhabited forested area of Pahang, Malaysia. Their survival and dispersal was assessed by use of a network of traps. Two strains were used, an engineered ‘genetically sterile’ (OX513A) and a wild-type laboratory strain, to give both absolute and relative data about the performance of the modified mosquitoes. The two strains had similar maximum dispersal distances (220 m), but mean distance travelled of the OX513A strain was lower (52 vs. 100 m). Life expectancy was similar (2.0 vs. 2.2 days). Recapture rates were high for both strains, possibly because of the uninhabited nature of the site. Conclusions/Significance After extensive contained studies and regulatory scrutiny, a field release of engineered mosquitoes was safely and successfully conducted in Malaysia. The engineered strain showed similar field longevity to an unmodified counterpart, though in this setting dispersal was reduced relative to the unmodified strain. These data are encouraging for the future testing and implementation of genetic control strategies and will help guide future field use of this and other engineered strains. PMID:22970102

Raduan, Norzahira; Kwee Wee, Lim; Hong Ming, Wong; Guat Ney, Teoh; Rahidah A.A., Siti; Salman, Sawaluddin; Subramaniam, Selvi; Nordin, Oreenaiza; Hanum A.T., Norhaida; Angamuthu, Chandru; Marlina Mansor, Suria; Lees, Rosemary S.; Naish, Neil; Scaife, Sarah; Gray, Pam; Labbe, Genevieve; Beech, Camilla; Nimmo, Derric; Alphey, Luke; Vasan, Seshadri S.; Han Lim, Lee; Wasi A., Nazni; Murad, Shahnaz

2012-01-01

333

Ovulation as a male mating prime: subtle signs of women's fertility influence men's mating cognition and behavior.  

PubMed

Women's reproductive fertility peaks for a few days in the middle of their cycle around ovulation. Because conception is most likely to occur inside this brief fertile window, evolutionary theories suggest that men possess adaptations designed to maximize their reproductive success by mating with women during their peak period of fertility. In this article, we provide evidence from 3 studies that subtle cues of fertility prime mating motivation in men, thus facilitating psychological and behavioral processes associated with the pursuit of a sexual partner. In Study 1, men exposed to the scent of a woman near peak levels of fertility displayed increased accessibility to sexual concepts. Study 2 demonstrated that, among men who reported being sensitive to odors, scent cues of fertility triggered heightened perceptions of women's sexual arousal. Study 3 revealed that, in a face-to-face interaction, high levels of female fertility were associated with a greater tendency for men to make risky decisions and to behaviorally mimic a female partner. Hence, subtle cues of fertility led to a cascade of mating-related processes-from lower order cognition to overt behavior-that reflected heightened mating motivation. Implications for theories of goal pursuit, romantic attraction, and evolutionary psychology are discussed. PMID:20822287

Miller, Saul L; Maner, Jon K

2011-02-01

334

Host-plant-derived variation in ultraviolet wing patterns influences mate selection by male butterflies.  

PubMed

We report on the first case in which sequestered secondary plant compounds determine an insect's external appearance in the ultraviolet spectrum and thereby influence visually mediated mate choice. Larvae of the common blue butterfly Polyommatus icarus specifically sequester flavonoids in different amounts and types, depending on the part or species of food plant. During late pupal development the majority of ultraviolet-absorbing flavonoids are deposited in the wing scales. The flavonoid content of the larval diet thereby determines ultraviolet wing patterns. In laboratory and field experiments, male butterflies clearly preferred flavonoid-rich, ultraviolet-absorbing female dummies. This preference is mediated visually by the ultraviolet pattern of the wings. Food-plant parts and species vary in value as a food source, so ultraviolet wing patterns may signal mate quality and are not a species-specific characteristic. We discuss the use of principal component analysis in analysing spectral data in the context of visual communication. We propose the alternative application of confidence intervals of averaged spectra as a novel straightforward statistical method for comparing groups of spectra in a manner that is independent of assumptions about the visual system of the receiver. In addition, they can be used to give confidence intervals to derived measures of colour such as quantum catch by photoreceptors. PMID:11511660

Knüttel, H; Fiedler, K

2001-07-01

335

Influence of the Male Ejaculate on Post-Mating Prezygotic Barriers in Field Crickets  

PubMed Central

Post-copulatory interactions between males and females involve highly coordinated, complex traits that are often rapidly evolving and divergent between species. Failure to produce and deposit eggs may be a common post-mating prezygotic barrier, yet little is known about what prevents the induction of egg-laying between species. The field crickets, Gryllus firmus and G. pennsylvanicus are isolated by a one-way reproductive incompatibility; G. pennsylvanicus males fail to fertilize G. firmus eggs or to induce normal egg-laying in G. firmus females. We use experimental crosses to elucidate the role of accessory gland-derived vs. testis-derived components of the G. firmus male ejaculate on egg-laying in conspecific and heterospecific crosses. Using surgical castrations to create ‘spermless’ males that transfer only seminal fluid proteins (SFPs) we test whether G. firmus male SFPs can induce egg-laying in conspecific crosses and rescue egg-laying in crosses between G. pennsylvanicus males and G. firmus females. We find G. firmus SFPs induce only a small short-term egg-laying response and that SFPs alone cannot explain the normal induction of egg-laying. Gryllus firmus SFPs also do not rescue the heterospecific cross. Testis-derived components, such as sperm or prostaglandins, most likely stimulate egg-laying or act as transporters for SFPs to targets in the female reproductive tract. These results highlight the utility of experimental approaches for investigating the phenotypes that act as barriers between species and suggest that future work on the molecular basis of the one-way incompatibility between G. firmus and G. pennsylvanicus should focus on divergent testis-derived compounds or proteins in addition to SFPs. PMID:23071547

Larson, Erica L.; Andres, Jose A.; Harrison, Richard G.

2012-01-01

336

Sexually dimorphic neurons in the ventromedial hypothalamus govern mating in both sexes and aggression in males  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Sexual dimorphisms in the brain underlie behavioral sex differences, but the function of individual sexually dimorphic neuronal populations is poorly understood. Neuronal sexual dimorphisms typically represent quantitative differences in cell number, gene expression, or other features, and it is unknown if these dimorphisms control sex-typical behavior in one sex exclusively or in both sexes. The progesterone receptor (PR) controls female sexual behavior, and we find many sex differences in number, distribution, or projections of PR-expressing neurons in the adult mouse brain. We have ablated one such PR-expressing neuronal population located in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) using a novel genetic strategy. Ablation of these neurons in females greatly diminishes sexual receptivity. Strikingly, the corresponding ablation in males reduces mating and aggression. Our findings reveal the functions of a molecularly-defined, sexually dimorphic neuronal population in the brain. Moreover we show that sexually dimorphic neurons can control distinct sex-typical behaviors in both sexes. PMID:23663785

Yang, Cindy F.; Chiang, Michael; Gray, Daniel C.; Prabhakaran, Mahalakshmi; Alvarado, Maricruz; Juntti, Scott A.; Unger, Elizabeth K.; Wells, James A.; Shah, Nirao M.

2013-01-01

337

Evaluation of strategies for the release of male sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) in Lake Superior for a proposed sterile-male-release program  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Successful implementation of a sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) control technique that uses sterilized males to reduce reproduction presently depends on the importation of large numbers of males outside of the target population. Strategies were examined for releasing male sea lampreys from Lakes Michigan and Huron into the Lake Superior spawning population and the ability of these introduced males to compete with resident males and spawn with resident females. During 1987, 553 (9%) of 6,324 imported fertile males released at 12 shoreline and one offshore site in Lake Superior were recaptured. Most remained within 20 km of the release site and entered the first stream encountered. During 1988, 393 (18%) of 2,208 imported fertile males released directly into three spawning rivers were recaptured. In both cases, animals released early during the spawning run were more likely to be recaptured than those released later. Introduced males successfully competed with resident males and spawned with resident females. Demonstrating that male sea lampreys could reproduce successfully when relocated supported subsequent large-scale field trials of the sterile-male-release technique.

Kaye, C. A.; Heinrich, J. W.; Hanson, L. H.; McDonald, R. B.; Slade, J. W.; Genovese, J. H.; Swink, W. D.

2003-01-01

338

Evaluation of Male Inter-Troop Transfer as a Mating Strategy among Ring-Tailed Lemurs on St. Catherines Island, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

One commonly cited function of dispersal is to increase mating opportunities. In this study, I evaluated the hypothesis that male inter-troop transfer is used as a mating strategy in ring-tailed lemurs, Lemur catta, on St. Catherines Island (SCI), Ga., USA. I measured male mating success and inter-troop transfer behavior across 5 years in a population consisting of 4 lemur groups

Joyce A. Parga

2010-01-01

339

Hybrid Dysgenesis in DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER: A Syndrome of Aberrant Traits Including Mutation, Sterility and Male Recombination  

PubMed Central

A syndrome of associated aberrant traits is described in Drosophila melanogaster. Six of these traits, mutation, sterility, male recombination, transmission ratio distortion, chromosomal aberrations and local increases in female recombination, have previously been reported. A seventh trait, nondisjunction, is described for the first time. All of the traits we have examined are found nonreciprocally in F1 hybrids. We present evidence that at least four of the traits are not found in nonhybrids. Therefore we have proposed the name hybrid dysgenesis to describe this syndrome.—A partition of tested strains into two types, designated P and M, was made according to the paternal or maternal contribution required to produce hybrid dysgenesis. This classification seems to hold for crosses of strains from within the United States and Australia, as well as for crosses between strains from the two countries. Strains collected recently from natural populations are typically of the P type and those having a long laboratory history are generally of the M type. However, a group of six strains collected from the wild in the 1960's are unambiguously divided equally between the P and M types. The dichotomy of this latter group raises interesting questions concerning possible implications for speciation.—Temperature often has a critical effect on the manifestation of hybrid dysgenesis. High F1 developmental temperatures tend to increase the expression of sterility, sometimes to extreme levels. Conversely, low developmental temperatures tend to inhibit the expression of some dysgenic traits.—There are potentially important practical implications of hybrid dysgenesis for laboratory experimentation. The results suggest that care should be exercised in planning experiments involving strain crosses. PMID:17248751

Kidwell, Margaret G.; Kidwell, James F.; Sved, John A.

1977-01-01

340

Juvenile Rank Can Predict Male-Typical Adult Mating Behavior in Female Sheep Treated Prenatally with Testosterone1  

PubMed Central

Previous research with female sheep indicates that exposure to excess testosterone for 60 days (from Gestational Days 30–90 of the 147-day gestation) leads to virilized genitalia, severe neuroendocrine deficits, as well as masculinization and defeminization of sexual behavior (T60 females). In contrast, 30 days of testosterone exposure (Gestational Days 60–90) produce animals with female-typical genitalia, less severe neuroendocrine alterations, and variable gender patterns of sexual behavior (T30 females). Variation in adult sexual behavior of male ungulates is influenced by early social experience, but this has never been tested in females. Here we investigate the influence of rank in the dominance hierarchy on the expression of adult sexual behavior in females. Specifically, we hypothesized that juvenile rank would predict the amount of male- and female-typical mating behavior exhibited by adult female sheep. This hypothesis was tested in two treatment groups and their controls (group 1: T60 females; group 2: T30 females). Dominance hierarchies were determined by observing competition over resources. Both groups of prenatal testosterone-treated females were higher ranking than controls (T60: P = 0.05; T30: P < 0.01). During the breeding season, both T60 and T30 females exhibited more male-typical mating behavior than did controls; however, the T30 animals also exhibited female-typical behavior. For the T60 group, prenatal treatment, not juvenile rank, best predicted male-typical sex behavior (P = 0.007), while juvenile rank better predicted male mating behavior for the T30 group (P = 0.006). Rank did not predict female mating behavior in the hormone-treated or control ewes. We conclude that the effect of prenatal testosterone exposure on adult male-specific but not female-specific mating behavior is modulated by juvenile social experiences. PMID:19122184

Roberts, Eila K.; Flak, Jonathan N.; Ye, Wen; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Lee, Theresa M.

2009-01-01

341

Low mating frequency of queens in the stingless bee Scaptotrigona postica 1 and worker maternity of males  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kin selection models of intracolonial conflict over the maternity of males predict that social hymenopteran workers should favour the production of sons and nephews over brothers when the effective mating frequency (me) of the queen is low (me me>2. Stingless bees have been used to support these models in that me within the group is considered low and workers are

Robert J. Paxton; Luci R. Bego; Mira M. Shah; Sidnei Mateus

2003-01-01

342

Mating System of the European Hornet Vespa crabro : Male Seeking Strategies and Evidence for the Involvement of a Sex Pheromone  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe details of the mate finding strategy of drones of the European hornet, Vespa crabro, and present evidence for the involvement of sex pheromones. Tests were carried out with free flying drones in natural habitats. Males patrolled the nest site itself, as well as nearby nonresource-based sites, without showing territorial behavior. Patrolling was restricted to sunny spots in the

S. Spiewok; E. Schmolz; J. Ruther

2006-01-01

343

Low mating frequency of queens in the stingless bee Scaptotrigona postica 1 and worker maternity of males  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kin selection models of intracolonial conflict over the maternity of males predict that social hymenop- teran workers should favour the production of sons and nephews over brothers when the effective mating frequen- cy (m e ) of the queen is low (m e <2) but that they should police other workers' reproductive efforts and favour the production of brothers when

Robert J. Paxton; Luci R. Bego; Mira M. Shah; Sidnei Mateus

2003-01-01

344

Variability of Female Responses to Conspecific vs. Heterospecific Male Mating Calls in Polygynous Deer: An Open Door to Hybridization?  

PubMed Central

Males of all polygynous deer species (Cervinae) give conspicuous calls during the reproductive season. The extreme interspecific diversity that characterizes these vocalizations suggests that they play a strong role in species discrimination. However, interbreeding between several species of Cervinae indicates permeable interspecific reproductive barriers. This study examines the contribution of vocal behavior to female species discrimination and mating preferences in two closely related polygynous deer species known to hybridize in the wild after introductions. Specifically, we investigate the reaction of estrous female red deer (Cervus elaphus) to playbacks of red deer vs. sika deer (Cervus nippon) male mating calls, with the prediction that females will prefer conspecific calls. While on average female red deer preferred male red deer roars, two out of twenty females spent more time in close proximity to the speaker broadcasting male sika deer moans. We suggest that this absence of strict vocal preference for species-specific mating calls may contribute to the permeability of pre-zygotic reproductive barriers observed between these species. Our results also highlight the importance of examining inter-individual variation when studying the role of female preferences in species discrimination and intraspecific mate selection. PMID:21887242

Wyman, Megan T.; Charlton, Benjamin D.; Locatelli, Yann; Reby, David

2011-01-01

345

The effect of male sodium diet and mating history on female reproduction in the puddling squinting bush brown Bicyclus anynana (Lepidoptera)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The males of butterflies transfer a spermatophore to the female during mating that can contain nutrients enhancing the reproductive potential of their partners. The nutrients transferred by males can be derived from both larval and adult feeding. These nutrients may be depleted by multiple matings. An apparent difference in adult feeding behaviour between the sexes is puddling on mud, dung

Freerk Molleman; Bas J. Zwaan; Paul M. Brakefield

2004-01-01

346

Why do multiple traits determine mating success? Differential use in female choice and male competition in a water boatman  

PubMed Central

Mating success is often determined by multiple traits, but why this occurs is largely unknown. Much attention has been paid to female preferences for multiple traits, but surprisingly few researchers have addressed the possibility that multiple traits are important because they serve different functions in female choice and male–male competition. Differential trait function could result from a conflict of interest between the sexes or from constraints forcing the sexes to pay attention to different traits. I show that traits determined at distinct life-history stages differ in their importance in female choice and male–male competition in a water boatman Sigara falleni. Juvenile conditions determined body and foreleg pala size and were the main determinants of mating success under female choice, whereas adult conditions determined body mass and influenced mating success when male competition was included. This differential use of condition-dependent traits under the two selection regimes appeared to arise partly from a conflict between the sexes, since the two selection forces (female choice and male competition) conflict for selection on pala size, and partly from constraints, as females appeared unable to assess adult condition. PMID:15875569

Candolin, Ulrika

2004-01-01

347

Heaven It's My Wife! Male Canaries Conceal Extra-Pair Courtships but Increase Aggressions When Their Mate Watches  

PubMed Central

Many animals live in a communication network, an environment where individuals can obtain information about competitors or potential mates by observing interactions between conspecifics. In such an environment, interactants might benefit by changing their signalling behaviour in the presence of an audience. This audience effect seems widespread among species, has been observed during various types of interaction (e.g. intra-sexual vs. inter-sexual interaction) and varies according to the social context (e.g. gender, hierarchical or mating status of the audience). However, the way individuals might adapt their signalling behaviour to a combination of these factors remains poorly understood. To address this question, we studied how the presence of an audience affects the behaviour of male domestic canaries Serinus canaria during two types of interactions: (i) an extra-pair interaction and (ii) a male-male competition for food. Males were observed under three conditions: (a) in the absence of audience, (b) in the presence of their mate or (c) of a familiar female. Our results show that male domestic canaries minutely adapt their courting and agonistic behaviours to a combination of: (i) the type of interaction (extra-pair interaction/male-male competition), (ii) the social context (mate, familiar female or nobody in audience) and (iii) the behaviours of both the audience and the interactant. These results highlight the ability of animals to subtly adapt their behaviour to the social environment. This also raises questions about the cognitive foundations and evolution of these processes especially considering that canaries are known neither for having high cognitive abilities nor for being a typical example for the social intelligence hypothesis. PMID:21857945

Ung, Davy; Amy, Mathieu; Leboucher, Gerard

2011-01-01

348

Bioreplicated visual features of nanofabricated buprestid beetle decoys evoke stereotypical male mating flights.  

PubMed

Recent advances in nanoscale bioreplication processes present the potential for novel basic and applied research into organismal behavioral processes. Insect behavior potentially could be affected by physical features existing at the nanoscale level. We used nano-bioreplicated visual decoys of female emerald ash borer beetles (Agrilus planipennis) to evoke stereotypical mate-finding behavior, whereby males fly to and alight on the decoys as they would on real females. Using an industrially scalable nanomolding process, we replicated and evaluated the importance of two features of the outer cuticular surface of the beetle's wings: structural interference coloration of the elytra by multilayering of the epicuticle and fine-scale surface features consisting of spicules and spines that scatter light into intense strands. Two types of decoys that lacked one or both of these elements were fabricated, one type nano-bioreplicated and the other 3D-printed with no bioreplicated surface nanostructural elements. Both types were colored with green paint. The light-scattering properties of the nano-bioreplicated surfaces were verified by shining a white laser on the decoys in a dark room and projecting the scattering pattern onto a white surface. Regardless of the coloration mechanism, the nano-bioreplicated decoys evoked the complete attraction and landing sequence of Agrilus males. In contrast, males made brief flying approaches toward the decoys without nanostructured features, but diverted away before alighting on them. The nano-bioreplicated decoys were also electroconductive, a feature used on traps such that beetles alighting onto them were stunned, killed, and collected. PMID:25225359

Domingue, Michael J; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh; Pulsifer, Drew P; Hall, Loyal P; Badding, John V; Bischof, Jesse L; Martín-Palma, Raúl J; Imrei, Zoltán; Janik, Gergely; Mastro, Victor C; Hazen, Missy; Baker, Thomas C

2014-09-30

349

A quantitative genetic analysis of nuclear-cytoplasmic male sterility in structured populations of Silene vulgaris.  

PubMed

Gynodioecy, the coexistence of functionally female and hermaphroditic morphs within plant populations, often has a complicated genetic basis involving several cytoplasmic male-sterility factors and nuclear restorers. This complexity has made it difficult to study the genetics and evolution of gynodioecy in natural populations. We use a quantitative genetic analysis of crosses within and among populations of Silene vulgaris to partition genetic variance for sex expression into nuclear and cytoplasmic components. We also use mitochondrial markers to determine whether cytoplasmic effects on sex expression can be traced to mitochondrial variance. Cytoplasmic variation and epistatic interactions between nuclear and cytoplasmic loci accounted for a significant portion of the variation in sex expression among the crosses. Source population also accounted for a significant portion of the sex ratio variation. Crosses among populations greatly enhanced the dam (cytoplasmic) effect, indicating that most among-population variance was at cytoplasmic loci. This is supported by the large among-population variance in the frequency of mitochondrial haplotypes, which also accounted for a significant portion of the sex ratio variance in our data. We discuss the similarities between the population structure we observed at loci that influence sex expression and previous work on putatively neutral loci, as well as the implications this has for what mechanisms may create and maintain population structure at loci that are influenced by natural selection. PMID:11404344

Taylor, D R; Olson, M S; McCauley, D E

2001-06-01

350

No Evidence for Heritability of Male Mating Latency or Copulation Duration across Social Environments in Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

A key assumption underpinning major models of sexual selection is the expectation that male sexual attractiveness is heritable. Surprisingly, however, empirical tests of this assumption are relatively scarce. Here we use a paternal full-sib/half-sib breeding design to examine genetic and environmental variation in male mating latency (a proxy for sexual attractiveness) and copulation duration in a natural population of Drosophila melanogaster. As our experimental design also involved the manipulation of the social environment within each full-sibling family, we were able to further test for the presence of genotype-by-environment interactions (GEIs) in these traits, which have the potential to compromise mate choice for genetic benefits. Our experimental manipulation of the social environment revealed plastic expression of both traits; males exposed to a rival male during the sensitive period of adult sexual maturation exhibited shorter mating latencies and longer copulation durations than those who matured in isolation. However, we found no evidence for GEIs, and no significant additive genetic variation underlying these traits in either environment. These results undermine the notion that the evolution of female choice rests on covariance between female preference and male displays, an expectation that underpins indirect benefit models such as the good genes and sexy sons hypotheses. However, our results may also indicate depletion of genetic variance in these traits in the natural population studied, thus supporting the expectation that traits closely aligned with reproductive fitness can exhibit low levels of additive genetic variance. PMID:24155948

Taylor, Michelle L.; Evans, Jonathan P.; Garcia-Gonzalez, Francisco

2013-01-01

351

No evidence for heritability of male mating latency or copulation duration across social environments in Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

A key assumption underpinning major models of sexual selection is the expectation that male sexual attractiveness is heritable. Surprisingly, however, empirical tests of this assumption are relatively scarce. Here we use a paternal full-sib/half-sib breeding design to examine genetic and environmental variation in male mating latency (a proxy for sexual attractiveness) and copulation duration in a natural population of Drosophila melanogaster. As our experimental design also involved the manipulation of the social environment within each full-sibling family, we were able to further test for the presence of genotype-by-environment interactions (GEIs) in these traits, which have the potential to compromise mate choice for genetic benefits. Our experimental manipulation of the social environment revealed plastic expression of both traits; males exposed to a rival male during the sensitive period of adult sexual maturation exhibited shorter mating latencies and longer copulation durations than those who matured in isolation. However, we found no evidence for GEIs, and no significant additive genetic variation underlying these traits in either environment. These results undermine the notion that the evolution of female choice rests on covariance between female preference and male displays, an expectation that underpins indirect benefit models such as the good genes and sexy sons hypotheses. However, our results may also indicate depletion of genetic variance in these traits in the natural population studied, thus supporting the expectation that traits closely aligned with reproductive fitness can exhibit low levels of additive genetic variance. PMID:24155948

Taylor, Michelle L; Evans, Jonathan P; Garcia-Gonzalez, Francisco

2013-01-01

352

DNA methylation changes in photoperiod-thermo-sensitive male sterile rice PA64S under two different conditions.  

PubMed

Epigenetic modification can occur at a high frequency in crop plants and might generate phenotypic variation without changes in DNA sequences. DNA methylation is an important epigenetic modification that may contribute to environmentally-induced phenotypic variations by regulating gene expression. Rice Photoperiod-Thermo-Sensitive Genic Male Sterile (PTGMS) lines can transform from sterility to fertility under lower temperatures and short-day (SD) conditions during anther development. So far, little is known about the DNA methylation variation of PTGMS throughout the genome in rice. In this study, we investigated DNA cytosine methylation alterations in the young panicles of PTGMS line PA64S under two different conditions using methylation sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) method. Compared with the DNA methylation level of PA64S under lower temperatures and SD conditions (fertility), higher methylation was observed in PA64S (sterility). The sequences of 25 differentially amplified fragments were successfully obtained and annotated. Three methylated fragments, which are homologous to D2, NAD7 and psaA, were confirmed by bisulfite sequencing and their expression levels were also evaluated by qPCR. Real time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that five of the six selected methylated genes were downregulated in PA64S (sterility). These results suggested that DNA methylation may be involved in the sterility-fertility transition of PA64S under two different environmental conditions. PMID:24365594

Chen, Xiaojun; Hu, Jihong; Zhang, Hongyuan; Ding, Yi

2014-03-01

353

Male Moth Songs Tempt Females to Accept Mating: The Role of Acoustic and Pheromonal Communication in the Reproductive Behaviour of Aphomia sociella  

PubMed Central

Background Members of the subfamily Galleriinae have adapted to different selective environmental pressures by devising a unique mating process. Galleriinae males initiate mating by attracting females with either chemical or acoustic signals (or a combination of both modalities). Six compounds considered candidates for the sex pheromone have recently been identified in the wing gland extracts of Aphomia sociella males. Prior to the present study, acoustic communication had not been investigated. Signals mediating female attraction were likewise unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings Observations of A. sociella mating behaviour and recordings of male acoustic signals confirmed that males initiate the mating process. During calling behaviour (stationary wing fanning and pheromone release), males disperse pheromone from their wing glands. When a female approaches, males cease calling and begin to produce ultrasonic songs as part of the courtship behaviour. Replaying of recorded courting songs to virgin females and a comparison of the mating efficiency of intact males with males lacking tegullae proved that male ultrasonic signals stimulate females to accept mating. Greenhouse experiments with isolated pheromone glands confirmed that the male sex pheromone mediates long-range female attraction. Conclusion/Significance Female attraction in A. sociella is chemically mediated, but ultrasonic communication is also employed during courtship. Male ultrasonic songs stimulate female sexual display and significantly affect mating efficiency. Considerable inter-individual differences in song structure exist. These could play a role in female mate selection provided that the female's ear is able to discern them. The A. sociella mating strategy described above is unique within the subfamily Galleriinae. PMID:22065997

Kindl, Jiri; Kalinova, Blanka; Cervenka, Milan; Jilek, Milan; Valterova, Irena

2011-01-01

354

Density affects female and male mate searching in the fiddler crab, Uca beebei  

Microsoft Academic Search

In most species, only one sex searches for mates while the other waits. Models of sex-specific mate-searching behavior predict single-sex searching, but the factors that determine which sex searches are not understood. In this study, we examine the effects of density and predation risk on mate-searching behavior in the fiddler crab Uca beebei. U. beebei is one of the few

Catherine E. deRivera; Patricia R. Y. Backwell; John H. Christy; Sandra L. Vehrencamp

2003-01-01

355

Analysis of genetic diversity in cytoplasmic male sterility, and association of mitochondrial genes with petaloid-type cytoplasmic male sterility in tuber mustard ( Brassica juncea var. tumida Tsen et Lee)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In our previous study, we bred a stable cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) line of tuber mustard by using distant hybridization\\u000a and subsequent backcrosses. In this CMS plants, all floral organs are normal except the anthers, which are transformed into\\u000a petals or tubular structures. Recently, 2 mitochondrial genes—atpA and orf220—that are distinctively present in the CMS line of tuber mustard were

Xiaolin Yu; Haiyu Lu; Gang Lu; Zhujun Chen; Jiashu Cao; Yutaka Hirata

2010-01-01

356

Dispersal and survival of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) males in Italian urban areas and significance for sterile insect technique application.  

PubMed

The dispersal and survival of laboratory-reared Aedes albopictus Skuse males were investigated during the summer of 2007 in three Northern Italy urban localities by mark-release-recapture techniques. Two marking methods were compared: one group of males was dusted with fluorescent pigments on the body (FP), and the other group was obtained from a strain whose natural infection of Wolbachia had been removed (WB0). FP- and WB0-marked males were released as adults and pupae, respectively, in one fixed station at each locality. Recaptures were performed by skilled technicians, within a radius of 350 m from the release site, on days 4, 5, and 7 after the release, and the males were collected while flying around the technician's body or in swarms. Recapture rates ranged from 0.63 to 4.72% for FP males and from 2.39 to 11.05% for WB0 males. The mean distance traveled for WB0 males was significantly higher than for FP males; no difference was observed between the dispersal distance measured for the males recaptured on human host versus males recaptured while swarming. No further increase of the dispersal occurred during the postrelease period investigated (from day 4 to day 7 after release). The mean survival rate at the release was 0.51 for FP-marked males and 0.81 for WB0 males. The data obtained are discussed for their significance in planning sterile insect technique programs against Ae. albopictus. PMID:21175057

Bellini, Romeo; Albieri, Alessandro; Balestrino, Fabrizio; Carrieri, Marco; Porretta, Daniele; Urbanelli, Sandra; Calvitti, Maurizio; Moretti, Riccardo; Maini, Stefano

2010-11-01

357

Natural Variation in the Strength and Direction of Male Mating Preferences for Female Pheromones in Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

Many animal species communicate using chemical signals. In Drosophila, cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) are involved in species and sexual identification, and have long been thought to act as stimulatory pheromones as well. However, a previous study reported that D. melanogaster males were more attracted to females that were lacking CHCs. This surprising result is consistent with several evolutionary hypotheses but is at odds with other work demonstrating that female CHCs are attractive to males. Here, we investigated natural variation in male preferences for female pheromones using transgenic flies that cannot produce CHCs. By perfuming females with CHCs and performing mate choice tests, we found that some male genotypes prefer females with pheromones, some have no apparent preference, and at least one male genotype prefers females without pheromones. This variation provides an excellent opportunity to further investigate the mechanistic causes and evolutionary implications of divergent pheromone preferences in D. melanogaster males. PMID:24489930

Pischedda, Alison; Shahandeh, Michael P.; Cochrane, Wesley G.; Cochrane, Veronica A.; Turner, Thomas L.

2014-01-01

358

Proteome Analysis of the Wild and YX-1 Male Sterile Mutant Anthers of Wolfberry (Lycium barbarum L.)  

PubMed Central

Pollen development is disturbed in the early tetrad stage of the YX-1 male sterile mutant of wolfberry (Lycium barbarum L.). The present study aimed to identify differentially expressed anther proteins and to reveal their possible roles in pollen development and male sterility. To address this question, the proteomes of the wild-type (WT) and YX-1 mutant were compared. Approximately 1760 protein spots on two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) gels were detected. A number of proteins whose accumulation levels were altered in YX-1 compared with WT were identified by mass spectrometry and the NCBInr and Viridiplantae EST databases. Proteins down-regulated in YX-1 anthers include ascorbate peroxidase (APX), putative glutamine synthetase (GS), ATP synthase subunits, chalcone synthase (CHS), CHS-like, putative callose synthase catalytic subunit, cysteine protease, 5B protein, enoyl-ACP reductase, 14-3-3 protein and basic transcription factor 3 (BTF3). Meanwhile, activities of APX and GS, RNA expression levels of apx and atp synthase beta subunit were low in YX-1 anthers which correlated with the expression of male sterility. In addition, several carbohydrate metabolism-related and photosynthesis-related enzymes were also present at lower levels in the mutant anthers. In contrast, 26S proteasome regulatory subunits, cysteine protease inhibitor, putative S-phase Kinase association Protein 1(SKP1), and aspartic protease, were expressed at higher levels in YX-1 anthers relative to WT anthers. Regulation of wolfberry pollen development involves a complex network of differentially expressed genes. The present study lays the foundation for future investigations of gene function linked with wolfberry pollen development and male sterility. PMID:22860020

Zheng, Rui; Sijun Yue; Xu, Xiaoyan; Liu, Jianyu; Xu, Qing; Wang, Xiaolin; Han, Lu; Yu, Deyue

2012-01-01

359

Proteome analysis of the wild and YX-1 male sterile mutant anthers of wolfberry (Lycium barbarum L.).  

PubMed

Pollen development is disturbed in the early tetrad stage of the YX-1 male sterile mutant of wolfberry (Lycium barbarum L.). The present study aimed to identify differentially expressed anther proteins and to reveal their possible roles in pollen development and male sterility. To address this question, the proteomes of the wild-type (WT) and YX-1 mutant were compared. Approximately 1760 protein spots on two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) gels were detected. A number of proteins whose accumulation levels were altered in YX-1 compared with WT were identified by mass spectrometry and the NCBInr and Viridiplantae EST databases. Proteins down-regulated in YX-1 anthers include ascorbate peroxidase (APX), putative glutamine synthetase (GS), ATP synthase subunits, chalcone synthase (CHS), CHS-like, putative callose synthase catalytic subunit, cysteine protease, 5B protein, enoyl-ACP reductase, 14-3-3 protein and basic transcription factor 3 (BTF3). Meanwhile, activities of APX and GS, RNA expression levels of apx and atp synthase beta subunit were low in YX-1 anthers which correlated with the expression of male sterility. In addition, several carbohydrate metabolism-related and photosynthesis-related enzymes were also present at lower levels in the mutant anthers. In contrast, 26S proteasome regulatory subunits, cysteine protease inhibitor, putative S-phase Kinase association Protein 1(SKP1), and aspartic protease, were expressed at higher levels in YX-1 anthers relative to WT anthers. Regulation of wolfberry pollen development involves a complex network of differentially expressed genes. The present study lays the foundation for future investigations of gene function linked with wolfberry pollen development and male sterility. PMID:22860020

Zheng, Rui; Sijun Yue; Xu, Xiaoyan; Liu, Jianyu; Xu, Qing; Wang, Xiaolin; Han, Lu; Yu, Deyue

2012-01-01

360

The Male-Sterility Polymorphism of Silene vulgaris: Analysis of Genetic Data From Two Populations and Comparison With Thymus vulgaris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are given of genetic studies of male sterility using plants from two natural populations from Sussex, England. Both populations have substantial frequencies of females, z0.25 in population 1 and 0.60 in population 3. As in the few other gynodioecious populations studied in detail, many genetic factors are present. In population 1, there are at least two, and more likely

D. Charlesworth; Valerie Laporte

361

Analysis of combining ability of two-types of male sterile and four restorer lines of Zinnia elegans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight cross combinations of Zinnia elegans were made using two recessive nuclear male sterile lines crossed with four restorers using the North Carolina Design II statistical\\u000a method. Heterosis, combining ability and heritability was analysed using 12 horticultural traits and these demonstrated the\\u000a advantage of heterosis in hybrid breeding of Zinnia elegans. Heterosis served to increase the number of whorls of

Xue-Yuan Lou; Qiu-Shi Hu; Man-Zhu Bao; Yao-Mei Ye

2010-01-01

362

Male traits, mating tactics and reproductive success in the buff-breasted sandpiper, Tryngites subruficollis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Buff-breasted sandpipers use a variety of mating tactics to acquire mates, including remaining at a single lek for most of the breeding season, attending multiple leks during the season, displaying solitarily or displaying both on leks and solitarily. We found that differences in body size, body condition, fluctuating asymmetry scores, wing coloration, territory location and behaviour (attraction, solicitation and agonistic)

RICHARD B. LANCTOT; PATRICK J. WEATHERHEAD; BART KEMPENAERS; KIM T. SCRIBNER

1998-01-01

363

Male care, mate switching, and future reproductive success in a double-brooded passerine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Little is known of the factors that cause monogamous, double-brooded birds to keep the same mates, or switch mates, between nesting attempts within one breeding season. Only one factor, success or failure of the first attempt, has been investigated, and it appears to be important in some species but unimportant in others. Kendeigh (1941) mentioned another possible factor in

J. Bart

1990-01-01

364

Reversible male sterility in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) by artificial microRNA-mediated silencing of general transcription factor genes.  

PubMed

Since decades, plant male sterility is considered a powerful tool for biological containment to minimize unwanted self-pollination for hybrid seed production. Furthermore, prevention of pollen dispersal also answers to concerns regarding transgene flow via pollen from Genetically Modified (GM) crops to traditional crop fields or wild relatives. We induced male sterility by suppressing endogenous general transcription factor genes, TAFs, using anther-specific promoters combined with artificial microRNA (amiRNA) technology (Schwab et al., 2006). The system was made reversible by the ethanol inducible expression of an amiRNA-insensitive form of the target gene. We provide proof of concept in eggplant, a cultivated crop belonging to the Solanaceae family that includes many important food crops. The transgenic eggplants that we generated are completely male sterile and fertility can be fully restored by short treatments with ethanol, confirming the efficiency but also the reliability of the system in view of open field cultivation. By combining this system with induced parthenocarpy (Rotino et al., 1997), we provide a novel example of complete transgene containment in eggplant, which enables biological mitigation measures for the benefit of coexistence or biosafety purposes for GM crop cultivation. PMID:20955179

Toppino, Laura; Kooiker, Maarten; Lindner, Matias; Dreni, Ludovico; Rotino, Giuseppe L; Kater, Martin M

2011-08-01

365

Gene expression divergence and nucleotide differentiation between males of different color morphs and mating strategies in the ruff  

PubMed Central

By next generation transcriptome sequencing, it is possible to obtain data on both nucleotide sequence variation and gene expression. We have used this approach (RNA-Seq) to investigate the genetic basis for differences in plumage coloration and mating strategies in a non-model bird species, the ruff (Philomachus pugnax). Ruff males show enormous variation in the coloration of ornamental feathers, used for individual recognition. This polymorphism is linked to reproductive strategies, with dark males (Independents) defending territories on leks against other Independents, whereas white morphs (Satellites) co-occupy Independent's courts without agonistic interactions. Previous work found a strong genetic component for mating strategy, but the genes involved were not identified. We present feather transcriptome data of more than 6,000 de-novo sequenced ruff genes (although with limited coverage for many of them). None of the identified genes showed significant expression divergence between males, but many genetic markers showed nucleotide differentiation between different color morphs and mating strategies. These include several feather keratin genes, splicing factors, and the Xg blood-group gene. Many of the genes with significant genetic structure between mating strategies have not yet been annotated and their functions remain to be elucidated. We also conducted in-depth investigations of 28 pre-identified coloration candidate genes. Two of these (EDNRB and TYR) were specifically expressed in black- and rust-colored males, respectively. We have demonstrated the utility of next generation transcriptome sequencing for identifying and genotyping large number of genetic markers in a non-model species without previous genomic resources, and highlight the potential of this approach for addressing the genetic basis of ecologically important variation. PMID:23145334

Ekblom, Robert; Farrell, Lindsay L; Lank, David B; Burke, Terry

2012-01-01

366

Transcriptional Profiles of Mating-Responsive Genes from Testes and Male Accessory Glands of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata  

PubMed Central

Background Insect seminal fluid is a complex mixture of proteins, carbohydrates and lipids, produced in the male reproductive tract. This seminal fluid is transferred together with the spermatozoa during mating and induces post-mating changes in the female. Molecular characterization of seminal fluid proteins in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, is limited, although studies suggest that some of these proteins are biologically active. Methodology/Principal Findings We report on the functional annotation of 5914 high quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from the testes and male accessory glands, to identify transcripts encoding putative secreted peptides that might elicit post-mating responses in females. The ESTs were assembled into 3344 contigs, of which over 33% produced no hits against the nr database, and thus may represent novel or rapidly evolving sequences. Extraction of the coding sequences resulted in a total of 3371 putative peptides. The annotated dataset is available as a hyperlinked spreadsheet. Four hundred peptides were identified with putative secretory activity, including odorant binding proteins, protease inhibitor domain-containing peptides, antigen 5 proteins, mucins, and immunity-related sequences. Quantitative RT-PCR-based analyses of a subset of putative secretory protein-encoding transcripts from accessory glands indicated changes in their abundance after one or more copulations when compared to virgin males of the same age. These changes in abundance, particularly evident after the third mating, may be related to the requirement to replenish proteins to be transferred to the female. Conclusions/Significance We have developed the first large-scale dataset for novel studies on functions and processes associated with the reproductive biology of Ceratitis capitata. The identified genes may help study genome evolution, in light of the high adaptive potential of the medfly. In addition, studies of male recovery dynamics in terms of accessory gland gene expression profiles and correlated remating inhibition mechanisms may permit the improvement of pest management approaches. PMID:23071645

Scolari, Francesca; Gomulski, Ludvik M.; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Siciliano, Paolo; Meraldi, Alice; Falchetto, Marco; Bonomi, Angelica; Manni, Mosè; Gabrieli, Paolo; Malovini, Alberto; Bellazzi, Riccardo; Aksoy, Serap; Gasperi, Giuliano; Malacrida, Anna R.

2012-01-01

367

The study and analysis of the mating behavior and sound production of male cicada Psalmocharias alhageos (Kol.) (Homoptera:Cicadidae) to make disruption in mating.  

PubMed

Psalmocharias alhageos is an important pest of vine in most parts of Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, southern areas of Russia, Turkey and Iraq. This cicada is spread in most provinces in Iran such as Esfahan, Hamedan, Qazvin, Markazi, Lorestan, Qom, Kerman, Tehran and Kordestan. In addition to vine, this insect damages some other fruit trees, such as apple, sour cherry, quince, peach, pomegranate and pear trees and some non-fruit trees, namely white poplar, ash, elm, eglantine, silk and black poplar trees. The nymphs of cicada damage the trees by feeding on root, adult insects on young bud and by oviposition under branch barks. Nourishing root by nymph leads to the weakness of the tree and hinder its growth. The high density oviposition of adult insects inside young barks causes withering of branches. The resulted damage on vine products is 40% which is one of the most important factors in product reduction in vineyard. This research was conducted in Takestan in Qazvin. It was conducted for the first time to study the behaviors of the mates of this vine cicada in order to manage it. Two systems were used to record the sound of male cicada called analog voice-recorder and digital voice recorder. To analyze the recorded sound of the male cicada we used of spectrum analyzer, digital storage oscilloscope and protens 7 computer softwares. We could call the attention of natural enemies an disturb the male insect's attracting sound by producing natural and artificial sound in the range of 1-6 kHz in two different ripeness status of the fruits and could prevent mating and oviposition of female cicadas. PMID:19266919

Zamanian, H; Mehdipour, M; Ghaemi, N

2008-09-01

368

Caenorhabditis elegans UNC-103 ERG-Like Potassium Channel Regulates Contractile Behaviors of Sex Muscles in Males before and during Mating  

Microsoft Academic Search

During mating behavior the Caenorhabditis elegans male must regulate periodic and prolonged protractor muscle contractions to insert his copulatory spicules into his mate. The protractors undergo periodic contractions to allow the spicules to reattempt insertion if a previous thrust failed to breach the vulva. When the spicule tips penetrate the vulva, the protractors undergo prolonged contraction to keep the spicules

L. Rene Garcia; Paul W. Sternberg

2003-01-01

369

Indirect fitness consequences of mate choice in sticklebacks: offspring of brighter males grow slowly but resist parasitic infections.  

PubMed Central

'Good genes' models of sexual selection suggest that elaborate male sexual ornaments have evolved as reliable signals of male quality because only males of high genetic viability are able to develop and maintain them. Females benefit from choosing such individuals if quality is heritable. A key prediction is that the offspring of males with elaborate mating displays will perform better than those of less elaborate males, but it has proved difficult to demonstrate such an effect independently of the effects of differences in parental investment. We tested for 'good genes' linked to male ornamentation in the three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus using in vitro fertilization to generate maternal half-siblings, which were raised without parental care. Maternal half-siblings sired by brightly coloured males grew less quickly than half-siblings sired by dull males but were more resistant to a controlled disease challenge. Among the offspring that became infected, those with brighter fathers had higher white blood cell counts. This suggests that highly ornamented males confer disease resistance on their offspring. The association with reduced growth suggests a mechanism for the maintenance of heritable variation in both disease resistance and male sexual coloration. PMID:12123300

Barber, I; Arnott, S A; Braithwaite, V A; Andrew, J; Huntingford, F A

2001-01-01

370

Plumage brightness predicts male mating success in the lekking golden-collared manakin,  

E-print Network

are used in mate choice and aggressive interactions (reviewed in Andersson M, 1994; Bradbury and Vehrencamp.g., Andersson et al., 1998; Doucet et al., 2004; Keyser and Hill, 2000; Safran and McGraw, 2004; Siefferman

Uy, J. Albert C.

371

Cytological and Comparative Proteomic Analyses on Male Sterility in Brassica napus L. Induced by the Chemical Hybridization Agent Monosulphuron Ester Sodium  

PubMed Central

Male sterility induced by a chemical hybridization agent (CHA) is an important tool for utilizing crop heterosis. Monosulphuron ester sodium (MES), a new acetolactate synthase-inhibitor herbicide belonging to the sulphonylurea family, has been developed as an effective CHA to induce male sterility in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). To understand MES-induced male sterility in rapeseed better, comparative cytological and proteomic analyses were conducted in this study. Cytological analysis indicated that defective tapetal cells and abnormal microspores were gradually generated in the developing anthers of MES-treated plants at various development stages, resulting in unviable microspores and male sterility. A total of 141 differentially expressed proteins between the MES-treated and control plants were revealed, and 131 of them were further identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. Most of these proteins decreased in abundance in tissues of MES-treated rapeseed plants, and only a few increased. Notably, some proteins were absent or induced in developing anthers after MES treatment. These proteins were involved in several processes that may be crucial for tapetum and microspore development. Down-regulation of these proteins may disrupt the coordination of developmental and metabolic processes, resulting in defective tapetum and abnormal microspores that lead to male sterility in MES-treated plants. Accordingly, a simple model of CHA-MES-induced male sterility in rapeseed was established. This study is the first cytological and dynamic proteomic investigation on CHA-MES-induced male sterility in rapeseed, and the results provide new insights into the molecular events of male sterility. PMID:24244648

Li, Zhanjie; Cui, Jianmin; Hu, Shengwu; Zhao, Huixian; Chen, Mingshun

2013-01-01

372

Male genital size reflects a tradeoff between attracting mates and avoiding predators in two live-bearing fish species  

PubMed Central

Male genitalia may experience more rapid, divergent evolution than any other animal character, but why? Research during the past several decades has culminated in the view that genital diversification primarily results from postmating sexual selection (e.g., sperm competition or cryptic female choice). However, the potential roles of premating sexual selection (e.g., mate choice) and natural selection have received little attention. We examined the possible importance of these mechanisms by investigating divergence in male genitalia among populations differing in predator regime for two species of live-bearing fish (Gambusia affinis in Texas and Gambusia hubbsi in The Bahamas). When controlled for body size, males exhibited a larger gonopodium (sperm-transfer organ) in predator-free environments than in predatory environments, a trend that persisted across space (multiple populations), time (multiple years), and species. By conducting laboratory experiments with G. affinis, we found that premating sexual selection seems to favor larger male genitalia (females exhibited mating preference for males having larger gonopodia), but natural selection in the presence of predatory fishes seems to favor reduced genital size (larger gonopodium size was associated with reduced burst-swimming performance, an important antipredator behavior). Although postmating sexual selection is widely presumed to be the most important mechanism driving genital diversification, these findings suggest that alternative mechanisms, particularly for organisms that cannot retract their genitalia, may also prove important. PMID:15894618

Langerhans, R. Brian; Layman, Craig A.; DeWitt, Thomas J.

2005-01-01

373

Influence of asymmetrical mating patterns and male reproductive success on the maintenance of sexual polymorphism in Acer pictum subsp. mono (Aceraceae).  

PubMed

Populations of Acer species often contain more than three sex phenotypes with complex sexual polymorphism including duodichogamy, protandry and protogyny. We identified the mechanisms that maintain sexual polymorphism in Acer pictum subsp. mono, a temperate tree from northern China, by investigating maternal mating patterns and male reproductive success. We used paternity analyses to estimate rates of outcrossing and disassortative mating, as well as male outcrossed siring success, in a population of A. pictum subsp. mono with uneven sex phenotype ratios (duodichogamous 69.1%, protandrous 19.6%, protogynous 11.3%). We used a pollen-transfer model to investigate whether the unequal ratios of sex phenotypes could be explained by the observed patterns of mating. Most progeny resulted from outcrossing, particularly disassortative among the sex phenotypes. Although the duodichogamous phenotype showed a significant amount of intraphenotypic mating, the frequency did not exceed that of disassortative mating. We detected no significant differences in male outcrossed siring success among the sex phenotypes. The pollen-transfer model demonstrated that sex phenotype ratios could be maintained by the observed mating pattern in the population. Our results indicate that disassortative mating among the sex phenotypes can maintain sexual polymorphism in A. pictum subsp. mono and that ratios biased towards duodichogamy can result from frequent intraphenotypic mating in this phenotype. PMID:22680336

Shang, Hui; Luo, Yi-Bo; Bai, Wei-Ning

2012-08-01

374

Behavioural response of female dark-eyed juncos to the experimental removal of their mates: implications for the evolution of male parental care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male dark-eyed juncos, Junco hyemah.s, are monogamous and normally help females leed nestlings. We removed males at hatching of their eggs and examined female parental behaviour in response to male removal. We compared parental behaviour of unaided females (experimentals) with that of (l) lemales aideci by their matcs (control females) and (2) females and their mates working together (control pairs).

LICIA WOLF; ELLEN D. KETTERSON; V NOLANJR

1990-01-01

375

The health of a nation predicts their mate preferences: cross-cultural variation in women's preferences for masculinized male faces.  

PubMed

Recent formulations of sexual selection theory emphasize how mate choice can be affected by environmental factors, such as predation risk and resource quality. Women vary greatly in the extent to which they prefer male masculinity and this variation is hypothesized to reflect differences in how women resolve the trade-off between the costs (e.g. low investment) and benefits (e.g. healthy offspring) associated with choosing a masculine partner. A strong prediction of this trade-off theory is that women's masculinity preferences will be stronger in cultures where poor health is particularly harmful to survival. We investigated the relationship between women's preferences for male facial masculinity and a health index derived from World Health Organization statistics for mortality rates, life expectancies and the impact of communicable disease. Across 30 countries, masculinity preference increased as health decreased. This relationship was independent of cross-cultural differences in wealth or women's mating strategies. These findings show non-arbitrary cross-cultural differences in facial attractiveness judgements and demonstrate the use of trade-off theory for investigating cross-cultural variation in women's mate preferences. PMID:20236978

DeBruine, Lisa M; Jones, Benedict C; Crawford, John R; Welling, Lisa L M; Little, Anthony C

2010-08-01

376

Comparison of reproductive traits of regular and irradiated male desert locust Schistocerca gregaria (Orthoptera: Acrididae): Evidence of last-male sperm precedence.  

PubMed

The sterile insect technique (SIT) is increasingly used to control pest insect populations. The success of SIT control programs depends on the ability to release sterile males and on the capacity of sterile males to compete with wild males to inseminate wild females. In this study, we evaluated the mating performance of Schistocerca gregaria (Försk.) males irradiated with 4 Gray. We compared reproductive traits, such as duration of precopulation time, mating duration, quantity of sperm stored by females after copulation, number of females mated successively and postmating competition of irradiated males with non-irradiated males. Irradiated males were able to mate but the resulting number of offspring was dramatically reduced compared to the average number of offspring observed during a regular mating. During a single copulation, irradiated males transferred fewer sperm than regular males but, theoretically, this quantity is enough to fertilize all the eggs produced by a female during its reproductive life. Irradiated males also had the ability to remove sperm from a previous mating with unirraditated males. This new information on the mating strategies helps explain the post-copulation guarding behaviour of S. gregaria. PMID:23213413

Dushimirimana, Severin; Hance, Thierry; Damiens, David

2012-03-15

377

Comparison of reproductive traits of regular and irradiated male desert locust Schistocerca gregaria (Orthoptera: Acrididae): Evidence of last-male sperm precedence  

PubMed Central

Summary The sterile insect technique (SIT) is increasingly used to control pest insect populations. The success of SIT control programs depends on the ability to release sterile males and on the capacity of sterile males to compete with wild males to inseminate wild females. In this study, we evaluated the mating performance of Schistocerca gregaria (Försk.) males irradiated with 4 Gray. We compared reproductive traits, such as duration of precopulation time, mating duration, quantity of sperm stored by females after copulation, number of females mated successively and postmating competition of irradiated males with non-irradiated males. Irradiated males were able to mate but the resulting number of offspring was dramatically reduced compared to the average number of offspring observed during a regular mating. During a single copulation, irradiated males transferred fewer sperm than regular males but, theoretically, this quantity is enough to fertilize all the eggs produced by a female during its reproductive life. Irradiated males also had the ability to remove sperm from a previous mating with unirraditated males. This new information on the mating strategies helps explain the post-copulation guarding behaviour of S. gregaria. PMID:23213413

Dushimirimana, Severin; Hance, Thierry; Damiens, David

2012-01-01

378

Irradiation of adult Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae): egg sterility in parental and F1 generations.  

PubMed

Adult Epiphyas postvittana Walker were irradiated using a Cobalt 60 source to determine the dose needed to achieve complete egg sterility of mated female moths, and egg sterility of female moths mated to F1 generation males. Adult male and female E. postvittana were irradiated at 100, 200, 250, and 300 Gy and their fertility (when crossed with normal moths) was compared with nonirradiated moths. Viable progeny (determined by egg hatch) were found at doses of 100 and 200 Gy, but very little at 250 and 300 Gy. In particular, there was no survival of female progeny into the F1 generation. Males irradiated at 250 and 300 Gy had very low egg eclosion rates (2.25 and 1.86% at 250 and 300 Gy, respectively) when mated with normal females. The F2 generation from those male progeny had a mean percent hatched of < 1.02%. Based on our results, a dose of 250-300 Gy is recommended for irradiation of E. postvittana adults used for sterile insect technique (SIT) if sterility of parental moths is the desired outcome. Our data also suggests that inclusion of F1 hybrid sterility rather than parental generation sterility into programs using the SIT may allow for doses lower than what we have reported, especially during initial phases of an eradication program where increase fitness of moths might be desirable. Further research is needed to verify the use of F1 hybrid sterility in light brown apple moth SIT programs. PMID:22420255

Jang, Eric B; McInnis, Donald O; Kurashima, Rick; Woods, Bill; Suckling, David M

2012-02-01

379

Transgenic technologies to induce sterility.  

PubMed

The last few years have witnessed a considerable expansion in the number of tools available to perform molecular and genetic studies on the genome of Anopheles mosquitoes, the vectors of human malaria. As a consequence, knowledge of aspects of the biology of mosquitoes, such as immunity, reproduction and behaviour, that are relevant to their ability to transmit disease is rapidly increasing, and could be translated into concrete benefits for malaria control strategies. Amongst the most important scientific advances, the development of transgenic technologies for Anopheles mosquitoes provides a crucial opportunity to improve current vector control measures or design novel ones. In particular, the use of genetic modification of the mosquito genome could provide for a more effective deployment of the sterile insect technique (SIT) against vector populations in the field. Currently, SIT relies on the release of radiation sterilized males, which compete with wild males for mating with wild females. The induction of sterility in males through the genetic manipulation of the mosquito genome, already achieved in a number of other insect species, could eliminate the need for radiation and increase the efficiency of SIT-based strategies. This paper provides an overview of the mechanisms already in use for inducing sterility by transgenesis in Drosophila and other insects, and speculates on possible ways to apply similar approaches to Anopheles mosquitoes. PMID:19917077

Catteruccia, Flaminia; Crisanti, Andrea; Wimmer, Ernst A

2009-01-01

380

Multiple mating and a low incidence of cuckoldry for nest-holding males in the two-spotted goby, Gobiusculus flavescens  

PubMed Central

Background A major question in behavioural ecology concerns the relationship between genetic mating systems and the strength of sexual selection. In this study, we investigated the genetic mating system of the two-spotted goby (Gobiusculus flavescens), a useful fish model for the study of sexual selection whose genetic mating system remains uncharacterized. We developed four polymorphic microsatellite markers and used them to conduct parentage analyses on 21 nests collected during the breeding season to examine the rates of multiple mating by males and to test for evidence of alternative mating strategies. Results Results of this study indicate that male G. flavescens mate with multiple females and enjoy confidence of paternity. We detected only one instance of sneaking, so cuckoldry contributed a very small percentage (~0.1%) of the total fertilizations in this population. Nests were nearly full and males that maintain larger nests have higher mating and reproductive success, irrespective of body size. Conclusion Overall, our investigation shows that G. flavescens is similar to other, related gobies in that the nests of care-giving males often contain eggs from multiple females. However, G. flavescens differs from other gobies in displaying an extremely low rate of cuckoldry. The study of ecological factors responsible for this important difference between G. flavescens and related species should be a fertile area for future work. PMID:19133131

Mobley, Kenyon B; Amundsen, Trond; Forsgren, Elisabet; Svensson, Per A; Jones, Adam G

2009-01-01

381

Turgid female toads give males the slip: a new mechanism of female mate choice in the Anura  

PubMed Central

In many anuran species, males vocalize to attract females but will grasp any female that comes within reach and retain their hold unless displaced by a rival male. Thus, female anurans may face strong selection to repel unwanted suitors, but no mechanism is known for doing so. We suggest that a defensive trait (the ability to inflate the body to ward off attack) has been co-opted for this role: by inflating their bodies, females are more difficult for males to grasp and hence, it is easier for another male to displace an already amplexed rival. Inflating a model female cane toad (Bufo marinus) strongly reduced a male's ability to maintain amplexus; and females who were experimentally prevented from inflating their bodies experienced no successful takeovers from rival males, in contrast to control females. Thus, the ability of a female cane toad to inflate her body may allow her to manipulate the outcome of male–male competition. This overlooked mechanism of anuran mate choice may reflect a common evolutionary pattern, whereby females co-opt defensive traits for use in sexual selection. PMID:20053661

Bruning, Bas; Phillips, Benjamin L.; Shine, Richard

2010-01-01

382

Alterations of Mitochondrial Protein Assembly and Jasmonic Acid Biosynthesis Pathway in Honglian (HL)-type Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Rice*  

PubMed Central

It has been suggested that the mitochondrial chimeric gene orfH79 is the cause for abortion of microspores in Honglian cytoplasmic male sterile rice, yet little is known regarding its mechanism of action. In this study, we used a mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics strategy to compare the mitochondrial proteome between the sterile line Yuetai A and its fertile near-isogenic line Yuetai B. We discovered a reduced quantity of specific proteins in mitochondrial complexes in Yuetai A compared with Yuetai B, indicating a defect in mitochondrial complex assembly in the sterile line. Western blotting showed that ORFH79 protein and ATP1 protein, an F1 sector component of complex V, are both associated with large protein complexes of similar size. Respiratory complex activity assays and transmission electron microscopy revealed functional and morphological defects in the mitochondria of Yuetai A when compared with Yuetai B. In addition, we identified one sex determination TASSELSEED2-like protein increased in Yuetai A, leading to the discovery of an aberrant variation of the jasmonic acid pathway during the development of microspores. PMID:23027867

Liu, Gai; Tian, Han; Huang, Yun-Qing; Hu, Jun; Ji, Yan-Xiao; Li, Shao-Qing; Feng, Yu-Qi; Guo, Lin; Zhu, Ying-Guo

2012-01-01

383

Clinical Evaluation of Non-surgical Sterilization of Male Cats with Single Intra-testicular Injection of Calcium Chloride  

PubMed Central

Background Calcium chloride solution is an established injectable sterilant in dogs and other mammals. With cat populations a continuing problem, we sought to explore its first use in cats. Six cats per group were injected with 5%, 10% or 20% calcium chloride dihydrate in saline solution with lignocaine hydrochloride, a local anaesthetic. Results At the 60th day post-injection, cat testes were collected and showed complete testicular necrosis and replacement by fibrous tissue; very low sperm counts; and reduction of serum testosterone by at least 70% in 20% dose. Androgenic enzyme activities and their expressions were also reduced in all the treated groups along with intra-testicular testosterone concentration was also low. Increased testicular lipid peroxidation, with reduced antioxidants and mitochondrial membrane potential, were evident following calcium chloride treatments. However, there were no apparent changes in serum concentrations of cortisol, fasting blood sugar level, blood urea nitrogen, packed cell volume, or total serum protein following calcium chloride injection, suggesting that this method of sterilization is not associated with any general stress response. Conclusion Calcium chloride solution demonstrates potential for androgenesis-eliminating nonsurgical sterilization of male cats in addition to its proven efficacy in dogs and other mammals. PMID:21774835

2011-01-01

384

Underwater oviposition in a damselfly (Odonata: Coenagrionidae) favors male vigilance, and multiple mating by females  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female Enallagma hageni oviposit underwater where they are inaccessible to males. I demonstrate that males guard submerged females rather than perch sites, and are behaviorally distinct from lone males at the water. In contrast to lone males, which always attempt to copulate with females presented to them, guarding males exhibit a conditional latency to remating which corresponds closely to the

Ola M. Fincke

1986-01-01

385

Molecular and biological studies on male-sterile cytoplasm in the Cruciferae. I. The origin and distribution of Ogura male-sterile cytoplasm in Japanese wild radishes (Raphanus sativus L.) revealed by PCR-aided assay of their mitochondrial DNAs.  

PubMed

Ogura male-sterile cytoplasm was surveyed in common Japanese radish cultivars and in wild radishes growing in various localities in Japan. Mitochondrial (mt) DNA rearrangement involving the atp6 gene was used as a molecular marker. To detect the mtDNA rearrangement, polymerase chain reactions (PCR) were designed to amplify the upstream region of the atp6 gene. The oligonucleotides homologous to the following three regions were synthesized: (1) trnfM, (2) ORF105 and (3) atp6. PCRs were conducted with a pair of the first and the third primers to detect normal mtDNA, and with the second and the third primers for Ogura-type mtDNA. All 15 Japanese cultivars yielded an amplification product which was the same as that of normal mtDNA, whereas some wild radishes gave the product specific to Ogura mtDNA. Twenty-four populations of wild radish were classified into three groups according to the frequency of Ogura-type mtDNA: (1) in ten populations, all four plants analyzed per population had normal type mtDNA, (2) in five populations, only plants with Ogura-type mtDNA were found, and (3) nine populations included both normal and Oguratype mtDNAs. There were no geographical restrictions and no cline in the distribution of the plants with Ogura-type mtDNA. These results suggested that the Ogura-type male-sterile cytoplasm originated in wild radishes. PMID:24190534

Yamagishi, H; Terachi, T

1994-03-01

386

Fitness improvement of mass-reared sterile males of Ceratitis capitata (Vienna 8 strain) (Diptera: Tephritidae) after gut enrichment with probiotics.  

PubMed

Successful mass rearing is crucial for sterile insect technique programs. It has been shown that the sterilizing process using gammaradiation results in damage to midgut tissue, cellular organelles, and gut microbiota of flies. This can be responsible for the inferiority of sterile males compared with wild males. A bacteria-enhanced diet could contribute to the improvement of the fly's fitness. We investigated ways of increasing the competitiveness of mass-reared Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) sterile males. We tested the hypothesis that the addition of beneficial bacteria to the larvae's diet would lead to a significant increase in their levels in the gut of the sterile adults and consequently improve their size and fitness. As expected, enriching the diet of mass-rearing Vienna-8 strain larvae with beneficial bacteria (Klebsiella pneumonia, Enterobacter spp., and Citrobacter freundii) resulted in increase in the number of Enterobacteriacae communities inhabiting the male's gut and a subsequent significant increase in the size of males and other morphometric traits and enhanced sexual performance of males at emergence. PMID:23786049

Hamden, Heithem; Guerfali, Meriem M'Saad; Fadhl, Selma; Saidi, Mouldi; Chevrier, Claude

2013-04-01

387

Onion fly, Delia antiqua , oviposition and mating as influenced by insect age and dosage of male reproductive tract extract (Diptera: Anthomyiidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred percent of virgin female onion flies,Delia antiqua, receiving ?1\\/20 of a male equivalent of an aqueous extract of mature male reproductive tract remained unmated in the presence of males and began laying unfertilized eggs at a normally mated rate of about 20 eggs\\/female\\/day. The 50% behavioral response (BR50) fell between 1\\/40 and 1\\/20 of a male equivalent. Sex

Joseph L. Spencer; Marco P. Candolfi; James E. Keller; James R. Miller

1995-01-01

388

Isolation, sorting, and characterization of uni- and binucleate tapetal protoplasts from anthers of normal and Texas cytoplasmic male-sterile Zea mays L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A cytological study of Texas cytoplasmic male sterile (Tcms) and normal (N) anther tapetal protoplasts ofZea mays was undertaken to determine whether there were any differences prior to Tcms male cell abortion not noted in previous published studies. Squash preparations, tapetal protoplast separation via flow cytometry, image analysis, and electron microscopy were utilized. Chemically preserved tapetal protoplasts from both

H. T. Horner; Vickie L. Hall; M. A. Vargas-Olvera

1993-01-01

389

Male competition and female choice interact to determine mating success in the bluefin killifish  

E-print Network

1998). There are a number of cases in which female choice is based on male dominance and/or traits), females displayed pronounced preferences between males and male competition produced a distinctly dominant individual. None of the morphological traits, including color, measured in males were associated with either

Fuller, Rebecca

390

Accepting unrelated broods helps replacement male yellow-headed blackbirds attract mates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Replacement male yellow-headed blackbirds (Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus) did not destroy broods sired by the previous territorial male and they showed no aggression toward females with unrelated broods. To test whether their tolerance of unrelated young was misdirected normal parental care, we removed males from experimental territories after primary nests were completed but before secondary nests were initiated. Replacement males fed young

David F. Gori; Jennifer Caselle

1996-01-01

391

Cytological Characterization and Allelism Testing of Anther Developmental Mutants Identified in a Screen of Maize Male Sterile Lines  

PubMed Central

Proper regulation of anther differentiation is crucial for producing functional pollen, and defects in or absence of any anther cell type result in male sterility. To deepen understanding of processes required to establish premeiotic cell fate and differentiation of somatic support cell layers a cytological screen of maize male-sterile mutants has been conducted which yielded 42 new mutants including 22 mutants with premeiotic cytological defects (increasing this class fivefold), 7 mutants with postmeiotic defects, and 13 mutants with irregular meiosis. Allelism tests with known and new mutants confirmed new alleles of four premeiotic developmental mutants, including two novel alleles of msca1 and single new alleles of ms32, ms8, and ocl4, and two alleles of the postmeiotic ms45. An allelic pair of newly described mutants was found. Premeiotic mutants are now classified into four categories: anther identity defects, abnormal anther structure, locular wall defects and premature degradation of cell layers, and/or microsporocyte collapse. The range of mutant phenotypic classes is discussed in comparison with developmental genetic investigation of anther development in rice and Arabidopsis to highlight similarities and differences between grasses and eudicots and within the grasses. PMID:23390600

Timofejeva, Ljudmilla; Skibbe, David S.; Lee, Sidae; Golubovskaya, Inna; Wang, Rachel; Harper, Lisa; Walbot, Virginia; Cande, William Zacheus

2013-01-01

392

The Arabidopsis male-sterile mutant, opr3, lacks the 12-oxophytodienoic acid reductase required for jasmonate synthesis  

PubMed Central

Jasmonic acid (JA) and its precursor 12-oxophytodienoic acid (OPDA) act as plant growth regulators and mediate responses to environmental cues. To investigate the role of these oxylipins in anther and pollen development, we characterized a T-DNA-tagged, male-sterile mutant of Arabidopsis, opr3. The opr3 mutant plants are sterile but can be rendered fertile by exogenous JA but not by OPDA. Cloning of the mutant locus indicates that it encodes an isozyme of 12-oxophytodienoate reductase, designated OPR3. All of the defects in opr3 are alleviated by transformation of the mutant with an OPR3 cDNA. Our results indicate that JA and not OPDA is the signaling molecule that induces and coordinates the elongation of the anther filament, the opening of the stomium at anthesis, and the production of viable pollen. Just as importantly, our data demonstrate that OPR3 is the only isoform of OPR capable of reducing the correct stereoisomer of OPDA to produce JA required for male gametophyte development. PMID:10973494

Stintzi, Annick; Browse, John

2000-01-01

393

The effect of vegetation density on male mate guarding and extra-territorial forays in the yellow-breasted chat (Icteria virens)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extra-pair paternity is widely documented in birds, but the behaviors that lead to extra-pair copulations (EPCs) have been less well studied, particularly in territorial songbirds. We studied the behaviors associated with extra-territorial forays (ETFs) and male mate guarding in a socially monogamous, but genetically promiscuous, neotropical migrant passerine, the yellow-breasted chat (Icteria virens). Focal observations and radiotelemetry revealed that both males and females engaged in ETFs. 65% of the females in our study engaged in at least one foray onto a neighboring territory. 50% of males also were observed engaging in ETFs, but males were much more conspicuous during these intrusions compared to females. Females preferred to remain close to the ground in areas where vegetation was the densest. Female behavior was difficult to observe during ETFs but females sometimes interacted with neighboring extra-pair males. Males attempted to guard their mates by remaining close to them and following them during extra-territorial intrusions. We observed instances in which a male attacked his mate and appeared to herd her back to his territory. However a male's ability to maintain close proximity to his mate was significantly and negatively correlated with vegetation density. Our results suggest that the behaviors which lead to extra-pair encounters are influenced by the behavior of all participants and are modified by the characteristics of the habitat.

Mays, Herman L.; Ritchison, Gary

394

The effect of vegetation density on male mate guarding and extra-territorial forays in the yellow-breasted chat (Icteria virens).  

PubMed

Extra-pair paternity is widely documented in birds, but the behaviors that lead to extra-pair copulations (EPCs) have been less well studied, particularly in territorial songbirds. We studied the behaviors associated with extra-territorial forays (ETFs) and male mate guarding in a socially monogamous, but genetically promiscuous, neotropical migrant passerine, the yellow-breasted chat (Icteria virens). Focal observations and radiotelemetry revealed that both males and females engaged in ETFs. 65% of the females in our study engaged in at least one foray onto a neighboring territory. 50% of males also were observed engaging in ETFs, but males were much more conspicuous during these intrusions compared to females. Females preferred to remain close to the ground in areas where vegetation was the densest. Female behavior was difficult to observe during ETFs but females sometimes interacted with neighboring extra-pair males. Males attempted to guard their mates by remaining close to them and following them during extra-territorial intrusions. We observed instances in which a male attacked his mate and appeared to herd her back to his territory. However a male's ability to maintain close proximity to his mate was significantly and negatively correlated with vegetation density. Our results suggest that the behaviors which lead to extra-pair encounters are influenced by the behavior of all participants and are modified by the characteristics of the habitat. PMID:15085279

Mays, Herman L; Ritchison, Gary

2004-04-01

395

Casanovas are liars: behavioral syndromes, sperm competition risk, and the evolution of deceptive male mating behavior in live-bearing fishes  

PubMed Central

Male reproductive biology can by characterized through competition over mates as well as mate choice. Multiple mating and male mate choice copying, especially in internally fertilizing species, set the stage for increased sperm competition, i.e., sperm of two or more males can compete for fertilization of the female’s ova. In the internally fertilizing fish Poecilia mexicana, males respond to the presence of rivals with reduced expression of mating preferences (audience effect), thereby lowering the risk of by-standing rivals copying their mate choice. Also, males interact initially more with a non-preferred female when observed by a rival, which has been interpreted in previous studies as a strategy to mislead rivals, again reducing sperm competition risk (SCR). Nevertheless, species might differ consistently in their expression of aggressive and reproductive behaviors, possibly due to varying levels of SCR. In the current study, we present a unique data set comprising ten poeciliid species (in two cases including multiple populations) and ask whether species can be characterized through consistent differences in the expression of aggression, sexual activity and changes in mate choice under increased SCR. We found consistent species-specific differences in aggressive behavior, sexual activity as well as in the level of misleading behavior, while decreased preference expression under increased SCR was a general feature of all but one species examined. Furthermore, mean sexual activity correlated positively with the occurrence of potentially misleading behavior. An alternative explanation for audience effects would be that males attempt to avoid aggressive encounters, which would predict stronger audience effects in more aggressive species. We demonstrate a positive correlation between mean aggressiveness and sexual activity (suggesting a hormonal link as a mechanistic explanation), but did not detect a correlation between aggressiveness and audience effects. Suites of correlated behavioral tendencies are termed behavioral syndromes, and our present study provides correlational evidence for the evolutionary significance of SCR in shaping a behavioral syndrome at the species level across poeciliid taxa. PMID:24627773

Bierbach, David

2013-01-01

396

Male dimorphism, territoriality and mating success in the tropical damselfly, Paraphlebia zoe Selys (Odonata: Megapodagrionidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tropical damselfly Paraphlebia zoe has two male morphs: a black-winged (BW) male which is associated with territorial defense of oviposition sites; and a hyaline-winged\\u000a (HW) male similar in appearance to females, and, compared to the black morph, less frequently found defending territories.\\u000a In a wild population of this species, we first assessed the relationship between phenotypic traits [male morph,

Allari Romo-Beltrán; Rogelio Macías-Ordóñez; Alex Córdoba-Aguilar

2009-01-01

397

Courtship behavior and discrimination between potential mates by male Delia antiqua (Diptera: Anthomyiidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The repertoire of courtship behaviors of male onion maggots,Delia antiqua (Meigen), in a laboratory bioassay chamber, was analyzed by direct observation and by video recordings, in conjunction with a multichannel event recorder. Seven courtship behaviors were categorized: inspection from the substrate, aerial inspection, contact from the substrate, contact from the air, genital alignment, copulation, and male-male interaction. The frequency distribution

R. S. McDonald; J. H. Borden

1996-01-01

398

Sequence analysis on the mitochondrial orfB locus in normal and Ogura male-sterile cytoplasms from wild and cultivated radishes.  

PubMed

In order to gain a better understanding of the origin and evolution of Ogura male-sterile cytoplasm in radish, sequence analysis was conducted for the mitochondrial locus, orfB, using wild and cultivated radishes. The nucleotide sequence of the entire coding and flanking regions of orfB (approximately 1 kb) was determined for six radishes with normal and Ogura cytoplasm and they were classified into three types (types 1-3). The sequence of the 5' flanking region of orfB was further analyzed in 40 additional plants. Irrespective of the category of radish, plants with Ogura male-sterile cytoplasm contained only the type 1 sequence, whereas plants with normal cytoplasm had either type 2 or type 3. The results suggested that the mutational event, which led to the association of orfB with the male-sterile gene orf138, had occurred only once in the history of radishes. PMID:11795848

Terachi, T; Yamaguchi, K; Yamagishi, H

2001-12-01

399

Comprehensive Analysis of Genic Male Sterility-Related Genes in Brassica rapa Using a Newly Developed Br300K Oligomeric Chip  

PubMed Central

To identify genes associated with genic male sterility (GMS) that could be useful for hybrid breeding in Chinese cabbage (Brassicarapa ssp. pekinensis), floral bud transcriptome analysis was carried out using a B. rapa microarray with 300,000 probes (Br300K). Among 47,548 clones deposited on a Br300K microarray with seven probes of 60 nt length within the 3' 150 bp region, a total of 10,622 genes were differentially expressed between fertile and sterile floral buds; 4,774 and 5,848 genes were up-regulated over 2-fold in fertile and sterile buds, respectively. However, the expression of 1,413 and 199 genes showed fertile and sterile bud-specific features, respectively. Genes expressed specifically in fertile buds, possibly GMS-related genes, included homologs of several Arabidopsis male sterility-related genes, genes associated with the cell wall and synthesis of its surface proteins, pollen wall and coat components, signaling components, and nutrient supplies. However, most early genes for pollen development, genes for primexine and callose formation, and genes for pollen maturation and anther dehiscence showed no difference in expression between fertile and sterile buds. Some of the known genes associated with Arabidopsis pollen development showed similar expression patterns to those seen in this study, while others did not. BrbHLH89 and BrMYP99 are putative GMS genes. Additionally, 17 novel genes identified only in B. rapa were specifically and highly expressed only in fertile buds, implying the possible involvement in male fertility. All data suggest that Chinese cabbage GMS might be controlled by genes acting in post-meiotic tapetal development that are different from those known to be associated with Arabidopsis male sterility. PMID:24039743

Dong, Xiangshu; Feng, Hui; Xu, Ming; Lee, Jeongyeo; Kim, Yeon Ki; Lim, Yong Pyo; Piao, Zhongyun; Park, Young Doo; Ma, Hong; Hur, Yoonkang

2013-01-01

400

Sequence analysis and expression of orf224 gene associated with two types of cytoplasmic male sterility in Brassica napus L.  

PubMed

Polima and Shaan 2A are the two most widely used forms of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in the utilization of heterosis of rapeseed (Brassica napus) in China. A previous study indicated that the mitochondrial gene, orf224, was the only gene with a differential expression pattern among the normal, sterile and fertility-restored lines in rapeseed. DNA sequences of orf224, including coding sequences from Shaan 2A and Polima CMS, were then amplified and analyzed. DNA sequence alignment indicated both the coding sequences were 675 bp in length and had 99.9 and 99% homology in nucleotides and amino acids, respectively, and shared certain similarity to homologues from other Brassica spp. and Arabidopsis thaliana. The probable promoter regions of orf224 were conserved between B. napus and A. thaliana, but the upstream regions of probable promoter regions were completely divergent from each other. Additionally, analysis of the primary and secondary structure of the proteins encoded by orf224 from the two lines predicted that the proteins contain a a-helix, extended strand, and random coil. After cloning a in vitro experiment showed that these two proteins could be expressed in Escherichia coli BL21. PMID:20653243

Liu, Jianmin; Li, Maoteng; Wang, Hao; Yu, Longjiang; Li, Dianrong

2010-01-01