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Sample records for mating sterile male

  1. The Sterile Insect Technique for Controlling Populations of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) on Reunion Island: Mating Vigour of Sterilized Males

    PubMed Central

    Oliva, Clelia F.; Jacquet, Maxime; Gilles, Jeremie; Lemperiere, Guy; Maquart, Pierre-Olivier; Quilici, Serge; Schooneman, François; Vreysen, Marc J. B.; Boyer, Sebastien

    2012-01-01

    Reunion Island suffers from high densities of the chikungunya and dengue vector Aedes albopictus. The sterile insect technique (SIT) offers a promising strategy for mosquito-borne diseases prevention and control. For such a strategy to be effective, sterile males need to be competitive enough to fulfil their intended function by reducing wild mosquito populations in natura. We studied the effect of irradiation on sexual maturation and mating success of males, and compared the sexual competitiveness of sterile versus wild males in the presence of wild females in semi-field conditions. For all untreated or sterile males, sexual maturation was completed within 13 to 20 h post-emergence and some males were able to inseminate females when 15 h old. In the absence of competition, untreated and sterile males were able to inseminate the same number of virgin females during 48 h, in small laboratory cages: an average of 93% of females was inseminated no matter the treatment, the age of males, and the sex ratio. Daily mating success of single sterile males followed the same pattern as for untreated ones, although they inseminated significantly fewer females after the ninth day. The competitiveness index of sterile males in semi-field conditions was only 0.14 when they were released at 1-day old, but improved to 0.53 when the release occurred after a 5-day period in laboratory conditions. In SIT simulation experiments, a 5?1 sterile to wild male ratio allowed a two-fold reduction of the wild population’s fertility. This suggests that sterile males could be sufficiently competitive to mate with wild females within the framework of an SIT component as part of an AW-IPM programme for suppressing a wild population of Ae. albopictus in Reunion Island. It will be of interest to minimise the pre-release period in controlled conditions to ensure a good competitiveness without increasing mass rearing costs. PMID:23185329

  2. Transient Population Dynamics of Mosquitoes during Sterile Male Releases: Modelling Mating Behaviour and Perturbations of Life History Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    The release of genetically-modified or sterile male mosquitoes offers a promising form of mosquito-transmitted pathogen control, but the insights derived from our understanding of male mosquito behaviour have not fully been incorporated into the design of such genetic control or sterile-male release methods. The importance of aspects of male life history and mating behaviour for sterile-male release programmes were investigated by projecting a stage-structured matrix model over time. An elasticity analysis of transient dynamics during sterile-male releases was performed to provide insight on which vector control methods are likely to be most synergistic. The results suggest that high mating competitiveness and mortality costs of released males are required before the sterile-release method becomes ineffective. Additionally, if released males suffer a mortality cost, older males should be released due to their increased mating capacity. If released males are of a homogenous size and size-assortative mating occurs in nature, this can lead to an increase in the abundance of large females and reduce the efficacy of the population-suppression effort. At a high level of size-assortative mating, the disease transmission potential of the vector population increases due to male releases, arguing for the release of a heterogeneously-sized male population. The female population was most sensitive to perturbations of density-dependent components of larval mortality and female survivorship and fecundity. These findings suggest source reduction might be a particularly effective complement to mosquito control based on the sterile insect technique (SIT). In order for SIT to realize its potential as a key component of an integrated vector-management strategy to control mosquito-transmitted pathogens, programme design of sterile-male release programmes must account for the ecology, behaviour and life history of mosquitoes. The model used here takes a step in this direction and can easily be modified to investigate additional aspects of mosquito behaviour or species-specific ecology. PMID:24086715

  3. Effects of X-Ray Irradiation on Male Navel Orangeworm Moths (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) on Mating, Fecundity, Fertility, and Inherited Sterility.

    PubMed

    Light, Douglas M; Ovchinnikova, Inna; Jackson, Eric S; Haff, Ronald P

    2015-10-01

    Male adult navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker), were irradiated using a laboratory scale x-ray irradiation unit to determine the required dose for complete egg sterility of mated female moths and inherited sterility of F1 and F2 generations. Adult male A. transitella were irradiated in two separate experiments at 100-300?Gy and 50-175?Gy. Mating frequency, fecundity, and fertility of normal females crossed with irradiated parental males was compared with the mating of nonirradiated moths. Mating frequency was 100% for females crossed with nonirradiated control males. At male treatment doses of ?150?Gy the percentage of females found unmated increased, while multiple-mated females decreased. Female fecundity was not affected while fertility was affected in a dose-dependent relationship to exposure of parental males to x-ray irradiation. Embryonic development of eggs to the prehatch stage and egg eclosion did not occur at radiation doses ?125?Gy. Emergence of F1 adults was low and occurred only for progeny of parental males exposed to doses ?100?Gy, with no emergence at ?125?Gy. Though fecundity appeared similar for control and irradiated F1 females, no F2 eggs hatched for the test exposures of 50-100?Gy. Based on our results, a dose of ?125?Gy had efficacy in inducing both primary parental sterility in treated male moths and inherited sterility in F1 male and female moths. Results suggest that A. transitella might be considered a candidate for the sterile insect technique using adults irradiated at these relatively low x-ray exposure doses. PMID:26453709

  4. Wing Morphometry and Acoustic Signals in Sterile and Wild Males: Implications for Mating Success in Ceratitis capitata.

    PubMed

    de Souza, João Maria Gomes Alencar; de Lima-Filho, Paulo Augusto; Molina, Wagner Franco; de Almeida, Lúcia Maria; de Gouveia, Milson Bezerra; de Macêdo, Francisco Pepino; Laumann, Raul Alberto; Paranhos, Beatriz Aguiar Jordão

    2015-01-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is widely utilized in the biological control of fruit flies of the family Tephritidae, particularly against the Mediterranean fruit fly. This study investigated the interaction between mating success and morphometric variation in the wings and the production of acoustic signals among three male groups of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann): (1) wild males, (2) irradiated with Co-60 (steriles), and (3) irradiated (steriles) and treated with ginger oil. The canonical variate analysis discriminated two groups (males irradiated and males wild), based on the morphological shape of the wings. Among males that emit buzz signals, wild males obtained copulation more frequently than males in Groups 2 and 3. The individuals of Group 3 achieved more matings than those in Group 2. Wild males displayed lower pulse duration, higher intervals between pulses, and higher dominant frequency. Regarding the reproductive success, the morphological differences in the wings' shape between accepted and nonaccepted males are higher in wild males than in the irradiated ones. The present results can be useful in programs using the sterile insect technique for biological control of C. capitata. PMID:26075293

  5. Wing Morphometry and Acoustic Signals in Sterile and Wild Males: Implications for Mating Success in Ceratitis capitata

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, João Maria Gomes Alencar; Molina, Wagner Franco; de Almeida, Lúcia Maria; de Gouveia, Milson Bezerra; de Macêdo, Francisco Pepino; Laumann, Raul Alberto; Paranhos, Beatriz Aguiar Jordão

    2015-01-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is widely utilized in the biological control of fruit flies of the family Tephritidae, particularly against the Mediterranean fruit fly. This study investigated the interaction between mating success and morphometric variation in the wings and the production of acoustic signals among three male groups of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann): (1) wild males, (2) irradiated with Co-60 (steriles), and (3) irradiated (steriles) and treated with ginger oil. The canonical variate analysis discriminated two groups (males irradiated and males wild), based on the morphological shape of the wings. Among males that emit buzz signals, wild males obtained copulation more frequently than males in Groups 2 and 3. The individuals of Group 3 achieved more matings than those in Group 2. Wild males displayed lower pulse duration, higher intervals between pulses, and higher dominant frequency. Regarding the reproductive success, the morphological differences in the wings' shape between accepted and nonaccepted males are higher in wild males than in the irradiated ones. The present results can be useful in programs using the sterile insect technique for biological control of C. capitata. PMID:26075293

  6. Prerelease exposure to methyl eugenol increases the mating competitiveness of sterile males of the oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in a Hawaiian orchard.

    PubMed

    McInnis, D; Kurashima, R; Shelly, T; Komatsu, J; Edu, J; Pahio, E

    2011-12-01

    Males of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), are strongly attracted to methyl eugenol (ME), and recent work demonstrated that ingestion of this chemical enhances male mating success, apparently owing its role as a precursor in the synthesis of the male sex pheromone. The current study expanded upon earlier laboratory and field-cage experiments by assessing whether prerelease exposure to ME increased the mating competitiveness of mass-reared, sterile males in Hawaiian orchards. Releases of sterile males from a pupal color-based sexing strain were made weekly in two fruit orchards over 8 mo, with the sterile males at one site given ME for 24 h before release (treated) and the sterile males at the other site given no ME before release (control). Fruits were collected periodically during the study period, and eggs were dissected and incubated to score hatch rate. At both sites, releases of sterile males increased the proportion of unhatched eggs well above prerelease levels, but the incidence of egg sterility was consistently, and statistically, greater in the orchard receiving ME-exposed males. Computed over the entire release period, the average value of Fried's competitive index (that characterizes the mating success of sterile males relative to their wild counterparts) for ME-treated males was 3.5 times greater than that for control males, although this difference was not statistically significant. However, when computed over the period during which egg sterility values were elevated and stable, presumably when females inseminated before the releases were rare or absent, the competitive indices were significantly higher for ME-treated sterile males. The implications of these results for implementing the Sterile Insect Technique against this species are discussed. PMID:22299359

  7. A field attempt to assess the mating competitiveness of sterile males produced by crossing 2 members of the Anopheles gambiae complex

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, G.; Odetoyinbo, J. A.; Colussa, B.; Coz, J.

    1970-01-01

    In laboratory experiments sterile males produced by crossing member species of the Anopheles gambiae complex competed very successfully with normal males for normal females and the latter when mated with sterile males laid sterile eggs. A field trial was arranged in a small isolated village near Bobo-Dioulasso, Upper Volta; the trial took place at the end of the rainy season against a declining population of species A. Sterile males were produced from the cross between species B males and An. melas females; this cross yielded an F1 generation mainly composed of sterile males with a sporadic occurrence of a sometimes significant proportion of females which were reproductively normal. The F1 generation was reared to pupae and these were released into existing breeding places and later from artificial containers. Some 300 000 pupae were so released over a period of 2 months and adult collections were made periodically from inside houses and from outside shelters after releases started. Of the males caught, 75% proved to be sterile while nearly 6% of normal-looking ovipositions failed to hatch. However 2.5% of them proved to be from hybrid females and not from species A females. In control villages, 1.35% of normal-looking ovipositions did not hatch. It was concluded from this field trial that the sterile males were not mating on any significant scale with the natural species A females. This could have been due to a number of factors but the most important is considered to be an ethological one—a mating barrier preventing mating between introduced sterile males and natural females. This is strongly expressed under natural conditions but not operative in the limited confines of a cage. The use of a cross between two species against a third species may well have enhanced this barrier. PMID:5309520

  8. Pre-Release Consumption of Methyl Eugenol Increases the Mating Competitiveness of Sterile Males of the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, in Large Field Enclosures

    PubMed Central

    Shelly, Todd E.; Edu, James; McInnis, Donald

    2010-01-01

    The sterile insect technique may be implemented to control populations of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), when environmental concerns preclude widespread use of chemical attractants or toxicants. The goal of the present study was to evaluate whether the mating competitiveness of sterile B. dorsalis males could be increased via pre-release feeding on methyl eugenol. Males of the oriental fruit fly are strongly attracted to this plant-borne compound, which they ingest and use in the synthesis of the sex pheromone. Previous studies conducted in the laboratory and small field-cages have shown that males given methyl eugenol produce a more attractive pheromone for females and have a higher mating success rate than males denied methyl eugenol. Here, levels of egg sterility were compared following the release of wild-like flies and either methyl eugenol-fed (treated) or methyl eugenol-deprived (control) sterile males in large field enclosures at four over flooding ratios ranging from 5:1 to 60:1 (sterile: wild-like males). Treated sterile males were fed methyl eugenol for 1–4 h (depending on the over flooding ratio tested) 3 d prior to release. Eggs were dissected from introduced fruits (apples), incubated in the laboratory, and scored for hatch rate. The effect of methyl eugenol was most pronounced at lower over flooding ratios. At the 5:1 and 10:1 over flooding ratios, the level of egg sterility observed for treated, sterile males was significantly greater than that observed for control, sterile males. In addition, the incidence of egg sterility reported for treated sterile males at these lower over flooding ratios was similar to that noted for treated or control sterile males at the 30:1 or 60:1 over flooding ratios. This latter result, in particular, suggests that pre-release feeding on methyl eugenol allows for a reduction in the number of sterile flies that are produced and released, thus increasing the cost-effectiveness of the sterile insect technique. PMID:20569140

  9. Additional tests on the efficacy of ginger root oil in enhacing the mating competitiveness of sterile males of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent studies have shown that exposure to the aroma of ginger root oil (Zingiber officinale Roscoe; termed GRO hereafter) increases the mating competitiveness of males of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). This result suggests that pre-release exposure of sterile ...

  10. Precocious sexual signalling and mating in Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) sterile males achieved through juvenile hormone treatment and protein supplements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sexual maturation of Anastrepha fraterculus is a long process. Methoprene (a mimic of juvenile hormone) considerably reduces the time for sexual maturation in males. However, in other Anastrepha species, this effect depends on protein intake at the adult stage. Here, we evaluated the mating competit...

  11. Aromatherapy on a large scale: Exposing entire holding rooms to ginger root oil increases the mating competitiveness of sterile males of the Mediterranean fruit fly in field cage trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is widely used in integrated programs against fruit fly pests, particularly the Mediterranean fruit fly. Unfortunately, the mass-rearing procedures inherent to the SIT often lead to a reduction in male mating competitiveness. The sterile insect technique (SIT) is w...

  12. Mating Behavior II: Male-Male Competition

    E-print Network

    Brown, Christopher A.

    1 Mating Behavior II: Male-Male Competition Intrasexual Selection Recall that the other "part" of sexual selection is competition between individuals of the same sex Usually involves males competing of male-male competition Often begins with non-contact displays, which may or may not escalate to fighting

  13. REGISTRATIONS OF C931, C941, CR11, AND CZ25/2 SELF-FERTILE, GENETIC-MALE-STERILE FACILITATED, RANDOM-MATED, SUGARBEET GERMPLASM POPULATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarbeet is naturally self-sterile and most germplasm can not be selfed to produce selfed progenies for breeding and genetic research. However, it is often very useful to be able to produce selfed progeny families. With the use of the genes for self-fertility and genetic-male-sterility, over the pa...

  14. Neural Circuits: Male Mating Motifs.

    PubMed

    Benton, Richard

    2015-09-01

    Characterizing microcircuit motifs in intact nervous systems is essential to relate neural computations to behavior. In this issue of Neuron, Clowney et al. (2015) identify recurring, parallel feedforward excitatory and inhibitory pathways in male Drosophila's courtship circuitry, which might explain decisive mate choice. PMID:26335638

  15. Male fish deceive competitors about mating preferences.

    PubMed

    Plath, Martin; Richter, Stephanie; Tiedemann, Ralph; Schlupp, Ingo

    2008-08-01

    A fundamental question in animal communication is whether the information provided is honest or deceptive [1, 2]. This problem has received much attention, both in theoretical [1, 3] and experimental [4] work. Here we show that male Atlantic mollies (Poecilia mexicana), when observed during mate choice by another male, reduce their mating activity and no longer prefer mating with one of two females presented, which can be interpreted as an attempt to avoid unintended interception of information by the rival male. Most importantly, focal males directed their first sexual interaction (after they were presented with the rival male) toward the initially nonpreferred female, suggesting that males deceive other males about their mating preferences. Deception by the choosing male may be an adaptation to avoid sperm competition, because surrounding males may use public information and copy the focal male's mate choice. PMID:18674912

  16. The Decision for Male versus Female Sterilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Margaret Pruitt; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The increasing popularity of sterilization underscores the need for knowledge about couples choosing male and female procedures. This research delineates four sets of variables that may be important for the decision and examines their relationship with the choice of male or female procedure among a sample of married couples. (Author)

  17. SWORDTAIL MATE CHOICE AND REPRODUCTIVE ALLOCATION: EFFECTS OF MALE CONDITION 

    E-print Network

    Simpson, Suzanne

    2011-04-26

    allocate differentially depending on the quality of their mate. We manipulated male diet to determine if females had a mate preference based on male chronic condition. Afterward, we dissected the females and measured their allocation using egg size and egg...

  18. Age-Dependent Male Mating Investment in Drosophila pseudoobscura

    PubMed Central

    Dhole, Sumit; Pfennig, Karin S.

    2014-01-01

    Male mating investment can strongly influence fitness gained from a mating. Yet, male mating investment often changes with age. Life history theory predicts that mating investment should increase with age, and males should become less discriminatory about their mate as they age. Understanding age-dependent changes in male behavior and their effects on fitness is important for understanding how selection acts in age-structured populations. Although the independent effects of male or female age have been studied in many species, how these interact to influence male mating investment and fitness is less well understood. We mated Drosophila pseudoobscura males of five different age classes (4-, 8-, 11-, 15-, 19-day old) to either young (4-day) or old (11-day) females, and measured copulation duration and early post-mating fecundity. Along with their independent effects, we found a strong interaction between the effects of male and female ages on male mating investment and fitness from individual matings. Male mating investment increased with male age, but this increase was more prominent in matings with young females. Male D. pseudoobscura made smaller investments when mating with old females. The level of such discrimination based on female age, however, also changed with male age. Intermediate aged males were most discriminatory, while the youngest and the oldest males did not discriminate between females of different ages. We also found that larger male mating investments resulted in higher fitness payoffs. Our results show that male and female ages interact to form a complex pattern of age-specific male mating investment and fitness. PMID:24586373

  19. Male motion coordination in anopheline mating swarms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shishika, Daigo; Manoukis, Nicholas C.; Butail, Sachit; Paley, Derek A.

    2014-09-01

    The Anopheles gambiae species complex comprises the primary vectors of malaria in much of sub-Saharan Africa. Most of the mating in these species occurs in swarms composed almost entirely of males. Intermittent, organized patterns in such swarms have been observed, but a detailed description of male-male interactions has not previously been available. We identify frequent, time-varying interactions characterized by periods of parallel flight in data from 8 swarms of Anopheles gambiae and 3 swarms of Anopheles coluzzii filmed in 2010 and 2011 in the village of Donéguébogou, Mali. We use the cross correlation of flight direction to quantify these interactions and to induce interaction graphs, which show that males form synchronized subgroups whose size and membership change rapidly. A swarming model with damped springs between each male and the swarm centroid shows good agreement with the correlation data, provided that local interactions represented by damping of relative velocity between males are included.

  20. Polygyny, mate-guarding, and posthumous fertilization as alternative male

    E-print Network

    Zamudio, Kelly R.

    of mating system polymorphisms. Materials and Methods Estimating Reproductive Success of Males. Paternity the reproductive success of males adopting each tactic, may clarify the mechanisms underlying positive selectionPolygyny, mate-guarding, and posthumous fertilization as alternative male mating strategies Kelly R

  1. Estimating SIT-driven population reduction in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, from sterile mating.

    PubMed

    Juan-Blasco, M; Sabater-Muñoz, B; Pla, I; Argilés, R; Castañera, P; Jacas, J A; Ibáñez-Gual, M V; Urbaneja, A

    2014-04-01

    Area-wide sterile insect technique (SIT) programs assume that offspring reduction of the target population correlates with the mating success of the sterile males released. However, there is a lack of monitoring tools to prove the success of these programs in real-time. Field-cage tests were conducted under the environmental conditions of the Mediterranean coast of Spain to estimate: (a) the mating success of sterile Vienna-8 (V8) Ceratitis capitata males using molecular markers and (b) their efficacy to reduce C. capitata populations under six release ratios of wild females to wild males to V8 males (1:0:0, 1:1:0, 1:1:1, 1:1:5, 1:1:10, and 1:1:20). Statistical models were developed to predict: (a) the number of females captured in traps, (b) sperm ID (sterile or not) in spermathecae of the trapped females, and (c) the viable offspring produced, using release ratio and temperature as predictors. The number of females captured was affected by relative humidity. However, its influence in the model was low. Female captures were significantly higher in ratios 1:0:0 compared to ratios where V8 males were released. The proportion of V8 sperm in spermathecae increased with temperature and with the number of V8 males released, but leveled off between ratios 1:1:10 and 1:1:20. In all seasons, except winter (no offspring), viable offspring increased with temperature and was lowest for ratio 1:1:20. For the first time, a strong negative relationship between proportion of V8 sperm detected by molecular tools and C. capitata offspring was established. The models obtained should contribute to enhance the efficacy of SIT programs against this pest. PMID:24444376

  2. Male sterility and hybrid seed production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sexual reproduction in angiosperms is a complex process that includes a portion of the vegetative generation and all of the sexual generation. Coordination of both female and male reproduction ontogenies must occur. An abnormality anywhere in this process may lead to sterility. Genetic (nuclear) and...

  3. Covariation and repeatability of male mating effort and mating preferences in a promiscuous fish.

    PubMed

    Godin, Jean-Guy J; Auld, Heather L

    2013-07-01

    Although mate choice by males does occur in nature, our understanding of its importance in driving evolutionary change remains limited compared with that for female mate choice. Recent theoretical models have shown that the evolution of male mate choice is more likely when individual variation in male mating effort and mating preferences exist and positively covary within populations. However, relatively little is known about the nature of such variation and its maintenance within natural populations. Here, using the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata) as a model study system, we report that mating effort and mating preferences in males, based on female body length (a strong correlate of fecundity), positively covary and are significantly variable among subjects. Individual males are thus consistent, but not unanimous, in their mate choice. Both individual mating effort (including courtship effort) and mating preference were significantly repeatable. These novel findings support the assumptions and predictions of recent evolutionary models of male mate choice, and are consistent with the presence of additive genetic variation for male mate choice based on female size in our study population and thus with the opportunity for selection and further evolution of large female body size through male mate choice. PMID:23919148

  4. Suppression of Pest Lepidoptera by Releasing Partially Sterile Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knipling. E. F.

    1970-01-01

    Uses population growth models to calculate the theoretical suppression of reproduction achieved by releasing irradiated male moths carrying genetic sterility factors. Shows that releasing partially sterile males should be more effective than releasing fully sterile males. Discusses the costs and advantages of applying this approach to the control…

  5. Development of male-sterile lines for breeding hybrid rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice is a self-pollinated crop that depends on male-sterility for F1 hybrid seed production. As an alternative to accessing existing male-sterile lines from other hybrid breeding programs, the program in Arkansas has created its own novel male-sterile sources. These were developed out of germplasm...

  6. Scented males and choosy females: does male odor influence female mate choice in the Mediterranean fruit fly?

    PubMed

    Shelly, Todd E; Edu, James; Pahio, Elaine; Nishimoto, Jon

    2007-12-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), displays a lek mating system characterized by a high level of female discrimination among potential mates. The basis of female choice is not understood, but recent studies indicate that male exposure to the aroma of certain plant structures or essential oils may increase mating success. In particular, exposure to the aroma of ginger root oil (GRO) enhances male mating frequency, and several sterile-male release programs against C. capitata have incorporated 'aromatherapy' (large-scale exposure of pre-release insects to GRO) to increase the effectiveness of control efforts. We investigated the mechanism underlying female preference for GRO-exposed males. Two sets of experiments were conducted. In the first, we monitored female attraction to (1) freshly killed flies, or (2) paper discs that contained hexane extracts from varying treatments. In these tests, females were sighted more often (1) near GRO-exposed than non-exposed males (even when the males were visually concealed) and (2) near extracts from GRO-exposed than non-exposed males. These findings suggest a 'perfume effect', whereby female mate choice is mediated by olfactory differences. In the second set, we compared (1) mate choice between intact females and females from which both antennae had been surgically removed, and (2) mating success between intact males and males from which both antennae had been surgically removed before GRO exposure. Intact females preferred GRO-exposed males, whereas females lacking both antennae rarely mated and showed no preference between GRO-exposed and non-exposed males. In the opposite treatment (intact females but surgically altered males), GRO-exposed males lacking both antennae mated as frequently as GRO-exposed intact males. These data suggest that female choice was dependent on olfactory perception of male odor but that male mating success did not depend on olfactory perception of GRO aroma, suggesting, in turn, that GRO conferred a mating advantage through an external phenomenon (possibly alteration of cuticular scent) rather than through internal processing (pheromone synthesis). PMID:18030532

  7. Female pied flycatchers trade between male quality and mating status in mate choice

    PubMed Central

    Slagsvold, T.; Drevon, T.

    1999-01-01

    According to mate choice theory, females should consider both male quality and mating status when choosing a mate. In birds, strong experimental evidence indicates that females prefer males with elaborate traits. No comparable evidence exists to determine whether females take male mating status into account or how they may trade between male quality and male mating status. We studied mate choice of female pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) in outdoor aviaries where the effect of territory quality could be eliminated and where we could control which males were mated and which were unmated. We used male plumage colour as our measure of male quality. In the aviaries, focal females could easily compare males and assess their plumage colour and mating status, and resident females were prevented from attacking prospecting females because of separation in different compartments. The study provided evidence for a trade-off in mate choice. Females may compromise by choosing an already mated male if he is more brightly coloured and, presumably, of higher quality than available unmated males. The study did not support the idea that polygyny is based on male deception of females, but the results were consistent with the female aggression hypothesis.

  8. Molecular analysis of cytoplasmic male sterility

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, M.R.

    1990-01-01

    The ultimate aims of the project are to understand the molecular mechanism of the disruption in pollen development which occurs in cytoplasmic male sterile plants and to understand the control of respiratory energy flow in the higher plant cell. A mitochondrial locus termed S-pcf segregates with sterility and with an alteration in respiration in Petunia. This cloned locus contains three genes, an abnormal fused gene termed pcf, a gene for a subunit of an NADH dehydrogenase complex, and a small ribosomal subunit protein. The pcf gene is comprised of partial sequences of ATPase subunit 9, cytochrome oxidase subunit II, and an unidentified reading frame. Components of the S-Pcf locus will be introduced into the nuclear of a fertile genotype under the control of appropriate regulatory signals, and polypeptide products of introduced genes will be directed to the mitochondrion with a transit peptide. By examining transgenic plants, we can determine what elements of the locus are critical for altered respiration or sterility. Such knowledge could explain how mitochondrial DNA affects pollen development in the large number of plant species which exhibit the agronomically important trait of male sterility. 10 refs., 3 figs.

  9. A character demonstrating the occurrence of mating in male Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Marti, O.G.; Carpenter, J.E.

    2007-03-15

    The reproductive system of adult male Cactoblastis cactorum, the cactus moth, was examined to determine whether the mating status of males could be ascertained. In unmated males, the posterior portion of the primary ductus ejaculatorius simplex is opaque yellow in color and contains many small football-shaped hyaline granules 3-5 x 5-10 {mu}m in size. In mated males, the posterior simplex is clear and contains no granules. The presence or absence of these characters was found to be highly reliable and should be of value in determining mating status in marked-recaptured males of this species in a sterile insect release program directed against Cactoblastis. (author)

  10. Optimizing methyl-eugenol aromatherapy to maximize posttreatment effects to enhance mating competitiveness of male Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Haq, Ihsan ul; Vreysen, Marc J B; Cacéres, Carlos; Shelly, Todd E; Hendrichs, Jorge

    2015-10-01

    Methyl-eugenol (ME) (1,2-dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl)benzene), a natural phytochemical, did enhance male Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae) mating competitiveness 3 d after ingestion. Enhanced male mating competitiveness can significantly increase the effectiveness of the sterile insect technique (SIT). ME application to mass reared sterile flies by feeding is infeasible. ME application by aromatherapy however, would be a very practical way of ME application in fly emergence and release facilities. This approach was shown to enhance mating competitiveness of B. carambolae 3 d posttreatment (DPT). Despite this added benefit, every additional day of delaying release will reduce sterile fly quality and will add cost to SIT application. The present study was planned to assess the effects of ME-aromatherapy on male B. carambolae mating competitiveness 1DPT and 2DPT. ME aromatherapy 1DPT or 2DPT did enhance mating competitiveness of B. carambolae males whereas ME feeding 1DPT and 2DPT did not. Male mating competitiveness was enhanced by the ME aromatherapy irrespective if they received 1DPT, 2DPT or 3DPT. ME aromatherapy, being a viable approach for its application, did enhance mating competitiveness of male B. carambolae 1?d posttreatment as ME feeding did 3 d after ingestion. PMID:24935641

  11. Male mate preferences in mutual mate choice: finches modulate their songs across and within male–female interactions

    PubMed Central

    Heinig, Abbie; Pant, Santosh; Dunning, Jeffery; Bass, Aaron; Coburn, Zachary; Prather, Jonathan F.

    2014-01-01

    Male songbirds use song to advertise their attractiveness as potential mates, and the properties of those songs have a powerful influence on female mate preferences. One idea is that males may exert themselves maximally in each song performance, consistent with female evaluation and formation of mate preferences being the primary contributors to mate choice. Alternatively, males may modulate their song behaviour to different degrees in the presence of different females, consistent with both male and female mate preferences contributing to mutual mate choice. Here we consider whether male Bengalese finches, Lonchura striata domestica, express mate preferences at the level of individual females, and whether those preferences are manifest as changes in song behaviour that are sufficient to influence female mate choice. We tested this idea by recording songs performed by individual unmated males during a series of 1 h interactions with each of many unmated females. Across recording sessions, males systematically varied both the quantity and the quality of the songs that they performed to different females. Males also varied their song properties throughout the course of each interaction, and behavioural tests using female birds revealed that songs performed at the onset of each interaction were significantly more attractive than songs performed by the same male later during the same interaction. This demonstration of context-specific variation in the properties of male reproductive signals and a role for that variation in shaping female mate preference reveals that male mate preferences play an important role in mutual mate choice in this species. Because these birds thrive so well in the laboratory and are so amenable to observation and experimentation across generations, these results yield a new model system that may prove especially advantageous in disentangling the role of male and female mate preferences in shaping mutual mate choice and its long-term benefits or consequences. PMID:25242817

  12. Modeling ephemeral mating encounters in insects: The emergence of mate-finding Allee effects and applications to theoretical models of sterile release.

    PubMed

    Gordillo, Luis F

    2015-09-01

    Lack of successful mating encounters in two-sex insect populations is a mechanism that might trigger reproductive Allee effects. In this paper I examine a function that models ephemeral mating encounters through the expected density of pairs formed by individuals of both sexes at any time. When this function is incorporated in a general system of differential equations for a two-sex population the solutions exhibit the emergence of an Allee effect for low population densities. Compared with current conceptual models for mate-finding Allee effects, the proposed pairing function does not include a parameter that quantifies the Allee effect strength, a feature that might be useful when information to parameterize Allee effects is unavailable. The mating function is then used to numerically explore how mate-finding Allee effects are enhanced by the release of sterile males in theoretical models where (i) the initial sex ratio is skewed, (ii) sterile males are released in pulses and (iii) partial female remating is allowed. PMID:26116808

  13. Sequential male mate choice under sperm competition risk

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Male eagerness to mate is a central paradigm of sexual selection theory. However, limited sperm supplies mean that male sexual restraint might sometimes be favored under promiscuous mating. Here, we demonstrate dynamic plasticity in male mating effort when females are encountered sequentially under varying sperm competition risk. Rather than showing consistent eagerness to mate, male house mice (Mus musculus domesticus) instead tailor their mating effort according to likely reproductive payoffs. They are significantly less likely to mate when sperm competition is certain and potential reproductive payoffs low, but dramatically increase investment if they do choose to mate under such circumstances. By contrast, male mice are significantly more likely to mate in situations simulating extra-territorial copulations, where future risk of competition is high but so too are potential reproductive rewards. Differential mating propensity appears to be the primary mechanism by which male house mice allocate sperm adaptively under sperm competition risk because we find no evidence for facultative adjustment of sperm numbers per ejaculate or ejaculation frequency in response to female-related cues. We conclude that sequential male mate choice under sperm competition risk could be a widespread but often unappreciated mechanism of strategic sperm allocation. PMID:24822023

  14. MOLECULAR MAPPING OF THE MALE-STERILE, FEMALE-STERILE MUTANT (ST8) IN SOYBEAN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean male-sterile, female-sterile mutant genes have been identified by genetic and cytological studies. St8 has been identified as a desynaptic mutation resulting in male and female sterility. This mutant gene was derived from a gene-tagging study using the soybean w4-mutable line. In this report...

  15. The dance of male Anopheles gambiae in mating swarms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mating behavior of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae is of great interest from a fundamental and applied perspective. One of the most important elements of mating in this species is the crepuscular mating aggregation (swarm) composed almost entirely of males, where most coupling and inseminat...

  16. Defective pollen wall contributes to male sterility in the male sterile line 1355A of cotton

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yuanlong; Min, Ling; Wu, Zancheng; Yang, Li; Zhu, Longfu; Yang, Xiyan; Yuan, Daojun; Guo, Xiaoping; Zhang, Xianlong

    2015-01-01

    To understand the mechanisms of male sterility in cotton (Gossypium spp.), combined histological, biochemical and transcription analysis using RNA-Seq was carried out in the anther of the single-gene recessive genic male sterility system of male sterile line 1355A and male fertile line 1355B, which are near-isogenic lines (NILs) differing only in the fertility trait. A total of 2,446 differentially expressed genes were identified between the anthers of 1355AB lines, at three different stages of development. Cluster analysis and functional assignment of differentially expressed genes revealed differences in transcription associated with pollen wall and anther development, including the metabolism of fatty acids, glucose, pectin and cellulose. Histological and biochemical analysis revealed that a major cellular defect in the 1355A was a thicker nexine, consistent with the RNA-seq data, and further gene expression studies implicated differences in fatty acids synthesis and metabolism. This study provides insight into the phenotypic characteristics and gene regulatory network of the genic male sterile line 1355A in upland cotton. PMID:26043720

  17. Sensory regulation of C. elegans male mate-searching behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Barrios, Arantza; Nurrish, Stephen; Emmons, Scott W.

    2009-01-01

    Summary How do animals integrate internal drives and external environmental cues to coordinate behaviours? We address this question studying mate-searching behaviour in C. elegans. C. elgans males explore their environment in search of mates (hermaphrodites) and will leave food if mating partners are absent. However, when mates and food coincide, male exploratory behaviour is suppressed and males are retained on the food source. We show that the drive to explore is stimulated by male specific neurons in the tail, the ray neurons. Periodic contact with the hermaphrodite detected through ray neurons changes the male’s behaviour during periods of no contact and prevents the male from leaving the food source. The hermaphrodite signal is conveyed by male-specific interneurons that are post-synaptic to the rays and that send processes to the major integrative center in the head. This study identifies key parts of the neural circuit that regulates a sexual appetitive behaviour in C. elegans. PMID:19062284

  18. Cytoplasmic male sterility in Brassicaceae crops

    PubMed Central

    Yamagishi, Hiroshi; Bhat, Shripad R.

    2014-01-01

    Brassicaceae crops display strong hybrid vigor, and have long been subject to F1 hybrid breeding. Because the most reliable system of F1 seed production is based on cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), various types of CMS have been developed and adopted in practice to breed Brassicaceae oil seed and vegetable crops. CMS is a maternally inherited trait encoded in the mitochondrial genome, and the male sterile phenotype arises as a result of interaction of a mitochondrial CMS gene and a nuclear fertility restoring (Rf) gene. Therefore, CMS has been intensively investigated for gaining basic insights into molecular aspects of nuclear-mitochondrial genome interactions and for practical applications in plant breeding. Several CMS genes have been identified by molecular genetic studies, including Ogura CMS from Japanese radish, which is the most extensively studied and most widely used. In this review, we discuss Ogura CMS, and other CMS systems, and the causal mitochondrial genes for CMS. Studies on nuclear Rf genes and the cytoplasmic effects of alien cytoplasm on general crop performance are also reviewed. Finally, some of the unresolved questions about CMS are highlighted. PMID:24987289

  19. Hybrid male sterility and genome-wide misexpression of male reproductive proteases.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Suzanne; Civetta, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid male sterility is a common barrier to gene flow between species. Previous studies have posited a link between misregulation of spermatogenesis genes in interspecies hybrids and sterility. However, in the absence of fully fertile control hybrids, it is impossible to differentiate between misregulation associated with sterility vs. fast male gene regulatory evolution. Here, we differentiate between these two possibilities using a D. pseudoobscura species pair that experiences unidirectional hybrid sterility. We identify genes uniquely misexpressed in sterile hybrid male reproductive tracts via RNA-seq. The sterile male hybrids had more misregulated and more over or under expressed genes relative to parental species than the fertile male hybrids. Proteases were the only gene ontology class overrepresented among uniquely misexpressed genes, with four located within a previously identified hybrid male sterility locus. This result highlights the potential role of a previously unexplored class of genes in interspecific hybrid male sterility and speciation. PMID:26146165

  20. Mitochondria and cytoplasmic male sterility in plants.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jun; Huang, Wenchao; Huang, Qi; Qin, Xiaojian; Yu, Changchun; Wang, Lili; Li, Shaoqing; Zhu, Renshan; Zhu, Yingguo

    2014-11-01

    Mitochondria are essential organelles in cells not only because they supply over 90% of the cell's energy but also because their dysfunction is associated with disease. Owing to the importance of mitochondria, there are many questions about mitochondria that must be answered. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is a mysterious natural phenomenon, and the mechanism of the origin of CMS is unknown. Despite successful utilization of CMS and restoration of fertility (Rf) in practice, the underlying mechanisms of these processes remain elusive. This review summarizes the genes involved in CMS and Rf, with a special focus on recent studies reporting the mechanisms of the CMS and Rf pathways, and concludes with potential working models. PMID:24566371

  1. A New Adult Diet Formulation for Sterile Males of Anastrepha ludens and Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Orozco-Dávila, Dina; Quintero-Fong, Luis

    2015-08-01

    A new adult diet formulation was evaluated for sterile Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) males at the emergence and release facility of fruit flies in Mexico. The formulation consists of hydrolyzed protein, sugar, juvenile hormone analogue methoprene, and water. The proportion of the ingredients between the solute (4% hydrolyzed protein and 96% sugar) and solvent (10% methoprene and 90% water) was 5:1. This new formulation was called the 1:24 formulation. The main objectives of this study were to develop a simple way to supply the 1:24 formulation to adults and to compare the sexual performance of these flies with the performance of flies fed a standard diet (called the Mubarqui formulation) used at the emergence and release facility of fruit flies in Mexico. The preparation, time, and cost also were evaluated. The results showed no significant differences in the sexual behaviors of the males (number of males mating, number of males calling, mating latency, and mating duration) between the 1:24 formulation and the Mubarqui formulation. However, the cost and the required preparation time are much lower for the 1:24 formulation process than for the Mubarqui formulation process. Based on these results, we recommend the 1:24 formulation as an additional adult diet option in the handling of sterile flies. Its application is practical and does not require changes in packaging systems. The contribution of our findings and their potential application to the improvement of the sterile insect technique are discussed. PMID:26470310

  2. Sterility and Sexual Competitiveness of Tapachula-7 Anastrepha ludens Males Irradiated at Different Doses

    PubMed Central

    Orozco-Dávila, Dina; Adriano-Anaya, Maria de Lourdes; Quintero-Fong, Luis; Salvador-Figueroa, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    A genetic sexing strain of Anastrepha ludens (Loew), Tapachula-7, was developed by the Mexican Program Against Fruit Flies to produce and release only males in programs where the sterile insect technique (SIT) is applied. Currently, breeding are found at a massive scale, and it is necessary to determine the optimum irradiation dose that releases sterile males with minimum damage to their sexual competitiveness. Under laboratory and field conditions, we evaluated the effects of gamma irradiation at doses of 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 Gy on the sexual competitiveness of males, the induction of sterility in wild females and offspring survivorship. The results of the study indicate that irradiation doses have a significant effect on the sexual behavior of males. A reduction of mating capacity was inversely proportional to the irradiation dose of males. It is estimated that a dose of 60 Gy can induce more than 99% sterility in wild females. In all treatments, the degree of offspring fertility was correlated with the irradiation dose of the parents. In conclusion, the results of the study indicate that a dose of 60 Gy can be applied in sterile insect technique release programs. The application of this dose in the new genetic sexing strain of A. ludens is discussed. PMID:26274926

  3. Male mating behavior and ejaculate expenditure under sperm competition

    E-print Network

    Pilastro, Andrea

    Male mating behavior and ejaculate expenditure under sperm competition risk in the eastern of their ejaculates according to temporal changes in the risk of sperm competition. Specifically, males are predicted the perception of sperm competition risk by adjusting the sex ratio under which males were maintained over 8 days

  4. Time-pattern and frequency analyses of sounds produced by irradiated and untreated male Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) during mating behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Behavior and sounds associated with mating of mass-reared irradiated and untreated (non-irradiated) Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) males were analyzed using synchronous acoustic and video recordings. The flies tested were from a population used in sterile release programs that help maintain fruit-fly...

  5. Investigation of methods for sterilization of potting compounds and mated surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tulius, J. J.; Daley, D. J.; Phillips, G. B.

    1972-01-01

    The feasibility of using formaldehyde-liberating synthetic resins or polymers for the sterilization of potting compounds, mated and occluded areas, and spacecraft surfaces was demonstrated. The detailed study of interrelated parameters of formaldehyde gas sterilization revealed that efficient cycle conditions can be developed for the sterilization of spacecraft components. It was determined that certain parameters were more important than others in the development of cycles for specific applications. The use of formaldehyde gas for the sterilization of spacecraft components provides NASA with a highly efficient method which is inexpensive, reproducible, easily quantitated, materials compatible, operationally simple, generally non-hazardous and not thermally destructive.

  6. Improving sterile male performance in support of programmes integrating the sterile insect technique against fruit flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is being applied against fruit fly pests in many areas of the world. Currently, factories have the capacity to produce several billion sterile male insects per week and to make them available for, irradiatiation and shipment to their destinations, where the emergin...

  7. Sugar administration to newly emerged Aedes albopictus males increases their survival probability and mating performance.

    PubMed

    Bellini, Romeo; Puggioli, Arianna; Balestrino, Fabrizio; Brunelli, Paolo; Medici, Anna; Urbanelli, Sandra; Carrieri, Marco

    2014-04-01

    Aedes albopictus male survival in laboratory cages is no more than 4-5 days when kept without any access to sugar indicating their need to feed on a sugar source soon after emergence. We therefore developed a device to administer energetic substances to newly emerged males when released as pupae as part of a sterile insect technique (SIT) programme, made with a polyurethane sponge 4 cm thick and perforated with holes 2 cm in diameter. The sponge was imbibed with the required sugar solution and due to its high retention capacity the sugar solution was available for males to feed for at least 48 h. When evaluated in lab cages, comparing adults emerged from the device with sugar solution vs the device with water only (as negative control), about half of the males tested positive for fructose using the Van Handel anthrone test, compared to none of males in the control cage. We then tested the tool in semi-field and in field conditions with different sugar concentrations (10%, 15%, and 20%) and compared results to the controls fed with water only. Males were recaptured by a battery operated manual aspirator at 24 and 48 h after pupae release. Rather high share 10-25% of captured males tested positive for fructose in recollections in the vicinity of the control stations, while in the vicinity of the sugar stations around 40-55% of males were positive, though variability between replicates was large. The sugar positive males in the control test may have been released males that had access to natural sugar sources found close to the release station and/or wild males present in the environment. Only a slight increase in the proportion of positive males was obtained by increasing the sugar concentration in the feeding device from 10% to 20%. Surprisingly, modification of the device to add a black plastic inverted funnel above the container reduced rather than increased the proportion of fructose positive males collected around the station. No evidence of difference in the capacity of sterile (irradiated with 30 Gy) males to take a sugar meal relative to fertile males was observed in field comparison. A clear effect of temperature and relative humidity (RH) on the rate of sugar positive males was observed, with an increase of temperature and a decrease in RH strongly increasing the % of sugar positive males. In large enclosures we tested the effect of our sugar supplying tool on the mating competitiveness of sterile vs fertile males, which produced an evident favorable effect both on sterile and fertile males. PMID:24299923

  8. Anim. Behav., 1996, 52, 12251236 Male mate preferences in a gynogenetic species complex of Amazon mollies

    E-print Network

    Ryan, Michael J.

    fecundity (e.g. weevils, Brentus anchorago: Johnson 1982). A reproductive system in which male mate choice that reproductive character displacement in mating preferences has occurred. Male size did not influence matingAnim. Behav., 1996, 52, 1225­1236 Male mate preferences in a gynogenetic species complex of Amazon

  9. Segregation of male-sterility alleles across a species boundary.

    PubMed

    Weller, S G; Sakai, A K; Culley, T M; Duong, L; Danielson, R E

    2014-02-01

    Hybrid zones may serve as bridges permitting gene flow between species, including alleles influencing the evolution of breeding systems. Using greenhouse crosses, we assessed the likelihood that a hybrid zone could serve as a conduit for transfer of nuclear male-sterility alleles between a gynodioecious species and a hermaphroditic species with very rare females in some populations. Segregation patterns in progeny of crosses between rare females of hermaphroditic Schiedea menziesii and hermaphroditic plants of gynodioecious Schiedea salicaria heterozygous at the male-sterility locus, and between female S. salicaria and hermaphroditic plants from the hybrid zone, were used to determine whether male-sterility was controlled at the same locus in the parental species and the hybrid zone. Segregations of females and hermaphrodites in approximately equal ratios from many of the crosses indicate that the same nuclear male-sterility allele occurs in the parent species and the hybrid zone. These rare male-sterility alleles in S. menziesii may result from gene flow from S. salicaria through the hybrid zone, presumably facilitated by wind pollination in S. salicaria. Alternatively, rare male-sterility alleles might result from a reversal from gynodioecy to hermaphroditism in S. menziesii, or possibly de novo evolution of male sterility. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that some species of Schiedea have probably evolved separate sexes independently, but not in the lineage containing S. salicaria and S. menziesii. High levels of selfing and expression of strong inbreeding depression in S. menziesii, which together should favour females in populations, argue against a reversal from gynodioecy to hermaphroditism in S. menziesii. PMID:24417506

  10. Cytoplasmic male sterility and mitochondrial metabolism in plants.

    PubMed

    Touzet, Pascal; Meyer, Etienne H

    2014-11-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is a common feature encountered in plant species. It is the result of a genomic conflict between the mitochondrial and the nuclear genomes. CMS is caused by mitochondrial encoded factors which can be counteracted by nuclear encoded factors restoring male fertility. Despite extensive work, the molecular mechanism of male sterility still remains unknown. Several studies have suggested the involvement of respiration on the disruption of pollen production through an energy deficiency. By comparing recent works on CMS and respiratory mutants, we suggest that the "ATP hypothesis" might not be as obvious as previously suggested. PMID:24769053

  11. Sexual reproduction in Daphnia pulex (Crustacea: Cladocera): observations on male mating behaviour

    E-print Network

    Innes, David J.

    Sexual reproduction in Daphnia pulex (Crustacea: Cladocera): observations on male mating behaviour conditions. Keywords: clone, Daphnia, inbreeding, mating behaviour, sexual reproduction Introduction with the dif®culty of locating and identifying poten- tial mates during sexual reproduction. Gerritsen (1980

  12. The impact of social context on male mate preference in a unisexual--bisexual mating complex.

    PubMed

    Alberici da Barbiano, L; Aspbury, A S; Nice, C C; Gabor, C R

    2011-07-01

    Male sailfin mollies Poecilia latipinna were tested in five different treatments that varied in the relative frequency of heterospecific gynogens (Amazon molly Poecilia formosa) to conspecific females to determine whether social interactions among males within a population causes some males to mate with heterospecific females. Male P. latipinna inseminated a significantly higher proportion of conspecific females and fertilized a significantly higher number of conspecific eggs regardless of the treatment. Nonetheless, preference for conspecific females was not exclusive as a range of 20 to 50% of heterospecific females were fertilized. Social interactions among males may best explain the results and may therefore play an important role in the maintenance of unisexual--bisexual mating complexes. PMID:21722119

  13. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Recessive Male Sterility (RGMS) in Sterile and Fertile Brassica napus Lines

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Huiyan; Liu, Chuan; Li, Jiana; Tang, Zhanglin; Xu, Xinfu; Qiu, Xiao; Wang, Rui; Lu, Kun

    2015-01-01

    The recessive genetic male sterility (RGMS) system plays a key role in the production of hybrid varieties in self-pollinating B. napus plants, and prevents negative cytoplasmic effects. However, the complete molecular mechanism of the male sterility during male-gametogenesis in RGMS remains to be determined. To identify transcriptomic changes that occur during the transition to male sterility in RGMS, we examined the male sterile line WSLA and male fertile line WSLB, which are near-isogenic lines (NILs) differing only in the fertility trait. We evaluated the phenotypic features and sterility stage using anatomical analysis. Comparative RNA sequencing analysis revealed that 3,199 genes were differentially expressed between WSLA and WSLB. Many of these genes are mainly involved in biological processes related to flowering, including pollen tube development and growth, pollen wall assembly and modification, and pollen exine formation and pollination. The transcript profiles of 93 genes associated with pollen wall and anther development were determined by quantitative RT-PCR in different flower parts, and classified into the following three major clades: 1) up-regulated in WSLA plants; 2) down-regulated in WSLA plants; and 3) down-regulated in buds, but have a higher expression in stigmas of WSLA than in WSLB. A subset of genes associated with sporopollenin accumulation were all up-regulated in WSLA. An excess of sporopollenin results in defective pollen wall formation, which leads to male sterility in WSLA. Some of the genes identified in this study are candidates for future research, as they could provide important insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying RGMS in WSLA. PMID:26656530

  14. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Recessive Male Sterility (RGMS) in Sterile and Fertile Brassica napus Lines.

    PubMed

    Qu, Cunmin; Fu, Fuyou; Liu, Miao; Zhao, Huiyan; Liu, Chuan; Li, Jiana; Tang, Zhanglin; Xu, Xinfu; Qiu, Xiao; Wang, Rui; Lu, Kun

    2015-01-01

    The recessive genetic male sterility (RGMS) system plays a key role in the production of hybrid varieties in self-pollinating B. napus plants, and prevents negative cytoplasmic effects. However, the complete molecular mechanism of the male sterility during male-gametogenesis in RGMS remains to be determined. To identify transcriptomic changes that occur during the transition to male sterility in RGMS, we examined the male sterile line WSLA and male fertile line WSLB, which are near-isogenic lines (NILs) differing only in the fertility trait. We evaluated the phenotypic features and sterility stage using anatomical analysis. Comparative RNA sequencing analysis revealed that 3,199 genes were differentially expressed between WSLA and WSLB. Many of these genes are mainly involved in biological processes related to flowering, including pollen tube development and growth, pollen wall assembly and modification, and pollen exine formation and pollination. The transcript profiles of 93 genes associated with pollen wall and anther development were determined by quantitative RT-PCR in different flower parts, and classified into the following three major clades: 1) up-regulated in WSLA plants; 2) down-regulated in WSLA plants; and 3) down-regulated in buds, but have a higher expression in stigmas of WSLA than in WSLB. A subset of genes associated with sporopollenin accumulation were all up-regulated in WSLA. An excess of sporopollenin results in defective pollen wall formation, which leads to male sterility in WSLA. Some of the genes identified in this study are candidates for future research, as they could provide important insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying RGMS in WSLA. PMID:26656530

  15. The Population Dynamical Implications of Male-Biased Parasitism in Different Mating Systems

    E-print Network

    White, Andrew

    The Population Dynamical Implications of Male-Biased Parasitism in Different Mating Systems Martin, under both monogamous and polygynous mating systems. If the case mortality is low, then male Dynamical Implications of Male-Biased Parasitism in Different Mating Systems. PLoS ONE 2(7): e624. doi:10

  16. MALE STERILITY (Kaul 1988) A. INFERTILITY VS. INCOMPATIBILITY

    E-print Network

    Bhattacharyya, Madan Kumar

    , but pollen absent or rare due to microsporogenous cell abortion before, during, or after meiosis iii. Functional male sterility: viable pollen form, but barrier prevents fertilization (anther indehiscence that affect fertilization --e.g. extended style, pollen is glued together so can't be released-soybean, peas

  17. Male mate choice, male availability and egg production as limitations on polyandry in the red-necked phalarope

    E-print Network

    for eggs potentially fertilized by a female's previous mate. Ó 2004 The Association for the Study of Animal polyandrous birds, a female's second mate faces a substantial risk of cuckoldry due to rapid mate switching and stored sperm. Secondary males are potentially available to females because males arrive asynchronously

  18. Evaluation of sterility and fertility of male sterile lines in the USPB farm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hybrid rice has proven to have a yield advantage of 15–20% over the best inbred cultivars at the commercial scale worldwide. At present, two methods have been successfully commercialized; the three-line and two-line systems. The three-line system consists of the male sterile (MS), maintainer and res...

  19. Mating advantage for rare males in wild guppy populations.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Kimberly A; Houde, Anne E; Price, Anna C; Rodd, F Helen

    2013-11-01

    To understand the processes that maintain genetic diversity is a long-standing challenge in evolutionary biology, with implications for predicting disease resistance, response to environmental change, and population persistence. Simple population genetic models are not sufficient to explain the high levels of genetic diversity sometimes observed in ecologically important traits. In guppies (Poecilia reticulata), male colour pattern is both diverse and heritable, and is arguably one of the most extreme examples of morphological polymorphism known. Negative frequency-dependent selection (NFDS), a form of selection in which genotypes are favoured when they are rare, can potentially maintain such extensive polymorphism, but few experimental studies have confirmed its operation in nature. Here we use highly replicated experimental manipulations of natural populations to show that males with rare colour patterns have higher reproductive fitness, demonstrating NFDS mediated by sexual selection. Rare males acquired more mates and sired more offspring compared to common males and, as previously reported, had higher rates of survival. Orange colour, implicated in other studies of sexual selection in guppies, did predict male reproductive success, but only in one of three populations. These data support the hypothesis that NFDS maintains diversity in the colour patterns of male guppies through two selective agents, mates and predators. Similar field-based manipulations of genotype frequencies could provide a powerful approach to reveal the underlying ecological and behavioural mechanisms that maintain genetic and phenotypic diversity. PMID:24172904

  20. Genetics and Evolution of Hybrid Male Sterility in House Mice

    PubMed Central

    White, Michael A.; Stubbings, Maria; Dumont, Beth L.; Payseur, Bret A.

    2012-01-01

    Comparative genetic mapping provides insights into the evolution of the reproductive barriers that separate closely related species. This approach has been used to document the accumulation of reproductive incompatibilities over time, but has only been applied to a few taxa. House mice offer a powerful system to reconstruct the evolution of reproductive isolation between multiple subspecies pairs. However, studies of the primary reproductive barrier in house mice—hybrid male sterility—have been restricted to a single subspecies pair: Mus musculus musculus and Mus musculus domesticus. To provide a more complete characterization of reproductive isolation in house mice, we conducted an F2 intercross between wild-derived inbred strains from Mus musculus castaneus and M. m. domesticus. We identified autosomal and X-linked QTL associated with a range of hybrid male sterility phenotypes, including testis weight, sperm density, and sperm morphology. The pseudoautosomal region (PAR) was strongly associated with hybrid sterility phenotypes when heterozygous. We compared QTL found in this cross with QTL identified in a previous F2 intercross between M. m. musculus and M. m. domesticus and found three shared autosomal QTL. Most QTL were not shared, demonstrating that the genetic basis of hybrid male sterility largely differs between these closely related subspecies pairs. These results lay the groundwork for identifying genes responsible for the early stages of speciation in house mice. PMID:22554891

  1. Progress in development of male sterile germplasm for hybrid rice breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Currently, there are two types of male sterility mainly commercialized in hybrid rice production, three-line type or cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) and two-line type or environmental male sterility (EMS). The great majority belongs to the CMS and there are four strategies that have been proven suc...

  2. Male-male competition and large size mating advantage in European earwigs, Forficula auricularia.

    PubMed

    Forslund

    2000-04-01

    European earwigs are sexually dimorphic in forceps shape and length. Male forceps are thought to be weapons in male contests for access to females, but recent findings suggest that females choose males on the basis of their forceps length. I investigated sexual selection on forceps length and body size and the occurrence of male-male competition. When I controlled for forceps length experimentally and statistically, relatively heavy males had greater copulation success than relatively light males. When I controlled for body size, males with relatively longer forceps had no tendency for greater copulation success than males with shorter forceps. Relatively heavy males more often took over copulations from smaller males than vice versa. Male contests were important for the outcome of mate competition, as males commonly interrupted and took over copulations. My results therefore suggest that intrasexual selection is significant in competition for copulations in male earwigs, and acts on body size. This contrasts with previous findings, which have shown intersexual selection on forceps length to be important. However, both modes of sexual selection may be acting through a two-stage process, where male-male competition first determines which males have access to females, and then through female choice among available males. Morphological measurements supported the conclusion that forceps length and body size are male secondary sexual characters, as these characters had large variance and skewed distributions in males, but were normally distributed in females. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:10792930

  3. QTL analysis of fertility restoration in cytoplasmic male sterile pepper.

    PubMed

    Wang, L H; Zhang, B X; Lefebvre, V; Huang, S W; Daubèze, A M; Palloix, A

    2004-09-01

    Fertility restoration of Peterson's cytoplasmic male-sterility in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is quantitative and environment-dependent. QTL analysis of fertility restoration was performed based on the test-cross progeny of 77013A (a strict cytoplasmic-genetic male sterile line) and a doubled haploid population of 114 lines obtained from an F1 hybrid between Yolo wonder (a sterility maintainer line) and Perennial (a fertility-restorer line). The fertility of the test-crossed lines was assessed under greenhouse and open field conditions using three criteria related to pollen or seed production. One major QTL for fertility restoration was mapped to chromosome P6. It was significant in all the environments and for all the traits, accounting for 20-69% of the phenotypic variation, depending on the trait. Four additional minor QTLs were also detected on chromosomes P5, P2, and linkage groups PY3 and PY1, accounting for 7-17% of the phenotypic variation. Most of the alleles increasing fertility originated from the restorer parent, except for two alleles at minor QTLs. Phenotypic analysis and genetic dissection indicated that breeding pepper for complete sterility of female lines and high hybrid fertility requires complex combinations of alleles from both parents and a strict control of the environment. PMID:15173931

  4. Female mating preferences and male coloration covary with water transparency in a Lake Victoria cichlid fish

    E-print Network

    Female mating preferences and male coloration covary with water transparency in a Lake Victoria Pundamilia may be facilitated by sexual selection: female mate choice exerts sexual selection on male nuptial between two populations from locations that differ in water transparency. First, in laboratory mate

  5. Understanding why males and females multiply mate is at the heart of behavioural

    E-print Network

    Neff, Bryan D.

    and plentiful, a female should be able to maximize her reproductive success by mating with only a single male mating systems, males provide only sperm (genes) and no direct benefits, yet females still multiply mate. In these systems, females might benefit indirectly by obtaining good genes or genes that better complement

  6. Do Tetranychus urticae males avoid mating with familiar females?

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, T; Yano, S

    2014-07-01

    The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, usually lives in kin groups under common webs. Because only the first mating results in fertilisation in female T. urticae, adult males guard quiescent deutonymph females, those at the stage immediately before maturation, to ensure paternity. Therefore, the cost of precopulatory guarding time seems considerable for males. Moreover, the fitness indices of daughters from intra-population crosses were significantly lower than those of daughters from inter-population crosses, indicating that inbreeding depression exists in T. urticae. Therefore, we hypothesised that T. urticae males should be choosy in guarding familiar females to avoid inbreeding depression. Furthermore, webs should be a key element of the environment shared by familiar individuals. In this study, we demonstrated the inbreeding avoidance mechanism of T. urticae males in relation to webs produced by familiar females (known webs) or unfamiliar females (unknown webs). Regardless of surrounding webs (known or unknown), males preferred unfamiliar to familiar females. We further examined whether males detect unfamiliar females by their webs. When males had experienced a female's web without encountering that female, they subsequently preferred females that did not produce the surrounding webs in which the choice experiment was conducted. Results suggest that putative kin recognition for inbreeding avoidance in T. urticae males is based on the relationship between webs and females, and not on the discrimination of webs in shared environments. PMID:24737758

  7. Oxytocin mediates the antidepressant effects of mating behavior in male mice.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Hiroaki; Tomizawa, Kazuhito; Okimoto, Naoki; Nishiki, Tei-Ichi; Ohmori, Iori; Matsui, Hideki

    2010-10-01

    A significant association between plasma oxytocin (OT) levels and depression has been demonstrated. A recent study found that sexual activity and mating with a female induced the release of OT in the central nervous system of male rats. Here we examined the effect of mating behavior on depression-related behavior in wild-type (WT) and OT receptor-deficient (OTR KO) male mice. The WT males showed a reduction in depression-related behavior after mating behavior, but the OTR KO mice did not. Application of an OTR antagonist inhibited mating behavior-induced antidepressant effect in WT males. OT may mediate the antidepressant effects of mating behavior. PMID:20600375

  8. Behavior Genetics, Vol. 10, No. 2, 1980 Relative Male Age, Fertility, and Competitive Mating

    E-print Network

    Markow, Therese

    ; mating success; male fertility; male age; female choice experiments. INTRODUCTION Reports of genotype being less fertile than older males of the same strain. We were curious if females, when providedBehavior Genetics, Vol. 10, No. 2, 1980 Relative Male Age, Fertility, and Competitive Mating

  9. Male Deception in Short-Term Mating as a Function of Personality 

    E-print Network

    Fryer, Claire

    2007-01-01

    Deception is one solution which evolved to solve the adaptive problem of obtaining a mate. This study investigated the nature of deception used by males in short-term mating and whether use of this strategy was related ...

  10. Behavioural and life-history regulation in a unisexual/ bisexual mating system: does male mate choice affect

    E-print Network

    Schlupp, Ingo

    choice affect female reproductive life histories? RÜDIGER RIESCH1,2 *, MARTIN PLATH3 , AMBER M. MAKOWICZ1 unisexual females leads to reduced reproductive output in unisexuals, the observed magnitude of differencesBehavioural and life-history regulation in a unisexual/ bisexual mating system: does male mate

  11. Sexual motivation suppresses paternal behaviour of male gerbils during their mates' postpartum oestrus

    E-print Network

    Galef Jr., Bennett G.

    Sexual motivation suppresses paternal behaviour of male gerbils during their mates' postpartum; MS. number: A9425) Adult male Mongolian gerbils, Meriones unguiculatus, avoid contact Mongolian ger- bils, Meriones unguiculatus, are very similar (Elwood 1983), except that male gerbils do

  12. Female Choice or Male Sex Drive? The Advantages of Male Body Size during Mating in Drosophila Melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Jagadeeshan, Santosh; Shah, Ushma; Chakrabarti, Debarti; Singh, Rama S.

    2015-01-01

    The mating success of larger male Drosophila melanogaster in the laboratory and the wild has been traditionally been explained by female choice, even though the reasons are generally hard to reconcile. Female choice can explain this success by virtue of females taking less time to mate with preferred males, but so can the more aggressive or persistent courtships efforts of large males. Since mating is a negotiation between the two sexes, the behaviors of both are likely to interact and influence mating outcomes. Using a series of assays, we explored these negotiations by testing for the relative influence of male behaviors and its effect on influencing female courtship arousal threshold, which is the time taken for females to accept copulation. Our results show that large males indeed have higher copulation success compared to smaller males. Competition between two males or an increasing number of males had no influence on female sexual arousal threshold;—females therefore may have a relatively fixed ‘arousal threshold’ that must be reached before they are ready to mate, and larger males appear to be able to manipulate this threshold sooner. On the other hand, the females’ physiological and behavioral state drastically influences mating; once females have crossed the courtship arousal threshold they take less time to mate and mate indiscriminately with large and small males. Mating quicker with larger males may be misconstrued to be due to female choice; our results suggest that the mating advantage of larger males may be more a result of heightened male activity and relatively less of female choice. Body size per se may not be a trait under selection by female choice, but size likely amplifies male activity and signal outputs in courtship, allowing them to influence female arousal threshold faster. PMID:26658421

  13. Female sticklebacks use male coloration in mate choice and hence avoid parasitized males

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milinski, Manfred; Bakker, Theo C. M.

    1990-03-01

    AN important problem in evolutionary biology since the time of Darwin has been to understand why females preferentially mate with males handicapped by secondary sexual ornaments1-3. One hypothesis of sexual selection theory is that these ornaments reliably reveal the male's condition4-6, which can be affected for example by parasites4,7-13. Here we show that in the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) the intensity of male red breeding coloration positively correlates with physical condition. Gravid females base their active mate choice on the intensity of the male's red coloration. Choice experiments under green light prevent the use of red colour cues by females, and males that were previously preferred are now chosen no more than randomly, although the courtship behaviour of the males remains unchanged. Parasitieation causes a deterioration in the males' condition and a decrease in the intensity of their red coloration. Tests under both lighting conditions reveal that the females recognize the formerly parasitized males by the lower intensity of their breeding coloration. Female sticklebacks possibly select a male with a good capacity for paternal care14 but if there is additive genetic variation for parasite resistance, then they might also select for resistance genes, as proposed by Hamilton and Zuk4.

  14. Prenatal exposure to low doses of atrazine affects mating behaviors in male guppies.

    PubMed

    Shenoy, Kausalya

    2014-07-01

    Performing appropriate mating behaviors is crucial to male reproductive success, especially in species where mating is predominantly via female mate choice. Mating behaviors are hormonally regulated and may be sexually selected traits: courtship displays are selected via mate choice, while forced copulations and aggressive behaviors are selected for via intrasexual competition. Endocrine disrupting compounds interfere with proper hormonal functioning in exposed animals. Exposures during developmentally crucial life stages can have irreversible effects lasting through adulthood. I tested the effects of prenatal exposure to environmentally relevant doses of a commonly used herbicide, atrazine (1 and 13.5?g/L) on mating behaviors in male guppies. Guppies were used as a model organism to test the effects of atrazine exposure on wildlife reproductive health. Adult female guppies were mated and exposed to the treatments throughout the gestation period, and offspring born to them were raised without further treatment. At adulthood, the males were tested for the effects of prenatal exposure on their mating behaviors such as courtship displays, gonopodium swings, forced copulatory attempts, and competitive and aggressive behaviors towards rivals who were not exposed to atrazine. I also tested female preference for treated males compared to control males. Atrazine-exposed males were less likely to perform the mating behaviors, and performed them less frequently, than control males. Atrazine exposure also made males less aggressive towards rivals. Females preferred untreated males over atrazine-treated males. In all cases, a non-monotonic pattern was seen, highlighting the significance of low-dose exposures. PMID:25014197

  15. Effect of day and night temperature on the expression of male sterility of nuclear male-sterile (ms8ms8) soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], an environmentally stable male-sterility system is one of the requirements to produce large quantities of hybrid seed. Observations of the nuclear male-sterile, female-fertile mutant ms8ms8 in different environments suggested that environmental conditions affect...

  16. Anim. Behav., 1998, 55, 16311635 Sex recognition and mate choice by male western toads, Bufo boreas

    E-print Network

    Blaustein, Andrew R.

    Anim. Behav., 1998, 55, 1631­1635 Sex recognition and mate choice by male western toads, Bufo and mate choice in male western toads, Bufo boreas. When given a simultaneous choice between a male & Cohen 1995). Frog and toad advertisement calls may be considered a form of long-range courtship (Rand

  17. Firefly Courtship: Behavioral and Morphological Predictors of Male Mating Success in Photinus greeni

    E-print Network

    Lewis, Sara

    Firefly Courtship: Behavioral and Morphological Predictors of Male Mating Success in Photinus; Lloyd 1997). Photinus fireflies are highly amenable for studies of courtship behavior because both sexes involved in male­male competition or female mate choice. In Photinus fireflies (Coleoptera: Lampyridae

  18. Female Size Influences Mate Preferences of Male Guppies Laura D. Dosen & Robert Montgomerie

    E-print Network

    Montgomerie, Bob

    a promiscuous mating system in which female choice for brightly coloured males plays an important role, more fecund females results in higher reproductive success for the male (Bonduriansky 2001). IndeedFemale Size Influences Mate Preferences of Male Guppies Laura D. Dosen & Robert Montgomerie

  19. Aggressive male mating behavior can endanger species May 16th, 2011 in Biology / Plants & Animals

    E-print Network

    Rankin, Daniel

    Aggressive male mating behavior can endanger species May 16th, 2011 in Biology / Plants & Animals by University of Zurich "Aggressive male mating behavior can endanger species." May 16th, 2011. http://www.physorg.com/news/2011- 05-aggressive-male-behavior-endanger-species.html #12;

  20. Mating with an allopatric male triggers immune response and decreases longevity of ant queens.

    PubMed

    Schrempf, A; von Wyschetzki, K; Klein, A; Schrader, L; Oettler, J; Heinze, J

    2015-07-01

    In species with lifelong pair bonding, the reproductive interests of the mating partners are aligned, and males and females are expected to jointly maximize their reproductive success. Mating increases both longevity and fecundity of female reproductives (queens) of the ant Cardiocondyla obscurior, indicating a tight co-evolution of mating partners. Here, we show that mating with a male from their own population increases lifespan and reproductive success of queens more than mating with a male from a different population, with whom they could not co-evolve. A comparison of transcriptomes revealed an increased expression of genes involved in immunity processes in queens, which mated with males from a different population. Increased immune response might be proximately associated with decreased lifespan. Our study suggests a synergistic co-evolution between the sexes and sheds light on the proximate mechanisms underlying the decreased fitness of allopatrically mated queens. PMID:26059759

  1. Identification of molecular markers linked to a new nuclear male-sterility gene ms7 in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nuclear male sterility (NMS) is an important alternative system to the cytoplasm male sterility (CMS) in hybrid breeding programs because of its stable male sterility and abundant available restorer resources. For sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), NMS 89-552, a nuclear male-sterile mutant induced by...

  2. Male Mating History and Body Size Influence Female Fecundity and Longevity of the Dengue Vector Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Helinski, Michelle E.H.; Harrington, Laura C.

    2014-01-01

    Male reproductive success is dependent on insemination success and reproductive output. During mating, male mosquitoes transfer not just sperm, but also seminal fluid proteins that may have profound effects on mated female biology and behavior. In this study, we investigated the role of male body size and mating history on semen depletion, female longevity and reproductive success in Aedes aegypti L. Small and large males were mated in rapid succession with up to five females. Our results indicate that large males had greater mating capacity than small males. A reduction in fecundity by more than 50% was observed in females that were fourth to mate with small males in comparison to females that mated earlier in sequence. For females mated to large males, this reduction became evident for females that mated fifth in sequence. No loss of fertility (measured as hatch rate) was observed in females that were 3rd-5th in mating sequence compared to females mated to virgin males. When females were maintained on a low-quality (5% sucrose) diet, those mated to virgin males had a greater longevity compared to females mated third in sequence. We conclude that small males experience more rapid seminal depletion than large males, and discuss the role of semen depletion in the mated female. Our results contribute towards a better understanding of the complexity of Ae. aegypti mating biology and provide refined estimates of mating capacity for genetic control efforts. PMID:21485355

  3. The effects of perceived mating opportunities on patterns of reproductive investment by male guppies.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Luke T; Evans, Jonathan P; Gasparini, Clelia

    2014-01-01

    Males pay considerable reproductive costs in acquiring mates (precopulatory sexual selection) and in producing ejaculates that are effective at fertilising eggs in the presence of competing ejaculates (postcopulatory sexual selection). Given these costs, males must balance their reproductive investment in a given mating to optimise their future reproductive potential. Males are therefore expected to invest in reproduction prudently according to the likelihood of obtaining future matings. In this study we tested this prediction by determining whether male reproductive investment varies with expected future mating opportunities, which were experimentally manipulated by visually exposing male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) to high or low numbers of females in the absence of competing males. Our experiment did not reveal consistent effects of perceived future mating opportunity on either precopulatory (male mate choice and mating behaviour) or postcopulatory (sperm quality and quantity) investment. However, we did find that male size and female availability interacted to influence mating behaviour; large males visually deprived of females during the treatment phase became more choosy and showed greater interest in their preferred female than those given continuous visual access to females. Overall, our results suggest males tailor pre- rather than postcopulatory traits according to local female availability, but critically, these effects depend on male size. PMID:24705713

  4. Male fish use prior knowledge about rivals to adjust their mate choice.

    PubMed

    Bierbach, David; Girndt, Antje; Hamfler, Sybille; Klein, Moritz; Mücksch, Frauke; Penshorn, Marina; Schwinn, Michael; Zimmer, Claudia; Schlupp, Ingo; Streit, Bruno; Plath, Martin

    2011-06-23

    Mate choice as one element of sexual selection can be sensitive to public information from neighbouring individuals. Here, we demonstrate that males of the livebearing fish Poecilia mexicana gather complex social information when given a chance to familiarize themselves with rivals prior to mate choice. Focal males ceased to show mating preferences when being observed by a rival (which prevents rivals from copying mating decisions), but this effect was only seen when focal males have perceived rivals as sexually active. In addition, focal males that were observed by a familiar, sexually active rival showed a stronger behavioural response when rivals were larger and thus, more attractive to females. Our study illustrates an unparalleled adjustment in the expression of mating preferences based on social cues, and suggests that male fish are able to remember and strategically exploit information about rivals when performing mate choice. PMID:21208944

  5. Author's personal copy Teneral matings in fruit flies: male coercion and female response

    E-print Network

    Dukas, Reuven

    Author's personal copy Teneral matings in fruit flies: male coercion and female response Corrine: Drosophila melanogaster forced copulation fruit fly mate choice sexual conflict sexual selection Extensive research indicates that sexually mature female fruit flies typically choose with whom to mate, a process

  6. Hormonal contraceptive use and mate retention behavior in women and their male partners

    E-print Network

    Little, Tony

    Hormonal contraceptive use and mate retention behavior in women and their male partners Lisa L Available online 18 November 2011 Keywords: Mate retention behavior MRI-SF Hormonal contraception Mate guarding Hormones Estradiol Female hormonal contraceptive use has been associated with a variety

  7. All Male Strains and Chemical Stimulants: Two Ways to Boost Sterile Males in SIT Programs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic and chemical means have been developed to significantly improve the effectiveness of the sterile insect technique against tephritid fruit flies in recent years. Beginning with the development of genetic sexing techniques some 25 years ago, all-male strains of several species of fruit flies h...

  8. Male-male sexual behavior in Japanese quail: being "on top" reduces mating and fertilization with females.

    PubMed

    Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth

    2014-10-01

    Male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) engage in vigorous same-sex sexual interactions that have been interpreted as aggressive behavior reflecting dominance relationships. The consequences of this behavior for reproductive success, and whether it is a form of competition over mating and fertilization, are unclear. Three experiments were conducted to determine the effect of seeing or interacting with another male on a male's subsequent mating and fertilization success with females. A vigorous interaction with another male in which the subject performed more cloacal contact movements (movements to try to make contact with the other bird's cloacal opening) reduced subsequent mating and fertilization success with a female to a similar extent as a prior mating with a different female. Receiving one or more cloacal contacts from another male was less detrimental for subsequent success. The mere presence of another (stimulus) male delayed mating initiation in those male subjects that approached the stimulus first instead of the female. These results do not support the idea that the male "on top" in male-male sexual interactions is the dominant bird who goes on to achieve greater reproductive success. Instead, the results are consistent with male-male sexual behavior as an occasionally costly by-product of strong mating motivation. PMID:25264235

  9. Genetic studies on cytoplasmic male sterility in maize

    SciTech Connect

    Laughnan, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    Our research concerns the basic mechanisms of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) and fertility restoration in maize. The molecular determination of CMS is in the DNA of the mitochondria (mtDNA) but specific nuclear restorer-of-fertility (Rf) genes can overrule the male-sterile effect of the cytoplasm. Our approach to the study of the Rf genes is threefold. We are attempting to tag the cms-S Rf genes and the cms-T Rf2 gene with controlling elements (CEs). Since we have identified a number of spontaneous Rf genes for cms-S and have demonstrated that they are themselves transposable, we are also searching for cases in which an Rf gene is inserted into a wild-type gene. The other aspect of our research involves the nuclear control over the organization of the mitochondrial genome. We found that the changes in mtDNA organization upon cytoplasmic reversion to fertility were characteristic of the nuclear background in which the reversion event occurred. We have investigated whether these differences are a reflection of differences in the organization of the mtDNA genome before reversion.

  10. Female mate choice and male red coloration in a natural three-spined

    E-print Network

    -spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.) show a mating preference for intensely red-colored males. We verified advantage of using the three- spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.) as an experimental animalFemale mate choice and male red coloration in a natural three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus

  11. How to go extinct by mating too much: population consequences of male mate choice and efficiency in a sexualasexual species complex

    E-print Network

    Rankin, Daniel

    and asexual females and the system collapses. Male mate choice could reduce the reproductive potentialHow to go extinct by mating too much: population consequences of male mate choice and efficiency individual and population level benefits are scarce. One such conflict occurs over sexual reproduction

  12. Adult female hamsters require long and sustained exposures to heterospecific males to avoid interspecific mating.

    PubMed

    Delbarco-Trillo, Javier; Johnston, Robert E

    2011-03-01

    Interspecific mating normally decreases female fitness. In many species, females avoid heterospecific males innately or by imprinting on their parents. Alternatively, adult females could learn to discriminate against heterospecific males after exposure to such males. For example, Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) females learn to discriminate between conspecific males and Turkish hamster (M. brandti) males during adulthood by exposure to males of both species. Adult females not previously exposed to Turkish hamster males will mate similarly with conspecific and heterospecific males. However, in a previous study we showed that exposure to a heterospecific male and a conspecific male for 8 days led to mating avoidance and aggression towards the heterospecific male. Here we conducted two experiments to investigate how much exposure to the heterospecific male was required for females to avoid mating with the heterospecific male (Experiment 1) and how long that avoidance lasted in the absence of continuous exposure to heterospecific stimuli (Experiment 2). Fast and durable learning would indicate the evolution of an efficient avoidance response. In Experiment 1, females were exposed to a heterospecific male for 1, 4 h, 4 or 8 days and then paired with that male. We found more avoidance of interspecific mating after 4 or 8 days of exposure than after 1 or 4 h of exposure. In Experiment 2, females were exposed to a heterospecific male for 8 days and then paired with that male either 10 min later or 8 days later. We found that after an 8-day delay females were highly sexually receptive to the heterospecific male. Additionally, a comparison between the current experiments and a previous study indicates that female Syrian hamsters do not require concurrent exposure to a conspecific male and a heterospecific male to learn to avoid interspecific mating; exposure to a heterospecific male is sufficient. PMID:21572573

  13. Females prefer carotenoid colored males as mates in the pentamorphic livebearing fish, Poecilia parae.

    PubMed

    Bourne, Godfrey R; Breden, Felix; Allen, Teresa C

    2003-09-01

    The first results of female preference and chosen male mating success in a new model organism, the pentamorphic livebearing fish, Poecilia parae, are presented. Poecilia parae is a relative of the guppy, P. reticulata, and is assumed to have similar reproductive behavior. We tested the hypothesis that P. parae females, like female guppies, prefer carotenoid colored males as mates. Here we show that the time a female spent with males was significantly greater for carotenoid coloration in red and yellow melanzona, but time with these two morphs did not differ. The preferred red and yellow males mated significantly more often with their choosing females than did the non-preferred blue and parae males. The few blue melanzona and parae males that mated did so without performing courtship displays. Some females mated with all phenotypes including immaculata males during open group trials. Female P. parae clearly preferred males with carotenoid coloration, thereby corroborating the hypothesis. Alternative male mating tactics by blue melanzona, parae, and immaculata morphs and promiscuous mating by females also resembled features of reproductive behaviors exhibited by guppies. PMID:14504782

  14. Mothers matter! Maternal support, dominance status and mating success in male bonobos (Pan paniscus)

    PubMed Central

    Surbeck, Martin; Mundry, Roger; Hohmann, Gottfried

    2011-01-01

    Variation in male mating success is often related to rank differences. Males who are unable to monopolize oestrous females alone may engage in coalitions, thus enhancing their mating success. While studies on chimpanzees and dolphins suggest that coalitions are independent of kinship, information from female philopatric species shows the importance of kin support, especially from mothers, on the reproductive success of females. Therefore, one might expect a similar effect on sons in male philopatric species. We evaluate mating success determinants in male bonobos using data from nine male individuals from a wild population. Results reveal a steep, linear male dominance hierarchy and a positive correlation between dominance status and mating success. In addition to rank, the presence of mothers enhances the mating success of sons and reduces the proportion of matings by the highest ranking male. Mothers and sons have high association rates and mothers provide agonistic aid to sons in conflicts with other males. As bonobos are male-philopatric and adult females occupy high dominance status, maternal support extends into adulthood and females have the leverage to intervene in male conflicts. The absence of female support to unrelated males suggests that mothers gain indirect fitness benefits by supporting their sons. PMID:20810444

  15. Or47b-neurons promote male-mating success in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Lone, Shahnaz Rahman; Venkataraman, Archana; Srivastava, Manishi; Potdar, Sheetal; Sharma, Vijay Kumar

    2015-05-01

    Drosophila performs elaborate well-defined rituals of courtship, which involve several types of sensory inputs. Here, we report that Or47b-neurons promote male-mating success. Males with Or47b-neurons silenced/ablated exhibit reduced copulation frequency and increased copulation latency. Copulation latency of Or47b-manipulated flies increased proportionately with size of the assay arena, whereas in controls it remained unchanged. While competing for mates, Or47b-ablated males are outperformed by intact controls. These results suggest the role of Or47b-neurons in promoting male-mating success. PMID:26018835

  16. Sterilizing effects of cobalt-60 and cesium-137 radiation on male sea lampreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanson, L.H.

    1990-01-01

    Male spawning-run sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus were exposed to various doses of cobalt-60 or cesium-137 radiation in an attempt to sterilize them for use in a program for controlling sea lampreys through the release of sterile males. Males captured and irradiated during the early part of the upstream migration were not effectively sterilized at the doses tested. After irradiation, the sea lampreys were more susceptible to fungal infections by Saprolegnia sp., and many died without attempting to spawn. Males captured and irradiated during the middle and late parts of the spawning migration were effectively sterilized at a dose of 2,000 rads. However, some radiation-induced mortality was observed in males captured and irradiated during the middle part of the spawning migration. Radiation is not as effective as the chemosterilant bisazir for sterilizing male sea lampreys.

  17. Hybridization using cytoplasmic male sterility and herbicide tolerance from nuclear genes

    SciTech Connect

    Beversdorf, W.D.; Erickson, L.R.; Grant, I.

    1987-04-14

    An improved process is described for producing a substantially homogeneous population of plants of a predetermined hybrid variety of a crop which is capable of undergoing both self-pollination and cross-pollination. This process comprises: growing in a first planting area a substantially random population of cytoplasmic male sterile plants which exhibit tolerance to at least one herbicide attributable solely to homozygous dominant nuclear genes, and male fertile plants which are capable of pollinating the cytoplasmic male sterile plants and which lack the herbicide tolerance because the presence of homozygous recessive nuclear genes for such trait. The cytoplasmic male sterile plants and the male fertile plants are pollinated with pollen derived from the male fertile plants. Seed is formed on the cytoplasmic male sterile plants and on the male fertile plants. Harvesting in bulk the seed is formed on the plants of the first planting area.

  18. Diverse germplasm to devleop male-sterile lines for hybrid breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hybrid rice breeding in the US has depended largely upon male-sterile lines originating in China or from other Asian sources. By contrast, the program in Arkansas has developed all of its male-sterile lines at Stuttgart,AR using germplasm accessions available in the USDA Rice Germplasm Collection st...

  19. DNA methylation affected by male sterile cytoplasm in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Male sterile cytoplasm plays an important role in hybrid rice and cytoplasmic effects are sufficiently documented. However, no reports are available on DNA methylation affected by male sterile cytoplasm in hybrid rice. We used a methylation sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) technique to charac...

  20. Early events in speciation: Polymorphism for hybrid male sterility in Drosophila

    E-print Network

    Markow, Therese

    Early events in speciation: Polymorphism for hybrid male sterility in Drosophila Laura K. Reed of hybrid male sterility in crosses between Drosophila mojavensis and its sister species, Drosophila variation in the Drosophila melanogaster species group. Mutations that rescue inviable hybrids have been

  1. MOLECULAR MAPPING OF MALE-STERILITY LOCI MS2, AND MS9 IN SOYBEAN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Identifying molecular and/or phenotypic markers linked to male-sterile, female-fertile genes on the soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] molecular map would facilitate early identification of male-sterile plants in breeding. The objective was to verify the chromosome location of the ms2 (Beeson) mutatio...

  2. Methoprene treatment reduces the pre-copulatory period in Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) sterile males

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anastrepha fraterculus is a major fruit pest in South America. Ongoing studies encourage the implementation of the sterile insect technique (SIT) against this pest. Sexual readiness of sterile males is a key point for SIT. The time required for A. fraterculus males to become sexually mature is unkn...

  3. Consequences of snowy winters on male mating strategies and reproduction in a mountain ungulate.

    PubMed

    Apollonio, Marco; Brivio, Francesca; Rossi, Iva; Bassano, Bruno; Grignolio, Stefano

    2013-09-01

    Alternative mating tactics (AMTs) are intrasexual variants in mating behaviour of several species ranging from arthropods to mammals. Male AMTs coexist between and within populations. In particular, male ungulates rarely adopt just one tactic throughout their lifetime. Tactics commonly change according to internal factors (age, body size, condition) and external conditions (weather, resources, predation, animal density). However, the influence of weather has not yet been investigated in upper vertebrates. Such influence may be relevant in species whose rutting period occurs late in fall or in winter, when environmental conditions and the snow cover in particular may vary considerably. We detected two AMTs in Alpine ibex (Capra ibex) males: older and full-grown males mainly adopted the tending tactic, while younger males usually pursued an alternative one (coursing tactic). Weather was found to influence the use of AMTs by males: in snowy mating seasons, the coursing tactic was no longer used due to difficulties in moving through deep snow. In snowy rutting periods, males appeared to delay or even avoid mating activities and a decrease of births was reported in the second part of the following birth season. Snow cover may have a negative effect on population dynamics by reducing the recruitment and on population genetic variability, as a consequence of poorer mating opportunities. Studies on factors affecting mating behaviour and leading to a reduced availability of mates and a decrease in female productivity are especially relevant in species, like Alpine ibex, whose genetic variability is low. PMID:23669063

  4. Mating Experience and Food Deprivation Modulate Odor Preference and Dispersal in Drosophila melanogaster Males

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shu-Ping; Guo, Wei-Yan; Muhammad, Shahid Arain; Chen, Rui-Rui; Mu, Li-Li; Li, Guo-Qing

    2014-01-01

    Rotting fruits offer all of the known resources required for the livelihood of Drosophila melanogaster Meigen (Diptera: Drosophilidae). During fruit fermentation, carbohydrates and proteins are decomposed to produce volatile alcohols and amines, respectively. It is hypothesized that D. melanogaster adults can detect these chemical cues at a distance to identify and locate the decaying fruits. In the present paper, we compared the olfactory responses and movement of male flies varying in mating status and nutritional state to methanol, ethanol, and ammonia sources using a glass Y-tube olfactometer. In general, ethanol vapor at low to moderate concentrations repelled more hungry mated males than satiated ones. In contrast, methanol showed little difference in the attractiveness to males at different nutritional states and mating status. Moreover, ammonia attracted more hungry mated males. The attractiveness increased almost linearly with ammonia concentration from lowest to highest. When ammonia and artificial diet were put together in the odor arm, the responses of male flies to mixed odor mimicked the response to ammonia. Furthermore, odorant concentration, mating status, and nutritional state affected the flies' dispersal. Mated and starved males dispersed at a higher rate than virgin and satiated ones. Thus, our results showed that starved, mated males increased dispersal and preferred ammonia that originated from protein. PMID:25368075

  5. Male mating costs in a polygynous mosquito with ornaments expressed in both sexes

    PubMed Central

    South, Sandra H.; Steiner, Dianna; Arnqvist, Göran

    2009-01-01

    Male mate choice in species with conventional sex roles is difficult to explain and has, therefore, been the focus of many recent theoretical models. These models have focused on variance in female quality and, to a lesser extent, male investments/costs associated with mating. In this study, we investigate the costs of courtship and copulation in the polygynous mosquito Sabethes cyaneus. In this species, both males and females possess elaborate ornaments. Previous studies suggest that the most likely explanation for the presence of these ornaments is mutual mate choice. Thus, this system provides an excellent model for exploring the evolution of mutual mate choice in polygynous species. We disentangle the costs of courtship and copulation by monitoring male survival in three groups of males: housed alone (group 1); able only to court females (group 2); or able to court and copulate with females (group 3). We show that males incur a cost of courtship and copulation and that courtship intensity is negatively related to male longevity. Our results suggest that courtship and copulation carry additive costs to males. We discuss the implications of these results in the context of current mutual mate choice theory and suggest that courtship costs may be an unappreciated key factor in the evolution of male mate choice. PMID:19640881

  6. Male sterility and pollen fertility restoration in triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack).

    PubMed

    Warzecha, Roman; Salak-Warzecha, Krystuna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study, performed in the years of 2002-20012, was to derive male sterile lines in winter triticale. The study confirmed previous findings, that a very limited genetic pool for maintenance of male sterility in CMS-Triticum timopheevi is available in genotypes of triticale. Among 1250 tested pollen parents, only 86 (6.9%) acted as complete maintainers, while 334 (26.7%) maintained male sterility partially. On the basis of male sterile plants selected out of complete and segregating progeny, 463 completely male sterile BC2 lines and sub-lines were produced. 830, (66.4%), pollen parents restored completely or partially pollen fertility of F1 hybrids. PMID:26072573

  7. Improving mating performance of mass-reared sterile Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) through changes in adult holding conditions: demography and mating competitiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Liedo, P.; Salgado, S.; Oropeza, A.; Toledo, J.

    2007-03-15

    Mass rearing conditions affect the mating behavior of Mediterranean fruit flies (medflies) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). We evaluated the effect of slight changes in the adult holding conditions of adult flies maintained for egg production on their mating performance. Colonization was initiated from wild flies collected as larvae from infested coffee berries (Coffea arabica L.). When pupae were close to adult emergence, they were randomly divided into 3 groups and the emerging adults were reared under the following conditions: (1) Metapa System (MS, control), consisting of 70 x 45 x 15 cm aluminum frame, mesh covered cages, with a density of 2,200 flies per cage and a 1:1 initial sex ratio; (2) Insert System (IS), with the same type of cage, and the same fly density and sex ratio as in the MS treatment, but containing twelve Plexiglas pieces (23 x 8.5 cm) to provide additional horizontal surface areas inside the cage; and (3) Sex-ratio System (SS), same as IS, but in this case the initial male: female ratio was 4:1. Three d later, newly emerged females were introduced, so the ratio became 3:1 and on the 6th d another group of newly emerged females was added to provide a 2:1 final sex ratio, at which the final density reached 1,675 flies per cage. The eggs collected from each of the 3 treatments were reared independently following standard procedures and the adults were held under the same experimental conditions. This process was repeated for over 10 to 13 generations (1 year). The experiment was repeated 3 times in 3 consecutive years, starting each replicate with a new collection of wild flies. Life tables were constructed for each treatment at the parental, 3rd, 6th, and 9th generations. Standard quality control parameters (pupation at 24 h, pupal weight, adult emergence, and flight ability), were estimated for each treatment every third generation in the third year. For the last generation each year, mating competitiveness was evaluated in field cage tests with wild flies. As colonization progressed, life expectancy and fecundity rates increased in the 3 rearing systems. There was no significant difference in standard quality control parameters among the 3 rearing systems. Wild males always achieved more matings than any of the mass reared males. Mating competitiveness of males from the IS, although surprisingly not from the SS, was significantly greater than that of males from the MS. Our results indicate that these slight changes in the adult holding conditions can significantly reduce the harmful effects of mass rearing on the mating performance of sterile flies. (author) [Spanish] Se ha demostrado que las condiciones de cria masiva afectan el comportamiento de apareamiento de la mosca del Mediterraneo Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Nosotros evaluamos el efecto de ligeros cambios en las condiciones en las que los adultos son mantenidos para la produccion de huevos, en el desempeno de apareamiento de las moscas esteriles. La colonizacion se inicio con moscas silvestres colectadas como larvas en cerezas de cafe (Coffea arabica L.) infestadas. Cuando las pupas estuvieron cerca de la emergencia de los adultos, se dividieron en tres grupos al azar y los adultos recien emergidos fueron criados en las siguientes condiciones: (1) Sistema Metapa (MS, testigo), consistente en jaulas con marco de aluminio de 70 x 45 x 15 cm, cubiertas con malla, con una densidad de 2,200 moscas por jaula y una relacion de sexos inicial de 1:1; (2); Sistema Insertos (IS), con el mismo tipo de jaula, densidad de moscas, y relacion de sexos que en el MS, pero conteniendo 12 piezas de plexiglas (23 x 8.5 cm) para proporcionar superficie horizontal al interior de la jaula; y (3) Sistema de Relacion de Sexos (SS), igual que el IS, pero en este caso la relacion inicial macho: hembra fue de 4:1, tres dias despues se introdujeron hembras recien emergidas para tener una relacion de 3:1 y en el 6 dia se anadio otro grupo de hembras para tener una relacion final de sexos de 2:1, que equivale a una densidad final de 1,675 moscas por jaula. Los huevos

  8. Conspicuous female ornamentation and tests of male mate preference in threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus).

    PubMed

    Wright, Daniel Shane; Pierotti, Michele E R; Rundle, Howard D; McKinnon, Jeffrey S

    2015-01-01

    Sexual selection drives the evolution of exaggerated male ornaments in many animal species. Female ornamentation is now acknowledged also to be common but is generally less well understood. One example is the recently documented red female throat coloration in some threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) populations. Although female sticklebacks often exhibit a preference for red male throat coloration, the possibility of sexual selection on female coloration has been little studied. Using sequential and simultaneous mate choice trials, we examined male mate preferences for female throat color, as well as pelvic spine color and standard length, using wild-captured threespine sticklebacks from the Little Campbell River, British Columbia. In a multivariate analysis, we found no evidence for a population-level mate preference in males, suggesting the absence of directional sexual selection on these traits arising from male mate choice. Significant variation was detected among males in their preference functions, but this appeared to arise from differences in their mean responsiveness across mating trials and not from variation in the strength (i.e., slope) of their preference, suggesting the absence of individual-level preferences as well. When presented with conspecific intruder males, male response decreased as intruder red throat coloration increased, suggesting that males can discriminate color and other aspects of phenotype in our experiment and that males may use these traits in intrasexual interactions. The results presented here are the first to explicitly address male preference for female throat color in threespine sticklebacks. PMID:25806520

  9. Conspicuous Female Ornamentation and Tests of Male Mate Preference in Threespine Sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus)

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Daniel Shane; Pierotti, Michele E. R.; Rundle, Howard D.; McKinnon, Jeffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    Sexual selection drives the evolution of exaggerated male ornaments in many animal species. Female ornamentation is now acknowledged also to be common but is generally less well understood. One example is the recently documented red female throat coloration in some threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) populations. Although female sticklebacks often exhibit a preference for red male throat coloration, the possibility of sexual selection on female coloration has been little studied. Using sequential and simultaneous mate choice trials, we examined male mate preferences for female throat color, as well as pelvic spine color and standard length, using wild-captured threespine sticklebacks from the Little Campbell River, British Columbia. In a multivariate analysis, we found no evidence for a population-level mate preference in males, suggesting the absence of directional sexual selection on these traits arising from male mate choice. Significant variation was detected among males in their preference functions, but this appeared to arise from differences in their mean responsiveness across mating trials and not from variation in the strength (i.e., slope) of their preference, suggesting the absence of individual-level preferences as well. When presented with conspecific intruder males, male response decreased as intruder red throat coloration increased, suggesting that males can discriminate color and other aspects of phenotype in our experiment and that males may use these traits in intrasexual interactions. The results presented here are the first to explicitly address male preference for female throat color in threespine sticklebacks. PMID:25806520

  10. When not to copy: female fruit flies use sophisticated public information to avoid mated males

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loyau, Adeline; Blanchet, Simon; van Laere, Pauline; Clobert, Jean; Danchin, Etienne

    2012-10-01

    Semen limitation (lack of semen to fertilize all of a female's eggs) imposes high fitness costs to female partners. Females should therefore avoid mating with semen-limited males. This can be achieved by using public information extracted from watching individual males' previous copulating activities. This adaptive preference should be flexible given that semen limitation is temporary. We first demonstrate that the number of offspring produced by males Drosophila melanogaster gradually decreases over successive copulations. We then show that females avoid mating with males they just watched copulating and that visual public cues are sufficient to elicit this response. Finally, after males were given the time to replenish their sperm reserves, females did not avoid the males they previously saw copulating anymore. These results suggest that female fruit flies may have evolved sophisticated behavioural processes of resistance to semen-limited males, and demonstrate unsuspected adaptive context-dependent mate choice in an invertebrate.

  11. [Inheritance of reversions to male fertility in male-sterile sorghum hybrids with 9E cytoplasm male sterility induced by environmental conditions].

    PubMed

    Elkonin, L A; Gerashchenkov, G A; Domanina, I V; Rozhnova, N A

    2015-03-01

    Heritable phenotypic alterations occurring during plant ontogenesis under the influence of environmental factors are among the most intriguing genetic phenomena. It was found that male-sterile sorghum hybrids in the 9E cytoplasm from the F1 and F2 generations, which were obtained by crossing CMS lines with different fertile lines grown in field conditions, were transferred to greenhouse produce fertile tillers. Lines created by the self-pollination of revertant tillers exhibit complete male fertility upon cultivation under various environments (in the field, Tdry plot,(y) Tirrigated plot(y)). In a number of test-crosses of revertants to CMS lines in the 9E cytoplasm, restoration of male fertility in F1 hybrids was found, indicating that revertants possess functional fertility-restoring genes. A high positive correlation was found between the fertility level of the test-cross hybrids and the hydrothermal coefficient (the ratio of the sum of precipitation to the sum of temperatures) during the booting stage and pollen maturation (r = 0.75...0.91; P<0.01), suggesting that a high level of plant water availability is needed for the expression of fertility-restoring genes of revertants. These data show that the fertility-restoring genes for the 9E cytoplasm are dominant in conditions of high water availability and recessive in drought conditions; reversions to male fertility are due to up-regulation of fertility-restoring genes by a high level of water availability. Comparative MSAP-analysis of DNA of male-sterile and male-fertile test-cross hybrids using HpaII/MspI restrictases and primers to polygalacturonase gene ADPG2, which is required for cell separation during reproductive development, and gene MYB46, the transcription factor regulating secondary wall biosynthesis, revealed differences in the number and the length of amplified fragments. Changes in the methylation of these genes in conditions of drought stress are apparently the reason for male sterility of sorghum hybrids in the 9E cytoplasm. These data demonstrate that methylation of nuclear genes in sterility-inducing cytoplasm may be one of mechanisms causing the CMS phenomenon. PMID:26027370

  12. Mate Guarding in Male Dall's Porpoises (Phocoenoides dalli) Pamela M. Willis & Lawrence M. Dill

    E-print Network

    Dill, Lawrence M.

    , Canada Introduction Opportunities for sperm competition arise whenever fertile females mate with multiple (Birkhead & Møller 1998). Mate guarding, where a male closely attends a female over her fertile period of paternity, by increas- ing sperm delivery to females and/or preventing potential rivals from copulating

  13. Author's personal copy Learning about prospective mates in male fruit flies: effects of acceptance and

    E-print Network

    Dukas, Reuven

    Author's personal copy Learning about prospective mates in male fruit flies: effects of acceptance MS. number: A12-00438R Keywords: Drosophila melanogaster fruit fly learning mate choice sexual behaviour Neurogenetic research in fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) has established numerous protocols

  14. Female mating preferences for colourful males in a population of guppies subject to high predation

    E-print Network

    Pilastro, Andrea

    Female mating preferences for colourful males in a population of guppies subject to high predation Poecilia reticulata descended from the Tacarigua population in Trinidad subject to high predation exhibited Society of the British Isles Key words: colouration; guppy; mate choice; Poecilia reticulata; predator

  15. Mating success of resident versus non-resident males in a territorial butterfly

    E-print Network

    Gotthard, Karl

    Mating success of resident versus non-resident males in a territorial butterfly Martin Bergman1 suggests that winning is associated with considerable benefits. In the speckled wood butterfly, Pararge locating behaviour; female choice; mate choice; butterfly vision 1. INTRODUCTION As with many flying

  16. Species-isolating mechanisms in a mating system with male mate choice (garter snakes,

    E-print Network

    Mason, Robert T.

    of the sympatric range may depend on the timing of mating (early spring, near the hibernation den). Differences between the species in hibernation-site selection and the timing of spring emergence break down in central hibernation (and thus, mating) sites, and the short warm season reduces temporal separation in emergence (and

  17. Molecular mapping of a new induced gene for nuclear male sterility in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new NMS line, NMS HA89-872, induced by mitomycin C and streptomycin carries a single recessive male-sterile gene ms6. An F2 population of 88 plants was obtained from a cross between nuclear male-sterile mutant NMS HA89-872 (msms) and male-fertile line RHA271 (MsMs). 225 SSR primers and 9 RFLP-deri...

  18. A CHARACTER DEMONSTRATING THE OCCURRENCE OF MATING IN MALE CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM (LEPIDOPTERA: PYRALIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The reproductive system of adult male Cactoblastis cactorum, the cactus moth, was examined to determine whether the mating status of males could be ascertained. In unmated males, the posterior portion of the primary ductus ejaculatorius simplex is opaque yellow in color and contains many small footb...

  19. Mechanisms of Mating-Behavior Deterioration in Early Aging Male C. elegans 

    E-print Network

    Guo, Xiaoyan

    2014-08-06

    of male mating deterioration in males containing a deletion in the metabolism-regulator sir-2.1. sir-2.1 encodes a NAD^(+) dependent histone deacetylase, which might be involved in regulating aging. I discovered that sir-2.1(0) males have a premature...

  20. Anim. Behav., 1996, 51, 12691277 Mate guarding constrains foraging activity of male baboons

    E-print Network

    Alberts, Susan C

    Anim. Behav., 1996, 51, 1269­1277 Mate guarding constrains foraging activity of male baboons SUSAN consortships, individual travel distance and duration of feeding bouts, for wild male baboons, Papio of species that live in multi-male, multi-female groups, including savannah baboons (Hall & DeVore 1965

  1. Mating, Longevity, and Fecundity in Northern Corn Rootworm in Relation to Male and Female Size

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Male insects often compete over access to female ova. In combat larger males usually have a competitive edge over smaller males. However, female insects may discriminate against potential mates based on body size. This discrimination can occur during courtship, copulation, or post-copulation. Here, ...

  2. Genetic determination of male sterility in gynodioecious Silene nutans

    PubMed Central

    Garraud, C; Brachi, B; Dufay, M; Touzet, P; Shykoff, J A

    2011-01-01

    Gynodioecy, the coexistence of female and hermaphrodite plants within a species, is often under nuclear–cytoplasmic sex determination, involving cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) genes and nuclear restorers. A good knowledge of CMS and restorer polymorphism is essential for understanding the evolution and maintenance of gynodioecy, but reciprocal crossing studies remain scarce. Although mitochondrial diversity has been studied in a few gynodioecious species, the relationship between mitotype diversity and CMS status is poorly known. From a French sample of Silene nutans, a gynodioecious species whose sex determination remains unknown, we chose the four most divergent mitotypes that we had sampled at the cytochrome b gene and tested by reciprocal crosses whether they carry distinct CMS genes. We show that gynodioecy in S. nutans is under nuclear–cytoplasmic control, with at least two different CMSs and up to four restorers with epistatic interactions. Female occurrence and frequency were highly dependent on the mitotype, suggesting that the level of restoration varies greatly among CMSs. Two of the mitotypes, which have broad geographic distributions, represent different CMSs and are very unequally restored. We discuss the dynamics of gynodioecy at the large-scale meta-population level. PMID:20808324

  3. Female mate preferences for male body size and shape promote sexual isolation in threespine sticklebacks

    PubMed Central

    Head, Megan L; Kozak, Genevieve M; Boughman, Janette W

    2013-01-01

    Female mate preferences for ecologically relevant traits may enhance natural selection, leading to rapid divergence. They may also forge a link between mate choice within species and sexual isolation between species. Here, we examine female mate preference for two ecologically important traits: body size and body shape. We measured female preferences within and between species of benthic, limnetic, and anadromous threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus species complex). We found that mate preferences differed between species and between contexts (i.e., within vs. between species). Within species, anadromous females preferred males that were deep bodied for their size, benthic females preferred larger males (as measured by centroid size), and limnetic females preferred males that were more limnetic shaped. In heterospecific mating trials between benthics and limnetics, limnetic females continued to prefer males that were more limnetic like in shape when presented with benthic males. Benthic females showed no preferences for size when presented with limnetic males. These results show that females use ecologically relevant traits to select mates in all three species and that female preference has diverged between species. These results suggest that sexual selection may act in concert with natural selection on stickleback size and shape. Further, our results suggest that female preferences may track adaptation to local environments and contribute to sexual isolation between benthic and limnetic sticklebacks. PMID:23919161

  4. Incestuous Sisters: Mate Preference for Brothers over Unrelated Males in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Loyau, Adeline; Cornuau, Jérémie H.; Clobert, Jean; Danchin, Étienne

    2012-01-01

    The literature is full of examples of inbreeding avoidance, while recent mathematical models predict that inbreeding tolerance or even inbreeding preference should be expected under several realistic conditions like e.g. polygyny. We investigated male and female mate preferences with respect to relatedness in the fruit fly D. melanogaster. Experiments offered the choice between a first order relative (full-sibling or parent) and an unrelated individual with the same age and mating history. We found that females significantly preferred mating with their brothers, thus supporting inbreeding preference. Moreover, females did not avoid mating with their fathers, and males did not avoid mating with their sisters, thus supporting inbreeding tolerance. Our experiments therefore add empirical evidence for inbreeding preference, which strengthens the prediction that inbreeding tolerance and preference can evolve under specific circumstances through the positive effects on inclusive fitness. PMID:23251487

  5. Body size, age, growth and alternative mating tactics in toads: satellite males are smaller but not younger than calling males

    E-print Network

    Shepard, Don

    Body size, age, growth and alternative mating tactics in toads: satellite males are smaller amphibians (frogs and toads). In a single territorial anuran species, smaller noncalling `satellite' males's toads, Bufo woodhousii, and Great Plains toads, B. cognatus. Age estimates, based on skeletochronologic

  6. Complex relationship between multiple measures of cognitive ability and male mating success in satin bowerbirds, Ptilonorhynchus violaceus

    E-print Network

    Borgia, Gerald

    Complex relationship between multiple measures of cognitive ability and male mating success ability mating success Ptilonorhynchus violaceus satin bowerbird sexual selection Many animal species have of these tasks, males with better scores for two integrative measures of these cognitive tasks had higher mating

  7. Direct and correlated responses to artificial selection on male mating frequency in the stalk-eyed fly Cyrtodiopsis dalmanni

    E-print Network

    Cotton, Sam

    Direct and correlated responses to artificial selection on male mating frequency in the stalk mating frequency would produce a slow and asymmetric response. In addition, bidirectional artificial: accessory glands; artificial selection; male mating frequency; sexual selection; stalk-eyed flies. Abstract

  8. Indiscriminate Males: Mating Behaviour of a Marine Snail Compromised by a Sexual Conflict?

    PubMed Central

    Johannesson, Kerstin; Saltin, Sara H.; Duranovic, Iris; Havenhand, Jon N.; Jonsson, Per R.

    2010-01-01

    Background In promiscuous species, male fitness is expected to increase with repeated matings in an open-ended fashion (thereby increasing number of partners or probability of paternity) whereas female fitness should level out at some optimal number of copulations when direct and indirect benefits still outweigh the costs of courtship and copulation. After this fitness peak, additional copulations would incur female fitness costs and be under opposing selection. Hence, a sexual conflict over mating frequency may evolve in species where females are forced to engage in costly matings. Under such circumstance, if females could avoid male detection, significant fitness benefits from such avoidance strategies would be predicted. Methodology/Principal Findings Among four Littorina species, one lives at very much higher densities and has a longer mating season than the other three species. Using video records of snail behaviour in a laboratory arena we show that males of the low-density species discriminate among male and female mucous trails, trailing females for copulations. In the high-density species, however, males fail to discriminate between male and female trails, not because males are unable to identify female trails (which we show using heterospecific females), but because females do not, as the other species, add a gender-specific cue to their trail. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that there is likely a sexual conflict over mating frequency in the high-density species (L. saxatilis) owing to females most likely being less sperm-limited in this species. This has favoured the evolution of females that permanently or optionally do not release a cue in the mucus to decrease excessive and costly matings resulting in unusually high frequencies of male-male copulating attempts in the wild. This is one of few examples of masking gender identity to obtain fewer matings. PMID:20711254

  9. Interdependent effects of male and female body size plasticity on mating behaviour of predatory mites

    PubMed Central

    Walzer, Andreas; Schausberger, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The adaptive canalization hypothesis predicts that traits with low phenotypic plasticity are more fitness relevant, because they have been canalized via strong past selection, than traits with high phenotypic plasticity. Based on differing male body size plasticities of the predatory mites Phytoseiulus persimilis (low plasticity) and Neoseiulus californicus (high plasticity), we accordingly hypothesized that small male body size entails higher costs in female choice and male–male competition in P. persimilis than N. californicus. Males of both species are highly polygynous but females differ in the level of polyandry (low level in P. persimilis; medium level in N. californicus). We videotaped the mating interactions in triplets of either P. persimilis or N. californicus, consisting of a virgin female (small or standard-sized) and a small and a standard-sized male. Mating by both small and standard-sized P. persimilis females was biased towards standard-sized males, resulting from the interplay between female preference for standard-sized males and the inferiority of small males in male–male competition. In contrast, mating by N. californicus females was equally balanced between small and standard-sized males. Small N. californicus males were more aggressive (‘Napoleon complex’) in male–male competition, reducing the likelihood of encounter between the standard-sized male and the female, and thus counterbalancing female preference for standard-sized males. Our results support the hypothesis that male body size is more important to fitness in the low-level polyandrous P. persimilis than in the medium-level polyandrous N. californicus and provide a key example of the implications of sexually selected body size plasticity on mating behaviour. PMID:25673881

  10. Male Age Affects Female Mate Preference, Quantity of Accessory Gland Proteins, and Sperm Traits and Female Fitness in D. melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Abolhasan; Krishna, Mysore Siddaiah; Santhosh, Hassan T

    2015-01-01

    For species in which mating is resource-independent and offspring do not receive parental care, theoretical models of age-based female mate preference predict that females should prefer to mate with older males as they have demonstrated ability to survive. Thus, females should obtain a fitness benefit from mating with older males. However, male aging is often associated with reductions in quantity of sperm. The adaptive significance of age-based mate choice is therefore unclear. Various hypotheses have made conflicting predictions concerning this issue, because published studies have not investigated the effect of age on accessory gland proteins and sperm traits. D. melanogaster exhibits resource-independent mating, and offspring do not receive parental care, making this an appropriate model for studying age-based mate choice. In the present study, we found that D. melanogaster females of all ages preferred to mate with the younger of two competing males. Young males performed significantly greater courtship attempts and females showed least rejection for the same than middle-aged and old males. Young males had small accessory glands that contained very few main cells that were larger than average. Nevertheless, compared with middle-aged or old males, the young males transferred greater quantities of accessory gland proteins and sperm to mated females. As a result, females that mated with young male produced more eggs and progeny than those that mated with older males. Furthermore, mating with young male reduced female's lifespan. These studies indicate that quantity of accessory gland proteins and sperm traits decreased with male age and females obtain direct fitness benefit from mating with preferred young males. PMID:25660692

  11. Husband-Wife Communication, Wife's Employment, and the Decision for Male or Female Sterilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bean, Frank D.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Examined relationships between perceptions of marital communication and the choice of male or female sterilization in 313 couples. The wife's perception of marital communication was negatively related to the tendency for the couple to choose female sterilization, conditional on female labor force participation. Communication questions are…

  12. Choosy males from the underground: male mating preferences in surface- and cave-dwelling Atlantic mollies (Poecilia mexicana).

    PubMed

    Plath, Martin; Seggel, Uta; Burmeister, Heike; Heubel, Katja U; Schlupp, Ingo

    2006-03-01

    Atlantic mollies (Poecilia mexicana) inhabit a variety of surface habitats, but they also occur in a sulfur cave in southern Mexico. We examined male mate choice relative to female body size in the cave population and in the most closely related surface-dwelling population from a nearby river. Males from both populations were either light- or dark-reared and could choose between two differently sized females either on the basis of visual cues in light or on the basis of solely nonvisual cues in darkness. Sexual preferences were estimated from the degree of association. Cave molly males always showed a preference for the larger female, both in light and in darkness. Among the surface males, only light-reared males showed a preference in the visual cues test, but not in darkness. In a control experiment, we demonstrated that male association preferences directly translate into actual mating preferences. Apparently, using visual cues for mate choice is the ancestral state in this system, and using nonvisual cues has evolved as a novel trait in the cave population. We discuss the evolution of nonvisual male mate choice in the context of changed environmental conditions, namely the absence of light, hypoxia, and toxic hydrogen sulfide in the cave. PMID:16404589

  13. No evidence for the effect of MHC on male mating success in the brown bear.

    PubMed

    Kuduk, Katarzyna; Babik, Wieslaw; Bellemain, Eva; Valentini, Alice; Zedrosser, Andreas; Taberlet, Pierre; Kindberg, Jonas; Swenson, Jon E; Radwan, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    Mate choice is thought to contribute to the maintenance of the spectacularly high polymorphism of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) genes, along with balancing selection from parasites, but the relative contribution of the former mechanism is debated. Here, we investigated the association between male MHC genotype and mating success in the brown bear. We analysed fragments of sequences coding for the peptide-binding region of the highly polymorphic MHC class I and class II DRB genes, while controlling for genome-wide effects using a panel of 18 microsatellite markers. Male mating success did not depend on the number of alleles shared with the female or amino-acid distance between potential mates at either locus. Furthermore, we found no indication of female mating preferences for MHC similarity being contingent on the number of alleles the females carried. Finally, we found no significant association between the number of MHC alleles a male carried and his mating success. Thus, our results provided no support for the role of mate choice in shaping MHC polymorphism in the brown bear. PMID:25470381

  14. No Evidence for the Effect of MHC on Male Mating Success in the Brown Bear

    PubMed Central

    Kuduk, Katarzyna; Babik, Wieslaw; Bellemain, Eva; Valentini, Alice; Zedrosser, Andreas; Taberlet, Pierre; Kindberg, Jonas; Swenson, Jon E.; Radwan, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    Mate choice is thought to contribute to the maintenance of the spectacularly high polymorphism of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) genes, along with balancing selection from parasites, but the relative contribution of the former mechanism is debated. Here, we investigated the association between male MHC genotype and mating success in the brown bear. We analysed fragments of sequences coding for the peptide-binding region of the highly polymorphic MHC class I and class II DRB genes, while controlling for genome-wide effects using a panel of 18 microsatellite markers. Male mating success did not depend on the number of alleles shared with the female or amino-acid distance between potential mates at either locus. Furthermore, we found no indication of female mating preferences for MHC similarity being contingent on the number of alleles the females carried. Finally, we found no significant association between the number of MHC alleles a male carried and his mating success. Thus, our results provided no support for the role of mate choice in shaping MHC polymorphism in the brown bear. PMID:25470381

  15. Two aromatase inhibitors inhibit the ability of a third to promote mating in male rats.

    PubMed

    Yahr, Pauline

    2015-09-01

    Aromatase, the enzyme that aromatizes androstenedione (A) to estrone and testosterone (T) to estradiol (E), affects androgen control of male sex behavior in many vertebrates. In male monkeys, rats and quail, E mimics the ability of T to promote mating, and aromatase inhibitors block mating induced by T but not E. Aromatase inhibitors include androgens with different A-rings than T and A, e.g., 1,4,6-androstatriene-3,17-dione (ATD), azoles, e.g., fadrozole, and androgens ?-halogenated at carbon 6, e.g., 6?-bromoA, 6?-fluoroA and 6?-fluoroT. 6?-FluoroT is the only 6?-halogenated androgen studied in regard to mating. It promotes mating in male rats and quail and was studied, before it was known to inhibit aromatase, because it cannot be aromatized yet has the same A-ring as T. 6?-FluoroT might promote mating by binding estrogen receptors (ER) directly, i.e., unassisted, or by metabolism to an androgen that binds ER. Since neither process would require aromatase, this study tested both hypotheses by determining how mating induced in castrated male rats by 6?-fluoroT is affected by ATD and fadrozole. Both aromatase inhibitors inhibited the effects of 6?-fluoroT on mating. Thus, 6?-fluoroT does not promote mating by direct ER binding or metabolism to another androgen. Since aromatase underlies a process in which 6?-fluoroT, unlike most nonaromatizable androgens, mimics T effects on male sex behavior, the process must involve a feature that 6?-fluoroT shares with T but not other nonaromatizable androgens. A-ring structure is a candidate. A hypothesis is also offered for how aromatase may participate without aromatizing the androgen. PMID:26232614

  16. Workable male sterility systems for hybrid rice: Genetics, biochemistry, molecular biology, and utilization.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jian-Zhong; E, Zhi-Guo; Zhang, Hua-Li; Shu, Qing-Yao

    2014-12-01

    The exploitation of male sterility systems has enabled the commercialization of heterosis in rice, with greatly increased yield and total production of this major staple food crop. Hybrid rice, which was adopted in the 1970s, now covers nearly 13.6 million hectares each year in China alone. Various types of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) and environment-conditioned genic male sterility (EGMS) systems have been applied in hybrid rice production. In this paper, recent advances in genetics, biochemistry, and molecular biology are reviewed with an emphasis on major male sterility systems in rice: five CMS systems, i.e., BT-, HL-, WA-, LD- and CW- CMS, and two EGMS systems, i.e., photoperiod- and temperature-sensitive genic male sterility (P/TGMS). The interaction of chimeric mitochondrial genes with nuclear genes causes CMS, which may be restored by restorer of fertility (Rf) genes. The PGMS, on the other hand, is conditioned by a non-coding RNA gene. A survey of the various CMS and EGMS lines used in hybrid rice production over the past three decades shows that the two-line system utilizing EGMS lines is playing a steadily larger role and TGMS lines predominate the current two-line system for hybrid rice production. The findings and experience gained during development and application of, and research on male sterility in rice not only advanced our understanding but also shed light on applications to other crops. PMID:26055995

  17. Male Texas Horned Lizards increase daily movements and area covered in spring: A mate searching strategy?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stark, Richard C.; Fox, S. F.; David, M.L., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Texas Horned Lizards, Phrynosoma cornutum, were tracked using fluorescent powder to determine exact daily movements. Daily linear movements and daily space use were compared between adult males and females. Lizards that traveled the greatest linear distances also covered the largest areas. In Oklahoma, adults emerge from hibernation in late April and early May and mate soon afterward. Males traveled significantly greater distances (and covered significantly larger areas in a day) than females in May but not after May. We propose that males move more and cover more area than females early in the mating season to intercept receptive females. Copyright 2005 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  18. Multiple mating and its relationship to alternative modes of gestation in male-pregnant versus

    E-print Network

    Avise, John

    female-pregnant fish species John C. Avise1 and Jin-Xian Liu Department of Ecology and Evolutionary of multiple mating by the embryo-brooding parent in various fish spe- cies with three alternative categories as compared with internal male preg- nancy, and also for dams in female-pregnant species versus sires in male

  19. Male Enchenopa treehoppers (Hemiptera: Membracidae) vary mate-searching behavior but not signaling behavior in response to spider silk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowler-Finn, Kasey D.; Al-Wathiqui, Nooria; Cruz, Daniel; Al-Wathiqui, Mishal; Rodríguez, Rafael L.

    2014-03-01

    Finding and attracting mates can impose costs on males in terms of increased encounters with, and attraction of, predators. To decrease the likelihood of predation, males may modify mate-acquisition efforts in two main ways: they may reduce mate-searching efforts or they may reduce mate-attraction efforts. The specific behavior that males change in the presence of predator cues should depend upon the nature of risk imposed by the type of predator present in the environment. For example, sit-and-wait predators impose greater costs to males moving in search of mates. Here, we test whether cues of the presence of a sit-and-wait predator lead to a reduction in mate-searching but not mate-acquisition behavior. We used a member of the Enchenopa binotata complex of treehoppers—a clade of vibrationally communicating insects in which males fly in search of mates and produce mate-attraction signals when they land on plant stems. We tested for changes in mate-searching and signaling behaviors when silk from a web-building spider was present or absent. We found that males delayed flight when spider silk was present but only if they were actively searching for mates. These results suggest that males have been selected to reduce predation risk by adjusting how they move about their environment according to the cues of sit-and-wait predators.

  20. Effect of adult screwworm male size on mating competence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Screwworms, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), were devastating pests in parts of North America and Central America before their eradication by means of the sterile insect technique (SIT). Now, a barrier is maintained to prevent re-entry of screwworms from endemic regions t...

  1. Effects of fine-scale genetic structure on male mating success in gynodioecious Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima.

    PubMed

    DE Cauwer, Isabelle; Dufay, Mathilde; Cuguen, Joël; Arnaud, Jean-François

    2010-04-01

    Plant mating systems are known to influence population genetic structure because pollen and seed dispersal are often spatially restricted. However, the reciprocal outcomes of population structure on the dynamics of polymorphic mating systems have received little attention. In gynodioecious sea beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima), three sexual types co-occur: females carrying a cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) gene, hermaphrodites carrying a non-CMS cytoplasm and restored hermaphrodites that carry CMS genes and nuclear restorer alleles. This study investigated the effects of fine-scale genetic structure on male reproductive success of the two hermaphroditic forms. Our study population was strongly structured and characterized by contrasting local sex-ratios. Pollen flow was constrained over short distances and depended on local plant density. Interestingly, restored hermaphrodites sired significantly more seedlings than non-CMS hermaphrodites, despite the previous observation that the former produce pollen of lower quality than the latter. This result was explained by the higher frequency of females in the local vicinity of restored (CMS) hermaphrodites as compared to non-CMS hermaphrodites. Population structure thus strongly influences individual fitness and may locally counteract the expected effects of selection, suggesting that understanding fine scale population processes is central to predicting the evolution of gender polymorphism in angiosperms. PMID:20345690

  2. Instability in mitochondrial membranes in Polima cytoplasmic male sterility of Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Liu, Tongkun; Duan, Weike; Song, Xiaoming; Shi, Gongjun; Zhang, Jingyi; Deng, Xiaohui; Zhang, Shuning; Hou, Xilin

    2014-06-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is an important factor to observe heterosis in Brassica rapa. Although several studies have documented the rearrangements of mitochondrial DNA and dysfunction in the mitochondria have been observed in most types of CMS, the basis of the molecular mechanisms involved in these processes and other effects on CMS remain unclear. In this study, suppression subtractive hybridization was performed in the flowers of an alloplasmic Polima CMS system from B. rapa ssp. chinensis to identify genes that are differentially expressed between fertile and sterile plants. A total of 443 clones were isolated (156 were upregulated in fertile buds, and 287 were upregulated in sterile ones). Real-time RT-PCR further demonstrated the credibility of SSH. Among these genes, many membrane protein genes (LTP12, PIP2A, and GRP14) were inhibited in the sterile male line. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) assay was then performed. Results showed that the sterile MMP was unstable and failed to create a potential difference; thus, mitochondrial dysfunction occurred. Moreover, abnormal microtubules and photosynthetic pathways were found in sterile male cells. Unstable MMP, nutritional deficiency, and abnormal microtubules were the causes of Polima CMS in Brassica campestris. H2O2, MDA, and O(2-), accumulated as byproducts of energy metabolism disorder in sterile male cells. PMID:24652098

  3. The mate choice brain: comparing gene profiles between female choice and male coercive poeciliids.

    PubMed

    Lynch, K S; Ramsey, M E; Cummings, M E

    2012-03-01

    Genes that mediate mate preferences potentially play a key role in promoting and maintaining biological diversity. In this study, we compare mate preference behavior in two related poeciliid fishes with contrasting behavioral phenotypes and relate these behavioral differences to gene profiles in the brain. Results reveal that one poeciliid fish, the Northern swordtail, exhibits robust mate preference as compared to the Western mosquitofish, which utilizes a coercive mating system. Female swordtails display no significant difference in association time between male- and female-exposure trials, whereas female mosquitofish spend significantly less time associating with males relative to females. Furthermore, the preference strength for large males is significantly lower in female mosquitofish relative to swordtails. We then examine expression of three candidate genes previously shown to be associated with mate preference behavior in female swordtails and linked to neural plasticity in other vertebrates: neuroserpin (NS), neuroligin-3 (NLG-3) and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R). Whole brain gene expression patterns reveal that two genes (NS and NLG-3) are positively associated with mate preference behavior in female swordtails, a pattern opposing that of the mosquitofish. In mosquitofish females, these genes are downregulated when females express biases toward males yet are elevated in association with total motor activity patterns under asocial conditions, suggesting that the presence of males in mosquitofish species may inhibit expression of these genes. Both gene expression and female behavioral responses to males exhibit opposing patterns between these species, suggesting that this genetic pathway may potentially act as a substrate for the evolution of mate preference behavior. PMID:22008245

  4. Trading or coercion? Variation in male mating strategies between two communities of East African chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Kaburu, Stefano S. K.; Newton-Fisher, Nicholas E.

    2015-01-01

    Across taxa, males employ a variety of mating strategies, including sexual coercion and the provision, or trading, of resources. Biological market theory (BMT) predicts that trading of commodities for mating opportunities should exist only when males cannot monopolize access to females and/or obtain mating by force, in situations where power differentials between males are low; both coercion and trading have been reported for chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Here, we investigate whether the choice of strategy depends on the variation in male power differentials, using data from two wild communities of East African chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii): the structurally despotic Sonso community (Budongo, Uganda) and the structurally egalitarian M-group (Mahale, Tanzania). We found evidence of sexual coercion by male Sonso chimpanzees, and of trading—of grooming for mating—by M-group males; females traded sex for neither meat nor protection from male aggression. Our results suggest that the despotism–egalitarian axis influences strategy choice: male chimpanzees appear to pursue sexual coercion when power differentials are large and trading when power differentials are small and coercion consequently ineffective. Our findings demonstrate that trading and coercive strategies are not restricted to particular chimpanzee subspecies; instead, their occurrence is consistent with BMT predictions. Our study raises interesting, and as yet unanswered, questions regarding female chimpanzees’ willingness to trade sex for grooming, if doing so represents a compromise to their fundamentally promiscuous mating strategy. It highlights the importance of within-species cross-group comparisons and the need for further study of the relationship between mating strategy and dominance steepness. PMID:26279605

  5. Female-borne cues affecting Psyttalia concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) male behavior during courtship and mating.

    PubMed

    Canale, Angelo; Benelli, Giovanni; Lucchi, Andrea

    2013-06-01

    Knowledge of the mechanisms that regulate courtship and mating behavior in Psyttalia concolor (Szépligeti)-a koinobiont endophagous solitary parasitoid of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), and of other fruit flies-is essential to its mass rearing and management. Augmentative releases of P. concolor for olive fruit fly control started in the Mediterranean areas in the 1950s and still continue with limited success. We determined the influence of visual and chemical cues on courtship and mating behavior of this braconid and the possible effect of the mating status of males and females in the perception of these cues. Our results suggest that integration of visual and chemical stimuli are fundamental for mate location and courtship. Indeed, the optimal response of the male was achieved when physical and chemical cues were simultaneously presented and vision and olfaction worked synergistically. PMID:23955889

  6. Methoprene and protein supplements accelerate reproductive development and improve mating success of male tephritid flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have been studying the physiological mechanisms responsible for coordination of reproductive maturity and sex pheromone communication in males of tephritid flies in order to develop methods for acceleration of reproductive maturity among sterilized males. Our studies revealed that the juvenile ho...

  7. Life history and mating systems select for male biased parasitism mediated through natural selection and ecological feedbacks

    E-print Network

    White, Andrew

    Life history and mating systems select for male biased parasitism mediated through natural the cost of avoiding parasitism in males. Different mating systems such as monogamy, polygyny or polyandry-history evolution Male-biased parasitism Adaptive dynamics Evolution of disease resistance a b s t r a c t tlsb-1

  8. Egg Viability, Mating Frequency and Male Mating Ability Evolve in Populations of Drosophila melanogaster Selected for Resistance to Cold Shock

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Karan; Kochar, Ekta; Prasad, N. G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Ability to resist temperature shock is an important component of fitness of insects and other ectotherms. Increased resistance to temperature shock is known to affect life-history traits. Temperature shock is also known to affect reproductive traits such as mating ability and viability of gametes. Therefore selection for increased temperature shock resistance can affect the evolution of reproductive traits. Methods We selected replicate populations of Drosophila melanogaster for resistance to cold shock. We then investigated the evolution of reproductive behavior along with other components of fitness- larval survivorship, adult mortality, fecundity, egg viability in these populations. Results We found that larval survivorship, adult mortality and fecundity post cold shock were not significantly different between selected and control populations. However, compared to the control populations, the selected populations laid significantly higher percentage of fertile eggs (egg viability) 24 hours post cold shock. The selected populations had higher mating frequency both with and without cold shock. After being subjected to cold shock, males from the selected populations successfully mated with significantly more non-virgin females and sired significantly more progeny compared to control males. Conclusions A number of studies have reported the evolution of survivorship in response to selection for temperature shock resistance. Our results clearly indicate that adaptation to cold shock can involve changes in components of reproductive fitness. Our results have important implications for our understanding of how reproductive behavior can evolve in response to thermal stress. PMID:26065704

  9. Low Incidence of Miscarriage Induced by the Scent of Male Littermates of Original Mates: Male Kinship Reduces the Bruce Effect in Female Mice, Mus musculus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuting; Liu, Dingzhen

    2013-01-01

    The scent of a novel male can elicit pregnancy block in recently mated female mice (Mus musculus), a phenomenon known as the Bruce effect. Despite abundant literature on the Bruce effect in rodents, it remains unclear whether males related to a female’s original mate can induce the Bruce effect in out-bred, communally living mice. We investigated this question using Kunming (KM) male mice of varying genetic relatedness. Recently mated females were subjected to three treatments: exposure to the urine of the mate, urine of the mate’s male littermate, and urine of a male unrelated to the mate. It was found that the urine of male littermates of the females’ mates did not elicit more pregnancy block than that of the females’ mates. However, the urine of novel males caused a higher rate of female miscarriage than that of the females’ mates. By using a habituation-dishabituation paradigm, we found that unmated females could discriminate the urine scents of two male littermates from those of a novel male unrelated to the littermates. To understand how females use urinary cues to discriminate between males with different genetic relationships, we used gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to examine the volatile composition of urine from males with varying relatedness. It was found that KM male littermates shared similar volatile compositions in their urine. Our results suggest that male kinship reduces the Bruce effect in female KM mice, and provide additional evidence for mate choice being partly mediated by the Bruce effect in KM mice. PMID:23874716

  10. Inbreeding depresses sperm competitiveness, but not fertilization or mating success in male Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Michalczyk, Lukasz; Martin, Oliver Y; Millard, Anna L; Emerson, Brent C; Gage, Matthew J G

    2010-11-22

    As populations decline to levels where reproduction among close genetic relatives becomes more probable, subsequent increases in homozygous recessive deleterious expression and/or loss of heterozygote advantage can lead to inbreeding depression. Here, we measure how inbreeding across replicate lines of the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum impacts on male reproductive fitness in the absence or presence of male-male competition. Effects on male evolution from mating pattern were removed by enforcing monogamous mating throughout. After inbreeding across eight generations, we found that male fertility in the absence of competition was unaffected. However, we found significant inbreeding depression of sperm competitiveness: non-inbred males won 57 per cent of fertilizations in competition, while inbred equivalents only sired 42 per cent. We also found that the P(2) 'offence' role in sperm competition was significantly more depressed under inbreeding than sperm 'defence' (P(1)). Mating behaviour did not explain these differences, and there was no difference in the viability of offspring sired by inbred or non-inbred males. Sperm length variation was significantly greater in the ejaculates of inbred males. Our results show that male ability to achieve normal fertilization success was not depressed under strong inbreeding, but that inbreeding depression in these traits occurred when conditions of sperm competition were generated. PMID:20554548

  11. Reduced mate preference for dominant over subordinate males in old female Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus).

    PubMed

    Place, Ned J; Vernon, Dianne M; Johnston, Robert E

    2014-10-01

    Why some females choose to mate with a 'preferred' male, whereas others choose to mate with an 'inferior' male is not always clear. Generally, the choosiness of females is thought to decline with advanced age, but relatively few studies have investigated this concept, and reports of this phenomenon in mammals are lacking. To address this deficiency, young and old female golden hamsters were evaluated for their preference for dominant vs. subordinate males. Females observed male dyads as a dominance relationship was established. Dominant and subordinate males were then placed within enclosures at the opposite ends of a Y-maze, and the first approach, scent marking, and time spent near each male were evaluated in young and old females during pro-oestrus-a time when females solicit visits by prospective mates by leaving vaginal and flank scent marks. Whereas the proportion of time spent near the dominant male was significantly greater than random for both young and old females, the proportions of vaginal and flank scent marks left for the dominant male were significantly greater than random for young females, but not for old females. Overall, these results are consistent with a decline in the preference for dominant males by old female hamsters. PMID:25444774

  12. Female-Paced Mating does not Affect Pair-Bond Expression by Male Prairie Voles (Microtus ochrogaster)

    PubMed Central

    McCracken, Kelly; Lewis, Robert; Curtis, J. Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Prairie vole males typically display robust preferences for affiliation with their respective mates that indicate the expression of a pair-bond. However, it recently has been shown that the strength of a male vole’s pair-bond can differ depending on the reproductive status of his mate. In the present study, we examined the possibility that female-controlled pacing of the mating sequence could alter males’ affiliative behaviors in a partner-preference test by affecting reproductive success. We expected an earlier onset of mating and thus earlier onset of pregnancy would occur if females controlled the pace of mating, in turn, reinforcing males’ preference for their familiar mates vs for a stranger. We found that female-pacing did not affect latency to mating, mating duration, or any of our other measures of social or mating behaviors. Further, female paced-mating did not alter reproductive success as indicated by litter size. We conclude that female-paced mating in prairie voles does not impact the formation, consolidation and/or expression of a pair-bond, either directly or indirectly, by their male partners. PMID:26594105

  13. REGISTRATION OF TWO CYTOPLASMIC MALE-STERILE AND EIGHT FERTILITY RESTORATION SUNFLOWER GENETIC STOCKS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Male-sterile plants were identified in the wild H. annuus L. accessions PI 413178 and PI 413180, and maintained by backcrossing with the inbred line HA 89. Male-fertile progenies from crosses between cms plants of the two PIs and 12 USDA inbred lines indicated the presence of fertility restoration g...

  14. A male sterility-associated cytotoxic protein ORF288 in Brassica juncea causes aborted pollen development

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Bing; Heng, Shuangping; Tong, Dan; Wan, Zhengjie; Fu, Tingdong; Tu, Jinxing; Ma, Chaozhi; Yi, Bin; Wen, Jing; Shen, Jinxiong

    2012-01-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is a widespread phenomenon in higher plants, and several studies have established that this maternally inherited defect is often associated with a mitochondrial mutant. Approximately 10 chimeric genes have been identified as being associated with corresponding CMS systems in the family Brassicaceae, but there is little direct evidence that these genes cause male sterility. In this study, a novel chimeric gene (named orf288) was found to be located downstream of the atp6 gene and co-transcribed with this gene in the hau CMS sterile line. Western blotting analysis showed that this predicted open reading frame (ORF) was translated in the mitochondria of male-sterile plants. Furthermore, the growth of Escherichia coli was significantly repressed in the presence of ORF288, which indicated that this protein is toxic to the E. coli host cells. To confirm further the function of orf288 in male sterility, the gene was fused to a mitochondrial-targeting pre-sequence under the control of the Arabidopsis APETALA3 promoter and introduced into Arabidopsis thaliana. Almost 80% of transgenic plants with orf288 failed to develop anthers. It was also found that the independent expression of orf288 caused male sterility in transgenic plants, even without the transit pre-sequence. Furthermore, transient expression of orf288 and green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a fused protein in A. thaliana protoplasts showed that ORF288 was able to anchor to mitochondria even without the external mitochondrial-targeting peptide. These observations provide important evidence that orf288 is responsible for the male sterility of hau CMS in Brassica juncea. PMID:22090439

  15. Melanic body colour and aggressive mating behaviour are correlated traits in male mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki).

    PubMed Central

    Horth, Lisa

    2003-01-01

    Correlated traits are important from an evolutionary perspective as natural selection acting on one trait may indirectly affect other traits. Further, the response to selection can be constrained or hastened as a result of correlations. Because mating behaviour and body colour can dramatically affect fitness, a correlation between them can have important fitness ramifications. In this work, melanic (black) male mosquitofishes (Gambusia holbrooki) with temperature-sensitive body-colour expression are bred in captivity. Half of the sons of each melanic sire are reared at 19 degrees C (and express a black body colour) and half are reared at 31 degrees C (and express a silver body colour). The two colour morphs are placed in the same social setting and monitored for behavioural differences. Mating behaviour and colour are correlated traits. Mating behaviour differs markedly between the two phenotypes, despite high genetic relatedness. Melanic (black) phenotypes are more aggressive towards females, chasing them and attempting more matings than their silver siblings. Females avoid melanic-male mating attempts more than silver-male mating attempts. When males with temperature-sensitive colour expression are melanic and aggressive, they probably experience a very different selective regime in nature from when they are silver and less aggressive. Under some conditions (e.g. predation), melanic coloration and/or aggression is advantageous compared with silver coloration and/or less aggressive behaviour. However, under different conditions (e.g. high-frequency melanism), melanism and/or aggression appears to be disadvantageous and melanic males have reduced survival and reproduction. Selective advantages to each morph under different conditions may enable the long-term persistence of this temperature-sensitive genotype. PMID:12803892

  16. Do unattractive friends make you look better? Context-dependent male mating preferences in the guppy.

    PubMed

    Gasparini, Clelia; Serena, Giovanna; Pilastro, Andrea

    2013-04-01

    Recent theory predicts that in species where females tend to mate with the relatively most ornamented males, males may increase their attractiveness to females, and hence mating success, by preferentially associating with females that are surrounded by less ornamented competitors. Despite this prediction, we still lack explicit experimental evidence that males strategically prefer females surrounded by less attractive competitors to maximize their relative attractiveness. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive test of this hypothesis in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a species where a female's perception of a male's attractiveness depends on his coloration relative to that of surrounding males. We found that males preferentially associated with females that were surrounded by relatively drab competitors, and that the strength of an individual male's preference was negatively correlated with his level of ornamentation. A series of control experiments made it possible to exclude the potentially confounding effects of male-male competition or social motivations when drawing these conclusions. The ability of males to choose social context to increase their relative attractiveness has important evolutionary consequences, for example, by contributing towards the maintenance of variability in male sexual ornamentation despite the strong directional selection exerted by female preferences. PMID:23407839

  17. Alternative mating tactics and extreme male dimorphism in fig wasps. 

    E-print Network

    Cook, James M; Compton, Steven G; Herre, E Allen; West, Stuart A

    1997-01-01

    The dimorphisms in morphology and behaviour of male fig wasps are among the most extreme in the animal kingdom, and offer excellent oppotunities to test the predictions of certain sexual selection models....

  18. Female bushcrickets mated with parasitized males show rapid remating and reduced fecundity (Orthoptera: Phaneropteridae: Poecilimon mariannae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, G. U. C.; Lehmann, A. W.

    2000-10-01

    Following mating, female bushcrickets undergo a refractory period during which they are sexually unreceptive. The length of the refractory period correlates with the size of the spermatophylax. However, the size of the nuptial gift of acoustically signalling bushcrickets is often reduced as a result of infections by parasitoid flies. We examined the effect of male parasitoid infection on the induction of the refractory period and fecundity of females. We found a drastically reduced refractory period in females if the first mating partner was infected. During this shortened period fewer eggs were deposited, as an effect of the shorter refractory period, whereas the daily egg-laying rate remained the same regardless of whether the females were mated with a parasitized or an unparasitized male.

  19. Abstract When females mate with more than one male, the ensuing sperm competition leads to the evolution of

    E-print Network

    Rutowski, Ronald L.

    Abstract When females mate with more than one male, the ensuing sperm competition leads) transfer a spermatophore to females during copulation, but sperm release and storage occur later. We investigated how the interval between two matings with different males affects sperm precedence by varying

  20. MULTIPLE-MATING OF MALE AND FEMALE CODLING MOTH (LEPIDOPTERA: TORTRICIDAE) IN APPLE ORCHARDS TREATED WITH SEX PHEROMONE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted with codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), to evaluate the mating status of male and female moths in apple, Malus domestica (Borkhausen), orchards treated with and without sex pheromone dispensers. Laboratory studies first examined the effect of multiple mating of male and femal...

  1. Research progress of the bHLH transcription factors involved in genic male sterility in plants.

    PubMed

    Yongming, Liu; Ling, Zhang; Jianyu, Zhou; Moju, Cao

    2015-12-01

    Male sterility exists widely in the spermatophytes. It contributes to the study of plant reproductive development and can be used as an effective tool for hybrid seed production in heterosis utilization. Therefore, the study on male sterility is of great value in both theory and application. As one of the largest transcription factor families in plants, basic helix-loop-helix proteins (bHLHs) play a crucial role in regulating plant growth and development. This paper introduces the mechanism of bHLH regulating stamen development in several important model plants. Furthermore, we discuss the molecular mechanisms of genic male sterility resulting from bHLH dysfunction to provide references for crop breeding and theoretical studies. PMID:26704944

  2. Effects of Age and Experience on Male Mate Choosiness Carling M. Baxter, Rachael Barnett & Reuven Dukas

    E-print Network

    Dukas, Reuven

    choice, sexual selection, courtship, fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, age, experience Abstract Mate. In our experiments with fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster), young (1-d-old) males spent relatively 1975), Fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) (Cook & Cook 1975), fowl (Gallus gallus) (Pizzari et al

  3. Testosterone positively associated with both male mating effort and paternal behavior in savanna baboons (Papio cynocephalus)

    E-print Network

    Alberts, Susan C

    baboons (Papio cynocephalus) Patrick Ogola Onyango a, , Laurence R. Gesquiere a , Jeanne Altmann a 2012 Available online 30 November 2012 Keywords: Testosterone Mating effort Paternal behavior Baboons simultaneously have multiple offspring of different ages. In a 9-year data set on levels of T in male baboons

  4. MALE COMBAT AND MATING BEHAVIOR OF DONACIA CRASSIPES F. AND OTHER CHRYSOMELIDS (COLEOPTERA: CHRYSOMELIDAE: DONACIINAE).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A previously unknown aggressive component of the mating behavior of Donacia crassipes F. is described and illustrated. Male fights were observed in June, July and August from 1980 to 1982 on Unecha river in southwestern Russia. During the fights the following combat techniques are employed: warning ...

  5. Seismic signals are crucial for male mating success in a visual specialist jumping spider (Araneae: Salticidae)

    E-print Network

    Elias, Damian Octavio

    Seismic signals are crucial for male mating success in a visual specialist jumping spider (Araneae in an incomplete characterization of the communication system. Jumping spiders (Salticidae) have remarkable visual as sensory specialists. Such is the case for vision in jumping spiders (Salticidae) (Peckham & Peckham 1889

  6. Methoprene modulates the effect of diet on male melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitate, performance at mating aggregations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of dietary protein (P) and the topical application of juvenile hormone analogue (methoprene (M)) on mating behaviour of male melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, was assessed in the laboratory and in field cages. Age, dietary protein and methoprene application improved the sexual success and...

  7. Anim. Behav., 1997, 54, 3543 Distribution and activity of male harbour seals during the mating season

    E-print Network

    Aberdeen, University of

    overlapping ranges and when on land, they can be either highly concentrated (e.g. Northern elephant seal, Mir elephant seal (Deutsch et al. 1989) and the land-breeding grey seal, Halichoerus grypus (Anderson et alAnim. Behav., 1997, 54, 35­43 Distribution and activity of male harbour seals during the mating

  8. Low-oxygen atmospheric treatment improves the performance of irradiation-sterilized male cactus moths used in SIT.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As part of Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) programs, irradiation can effectively induce sterility in insects by damaging genomic DNA. However, irradiation also induces other off-target side effects that reduce the quality and performance of sterilized males. Thus, treatments that reduce off-target ef...

  9. Male genital morphology and its influence on female mating preferences and paternity success in guppies.

    PubMed

    Gasparini, Clelia; Pilastro, Andrea; Evans, Jonathan P

    2011-01-01

    In internally fertilizing species male genitalia often show a higher degree of elaboration than required for simply transferring sperm to females. Among the hypotheses proposed to explain such diversity, sexual selection has received the most empirical support, with studies revealing that genital morphology can be targeted by both pre-and postcopulatory sexual selection. Until now, most studies have focused on these two episodes of selection independently. Here, we take an alternative approach by considering both components simultaneously in the livebearing fish, Poecilia reticulata. We allowed females to mate successively (and cooperatively) with two males and determined whether male genital length influenced the female's propensity to mate with a male (precopulatory selection, via female choice) and whether male genital size and shape predicted the relative paternity share of subsequent broods (postcopulatory selection, via sperm competition/cryptic female choice). We found no evidence that either episode of sexual selection targets male genital size or shape. These findings, in conjunction with our recent work exposing a role of genital morphology in mediating unsolicited (forced) matings in guppies, further supports our prior speculation that sexual conflict may be an important broker of genital evolution in this species. PMID:21799825

  10. Scheduled daily mating induces circadian anticipatory activity rhythms in the male rat.

    PubMed

    Landry, Glenn J; Opiol, Hanna; Marchant, Elliott G; Pavlovski, Ilya; Mear, Rhiannon J; Hamson, Dwayne K; Mistlberger, Ralph E

    2012-01-01

    Daily schedules of limited access to food, palatable high calorie snacks, water and salt can induce circadian rhythms of anticipatory locomotor activity in rats and mice. All of these stimuli are rewarding, but whether anticipation can be induced by neural correlates of reward independent of metabolic perturbations associated with manipulations of food and hydration is unclear. Three experiments were conducted to determine whether mating, a non-ingestive behavior that is potently rewarding, can induce circadian anticipatory activity rhythms in male rats provided scheduled daily access to steroid-primed estrous female rats. In Experiment 1, rats anticipated access to estrous females in the mid-light period, but also exhibited post-coital eating and running. In Experiment 2, post-coital eating and running were prevented and only a minority of rats exhibited anticipation. Rats allowed to see and smell estrous females showed no anticipation. In both experiments, all rats exhibited sustained behavioral arousal and multiple mounts and intromissions during every session, but ejaculated only every 2-3 days. In Experiment 3, the rats were given more time with individual females, late at night for 28 days, and then in the midday for 28 days. Ejaculation rates increased and anticipation was robust to night sessions and significant although weaker to day sessions. The anticipation rhythm persisted during 3 days of constant dark without mating. During anticipation of nocturnal mating, the rats exhibited a significant preference for a tube to the mating cage over a tube to a locked cage with mating cage litter. This apparent place preference was absent during anticipation of midday mating, which may reflect a daily rhythm of sexual reward. The results establish mating as a reward stimulus capable of inducing circadian rhythms of anticipatory behavior in the male rat, and reveal a critical role for ejaculation, a modulatory role for time of day, and a potential confound role for uncontrolled food intake. PMID:22848408

  11. The effects of genotype, age, and social environment on male ornamentation, mating behavior, and attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Miller, Lisa K; Brooks, Robert

    2005-11-01

    The traits thought to advertise genetic quality are often highly susceptible to environmental variation and prone to change with age. These factors may either undermine or reinforce the potential for advertisement traits to signal quality depending on the magnitude of age-dependent expression, environmental variation, and genotype-age and genotype-environment interaction. Measurements of the magnitude of these effects are thus a necessary step toward assessing the implications of age dependence and environmental variability for the evolution of signals of quality. We conducted a longitudinal study of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) from 22 full-sibling families. Each fish was assigned at maturity to one of three treatments in order to manipulate his allocation of resources to reproduction: a control in which the male was kept alone, a courtship-only treatment in which he could see and court a female across a clear partition, and a mating treatment in which he interacted freely with a female. We measured each male's size, ornamental color patterns, courtship, attractiveness to females, and mating success at three ages. Size was influenced by treatment and age-treatment interactions, indicating that courtship and mating may impose costs on growth. Tail size and color patterns were influenced by age but not by treatment, suggesting fixed age-dependent trajectories in these advertisement traits. By contrast, display rate and attempted sneak copulation rate differed among treatments but not among ages, suggesting greater plasticity of these behavioral traits. As a result of the different patterns of variation in ornamentation and behavior, male attractiveness and mating success responded to male age, treatment, and the interaction between age and treatment. Neither age nor treatment obscured the presence of genetic variation, and the genetic relationship between male ornamentation and attractiveness remained the same among treatments. Our findings suggest that neither age-dependent variation nor environmentally induced variation in reproductive effort is likely to undermine the reliability of male signaling. PMID:16396182

  12. Sterile Insect Technique and F1 Sterility in the European Grapevine Moth, Lobesia botrana

    PubMed Central

    Saour, George

    2014-01-01

    Newly emerged adults of the European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis and Schiffermuller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), were irradiated with various doses of gamma radiation and crossed to unirradiated counterparts of the opposite sex. Fecundity was decreased when unirradiated females were mated with either 300- or 350-Gy-irradiated males. Adult males that were irradiated with 400 Gy and mated with unirradiated females retained a residual fertility of 2.7%. The radiation dose at which irradiated females were found to be 100% sterile when mated with unirradiated males was 150 Gy. The inherited effects in the F1 progeny of irradiated male parents were examined at 100, 150, and 200 Gy. Fecundity and fertility of the F1 progeny of males irradiated with 150 Gy and inbred or crossed with irradiated and unirradiated moths were also recorded. A significant reduction in fertility was observed when F1 males mated with either F1 or unirradiated females. According to sterility index, F1 females who mated with F1 males had greater sterility than when F1 females were crossed to 150-Gy-irradiated males. Based upon the results of this study, 150 Gy of gamma radiation would be the optimal dose to use in a sterile insect technique and F1 sterility program against L. botrana. PMID:25373155

  13. Efficient transformation of Kalanchoe blossfeldiana and production of male-sterile plants by engineered anther ablation.

    PubMed

    García-Sogo, Begoña; Pineda, Benito; Castelblanque, Lourdes; Antón, Teresa; Medina, Mónica; Roque, Edelín; Torresi, Claudia; Beltrán, José Pío; Moreno, Vicente; Cañas, Luis Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Engineered male sterility in ornamental plants has many applications such as facilitate hybrid seed production, eliminate pollen allergens, reduce the need for deadheading to extend the flowering period, redirect resources from seeds to vegetative growth, increase flower longevity and prevent gene flow between genetically modified and related native plants. We have developed a reliable and efficient Agrobacterium-mediated protocol for the genetic transformation of different Kalanchoe blossfeldiana commercial cultivars. Transformation efficiency for cv. 'Hillary' was 55.3% whereas that of cv. 'Tenorio' reached 75.8%. Selection was carried out with the nptII gene and increasing the kanamycin concentration from 25 to 100 mg l(-1) allowed to reduced escapes from 50 to 60% to virtually 0%. This method was used to produce male-sterile plants through engineered anther ablation. In our approach, we tested a male sterility chimaeric gene construct (PsEND1::barnase) to evaluate its effectiveness and effect on phenotype. No significant differences were found in the growth patterns between the transgenic lines and the wild-type plants. No viable pollen grains were observed in the ablated anthers of any of the lines carrying the PsEND1::barnase construct, indicating that the male sterility was complete. In addition, seed set was completely abolished in all the transgenic plants obtained. Our engineered male-sterile approach could be used, alone or in combination with a female-sterility system, to reduce the invasive potential of new ornamentals, which has become an important environmental problem in many countries. PMID:19921199

  14. Effects of pre-irradiation conditioning of Medfly pupae (Diptera: Tephritidae): Hypoxia and quality of sterile males

    SciTech Connect

    Nestel, D.; Nemny-Lavy, E.; Islam, S.M.; Wornoayporn, V.; Caceres, C.

    2007-03-15

    Irradiation of pupae in sterile insect technique (SIT) projects is usually undertaken in hypoxic atmospheres, which have been shown to lessen the deleterious effects of irradiation on the quality of adult sterile flies. Although this is the accepted technology in most mass-rearing and sterilization facilities, to date no information has been generated on the actual levels of oxygen (O{sub 2}) in pupae-packing containers during irradiation. The present study utilized recently-developed technology to investigate the O{sub 2} level inside bags in which pupae of Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) are packed prior to irradiation, the ability of pupae to create hypoxic environments in these bags, and the effect of O{sub 2} atmospheres on the quality of irradiated males. Pupae, 1 d before adult emergence, were shown to deplete the O{sub 2} level in sealed bags in approximately 1 h. The rate of O{sub 2} consumption was dependent upon pupal age and incubation temperature. Incubation temperature did not significantly affect the quality of pupae or mating capacity of resultant adult males if pupae were irradiated under maximal hypoxic conditions inside packing bags. In contrast, mating competitiveness drastically decreased when pupae were irradiated under ambient O{sub 2} conditions, with the packing bag open. There was no difference in the mating capacity of males when pupae were irradiated in sealed bags under either 10% or 2% O{sub 2} levels, or under maximal hypoxia. Normal doses of fluorescent dye, applied to pupae to mark sterile flies, did not affect the ability of pupae to create hypoxic conditions inside packing bags, nor the quality control parameters of either pupae or adults. Current practices in mass-rearing facilities are discussed in the light of these results. (author) [Spanish] La irradiacion de pupas en proyectos de mosca esteril usualmente se hace bajo condiciones de hipoxia. Esta condicion ha demostrado ser menos detrimente a la calidad de las moscas que la irradiacion en atmosferas con proporcion normal de oxigeno. Aunque esta ha sido por mucho tiempo parte del protocolo de irradiacion en plantas de produccion de mosca esteril, hasta ahora no se ha medido el contenido de oxigeno dentro de los recipientes de empaque de pupa durante la irradiacion. El presente estudio investigo los contenidos de O{sub 2} en los contenedores de pupas de la mosca de las frutas del Mediterraneo (Ceratitis capitata Wiedeman), la habilidad de pupas de crear hipoxia dentro de los contenedores, y los efectos del contenido de O{sub 2} durante la irradiacion del contenedor en la calidad y capacidad de apareamiento de moscas esteriles. Pupas de un dia antes de emerger como adultos crearon atmosferas de maxima hipoxia dentro del empaque en aproximadamente una hora. La proporcion de consumo de O{sub 2} en contenedores sellados es dependiente de la edad de la pupa, y de la temperatura de incubacion. La temperatura de incubacion no afecto significativamente la calidad ni la capacidad de apareamiento de machos derivados de pupas irradiadas bajo condiciones de hipoxia. Sin embargo, la capacidad de apareamiento de machos irradiados como pupas en contenedores abiertos y en condiciones oxigenadas fue drasticamente afectada. En comparacion a los resultados anteriores, atmosferas de 2% y 10% O{sub 2} durante la irradiacion no afectaron la capacidad de apareamiento de moscas esteriles. Polvo fluorescente, aplicado a pupas para marcar las moscas esteriles, no tuvo efectos sobre la capacidad de las pupas de crear hipoxia. Los resultados de este estudio se discuten en base a las practicas actuales de produccion e irradiacion. (author)

  15. Does divergence in female mate choice affect male size distributions in two cave fish populations?

    PubMed

    Tobler, Michael; Schlupp, Ingo; Plath, Martin

    2008-10-23

    Sexual selection by female choice can maintain male traits that are counter selected by natural selection. Alteration of the potential for sexual selection can thus lead to shifts in the expression of male traits. We investigated female mate choice for large male body size in a fish (Poecilia mexicana) that, besides surface streams, also inhabits two caves. All four populations investigated, exhibited an ancestral visual preference for large males. However, only one of the cave populations also expressed this female preference in darkness. Hence, the lack of expression of female preference in darkness in the other cave population leads to relaxation of sexual selection for large male body size. While P. mexicana populations with size-specific female mate choice are characterized by a pronounced male size variation, the absence of female choice in one cave coincides with the absence of large bodied males in that population. Our results suggest that population differences in the potential for sexual selection may affect male trait variation. PMID:18559308

  16. Selection and characterization of a novel photoperiod-sensitive male sterile line in upland cotton.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jianhui; Wei, Hengling; Liu, Ji; Song, Meizhen; Pang, Chaoyou; Wang, Long; Zhang, Wenxiang; Fan, Shuli; Yu, Shuxun

    2013-07-01

    Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) shows strong heterosis. However, heterosis is not widely utilized owing to the high cost of hybrid seed production. Creation of a photoperiod-sensitive genetic male sterile line could substantially reduce the cost of hybrid seed production in upland cotton. Such a mutant with virescent marker was found by space mutation in near-earth orbit and its traits had been stable after 4 years of selection in Anyang and Sanya, China. This mutant was fertile with an 11-12.5?h photoperiod when the temperature was higher than 21.5?°C and was sterile with a 13-14.5?h photoperiod. Genetic analysis indicated that both traits were controlled by a single recessive gene or two closely linked genes. Also, the cytological observations and transcriptome profiling analysis showed that the degradation of pollen grain cytoplasm should be the primary reason why the mutant line were male sterile under long-day conditions. PMID:23691935

  17. Identification of fertiity restores for S male-sterile maize: beyond PPRs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nuclear genes are essential for expression of the mitochondrial genome and for the function of mitochondrial protein complexes. Interaction of the plant mitochondrial and nuclear genetic systems is exemplified by mitochondrial-encoded cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) under the control of nuclear fe...

  18. All male strains and chemical stimulants: Two ways to boost sterile mailes in SIT programs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical abstract: Genetic and chemical means have been developed to significantly improve the effectiveness of the sterile insect technique against tephritid fruit flies in recent years. Beginning with the development of genetic sexing techniques some 25 years ago, all-male strains of several spe...

  19. The Male Sterility Locus ms3 is Present in a Fertility Controlling Gene Cluster in Soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is a self-pollinated plant. Manual cross-pollination is used to produce limited quantities of hybrid seed. To produce large quantities of hybrid seed, insect-mediated cross-pollination is necessary. An efficient nuclear male-sterile system for hybrid seed producti...

  20. Molecular mapping of two environmentally sensitive male-sterile mutants in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], manual cross-pollination to produce large quantities of hybrid seed is difficult and time consuming. Identification of an environmentally stable male-sterility system could make hybrid seed production commercially valuable. In soybean, two environmentally sensi...

  1. Molecular mapping of three nuclear male sterility mutant genes in cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The nuclear male sterility (NMS) trait is a useful tool for sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) breeding and genetic programs. Previously, we induced NMS mutants in cultivated line HA 89. The mutants possessed single recessive genes, ms6, ms7, and ms8, respectively, in NMS HA 89-872, NMS HA 89-552, and...

  2. [Linkage map construction and mapping of a dominant genic male sterility gene (Ms) in Brassica napus].

    PubMed

    Lu, Guang-Yuan; Yang, Guang-Sheng; Fu, Ting-Dong

    2004-11-01

    A backcross population derived from a cross between the dominant genic male sterile line Rs1046A and the double-low cultivar 'Samourai' was used for linkage map construction in Brassica napus. A linkage map with a total length of 2 646 cM was developed using 138 AFLP markers, 83 SSR markers and one morphology trait, which were distributed over 18 major linkage groups, two triplets and one linkage pair. 11.7% of the mapped markers distorted from the expected 1:1 ratio. The dominant genic male sterility gene (Ms) was mapped in LG10 and surrounded by five closely linked AFLP markers. Meanwhile,two evident marker segregation distortion regions were observed in both LG8 and LG16. The map constructed in the present study and the mapping of Ms gene are highly valuable in designing marker-assisted breeding program for the genic male sterile two-type line in Brassica napus. They are also important to map-based cloning of the Ms gene and to better understanding of the mechanism of genic male sterility at molecular level. PMID:15651685

  3. Cytoplasmic effects on DNA methylation between male sterile line and its maintainer in rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hybrid rice is advantageous over the traditional one on food production, which is important to support the increasing world’s population, especially in the developing countries. Three-line system that has played a major role since the 1970s in rice includes male sterile (A line), its maintainer (B l...

  4. Expression of kenaf mitochondrial chimeric genes HM184 causes male sterility in transgenic tobacco plants.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanhong; Liao, Xiaofang; Huang, Zhipeng; Chen, Peng; Zhou, Bujin; Liu, Dongmei; Kong, Xiangjun; Zhou, Ruiyang

    2015-08-01

    Chimeric genes resulting from the rearrangement of a mitochondrial genome were generally thought to be a causal factor in the occurrence of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS). In the study, earlier we reported that identifying a 47?bp deletion at 3'- flanking of atp9 that was linked to male sterile cytoplasm in kenaf. The truncated fragment was fused with atp9, a mitochondrial transit signal (MTS) and/or GFP, comprised two chimeric genes MTS-HM184-GFP and MTS-HM184. The plant expression vector pBI121 containing chimeric genes were then introduced to tobacco plants by Agrobacterium-mediated T-DNA transformation. The result showed that certain transgenic plants were male sterility or semi-sterility, while some were not. The expression analysis further demonstrated that higher level of expression were showed in the sterility plants, while no expression or less expression in fertility plants, the levels of expression of semi-sterility were in between. And the sterile plant (containing MTS-HM184-GFP) had abnormal anther produced malformed/shriveled pollen grains stained negative that failed to germinate (0%), the corresponding fruits was shrunken, the semi-sterile plants having normal anther shape produced about 10-50% normal pollen grains, the corresponding fruits were not full, and the germination rate was 58%. Meanwhile these transgenic plants which altered on fertility were further analyzed in phenotype. As a result, the metamorphosis leaves were observed in the seedling stage, the plant height of transgenic plants was shorter than wild type. The growth duration of transgenic tobacco was delayed 30-45 days compared to the wild type. The copy numbers of target genes of transgenic tobacco were analyzed using the real-time quantitative method. The results showed that these transgenic plants targeting-expression in mitochondrial containing MTS-HM184-GFP had 1 copy and 2 copies, the other two plants containing MTS-HM184 both had 3 copies, but 0 copy in wild type. In summary, the two manual chimeric genes might be related to male sterility in kenaf. PMID:24617462

  5. Male Megacyllene robiniae (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) use multiple tactics when aggressively competing for mates.

    PubMed

    Ray, Ann M; Ginzel, Matthew D; Hanks, Lawrence M

    2009-04-01

    Adult male Megacyllene robiniae (Förster) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) that are paired with a female often are challenged by conspecific males that attempt to displace them. In staged laboratory bouts, challenging males used seven distinct tactics to displace defending males, including wedging their head between the defender and the female (termed wedging), straddling the mated pair and pulling the defender off (prying), pulling it with the mandibles, batting it with the antennae, or pushing, biting, or kicking the defender. Individual challengers attempted as many as six different tactics in a single bout, repeating certain tactics multiple times. They often attempted tactics that were not very effective. For example, prying was one of the most common attempted tactics but was rarely effective. However, few challengers attempted to push defenders off the female, even though that tactic often was effective. Challengers apparently were influenced by context in their choice of particular tactics. For example, males that approached the mated pair from the side were likely to use wedging, whereas those approaching head on were more likely to bat with the antennae. Choice of tactic apparently was not influenced by absolute size of challengers, nor was it strongly influenced by relative size of defenders. However, the effectiveness of tactics varied significantly with relative body size: larger challengers were most successful when prying or pushing, while smaller challengers were most successful when biting and kicking. By using different tactics, relatively small males were as adept as larger males at displacing rivals. PMID:19389292

  6. A potential role of male and female androgen in species recognition in a unisexual-bisexual mating complex.

    PubMed

    Gabor, Caitlin R; Grober, Matthew S

    2010-04-01

    Hormones play a critical role in the regulation of vertebrate mating behavior, including receptivity, and several components of mate choice. However, less is known about the role of these chemical messengers in mediating behavior associated with premating reproductive isolation. The bisexual-unisexual mating complex of sailfin mollies, Poecilia latipinna, and Amazon mollies, Poecilia formosa (sexual parasites of sailfins) has been a model system for studying ultimate mechanisms of species recognition. However proximate mechanisms, such as variation in hormone levels, have not been examined. We paired male sailfin mollies with either female conspecifics or Amazon mollies and obtained water-borne hormone samples before and after mating for all fish. We measured 11-ketotestosterone, testosterone, and estradiol from the water samples. As expected from previous studies, males mated with conspecifics more frequently than with Amazon mollies. 11-Ketotestosterone production by males increased when they mated with female sailfin mollies who themselves also showed elevated production of 11-ketotestosterone. This increase in male and female 11-ketotestosterone levels was not seen when males mated with Amazon mollies. This unique endocrine interaction represents a potential proximate mechanism for species recognition by male sailfin mollies. We found no significant change in testosterone or estradiol under these conditions suggesting that a single hormone mediates bidirectional interactions between males and females during courtship. PMID:20100486

  7. Multiple mating and its relationship to alternative modes of gestation in male-pregnant versus female-pregnant fish species.

    PubMed

    Avise, John C; Liu, Jin-Xian

    2010-11-01

    We construct a verbal and graphical theory (the "fecundity-limitation hypothesis") about how constraints on the brooding space for embryos probably truncate individual fecundity in male-pregnant and female-pregnant species in ways that should differentially influence selection pressures for multiple mating by males or by females. We then review the empirical literature on genetically deduced rates of multiple mating by the embryo-brooding parent in various fish species with three alternative categories of pregnancy: internal gestation by males, internal gestation by females, and external gestation (in nests) by males. Multiple mating by the brooding gender was common in all three forms of pregnancy. However, rates of multiple mating as well as mate numbers for the pregnant parent averaged higher in species with external as compared with internal male pregnancy, and also for dams in female-pregnant species versus sires in male-pregnant species. These outcomes are all consistent with the theory that different types of pregnancy have predictable consequences for a parent's brood space, its effective fecundity, its opportunities and rewards for producing half-sib clutches, and thereby its exposure to selection pressures for seeking multiple mates. Overall, we try to fit these fecundity-limitation phenomena into a broader conceptual framework for mating-system evolution that also includes anisogamy, sexual-selection gradients, parental investment, and other selective factors that can influence the relative proclivities of males versus females to seek multiple sexual partners. PMID:20956296

  8. A novel male sterility-fertility restoration system in plants for hybrid seed production

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Surendra Pratap; Singh, Sudhir P.; Pandey, Tripti; Singh, Ram Rakshpal; Sawant, Samir V.

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid seeds are used for stimulated crop production, as they harness heterosis. The achievement of complete male-sterility in the female-parent and the restored-fertility in F1-hybrids are the major bottlenecks in the commercial hybrid seed production. Here, we report a male sterility–fertility restoration system by engineering the inmost nutritive anther wall layer tapetum of female and male parents. In the female parent, high–level, and stringent expression of Arabidopsis autophagy–related gene BECLIN1 was achieved in the tapetum, which altered the tapetal degeneration program, leading to male sterility. This works on our previously demonstrated expression cassette based on functional complementation of TATA-box mutant (TGTA) promoter and TATA-binding protein mutant3 (TBPm3), with modification by conjugating Long Hypocotyle in Far-Red1 fragment (HFR1NT131) with TBPm3 (HFR1NT131-TBPm3) to exercise regulatory control over it. In the male parent, tapetum–specific Constitutive photo-morphogenesis1 (COP1) was expressed. The F1 obtained by crossing these engineered parents showed decreased BECLIN1 expression, which was further completely abolished when COP1-mutant (COP1L105A) was used as a male parent, leading to normal tapetal development and restored fertility. The system works on COP1-HFR1 interaction and COP1–mediated degradation of TBPm3 pool (HFR1NT131-TBPm3). The system can be deployed for hybrid seed production in agricultural crops. PMID:26073981

  9. A novel male sterility-fertility restoration system in plants for hybrid seed production.

    PubMed

    Singh, Surendra Pratap; Singh, Sudhir P; Pandey, Tripti; Singh, Ram Rakshpal; Sawant, Samir V

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid seeds are used for stimulated crop production, as they harness heterosis. The achievement of complete male-sterility in the female-parent and the restored-fertility in F1-hybrids are the major bottlenecks in the commercial hybrid seed production. Here, we report a male sterility-fertility restoration system by engineering the in most nutritive anther wall layer tapetum of female and male parents. In the female parent, high-level, and stringent expression of Arabidopsis autophagy-related gene BECLIN1 was achieved in the tapetum, which altered the tapetal degeneration program, leading to male sterility. This works on our previously demonstrated expression cassette based on functional complementation of TATA-box mutant (TGTA) promoter and TATA-binding protein mutant3 (TBPm3), with modification by conjugating Long Hypocotyle in Far-Red1 fragment (HFR1(NT131)) with TBPm3 (HFR1(NT131)-TBPm3) to exercise regulatory control over it. In the male parent, tapetum-specific Constitutive photo-morphogenesis1 (COP1) was expressed. The F1 obtained by crossing these engineered parents showed decreased BECLIN1 expression, which was further completely abolished when COP1-mutant (COP1(L105A)) was used as a male parent, leading to normal tapetal development and restored fertility. The system works on COP1-HFR1 interaction and COP1-mediated degradation of TBPm3 pool (HFR1(NT131)-TBPm3). The system can be deployed for hybrid seed production in agricultural crops. PMID:26073981

  10. Male wing color properties predict the size of nuptial gifts given during mating in the Pipevine Swallowtail butterfly ( Battus philenor)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajyaguru, Parth K.; Pegram, Kimberly V.; Kingston, Alexandra C. N.; Rutowski, Ronald L.

    2013-06-01

    In many animals, males bear bright ornamental color patches that may signal both the direct and indirect benefits that a female might accrue from mating with him. Here we test whether male coloration in the Pipevine Swallowtail butterfly, Battus philenor, predicts two potential direct benefits for females: brief copulation duration and the quantity of materials the male passes to the female during mating. In this species, males have a bright iridescent blue field on the dorsal hindwing surface, while females have little or no dorsal iridescence. Females preferentially mate with males who display a bright and highly chromatic blue field on their dorsal hindwing. In this study, we show that the chroma of the blue field on the male dorsal hindwing and male body size (forewing length) significantly predict the mass of material or spermatophore that a male forms within the female's copulatory sac during mating. We also found that spermatophore mass correlated negatively with copulation duration, but that color variables did not significantly predict this potential direct benefit. These results suggest that females may enhance the material benefits they receive during mating by mating with males based on the coloration of their dorsal hindwing.

  11. Genetic Architecture of Autosome-Mediated Hybrid Male Sterility in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Marin, I.

    1996-01-01

    Several estimators have been developed for assesing the number of sterility factors in a chromosome based on the sizes of fertile and sterile introgressed fragments. Assuming that two factors are required for producing sterility, simulations show that one of these, twice the inverse of the relative size of the largest fertile fragment, provides good average approximations when as few as five fertile fragments are analyzed. The estimators have been used for deducing the number of factors from previous data on several pairs of species. A particular result contrasts with the authors' interpretations: instead of the high number of sterility factors suggested, only a few per autosome are estimated in both reciprocal crosses involving Drosophila buzzatii and D. koepferae. It has been possible to map these factors, between three and six per chromosome, in the autosomes 3 and 4 of these species. Out of 203 introgressions of different fragments or combinations of fragments, the outcome of at least 192 is explained by the mapped zones. These results suggest that autosome-mediated sterility in the male hybrids of these species is mediated by a few epistatic factors, similarly to X-mediated sterility in the hybrids of other Drosophila species. PMID:8846896

  12. Balancing foraging and reproduction in the male harbour seal, an aquatically mating pinniped

    PubMed

    Coltman; Bowen; Boness; Iverson

    1997-09-01

    Aquatically mating male harbour seals, Phoca vitulinamust balance the competing demands of foraging and reproduction while at sea during the breeding season. Time-depth recorders (TDRs) were attached to 31 adult male harbour seals to investigate changes in diving behaviour at Sable Island, Nova Scotia, during the 1992-1994 breeding seasons. Male seals were captured, fitted with TDRs and weighed at the beginning of the season in late May, then recaptured for TDR removal and reweighing at the end of June. Males made deep dives (to maximum depths >20 m) more frequently early in the breeding season, then switched to shallow (mating period. Deep dives (38.8±2.2 m; 4.6±0.1 min) were fairly uniform in shape, appearing flat-bottomed with rapid rates of descent and ascent and long bottom time, but shallow dives (10.5±0.5 m; 3.0±0.1 min) were more variable in shape. Rates of mass loss varied inversely with time spent in deep dives, indicating that deep diving behaviour reflects foraging activity. Males lost mass while making shallow dives associated with mating behaviour later in the breeding season. Deep diving occurred more frequently during daylight hours. Shallow dives were predominant at twilight and at night when females are likely to be departing and returning to the island from foraging trips in late lactation. At Sable Island, males may maximize their encounter rates with oestrous females by ceasing to make offshore foraging trips, and increasing the time spent patrolling home ranges and displaying in shallow water near the breeding colony in late lactation. Relatively larger males may have a competitive advantage since they can afford to spend less time making foraging trips away from the concentration of females and more time displaying in shallow water near the shore.1997The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour PMID:9299050

  13. Individual consistency in exploratory behaviour and mating tactics in male guppies.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Jennifer L; Phillips, Samuel C; Evans, Jonathan P

    2013-10-01

    While behavioural plasticity is considered an adaptation to fluctuating social and environmental conditions, many animals also display a high level of individual consistency in their behaviour over time or across contexts (generally termed 'personality'). However, studies of animal personalities that include sexual behaviour, or functionally distinct but correlated traits, are relatively scarce. In this study, we tested for individual behavioural consistency in courtship and exploratory behaviour in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in two light environments (high vs. low light intensity). Based on previous work on guppies, we predicted that males would modify their behaviour from sneak mating tactics to courtship displays under low light conditions, but also that the rank orders of courtship effort would remain unchanged (i.e. highly sexually active individuals would display relatively high levels of courtship under both light regimes). We also tested for correlations between courtship and exploratory behaviour, predicting that males that had high display rates would also be more likely to approach a novel object. Although males showed significant consistency in their exploratory and mating behaviour over time (1 week), we found no evidence that these traits constituted a behavioural syndrome. Furthermore, in contrast to previous work, we found no overall effect of the light environment on any of the behaviours measured, although males responded to the treatment on an individual-level basis, as reflected by a significant individual-by-environment interaction. The future challenge is to investigate how individual consistency across different environmental contexts relates to male reproductive success. PMID:24036665

  14. Male-specific (Z)-9-tricosene stimulates female mating behaviour in the spider Pholcus beijingensis

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yong-Hong; Zhang, Jian-Xu; Li, Shu-Qiang

    2010-01-01

    Chemical signals play an important role in spider sexual communication, yet the chemistry of spider sex pheromones remains poorly understood. Chemical identification of male-produced pheromone-mediating sexual behaviour in spiders has also, to our knowledge, not been reported before. This study aimed to examine whether chemically mediated strategies are used by males of the spider Pholcus beijingensis for increasing the probability of copulation. Based on data from gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis, electroantennography assay and a series of behavioural tests, we verified that (Z)-9-tricosene is a male-specific compound in the spider P. beijingensis. This compound acts as an aphrodisiac: it increases the likelihood that a female will mate. Mate-searching males release (Z)-9-tricosene to stimulate sexual behaviour of conspecific females. In the two-choice assay, however, sexually receptive females show no preference to the chambers containing (Z)-9-tricosene. This indicates that the male pheromone of P. beijingensis is not an attractant per se to the conspecific females. This is, to our knowledge, the first identification of a male-produced aphrodisiac pheromone in spiders. PMID:20462911

  15. Individual consistency in exploratory behaviour and mating tactics in male guppies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Jennifer L.; Phillips, Samuel C.; Evans, Jonathan P.

    2013-10-01

    While behavioural plasticity is considered an adaptation to fluctuating social and environmental conditions, many animals also display a high level of individual consistency in their behaviour over time or across contexts (generally termed ‘personality’). However, studies of animal personalities that include sexual behaviour, or functionally distinct but correlated traits, are relatively scarce. In this study, we tested for individual behavioural consistency in courtship and exploratory behaviour in male guppies ( Poecilia reticulata) in two light environments (high vs. low light intensity). Based on previous work on guppies, we predicted that males would modify their behaviour from sneak mating tactics to courtship displays under low light conditions, but also that the rank orders of courtship effort would remain unchanged (i.e. highly sexually active individuals would display relatively high levels of courtship under both light regimes). We also tested for correlations between courtship and exploratory behaviour, predicting that males that had high display rates would also be more likely to approach a novel object. Although males showed significant consistency in their exploratory and mating behaviour over time (1 week), we found no evidence that these traits constituted a behavioural syndrome. Furthermore, in contrast to previous work, we found no overall effect of the light environment on any of the behaviours measured, although males responded to the treatment on an individual-level basis, as reflected by a significant individual-by-environment interaction. The future challenge is to investigate how individual consistency across different environmental contexts relates to male reproductive success.

  16. In the nick of time: males of the parasitoid wasp Pimpla disparis respond to semiochemicals from emerging mates.

    PubMed

    Hrabar, Michael; Danci, Adela; Schaefer, Paul W; Gries, Gerhard

    2012-03-01

    Males of the parasitoid wasp Pimpla disparis Viereck (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) aggregate on parasitized gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, host pupae when the emergence of a prospective mate is imminent or under way. We tested the hypotheses that the developing parasitoid ("DePa") inside the host pupal case produces a pheromone that attracts and arrests mate-seeking males, and that the pheromone is most effective during the emergence of the parasitoid from the host. Results obtained in two-choice laboratory experiments, with 4-7-d-old virgin males, indicate that (1) DePa-derived semiochemicals arrest males, (2) the opening of a host pupal case strongly arrests males, and (3) the arrestment cue emanates from oral fluid secreted by both female and male parasitoids while they chew their way out of a host pupal case. This phenomenon implies that emerging females, which are haplodiploid and can reproduce without mating, do not engage in active pheromone signaling to attract males, and that mate-seeking males co-opt chemicals involved in eclosion as a mate-finding cue, taking a 50% chance that the prospective mate is a female. PMID:22392084

  17. Single-layer tungsten oxide as intelligent photo-responsive nanoagents for permanent male sterilization.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen; Liu, Xianjun; Ran, Xiang; Ju, Enguo; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

    2015-11-01

    Permanent male sterilization has been recognized as useful tools for the development of neuter experimental animals and fattening livestock, as well as efficient control of pet overpopulation. Traditional routes such as surgical ways, chemical injections, and anti-fertility vaccines have addressed these crucial problems with idea outcomes. However, these routes usually bring out serious pain and infection towards animals, as well as induce long-term adverse reaction and immune suppression. Thus, a convenient, but non-surgical strategy for male sterilization under a mild manner is highly desirable. Here, for the first time, we demonstrate a novel platform for male sterilization by using single-layer WO2.72 nanosheets as smart photo-responsive sterilants. Upon a 980 nm irradiation, these nanoagents can possess intrinsic NIR-induced hyperthermia and sensitize the formation of singlet oxygen due to the cooperation of photothermal and photodynamic effects. Mechanism of cellular injury can be attributed to the denaturation of protein and apoptosis-related death. Moreover, long-term toxicity and possible metabolism route after testicular injection are discussed, indicating the neglectable systemic toxicity and high bio-compatibility of our nanoagents. Overall, our strategy can extremely overcome the shortcomings in various routine routes and suggest the new biological application of nanomaterials. PMID:26280950

  18. A barley PHD finger transcription factor that confers male sterility by affecting tapetal development.

    PubMed

    Fernández Gómez, José; Wilson, Zoe A

    2014-08-01

    Controlling pollen development is of major commercial importance in generating hybrid crops and selective breeding, but characterized genes for male sterility in crops are rare, with no current examples in barley. However, translation of knowledge from model species is now providing opportunities to understand and manipulate such processes in economically important crops. We have used information from regulatory networks in Arabidopsis to identify and functionally characterize a barley PHD transcription factor MALE STERTILITY1 (MS1), which expresses in the anther tapetum and plays a critical role during pollen development. Comparative analysis of Arabidopsis, rice and Brachypodium genomes was used to identify conserved regions in MS1 for primer design to amplify the barley MS1 gene; RACE-PCR was subsequently used to generate the full-length sequence. This gene shows anther-specific tapetal expression, between late tetrad stage and early microspore release. HvMS1 silencing and overexpression in barley resulted in male sterility. Additionally, HvMS1 cDNA, controlled by the native Arabidopsis MS1 promoter, successfully complemented the homozygous ms1 Arabidopsis mutant. These results confirm the conservation of MS1 function in higher plants and in particular in temperate cereals. This has provided the first example of a characterized male sterility gene in barley, which presents a valuable tool for the future control of male fertility in barley for hybrid development. PMID:24684666

  19. Hybridization using cytoplasmic male sterility, cytoplasmic herbicide tolerance, and herbicide tolerance from nuclear genes

    SciTech Connect

    Beversdorf, W.D.; Erickson, L.R.; Grant, I.

    1987-04-14

    An improved process is described for producing a substantially homogeneous population of plants of a predetermined hybrid variety of crop which is capable of undergoing self-pollination and cross-pollination. The process comprises: growing in a first planting area a substantially random population of cytoplasmic male sterile plants which exhibit cytoplasmic herbicide tolerance to at least one Type A herbicide and exhibit tolerance to at least one Type B herbicide which is attributable solely to homozygous dominant nuclear genes and male fertile plants which are homozygous recessive maintainer plants for the cytoplasmic male sterile plants and which lack the cytoplasmic herbicide tolerance to at least one Type A herbicide and exhibit tolerance to at least one Type B herbicide attributable solely to the homozygous dominant nuclear genes.

  20. Taurine enhances the sexual response and mating ability in aged male rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiancheng; Lin, Shumei; Feng, Ying; Wu, Gaofeng; Hu, Jianmin

    2013-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that taurine is abundant in male reproductive organs, and can be biosynthesized by testis, but the taurine concentration will reduce with aging. The levels of serum LH, T, NOS, and NO were found to be obviously increased by taurine supplementation in aged rats in our previous study. In addition, aging will result in a significant decline in sexual response and function, which may be attributed to the androgen deficiency. Furthermore, NO has been proposed as a crucial mediator of penile erection. That makes us hypothesize that there is potential relationship between taurine decline and erection dysfunction in aged males. So the primary aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of taurine on male sexuality in rats. Taurine was offered in water to male aged (20 months old) rats for 110 days. The effects of taurine on the sexual response, mating ability, levels of serum reproductive hormones, and penile NOS and NO levels were investigated. The results showed that taurine can significantly reduce the EL and ML; obviously increase the ERF, MF, IF, and EJF; stimulate the secretion of GnRH, LH, and T; and elevate penis NOS and NO level in aged rats. The results indicated that taurine can enhance the sexual response and mating ability in aged male rats by increasing the level of testosterone and NO, but the exact mechanism of which needs to be further investigated. PMID:23392896

  1. Male mate choice scales female ornament allometry in a cichlid fish

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Studies addressing the adaptive significance of female ornamentation have gained ground recently. However, the expression of female ornaments in relation to body size, known as trait allometry, still remains unexplored. Here, we investigated the allometry of a conspicuous female ornament in Pelvicachromis taeniatus, a biparental cichlid that shows mutual mate choice and ornamentation. Females feature an eye-catching pelvic fin greatly differing from that of males. Results We show that allometry of the female pelvic fin is scaled more positively in comparison to other fins. The pelvic fin exhibits isometry, whereas the other fins (except the caudal fin) show negative allometry. The size of the pelvic fin might be exaggerated by male choice because males prefer female stimuli that show a larger extension of the trait. Female pelvic fin size is correlated with individual condition, suggesting that males can assess direct and indirect benefits. Conclusions The absence of positive ornament allometry might be a result of sexual selection constricted by natural selection: fins are related to locomotion and thus may be subject to viability selection. Our study provides evidence that male mate choice might scale the expression of a female sexual ornament, and therefore has implications for the understanding of the relationship of female sexual traits with body size in species with conventional sex-roles. PMID:20932273

  2. Effects of breeding success, mate fidelity and senescence on breeding dispersal of male and female blue-footed boobies.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sin-Yeon; Torres, Roxana; Rodríguez, Cristina; Drummond, Hugh

    2007-05-01

    1. Understanding the effects of individual and population factors on variation in breeding dispersal (the movement of individuals between successive breeding sites) is key to identifying the strategies behind breeders' movements. Dispersal is often influenced by multiple factors and these can be confounded with each other. We used 13 years of data on the locations, mates, breeding success and ages of individuals to tease apart the factors influencing breeding dispersal in a colonially breeding long-lived seabird, the blue-footed booby Sula nebouxii. 2. Breeding dispersal varied among and within years. Males dispersed further in years of higher population density, and late breeding males and females dispersed further than early breeders. This temporal variation related to changes in competition for territory was taken into account in all tests of individual factors influencing breeding dispersal. 3. Individuals that retained their mates from the previous year dispersed shorter distances than those that changed their mates. 4. The effect of previous breeding success depended on mate fidelity. Unsuccessful breeding induced greater dispersal in birds that changed their mates but not in birds that retained their mates, indicating that breeders who change mates may take their own previous breeding experience into account during habitat selection. Faithful individuals may have to stay close to their previous sites to encounter their mates. 5. Male divorcees dispersed over shorter distances than their former mates, possibly because males contribute more than females to establishing territories. 6. Dispersal of males and females declined with increasing age over the first 10-11 years of life, then increased in old age, possibly due to senescent decay in the ability to compete for mates and territories. PMID:17439464

  3. Gonad morphogenesis defects drive hybrid male sterility in asymmetric hybrid breakdown of Caenorhabditis nematodes.

    PubMed

    Dey, Alivia; Jin, Qi; Chen, Yen-Chu; Cutter, Asher D

    2014-01-01

    Determining the causes and evolution of reproductive barriers to gene flow between populations, speciation, is the key to understanding the origin of diversity in nature. Many species manifest hybrid breakdown when they intercross, characterized by increasingly exacerbated problems in later generations of hybrids. Recently, Caenorhabditis nematodes have emerged as a genetic model for studying speciation, and here we investigate the nature and causes of hybrid breakdown between Caenorhabditis remanei and C. latens. We quantify partial F1 hybrid inviability and extensive F2 hybrid inviability; the ~75% F2 embryonic arrest occurs primarily during gastrulation or embryonic elongation. Moreover, F1 hybrid males exhibit Haldane's rule asymmetrically for both sterility and inviability, being strongest when C. remanei serves as maternal parent. We show that the mechanism by which sterile hybrid males are incapable of transferring sperm or a copulatory plug involves defective gonad morphogenesis, which we hypothesize results from linker cell defects in migration and/or cell death during development. This first documented case of partial hybrid male sterility in Caenorhabditis follows expectations of Darwin's corollary to Haldane's rule for asymmetric male fitness, providing a powerful foundation for molecular dissection of intrinsic reproductive barriers and divergence of genetic pathways controlling organ morphogenesis. PMID:25196892

  4. Programmed cell death promotes male sterility in the functional dioecious Opuntia stenopetala (Cactaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Rentería, Lluvia; Orozco-Arroyo, Gregorio; Cruz-García, Felipe; García-Campusano, Florencia; Alfaro, Isabel; Vázquez-Santana, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The sexual separation in dioecious species has interested biologists for decades; however, the cellular mechanism leading to unisexuality has been poorly understood. In this study, the cellular changes that lead to male sterility in the functionally dioecious cactus, Opuntia stenopetala, are described. Methods The spatial and temporal patterns of programmed cell death (PCD) were determined in the anthers of male and female flowers using scanning electron microscopy analysis and histological observations, focusing attention on the transition from bisexual to unisexual development. In addition, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling assays were used as an indicator of DNA fragmentation to corroborate PCD. Key results PCD was detected in anthers of both female and male flowers, but their patterns differed in time and space. Functionally male individuals developed viable pollen, and normal development involved PCD on each layer of the anther wall, which occurred progressively from the inner (tapetum) to the outer layer (epidermis). Conversely, functional female individuals aborted anthers by premature and displaced PCD. In anthers of female flowers, the first signs of PCD, such as a nucleus with irregular shape, fragmented and condensed chromatin, high vacuolization and condensed cytoplasm, occurred at the microspore mother cell stage. Later these features were observed simultaneously in all anther wall layers, connective tissue and filament. Neither pollen formation nor anther dehiscence was detected in female flowers of O. stenopetala due to total anther disruption. Conclusions Temporal and spatial changes in the patterns of PCD are responsible for male sterility of female flowers in O. stenopetala. Male fertility requires the co-ordination of different events, which, when altered, can lead to male sterility and to functionally unisexual individuals. PCD could be a widespread mechanism in the determination of functionally dioecious species. PMID:23877075

  5. A larger brain confers a benefit in a spatial mate search learning task in male guppies

    PubMed Central

    Corral-Lopez, Alberto; Amcoff, Mirjam; Kolm, Niclas

    2015-01-01

    Brain size varies dramatically among vertebrates, and selection for increased cognitive abilities is thought to be the key force underlying the evolution of a large brain. Indeed, numerous comparative studies suggest positive relationships between cognitively demanding aspects of behavior and brain size controlled for body size. However, experimental evidence for the link between relative brain size and cognitive ability is surprisingly scarce and to date stems from a single study on brain size selected guppies (Poecilia reticulata), where large-brained females were shown to outperform small-brained females in a numerical learning assay. Because the results were inconclusive for males in that study, we here use a more ecologically relevant test of male cognitive ability to investigate whether or not a relatively larger brain increases cognitive ability also in males. We compared mate search ability of these artificially selected large- and small-brained males in a maze and found that large-brained males were faster at learning to find a female in a maze. Large-brained males decreased the time spent navigating the maze faster than small-brained males and were nearly twice as fast through the maze after 2 weeks of training. Our results support that relatively larger brains are better also for males in some contexts, which further substantiates that variation in vertebrate brain size is generated through the balance between energetic costs and cognitive benefits. PMID:25825587

  6. Differential Proteomic Analysis of Anthers between Cytoplasmic Male Sterile and Maintainer Lines in Capsicum annuum L

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhiming; Cheng, Jiaowen; Qin, Cheng; Hu, Zhiqun; Yin, Caixia; Hu, Kailin

    2013-01-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), widely used in the production of hybrid seeds, is a maternally inherited trait resulting in a failure to produce functional pollen. In order to identify some specific proteins associated with CMS in pepper, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) was applied to proteomic analysis of anthers/buds between a CMS line (designated NA3) and its maintainer (designated NB3) in Capsicum annuum L. Thirty-three spots showed more than 1.5-fold in either CMS or its maintainer. Based on mass spectrometry, 27 spots representing 23 distinct proteins in these 33 spots were identified. Proteins down-regulated in CMS anthers/buds includes ATP synthase D chain, formate dehydrogenase, alpha-mannosidas, RuBisCO large subunit-binding protein subunit beta, chloroplast manganese stabilizing protein-II, glutathione S-transferase, adenosine kinase isoform 1T-like protein, putative DNA repair protein RAD23-4, putative caffeoyl-CoA 3-O-methyltransferase, glutamine synthetase (GS), annexin Cap32, glutelin, allene oxide cyclase, etc. In CMS anthers/buds, polyphenol oxidase, ATP synthase subunit beta, and actin are up-regulated. It was predicted that male sterility in NA3 might be related to energy metabolism turbulence, excessive ethylene synthesis, and suffocation of starch synthesis. The present study lays a foundation for future investigations of gene functions associated with pollen development and cytoplasmic male sterility, and explores the molecular mechanism of CMS in pepper. PMID:24264042

  7. Suppression of cytoplasmic male sterility by nuclear genes alters expression of a novel mitochondrial gene region.

    PubMed Central

    Singh, M; Brown, G G

    1991-01-01

    To identify regions of the mitochondrial genome that potentially could specify the "Polima" (pol) cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) of Brassica napus, transcripts of 14 mitochondrial genes from nap (male fertile), pol (male sterile), and nuclear fertility-restored pol cytoplasm plants were analyzed. Transcriptional differences among these plants were detected only with the ATPase subunit 6 (atp6) gene. Structural analysis of the atp6 gene regions of pol and nap mitochondrial DNAs showed that rearrangements in the pol mitochondrial genome occurring upstream of atp6 have generated a chimeric 224-codon open reading frame, designated orf224, that is cotranscribed with atp6. In CMS plants, most transcripts of this region are dicistronic, comprising both orf224 and atp6 sequences. Nuclear restorer genes at either of two distinct loci appear to specifically alter this transcript pattern such that monocistronic atp6 transcripts predominate. The differences in expression of this region appear to result, in part, from differential processing of a tRNA-like element comprising a tRNA pseudogene present immediately upstream of atp6 in both the sterile and fertile mitochondrial DNAs. Possible mechanisms by which expression of the orf224/atp6 locus and the Polima CMS trait may be specifically related are considered. PMID:1840901

  8. [RNA fingerprinting of the differential expression fragments related to cytoplasmic male sterility in Chinese cabbage].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhan-Feng; Zhang, Lu-Gang; Wang, Qi; Hui, Mai-Xia; Zhang, Ming-Ke

    2006-10-01

    In order to investigate the differential expression of the genes related to cytoplasmic male sterility in Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. Penkinsis), a modified RNA fingerprinting technique was developed to compare the difference in the total RNA from flower bud of Chinese cabbage among cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) lines, maintainer lines and F1 hybrids. Four stably differential fragments S47-412, S93-622, S176-343 and S199-904 were amplified, cloned and sequenced with primers selected from 186 random primers. Based on the nucleotide sequence of the four differential fragments, four pairs of specific primers were designed to validate the differential fragments. The validation showed S47-412 and S93-622 were false positives and S176-343 and S199-904 were confirmed by PCR with the specific primers. Sequence analysis revealed that both of two differential fragments had strong homology with the nucleotide sequence of orf224/atp6 site of Polima CMS and the nucleotide sequence of S176-343 and S199-904 had a superposed region. All these indicate that the two fragments probably have strong relationship with cytoplasmic male sterility in Chinese cabbage. PMID:17035188

  9. Suppression of cytoplasmic male sterility by nuclear genes alters expression of a novel mitochondrial gene region.

    PubMed

    Singh, M; Brown, G G

    1991-12-01

    To identify regions of the mitochondrial genome that potentially could specify the "Polima" (pol) cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) of Brassica napus, transcripts of 14 mitochondrial genes from nap (male fertile), pol (male sterile), and nuclear fertility-restored pol cytoplasm plants were analyzed. Transcriptional differences among these plants were detected only with the ATPase subunit 6 (atp6) gene. Structural analysis of the atp6 gene regions of pol and nap mitochondrial DNAs showed that rearrangements in the pol mitochondrial genome occurring upstream of atp6 have generated a chimeric 224-codon open reading frame, designated orf224, that is cotranscribed with atp6. In CMS plants, most transcripts of this region are dicistronic, comprising both orf224 and atp6 sequences. Nuclear restorer genes at either of two distinct loci appear to specifically alter this transcript pattern such that monocistronic atp6 transcripts predominate. The differences in expression of this region appear to result, in part, from differential processing of a tRNA-like element comprising a tRNA pseudogene present immediately upstream of atp6 in both the sterile and fertile mitochondrial DNAs. Possible mechanisms by which expression of the orf224/atp6 locus and the Polima CMS trait may be specifically related are considered. PMID:1840901

  10. Sex Ratio Meiotic Drive as a Plausible Evolutionary Mechanism for Hybrid Male Sterility

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Linbin; Xiao, Hailian; Tao, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Biological diversity on Earth depends on the multiplication of species or speciation, which is the evolution of reproductive isolation such as hybrid sterility between two new species. An unsolved puzzle is the exact mechanism(s) that causes two genomes to diverge from their common ancestor so that some divergent genes no longer function properly in the hybrids. Here we report genetic analyses of divergent genes controlling male fertility and sex ratio in two very young fruitfly species, Drosophila albomicans and D. nasuta. A majority of the genetic divergence for both traits is mapped to the same regions by quantitative trait loci mappings. With introgressions, six major loci are found to contribute to both traits. This genetic colocalization implicates that genes for hybrid male sterility have evolved primarily for controlling sex ratio. We propose that genetic conflicts over sex ratio may operate as a perpetual dynamo for genome divergence. This particular evolutionary mechanism may largely contribute to the rapid evolution of hybrid male sterility and the disproportionate enrichment of its underlying genes on the X chromosome – two patterns widely observed across animals. PMID:25822261

  11. Sex ratio meiotic drive as a plausible evolutionary mechanism for hybrid male sterility.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Linbin; Sun, Tianai; Woldesellassie, Fitsum; Xiao, Hailian; Tao, Yun

    2015-03-01

    Biological diversity on Earth depends on the multiplication of species or speciation, which is the evolution of reproductive isolation such as hybrid sterility between two new species. An unsolved puzzle is the exact mechanism(s) that causes two genomes to diverge from their common ancestor so that some divergent genes no longer function properly in the hybrids. Here we report genetic analyses of divergent genes controlling male fertility and sex ratio in two very young fruitfly species, Drosophila albomicans and D. nasuta. A majority of the genetic divergence for both traits is mapped to the same regions by quantitative trait loci mappings. With introgressions, six major loci are found to contribute to both traits. This genetic colocalization implicates that genes for hybrid male sterility have evolved primarily for controlling sex ratio. We propose that genetic conflicts over sex ratio may operate as a perpetual dynamo for genome divergence. This particular evolutionary mechanism may largely contribute to the rapid evolution of hybrid male sterility and the disproportionate enrichment of its underlying genes on the X chromosome--two patterns widely observed across animals. PMID:25822261

  12. Differential allocation in a lekking bird: females lay larger eggs and are more likely to have male chicks when they mate with less related males

    PubMed Central

    Sardell, Rebecca J.; DuVal, Emily H.

    2014-01-01

    The differential allocation hypothesis predicts increased investment in offspring when females mate with high-quality males. Few studies have tested whether investment varies with mate relatedness, despite evidence that non-additive gene action influences mate and offspring genetic quality. We tested whether female lekking lance-tailed manakins (Chiroxiphia lanceolata) adjust offspring sex and egg volume in response to mate attractiveness (annual reproductive success, ARS), heterozygosity and relatedness. Across 968 offspring, the probability of being male decreased with increasing parental relatedness but not father ARS or heterozygosity. This correlation tended to diminish with increasing lay-date. Across 162 offspring, egg volume correlated negatively with parental relatedness and varied with lay-date, but was unrelated to father ARS or heterozygosity. Offspring sex and egg size were unrelated to maternal age. Comparisons of maternal half-siblings in broods with no mortality produced similar results, indicating differential allocation rather than covariation between female quality and relatedness or sex-specific inbreeding depression in survival. As males suffer greater inbreeding depression, overproducing females after mating with related males may reduce fitness costs of inbreeding in a system with no inbreeding avoidance, while biasing the sex of outbred offspring towards males may maximize fitness via increased mating success of outbred sons. PMID:24225457

  13. PRE-MATING COMMUNICATION AND HYBRIDIZATION BETWEEN TWO MEADOW KATYDIDS, ORCHELIMUM NIGRIPES AND O. PULCHELLUM (ORTHOPTERA: TETTIGONIIDAE): MALE CALLING SONG AND ASYMMETRIC FEMALE PREFERENCE

    E-print Network

    Miller, Ginger

    2010-12-06

    I investigated the role of male calling song and female preference on mate choice and pre-mating isolation in Orchelimum nigripes and O. pulchellum. In Chapter 1, I show that the calls of O. nigripes and O. pulchellum ...

  14. Organizational differences between cytoplasmic male sterile and male fertile Brassica mitochondrial genomes are confined to a single transposed locus.

    PubMed Central

    L'Homme, Y; Brown, G G

    1993-01-01

    Comparison of the physical maps of male fertile (cam) and male sterile (pol) mitochondrial genomes of Brassica napus indicates that structural differences between the two mtDNAs are confined to a region immediately upstream of the atp6 gene. Relative to cam mtDNA, pol mtDNA possesses a 4.5 kb segment at this locus that includes a chimeric gene that is cotranscribed with atp6 and lacks an approximately 1kb region located upstream of the cam atp6 gene. The 4.5 kb pol segment is present and similarly organized in the mitochondrial genome of the common nap B.napus cytoplasm; however, the nap and pol DNA regions flanking this segment are different and the nap sequences are not expressed. The 4.5 kb CMS-associated pol segment has thus apparently undergone transposition during the evolution of the nap and pol cytoplasms and has been lost in the cam genome subsequent to the pol-cam divergence. This 4.5 kb segment comprises the single DNA region that is expressed differently in fertile, pol CMS and fertility restored pol cytoplasm plants. The finding that this locus is part of the single mtDNA region organized differently in the fertile and male sterile mitochondrial genomes provides strong support for the view that it specifies the pol CMS trait. Images PMID:8388101

  15. Motile male gametes of the araphid diatom Tabularia fasciculata search randomly for mates.

    PubMed

    Edgar, Robyn; Drolet, David; Ehrman, James M; Kaczmarska, Irena

    2014-01-01

    Sexuality in the marine araphid diatom Tabularia involves an unusual type of gamete, not only among diatoms but possibly in all of nature. The non-flagellated male gamete is free and vigorously motile, propelled by pseudopodia. However, the cues (if any) in their search for compatible female gametes and the general search patterns to locate them are unknown. We tracked and compared male gamete movements in the presence and absence of receptive female gametes. Path linearity of male movement was not affected by presence of female gametes. Male gametes did not move towards female gametes regardless of their proximity to each other, suggesting that the detection range for a compatible mate is very small compared to known algal examples (mostly spermatozoids) and that mate recognition requires (near) contact with a female gamete. We therefore investigated how male gametes move to bring insight into their search strategy and found that it was consistent with the predictions of a random-walk model with changes in direction coming from an even distribution. We further investigated the type of random walk by determining the best-fit distribution on the tail of the move length distribution and found it to be consistent with a truncated power law distribution with an exponent of 2.34. Although consistent with a Lévy walk search pattern, the range of move lengths in the tail was too narrow for Lévy properties to emerge and so would be best described as Brownian motion. This is somewhat surprising because female gametes were often outnumbered by male gametes, thus contrary to the assumption that a Brownian search mode may be most optimal with an abundant target resource. This is also the first mathematically analysed search pattern of a non-flagellated protistan gamete, supporting the notion that principles of Brownian motion have wide application in biology. PMID:24991803

  16. Evidence for a receiver bias underlying female preference for a male mating pheromone in sea lamprey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchinger, Tyler J.; Wang, Huiyong; Li, Weiming; Johnson, Nicholas S.

    2013-01-01

    Receiver bias models suggest that a male sexual signal became exaggerated to match a pre-existing sensory, perceptual or cognitive disposition of the female. Accordingly, these models predict that females of related taxa possessing the ancestral state of signalling evolved preference for the male trait in a non-sexual context. We postulated that female preference for the male-released bile alcohol mating pheromone, 3 keto petromyzonol sulfate (3kPZS), of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) evolved as a result of a receiver bias. In particular, we propose that migratory silver lamprey (Ichthyomyzon unicuspis), a basal member of the Petromyzontidae, evolved a preference for 3kPZS released by stream-resident larvae as a means of identifying productive habitat for offspring. Larval silver lamprey released 3kPZS at rates sufficient to be detected by migratory lampreys. Females responded to 3kPZS by exhibiting upstream movement behaviours relevant in a migratory context, but did not exhibit proximate behaviours important to mate search and spawning. Male silver lamprey did not release 3kPZS at rates sufficient to be detected by females in natural high-volume stream environments. We infer that female silver lamprey cue onto 3kPZS excreted by stream-resident larvae as a mechanism to locate habitat conducive to offspring survival and that males do not signal with 3kPZS. We suggest that this female preference for a male signal in a non-sexual context represents a bias leading to the sexual signalling observed in sea lamprey.

  17. Evidence for a receiver bias underlying female preference for a male mating pheromone in sea lamprey

    PubMed Central

    Buchinger, T. J.; Wang, H.; Li, W.; Johnson, N. S.

    2013-01-01

    Receiver bias models suggest that a male sexual signal became exaggerated to match a pre-existing sensory, perceptual or cognitive disposition of the female. Accordingly, these models predict that females of related taxa possessing the ancestral state of signalling evolved preference for the male trait in a non-sexual context. We postulated that female preference for the male-released bile alcohol mating pheromone, 3 keto petromyzonol sulfate (3kPZS), of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) evolved as a result of a receiver bias. In particular, we propose that migratory silver lamprey (Ichthyomyzon unicuspis), a basal member of the Petromyzontidae, evolved a preference for 3kPZS released by stream-resident larvae as a means of identifying productive habitat for offspring. Larval silver lamprey released 3kPZS at rates sufficient to be detected by migratory lampreys. Females responded to 3kPZS by exhibiting upstream movement behaviours relevant in a migratory context, but did not exhibit proximate behaviours important to mate search and spawning. Male silver lamprey did not release 3kPZS at rates sufficient to be detected by females in natural high-volume stream environments. We infer that female silver lamprey cue onto 3kPZS excreted by stream-resident larvae as a mechanism to locate habitat conducive to offspring survival and that males do not signal with 3kPZS. We suggest that this female preference for a male signal in a non-sexual context represents a bias leading to the sexual signalling observed in sea lamprey. PMID:24068361

  18. Avoidance of interspecific mating in female Syrian hamsters is stronger toward familiar than toward unfamiliar heterospecific males.

    PubMed

    delBarco-Trillo, Javier; Johnston, Robert E

    2011-09-01

    Adult Syrian hamster females (Mesocricetus auratus) learn to discriminate against familiar heterospecific males (Turkish hamster, M. brandti). We investigated whether females learn to avoid any heterospecific male after exposure to just one heterospecific male. We predicted that, after being exposed to one heterospecific male, a female would avoid mating not only with that familiar male but also with any unfamiliar heterospecific male. We exposed females to a heterospecific male across a wire-mesh barrier for 8 days and then paired the female with (a) that same heterospecific male or (b) an unfamiliar heterospecific male. Females exhibited lordosis faster and for a longer duration toward the unfamiliar than toward the familiar heterospecific male. However, females were similarly aggressive toward familiar and unfamiliar heterospecific males. Perhaps exposure to stimuli from several heterospecific males (a likely scenario in the wild) would result in females behaving similarly toward familiar and unfamiliar heterospecific males. PMID:21347669

  19. Cytoplasmic effects on DNA methylation between male sterile lines and the maintainer in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Ba, Qingsong; Zhang, Gaisheng; Niu, Na; Ma, Shoucai; Wang, Junwei

    2014-10-01

    Male sterile cytoplasm plays an important role in hybrid wheat, and three-line system including male sterile (A line), its maintainer (B line) and restoring (R line) has played a major role in wheat hybrid production. It is well known that DNA methylation plays an important role in gene expression regulation during biological development in wheat. However, no reports are available on DNA methylation affected by different male sterile cytoplasms in hybrid wheat. We employed a methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism technique to characterize nuclear DNA methylation in three male sterile cytoplasms. A and B lines share the same nucleus, but have different cytoplasms which is male sterile for the A and fertile for the B. The results revealed a relationship of DNA methylation at these sites specifically with male sterile cytoplasms, as well as male sterility, since the only difference between the A lines and B line was the cytoplasm. The DNA methylation was markedly affected by male sterile cytoplasms. K-type cytoplasm affected the methylation to a much greater degree than T-type and S-type cytoplasms, as indicated by the ratio of methylated sites, ratio of fully methylated sites, and polymorphism between A lines and B line for these cytoplasms. The genetic distance between the cytoplasm and nucleus for the K-type is much greater than for the T- and S-types because the former is between Aegilops genus and Triticum genus and the latter is within Triticum genus between Triticum spelta and Triticum timopheevii species. Thus, this difference in genetic distance may be responsible for the variation in methylation that we observed. PMID:24875418

  20. Radiation-induced metabolomic changes in sterile male ??nochamus alternatus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).

    PubMed

    Qu, L J; Wang, L J; Zhang, Y A; Wang, Q H; Wang, Y Z; Zhao, T H; Cai, W Z

    2014-01-01

    Radiation-induced sterile insect technique is a biologically based, environment-friendly method for the suppression or eradication of a number of insect pests. Although the basic mechanisms underlying the technology have been well studied, little is known about the cell responses in organisms. Characterization of the metabolic shift associated with radiation exposure in sterile insects would be helpful for understanding the detailed mechanism underlying this technique and promote its practical application. In this article, a metabolomic study was performed to characterize the global metabolic changes induced by radiation using untreated and 40 Gy (60)Co?-irradiated testes of Japanese pine sawyer, Monochamus alternatus Hope. Differential metabolites were detected and tentatively identified. Many key metabolites in glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle, as well as most fatty and amino acids, were elevated in irradiated male M. alternatus, presumably resulting from depression of glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle, each of which are important pathways for energy generation Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) in insect spermatozoa. The findings in this article will contribute to our knowledge of the characteristic metabolic changes associated with irradiation sterility and understand the molecular mechanisms underlying radiation-induced sterile insect technique. PMID:25368082

  1. Exaggerated sexual swellings and male mate choice in primates: testing the reliable indicator hypothesis in the Amboseli baboons

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Courtney L.; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C.

    2015-01-01

    The paradigm of competitive males vying to influence female mate choice has been repeatedly upheld, but, increasingly, studies also report competitive females and choosy males. One female trait that is commonly proposed to influence male mate choice is the exaggerated sexual swelling displayed by females of many Old World primate species. The reliable indicator hypothesis posits that females use the exaggerated swellings to compete for access to mates, and that the swellings advertise variation in female fitness. We tested the two main predictions of this hypothesis in a wild population of baboons (Papio cynocephalus). First, we examined the effect of swelling size on the probability of mate-guarding (‘consortship’) by the highest-ranking male and the behavior of those males that trailed consorshipts (‘follower males’). Second, we asked whether a female’s swelling size predicted several fitness measures. We found that high-ranking males do not prefer females with larger swellings (when controlling for cycle number and conception) and that females with larger swellings did not have higher reproductive success. Our study—the only complete test of the reliable indicator hypothesis in a primate population—rejects the idea that female baboons compete for mates by advertising heritable fitness differences. Furthermore, we found unambiguous evidence that males biased their mating decisions in favor of females who had experienced more sexual cycles since their most recent pregnancy. Thus, rather than tracking the potential differences in fitness between females, male baboons appear to track and target the potential for a given reproductive opportunity to result in fertilization.

  2. Altered volatile profile associated with precopulatory mate guarding attracts spider mite males.

    PubMed

    Oku, Keiko; Weldegergis, Berhane T; Poelman, Erik H; De Jong, Peter W; Dicke, Marcel

    2015-02-01

    Proximate factors affecting animal behavior include stimuli generated by conspecifics. In spider mites of the genus Tetranychus (Acari: Tetranychidae), males guard pre-reproductive quiescent females, because only the first mating results in fertilization. In a dual-choice experiment, more adult males of T. urticae were attracted to females guarded by a male than to solitary females. Because spider mites are known to perceive volatiles, we hypothesized that guarded and solitary females differ in the volatile blends emitted. To test this hypothesis, headspace volatiles of guarded females, solitary females, and solitary males were collected, respectively. GC/MS analysis detected octanal, methyl salicylate, ethyl 4-ethoxybenzoate, and methyl cis-dihydrojasmonate in all of the groups. Orthogonal Projection to Latent Structures Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA) of the blends clearly discriminated guarded females from solitary females, supporting our hypothesis. Individual compounds did not show significant difference in emission rates for guarded females vs. solitary females, suggesting that differences lay in the total blend composition. OPLS-DA did not discriminate between the blends emitted by guarded females and solitary males. In conclusion, the differences in the volatile blends are likely to mediate male discrimination between guarded and solitary females. PMID:25612522

  3. Mate recognition by female zebra finch: analysis of individuality in male call and first investigations on female decoding process.

    PubMed

    Vignal, Clémentine; Mathevon, Nicolas; Mottin, Stéphane

    2008-02-01

    Zebra finches are monogamous birds living in large assemblies, which represent a source of confusion for recognition between mates. Because the members of a pair use distance calls to remain in contact, call-based mate recognition is highly probable in this species. Whereas it had been previously demonstrated in males [Vignal, C., Mathevon, N., Mottin, S., 2004. Audience drives male songbird response to mate's voice. Nature 430, 448-451], call-based mate recognition remained to be shown in females. By analysing the acoustic structure of male calls, we investigated the existence of an individual signature and identified the involved acoustic cues. We tested to see if females can identify their mates on the basis of their calls alone, and performed preliminary experiments using modified signals to investigate the acoustic basis of this recognition. Playback tests carried on six individuals showed that a female zebra finch is able to perform the call-based recognition of its mate. Our experiments suggested that the female uses both the energy spectrum and the frequency modulation of the male signal. More experiments are now needed to decipher precisely which acoustic cues are used by females for recognition. PMID:17980974

  4. Development of photoperiod- and thermo-sensitive male sterility rice expressing transgene Bacillus thuringiensis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin; Zhang, Jiwen; Zhang, Cuicui; Wang, Liangchao; Chen, Hao; Zhu, Zengrong; Tu, Jumin

    2015-01-01

    Stem borers and leaffolders are the main pests that cause severe damage in rice (Oryza sativa L.) production worldwide. We developed the first photoperiod- and thermo-sensitive male sterility (PTSMS) rice 208S with the cry1Ab/1Ac Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) gene, through sexual crossing with Huahui 1 (elite line with the cry1Ab/1Ac gene). The novel 208S and its hybrids presented high and stable resistance to stem borers and leaffolders, and the content of Cry1Ab/1Ac protein in chlorophyllous tissues achieved the identical level as donor and showed little accumulation in non-chlorophyllous tissue. No dominant dosage effect in the Bt gene was observed in 208S and its derived hybrids. An analysis of fertility transition traits indicated that 208S was completely sterile under long day length/high temperature, but partially fertile under short day length/low temperature. With fine grain quality and favorable combining ability, 208S had no observed negative effects on fertility and agronomic traits from Bt (cry1Ab/1Ac). Additionally, 208S as a male sterile line showed no fertility decrease caused by Bt transgenic process, as it is the case in Huahui 1. Thus, 208S has great application value in two-line hybrid production for insect resistance, and can also be used as a bridge material in rice Bt transgenic breeding. PMID:26366116

  5. Development of photoperiod- and thermo-sensitive male sterility rice expressing transgene Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Zhang, Jiwen; Zhang, Cuicui; Wang, Liangchao; Chen, Hao; Zhu, Zengrong; Tu, Jumin

    2015-09-01

    Stem borers and leaffolders are the main pests that cause severe damage in rice (Oryza sativa L.) production worldwide. We developed the first photoperiod- and thermo-sensitive male sterility (PTSMS) rice 208S with the cry1Ab/1Ac Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) gene, through sexual crossing with Huahui 1 (elite line with the cry1Ab/1Ac gene). The novel 208S and its hybrids presented high and stable resistance to stem borers and leaffolders, and the content of Cry1Ab/1Ac protein in chlorophyllous tissues achieved the identical level as donor and showed little accumulation in non-chlorophyllous tissue. No dominant dosage effect in the Bt gene was observed in 208S and its derived hybrids. An analysis of fertility transition traits indicated that 208S was completely sterile under long day length/high temperature, but partially fertile under short day length/low temperature. With fine grain quality and favorable combining ability, 208S had no observed negative effects on fertility and agronomic traits from Bt (cry1Ab/1Ac). Additionally, 208S as a male sterile line showed no fertility decrease caused by Bt transgenic process, as it is the case in Huahui 1. Thus, 208S has great application value in two-line hybrid production for insect resistance, and can also be used as a bridge material in rice Bt transgenic breeding. PMID:26366116

  6. Better mate in the shade: enhancement of male mating behaviour in the cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae crucivora, in a UV-rich environment.

    PubMed

    Obara, Yoshiaki; Koshitaka, Hisaharu; Arikawa, Kentaro

    2008-12-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) vision is widespread in a variety of animals, playing important roles in behaviours such as foraging and reproduction. Despite accumulated information about UV vision and UV-dependent behaviours of animals, little is known about the effect of temporal changes and local variations in UV light on UV-dependent behaviour. Here we report the mating behaviour of male cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae crucivora, in environments with varying content of UV light. We first confirmed that the relative UV content is higher in shaded places than in sunny places. We furthermore arranged experimental areas with varying UV contents in the field, where we compared three aspects of male mating behaviour: visual localization of females, female-searching flight and copulation success rate. In all aspects males performed more actively in UV-rich environments: males searched females for longer, approached females preferentially in the shade and copulated there more frequently. Apparently, female-searching males detect females more easily in a UV-rich environment. The present findings should be taken into consideration when UV-dependent behaviours, visual mate choice in particular, are studied. PMID:19011209

  7. Interspecific aggression, not interspecific mating, drives character displacement in the wing coloration of male rubyspot damselflies (Hetaerina)

    PubMed Central

    Drury, J. P.; Grether, G. F.

    2014-01-01

    Traits that mediate intraspecific social interactions may overlap in closely related sympatric species, resulting in costly between-species interactions. Such interactions have principally interested investigators studying the evolution of reproductive isolation via reproductive character displacement (RCD) or reinforcement, yet in addition to reproductive interference, interspecific trait overlap can lead to costly between-species aggression. Previous research on rubyspot damselflies (Hetaerina spp.) demonstrated that sympatric shifts in male wing colour patterns and competitor recognition reduce interspecific aggression, supporting the hypothesis that agonistic character displacement (ACD) drove trait shifts. However, a recent theoretical model shows that RCD overshadows ACD if the same male trait is used for both female mate recognition and male competitor recognition. To determine whether female mate recognition is based on male wing coloration in Hetaerina, we conducted a phenotype manipulation experiment. Compared to control males, male H. americana with wings manipulated to resemble a sympatric congener (H. titia) suffered no reduction in mating success. Thus, female mate recognition is not based on species differences in male wing coloration. Experimental males did, however, experience higher interspecific fighting rates and reduced survival compared to controls. These results greatly strengthen the case for ACD and highlight the mechanistic distinction between ACD and RCD. PMID:25339724

  8. A PDF/NPF neuropeptide signaling circuitry of male Drosophila melanogaster controls rival-induced prolonged mating

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Woo Jae; Jan, Lily Yeh; Jan, Yuh Nung

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY A primary function of males for many species involves mating with females for reproduction. Drosophila melanogaster males respond to the presence of other males by prolonging mating duration to increase the chance of passing on their genes. To understand the basis of such complex behaviors, we examine the genetic network and neural circuits that regulate rival-induced longer mating duration (LMD). Here we identify a small subset of clock neurons in the male brain that regulate LMD via neuropeptide signaling. LMD requires the function of pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) in four s-LNv neurons and its receptor PDFR in two LNd neurons per hemisphere, as well as the function of neuropeptide F (NPF) in two neurons within the sexually dimorphic LNd region and its receptor NPFR1 in four s-LNv neurons per hemisphere. Moreover, rival exposure modifies the neuronal activities of a subset of clock neurons involved in neuropeptide signaling for LMD. PMID:24314729

  9. Mating Behavior, Male Sensory Cilia, and Polycystins in C. elegans” Chapter

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Maureen M.

    2015-01-01

    The investigation of C. elegans males and the male-specific sensory neurons required for mating behaviors has provided insight into the molecular function of polycystins and mechanisms that are needed for polycystin ciliary localization. In humans, polycystin 1 and polycystin 2 are needed for kidney function; loss of polycystin function leads to autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Polycystins localize to cilia in C. elegans and mammals, a finding that has guided research into ADPKD. The discovery that the polycystins form ciliary receptors in male-specific neurons needed for mating behaviors has also helped to unlock insights into two additional exciting new areas: the secretion of extracellular vesicles; and mechanisms of ciliary specialization. First, we will summarize the studies done in C. elegans regarding the expression, localization, and function of the polycystin 1 and 2 homologs, LOV-1 and PKD-2, and discuss insights gained from this basic research. Molecules that are co-expressed with the polycystins in the male-specific neurons may identify evolutionarily conserved molecular mechanisms for polycystin function and localization. We will discuss the finding that polycystins are secreted in extracellular vesicles that evoke behavioral change in males, suggesting that such vesicles provide a novel form of communication to conspecifics in the environment. In humans, polycystin-containing extracellular vesicles are secreted in urine and can be taken up by cilia, and quickly internalized. Therefore, communication by polycystin-containing extracellular vesicles may also use mechanisms that are evolutionarily conserved from nematode to human. Lastly, different cilia display structural and functional differences that specialize them for particular tasks, despite the fact that virtually all cilia are built by a conserved Intraflagellar Transport (IFT) mechanism and share some basic structural features. Comparative analysis of the male-specific cilia with the well-studied cilia of the amphid and phasmid neurons has allowed identification of molecules that specialize the male cilia. We will discuss the molecules that shape the male-specific cilia. The cell biology of cilia in male-specific neurons demonstrates that C. elegans can provide an excellent model of ciliary specialization. PMID:24977333

  10. Quality of Sterile Male Tsetse after Long Distance Transport as Chilled, Irradiated Pupae

    PubMed Central

    Bassene, Mireille D.; Fall, Assane Gueye; Diouf, Thérèse A. R.; Sall, Baba; Vreysen, Marc J. B.; Rayaissé, Jean-Baptiste; Takac, Peter; Sidibé, Issa; Parker, Andrew G.; Mutika, Gratian N.; Bouyer, Jérémy; Gimonneau, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    Background Tsetse flies transmit trypanosomes that cause human and African animal trypanosomosis, a debilitating disease of humans (sleeping sickness) and livestock (nagana). An area-wide integrated pest management campaign against Glossina palpalis gambiensis has been implemented in Senegal since 2010 that includes a sterile insect technique (SIT) component. The SIT can only be successful when the sterile males that are destined for release have a flight ability, survival and competitiveness that are as close as possible to that of their wild male counterparts. Methodology/Principal Findings Tests were developed to assess the quality of G. p. gambiensis males that emerged from pupae that were produced and irradiated in Burkina Faso and Slovakia (irradiation done in Seibersdorf, Austria) and transported weekly under chilled conditions to Dakar, Senegal. For each consignment a sample of 50 pupae was used for a quality control test (QC group). To assess flight ability, the pupae were put in a cylinder filtering emerged flies that were able to escape the cylinder. The survival of these flyers was thereafter monitored under stress conditions (without feeding). Remaining pupae were emerged and released in the target area of the eradication programme (RF group). The following parameter values were obtained for the QC flies: average emergence rate more than 69%, median survival of 6 days, and average flight ability of more than 35%. The quality protocol was a good proxy of fly quality, explaining a large part of the variances of the examined parameters. Conclusions/Significance The quality protocol described here will allow the accurate monitoring of the quality of shipped sterile male tsetse used in operational eradication programmes in the framework of the Pan-African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign. PMID:26562521

  11. Flying the nest: male dispersal and multiple paternity enables extrafamilial matings for the invasive bark beetle Dendroctonus micans

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, C I; Brahy, O; Mardulyn, P; Dohet, L; Mayer, F; Grégoire, J-C

    2014-01-01

    There is an evolutionary trade-off between the resources that a species invests in dispersal versus those invested in reproduction. For many insects, reproductive success in patchily-distributed species can be improved by sibling-mating. In many cases, such strategies correspond to sexual dimorphism, with males–whose reproductive activities can take place without dispersal–investing less energy in development of dispersive resources such as large body size and wings. This dimorphism is particularly likely when males have little or no chance of mating outside their place of birth, such as when sperm competition precludes successful fertilisation in females that have already mated. The economically important bark beetle pest species Dendroctonus micans (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) has been considered to be exclusively sibling-mating, with 90% of females having already mated with their brothers by emergence. The species does not, however, show strong sexual dimorphism; males closely resemble females, and have been observed flying through forests. We hypothesised that this lack of sexual dimorphism indicates that male D. micans are able to mate with unrelated females, and to sire some or all of their offspring, permitting extrafamilial reproduction. Using novel microsatellite markers, we carried out cross-breeding laboratory experiments and conducted paternity analyses of resulting offspring. Our results demonstrate that a second mating with a less-related male can indeed lead to some offspring being sired by the latecomer, but that most are sired by the first, sibling male. We discuss these findings in the context of sperm competition versus possible outbreeding depression. PMID:24736784

  12. Interaction between female mating preferences and predation may explain the maintenance of rare males in the pentamorphic fish Poecilia parae.

    PubMed

    Hurtado-Gonzales, Jorge L; Baldassarre, D T; Uy, J A C

    2010-06-01

    Variation in mating preferences coupled with selective predation may allow for the maintenance of alternative mating strategies. Males of the South American live-bearing fish Poecilia parae fall in one of five discrete morphs: red, yellow, blue, stripe-coloured tail (parae) and female mimic (immaculata). Field surveys indicate that the red and yellow morphs are the rarest and that their rarity is consistent across years. We explored the role of variable female mating preference and selective predation by visual predators in explaining the rarity of red and yellow males, and more generally, the maintenance of this extreme colour polymorphism. We presented wild-caught P. parae females and Aequidens tetramerus, the most common cichlid predator, with the five male colour morphs in separate trials to determine mating and prey preferences, respectively. We found that a large proportion of females shared a strong preference for the rare carotenoid-based red and yellow males, but a distinct group also preferred the blue and parae morphs. The cichlid predator strongly preferred red and yellow males as prey. Together, these results suggest that the interaction between premating sexual selection favouring and predation acting against the red and yellow morphs may explain their rarity in the wild. The trade-off between sexual and natural selection, accompanied by variation in female mating preferences, may therefore facilitate the maintenance of the striking colour polymorphism in P. parae. PMID:20456563

  13. Effects of Nuclear Genomes on Anther Development in Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Chicories (Cichorium intybus L.): Morphological Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Habarugira, Ildephonse; Hendriks, Theo; Quillet, Marie-Christine; Hilbert, Jean-Louis; Rambaud, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    The Cichorium intybus flower development in fertile, cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS 524) and various phenotypes carrying the 524 male sterile cytoplasm was investigated macroscopically and by light microscopy. The development was similar in fertile and in male sterile florets up to meiosis, and then it was affected in anther wall structure and pollen grain development in male sterile floret. In the male sterile plants, the tapetum intrusion after meiosis was less remarkable, the microspores started to abort at vacuolate stage, the connective tissue collapsed, and endothecium failed to expand normally and did not undergo cell wall lignification, which prevented anther opening since the septum and stomium were not disrupted. Crosses undertaken in order to introduce the CMS 524 into two different nuclear backgrounds gave rise to morphologically diversified progenies due to different nuclear-mitochondrial interactions. Macroscopic and cytological investigations showed that pollen-donor plants belonging to Jupiter population had potential capacity to restore fertility while the CC line could be considered as a sterility maintainer. PMID:25861678

  14. Nutritional correlates and mate acquisition role of multiple sexual traits in male collared flycatchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegyi, Gergely; Szöll?si, Eszter; Jenni-Eiermann, Susanne; Török, János; Eens, Marcel; Garamszegi, László Zsolt

    2010-06-01

    The information content of a sexual signal may predict its importance in a multiple signal system. Many studies have correlated sexual signal expression with the absolute levels of nutrient reserves. In contrast, the changes of nutrient reserves associated with signal expression are largely unknown in the wild due to technical limitations although they are important determinants of signal information content. We compared two visual and eight acoustic sexual traits in male collared flycatchers to see whether the nutritional correlates of expression predict the role of the signal in sexual selection. We used single point assays of plasma lipid metabolites to estimate short-term changes in nutritional state in relation to sexual trait expression during courtship. As a measure of sexual selection, we estimated the relationship with pairing latency after arrival in a 4-year dataset. Males which found a mate rapidly were characterized by large wing and forehead patches, but small song strophe complexity and small figure repertoire size. Traits more strongly related to pairing latency were also more closely related to changes in nutrient reserves. This indicates a link between signal role and information content. Small wing patches and, surprisingly, complex songs seemed to indicate poor phenotypic quality and were apparently disfavoured at mate acquisition in our population. Future studies of the information content of sexual traits, especially dynamic traits such as song, may benefit from the use of plasma metabolite profiles as non-invasive indicators of short-term changes in body condition.

  15. Female house sparrows "count on" male genes: experimental evidence for MHC-dependent mate preference in birds

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Females can potentially assess the quality of potential mates using their secondary sexual traits, and obtain "good genes" that increase offspring fitness. Another potential indirect benefit from mating preferences is genetic compatibility, which does not require extravagant or viability indicator traits. Several studies with mammals and fish indicate that the genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) influence olfactory cues and mating preferences, and such preferences confer genetic benefits to offspring. We investigated whether individual MHC diversity (class I) influences mating preferences in house sparrows (Passer domesticus). Results Overall, we found no evidence that females preferred males with high individual MHC diversity. Yet, when we considered individual MHC allelic diversity of the females, we found that females with a low number of alleles were most attracted to males carrying a high number of MHC alleles, which might reflect a mating-up preference by allele counting. Conclusions This is the first experimental evidence for MHC-dependent mating preferences in an avian species to our knowledge. Our findings raise questions about the underlying mechanisms through which birds discriminate individual MHC diversity among conspecifics, and they suggest a novel mechanism through which mating preferences might promote the evolution of MHC polymorphisms and generate positive selection for duplicated MHC loci. PMID:21320306

  16. Tomato Male sterile 1035 is essential for pollen development and meiosis in anthers

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Hee-Jin; Kang, Jin-Ho; Zhao, Meiai; Kwon, Jin-Kyung; Choi, Hak-Soon; Bae, Jung Hwan; Lee, Hyun-ah; Joung, Young-Hee; Choi, Doil; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl

    2014-01-01

    Male fertility in flowering plants depends on proper cellular differentiation in anthers. Meiosis and tapetum development are particularly important processes in pollen production. In this study, we showed that the tomato male sterile (ms10 35) mutant of cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) exhibited dysfunctional meiosis and an abnormal tapetum during anther development, resulting in no pollen production. We demonstrated that Ms10 35 encodes a basic helix–loop–helix transcription factor that is specifically expressed in meiocyte and tapetal tissue from pre-meiotic to tetrad stages. Transgenic expression of the Ms10 35 gene from its native promoter complemented the male sterility of the ms10 35 mutant. In addition, RNA-sequencing-based transcriptome analysis revealed that Ms10 35 regulates 246 genes involved in anther development processes such as meiosis, tapetum development, cell-wall degradation, pollen wall formation, transport, and lipid metabolism. Our results indicate that Ms10 35 plays key roles in regulating both meiosis and programmed cell death of the tapetum during microsporogenesis. PMID:25262227

  17. High-density mapping suggests cytoplasmic male sterility with two restorer genes in almond × peach progenies

    PubMed Central

    Donoso, José Manuel; Eduardo, Iban; Picañol, Roger; Batlle, Ignasi; Howad, Werner; Aranzana, María José; Arús, Pere

    2015-01-01

    Peach (Prunus persica) and almond (Prunus dulcis) are two sexually compatible species that produce fertile offspring. Almond, a highly polymorphic species, is a potential source of new genes for peach that has a strongly eroded gene pool. Here we describe the genetics of a male sterile phenotype that segregated in two almond (‘Texas’) × peach (‘Earlygold’) progenies: an F2 (T×E) and a backcross one (T1E) to the ‘Earlygold’ parent. High-density maps were developed using a 9k peach SNP chip and 135 simple-sequence repeats. Three highly syntenic and collinear maps were obtained: one for the F2 (T×E) and two for the backcross, T1E (for the hybrid) and E (for ‘Earlygold’). A major reduction of recombination was observed in the interspecific maps (T×E and T1E) compared to the intraspecific parent (E). The E map also had extensive monomorphic genomic regions suggesting the presence of large DNA fragments identical by descent. Our data for the male sterility character were consistent with the existence of cytoplasmic male sterility, where individuals having the almond cytoplasm required the almond allele in at least one of two independent restorer genes, Rf1 and Rf2, to be fertile. The restorer genes were located in a 3.4 Mbp fragment of linkage group 2 (Rf1) and 1.4 Mbp of linkage group 6 (Rf2). Both fragments contained several genes coding for pentatricopeptide proteins, demonstrated to be responsible for restoring fertility in other species. The implications of these results for using almond as a source of novel variability in peach are discussed. PMID:26504569

  18. Engineering cytoplasmic male sterility via the chloroplast genome by expression of {beta}-ketothiolase.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Oscar N; Daniell, Henry

    2005-07-01

    While investigating expression of the polydroxybutyrate pathway in transgenic chloroplasts, we addressed the specific role of beta-ketothiolase. Therefore, we expressed the phaA gene via the chloroplast genome. Prior attempts to express the phaA gene in transgenic plants were unsuccessful. We studied the effect of light regulation of the phaA gene using the psbA promoter and 5' untranslated region, and evaluated expression under different photoperiods. Stable transgene integration into the chloroplast genome and homoplasmy were confirmed by Southern analysis. The phaA gene was efficiently transcribed in all tissue types examined, including leaves, flowers, and anthers. Coomassie-stained gel and western blots confirmed hyperexpression of beta-ketothiolase in leaves and anthers, with proportionately high levels of enzyme activity. The transgenic lines were normal except for the male-sterile phenotype, lacking pollen. Scanning electron microscopy revealed a collapsed morphology of the pollen grains. Floral developmental studies revealed that transgenic lines showed an accelerated pattern of anther development, affecting their maturation, and resulted in aberrant tissue patterns. Abnormal thickening of the outer wall, enlarged endothecium, and vacuolation affected pollen grains and resulted in the irregular shape or collapsed phenotype. Reversibility of the male-sterile phenotype was observed under continuous illumination, resulting in viable pollen and copious amount of seeds. This study results in the first engineered cytoplasmic male-sterility system in plants, offers a new tool for transgene containment for both nuclear and organelle genomes, and provides an expedient mechanism for F(1) hybrid seed production. PMID:16009998

  19. Plastid Genotyping Reveals the Uniformity of Cytoplasmic Male Sterile-T Maize Cytoplasms1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Bosacchi, Massimo; Gurdon, Csanad; Maliga, Pal

    2015-01-01

    Cytoplasmic male-sterile (CMS) lines in maize (Zea mays) have been classified by their response to specific restorer genes into three categories: cms-C, cms-S, and cms-T. A mitochondrial genome representing each of the CMS cytotypes has been sequenced, and male sterility in the cms-S and cms-T cytotypes is linked to chimeric mitochondrial genes. To identify markers for plastid genotyping, we sequenced the plastid genomes of three fertile maize lines (B37, B73, and A188) and the B37 cms-C, cms-S, and cms-T cytoplasmic substitution lines. We found that the plastid genomes of B37 and B73 lines are identical. Furthermore, the fertile and CMS plastid genomes are conserved, differing only by zero to three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in coding regions and by eight to 22 SNPs and 10 to 21 short insertions/deletions in noncoding regions. To gain insight into the origin and transmission of the cms-T trait, we identified three SNPs unique to the cms-T plastids and tested the three diagnostic SNPs in 27 cms-T lines, representing the HA, I, Q, RS, and T male-sterile cytoplasms. We report that each of the tested 27 cms-T group accessions have the same three diagnostic plastid SNPs, indicating a single origin and maternal cotransmission of the cms-T mitochondria and plastids to the seed progeny. Our data exclude exceptional pollen transmission of organelles or multiple horizontal gene transfer events as the source of the mitochondrial urf13-T (unidentified reading frame encoding 13-kD cms-T protein) gene in the cms-T cytoplasms. Plastid genotyping enables a reassessment of the evolutionary relationships of cytoplasms in cultivated maize. PMID:26336091

  20. High-density mapping suggests cytoplasmic male sterility with two restorer genes in almond × peach progenies.

    PubMed

    Donoso, José Manuel; Eduardo, Iban; Picañol, Roger; Batlle, Ignasi; Howad, Werner; Aranzana, María José; Arús, Pere

    2015-01-01

    Peach (Prunus persica) and almond (Prunus dulcis) are two sexually compatible species that produce fertile offspring. Almond, a highly polymorphic species, is a potential source of new genes for peach that has a strongly eroded gene pool. Here we describe the genetics of a male sterile phenotype that segregated in two almond ('Texas') × peach ('Earlygold') progenies: an F2 (T×E) and a backcross one (T1E) to the 'Earlygold' parent. High-density maps were developed using a 9k peach SNP chip and 135 simple-sequence repeats. Three highly syntenic and collinear maps were obtained: one for the F2 (T×E) and two for the backcross, T1E (for the hybrid) and E (for 'Earlygold'). A major reduction of recombination was observed in the interspecific maps (T×E and T1E) compared to the intraspecific parent (E). The E map also had extensive monomorphic genomic regions suggesting the presence of large DNA fragments identical by descent. Our data for the male sterility character were consistent with the existence of cytoplasmic male sterility, where individuals having the almond cytoplasm required the almond allele in at least one of two independent restorer genes, Rf1 and Rf2, to be fertile. The restorer genes were located in a 3.4 Mbp fragment of linkage group 2 (Rf1) and 1.4 Mbp of linkage group 6 (Rf2). Both fragments contained several genes coding for pentatricopeptide proteins, demonstrated to be responsible for restoring fertility in other species. The implications of these results for using almond as a source of novel variability in peach are discussed. PMID:26504569

  1. Misregulation of spermatogenesis genes in Drosophila hybrids is lineage-specific and driven by the combined effects of sterility and fast male regulatory divergence.

    PubMed

    Gomes, S; Civetta, A

    2014-09-01

    Hybrid male sterility is a common outcome of crosses between different species. Gene expression studies have found that a number of spermatogenesis genes are differentially expressed in sterile hybrid males, compared with parental species. Late-stage sperm development genes are particularly likely to be misexpressed, with fewer early-stage genes affected. Thus, a link has been posited between misexpression and sterility. A more recent alternative explanation for hybrid gene misexpression has been that it is independent of sterility and driven by divergent evolution of male-specific regulatory elements between species (faster male hypothesis). The faster male hypothesis predicts that misregulation of spermatogenesis genes should be independent of sterility and approximately the same in both hybrids, whereas sterility should only affect gene expression in sterile hybrids. To test the faster male hypothesis vs. the effect of sterility on gene misexpression, we analyse spermatogenesis gene expression in different species pairs of the Drosophila phylogeny, where hybrid male sterility occurs in only one direction of the interspecies cross (i.e. unidirectional sterility). We find significant differences among genes in misexpression with effects that are lineage-specific and caused by sterility or fast male regulatory divergence. PMID:24898362

  2. Genetic studies on cytoplasmic male sterility in maize. Progress report, April 15, 1990--April 14, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Laughnan, J.R.

    1992-05-01

    Our research concerns the basic mechanisms of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) and fertility restoration in maize. The molecular determination of CMS is in the DNA of the mitochondria (mtDNA) but specific nuclear restorer-of-fertility (Rf) genes can overrule the male-sterile effect of the cytoplasm. Our approach to the study of the Rf genes is threefold. We are attempting to tag the cms-S Rf genes and the cms-T Rf2 gene with controlling elements (CEs). Since we have identified a number of spontaneous Rf genes for cms-S and have demonstrated that they are themselves transposable, we are also searching for cases in which an Rf gene is inserted into a wild-type gene. The other aspect of our research involves the nuclear control over the organization of the mitochondrial genome. We found that the changes in mtDNA organization upon cytoplasmic reversion to fertility were characteristic of the nuclear background in which the reversion event occurred. We have investigated whether these differences are a reflection of differences in the organization of the mtDNA genome before reversion.

  3. De Novo Assembly and Transcriptome Analysis of Wheat with Male Sterility Induced by the Chemical Hybridizing Agent SQ-1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Gaisheng; Ju, Lan; Zhang, Jiao; Yu, Yongang; Niu, Na; Wang, Junwei; Ma, Shoucai

    2015-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), one of the world’s most important food crops, is a strictly autogamous (self-pollinating) species with exclusively perfect flowers. Male sterility induced by chemical hybridizing agents has increasingly attracted attention as a tool for hybrid seed production in wheat; however, the molecular mechanisms of male sterility induced by the agent SQ-1 remain poorly understood due to limited whole transcriptome data. Therefore, a comparative analysis of wheat anther transcriptomes for male fertile wheat and SQ-1–induced male sterile wheat was carried out using next-generation sequencing technology. In all, 42,634,123 sequence reads were generated and were assembled into 82,356 high-quality unigenes with an average length of 724 bp. Of these, 1,088 unigenes were significantly differentially expressed in the fertile and sterile wheat anthers, including 643 up-regulated unigenes and 445 down-regulated unigenes. The differentially expressed unigenes with functional annotations were mapped onto 60 pathways using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database. They were mainly involved in coding for the components of ribosomes, photosynthesis, respiration, purine and pyrimidine metabolism, amino acid metabolism, glutathione metabolism, RNA transport and signal transduction, reactive oxygen species metabolism, mRNA surveillance pathways, protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum, protein export, and ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. This study is the first to provide a systematic overview comparing wheat anther transcriptomes of male fertile wheat with those of SQ-1–induced male sterile wheat and is a valuable source of data for future research in SQ-1–induced wheat male sterility. PMID:25898130

  4. De Novo Assembly and Transcriptome Analysis of Wheat with Male Sterility Induced by the Chemical Hybridizing Agent SQ-1.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qidi; Song, Yulong; Zhang, Gaisheng; Ju, Lan; Zhang, Jiao; Yu, Yongang; Niu, Na; Wang, Junwei; Ma, Shoucai

    2015-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), one of the world's most important food crops, is a strictly autogamous (self-pollinating) species with exclusively perfect flowers. Male sterility induced by chemical hybridizing agents has increasingly attracted attention as a tool for hybrid seed production in wheat; however, the molecular mechanisms of male sterility induced by the agent SQ-1 remain poorly understood due to limited whole transcriptome data. Therefore, a comparative analysis of wheat anther transcriptomes for male fertile wheat and SQ-1-induced male sterile wheat was carried out using next-generation sequencing technology. In all, 42,634,123 sequence reads were generated and were assembled into 82,356 high-quality unigenes with an average length of 724 bp. Of these, 1,088 unigenes were significantly differentially expressed in the fertile and sterile wheat anthers, including 643 up-regulated unigenes and 445 down-regulated unigenes. The differentially expressed unigenes with functional annotations were mapped onto 60 pathways using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database. They were mainly involved in coding for the components of ribosomes, photosynthesis, respiration, purine and pyrimidine metabolism, amino acid metabolism, glutathione metabolism, RNA transport and signal transduction, reactive oxygen species metabolism, mRNA surveillance pathways, protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum, protein export, and ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. This study is the first to provide a systematic overview comparing wheat anther transcriptomes of male fertile wheat with those of SQ-1-induced male sterile wheat and is a valuable source of data for future research in SQ-1-induced wheat male sterility. PMID:25898130

  5. Impact of body reserves on energy expenditure, water flux, and mating success in breeding male northern elephant seals.

    PubMed

    Crocker, Daniel E; Houser, Dorian S; Webb, Paul M

    2012-01-01

    In capital breeders, individual differences in body size and condition can impact mating effort and success. In addition to the collateral advantages of large body size in competition, large nutrient reserves may offer advantages in endurance rivalry and enable the high rates of energy expenditure associated with mating success. We examined the impacts of body reserves and dominance rank on energy expenditure, water flux, mating success, and breeding tenure in the adult male northern elephant seal, a polygynous, capital breeder. Adult males expended energy at a rate of 159 ± 49 MJ d (-1), which is equivalent to 3.1 times the standard metabolic rate predicted by Kleiber's equation. Despite high rates of energy expenditure and a long fasting duration, males spared lean tissue effectively, deriving a mean of 7% of their metabolism from protein catabolism. Body composition had a strong impact on the ability to spare lean tissue during breeding. When controlling for body size, energy expenditure, depletion of blubber reserves, and water efflux were significantly greater in alpha males than in subordinate males. Large body size was associated with increased reproductive effort, tenure on shore, dominance rank, and reproductive success. Terrestrial locomotion and topography appeared to strongly influence energy expenditure. Comparisons with conspecific females suggest greater total seasonal reproductive effort in male northern elephant seals when controlling for the effects of body mass. In polygynous capital breeding systems, male effort may be strongly influenced by physiological state and exceed that of females. PMID:22237285

  6. Molecular validation of multiple allele inheritance for dominant genic male sterility gene in Brassica napus L.

    PubMed

    Song, Lai-Qiang; Fu, Ting-Dong; Tu, Jin-Xing; Ma, Cao-Zhi; Yang, Guang-Sheng

    2006-06-01

    Dominant genic male sterility (DGMS) has been playing an increasingly important role, not only as a tool for assisting in recurrent selection but also as an alternative approach for efficient production of hybrids. Previous studies indicate that fertility restoration of DGMS is the action of another unlinked dominant gene. Recently, through classical genetic analysis with various test populations we have verified that in a DGMS line 609AB the trait is inherited in a multiple allelic pattern. In this study, we applied molecular marker technology to provide further validation of the results. Eight amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers tightly linked to the male sterility allele (Ms) were identified in a BC1 population from a cross between 609A (a sterile plant in 609AB) and a temporary maintainer GS2467 as recurrent parent. Four out of the eight markers reproduced the same polymorphism in a larger BC(1) population generated with microspore-derived doubled haploid (DH) parents (S148 and S467). The two nearest AFLP markers SA12MG14 and P05MG15, flanking the Ms locus at respective distances of 0.3 centiMorgan (cM) and 1.6 cM, were converted into sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers designated SC6 and SC9. Based on the sequence difference of the marker P05MG15 between S148 and a DH restorer line S103, we further developed a SCAR marker SC9f that is specific to the restorer allele (Mf). The map distance between SC9f and Mf was consistent with that between SC9 and Ms allele. Therefore, successful conversion of the marker tightly linked to Ms into a marker tightly linked to Mf suggested that the restoration for DGMS in 609AB is controlled by an allele at the Ms locus or a tightly linked gene (regarded as an allele in practical application). The Ms and Mf-specific markers developed here will facilitate the breeding for new elite homozygous sterile lines and allow further research on map-based cloning of the Ms gene. PMID:16783591

  7. Male sterility in Arabidopsis induced by overexpression of a MYC5-SRDX chimeric repressor.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Pablo; Browse, John

    2015-03-01

    Jasmonate hormone (JA) plays critical roles in both plant defense and reproductive development. Arabidopsis thaliana plants deficient in JA-biosynthesis or -signaling are male-sterile, with defects in stamen and pollen development. MYC2, MYC3 and MYC4 are JAZ-interacting bHLH transcription factors that play a major role in controlling JA responses in vegetative tissue, but are not likely to play a role in reproductive tissue. We found that a closely related transcription factor, MYC5 (bHLH28), was able to induce JAZ promoters that control some of the early JA-responsive genes in a Daucus carota (carrot) protoplast expression system. A G-box sequence in the JAZ2 promoter was necessary and sufficient for induction by MYC5 (as it is for MYC2, MYC3 and MYC4), and induction of JAZ genes was repressed by co-expression of a stabilized, JAZ1?Jas repressor. Two allelic myc5 mutants exhibited no overt phenotype; however, transgenic lines expressing MYC5 fused to an SRDX (SUPERMAN repressive domain X) motif phenocopied mutants defective in JA signaling. In particular, MYC5-SRDX plants were male-sterile, with defects in stamen filament elongation, anther dehiscence and pollen viability. Importantly, expression of MYB21 and other transcription factors required for stamen and pollen maturation was strongly reduced in stamens of MYC5-SRDX plants relative to the wild type. Taken together, these results indicate that MYC5, probably together with other, redundant transcription factors, may be activated by JA signaling to induce the expression of MYB21 and components required for male fertility. PMID:25627909

  8. Evaluation of strategies for the release of male sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) in Lake Superior for a proposed sterile-male-release program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaye, C.A.; Heinrich, J.W.; Genovese, J.H.; Hanson, L.H.; McDonald, R.B.; Slade, J.W.; Swink, W.D.

    2003-01-01

    Successful implementation of a sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) control technique that uses sterilized males to reduce reproduction presently depends on the importation of large numbers of males outside of the target population. Strategies were examined for releasing male sea lampreys from Lakes Michigan and Huron into the Lake Superior spawning population and the ability of these introduced males to compete with resident males and spawn with resident females. During 1987, 553 (9%) of 6,324 imported fertile males released at 12 shoreline and one offshore site in Lake Superior were recaptured. Most remained within 20 km of the release site and entered the first stream encountered. During 1988, 393 (18%) of 2,208 imported fertile males released directly into three spawning rivers were recaptured. In both cases, animals released early during the spawning run were more likely to be recaptured than those released later. Introduced males successfully competed with resident males and spawned with resident females. Demonstrating that male sea lampreys could reproduce successfully when relocated supported subsequent large-scale field trials of the sterile-male-release technique.

  9. Enhancing mating performance after juvenile hormone treatment in Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera:Tephritidae): a differential response in males and females acts as a physiological sexing system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methoprene treatment can reduce the time required for sexual maturation in Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) (Wiedemann) males under laboratory conditions, supporting its use as a treatment for sterile males within the context of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). Here we evaluated sexu...

  10. A cytoplasmic male sterility-associated mitochondrial peptide in common bean is post-translationally regulated.

    PubMed Central

    Sarria, R; Lyznik, A; Vallejos, C E; Mackenzie, S A

    1998-01-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility in the common bean plant is associated with a dominant mitochondrial mutation designated pvs-or f 239 (for Phaseolus vulgaris sterility sequence open reading frame 239). The sequence is transcribed in both vegetative and reproductive tissues, but the translation product, ORF239, is present only in reproductive tissues. We present evidence to support a model of post-translational regulation of ORF239 expression based on the following observations. In organello translation experiments using purified mitochondria from young seedlings demonstrated accumulation of ORF239 only when a protease inhibitor was included. Proteolytic activity against ORF239 was observed in mitochondrial extracts fractionating with the mitochondrial inner membrane. The DNA sequence encoding a serine-type protease, similar to the lon protease gene of Escherichia coli, was cloned from the Arabidopsis genome. The expression product of this sequence demonstrated proteolytic activity against ORF239 in vitro, with features resembling the activity detected in mitochondrial inner membrane preparations. Antibodies generated against the overexpressed Lon homolog reduced proteolytic activity against ORF239 when added to mitochondrial extracts. Our data suggest that ORF239 was undetected in vegetative tissue due to rapid turnover by at least one mitochondrial protease that acts against ORF239 post-translationally. PMID:9668139

  11. Metabolism of reactive oxygen species in cytoplasmic male sterility of rice by marking upmost pulvinus interval.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianxin; Dai, Ximei; Li, Linyu; Jiao, Zhen; Huang, Qunce

    2015-02-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in plant cell are thought to be important inducible factors of cell apoptosis if excessively accumulated in cells. To elucidate the metabolic mechanism of MDA production and scavenging in the cytoplasmic male-sterile (CMS) rice, CMS line and maintainer were employed for studying the relationship at different developmental stages by marking upmost pulvinus interval method of experiment. The results showed that the panicles and leaves of the CMS line had a noticeable higher MDA content than those of maintainer line at all five stages that had been investigated (p < 0.05). MDA content in the CMS line in the flag leaves of auricle in the distance 0 mm stage (the meiosis stage) was the highest of the five stages. The increase of MDA contents in sterile panicles and leaves had inducible effects on the enzymic activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD). However, at the abortion peak stage, MDA was excessively accumulated and antioxidant enzymic activity reduced significantly, resulting in the generation and scavenging of MDA out of balance. PMID:25380642

  12. Identification of genes associated with male sterility in a mutant of white birch (Betula platyphylla Suk.).

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuemei; Liu, Ying; Liu, Chuang; Guan, Minxiao; Yang, Chuanping

    2015-12-15

    White birch (Betula platyphylla Suk.) is a monoecious tree species with unisexual flowers. In this study, we used a spontaneous mutant genotype that produced normal-like male (NLM) inflorescences and mutant male (MM) inflorescences at different locations within the tree to investigate the genes necessary for pollen development. A cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) analysis was used to identify genes differentially expressed between the two types of inflorescences. Of approximately 5000 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) obtained, 323 were significantly differentially expressed, of which 141 were successfully sequenced. BLAST analyses revealed 51.8% of the sequenced TDFs showed significant homology with proteins of known or predicted functions, 10.6% showed significant homology with putative proteins without any known or predicted function, and the remaining 37.6% had no hits in the NCBI database. Further, in a functional categorization based on the BLAST analyses, the protein fate, metabolism, energy categories had in order the highest percentages of the proteins. A Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis showed that the known TDFs were mainly involved in metabolic (28.4%), signal transduction (23.5%) and folding, sorting and degradation (13.6%) pathways. Ten genes from the NLM and MM development stages in the mutant were analyzed by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The information generated in this study can provide some useful clues to help understand male sterility in B. platyphylla. PMID:26260014

  13. Open Field Release of Genetically Engineered Sterile Male Aedes aegypti in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Raduan, Norzahira; Kwee Wee, Lim; Hong Ming, Wong; Guat Ney, Teoh; Rahidah A.A., Siti; Salman, Sawaluddin; Subramaniam, Selvi; Nordin, Oreenaiza; Hanum A.T., Norhaida; Angamuthu, Chandru; Marlina Mansor, Suria; Lees, Rosemary S.; Naish, Neil; Scaife, Sarah; Gray, Pam; Labbé, Geneviève; Beech, Camilla; Nimmo, Derric; Alphey, Luke; Vasan, Seshadri S.; Han Lim, Lee; Wasi A., Nazni; Murad, Shahnaz

    2012-01-01

    Background Dengue is the most important mosquito-borne viral disease. In the absence of specific drugs or vaccines, control focuses on suppressing the principal mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti, yet current methods have not proven adequate to control the disease. New methods are therefore urgently needed, for example genetics-based sterile-male-release methods. However, this requires that lab-reared, modified mosquitoes be able to survive and disperse adequately in the field. Methodology/Principal Findings Adult male mosquitoes were released into an uninhabited forested area of Pahang, Malaysia. Their survival and dispersal was assessed by use of a network of traps. Two strains were used, an engineered ‘genetically sterile’ (OX513A) and a wild-type laboratory strain, to give both absolute and relative data about the performance of the modified mosquitoes. The two strains had similar maximum dispersal distances (220 m), but mean distance travelled of the OX513A strain was lower (52 vs. 100 m). Life expectancy was similar (2.0 vs. 2.2 days). Recapture rates were high for both strains, possibly because of the uninhabited nature of the site. Conclusions/Significance After extensive contained studies and regulatory scrutiny, a field release of engineered mosquitoes was safely and successfully conducted in Malaysia. The engineered strain showed similar field longevity to an unmodified counterpart, though in this setting dispersal was reduced relative to the unmodified strain. These data are encouraging for the future testing and implementation of genetic control strategies and will help guide future field use of this and other engineered strains. PMID:22970102

  14. Bioreplicated visual features of nanofabricated buprestid beetle decoys evoke stereotypical male mating flights

    PubMed Central

    Domingue, Michael J.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh; Pulsifer, Drew P.; Hall, Loyal P.; Badding, John V.; Bischof, Jesse L.; Martín-Palma, Raúl J.; Imrei, Zoltán; Janik, Gergely; Mastro, Victor C.; Hazen, Missy; Baker, Thomas C.

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in nanoscale bioreplication processes present the potential for novel basic and applied research into organismal behavioral processes. Insect behavior potentially could be affected by physical features existing at the nanoscale level. We used nano-bioreplicated visual decoys of female emerald ash borer beetles (Agrilus planipennis) to evoke stereotypical mate-finding behavior, whereby males fly to and alight on the decoys as they would on real females. Using an industrially scalable nanomolding process, we replicated and evaluated the importance of two features of the outer cuticular surface of the beetle’s wings: structural interference coloration of the elytra by multilayering of the epicuticle and fine-scale surface features consisting of spicules and spines that scatter light into intense strands. Two types of decoys that lacked one or both of these elements were fabricated, one type nano-bioreplicated and the other 3D-printed with no bioreplicated surface nanostructural elements. Both types were colored with green paint. The light-scattering properties of the nano-bioreplicated surfaces were verified by shining a white laser on the decoys in a dark room and projecting the scattering pattern onto a white surface. Regardless of the coloration mechanism, the nano-bioreplicated decoys evoked the complete attraction and landing sequence of Agrilus males. In contrast, males made brief flying approaches toward the decoys without nanostructured features, but diverted away before alighting on them. The nano-bioreplicated decoys were also electroconductive, a feature used on traps such that beetles alighting onto them were stunned, killed, and collected. PMID:25225359

  15. Bioreplicated visual features of nanofabricated buprestid beetle decoys evoke stereotypical male mating flights.

    PubMed

    Domingue, Michael J; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh; Pulsifer, Drew P; Hall, Loyal P; Badding, John V; Bischof, Jesse L; Martín-Palma, Raúl J; Imrei, Zoltán; Janik, Gergely; Mastro, Victor C; Hazen, Missy; Baker, Thomas C

    2014-09-30

    Recent advances in nanoscale bioreplication processes present the potential for novel basic and applied research into organismal behavioral processes. Insect behavior potentially could be affected by physical features existing at the nanoscale level. We used nano-bioreplicated visual decoys of female emerald ash borer beetles (Agrilus planipennis) to evoke stereotypical mate-finding behavior, whereby males fly to and alight on the decoys as they would on real females. Using an industrially scalable nanomolding process, we replicated and evaluated the importance of two features of the outer cuticular surface of the beetle's wings: structural interference coloration of the elytra by multilayering of the epicuticle and fine-scale surface features consisting of spicules and spines that scatter light into intense strands. Two types of decoys that lacked one or both of these elements were fabricated, one type nano-bioreplicated and the other 3D-printed with no bioreplicated surface nanostructural elements. Both types were colored with green paint. The light-scattering properties of the nano-bioreplicated surfaces were verified by shining a white laser on the decoys in a dark room and projecting the scattering pattern onto a white surface. Regardless of the coloration mechanism, the nano-bioreplicated decoys evoked the complete attraction and landing sequence of Agrilus males. In contrast, males made brief flying approaches toward the decoys without nanostructured features, but diverted away before alighting on them. The nano-bioreplicated decoys were also electroconductive, a feature used on traps such that beetles alighting onto them were stunned, killed, and collected. PMID:25225359

  16. Male Moth Songs Tempt Females to Accept Mating: The Role of Acoustic and Pheromonal Communication in the Reproductive Behaviour of Aphomia sociella

    PubMed Central

    Kindl, Ji?í; Kalinová, Blanka; ?ervenka, Milan; Jílek, Milan; Valterová, Irena

    2011-01-01

    Background Members of the subfamily Galleriinae have adapted to different selective environmental pressures by devising a unique mating process. Galleriinae males initiate mating by attracting females with either chemical or acoustic signals (or a combination of both modalities). Six compounds considered candidates for the sex pheromone have recently been identified in the wing gland extracts of Aphomia sociella males. Prior to the present study, acoustic communication had not been investigated. Signals mediating female attraction were likewise unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings Observations of A. sociella mating behaviour and recordings of male acoustic signals confirmed that males initiate the mating process. During calling behaviour (stationary wing fanning and pheromone release), males disperse pheromone from their wing glands. When a female approaches, males cease calling and begin to produce ultrasonic songs as part of the courtship behaviour. Replaying of recorded courting songs to virgin females and a comparison of the mating efficiency of intact males with males lacking tegullae proved that male ultrasonic signals stimulate females to accept mating. Greenhouse experiments with isolated pheromone glands confirmed that the male sex pheromone mediates long-range female attraction. Conclusion/Significance Female attraction in A. sociella is chemically mediated, but ultrasonic communication is also employed during courtship. Male ultrasonic songs stimulate female sexual display and significantly affect mating efficiency. Considerable inter-individual differences in song structure exist. These could play a role in female mate selection provided that the female's ear is able to discern them. The A. sociella mating strategy described above is unique within the subfamily Galleriinae. PMID:22065997

  17. No Evidence for Heritability of Male Mating Latency or Copulation Duration across Social Environments in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Michelle L.; Evans, Jonathan P.; Garcia-Gonzalez, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    A key assumption underpinning major models of sexual selection is the expectation that male sexual attractiveness is heritable. Surprisingly, however, empirical tests of this assumption are relatively scarce. Here we use a paternal full-sib/half-sib breeding design to examine genetic and environmental variation in male mating latency (a proxy for sexual attractiveness) and copulation duration in a natural population of Drosophila melanogaster. As our experimental design also involved the manipulation of the social environment within each full-sibling family, we were able to further test for the presence of genotype-by-environment interactions (GEIs) in these traits, which have the potential to compromise mate choice for genetic benefits. Our experimental manipulation of the social environment revealed plastic expression of both traits; males exposed to a rival male during the sensitive period of adult sexual maturation exhibited shorter mating latencies and longer copulation durations than those who matured in isolation. However, we found no evidence for GEIs, and no significant additive genetic variation underlying these traits in either environment. These results undermine the notion that the evolution of female choice rests on covariance between female preference and male displays, an expectation that underpins indirect benefit models such as the good genes and sexy sons hypotheses. However, our results may also indicate depletion of genetic variance in these traits in the natural population studied, thus supporting the expectation that traits closely aligned with reproductive fitness can exhibit low levels of additive genetic variance. PMID:24155948

  18. No evidence for heritability of male mating latency or copulation duration across social environments in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Michelle L; Evans, Jonathan P; Garcia-Gonzalez, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    A key assumption underpinning major models of sexual selection is the expectation that male sexual attractiveness is heritable. Surprisingly, however, empirical tests of this assumption are relatively scarce. Here we use a paternal full-sib/half-sib breeding design to examine genetic and environmental variation in male mating latency (a proxy for sexual attractiveness) and copulation duration in a natural population of Drosophila melanogaster. As our experimental design also involved the manipulation of the social environment within each full-sibling family, we were able to further test for the presence of genotype-by-environment interactions (GEIs) in these traits, which have the potential to compromise mate choice for genetic benefits. Our experimental manipulation of the social environment revealed plastic expression of both traits; males exposed to a rival male during the sensitive period of adult sexual maturation exhibited shorter mating latencies and longer copulation durations than those who matured in isolation. However, we found no evidence for GEIs, and no significant additive genetic variation underlying these traits in either environment. These results undermine the notion that the evolution of female choice rests on covariance between female preference and male displays, an expectation that underpins indirect benefit models such as the good genes and sexy sons hypotheses. However, our results may also indicate depletion of genetic variance in these traits in the natural population studied, thus supporting the expectation that traits closely aligned with reproductive fitness can exhibit low levels of additive genetic variance. PMID:24155948

  19. Tapetum-specific expression of a cytoplasmic orf507 gene causes semi-male sterility in transgenic peppers

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Jiao-Jiao; Huang, Wei; Li, Zheng; Chai, Wei-Guo; Yin, Yan-Xu; Li, Da-Wei; Gong, Zhen-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Though cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in peppers is associated with the orf507 gene, definitive and direct evidence that it directly causes male sterility is still lacking. In this study, differences in histochemical localization of anther cytochrome c oxidase between the pepper CMS line and maintainer line were observed mainly in the tapetal cells and tapetal membrane. Inducible and specific expression of the orf507 gene in the pepper maintainer line found that transformants were morphologically similar to untransformed and transformed control plants, but had shrunken anthers that showed little dehiscence and fewer pollen grains with lower germination rate and higher naturally damaged rate. These characters were different from those of CMS line which does not produce any pollen grains. Meanwhile a pollination test using transformants as the male parent set few fruit and there were few seeds in the limited number of fruits. At the tetrad stage, ablation of the tapetal cell induced by premature programmed cell death (PCD) occurred in the transformants and the microspores were distorted and degraded at the mononuclear stage. Stable transmission of induced semi-male sterility was confirmed by a test cross. In addition, expression of orf507 in the maintainer lines seemed to inhibit expression of atp6-2 to a certain extent, and lead to the increase of the activity of cytochrome c oxidase and the ATP hydrolysis of the mitochondrial F1Fo-ATP synthase. These results introduce the premature PCD caused by orf507 gene in tapetal cells and semi-male sterility, but not complete male sterility. PMID:25954296

  20. Registration of N614, A3N615, N616, and N617 Shattercane Genetic Stocks with cytoplasmic or nuclear male-sterility and juicy or dry midribs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four shattercane [Sorghum bicolor subsp. drummondii (Nees ex Steud) de Wet & Harlan] genetic stocks, N614, A3N615, N616, N617 (Reg. No. XXX, PI 665683 to 665686), with A3 cytoplasmic male-sterility or nuclear male-sterility gene ms3 containing either juicy (dd) or dry (DD) culms were developed joint...

  1. Morphological and Cytological Study in a New Type of Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Line CMS-GIG2 in Sunflower (Helianthus annuus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in sunflower anthers, termed lemon CMS-GIG2, has been further confirmed by crossing with the maintenance line and restoration line of CMS-PET1, both of which maintain the male sterility of CMS-GIG2. Light microscopy observation of anther sections showed that bo...

  2. Cytological and comparative proteomic analyses on male sterility in Brassica napus L. induced by the chemical hybridization agent monosulphuron ester sodium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Male sterility induced by a chemical hybridization agent (CHA) is an important tool for utilizing crop heterosis. Monosulphuron ester sodium (MES), a new acetolactate synthase-inhibitor herbicide belonging to the sulphonylurea family, has been developed as an effective CHA to induce male sterility i...

  3. Interspecific amphiploid-derived alloplasmic male sterility with defective anthers, narrow disk florets, and small ray flowers in sunflower

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cytoplasmic male-sterility (CMS)/fertility-restoration system is important for hybrid sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seed production. Two novel alloplasmic CMSs, designated CMS GRO1 and CMS MAX3 with defective anthers, narrow disk florets with no swollen corolla, and short, narrow ray flowers,...

  4. Fertility restoration of the sorghum A3 male-sterile cytoplasm through a sporophytic mechanism derived from sudangrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fertility restoration of sorghum lines carrying the IS1112C (A3 group) sorghum male-sterile cytoplasm in the line A3Tx398 has been documented as a two-gene gametophytic mechanism involving complementary action of restoring alleles designated Rf3 and Rf4, as derived from IS1112C. Fertility restorat...

  5. Genetic analysis and molecular mapping of an Rf gene from Helianthus angustifolius for a new cytoplasmic male-sterile line

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The combination of cytoplasmic male-sterile (CMS) and the corresponding fertility restoration genes (Rf) is a critical tool in large-scale hybrid seed production of sunflower. A new CMS line 514A, derived from H. tuberosus / 7718B, was obtained from a scientific exchange with the Liaoning Academy of...

  6. Comparative studies of mitochondrial proteomics reveal an intimate protein network of male sterility in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuping; Zhang, Gaisheng; Zhang, Yingxin; Song, Qilu; Chen, Zheng; Wang, Junsheng; Guo, Jialin; Niu, Na; Wang, Junwei; Ma, Shoucai

    2015-01-01

    Plant male sterility has often been associated with mitochondrial dysfunction; however, the mechanism in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has not been elucidated. This study set out to probe the mechanism of physiological male sterility (PHYMS) induced by the chemical hybridizing agent (CHA)-SQ-1, and cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) of wheat at the proteomic level. A total of 71 differentially expressed mitochondrial proteins were found to be involved in pollen abortion and further identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of fight/time of flight mass spectrometry). These proteins were implicated in different cellular responses and metabolic processes, with obvious functional tendencies toward the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the mitochondrial electron transport chain, protein synthesis and degradation, oxidation stress, the cell division cycle, and epigenetics. Interactions between identified proteins were demonstrated by bioinformatics analysis, enabling a more complete insight into biological pathways involved in anther abortion and pollen defects. Accordingly, a mitochondria-mediated male sterility protein network in wheat is proposed; this network was further confirmed by physiological data, RT-PCR (real-time PCR), and TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling) assay. The results provide intriguing insights into the metabolic pathway of anther abortion induced by CHA-SQ-1 and also give useful clues to identify the crucial proteins of PHYMS and CMS in wheat. PMID:26136264

  7. The male sterile 8 mutation of maize disrupts the temporal progression of the transcriptome and results in the

    E-print Network

    Kay, Mark A.

    proliferation, cell fate acquisition and the start of meiosis. Although many male-sterile mutants disrupt, including ectopic activation of genes not expressed in fertile siblings, failure to express some genes, differential expression compared with fertile siblings and about 40% of the differentially expressed

  8. Overexpression of AtTTP Affects ARF17 Expression and Leads to Male Sterility in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Zhi-Hao; Zhang, Cheng; Xu, Xiao-Feng; Zhu, Jun; Zhou, Que; Ma, Li-Juan; Niu, Jin; Yang, Zhong-Nan

    2015-01-01

    Callose synthesis is critical for the formation of the pollen wall pattern. CalS5 is thought to be the major synthethase for the callose wall. In the Arabidopsis anther, ARF17 regulates the expression of CalS5 and is the target of miR160. Plants expressing miR160-resistant ARF17 (35S:5mARF17 lines) with increased ARF17 mRNA levels display male sterility. Here we report a zinc finger family gene, AtTTP, which is involved in miR160 maturation and callose synthesis in Arabidopsis. AtTTP is expressed in microsporocytes, tetrads and tapetal cells in the anther. Over-expression lines of AtTTP (AtTTP-OE line) exhibited reduced male fertility. CalS5 expression was tremendously reduced and the tetrad callose wall became much thinner in the AtTTP-OE line. Northern blotting hybridization and quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that miR160 was decreased, while the expression of ARF17 was increased in the AtTTP-OE line. Based on these results, we propose that AtTTP associates with miR160 in order to regulate the ARF17 expression needed for callose synthesis and pollen wall formation. PMID:25822980

  9. Gene expression divergence and nucleotide differentiation between males of different color morphs and mating strategies in the ruff

    PubMed Central

    Ekblom, Robert; Farrell, Lindsay L; Lank, David B; Burke, Terry

    2012-01-01

    By next generation transcriptome sequencing, it is possible to obtain data on both nucleotide sequence variation and gene expression. We have used this approach (RNA-Seq) to investigate the genetic basis for differences in plumage coloration and mating strategies in a non-model bird species, the ruff (Philomachus pugnax). Ruff males show enormous variation in the coloration of ornamental feathers, used for individual recognition. This polymorphism is linked to reproductive strategies, with dark males (Independents) defending territories on leks against other Independents, whereas white morphs (Satellites) co-occupy Independent's courts without agonistic interactions. Previous work found a strong genetic component for mating strategy, but the genes involved were not identified. We present feather transcriptome data of more than 6,000 de-novo sequenced ruff genes (although with limited coverage for many of them). None of the identified genes showed significant expression divergence between males, but many genetic markers showed nucleotide differentiation between different color morphs and mating strategies. These include several feather keratin genes, splicing factors, and the Xg blood-group gene. Many of the genes with significant genetic structure between mating strategies have not yet been annotated and their functions remain to be elucidated. We also conducted in-depth investigations of 28 pre-identified coloration candidate genes. Two of these (EDNRB and TYR) were specifically expressed in black- and rust-colored males, respectively. We have demonstrated the utility of next generation transcriptome sequencing for identifying and genotyping large number of genetic markers in a non-model species without previous genomic resources, and highlight the potential of this approach for addressing the genetic basis of ecologically important variation. PMID:23145334

  10. Gene expression divergence and nucleotide differentiation between males of different color morphs and mating strategies in the ruff.

    PubMed

    Ekblom, Robert; Farrell, Lindsay L; Lank, David B; Burke, Terry

    2012-10-01

    By next generation transcriptome sequencing, it is possible to obtain data on both nucleotide sequence variation and gene expression. We have used this approach (RNA-Seq) to investigate the genetic basis for differences in plumage coloration and mating strategies in a non-model bird species, the ruff (Philomachus pugnax). Ruff males show enormous variation in the coloration of ornamental feathers, used for individual recognition. This polymorphism is linked to reproductive strategies, with dark males (Independents) defending territories on leks against other Independents, whereas white morphs (Satellites) co-occupy Independent's courts without agonistic interactions. Previous work found a strong genetic component for mating strategy, but the genes involved were not identified. We present feather transcriptome data of more than 6,000 de-novo sequenced ruff genes (although with limited coverage for many of them). None of the identified genes showed significant expression divergence between males, but many genetic markers showed nucleotide differentiation between different color morphs and mating strategies. These include several feather keratin genes, splicing factors, and the Xg blood-group gene. Many of the genes with significant genetic structure between mating strategies have not yet been annotated and their functions remain to be elucidated. We also conducted in-depth investigations of 28 pre-identified coloration candidate genes. Two of these (EDNRB and TYR) were specifically expressed in black- and rust-colored males, respectively. We have demonstrated the utility of next generation transcriptome sequencing for identifying and genotyping large number of genetic markers in a non-model species without previous genomic resources, and highlight the potential of this approach for addressing the genetic basis of ecologically important variation. PMID:23145334

  11. Transcriptional Profiles of Mating-Responsive Genes from Testes and Male Accessory Glands of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata

    PubMed Central

    Scolari, Francesca; Gomulski, Ludvik M.; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Siciliano, Paolo; Meraldi, Alice; Falchetto, Marco; Bonomi, Angelica; Manni, Mosè; Gabrieli, Paolo; Malovini, Alberto; Bellazzi, Riccardo; Aksoy, Serap; Gasperi, Giuliano; Malacrida, Anna R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Insect seminal fluid is a complex mixture of proteins, carbohydrates and lipids, produced in the male reproductive tract. This seminal fluid is transferred together with the spermatozoa during mating and induces post-mating changes in the female. Molecular characterization of seminal fluid proteins in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, is limited, although studies suggest that some of these proteins are biologically active. Methodology/Principal Findings We report on the functional annotation of 5914 high quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from the testes and male accessory glands, to identify transcripts encoding putative secreted peptides that might elicit post-mating responses in females. The ESTs were assembled into 3344 contigs, of which over 33% produced no hits against the nr database, and thus may represent novel or rapidly evolving sequences. Extraction of the coding sequences resulted in a total of 3371 putative peptides. The annotated dataset is available as a hyperlinked spreadsheet. Four hundred peptides were identified with putative secretory activity, including odorant binding proteins, protease inhibitor domain-containing peptides, antigen 5 proteins, mucins, and immunity-related sequences. Quantitative RT-PCR-based analyses of a subset of putative secretory protein-encoding transcripts from accessory glands indicated changes in their abundance after one or more copulations when compared to virgin males of the same age. These changes in abundance, particularly evident after the third mating, may be related to the requirement to replenish proteins to be transferred to the female. Conclusions/Significance We have developed the first large-scale dataset for novel studies on functions and processes associated with the reproductive biology of Ceratitis capitata. The identified genes may help study genome evolution, in light of the high adaptive potential of the medfly. In addition, studies of male recovery dynamics in terms of accessory gland gene expression profiles and correlated remating inhibition mechanisms may permit the improvement of pest management approaches. PMID:23071645

  12. Relative importance of the area and intensity of the orange spots of male guppies Poecilia reticulata as mating traits preferred by females.

    PubMed

    Karino, K; Shimada, Y; Kudo, H; Sato, A

    2010-07-01

    Digitally modified videos of male guppies Poecilia reticulata were used to examine the relative importance of the area and intensity of the orange spots as mating traits preferred by females. The females prioritized the area of the orange spots over intensity for their mate preference. PMID:20646155

  13. Effects of the juvenile hormone analogue methoprene and dietary protein on male melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera:Tephritidae) mating success

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of access to dietary protein (P) and the topical application of a juvenile hormone analogue (methoprene (M)) on mating behaviour of male melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae was assessed in the laboratory and in field cages. Age, dietary protein and methoprene application increased the mating...

  14. Energy beyond the pupal stage: larval nutrition and its long-time consequences for male mating performance in a scorpionfly.

    PubMed

    Engels, Sierk; Sauer, Klaus Peter

    2007-07-01

    The basic requirement for selection to take effect is variation in fitness relevant traits among individuals of a population. This study is concerned with the question whether environmental conditions met during an early phase of life history that is dominated by the natural component of selection will affect traits and behaviour in a sexual selection context after metamorphosis in a holometabolous insect species. We examined the effects of nutrition as a proximate factor responsible for intrasexual phenotypic variation in the mating performance of male Panorpa vulgaris (Mecoptera: Panorpidae). For this purpose, we manipulated food availability during larval development as well as during adulthood. To obtain matings and to increase their reproductive success males must secrete salivary masses which are then consumed by the females during copulation. The results of the present study are consistent with those of previous studies demonstrating a strong effect of nutrition during adulthood on various fitness relevant traits (salivary gland development, saliva investment in copulations, etc.). But moreover, we could show that food availability during larval development affected male body weight and that there was an interaction between larval and adult diet affecting salivary gland weight relative to body weight. Therefore, food availability during the larval stage can become an important and limiting factor for salivary gland development (and mating success) depending on food availability during adulthood. Several other variables (number of salivary masses, copulation duration, salivary mass weight and saliva investment) seemed not to be associated with larval nutrition. PMID:17572436

  15. The study and analysis of the mating behavior and sound production of male cicada Psalmocharias alhageos (Kol.) (Homoptera:Cicadidae) to make disruption in mating.

    PubMed

    Zamanian, H; Mehdipour, M; Ghaemi, N

    2008-09-01

    Psalmocharias alhageos is an important pest of vine in most parts of Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, southern areas of Russia, Turkey and Iraq. This cicada is spread in most provinces in Iran such as Esfahan, Hamedan, Qazvin, Markazi, Lorestan, Qom, Kerman, Tehran and Kordestan. In addition to vine, this insect damages some other fruit trees, such as apple, sour cherry, quince, peach, pomegranate and pear trees and some non-fruit trees, namely white poplar, ash, elm, eglantine, silk and black poplar trees. The nymphs of cicada damage the trees by feeding on root, adult insects on young bud and by oviposition under branch barks. Nourishing root by nymph leads to the weakness of the tree and hinder its growth. The high density oviposition of adult insects inside young barks causes withering of branches. The resulted damage on vine products is 40% which is one of the most important factors in product reduction in vineyard. This research was conducted in Takestan in Qazvin. It was conducted for the first time to study the behaviors of the mates of this vine cicada in order to manage it. Two systems were used to record the sound of male cicada called analog voice-recorder and digital voice recorder. To analyze the recorded sound of the male cicada we used of spectrum analyzer, digital storage oscilloscope and protens 7 computer softwares. We could call the attention of natural enemies an disturb the male insect's attracting sound by producing natural and artificial sound in the range of 1-6 kHz in two different ripeness status of the fruits and could prevent mating and oviposition of female cicadas. PMID:19266919

  16. Female preference for multi-modal courtship: multiple signals are important for male mating success in peacock spiders.

    PubMed

    Girard, Madeline B; Elias, Damian O; Kasumovic, Michael M

    2015-12-01

    A long-standing goal for biologists has been to understand how female preferences operate in systems where males have evolved numerous sexually selected traits. Jumping spiders of the Maratus genus are exceptionally sexually dimorphic in appearance and signalling behaviour. Presumably, strong sexual selection by females has played an important role in the evolution of complex signals displayed by males of this group; however, this has not yet been demonstrated. In fact, despite apparent widespread examples of sexual selection in nature, empirical evidence is relatively sparse, especially for species employing multiple modalities for intersexual communication. In order to elucidate whether female preference can explain the evolution of multi-modal signalling traits, we ran a series of mating trials using Maratus volans. We used video recordings and laser vibrometry to characterize, quantify and examine which male courtship traits predict various metrics of mating success. We found evidence for strong sexual selection on males in this system, with success contingent upon a combination of visual and vibratory displays. Additionally, independently produced, yet correlated suites of multi-modal male signals are linked to other aspects of female peacock spider behaviour. Lastly, our data provide some support for both the redundant signal and multiple messages hypotheses for the evolution of multi-modal signalling. PMID:26631566

  17. Comparison of reproductive traits of regular and irradiated male desert locust Schistocerca gregaria (Orthoptera: Acrididae): Evidence of last-male sperm precedence

    PubMed Central

    Dushimirimana, Severin; Hance, Thierry; Damiens, David

    2012-01-01

    Summary The sterile insect technique (SIT) is increasingly used to control pest insect populations. The success of SIT control programs depends on the ability to release sterile males and on the capacity of sterile males to compete with wild males to inseminate wild females. In this study, we evaluated the mating performance of Schistocerca gregaria (Försk.) males irradiated with 4 Gray. We compared reproductive traits, such as duration of precopulation time, mating duration, quantity of sperm stored by females after copulation, number of females mated successively and postmating competition of irradiated males with non-irradiated males. Irradiated males were able to mate but the resulting number of offspring was dramatically reduced compared to the average number of offspring observed during a regular mating. During a single copulation, irradiated males transferred fewer sperm than regular males but, theoretically, this quantity is enough to fertilize all the eggs produced by a female during its reproductive life. Irradiated males also had the ability to remove sperm from a previous mating with unirraditated males. This new information on the mating strategies helps explain the post-copulation guarding behaviour of S. gregaria. PMID:23213413

  18. Modified sucrose, starch, and ATP levels in two alloplasmic male-sterile lines of B. napus.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Rita Teresa; Knorpp, Carina; Glimelius, Kristina

    2005-04-01

    Alloplasmic lines of Brassica napus with rearranged Arabidopsis thaliana mitochondrial DNA are male sterile and vegetatively altered compared with B. napus cv. Hanna. The CMS lines contain pure nuclear and plastid genomes from B. napus. Cross-sections of leaves revealed elevated starch accumulation and a higher number of chloroplasts per cell area in CMS plants compared with B. napus. The increase in chloroplast density was found to be the result of the smaller mesophyll cells. Sucrose concentration in the leaves of the CMS lines was reduced both in green leaves as well as in leaves from 2 d-etiolated plants. Flower meristem, flower buds, and leaves from green and 2 d-etiolated plants were analysed for ATP and ADP contents. All CMS plant tissues, except for green leaves, possessed lower ATP levels than B. napus. The results indicate that the reduced availability of energy, i.e. ATP and sucrose in the CMS plants, limits plant growth. This is supported by the reduced levels of two D-type cyclin transcripts and the reduced capacity of the CMS plants to recover after etiolation. PMID:15753110

  19. Changes in blood testosterone concentrations after surgical and chemical sterilization of male free-roaming dogs in southern Chile.

    PubMed

    Vanderstichel, R; Forzán, M J; Pérez, G E; Serpell, J A; Garde, E

    2015-04-01

    There is a growing interest in chemical sterilization as an alternative to surgical castration in large-scale sterilization campaigns to control canine populations. An important step toward understanding the short-term and long-term effects of chemical sterilants is to determine their impact on blood testosterone concentrations, particularly as these could influence dog behavior after treatment. A field trial was conducted with 118 free-roaming male dogs in the Chilean Patagonia, where 36 dogs were chemically sterilized using EsterilSol, 39 dogs were surgically castrated, and 43 dogs remained intact as controls. Blood testosterone levels were determined at four time periods: on enrollment 6 months before treatment (t-6m), at the time of treatment (t0, within one hour after surgical castration or chemical sterilization and during a concurrent 2-week period for the control group), four (t+4m), and six (t+6m) months after treatment. Intrinsic and temporal factors were evaluated; age was significantly associated with testosterone, where dogs 2- to 4-year-old had the highest testosterone concentrations (P = 0.036), whereas body weight and body condition scores were not associated with testosterone; testosterone concentration was not influenced by time of day, month, or season. After treatment (t+4m and t+6m), all of the surgically castrated dogs had testosterone concentrations below 1.0 ng/mL. On the basis of this cut point (<1 ng/mL), testosterone remained unchanged in 66% of the chemically sterilized dogs at both t+4m and t+6m; it remained low for 22% of dogs at both t+4m and t+6m; it was unchanged at t+4m but low at t+6m in 9% of dogs; and, it was low at t+4m but reverted back to unchanged at t+6m in one dog (3%). Incidentally, testosterone in chemically sterilized dogs increased dramatically within 1 hour of treatment (t0), more than doubling (131%) the concentration of control dogs at the time of treatment (t0), likely because of severe necrosis of interstitial cells. The use of EsterilSol as a method of sterilizing dogs had a variable effect on blood testosterone concentrations. Approximately, 30% of chemically sterilized dogs had a reduced testosterone concentration (actual maximum, 1 ng/mL) after 6 months, similar to that of surgically castrated dogs. Most chemically sterilized dogs, however, showed no long-term changes in blood testosterone concentrations. PMID:25557187

  20. Transcriptomic Profiling Reveals Complex Molecular Regulation in Cotton Genic Male Sterile Mutant Yu98-8A

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Deyi; Sun, Li; Xu, Zhenzhen; Zhu, Wei; Yang, Lirong; Zhao, Yuanming; Lv, Shuping; Tang, Zhongjie; Nie, Lihong; Li, Wu; Hou, Jianan; Duan, Zhengzheng; Yu, Yuebo; Yang, Xiaojie

    2015-01-01

    Although cotton genic male sterility (GMS) plays an important role in the utilization of hybrid vigor, its precise molecular mechanism remains unclear. To characterize the molecular events of pollen abortion, transcriptome analysis, combined with histological observations, was conducted in the cotton GMS line, Yu98-8A. A total of 2,412 genes were identified as significant differentially expressed genes (DEGs) before and during the critical pollen abortion stages. Bioinformatics and biochemical analysis showed that the DEGs mainly associated with sugars and starch metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation, and plant endogenous hormones play a critical and complicated role in pollen abortion. These findings extend a better understanding of the molecular events involved in the regulation of pollen abortion in genic male sterile cotton, which may provide a foundation for further research studies on cotton heterosis breeding. PMID:26382878

  1. Transcriptomic Profiling Reveals Complex Molecular Regulation in Cotton Genic Male Sterile Mutant Yu98-8A.

    PubMed

    Fang, Weiping; Zhao, Fu'an; Sun, Yao; Xie, Deyi; Sun, Li; Xu, Zhenzhen; Zhu, Wei; Yang, Lirong; Zhao, Yuanming; Lv, Shuping; Tang, Zhongjie; Nie, Lihong; Li, Wu; Hou, Jianan; Duan, Zhengzheng; Yu, Yuebo; Yang, Xiaojie

    2015-01-01

    Although cotton genic male sterility (GMS) plays an important role in the utilization of hybrid vigor, its precise molecular mechanism remains unclear. To characterize the molecular events of pollen abortion, transcriptome analysis, combined with histological observations, was conducted in the cotton GMS line, Yu98-8A. A total of 2,412 genes were identified as significant differentially expressed genes (DEGs) before and during the critical pollen abortion stages. Bioinformatics and biochemical analysis showed that the DEGs mainly associated with sugars and starch metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation, and plant endogenous hormones play a critical and complicated role in pollen abortion. These findings extend a better understanding of the molecular events involved in the regulation of pollen abortion in genic male sterile cotton, which may provide a foundation for further research studies on cotton heterosis breeding. PMID:26382878

  2. Sexually transmitted diseases in polygynous mating systems: prevalence and impact

    E-print Network

    Antonovics, Janis

    Sexually transmitted diseases in polygynous mating systems: prevalence and impact on reproductive (e.g. mortality rates). Male reproductive success can be reduced substantially by a sterilizing STD debate about evolutionary impacts of disease on animal and plant reproductive systems has centred almost

  3. Tribenuron-Methyl Induces Male Sterility through Anther-Specific Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase Leading to Autophagic Cell Death.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lun; Jing, Xue; Chen, Li; Liu, Yingjun; Su, Yanan; Liu, Tingting; Gao, Changbin; Yi, Bin; Wen, Jing; Ma, Chaozhi; Tu, Jinxing; Zou, Jitao; Fu, Tingdong; Shen, Jinxiong

    2015-12-01

    Tribenuron-methyl (TM) is a powerful sulfonylurea herbicide that inhibits branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) biosynthesis by targeting the catalytic subunit (CSR1) of acetolactate synthase (ALS). Selective induction of male sterility by foliar spraying of TM at low doses has been widely used for hybrid seed production in rapeseed (Brassica napus); however, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Here, we report greater TM accumulation and subsequent stronger ALS inhibition and BCAA starvation in anthers than in leaves and stems after TM application. Constitutive or anther-specific expression of csr1-1D (a CSR1 mutant) eliminated anther-selective ALS inhibition and reversed the TM-induced male sterile phenotype in both rapeseed and Arabidopsis. The results of TM daub-stem experiments, combined with the observations of little TM accumulation in anthers and reversion of TM-induced male sterility by targeted expression of the TM metabolism gene Bel in either the mesophyll or phloem, suggested that foliar-sprayed TM was polar-transported to anthers mainly through the mesophyll and phloem. Microscopy and immunoblotting revealed that autophagy, a bulk degradation process induced during cell death, was elevated in TM-induced male sterile anthers and by anther-specific knockdown of ALS. Moreover, TM-induced pollen abortion was significantly inhibited by the autophagy inhibitor 3-MA. These data suggested that TM was polar-transported to anthers, resulting in BCAA starvation via anther-specific ALS inhibition and, ultimately, autophagic cell death in anthers. PMID:26362932

  4. Males and Females Contribute Unequally to Offspring Genetic Diversity in the Polygynandrous Mating System of Wild Boar

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-González, Javier; Costa, Vânia; Santos, Pedro; Slate, Jon; Carranza, Juan; Fernández-Llario, Pedro; Zsolnai, Attila; Monteiro, Nuno M.; Anton, István; Buzgó, József; Varga, Gyula; Beja-Pereira, Albano

    2014-01-01

    The maintenance of genetic diversity across generations depends on both the number of reproducing males and females. Variance in reproductive success, multiple paternity and litter size can all affect the relative contributions of male and female parents to genetic variation of progeny. The mating system of the wild boar (Sus scrofa) has been described as polygynous, although evidence of multiple paternity in litters has been found. Using 14 microsatellite markers, we evaluated the contribution of males and females to genetic variation in the next generation in independent wild boar populations from the Iberian Peninsula and Hungary. Genetic contributions of males and females were obtained by distinguishing the paternal and maternal genetic component inherited by the progeny. We found that the paternally inherited genetic component of progeny was more diverse than the maternally inherited component. Simulations showed that this finding might be due to a sampling bias. However, after controlling for the bias by fitting both the genetic diversity in the adult population and the number of reproductive individuals in the models, paternally inherited genotypes remained more diverse than those inherited maternally. Our results suggest new insights into how promiscuous mating systems can help maintain genetic variation. PMID:25541986

  5. MutS HOMOLOG1 silencing mediates ORF220 substoichiometric shifting and causes male sterility in Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Na; Xu, Xinyue; Wamboldt, Yashitola; Mackenzie, Sally A; Yang, Xiaodong; Hu, Zhongyuan; Yang, Jinghua; Zhang, Mingfang

    2016-01-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) has consistently been associated with the expression of mitochondrial open reading frames (ORFs) that arise from genomic rearrangements. Spontaneous fertility reversion in CMS has been observed in several cases, but a clear understanding of fertility reversion controlled by nuclear genetic influences has been lacking. Here, we identified spontaneous fertile revertant lines for Brassica juncea CMS cytoplasm in which the mitochondrial genome has undergone substoichiometric shifting (SSS) to suppress ORF220 copy number. We placed ORF220, with or without a mitochondrial targeting presequence, under the control of the CaMV35S and AP3 promoters in Arabidopsis to confirm that ORF220 causes male sterility when mitochondrially localized. We found that copy number of the ORF220 gene was altered under conditions that suppress MSH1, a nuclear gene that controls illegitimate recombination in plant mitochondria. MSH1-RNAi lines with increased ORF220 copy number were male sterile compared with wild type. We found that a wide range of genes involved in anther development were up- and down-regulated in revertant and MSH1-RNAi lines, respectively. The system that we have developed offers valuable future insight into the interplay of MSH1 and SSS in CMS induction and fertility reversion as a mediator of nuclear-mitochondrial crosstalk. PMID:26516127

  6. MutS HOMOLOG1 silencing mediates ORF220 substoichiometric shifting and causes male sterility in Brassica juncea

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Na; Xu, Xinyue; Wamboldt, Yashitola; Mackenzie, Sally A.; Hu, Zhongyuan; Yang, Jinghua; Zhang, Mingfang

    2016-01-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) has consistently been associated with the expression of mitochondrial open reading frames (ORFs) that arise from genomic rearrangements. Spontaneous fertility reversion in CMS has been observed in several cases, but a clear understanding of fertility reversion controlled by nuclear genetic influences has been lacking. Here, we identified spontaneous fertile revertant lines for Brassica juncea CMS cytoplasm in which the mitochondrial genome has undergone substoichiometric shifting (SSS) to suppress ORF220 copy number. We placed ORF220, with or without a mitochondrial targeting presequence, under the control of the CaMV35S and AP3 promoters in Arabidopsis to confirm that ORF220 causes male sterility when mitochondrially localized. We found that copy number of the ORF220 gene was altered under conditions that suppress MSH1, a nuclear gene that controls illegitimate recombination in plant mitochondria. MSH1-RNAi lines with increased ORF220 copy number were male sterile compared with wild type. We found that a wide range of genes involved in anther development were up- and down-regulated in revertant and MSH1-RNAi lines, respectively. The system that we have developed offers valuable future insight into the interplay of MSH1 and SSS in CMS induction and fertility reversion as a mediator of nuclear–mitochondrial crosstalk. PMID:26516127

  7. Characterization of Raphanus sativus pentatricopeptide repeat proteins encoded by the fertility restorer locus for Ogura cytoplasmic male sterility.

    PubMed

    Uyttewaal, M; Arnal, N; Quadrado, M; Martin-Canadell, A; Vrielynck, N; Hiard, S; Gherbi, H; Bendahmane, A; Budar, F; Mireau, H

    2008-12-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility is a maternally inherited trait in higher plants that prevents the production of functional pollen. Ogura cytoplasmic male sterility in radish (Raphanus sativus) is regulated by the orf138 mitochondrial locus. Male fertility can be restored when orf138 accumulation is suppressed by the nuclear Rfo locus, which consists of three genes putatively encoding highly similar pentatricopeptide repeat proteins (PPR-A, -B, and -C). We produced transgenic rapeseed (Brassica napus) plants separately expressing PPR-A and PPR-B and demonstrated that both encoded proteins accumulated preferentially in the anthers of young flower buds. Immunodetection of ORF138 showed that, unlike PPR-B, PPR-A had no effect on the synthesis of the sterility protein. Moreover, immunolocalization experiments indicated that complete elimination of ORF138 from the tapetum of anthers correlated with the restoration of fertility. Thus, the primary role of PPR-B in restoring fertility is to inhibit ORF138 synthesis in the tapetum of young anthers. In situ hybridization experiments confirmed, at the cellular level, that PPR-B has no effect on the accumulation of orf138 mRNA. Lastly, immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that PPR-B, but not PPR-A, is associated with the orf138 RNA in vivo, linking restoration activity with the ability to directly or indirectly interact with the orf138 RNA. Together, our data support a role for PPR-B in the translational regulation of orf138 mRNA. PMID:19098270

  8. Organelle Simple Sequence Repeat Markers Help to Distinguish Carpelloid Stamen and Normal Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Sources in Broccoli.

    PubMed

    Shu, Jinshuai; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Zhang, Lili; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao

    2015-01-01

    We previously discovered carpelloid stamens when breeding cytoplasmic male sterile lines in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica). In this study, hybrids and multiple backcrosses were produced from different cytoplasmic male sterile carpelloid stamen sources and maintainer lines. Carpelloid stamens caused dysplasia of the flower structure and led to hooked or coiled siliques with poor seed setting, which were inherited in a maternal fashion. Using four distinct carpelloid stamens and twelve distinct normal stamens from cytoplasmic male sterile sources and one maintainer, we used 21 mitochondrial simple sequence repeat (mtSSR) primers and 32 chloroplast SSR primers to identify a mitochondrial marker, mtSSR2, that can differentiate between the cytoplasm of carpelloid and normal stamens. Thereafter, mtSSR2 was used to identify another 34 broccoli accessions, with an accuracy rate of 100%. Analysis of the polymorphic sequences revealed that the mtSSR2 open reading frame of carpelloid stamen sterile sources had a deletion of 51 bases (encoding 18 amino acids) compared with normal stamen materials. The open reading frame is located in the coding region of orf125 and orf108 of the mitochondrial genomes in Brassica crops and had the highest similarity with Raphanus sativus and Brassica carinata. The current study has not only identified a useful molecular marker to detect the cytoplasm of carpelloid stamens during broccoli breeding, but it also provides evidence that the mitochondrial genome is maternally inherited and provides a basis for studying the effect of the cytoplasm on flower organ development in plants. PMID:26407159

  9. Organelle Simple Sequence Repeat Markers Help to Distinguish Carpelloid Stamen and Normal Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Sources in Broccoli

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Jinshuai; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Zhang, Lili; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao

    2015-01-01

    We previously discovered carpelloid stamens when breeding cytoplasmic male sterile lines in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica). In this study, hybrids and multiple backcrosses were produced from different cytoplasmic male sterile carpelloid stamen sources and maintainer lines. Carpelloid stamens caused dysplasia of the flower structure and led to hooked or coiled siliques with poor seed setting, which were inherited in a maternal fashion. Using four distinct carpelloid stamens and twelve distinct normal stamens from cytoplasmic male sterile sources and one maintainer, we used 21 mitochondrial simple sequence repeat (mtSSR) primers and 32 chloroplast SSR primers to identify a mitochondrial marker, mtSSR2, that can differentiate between the cytoplasm of carpelloid and normal stamens. Thereafter, mtSSR2 was used to identify another 34 broccoli accessions, with an accuracy rate of 100%. Analysis of the polymorphic sequences revealed that the mtSSR2 open reading frame of carpelloid stamen sterile sources had a deletion of 51 bases (encoding 18 amino acids) compared with normal stamen materials. The open reading frame is located in the coding region of orf125 and orf108 of the mitochondrial genomes in Brassica crops and had the highest similarity with Raphanus sativus and Brassica carinata. The current study has not only identified a useful molecular marker to detect the cytoplasm of carpelloid stamens during broccoli breeding, but it also provides evidence that the mitochondrial genome is maternally inherited and provides a basis for studying the effect of the cytoplasm on flower organ development in plants. PMID:26407159

  10. Cytological and Comparative Proteomic Analyses on Male Sterility in Brassica napus L. Induced by the Chemical Hybridization Agent Monosulphuron Ester Sodium

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhanjie; Cui, Jianmin; Hu, Shengwu; Zhao, Huixian; Chen, Mingshun

    2013-01-01

    Male sterility induced by a chemical hybridization agent (CHA) is an important tool for utilizing crop heterosis. Monosulphuron ester sodium (MES), a new acetolactate synthase-inhibitor herbicide belonging to the sulphonylurea family, has been developed as an effective CHA to induce male sterility in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). To understand MES-induced male sterility in rapeseed better, comparative cytological and proteomic analyses were conducted in this study. Cytological analysis indicated that defective tapetal cells and abnormal microspores were gradually generated in the developing anthers of MES-treated plants at various development stages, resulting in unviable microspores and male sterility. A total of 141 differentially expressed proteins between the MES-treated and control plants were revealed, and 131 of them were further identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. Most of these proteins decreased in abundance in tissues of MES-treated rapeseed plants, and only a few increased. Notably, some proteins were absent or induced in developing anthers after MES treatment. These proteins were involved in several processes that may be crucial for tapetum and microspore development. Down-regulation of these proteins may disrupt the coordination of developmental and metabolic processes, resulting in defective tapetum and abnormal microspores that lead to male sterility in MES-treated plants. Accordingly, a simple model of CHA-MES-induced male sterility in rapeseed was established. This study is the first cytological and dynamic proteomic investigation on CHA-MES-induced male sterility in rapeseed, and the results provide new insights into the molecular events of male sterility. PMID:24244648

  11. Cytological and comparative proteomic analyses on male sterility in Brassica napus L. induced by the chemical hybridization agent monosulphuron ester sodium.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yufeng; Wang, Qian; Li, Zhanjie; Cui, Jianmin; Hu, Shengwu; Zhao, Huixian; Chen, Mingshun

    2013-01-01

    Male sterility induced by a chemical hybridization agent (CHA) is an important tool for utilizing crop heterosis. Monosulphuron ester sodium (MES), a new acetolactate synthase-inhibitor herbicide belonging to the sulphonylurea family, has been developed as an effective CHA to induce male sterility in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). To understand MES-induced male sterility in rapeseed better, comparative cytological and proteomic analyses were conducted in this study. Cytological analysis indicated that defective tapetal cells and abnormal microspores were gradually generated in the developing anthers of MES-treated plants at various development stages, resulting in unviable microspores and male sterility. A total of 141 differentially expressed proteins between the MES-treated and control plants were revealed, and 131 of them were further identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. Most of these proteins decreased in abundance in tissues of MES-treated rapeseed plants, and only a few increased. Notably, some proteins were absent or induced in developing anthers after MES treatment. These proteins were involved in several processes that may be crucial for tapetum and microspore development. Down-regulation of these proteins may disrupt the coordination of developmental and metabolic processes, resulting in defective tapetum and abnormal microspores that lead to male sterility in MES-treated plants. Accordingly, a simple model of CHA-MES-induced male sterility in rapeseed was established. This study is the first cytological and dynamic proteomic investigation on CHA-MES-induced male sterility in rapeseed, and the results provide new insights into the molecular events of male sterility. PMID:24244648

  12. Sequencing of the chloroplast genomes of cytoplasmic male-sterile and male-fertile lines of soybean and identification of polymorphic markers.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chunjing; Zhang, Chunbao; Zhao, Hongkun; Xing, Shaochen; Wang, Yumin; Liu, Xiaodong; Yuan, Cuiping; Zhao, Limei; Dong, Yingshan

    2014-12-01

    The RN-type cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) system used to develop Hybsoy-1, the first commercial hybrid soybean, has been subsequently applied to generate nearly all released soybean hybrids. Although more than 3 years are needed to classify sterile (S) and normal male-fertile (F) cytoplasms by conventional crossing, such classifications can be performed rapidly using organellar DNA-based molecular markers. Except for fertility, the agronomic traits of CMS hybrid soybean sterile and maintainer lines are identical. Consequently, it is difficult to distinguish them by routine visual inspection in the mixture arising in the course of field planting and harvesting during breeding. In this study, we performed next-generation sequencing of chloroplast DNAs of F- and S-cytoplasmic soybeans, assembled and annotated the genomes, and identified polymorphisms distinguishing them. Chloroplast DNAs of F and S cytoplasms were very similar in size (152,215 and 152,222 base pairs) and GC contents (35.37%). Among 23 shared SNPs in gene coding regions, we identified four that could be used in conjunction with restriction endonucleases to distinguish S and F cytoplasms. Although CMS is likely associated with mitochondrial DNA, maternal transmission of mitochondrial and chloroplast DNAs allows polymorphisms in either genome to be used to classify soybean cytoplasms, aiding hybrid soybean cultivar development. PMID:25443847

  13. RNA editing of transcripts of a chimeric mitochondrial gene associated with cytoplasmic male-sterility in Brassica.

    PubMed

    Stahl, R; Sun, S; L'Homme, Y; Ketela, T; Brown, G G

    1994-06-11

    The orf224 gene is a chimeric open reading frame associated with the Polima or pol cytoplasmic male sterility of Brassica napus. The first 58 codons and 5' upstream region of orf224 are derived from a conventional mitochondrial gene, orfB, while the origin of the remaining portion of the gene is unknown. Transcripts of the orf224 gene were found to be edited at a single site in the region of the gene that does not correspond to a known sequence. Oligonucleotides corresponding to the edited and unedited forms were shown to hybridize specifically to respective in vitro orf224 transcripts. Analysis of floral mtRNA by this method indicated that virtually all orf224 transcripts of both sterile and fertile, nuclear-restored pol cytoplasm plants are edited. Our results indicate that transcripts of novel, CMS-associated genes may be edited, but that, at least in this case, the degree of editing does not appear to be directly related to the male-sterile phenotype. PMID:8029019

  14. RNA editing of transcripts of a chimeric mitochondrial gene associated with cytoplasmic male-sterility in Brassica.

    PubMed Central

    Stahl, R; Sun, S; L'Homme, Y; Ketela, T; Brown, G G

    1994-01-01

    The orf224 gene is a chimeric open reading frame associated with the Polima or pol cytoplasmic male sterility of Brassica napus. The first 58 codons and 5' upstream region of orf224 are derived from a conventional mitochondrial gene, orfB, while the origin of the remaining portion of the gene is unknown. Transcripts of the orf224 gene were found to be edited at a single site in the region of the gene that does not correspond to a known sequence. Oligonucleotides corresponding to the edited and unedited forms were shown to hybridize specifically to respective in vitro orf224 transcripts. Analysis of floral mtRNA by this method indicated that virtually all orf224 transcripts of both sterile and fertile, nuclear-restored pol cytoplasm plants are edited. Our results indicate that transcripts of novel, CMS-associated genes may be edited, but that, at least in this case, the degree of editing does not appear to be directly related to the male-sterile phenotype. Images PMID:8029019

  15. Pentatricopeptide-repeat family protein RF6 functions with hexokinase 6 to rescue rice cytoplasmic male sterility

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wenchao; Yu, Changchun; Hu, Jun; Wang, Lili; Dan, Zhiwu; Zhou, Wei; He, Chunlan; Zeng, Yafei; Yao, Guoxin; Qi, Jianzhao; Zhang, Zhihong; Zhu, Renshan; Chen, Xuefeng; Zhu, Yingguo

    2015-01-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) has been extensively used for hybrid seed production in many major crops. Honglian CMS (HL-CMS) is one of the three major types of CMS in rice and has contributed greatly to food security worldwide. The HL-CMS trait is associated with an aberrant chimeric mitochondrial transcript, atp6-orfH79, which causes pollen sterility and can be rescued by two nonallelic restorer-of-fertility (Rf) genes, Rf5 or Rf6. Here, we report the identification of Rf6, which encodes a novel pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) family protein with a characteristic duplication of PPR motifs 3–5. RF6 is targeted to mitochondria, where it physically associates with hexokinase 6 (OsHXK6) and promotes the processing of the aberrant CMS-associated transcript atp6-orfH79 at nucleotide 1238, which ensures normal pollen development and restores fertility. The duplicated motif 3 of RF6 is essential for RF6-OsHXK6 interactions, processing of the aberrant transcript, and restoration of fertility. Furthermore, reductions in the level of OsHXK6 result in atp6-orfH79 transcript accumulation and male sterility. Together these results reveal a novel mechanism for CMS restoration by which RF6 functions with OsHXK6 to restore HL-CMS fertility. The present study also provides insight into the function of hexokinase 6 in regulating mitochondrial RNA metabolism and may facilitate further exploitation of heterosis in rice. PMID:26578814

  16. Pentatricopeptide-repeat family protein RF6 functions with hexokinase 6 to rescue rice cytoplasmic male sterility.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenchao; Yu, Changchun; Hu, Jun; Wang, Lili; Dan, Zhiwu; Zhou, Wei; He, Chunlan; Zeng, Yafei; Yao, Guoxin; Qi, Jianzhao; Zhang, Zhihong; Zhu, Renshan; Chen, Xuefeng; Zhu, Yingguo

    2015-12-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) has been extensively used for hybrid seed production in many major crops. Honglian CMS (HL-CMS) is one of the three major types of CMS in rice and has contributed greatly to food security worldwide. The HL-CMS trait is associated with an aberrant chimeric mitochondrial transcript, atp6-orfH79, which causes pollen sterility and can be rescued by two nonallelic restorer-of-fertility (Rf) genes, Rf5 or Rf6. Here, we report the identification of Rf6, which encodes a novel pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) family protein with a characteristic duplication of PPR motifs 3-5. RF6 is targeted to mitochondria, where it physically associates with hexokinase 6 (OsHXK6) and promotes the processing of the aberrant CMS-associated transcript atp6-orfH79 at nucleotide 1238, which ensures normal pollen development and restores fertility. The duplicated motif 3 of RF6 is essential for RF6-OsHXK6 interactions, processing of the aberrant transcript, and restoration of fertility. Furthermore, reductions in the level of OsHXK6 result in atp6-orfH79 transcript accumulation and male sterility. Together these results reveal a novel mechanism for CMS restoration by which RF6 functions with OsHXK6 to restore HL-CMS fertility. The present study also provides insight into the function of hexokinase 6 in regulating mitochondrial RNA metabolism and may facilitate further exploitation of heterosis in rice. PMID:26578814

  17. The evolutionary consequences of disrupted male mating signals: an agent-based modelling exploration of endocrine disrupting chemicals in the guppy.

    PubMed

    Senior, Alistair McNair; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Grimm, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Females may select a mate based on signalling traits that are believed to accurately correlate with heritable aspects of male quality. Anthropogenic actions, in particular chemicals released into the environment, are now disrupting the accuracy of mating signals to convey information about male quality. The long-term prediction for disrupted mating signals is most commonly loss of female preference. Yet, this prediction has rarely been tested using quantitative models. We use agent-based models to explore the effects of rapid disruption of mating signals. In our model, a gene determines survival. Males signal their level of genetic quality via a signal trait, which females use to select a mate. We allowed this system of sexual selection to become established, before introducing a disruption between the male signal trait and quality, which was similar in nature to that induced by exogenous chemicals. Finally, we assessed the capacity of the system to recover from this disruption. We found that within a relatively short time frame, disruption of mating signals led to a lasting loss of female preference. Decreases in mean viability at the population-level were also observed, because sexual-selection acting against newly arising deleterious mutations was relaxed. The ability of the population to recover from disrupted mating signals was strongly influenced by the mechanisms that promoted or maintained genetic diversity in traits under sexual selection. Our simple model demonstrates that environmental perturbations to the accuracy of male mating signals can result in a long-term loss of female preference for those signals within a few generations. What is more, the loss of this preference can have knock-on consequences for mean population fitness. PMID:25047080

  18. The Evolutionary Consequences of Disrupted Male Mating Signals: An Agent-Based Modelling Exploration of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals in the Guppy

    PubMed Central

    Senior, Alistair McNair; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Grimm, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Females may select a mate based on signalling traits that are believed to accurately correlate with heritable aspects of male quality. Anthropogenic actions, in particular chemicals released into the environment, are now disrupting the accuracy of mating signals to convey information about male quality. The long-term prediction for disrupted mating signals is most commonly loss of female preference. Yet, this prediction has rarely been tested using quantitative models. We use agent-based models to explore the effects of rapid disruption of mating signals. In our model, a gene determines survival. Males signal their level of genetic quality via a signal trait, which females use to select a mate. We allowed this system of sexual selection to become established, before introducing a disruption between the male signal trait and quality, which was similar in nature to that induced by exogenous chemicals. Finally, we assessed the capacity of the system to recover from this disruption. We found that within a relatively short time frame, disruption of mating signals led to a lasting loss of female preference. Decreases in mean viability at the population-level were also observed, because sexual-selection acting against newly arising deleterious mutations was relaxed. The ability of the population to recover from disrupted mating signals was strongly influenced by the mechanisms that promoted or maintained genetic diversity in traits under sexual selection. Our simple model demonstrates that environmental perturbations to the accuracy of male mating signals can result in a long-term loss of female preference for those signals within a few generations. What is more, the loss of this preference can have knock-on consequences for mean population fitness. PMID:25047080

  19. Costs of mating competition limit male lifetime breeding success in polygynous mammals

    E-print Network

    Lukas, Dieter; Clutton-Brock, Tim

    2014-05-14

    and tenure. P. Roy. Soc. Lond. B 270, 1247-1254. S56. Wilkinson, G. S. 1985 The Social-Organization of the Common Vampire Bat II: Mating System, Genetic-Structure, and Relatedness. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 17, 123-134. S57. Ohsawa, H., Inoue, M., Takenaka, O...

  20. Humor Ability Reveals Intelligence, Predicts Mating Success, and Is Higher in Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greengross, Gil; Miller, Geoffrey

    2011-01-01

    A good sense of humor is sexually attractive, perhaps because it reveals intelligence, creativity, and other "good genes" or "good parent" traits. If so, intelligence should predict humor production ability, which in turn should predict mating success. In this study, 400 university students (200 men and 200 women) completed measures of abstract…

  1. PROTEOMIC ANALYSES OF MALE CONTRIBUTIONS TO HONEY BEE SPERM STORAGE AND MATING.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) queens, as in most other social Hymenoptera, mate early in life and then store sperm to be used throughout their lifetimes. There has been longstanding interest in the mechanisms that allow social insect sperm to survive this long. Results from our previous studies in...

  2. Casanovas are liars: behavioral syndromes, sperm competition risk, and the evolution of deceptive male mating behavior in live-bearing fishes.

    PubMed

    Bierbach, David; Makowicz, Amber M; Schlupp, Ingo; Geupel, Holger; Streit, Bruno; Plath, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Male reproductive biology can by characterized through competition over mates as well as mate choice. Multiple mating and male mate choice copying, especially in internally fertilizing species, set the stage for increased sperm competition, i.e., sperm of two or more males can compete for fertilization of the female's ova. In the internally fertilizing fish Poecilia mexicana, males respond to the presence of rivals with reduced expression of mating preferences (audience effect), thereby lowering the risk of by-standing rivals copying their mate choice. Also, males interact initially more with a non-preferred female when observed by a rival, which has been interpreted in previous studies as a strategy to mislead rivals, again reducing sperm competition risk (SCR). Nevertheless, species might differ consistently in their expression of aggressive and reproductive behaviors, possibly due to varying levels of SCR. In the current study, we present a unique data set comprising ten poeciliid species (in two cases including multiple populations) and ask whether species can be characterized through consistent differences in the expression of aggression, sexual activity and changes in mate choice under increased SCR. We found consistent species-specific differences in aggressive behavior, sexual activity as well as in the level of misleading behavior, while decreased preference expression under increased SCR was a general feature of all but one species examined. Furthermore, mean sexual activity correlated positively with the occurrence of potentially misleading behavior. An alternative explanation for audience effects would be that males attempt to avoid aggressive encounters, which would predict stronger audience effects in more aggressive species. We demonstrate a positive correlation between mean aggressiveness and sexual activity (suggesting a hormonal link as a mechanistic explanation), but did not detect a correlation between aggressiveness and audience effects. Suites of correlated behavioral tendencies are termed behavioral syndromes, and our present study provides correlational evidence for the evolutionary significance of SCR in shaping a behavioral syndrome at the species level across poeciliid taxa. PMID:24627773

  3. Size-dependent response to conspeci c mating calls by male crickets

    E-print Network

    Gray, David A.

    ) in communi- cating with females and other males, certain information should be of relevance to both sexes (e¡er in attractiveness to females. Males of all sizes exhibited positive phonotaxis, with smaller males showing a clear & Yeargan 1999). The exploitation of intraspeci¢c communication by members of other species has been shown

  4. Size-dependent alternative male mating tactics in the yellow dung fly,

    E-print Network

    Uy, J. Albert C.

    is present where females aggregate (i.e. apple pomace, where both sexes come to feed), smaller males male strategies are the few known examples of genetic poly- morphisms that are evolutionarily in diverse taxa (Oliveira et al. 2008), are alternative male reproductive phenotypes constituting

  5. Fitness improvement of mass-reared sterile males of Ceratitis capitata (Vienna 8 strain) (Diptera: Tephritidae) after gut enrichment with probiotics.

    PubMed

    Hamden, Heithem; Guerfali, Meriem M'Saad; Fadhl, Selma; Saidi, Mouldi; Chevrier, Claude

    2013-04-01

    Successful mass rearing is crucial for sterile insect technique programs. It has been shown that the sterilizing process using gammaradiation results in damage to midgut tissue, cellular organelles, and gut microbiota of flies. This can be responsible for the inferiority of sterile males compared with wild males. A bacteria-enhanced diet could contribute to the improvement of the fly's fitness. We investigated ways of increasing the competitiveness of mass-reared Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) sterile males. We tested the hypothesis that the addition of beneficial bacteria to the larvae's diet would lead to a significant increase in their levels in the gut of the sterile adults and consequently improve their size and fitness. As expected, enriching the diet of mass-rearing Vienna-8 strain larvae with beneficial bacteria (Klebsiella pneumonia, Enterobacter spp., and Citrobacter freundii) resulted in increase in the number of Enterobacteriacae communities inhabiting the male's gut and a subsequent significant increase in the size of males and other morphometric traits and enhanced sexual performance of males at emergence. PMID:23786049

  6. Clinical Evaluation of Non-surgical Sterilization of Male Cats with Single Intra-testicular Injection of Calcium Chloride

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Calcium chloride solution is an established injectable sterilant in dogs and other mammals. With cat populations a continuing problem, we sought to explore its first use in cats. Six cats per group were injected with 5%, 10% or 20% calcium chloride dihydrate in saline solution with lignocaine hydrochloride, a local anaesthetic. Results At the 60th day post-injection, cat testes were collected and showed complete testicular necrosis and replacement by fibrous tissue; very low sperm counts; and reduction of serum testosterone by at least 70% in 20% dose. Androgenic enzyme activities and their expressions were also reduced in all the treated groups along with intra-testicular testosterone concentration was also low. Increased testicular lipid peroxidation, with reduced antioxidants and mitochondrial membrane potential, were evident following calcium chloride treatments. However, there were no apparent changes in serum concentrations of cortisol, fasting blood sugar level, blood urea nitrogen, packed cell volume, or total serum protein following calcium chloride injection, suggesting that this method of sterilization is not associated with any general stress response. Conclusion Calcium chloride solution demonstrates potential for androgenesis-eliminating nonsurgical sterilization of male cats in addition to its proven efficacy in dogs and other mammals. PMID:21774835

  7. Silencing of meiosis-critical genes for engineering male sterility in plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Engineering sterile traits in plants through the tissue-specific expression of a cytotoxic gene provides an effective way for containing transgene flow; however, the microbial origin of cytotoxic genes has raised concerns. In an attempt to develop a safe alternative, we have chosen the meiosis-crit...

  8. CONVERSION OF FERTILITY RESTORATION OF THE SORGHUM IS1112C (A3) MALE-STERILE CYTOPLASM FROM TWO GENES TO ONE GENE.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The restoration of male fertility in sorghum lines carrying the IS1112C male-sterile cytoplasm requires complementary gametophytic action of two restoring alleles, Rf3 and Rf4, for individual gamete viability. An F1 heterozygous for the two restoring loci is expected to exhibit 25% viable pollen, a...

  9. iTRAQ-facilitated proteomic profiling of anthers from a photosensitive male sterile mutant and wild-type cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    PubMed

    Liu, Ji; Pang, Chaoyou; Wei, Hengling; Song, Meizhen; Meng, Yanyan; Ma, Jianhui; Fan, Shuli; Yu, Shuxun

    2015-08-01

    Male sterility is a common phenomenon in flowering plants, and it has been successfully developed in several crops by taking advantage of heterosis. Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is an important economic crop, used mainly for the production of textile fiber. Using a space mutation breeding technique, a novel photosensitive genetic male sterile mutant CCRI9106 was isolated from the wild-type upland cotton cultivar CCRI040029. To use CCRI9106 in cotton hybrid breeding, it is of great importance to study the molecular mechanisms of its male sterility. Here, histological and iTRAQ-facilitated proteomic analyses of anthers were performed to explore male sterility mechanisms of the mutant. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy of the anthers showed that the development of pollen wall in CCRI9106 was severely defective with a lack of exine formation. At the protein level, 6121 high-confidence proteins were identified and 325 of them showed differential expression patterns between mutant and wild-type anthers. The proteins up- or down-regulated in MT anthers were mainly involved in exine formation, protein degradation, calcium ion binding,etc. These findings provide valuable information on the proteins involved in anther and pollen development, and contribute to elucidate the mechanism of male sterility in upland cotton. PMID:26047712

  10. Functional Dissection of the Sensory Rays in Caenorhabditis elegans Male Mating Behavior 

    E-print Network

    Koo, Pamela Kristine

    2012-02-14

    complex of these behaviors and males utilize a number of sensory organs in its execution. Among these are the rays, which are nine pairs of sensory organs that are arranged laterally along the male tail. Each ray is composed of two ultra...

  11. Sexual Competitiveness of Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) Males Exposed to Citrus aurantium and Citrus paradisi Essential Oils.

    PubMed

    Morató, Santiago; Shelly, Todd; Rull, Juan; Aluja, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Males of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)) display increased mating competitiveness following exposure to the odor of certain host and nonhost plants, and this phenomenon has been used in the sterile insect technique to boost the mating success of released, sterile males. Here, we aimed to establish whether males of the Mexican fruit fly (Anastrepha ludens (Loew)) gain a mating advantage when exposed to the aroma of two preferred hosts, grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfadyen) and bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.). Under seminatural conditions, we observed that, in trials using wildish males (from a young laboratory colony started with wild flies) exclusively, exposure to the aroma of bitter orange had no effect on male mating success but exposure to the odor grapefruit oil increased male mating success significantly. In a separate test involving both exposed and nonexposed wildish and mass-reared, sterile males, although wildish males were clearly more competitive than sterile males, exposure to grapefruit oil had no detectable effect on either male type. Exposure to oils had no effect on copulation duration in any of the experiments. We discuss the possibility that the positive effect of grapefruit essential oils on wildish male competitiveness may have been linked to exposure of females to grapefruit as a larval food, which may have imprinted them with grapefruit odors during pupal eclosion and biased their response as adults to odors of their maternal host. PMID:26470173

  12. Do males time their mate-guarding effort with the fertile phase in order to secure fertilisation in Cayo Santiago rhesus macaques?

    PubMed Central

    Dubuc, Constance; Muniz, Laura; Heistermann, Michael; Widdig, Anja; Engelhardt, Antje

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to most mammalian species, female sexual activity is not limited to the fertile phase of the ovarian cycle in anthropoid primates, which has long been proposed to conceal the timing of ovulation to males. It is now generally believed that females are still most attractive during the fertile phase, leading to high-ranking males successfully mate-guarding them specifically during this period. While studies conducted in species exhibiting exaggerated sexual swellings (probabilistic signal of the fertile phase) have generally supported this hypothesis, mixed support comes from others. Here, we investigated whether high-ranking males timed mate-guarding effort towards female fertile phases in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). In this species, adult females do not exhibit sexual swellings, but undergo facial skin colour variation, an alternative oestrogens-dependent graded-signal of female reproductive status. We collected behavioural, hormonal and genetic paternity data during two mating seasons for one group of the free-ranging population of Cayo Santiago. Our results show that mate-guarding by top-ranking males did not completely cover the entire female fertile phase and that this tactic accounted for only 30-40% of all fertilisations observed. Males tended to prolong mate-guarding into the luteal phase (null probability of fertilisation), which mirrors the pattern of male attraction to female facial colour reported in an earlier study. These findings suggest that males may have limited knowledge regarding the exact timing of females’ fertile phase in rhesus macaques, which presumably allows females to gain more control over reproduction relative to other anthropoid primate species. PMID:22449655

  13. Fitting It All Together: How Courtship- and Mating-Responsive Genes Affect Drosophila melanogaster Male Behavior 

    E-print Network

    Ellis, Lisa Lynn

    2011-10-21

    provide the first pieces of evidence that gene expression changes occur in Drosophila males performing reproductive behaviors. This novel approach identified behaviorally important loci that are expressed in the nervous system and the fat body, indicating...

  14. EST analysis of male accessory glands from Heliconius butterflies with divergent mating systems

    E-print Network

    Walters, James R.; Harrison, Richard G.

    2008-12-08

    between sexual selection and the evolution of reproductive proteins. As a first step in pursuing this research, we report the generation and analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from the male accessory gland of H. erato and H. melpomene, species...

  15. Mathematical model in controlling dengue transmission with sterile mosquito strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldila, D.; Nuraini, N.; Soewono, E.

    2015-09-01

    In this article, we propose a mathematical model for controlling dengue disease transmission with sterile mosquito techniques (SIT). Sterile male introduced from lab in to habitat to compete with wild male mosquito for mating with female mosquito. Our aim is to displace gradually the natural mosquito from the habitat. Mathematical model analysis for steady states and the basic reproductive ratio are performed analytically. Numerical simulation are shown in some different scenarios. We find that SIT intervention is potential to controlling dengue spread among humans population

  16. Effects of Female fruit-marking Pheromones on Oviposition, Mating, and Male Behavior in the Neotropical Species Rhagoletis conversa Bréthes and Rhagoletis brncici Frías (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Frías-Lasserre, D

    2015-12-01

    Sex pheromones produced by females of Rhagoletis conversa Bréthes and Rhagoletis brncici Frías are deposited on the surface of fruits after the eggs are laid. These pheromones repel other females, preventing repeated oviposition on the same fruit. They also attract males, thus assisting mating. Observations were made on wild populations, and cross-species behavioral tests were performed on males. The pheromone released by females was significantly more attractive for males of the same species. The two species showed remarkable differences in mating behavior, in the duration of oviposition, and in the number of circuits made around the fruit after eggs were laid. A morphological analysis of flies collected from their respective host plants indicated great host fidelity and the reproductive isolation of the two species. Possibly, the specific male-arresting effect of this pheromone was important for the sympatric speciation and evolution of these sibling species. PMID:26362166

  17. Mate preference for dominant vs. subordinate males in young female Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) following chemically-accelerated ovarian follicle depletion.

    PubMed

    Roosa, Kristen A; Place, Ned J

    2015-12-01

    Life history theory predicts that selectivity for mates generally declines as females age. We previously demonstrated this phenomenon in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus), in that older females showed reduced preference for dominant over subordinate males. To test the hypothesis that decreased reproductive quality due to aging reduces mate preference, we decoupled reproductive and chronological age by treating young female hamsters with 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD), which destroys ovarian follicles and functionally accelerates ovarian follicle depletion without compromising the general health of rodents. In this study, VCD effectively reduced follicle numbers in young Syrian hamsters. VCD-treated and control females were allowed to choose between a dominant and a subordinate male in a Y-maze on the day of proestrus. Both VCD-treated and control females demonstrated preference for the dominant male by leaving a greater proportion of vaginal scent marks near him, which is a behavior that females display when soliciting prospective mates. However, there was no effect of treatment on the proportion of vaginal scent marks left for the dominant male. Furthermore, ovarian follicle numbers were not significantly correlated with any behaviors in either group. We conclude that accelerated ovarian follicle depletion does not reduce mate preference in young female hamsters. PMID:26335038

  18. Male emergence schedule and dispersal behaviour are modified by mate availability in heterogeneous landscapes: evidence from the orange-tip butterfly

    PubMed Central

    Saccheri, Ilik J.

    2015-01-01

    Protandry (prior emergence of males) in insect populations is usually considered to be the result of natural selection acting directly on eclosion timing. When females are monandrous (mate once), males in high density populations benefit from early emergence in the intense scramble competition for mates. In low density populations, however, scramble competition is reduced or absent, and theoretical models predict that protandry will be less favoured. This raises the question of how males behave in heterogeneous landscapes characterized by high density core populations in a low density continuum. We hypothesized that disadvantaged late emerging males in a core population would disperse to the continuum to find mates. We tested this idea using the protandrous, monandrous, pierid butterfly Anthocharis cardamines (the orange-tip) in a core population in Cheshire, northwest England. Over a six-year period, predicted male fitness (the number of matings a male can expect during his residence time, determined by the daily ratio of virgin females to competing males) consistently declined to <1 in late season. This decline affected a large proportion (?44%) of males in the population and was strongly associated with decreased male recapture-rates, which we attribute to dispersal to the surrounding continuum. In contrast, reanalysis of mark-release-recapture data from an isolated population in Durham, northeast England, showed that in the absence of a continuum very few males (?3%) emerged when fitness declined to <1 in late season. Hence the existence of a low density continuum may lead to the evolution of plastic dispersal behaviour in high density core populations, maintaining late emerging males which would otherwise be eliminated by selection. This has important theoretical consequences, since a truncated male emergence curve is a key prediction in game theoretic models of emergence timing which has so far received limited support. Our results have implications for conservation, since plastic dispersal behaviour in response to imperfect emergence timing in core (source) populations could help to maintain sink populations in heterogeneous landscapes which would otherwise be driven to extinction by low mate encounter-rates (Allee effects). PMID:25648908

  19. Male genital size reflects a tradeoff between attracting mates and avoiding predators

    E-print Network

    Langerhans, Brian

    , Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-2258 Edited by David B. Wake, University of California across space (multiple popula- tions), time (multiple years), and species. By conducting laboratory selection The striking diversity of male genital morphology in animals with internal fertilization has long

  20. Mating behavior and fertility of broiler breeder males reared on shortened growth cycles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the more difficult tasks when raising broiler breeder cockerels is controlling weight gain in the rearing house without inflicting excess stress. This is a period of time for the young male when many portions of reproductive system are in the formative stages and, if neglected, can have lif...

  1. Male and Female Mating Behavior is Dependent on Social Context in the Butterfly Bicyclus anynana

    E-print Network

    Monteiro, Antónia

    February 2014 # Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014 Abstract Reproduction is often more costly females. Reproduction costs to females, however, can be reduced through nuptial gifts provided by males choice and ornamentation were previously established. We examined the effect of a sexual competitor

  2. A light and electron microscopy analysis of the events leading to male sterility in Ogu-INRA CMS of rapeseed (Brassica napus).

    PubMed

    González-Melendi, Pablo; Uyttewaal, Magalie; Morcillo, César N; Hernández Mora, José Ramón; Fajardo, Susana; Budar, Françoise; Lucas, M Mercedes

    2008-01-01

    Ogura cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) occurs naturally in radish and has been introduced into rapeseed (Brassica napus) by protoplast fusion. As with all CMS systems, it involves a constitutively expressed mitochondrial gene which induces male sterility to otherwise hermaphroditic plants (so they become females) and a nuclear gene named restorer of fertility that restores pollen production in plants carrying a sterility-inducing cytoplasm. A correlative approach using light and electron microscopy was applied to define what stages throughout development were affected and the subcellular events leading to the abortion of the developing pollen grains upon the expression of the mitochondrial protein. Three central stages of development (tetrad, mid-microspore and vacuolate microspore) were compared between fertile, restored, and sterile plants. At each stage observed, the pollen in fertile and restored plants had similar cellular structures and organization. The deleterious effect of the sterility protein expression started as early as the tetrad stage. No typical mitochondria were identified in the tapetum at any developmental stage and in the vacuolate microspores of the sterile plants. In addition, some striking ultrastructural alterations of the cell's organization were also observed compared with the normal pattern of development. The results showed that Ogu-INRA CMS was due to premature cell death events of the tapetal cells, presumably by an autolysis process rather than a normal PCD, which impairs pollen development at the vacuolate microspore stage, in the absence of functional mitochondria. PMID:18349052

  3. Sequence analysis and expression of orf224 gene associated with two types of cytoplasmic male sterility in Brassica napus L.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianmin; Li, Maoteng; Wang, Hao; Yu, Longjiang; Li, Dianrong

    2010-01-01

    Polima and Shaan 2A are the two most widely used forms of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in the utilization of heterosis of rapeseed (Brassica napus) in China. A previous study indicated that the mitochondrial gene, orf224, was the only gene with a differential expression pattern among the normal, sterile and fertility-restored lines in rapeseed. DNA sequences of orf224, including coding sequences from Shaan 2A and Polima CMS, were then amplified and analyzed. DNA sequence alignment indicated both the coding sequences were 675 bp in length and had 99.9 and 99% homology in nucleotides and amino acids, respectively, and shared certain similarity to homologues from other Brassica spp. and Arabidopsis thaliana. The probable promoter regions of orf224 were conserved between B. napus and A. thaliana, but the upstream regions of probable promoter regions were completely divergent from each other. Additionally, analysis of the primary and secondary structure of the proteins encoded by orf224 from the two lines predicted that the proteins contain a a-helix, extended strand, and random coil. After cloning a in vitro experiment showed that these two proteins could be expressed in Escherichia coli BL21. PMID:20653243

  4. Comparative proteomics analysis reveals the mechanism of fertility alternation of thermosensitive genic male sterile rice lines under low temperature inducement.

    PubMed

    Song, Liru; Liu, Zhongqi; Tong, Jianhua; Xiao, Langtao; Ma, Hao; Zhang, Haiqing

    2015-06-01

    Thermosensitive genic male sterile (TGMS) rice line has made great economical contributions in rice production. However, the fertility of TGMS rice line during hybrid seed production is frequently influenced by low temperature, thus leading to its fertility/sterility alteration and hybrid seed production failure. To understand the mechanism of fertility alternation under low temperature inducement, the extracted proteins from young panicles of two TGMS rice lines at the fertility alternation sensitivity stage were analyzed by 2DE. Eighty-three protein spots were found to be significantly changed in abundance, and identified by MALDI-TOF-TOF MS. The identified proteins were involved in 16 metabolic pathways and cellular processes. The young panicles of TGMS rice line Zhu 1S possessed the lower ROS-scavenging, indole-3-acetic acid level, soluble protein, and sugar contents as well as the faster anther wall disintegration than those of TGMS rice line Zhun S. All these major differences might result in that the former is more stable in fertility than the latter. Based on the majority of the 83 identified proteins, together with microstructural, physiological, and biochemical results, a possible fertile alteration mechanism in the young panicles of TGMS rice line under low temperature inducement was proposed. Such a result will help us in breeding TGMS rice lines and production of hybrid seed. PMID:25641954

  5. Genetic and phenotypic correlations of quantitative traits in two long-term randomly mated soybean populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genetic effects of long term random mating and natural selection aided by genetic male sterility (gms) were evaluated in two soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] populations designated: RSII and RSIII. These populations were evaluated in the field at three locations each with two replications. Genot...

  6. Analysis of Quantitative Traits in Two Long-Term Randomly Mated Soybean Populations I. Genetic Variances

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genetic effects of long term random mating and natural selection aided by genetic male sterility were evaluated in two soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] populations: RSII and RSIII. Population means, variances, and heritabilities were estimated to determine the effects of 26 generations of random...

  7. RNase Z(S1) processes UbL40 mRNAs and controls thermosensitive genic male sterility in rice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hai; Zhou, Ming; Yang, Yuanzhu; Li, Jing; Zhu, Liya; Jiang, Dagang; Dong, Jingfang; Liu, Qinjian; Gu, Lianfeng; Zhou, Lingyan; Feng, Mingji; Qin, Peng; Hu, Xiaochun; Song, Chengli; Shi, Jinfeng; Song, Xianwei; Ni, Erdong; Wu, Xiaojin; Deng, Qiyun; Liu, Zhenlan; Chen, Mingsheng; Liu, Yao-Guang; Cao, Xiaofeng; Zhuang, Chuxiong

    2014-01-01

    Thermosensitive genic male-sterile (TGMS) lines, which are male-sterile at restrictive (high) temperatures but male-fertile at permissive (low) temperatures, have been widely used in breeding two-line hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.). Here we find that mutation of thermosensitive genic male sterile 5 (tms5) in rice causes the TGMS trait through a loss of RNase Z(S1) function. We show that RNase Z(S1) processes the mRNAs of three ubiquitin fusion ribosomal protein L40 (UbL40) genes into multiple fragments in vitro and in vivo. In tms5 mutants, high temperature results in increased levels of UbL40 mRNAs. Overaccumulation of UbL40 mRNAs causes defective pollen production and male sterility. Our results uncover a novel mechanism of RNase Z(S1)-mediated UbL40 mRNA regulation and shows that loss of this regulation produces TGMS in rice, a finding with potential applications in hybrid crop breeding. PMID:25208476

  8. The transfer of 'Polima' cytoplasmic male sterility from oilseed rape (Brassica napus) to broccoli (B. oleracea) by protoplast fusion.

    PubMed

    Yarrow, S A; Burnett, L A; Wildeman, R P; Kemble, R J

    1990-08-01

    Protoplast fusion was utilised to transfer Polima type cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) from Brassica napus, canola cv. Polima Karat (Pol-Karat) to B. oleracea, broccoli, var. "Green Comet". Southern and RFLP analysis confirmed that four cybrids possessed nuclear genomes of broccoli with Polima mitochondria and chloroplasts. A fifth cybrid was a nuclear hybrid between broccoli and Pol-Karat, with Polima mitochondria and chloroplasts of broccoli. The broccoli type cybrids were morphologically similar to "Green Comet", while the hybrid type was an intermediate of the two fusion parents. Flowers on the cybrids were distinctive in that although they possessed a morphology typical of Polima, they had very reduced petals. The broccoli type cybrids exhibited some female fertility, albeit low, establishing potential for F1 hybrid production. PMID:24226699

  9. Linkage analysis between the partial restoration (pr) and the restorer-of-fertility (Rf) loci in pepper cytoplasmic male sterility.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jundae; Yoon, Jae Bok; Park, Hyo Guen

    2008-08-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in chili pepper is restored by one major dominant nuclear gene, restorer-of-fertility (Rf), together with some modifier genes and is also affected by temperature. As a result, male fertility was identified as having several phenotypes. That identified and used in the present study allowed partial restoration of fertility, producing plants that simultaneously produce normal and aborted pollen grains, with most grains stuck to the anther wall, even after dehiscence, resulting in low seed set per fruit. The trait was visible only in the presence of Paterson's sterile cytoplasm and was controlled by a recessive nuclear gene, partial restoration (pr). A CAPS marker, PR-CAPS, closely linked to the trait, has been developed by Lee et al. (2008). In this study, linkage analysis was performed in 205 F(2) individuals derived from the 'Buja' Korean commercial F(1) chili pepper variety using the PR-CAPS marker and the three Rf-linked markers (OPP13-CAPS, AFRF8-CAPS, and CRF-SCAR) previously reported. Consequently, we found that these four markers were tightly linked. This result means that the pr gene might be tightly linked to the Rf locus or the third allele of Rf locus. The sequence diversity of the pr- and Rf-linked markers was also analyzed. The internal sequences of OPP13-CAPS (1,180 bp) and PR-CAPS (640 bp) markers in 91 Korean inbred lines were clearly divided into three haplotypes. According to the sequencing results, a new PR-CAPS (MseI or SphI digestion) marker was designed to distinguish the three haplotypes. This marker will be useful for marker-assisted selection to develop new maintainers and restorers in commercial hybrid pepper breeding using CMS. PMID:18465115

  10. Targeted Sequence Capture Provides Insight into Genome Structure and Genetics of Male Sterility in a Gynodioecious Diploid Strawberry, Fragaria vesca ssp. bracteata (Rosaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Tennessen, Jacob A.; Govindarajulu, Rajanikanth; Liston, Aaron; Ashman, Tia-Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Gynodioecy is a sexual system wherein females coexist with hermaphrodites. It is of interest not only because male-sterile plants are advantageous in plant breeding but also because it can be a crucial step in the evolutionary transition to entirely separate sexes (dioecy) from a hermaphroditic ancestor. The gynodioecious diploid wild strawberry, Fragaria vesca ssp. bracteata (Rosaceae), is a member of a clade with both dioecious and cultivated species, making it an ideal model in which to study the genetics of male sterility. To create a genetic map of F. v. ssp. bracteata, we identified informative polymorphisms from genomic sequencing (3?5x coverage) of two outbred plants from the same population. Using targeted enrichment, we sequenced 200 bp surrounding each of 6575 polymorphisms in 48 F1 offspring, yielding genotypes at 98% of targeted sites with mean coverage >100x, plus more than 600-kb high-coverage nontargeted sequence. With the resulting linkage map of 7802 stringently filtered markers (5417 targeted), we assessed recombination rates and genomic incongruities. Consistent with past work in strawberries, male sterility is dominant, segregates 1:1, and maps to a single location in the female. Further mapping an additional 55 offspring places male sterility in a gene-dense, 338-kb region of chromosome 4. The region is not syntenic with the sex-determining regions in the closely related octoploids, F. chiloensis and F. virginiana, suggesting either independent origins or translocation. The 57 genes in this region do not include protein families known to control male sterility and thus suggest alternate mechanisms for the suppression of male function. PMID:23749450

  11. Mating Behaviour in Laevicaudatan Clam Shrimp (Crustacea, Branchiopoda) and Functional Morphology of Male Claspers in a Phylogenetic Context: A Video-Based Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sigvardt, Zandra M. S.; Olesen, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    Clam shrimps are freshwater branchiopod crustaceans which often present complicated breeding systems including asexual reproduction (parthenogenesis) and mixed mating systems (in androdioecious species both selfing and outcrossing occurs due to the co-presence of hermaphrodites and males). Reproductive patterns of Spinicaudata, which contains most clam shrimp species, have received much attention. Another group of clam shrimps, Laevicaudata, which holds a key position in branchiopod phylogeny, has practically not been studied. As a part of the mating process, males clasp to the carapace margin of the females with a pair (or two pairs) of anterior trunk limbs modified as claspers. Previous studies have shown that clasper morphology is important in a phylogenetic context, and that some parts of the claspers in Spinicaudata and Laevicaudata may have undergone a remarkable parallel evolution. Here we have used video microscopy to study aspects of the mating behaviour, egg extrusion, and fertilization in Lynceus brachyurus (Laevicaudata). It is shown that fertilization is likely to be external and that the peculiar tri-lobed lateral lamellae of female's hind body assist in guiding the egg mass to the exopodal egg carriers where they are collected by their distal setation. The functional morphology of the male claspers was studied in detail by close-up video recordings. The movable “finger” of the clasper bends around the female's carapace edge and serves to hold the female during mating. The larger palp grasps around the female carapace margin in a way very similar to the movable “finger”, possibly indirectly providing sensory input on the “finger” position. A brief comparative study of the claspers of a spinicaudatan clam shrimp showed both similarities and differences to the laevicaudatan claspers. The presence of two pairs of claspers in Spinicaudata seems to give males a better hold of the female which may play a role during extended mate guarding. PMID:24392104

  12. A 610 KB YAC CLONE HARBORS 7 CM OF TOMATO (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM) DNA THAT INCLUDES THE MALE STERILE 14 GENE AND A HOTSPOT FOR RECOMBINATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pollen development requires both sporophytic and gametophytic gene expression. We are using a map-based cloning technique to isolate sporophytic genes which, when mutant, cause pollen abortion and a male sterile (ms) phenotype in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). We have genetically characterized on...

  13. The nucleotide sequence and transcription of minicircular mitochondrial DNA's associated with male-fertile and cytoplasmic male-sterile lines of sugarbeet.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, C M

    1986-01-01

    Male-fertile (MF) and cytoplasmic male-sterile (CMS) lines of sugarbeet possess characteristic low molecular weight minicircular mitochondrial DNA's, and Southern hybridizations revealed sequence homologies between them. The complete nucleotide sequences of minicircle a present in MF and CMS lines, and minicircle d present in some MF lines have been determined and compared to minicircle c present in all MF lines. Computer analysis revealed sequences common to all three DNA's: these may be essential to their maintenance in sugarbeet mitochondria. Analysis of the extent and arrangement of homologous sequences in minicircle a and minicircle d suggests the latter may have arisen from an intramolecular recombination event in minicircle a. The G+C contents of the minicircles differ and their possible origins are discussed. All three DNA's are transcribed. Minicircle c and minicircle d transcripts are exclusive to MF mitochondria, but are unlikely to encode protein products. Two transcripts of sufficient size and the predicted polarity to encompass a short open reading frame on minicircle a are common to both MF and CMS mitochondria. Images PMID:3797243

  14. Differential Mitochondrial Electron Transport through the Cyanide-Sensitive and Cyanide-Insensitive Pathways in Isonuclear Lines of Cytoplasmic Male Sterile, Male Fertile, and Restored Petunia1

    PubMed Central

    Connett, Marie B.; Hanson, Maureen R.

    1990-01-01

    Three pairs of isonuclear lines of cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) and fertile Petunia cells (Petunia hybrida [Hook] Vilm. and Petunia parodii L.S.M.) grown in suspension culture were examined for sensitivity to inhibitors of respiratory electron transport at time-points after transfer into fresh media. Cells from CMS lines differed from cells of fertile lines in their utilization of the cyanide-insensitive oxidase pathway. Under our culture regime, after approximately 3 days of culture cells from the CMS lines exhibited much lower cyanide-insensitive, salicylhydroxamic acid-sensitive respiration than cells from the fertile lines. This respiratory difference was shown to be specific to the mitochondrial alternative oxidase pathway by using other characteristic inhibitors of mitochondrial electron transport in experiments with isolated mitochondria. Immature anthers from CMS plants also showed lower alternative oxidase activity relative to anthers from male fertile plants, but no such difference was detected in leaf tissue, ovary or perianth tissue, or anthers collected just prior to anthesis. A cell line from a fertile plant carrying a nuclear fertility restorer gene and the CMS cytoplasm exhibited increased activity of the alternative pathway compared with the CMS lines. PMID:16667667

  15. Exceptional Use of Sex Pheromones by Parasitoids of the Genus Cotesia: Males Are Strongly Attracted to Virgin Females, but Are No Longer Attracted to or Even Repelled by Mated Females

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hao; Veyrat, Nathalie; Degen, Thomas; Turlings, Ted C. J.

    2014-01-01

    Sex pheromones have rarely been studied in parasitoids, and it remains largely unknown how male and female parasitoids locate each other. We investigated possible attraction (and repellency) between the sexes of two braconid wasps belonging to the same genus, the gregarious parasitoid, Cotesia glomerata (L.), and the solitary parasitoid, Cotesia marginiventris (Cresson). Males of both species were strongly attracted to conspecific virgin females. Interestingly, in C. glomerata, the males were repelled by mated females, as well as by males of their own species. This repellency of mated females was only evident hours after mating, implying a change in pheromone composition. Males of C. marginiventris were also no longer attracted, but not repelled, by mated females. Females of both species showed no attraction to the odors of conspecific individuals, male or female, and C. glomerata females even appeared to be repelled by mated males. Moreover, the pheromones were found to be highly specific, as males were not attracted by females of the other species. Males of Cotesia glomerata even avoided the pheromones of female Cotesia marginiventris, indicating the recognition of non-conspecific pheromones. We discuss these unique responses in the context of optimal mate finding strategies in parasitoids. PMID:26462821

  16. Exceptional Use of Sex Pheromones by Parasitoids of the Genus Cotesia: Males Are Strongly Attracted to Virgin Females, but Are No Longer Attracted to or Even Repelled by Mated Females.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hao; Veyrat, Nathalie; Degen, Thomas; Turlings, Ted C J

    2014-01-01

    Sex pheromones have rarely been studied in parasitoids, and it remains largely unknown how male and female parasitoids locate each other. We investigated possible attraction (and repellency) between the sexes of two braconid wasps belonging to the same genus, the gregarious parasitoid, Cotesia glomerata (L.), and the solitary parasitoid, Cotesia marginiventris (Cresson). Males of both species were strongly attracted to conspecific virgin females. Interestingly, in C. glomerata, the males were repelled by mated females, as well as by males of their own species. This repellency of mated females was only evident hours after mating, implying a change in pheromone composition. Males of C. marginiventris were also no longer attracted, but not repelled, by mated females. Females of both species showed no attraction to the odors of conspecific individuals, male or female, and C. glomerata females even appeared to be repelled by mated males. Moreover, the pheromones were found to be highly specific, as males were not attracted by females of the other species. Males of Cotesia glomerata even avoided the pheromones of female Cotesia marginiventris, indicating the recognition of non-conspecific pheromones. We discuss these unique responses in the context of optimal mate finding strategies in parasitoids. PMID:26462821

  17. Genetic dissection of hybrid incompatibilities between Drosophila simulans and D. mauritiana. I. Differential accumulation of hybrid male sterility effects on the X and autosomes.

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Yun; Chen, Sining; Hartl, Daniel L; Laurie, Cathy C

    2003-01-01

    The genetic basis of hybrid incompatibility in crosses between Drosophila mauritiana and D. simulans was investigated to gain insight into the evolutionary mechanisms of speciation. In this study, segments of the D. mauritiana third chromosome were introgressed into a D. simulans genetic background and tested as homozygotes for viability, male fertility, and female fertility. The entire third chromosome was covered with partially overlapping segments. Many segments were male sterile, while none were female sterile or lethal, confirming previous reports of the rapid evolution of hybrid male sterility (HMS). A statistical model was developed to quantify the HMS accumulation. In comparison with previous work on the X chromosome, we estimate that the X has approximately 2.5 times the density of HMS factors as the autosomes. We also estimate that the whole genome contains approximately 15 HMS "equivalents"-i.e., 15 times the minimum number of incompatibility factors necessary to cause complete sterility. Although some caveats for the quantitative estimate of a 2.5-fold density difference are described, this study supports the notion that the X chromosome plays a special role in the evolution of reproductive isolation. Possible mechanisms of a "large X" effect include selective fixation of new mutations that are recessive or partially recessive and the evolution of sex-ratio distortion systems. PMID:12930747

  18. Hybrid sterility, Haldane's rule and speciation in Heliconius cydno and H. melpomene.

    PubMed Central

    Naisbit, Russell E; Jiggins, Chris D; Linares, Mauricio; Salazar, Camilo; Mallet, James

    2002-01-01

    Most genetic studies of Haldane's rule, in which hybrid sterility or inviability affects the heterogametic sex preferentially, have focused on Drosophila. It therefore remains unclear to what extent the conclusions of that work apply more generally, particularly in female-heterogametic taxa such as birds and Lepidoptera. Here we present a genetic analysis of Haldane's rule in Heliconius butterflies. Female F(1) hybrids between Heliconius melpomene and H. cydno are completely sterile, while males have normal to mildly reduced fertility. In backcrosses of male F(1) hybrids, female offspring range from completely sterile to fully fertile. Linkage analysis using the Z-linked triose-phosphate isomerase locus demonstrates a "large X" (Z) effect on sterility. Expression of female sterility varies among crosses in this and a previous study of Heliconius. Sterility may result from the production of normal but infertile eggs, production of small infertile eggs, or from a complete failure to develop ovarioles, which suggests multiple routes to the evolution of hybrid sterility in these Heliconius species. These results conform to the expectations of the "dominance" rather than "faster male" theories of Haldane's rule and suggest that relatively few loci are responsible. The two species are broadly sympatric and hybridize in the wild, so that female hybrid sterility forms one of several strong but incomplete barriers to gene flow in nature. The effect of female sterility is comparable to that of selection against non-mimetic hybrids, while mate choice forms a much stronger barrier to gene transfer. PMID:12196397

  19. Effects of Carthamus tinctorius on Semen Quality and Gonadal Hormone Levels in Partially Sterile Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Vojdani, Zahra; Panjehshahin, Mohamad Reza; Hoballah, Hassan; Kassas, Hamza

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Traditional herbal medicine is just one of the many different approaches using plants in the remedy of diseases. Carthamus tinctorius (CT) or safflower is a popular plant that is used for coloring and flavoring in food industries. The effect of CT on spermatogenesis and sperm parameters has been reported in traditional medicine but has not yet been confirmed scientifically. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the effects of CT on spermatogenesis and the male reproductive system in an animal model. Materials and Methods Sixty male rats were divided into five groups. Four groups were injected with 5 mg/kg of busulfan as a model of partial infertility. Then, the experimental groups were treated with 10 mg/kg, 25 mg/kg, or 50 mg/kg of CT extract for 35 days. The control was treated with busulfan (infertile control) or distilled water only. After this period, the animals were sacrificed and blood samples were taken for hormonal assay. The semen was collected from the epididymis and the reproductive organs were assessed. Sperm count and motility were measured and smears were prepared for assessment of the other parameters. Results The results indicated that the percentage of sperm with good morphology, motility, and count increased significantly in the group treated with 10 mg/kg CT (p=0.002, p=0.03, and p=0.00001, respectively). The effects on hormonal changes and genital organ weights were also positive. Conclusions It is probable that the CT extract affects spermatogenesis and as a result sperm quality. Further studies are needed. PMID:23136631

  20. Cytoplasmic-genetic male sterility gene provides direct evidence for some hybrid rice recently evolving into weedy rice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jingxu; Lu, Zuomei; Dai, Weimin; Song, Xiaoling; Peng, Yufa; Valverde, Bernal E.; Qiang, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Weedy rice infests paddy fields worldwide at an alarmingly increasing rate. There is substantial evidence indicating that many weedy rice forms originated from or are closely related to cultivated rice. There is suspicion that the outbreak of weedy rice in China may be related to widely grown hybrid rice due to its heterosis and the diversity of its progeny, but this notion remains unsupported by direct evidence. We screened weedy rice accessions by both genetic and molecular marker tests for the cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) genes (Wild abortive, WA, and Boro type, BT) most widely used in the production of indica and japonica three-line hybrid rice as a diagnostic trait of direct parenthood. Sixteen weedy rice accessions of the 358 tested (4.5%) contained the CMS-WA gene; none contained the CMS-BT gene. These 16 accessions represent weedy rices recently evolved from maternal hybrid rice derivatives, given the primarily maternal inheritance of this trait. Our results provide key direct evidence that hybrid rice can be involved in the evolution of some weedy rice accessions, but is not a primary factor in the recent outbreak of weedy rice in China. PMID:26012494

  1. Comparative Analysis of Anther Transcriptome Profiles of Two Different Rice Male Sterile Lines Genotypes under Cold Stress.

    PubMed

    Bai, Bin; Wu, Jun; Sheng, Wen-Tao; Zhou, Bo; Zhou, Li-Jie; Zhuang, Wen; Yao, Dong-Ping; Deng, Qi-Yun

    2015-01-01

    Rice is highly sensitive to cold stress during reproductive developmental stages, and little is known about the mechanisms of cold responses in rice anther. Using the HiSeq™ 2000 sequencing platform, the anther transcriptome of photo thermo sensitive genic male sterile lines (PTGMS) rice Y58S and P64S (Pei'ai64S) were analyzed at the fertility sensitive stage under cold stress. Approximately 243 million clean reads were obtained from four libraries and aligned against the oryza indica genome and 1497 and 5652 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in P64S and Y58S, respectively. Both gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses were conducted for these DEGs. Functional classification of DEGs was also carried out. The DEGs common to both genotypes were mainly involved in signal transduction, metabolism, transport, and transcriptional regulation. Most of the DEGs were unique for each comparison group. We observed that there were more differentially expressed MYB (Myeloblastosis) and zinc finger family transcription factors and signal transduction components such as calmodulin/calcium dependent protein kinases in the Y58S comparison group. It was also found that ribosome-related DEGs may play key roles in cold stress signal transduction. These results presented here would be particularly useful for further studies on investigating the molecular mechanisms of rice responses to cold stress. PMID:25993302

  2. [Cytological observation and DNA methylation analysis of two new cytoplasmic male sterile lines of maize during microsporogenesis].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanhua; Yi, Hongyang; Fang, Ming; Rong, Tingzhao; Cao, Moju

    2014-10-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is a widespread phenomenon in higher plants and has been applied in the commercial production of hybrid seeds. Two CMS lines A1 and A2 of maize were obtained previously by a transgenic experiment. In this study, we conducted cytological observation of developmental microspores with CMS line A1, A2 and their maintainer line (18 red) using paraffin section technology. We also analyzed DNA methylation levels at different developmental stages using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Our results showed that the pollen abortion of A1 and A2 mainly happened from the tetrad stage to the middle of mononuclear stage. Another abortive phenomenon found in CMS line A2 occurred at the pollen mother cell stage. The DNA methylation level of leaf increased rapidly from the seedling stage to the shooting stage in 18 red, while it remained constant in A1 and A2. For the tassel, the DNA methylation levels in 18 red increased gradually during the anther development, while a peak of DNA methylation level occurred in A1 and A2 at the tetrad stage, corresponding to the abortion period of microspore. This result suggested that the level of DNA methylation in the tassels is associated with the pollen abortion characteristics in CMS lines. In summary, our results implied a connection between pollen abortion and epigenetic regulation in maize CMS. PMID:25406250

  3. Cytoplasmic-genetic male sterility gene provides direct evidence for some hybrid rice recently evolving into weedy rice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingxu; Lu, Zuomei; Dai, Weimin; Song, Xiaoling; Peng, Yufa; Valverde, Bernal E; Qiang, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Weedy rice infests paddy fields worldwide at an alarmingly increasing rate. There is substantial evidence indicating that many weedy rice forms originated from or are closely related to cultivated rice. There is suspicion that the outbreak of weedy rice in China may be related to widely grown hybrid rice due to its heterosis and the diversity of its progeny, but this notion remains unsupported by direct evidence. We screened weedy rice accessions by both genetic and molecular marker tests for the cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) genes (Wild abortive, WA, and Boro type, BT) most widely used in the production of indica and japonica three-line hybrid rice as a diagnostic trait of direct parenthood. Sixteen weedy rice accessions of the 358 tested (4.5%) contained the CMS-WA gene; none contained the CMS-BT gene. These 16 accessions represent weedy rices recently evolved from maternal hybrid rice derivatives, given the primarily maternal inheritance of this trait. Our results provide key direct evidence that hybrid rice can be involved in the evolution of some weedy rice accessions, but is not a primary factor in the recent outbreak of weedy rice in China. PMID:26012494

  4. Effects of pesticides used on citrus grown in Spain on the mortality of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) Vienna-8 strain sterile males.

    PubMed

    Juan-Blasco, María; Sabatier-Muñoz, Beatriz; Argilés, Rafael; Jacas, Josep A; Ortego, Félix; Urbaneja, Alberto

    2013-06-01

    Vienna-8 sterile males are currently released in Spain to reduce wild populations of the medfly. Because pesticides are required to maintain populations of some citrus key pests below economic thresholds, there is a need to evaluate the effects of pesticides commonly used in citrus on Vienna-8 males. Males were exposed to differently aged residues of eight pesticides. Abamectin, etofenprox, etoxazole, petroleum spray oil, pymetrozine, and pyriproxyfen resulted harmless to Vienna-8 males. However, fresh residues of chlorpyrifos and spinosad caused high mortalities and had residual effects until 21 and 28 d after treatment, respectively. Following the same method, the lethal effects of chlorpyrifos and spinosad on Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) wild-type (wt) males were determined. Surprisingly, these pesticides resulted more toxic for wt than for Vienna-8 males. To determine whether these results could be attributed to intrinsic characteristics of the pesticides or to behavioral differences among Vienna-8 and wt males, a topical application trial was conducted. Vienna-8 males were twice as susceptible to chlorpyrifos as wt males, whereas their susceptibility to spinosad was slightly lower. These results in intrinsic toxicity did not directly explain the differences observed in the extended-laboratory tests with these pesticides. We hypothesize that the lower flight activity ofVienna-8 males relative to wt conspecifics can explain the lower risk observed for Vienna-8 males in the residual tests. Our results should be taken into account when planning area-wide Sterile Insect Technique programs against C. capitata especially in those areas where treatments with chlorpyrifos are approved. PMID:23865187

  5. A Combined Approach to Heat Stress Effect on Male Fertility in Nasonia vitripennis: From the Physiological Consequences on Spermatogenesis to the Reproductive Adjustment of Females Mated with Stressed Males

    PubMed Central

    Chirault, Marlène; Lucas, Christophe; Goubault, Marlène; Chevrier, Claude

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, several studies have shown a decline in reproductive success in males in both humans and wildlife. Research on male fertility has largely focused on vertebrates, although invertebrates constitute the vast majority of terrestrial biodiversity. The reduction of their reproductive capacities due to environmental stresses can have strong negative ecological impacts, and also dramatic consequences on world food production if it affects the reproductive success of biological control agents, such as parasitic wasps used to control crop pests. Here Nasonia vitripennis, a parasitic wasp of various fly species, was studied to test the effects of 24h-heat stress applied during the first pupal stage on male fertility. Results showed that only primary spermatocytes were present at the first pupal stage in all cysts of the testes. Heat stress caused a delay in spermatogenesis during development and a significant decrease in sperm stock at emergence. Females mated with these heat-stressed males showed a reduce sperm count stored in their spermatheca. Females did not appear to distinguish heat-stressed from control males and did not remate more frequently to compensate for the lack of sperm transferred. As a result, females mated with heat-stressed males produced a suboptimal lifetime offspring sex ratio compared to those mated with control males. This could further impact the population dynamics of this species. N. vitripennis appears to be an interesting biological model to study the mechanisms of subfertility and its consequence on female reproductive strategies and provides new research perspectives in both invertebrates and vertebrates. PMID:25807005

  6. Male Sterile2 Encodes a Plastid-Localized Fatty Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase Required for Pollen Exine Development in Arabidopsis

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, W.; Shanklin, J.; Yu, X.-H.; Zhang, K.; Shi, J.; De Oliveira, S.; Schreiber, L.; Zhang, D.

    2011-10-01

    Male Sterile2 (MS2) is predicted to encode a fatty acid reductase required for pollen wall development in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Transient expression of MS2 in tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) leaves resulted in the accumulation of significant levels of C16 and C18 fatty alcohols. Expression of MS2 fused with green fluorescent protein revealed that an amino-terminal transit peptide targets the MS2 to plastids. The plastidial localization of MS2 is biologically important because genetic complementation of MS2 in ms2 homozygous plants was dependent on the presence of its amino-terminal transit peptide or that of the Rubisco small subunit protein amino-terminal transit peptide. In addition, two domains, NAD(P)H-binding domain and sterile domain, conserved in MS2 and its homologs were also shown to be essential for MS2 function in pollen exine development by genetic complementation testing. Direct biochemical analysis revealed that purified recombinant MS2 enzyme is able to convert palmitoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein to the corresponding C16:0 alcohol with NAD(P)H as the preferred electron donor. Using optimized reaction conditions (i.e. at pH 6.0 and 30 C), MS2 exhibits a K{sub m} for 16:0-Acyl Carrier Protein of 23.3 {+-} 4.0 {mu}m, a V{sub max} of 38.3 {+-} 4.5 nmol mg{sup -1} min{sup -1}, and a catalytic efficiency/K{sub m} of 1,873 m{sup -1} s{sup -1}. Based on the high homology of MS2 to other characterized fatty acid reductases, it was surprising that MS2 showed no activity against palmitoyl- or other acyl-coenzyme A; however, this is consistent with its plastidial localization. In summary, genetic and biochemical evidence demonstrate an MS2-mediated conserved plastidial pathway for the production of fatty alcohols that are essential for pollen wall biosynthesis in Arabidopsis.

  7. Post-translational mechanisms are associated with fertility restoration of cytoplasmic male sterility in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Kitazaki, Kazuyoshi; Arakawa, Takumi; Matsunaga, Muneyuki; Yui-Kurino, Rika; Matsuhira, Hiroaki; Mikami, Tetsuo; Kubo, Tomohiko

    2015-07-01

    Genetic conflict between cytoplasmically inherited elements and nuclear genes arising from their different transmission patterns can be seen in cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), the mitochondrion-encoded inability to shed functional pollen. CMS is associated with a mitochondrial open reading frame (ORF) that is absent from non-sterility inducing mitochondria (S-orf). Nuclear genes that suppress CMS are called restorer-of-fertility (Rf) genes. Post-transcriptional and translational repression of S-orf mediates the molecular action of Rf that encodes a class of RNA-binding proteins with pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) motifs. Besides the PPR-type of Rfs, there are also non-PPR Rfs, but the molecular interactions between non-PPR Rf and S-orf have not been described. In this study, we investigated the interaction of bvORF20, a non-PPR Rf from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris), with preSatp6, the S-orf from sugar beet. Anthers expressing bvORF20 contained a protein that interacted with preSATP6 protein. Analysis of anthers and transgenic calli expressing a FLAG-tagged bvORF20 suggested the binding of preSATP6 to bvORF20. To see the effect of bvORF20 on preSATP6, which exists as a 250-kDa protein complex in CMS plants, signal bands of preSATP6 in bvORF20-expressing and non-expressing anthers were compared by immunoblotting combined with Blue Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The signal intensity of the 250-kDa band decreased significantly, and 200- and 150-kDa bands appeared in bvORF20-expressing anthers. Transgenic callus expressing bvORF20 also generated the 200- and 150-kDa bands. The 200-kDa complex is likely to include both preSATP6 and bvORF20. Post-translational interaction between preSATP6 and bvORF20 appears to alter the higher order structure of preSATP6 that may lead to fertility restoration in sugar beet. PMID:26031622

  8. Asymmetric Mating Interference between Two Related Mosquito Species: Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus and Aedes (Stegomyia) cretinus

    PubMed Central

    Giatropoulos, Athanassios; Papachristos, Dimitrios P.; Koliopoulos, George; Michaelakis, Antonios; Emmanouel, Nickolaos

    2015-01-01

    Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse) and Aedes (Stegomyia) cretinus Edwards are closely related mosquito species with common morphological features and bio-ecological similarities. Recent mosquito surveillance in Athens, Greece, showed that they are sympatric mosquito species, with Ae. Albopictus developing quite higher population densities than Ae. Cretinus. The potential of mating interference between these species was investigated by reciprocal and homologous mating experiments in cages under laboratory conditions. In non-choice interspecific crosses (groups of males and females) females of both species produced sterile eggs. Insemination rate was 58% for Ae. Cretinus females and only 1% for Ae. Albopictus females. Aedes albopictus males were sexually aggressive and inseminated Ae. Cretinus females (31%) in choice experiments, where males of one species had access to mate with females of both species. Whereas, interspecific mating of Ae. Albopictus females with Ae. Cretinus males in the co-occurrence of Ae. Cretinus females was weaker (4%). Aedes cretinus females from non-choice crossing with Ae. Albopictus or Ae. Cretinus males were paired individually with conspecific males. The percentage of fertile Ae. Cretinus females was 17.5% when had encaged before with Ae. Albopictus males, compared to 100% when Ae. Cretinus females were encaged with conspecific males only. Probable ecological consequences of asymmetric mating between these ecologically homologous species in nature are discussed. PMID:26001099

  9. Sterilization: A Review and Update.

    PubMed

    Moss, Chailee; Isley, Michelle M

    2015-12-01

    Sterilization is a frequently used method of contraception. Female sterilization is performed 3 times more frequently than male sterilization, and it can be performed immediately postpartum or as an interval procedure. Methods include mechanical occlusion, coagulation, or tubal excision. Female sterilization can be performed using an abdominal approach, or via laparoscopy or hysteroscopy. When an abdominal approach or laparoscopy is used, sterilization occurs immediately. When hysteroscopy is used, tubal occlusion occurs over time, and additional testing is needed to confirm tubal occlusion. Comprehensive counseling about sterilization should include discussion about male sterilization (vasectomy) and long-acting reversible contraceptive methods. PMID:26598311

  10. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis between the Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Line NJCMS1A and Its Maintainer NJCMS1B in Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiajia; Han, Shaohuai; Ding, Xianlong; He, Tingting; Dai, Jinying; Yang, Shouping; Gai, Junyi

    2015-01-01

    Background The utilization of soybean heterosis is probably one of the potential approaches in future yield breakthrough as was the situation in rice breeding in China. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) plays an important role in the production of hybrid seeds. However, the molecular mechanism of CMS in soybean remains unclear. Results The comparative transcriptome analysis between cytoplasmic male sterile line NJCMS1A and its near-isogenic maintainer NJCMS1B in soybean was conducted using Illumina sequencing technology. A total of 88,643 transcripts were produced in Illumina sequencing. Then 56,044 genes were obtained matching soybean reference genome. Three hundred and sixty five differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between NJCMS1A and NJCMS1B were screened by threshold, among which, 339 down-regulated and 26 up-regulated in NJCMS1A compared to in NJCMS1B. Gene Ontology (GO) annotation showed that 242 DEGs were annotated to 19 functional categories. Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COG) annotation showed that 265 DEGs were classified into 19 categories. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis showed that 46 DEGs were assigned to 33 metabolic pathways. According to functional and metabolic pathway analysis combined with reported literatures, the relations between some key DEGs and the male sterility of NJCMS1A were discussed. qRT-PCR analysis validated that the gene expression pattern in RNA-Seq was reliable. Finally, enzyme activity assay showed that energy supply was decreased in NJCMS1A compared to in NJCMS1B. Conclusions We concluded that the male sterility of NJCMS1A might be related to the disturbed functions and metabolism pathways of some key DEGs, such as DEGs involved in carbohydrate and energy metabolism, transcription factors, regulation of pollen development, elimination of reactive oxygen species (ROS), cellular signal transduction, and programmed cell death (PCD) etc. Future research will focus on cloning and transgenic function validation of possible candidate genes associated with soybean CMS. PMID:25985300

  11. Transcriptome Sequencing and De Novo Analysis of a Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Line and Its Near-Isogenic Restorer Line in Chili Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ping-Yong; Fu, Nan; Shen, Huo-Lin

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in F1 hybrid seed production of chili pepper is increasingly popular. However, the molecular mechanisms of cytoplasmic male sterility and fertility restoration remain poorly understood due to limited transcriptomic and genomic data. Therefore, we analyzed the difference between a CMS line 121A and its near-isogenic restorer line 121C in transcriptome level using next generation sequencing technology (NGS), aiming to find out critical genes and pathways associated with the male sterility. Results We generated approximately 53 million sequencing reads and assembled de novo, yielding 85,144 high quality unigenes with an average length of 643 bp. Among these unigenes, 27,191 were identified as putative homologs of annotated sequences in the public protein databases, 4,326 and 7,061 unigenes were found to be highly abundant in lines 121A and 121C, respectively. Many of the differentially expressed unigenes represent a set of potential candidate genes associated with the formation or abortion of pollen. Conclusions Our study profiled anther transcriptomes of a chili pepper CMS line and its restorer line. The results shed the lights on the occurrence and recovery of the disturbances in nuclear-mitochondrial interaction and provide clues for further investigations. PMID:23750245

  12. Analysis of a Partial Male-Sterile Mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana Isolated from a Low-Energy Argon Ion Beam Mutagenized Pool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Min; Bian, Po; Wu, Yuejin; Yu, Zengliang

    2008-04-01

    A screen for Arabidopsis fertility mutants, mutagenized by low-energy argon ion beam, yielded two partial male-sterile mutants tc243-1 and tc243-2 which have similar phenotypes. tc243-2 was investigated in detail. The segregation ratio of the mutant phenotypes in the M2 pools suggested that mutation behaved as single Mendelian recessive mutations. tc243 showed a series of mutant phenotypes, among which partial male-sterile was its striking mutant characteristic. Phenotype analysis indicates that there are four factors leading to male sterility. a. Floral organs normally develop inside the closed bud, but the anther filaments do not elongate sufficiently to position the locules above the stigma at anthesis. b. The anther locules do not dehisce at the time of flower opening (although limited dehiscence occurs later). c. Pollens of mutant plants develop into several types of pollens at the trinucleated stage, as determined by staining with DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole), which shows a variable size, shape and number of nucleus. d. The viability of pollens is lower than that of the wild type on the germination test in vivo and vitro.

  13. Sexual Selection: Male-Male Competition

    E-print Network

    Miller, Christine Whitney

    in sex-role reversed species. Polygyny. Mating systems characterized by high vari- ance in male reproductive success; a few males mate with many females, and many males mate with few or no females. Sperm between males and females is due to the factors that limit reproductive success for each sex. In- dividual

  14. Signaling in multiple modalities in male rhesus macaques: sex skin coloration and barks in relation to androgen levels, social status, and mating behavior

    PubMed Central

    Higham, James P.; Pfefferle, Dana; Heistermann, Michael; Maestripieri, Dario; Stevens, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The past decade has seen an increasing shift in animal communication towards more studies that incorporate aspects of signaling in multiple modalities. Although nonhuman primates are an excellent group for studying the extent to which different aspects of condition may be signaled in different modalities, and how such information may be integrated during mate choice, very few studies of primate species have incorporated such analyses. Here, we present data from free-ranging male rhesus macaques on sex skin coloration (modeled to receiver perception), bark vocal signals, androgen levels, morphometric variables, dominance status, and female mate choice. We show that, consistent with data on females, most intra- and interindividual variation in sex skin appearance occurs in luminance rather than color. Sex skin luminance was significantly correlated across different skin regions. Sex skin luminance did not correlate with the majority of bark parameters, suggesting the potential for the two signals to convey different information. Sex skin appearance was not related to androgen levels although we found some evidence for links between androgen levels and bark parameters, several of which were also related to morphometric variables. We found no evidence that either signal was related to male dominance rank or used in female mate choice, though more direct measures of female proceptive behavior are needed. Overall, the function of male sex skin coloration in this species remains unclear. Our study is among the first nonhuman primate studies to incorporate measurements of multiple signals in multiple modalities, and we encourage other authors to incorporate such analyses into their work. PMID:25013266

  15. Using video playback to study the effect of an audience on male mating behavior in the Sailfin molly (Poecilia latipinna).

    PubMed

    Makowicz, A M; Plath, M; Schlupp, I

    2010-09-01

    Sexual conflict in poeciliid fishes is well-documented, particularly male sexual harassment and its effects on females. For instance, male attempts to force copulations influence female feeding, energy allocation, and preference for shoaling partners. However, there has been little research conducted to determine how the social environment shapes the occurrence and intensity of sexual harassment. In this study we ask whether an audience male influences the sexual behaviors of a focal male, the correlated feeding time reduction of female Poecilia latipinna, and if the size of the audience male (larger or smaller than the focal male) influences these behaviors. We presented a video of a male, either smaller or larger than the focal male, or an empty tank (control) to a female interacting with a male or female partner and measured feeding times and sexual behaviors. We found that male sexual behaviors increased in the presence of an audience male, especially if the audience male was larger than the focal male. Females fed more in the presence of a partner female than in the presence of a male, which was independent of the audience (i.e., video treatment). Focal female aggression towards the partner female increased with the size of the audience male. The present study shows that an audience male has multiple interacting influences on both male and female behavior. PMID:20542097

  16. Isolation and characterization of a male sterility gene homolog BcMS2 from Chinese cabbage-pak-choi that expressing in an anther-specific manner.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ming; Cao, Jiashu

    2008-09-01

    A male sterility gene homolog, designated BcMS2, was isolated from flower buds using gene-specific primer pairs and was submitted to GenBank under accession number EF093533. Comparison of BcMS2 gene with MS2 from Arabidopsis thaliana and MS2Bnap from Brassica napus revealed some differences in gene structure and evolution. The full genomic DNA sequence of BcMS2 was 2,576 bp in length containing 8 exons and 7 introns, more than those of MS2Bnap but less than MS2. RT-PCR showed that BcMS2 gene expressed only in stage III flower buds of male fertile Chinese cabbage-pak-choi 'ZUBajh97-01B' and there were no detection in all organs of Polima cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) line 'Bpol97-05A' and Ogura CMS line 'Bogu97-06A'. Furthermore, RT-PCR revealed that BcMS2 expressed only in anthers of male fertile material and there were no expression in sepals, petals, filaments and pistils. These results suggested that BcMS2 was an anther-specific gene and might be essential for the fertility of Chinese cabbage-pak-choi. PMID:17514434

  17. Review: Improving our knowledge of male mosquito biology in relation to genetic control programmes.

    PubMed

    Lees, Rosemary Susan; Knols, Bart; Bellini, Romeo; Benedict, Mark Q; Bheecarry, Ambicadutt; Bossin, Hervé Christophe; Chadee, Dave D; Charlwood, Jacques; Dabiré, Roch K; Djogbenou, Luc; Egyir-Yawson, Alexander; Gato, René; Gouagna, Louis Clément; Hassan, Mo'awia Mukhtar; Khan, Shakil Ahmed; Koekemoer, Lizette L; Lemperiere, Guy; Manoukis, Nicholas C; Mozuraitis, Raimondas; Pitts, R Jason; Simard, Frederic; Gilles, Jeremie R L

    2014-04-01

    The enormous burden placed on populations worldwide by mosquito-borne diseases, most notably malaria and dengue, is currently being tackled by the use of insecticides sprayed in residences or applied to bednets, and in the case of dengue vectors through reduction of larval breeding sites or larviciding with insecticides thereof. However, these methods are under threat from, amongst other issues, the development of insecticide resistance and the practical difficulty of maintaining long-term community-wide efforts. The sterile insect technique (SIT), whose success hinges on having a good understanding of the biology and behaviour of the male mosquito, is an additional weapon in the limited arsenal against mosquito vectors. The successful production and release of sterile males, which is the mechanism of population suppression by SIT, relies on the release of mass-reared sterile males able to confer sterility in the target population by mating with wild females. A five year Joint FAO/IAEA Coordinated Research Project brought together researchers from around the world to investigate the pre-mating conditions of male mosquitoes (physiology and behaviour, resource acquisition and allocation, and dispersal), the mosquito mating systems and the contribution of molecular or chemical approaches to the understanding of male mosquito mating behaviour. A summary of the existing knowledge and the main novel findings of this group is reviewed here, and further presented in the reviews and research articles that form this Acta Tropica special issue. PMID:24252487

  18. Evolution of mating system and the genetic covariance between male and female investment in Clarkia (onagraceae): selfing opposes the evolution of trade-offs.

    PubMed

    Mazer, Susan J; Delesalle, Véronique A; Paz, Horacio

    2007-01-01

    Sex allocation theory has assumed that hermaphroditic species exhibit strong genetically based trade-offs between investment in male and female function. The potential effects of mating system on the evolution of this genetic covariance, however, have not been explored. We have challenged the assumption of a ubiquitous trade-off between male and female investment by arguing that in highly self-fertilizing species, stabilizing natural selection should favor highly efficient ratios of male to female gametes. In flowering plants, the result of such selection would be similar pollen:ovule (P:O) ratios across selfing genotypes, precluding a negative genetic correlation (r(g)) between pollen and ovule production per flower. Moreover, if selfing genotypes with similar P:O ratios differ in total gametic investment per flower, a positive r(g) between pollen and ovule production would be observed. In outcrossers, by contrast, male- and female-biased flowers and genotypes may have equal fitness and coexist at evolutionary equilibrium. In the absence of strong stabilizing selection on the P:O ratio, selection on this trait will be relaxed, resulting in independence or resource-based trade-offs between male and female investment. To test this prediction, we conducted artificial selection on pollen and ovule production per flower in two sister species with contrasting mating systems. The predominantly self-fertilizing species (Clarkia exilis) consistently exhibited a significant positive r(g) between pollen and ovule production while the outcrossing species (C. unguiculata) exhibited either a trade-off or independence between these traits. Clarkia exilis also exhibited much more highly canalized gender expression than C. unguiculata. Selection on pollen and ovule production resulted in little correlated change in the P:O ratio in the selfing exilis, while dramatic changes in the P:O ratio were observed in unguiculata. To test the common prediction that floral attractiveness should be positively genetically correlated with investment in male function, we examined the response of petal area to selection on pollen and ovule production and found that petal area was not consistently genetically correlated with gender expression in either species. Our results suggest that the joint evolutionary trajectory of primary sexual traits in hermaphroditic species will be affected by their mating systems; this should be taken into account in future theoretical and comparative empirical investigations. PMID:17300429

  19. Identification of AFLP markers linked to fertility restorer genes for tournefortii cytoplasmic male-sterility system in Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Janeja, H S; Banga, S S; Lakshmikumaran, M

    2003-06-01

    The tournefortii cytoplasmic male-sterility system is being used as a method of pollination control to develop hybrids in Brassica napus. Genetic analyses have indicated that two dominant genes, one major ( Rft1) and another minor ( Rft2), were required to achieve complete fertility restoration. Though the major gene ( Rft1) can cause complete fertility restoration on its own, its expression was significantly enhanced in the presence of the minor gene ( Rft2). In the absence of Rft1, Rft2 caused only partial fertility restoration. We used a pair of near-isogenic lines (NILs), differing for the presence/absence of Rf genes, to identify AFLP markers linked to fertility restorer genes. A total of 64 EcoRI/ MseI primer combinations were surveyed which produced 3,225 bands, of which 19 (0.006%) were polymorphic between parental NILs. Primer combinations which led to the identification of polymorphic bands present in fertile parental NILs were used for assaying a mapping population of 70 F(2) plants for determining the segregation pattern of markers. Initial screening resulted in the identification of five AFLP markers. The recombination analyses of these AFLP markers revealed that at least two (EACC/MCTT(105), EAAG/MCTC(80)) were present in the same linkage group along with the Rf loci. Marker EACC/MCTT(105) was separated from the major gene ( Rft1) by a distance of 18.1 cM, while it was 33.2 cM away from the minor fertility restorer gene ( Rft2). Another marker EAAG/MCTC(80) was also located adjacent to Rft1 at a distance of 18.1 cM, but on other side. Identification of flanking markers (EACC/MCTT(105), EAAG/MCTC(80)) for the major fertility restorer gene ( Rft1) provides a crucial component for marker-assisted selection and map-based cloning of the restorer genes, and can hence be used to construct elite restorer genotypes. PMID:12835940

  20. DNA Methylation and Transcriptomic Changes in Response to Different Lights and Stresses in 7B-1 Male-Sterile Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Omidvar, Vahid; Fellner, Martin

    2015-01-01

    We reported earlier that 7B-1 mutant in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L., cv. Rutgers), an ABA overproducer, is defective in blue light (B) signaling leading to B-specific resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses. Using a methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) assay, a number of genes were identified, which were differentially methylated between 7B-1 and its wild type (WT) seedlings in white (W), blue (B), red (R) lights and dark (D) or in response to exogenous ABA and mannitol-induced stresses. The genomic methylation level was almost similar in different lights between 7B-1 and WT seedlings, while significant differences were observed in response to stresses in D, but not B. Using a cDNA-AFLP assay, several transcripts were identified, which were differentially regulated between 7B-1 and WT by B or D or in response to stresses. Blue light receptors cryptochrome 1 and 2 (CRY1 and CRY2) and phototropin 1 and 2 (PHOT1 and PHOT2) were not affected by the 7B-1 mutation at the transcriptional level, instead the mutation had likely affected downstream components of the light signaling pathway. 5-azacytidine (5-azaC) induced DNA hypomethylation, inhibited stem elongation and differentially regulated the expression of a number of genes in 7B-1. In addition, it was shown that mir167 and mir390 were tightly linked to auxin signaling pathway in 5-azaC-treated 7B-1 seedlings via the regulation of auxin-response factor (ARF) transcripts. Our data showed that DNA methylation remodeling is an active epigenetic response to different lights and stresses in 7B-1 and WT, and highlighted the differences in epigenetic and transcriptional regulation of light and stress responses between 7B-1 and WT. Furthermore, it shed lights on the crosstalk between DNA hypomethylation and miRNA regulation of ARFs expression. This information could also be used as a benchmark for future studies of male-sterility in other crops. PMID:25849771

  1. Reproductive Strategies of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) and Implications for the Sterile Insect Technique

    PubMed Central

    Oliva, Clelia F.; Damiens, David; Vreysen, Marc J. B.; Lemperière, Guy; Gilles, Jérémie

    2013-01-01

    Male insects are expected to optimize their reproductive strategy according to the availability of sperm or other ejaculatory materials, and to the availability and reproductive status of females. Here, we investigated the reproductive strategy and sperm management of male and virgin female Aedes albopictus, a mosquito vector of chikungunya and dengue viruses. The dynamics of semen transfer to the female bursa inseminalis and spermathecae were observed. Double-mating experiments were conducted to study the effect of time lapsed or an oviposition event between two copulations on the likelihood of a female double-insemination and the use of sperm for egg fertilization; untreated fertile males and radio-sterilised males were used for this purpose. Multiple inseminations and therefore the possibility of sperm competition were limited to matings closely spaced in time. When two males consecutively mated the same female within a 40 min interval, in ca. 15% of the cases did both males sire progeny. When the intervals between the copulations were longer, all progeny over several gonotrophic cycles were offspring of the first male. The mating behavior of males was examined during a rapid sequence of copulations. Male Ae. albopictus were parceling sperm allocation over several matings; however they would also attempt to copulate with females irrespective of the available sperm supply or accessory gland secretion material. During each mating, they transferred large quantities of sperm that was not stored for egg fertilization, and they attempted to copulate with mated females with a low probability of transferring their genes to the next generation. The outcomes of this study provided in addition some essential insights with respect to the sterile insect technique (SIT) as a vector control method. PMID:24236062

  2. Chemosterilization of male sea lampreys, (Petromyzon marinus), does not affect sex pheromone release

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Siefkes, Michael J.; Bergstedt, Roger A.; Twohey, Michael B.; Li, Weiming

    2003-01-01

    Release of males sterilized by injection with bisazir is an important experimental technique in management of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), an invasive, nuisance species in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Sea lampreys are semelparous and sterilization can theoretically eliminate a male's reproductive capacity and, if the ability to obtain mates is not affected, waste the sex products of females spawning with him. It has been demonstrated that spermiating males release a sex pheromone that attracts ovulating females. We demonstrated that sterilized, spermiating males also released the pheromone and attracted ovulating females. In a two-choice maze, ovulating females increased searching behavior and spent more time in the side of the maze containing chemical stimuli from sterilized, spermiating males. This attraction response was also observed in spawning stream experiments. Also, electro-olfactograms showed that female olfactory organs were equally sensitive to chemical stimuli from sterilized and nonsterilized, spermiating males. Finally, fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry showed that extracts from water conditioned with sterilized and nonsterilized, spermiating males contained the same pheromonal molecule at similar levels. We concluded that injection of bisazir did not affect the efficacy of sex pheromone in sterilized males.

  3. Loss of function of OsMADS3 via the insertion of a novel retrotransposon leads to recessive male sterility in rice (Oryza sativa).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Mao, Donghai; Xing, Feng; Bai, Xufeng; Zhao, Hu; Yao, Wen; Li, Guangwei; Xie, Weibo; Xing, Yongzhong

    2015-09-01

    Natural mutation is the source of natural variation, which is the fundamental basis for the genetic improvement of crops. During the process of developing a recombinant inbred line (RI), a spontaneous mutagenesis in RI127 led to the production of the recessive male-sterile line RI127S. Via a map-based cloning approach, the gene controlling the male sterility was identified as OsMADS3, which was previously reported to be associated with floral organ development and male sterility. Thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR isolated one 1633-bp insertion in OsMADS3 in RI127S, which damaged its function due to failed transcription. The 1633-bp insertion was derived from a fragment flanked by retrotransposon genes on chromosome 5. Seven haplotypes of OsMADS3 were observed among 529 cultivars and 107 wild rice accessions, and 98% of the investigated genotypes carried the same H2 haplotype, indicating that OsMADS3 is highly conserved. RI127S has the combined genome constitution of its parents, indica rice Teqing and japonica 02428, and carries the widely compatible S5 gene donated by 02428. RI127 exhibits good performance in regard to its agronomic traits and has a wide compatibility. Therefore, RI127S would be an elite mediator for recurrent breeding in cases requiring a tedious hand-crossing-based inter-crossing phase. RI127S can be crossed not only with indica rice but also with japonica rice, thus providing breeders with flexible arrangements in recurrent breeding programs. PMID:26259187

  4. Pollen Semi-Sterility1 Encodes a Kinesin-1–Like Protein Important for Male Meiosis, Anther Dehiscence, and Fertility in Rice[W

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Shirong; Wang, Yang; Li, Wanchang; Zhao, Zhigang; Ren, Yulong; Wang, Yong; Gu, Suhai; Lin, Qibing; Wang, Dan; Jiang, Ling; Su, Ning; Zhang, Xin; Liu, Linglong; Cheng, Zhijun; Lei, Cailin; Wang, Jiulin; Guo, Xiuping; Wu, Fuqing; Ikehashi, Hiroshi; Wang, Haiyang; Wan, Jianmin

    2011-01-01

    In flowering plants, male meiosis produces four microspores, which develop into pollen grains and are released by anther dehiscence to pollinate female gametophytes. The molecular and cellular mechanisms regulating male meiosis in rice (Oryza sativa) remain poorly understood. Here, we describe a rice pollen semi-sterility1 (pss1) mutant, which displays reduced spikelet fertility (~40%) primarily caused by reduced pollen viability (~50% viable), and defective anther dehiscence. Map-based molecular cloning revealed that PSS1 encodes a kinesin-1–like protein. PSS1 is broadly expressed in various organs, with highest expression in panicles. Furthermore, PSS1 expression is significantly upregulated during anther development and peaks during male meiosis. The PSS1–green fluorescent protein fusion is predominantly localized in the cytoplasm of rice protoplasts. Substitution of a conserved Arg (Arg-289) to His in the PSS1 motor domain nearly abolishes its microtubule-stimulated ATPase activity. Consistent with this, lagging chromosomes and chromosomal bridges were found at anaphase I and anaphase II of male meiosis in the pss1 mutant. Together, our results suggest that PSS1 defines a novel member of the kinesin-1 family essential for male meiotic chromosomal dynamics, male gametogenesis, and anther dehiscence in rice. PMID:21282525

  5. Male Sexual Behavior and Pheromone Emission Is Enhanced by Exposure to Guava Fruit Volatiles in Anastrepha fraterculus

    PubMed Central

    Bachmann, Guillermo E.; Segura, Diego F.; Devescovi, Francisco; Juárez, M. Laura; Ruiz, M. Josefina; Vera, M. Teresa; Cladera, Jorge L.; Fernández, Patricia C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Plant chemicals can affect reproductive strategies of tephritid fruit flies by influencing sex pheromone communication and increasing male mating competitiveness. Objective and Methodology We explored whether exposure of Anastrepha fraterculus males to guava fruit volatiles and to a synthetic blend of volatile compounds released by this fruit affects the sexual performance of wild and laboratory flies. By means of bioassays and pheromone collection we investigated the mechanism underlying this phenomenon. Results Guava volatile exposure enhanced male mating success and positively affected male calling behavior and pheromone release in laboratory and wild males. Changes in male behavior appear to be particularly important during the initial phase of the sexual activity period, when most of the mating pairs are formed. Exposure of laboratory males to a subset of guava fruit volatiles enhanced mating success, showing that the response to the fruit might be mimicked artificially. Conclusions Volatiles of guava seem to influence male mating success through an enhancement of chemical and physical signals related to the communication between sexes. This finding has important implications for the management of this pest species through the Sterile Insect Technique. We discuss the possibility of using artificial blends to improve the sexual competitiveness of sterile males. PMID:25923584

  6. Postpartum Sterilization

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of a baby. What is the most common method of postpartum sterilization? The method used most often ... is postpartum sterilization? • What is the most common method of postpartum sterilization? • When is postpartum sterilization performed? • ...

  7. Effect of methoprene application, adult food and feeding duration on male melon fly starvation survival

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The application of methoprene and access to protein in adult diet has been shown to enhance mating success in male melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae), supporting their incorporation into operational area-wide programmes integrating the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). T...

  8. The Nuclear Gene Rf3 Affects the Expression of the Mitochondrial Chimeric Sequence R Implicated in S-Type Male Sterility in Maize

    PubMed Central

    Zabala, G.; Gabay-Laughnan, S.; Laughnan, J. R.

    1997-01-01

    The mitochondrial genomes of maize plants exhibiting S-type cytoplasmic male sterility (cms-S) contain a repeated DNA region designated R. This region was found to be rearranged in the mitochondria of all cms-S cytoplasmically revertant fertile plants in all nuclear backgrounds analyzed. A 1.6-kb mRNA transcribed from the R region in mitochondria of sterile plants was absent from all cytoplasmic revertants examined. The nuclear gene Rf3, which suppresses the cms-S phenotype, was found to have a specific effect on the expression of the R sequence; the abundance of the major R transcripts, including the cms-S-specific 1.6-kb mRNA, is decreased in mitochondria of restored plants. Nucleotide sequence analysis of R has revealed similarities to the R1 plasmid found in some South American maize races with RU cytoplasm, to the M1 plasmid found in one source of Zea luxurians teosinte, to the atp9 mitochondrial gene and its 3' flanking sequence, and also to a region 3' to the orf221 gene. The derived amino acid sequence of the R region predicts two open reading frames (ORFs). These ORFs contain the similarities to R1, M1, atp9 and orf221. The present report reveals the chimeric nature of the R region, describes the complex effect of Rf3 on the expression of the R sequence and implicates R in the sterile phenotype of cms-S maize. PMID:9335619

  9. Overexpression of rice black-streaked dwarf virus p7-1 in Arabidopsis results in male sterility due to non-dehiscent anthers.

    PubMed

    Sun, Feng; Yuan, Xia; Xu, Qiufang; Zhou, Tong; Fan, Yongjian; Zhou, Yijun

    2013-01-01

    Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV), a member of the genus Fijivirus in the family Reoviridae, is propagatively transmitted by the small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus Fallén). RBSDV causes rice black-streaked dwarf and maize rough dwarf diseases, which lead to severe yield losses in crops in China. Although several RBSDV proteins have been studied in detail, the functions of the nonstructural protein P7-1 are still largely unknown. To investigate the role of the P7-1 protein in virus pathogenicity, transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants were generated in which the P7-1 gene was expressed under the control of the 35S promoter. The RBSDV P7-1-transgenic Arabidopsis plants (named P7-1-OE) were male sterility. Flowers and pollen from P7-1-transgenic plants were of normal size and shape, and anthers developed to the normal size but failed to dehisce. The non-dehiscent anthers observed in P7-1-OE were attributed to decreased lignin content in the anthers. Furthermore, the reactive oxygen species levels were quite low in the transgenic plants compared with the wild type. These results indicate that ectopic expression of the RBSDV P7-1 protein in A. thaliana causes male sterility, possibly through the disruption of the lignin biosynthesis and H2O2-dependent polymerization pathways. PMID:24260239

  10. Sterilization of space hardware.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pflug, I. J.

    1971-01-01

    Discussion of various techniques of sterilization of space flight hardware using either destructive heating or the action of chemicals. Factors considered in the dry-heat destruction of microorganisms include the effects of microbial water content, temperature, the physicochemical properties of the microorganism and adjacent support, and nature of the surrounding gas atmosphere. Dry-heat destruction rates of microorganisms on the surface, between mated surface areas, or buried in the solid material of space vehicle hardware are reviewed, along with alternative dry-heat sterilization cycles, thermodynamic considerations, and considerations of final sterilization-process design. Discussed sterilization chemicals include ethylene oxide, formaldehyde, methyl bromide, dimethyl sulfoxide, peracetic acid, and beta-propiolactone.

  11. Infection with Toxoplasma gondii does not elicit predator aversion in male mice nor increase their attractiveness in terms of mate choice.

    PubMed

    Soh, Linda Jing Ting; Vasudevan, Anand; Vyas, Ajai

    2013-09-01

    Behavioral manipulation hypothesis posits that some parasites induce behavioral changes in the host to increase transmission efficiency of the parasite. Protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii infecting rats has been widely studied in this context. T. gondii increases attractiveness of infected male rats and reduces innate aversion of rats to cat odor, likely increasing transmission of the parasite by sexual and trophic routes respectively. It is currently unexplored if T. gondii induces gain of male attractiveness in experimental models other than rats. Here we show that laboratory infection of two strains of mice does not induce behavioral manipulation. Moreover, T. gondii infection results in reduction of male attractiveness in one of the strains. In agreement with this observation, T. gondii infection also fails to induce reduction in innate aversion to cat odors in mice. Effects of the parasite on mice mate choice are similar to effects of several other parasites in this animal model. Thus, behavioral change induced by the parasite may be specific to the rodent species. PMID:23907633

  12. A reaction-diffusion model of the Darien Gap Sterile Insect Release Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alford, John G.

    2015-05-01

    The Sterile Insect Release Method (SIRM) is used as a biological control for invasive insect species. SIRM involves introducing large quantities of sterilized male insects into a wild population of invading insects. A fertile/sterile mating produces offspring that are not viable and the wild insect population will eventually be eradicated. A U.S. government program maintains a permanent sterile fly barrier zone in the Darien Gap between Panama and Columbia to control the screwworm fly (Cochliomyia Hominivorax), an insect that feeds off of living tissue in mammals and has devastating effects on livestock. This barrier zone is maintained by regular releases of massive quantities of sterilized male screwworm flies from aircraft. We analyze a reaction-diffusion model of the Darien Gap barrier zone. Simulations of the model equations yield two types of spatially inhomogeneous steady-state solutions representing a sterile fly barrier that does not prevent invasion and a barrier that does prevent invasion. We investigate steady-state solutions using both phase plane methods and monotone iteration methods and describe how barrier width and the sterile fly release rate affects steady-state behavior.

  13. Novel genetic male sterility developed in (Capsicum annuum x C. chinense) x C. pubescens and induced by HNO2 showing Mendelian inheritance and aborted at telophase of microspore mother cell stage.

    PubMed

    Huang, W; Ji, J-J; Li, C; Li, G-Q; Yin, C-C; Chai, W-G; Gong, Z-H

    2015-01-01

    A novel genetic male sterile germplasm was developed by successively crossing of (C. annuum x C. chinense) x C. pubescens and by chemical mutagenesis in pepper. The sterile anthers showed morphological abnormalities, but pistils developed normally with fine pollination capability. We investigated fertility segregation through sib-crossing of the same strains and test crossing by male sterile plants with 6 advanced inbred lines. The results showed that male fertility in the pepper was dominant in the F1 generation and segregated at a rate of 3:1 in the F2 generation, suggesting that monogenic male sterility was recessive and conformed to Mendelian inheritance. Cyto-anatomy analysis revealed that microspore abortion of sterile anthers occurred during telophase in the microspore mother cell stage when tapetal cells showed excessive vacuolation, resulting in occupation of the loculi. The microspore mother cells self-destructed and autolyzed with the tapetum so that meiosis in pollen mother cells could not proceed past the tetrad stage. PMID:25966098

  14. A Combined Classical Genetic and High Resolution Two-Dimensional Electrophoretic Approach to the Assessment of the Number of Genes Affecting Hybrid Male Sterility in Drosophila Simulans and Drosophila Sechellia

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, L. W.; Singh, R. S.

    1993-01-01

    We have attempted to estimate the number of genes involved in postzygotic reproductive isolation between two closely related species, Drosophila simulans and Drosophila sechellia, by a novel approach that involves the use of high resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) to examine testis proteins in parents, hybrids and fertile and sterile backcross progenies. The important results that have emerged from this study are as follows: (1) about 8% of about 1000 proteins examined showed divergence (presence/absence) between the two species; (2) by tracing individual proteins in parental, hybrid and backcross males, we were able to associate the divergent proteins with different chromosomes and found that most divergent proteins are associated with autosomes and very few with X chromosome, Y chromosome and cytoplasm; (3) when proteins showing both quantitative and qualitative differences between the two species were examined in F(1) hybrid males, most (97.4%) proteins were expressed at levels between the two parents and no sign of large scale changes in spot density was observed. All the proteins observed in the two parental species were present in F(1) hybrid males except two species-specific proteins that may be encoded (or regulated) by sex chromosomes; (4) when different fertile and sterile backcross male testes were compared, a few D. sechellia-specific proteins were identified to be consistently associated with male sterility. These results along with the observation that a large proportion (23.6%) of first generation backcross males were fertile show that hybrid male sterility between D. simulans and D. sechellia involves a relatively small number of genes. Role of large scale genetic changes due to general genome incompatibility is not supported. The results also suggest that the large effect of X chromosome on hybrid male sterility is not due to higher divergence of X chromosome than autosomes. PMID:8224814

  15. 18/07/2011 22:33Male Cottony Cushion Scale May Mate Its Kind Into Extinction -NYTimes.com Page 1 of 2http://www.nytimes.com/2011/07/19/science/19obinsect.html?_r=2

    E-print Network

    Obbard, Darren

    insect species known to exhibit the behavior. The others are also scale insect species. Connect18/07/2011 22:33Male Cottony Cushion Scale May Mate Its Kind Into Extinction - NYTimes.com Page 1 Kind Into Extinction P. Hollinger A cottony cushion scale and her offspring, fertilized by a parasite

  16. Effects of mating mindsets on variety seeking

    E-print Network

    Hu, Yu-Wei

    2014-01-01

    This research shows that mating mindsets, which consumers commonly experience, can have a crucial impact on consumers' variety seeking tendencies. In two studies, we find that male consumers in a long-term mating mindset ...

  17. The transformation of the photo-thermo sensitive genic male-sterile line 261S of rice via an expression vector containing the anti-Waxy gene

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Rui; Zhou, Yongguo; Cao, Yueqin; Yin, Zhongming; Yang, Lijun; Li, Jianyue

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic photo-thermo sensitive genic male sterility Oryza sativa L. cv. “261S” plants with the anti-Waxy gene were successfully obtained using an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated co-transformation method. Marker-free homozygous transgenic lines with the anti-Waxy gene were obtained. The setting seed rates of the transgenic plants via self-pollination or via crossing with the restorer line WX99075 rice and the 1000-grain weight of the transgenic plants and the F2 hybrid seeds obtained by crossing the transgenic or non-transgenic plants with the restorer line WX99075 rice, and the number of panicles of the transgenic plants and yields of the F2 hybrid rice, were analysed. Quality indexes of the transgenic plants and of the F2 hybrid seeds were analysed. Our researches results indicate that hybrid female and hybrid descendant edibility could be improved via the introduction of the anti-Waxy gene, but the grain yields of the reserve seeds via self-pollination of the transgenic photo-thermo sensitive genic sterile lines and of the hybrid rice were not affected. PMID:23853508

  18. Have Sex Differences in Spatial Ability Evolved from Male Competition for Mating and Female Concern for Survival?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ecuyer-Dab, Isabelle; Robert, Michele

    2004-01-01

    Drawing on the theoretical and empirical foundations of two evolutionary models, we argue that, among humans and other mammals, a twofold selection process would parsimoniously account for sex-linked advantages in spatial contexts. In males, a superiority for both solving navigation-related spatial problems and understanding physical principles…

  19. Wolf management in the 21st century: From public input to sterilization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; Fritts, S.H.; Nelson, M.E.

    1996-01-01

    Human-population increase and land development portend increasing conflict with large predators. Concurrently, changes and diversification of human attitudes are bringing increased disagreement about wildlife management. Animal-rights advocacy resulting from urbanization of human populations conflicts with traditional wildlife management. These forces focus more on wolves than on other wildlife because of strong public and media interest in wolves. Thus wolf management in the future will come under even greater public scrutiny, involve more public input, and may have greater restrictions imposed on it. This will lead to increased complexity in wolf management including more zoning, more experimentation with lethal and non-lethal capture techniques and alternate methods of alleviating damage to pets, livestock, and large ungulate herds, and greater public and private subsidy of wolf damage. One form of non-lethal control of wolf populations that may hold some promise is direct sterilization of males to reduce the biotic potential of the wolf population. Experimental vasectomy of five wild male wolves from four packs in Minnesota indicates that sterile males will continue to hold mates and territories, which would be necessary if sterilization is to be a viable technique for assisting with population control. If sterile males held territories but failed to produce pups, such territories might contain only about a third the number of wolves as fertile pack territories. Because wolves are long-lived in unexploited populations and their territories are large, direct sterilization of relatively few animals each year might significantly reduce populations.

  20. Molecular cloning and characterization of a proliferating cell nuclear antigen gene by chemically induced male sterility in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Yu, Y A; Zhang, G S; Zhang, J; Ju, L; Zhu, Q D; Song, Y L; Wang, J W; Niu, N; Ma, S C

    2015-01-01

    Although a number of studies have shown that chemical hybridizing agents (CHAs) affect anther growth and regulate cell-cycle progression, little is known about the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is an essential factor in DNA replication, and in many other processes in eukaryotic cells. In this study, the open reading frame of TaPCNA, the PCNA in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), was cloned by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Sequence analysis revealed that this gene was 792-bp long and encoded a protein with 234 amino acids. Alignment of the TaPCNA-predicted sequence revealed a high degree of identity with PCNAs from other plant species. A subcellular localization assay indicated that TaPCNA was localized in the nucleus. The TaPCNA was cloned into the prokaryotic expression plasmid pET32a, and the recombinant plasmid was transformed into BL21 (DE3). TaPCNA expression was induced by 0.5 mM isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside and verified using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and western blot assays, which indicated that the fusion protein was successfully expressed. The gene involved in the G1-to-S transition, Histone H4, was downregulated by 1376- CIMS, which is a chemically induced male sterility line. However, a semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed that TaPCNA expression was upregulated in 1376-CIMS. Our results suggest that CHAs (SQ-1) induce DNA damage in wheat anthers. DNA damage results in either the delay or arrest of cell-cycle progression, which affects anther development. This study will help to elucidate the mechanisms of SQ-1-induced male sterility. PMID:26505350

  1. A novel mating system analysis for modes of self-oriented mating applied to diploid and polyploid arctic Easter daisies (Townsendia hookeri).

    PubMed

    Thompson, S L; Ritland, K

    2006-08-01

    We have developed a new model for mating system analysis, which attempts to distinguish among alternative modes of self-oriented mating within populations. This model jointly estimates the rates of outcrossing, selfing, automixis and apomixis, through the use of information in the family structure given by dominant genetic marker data. The method is presented, its statistical properties evaluated, and is applied to three arctic Easter daisy populations, one consisting of diploids, the other two of tetraploids. The tetraploids are predominantly male sterile and reported to be apomictic while the diploids are male fertile. In each Easter daisy population, 10 maternal arrays of six progeny were assayed for amplified fragment length polymorphism markers. Estimates, confirmed with likelihood ratio tests of mating hypotheses, showed apomixis to be predominant in all populations (ca. 70%), but selfing or automixis was moderate (ca. 25%) in tetraploids. It was difficult to distinguish selfing from automixis, and simulations confirm that with even very large sample sizes, the estimates have a very strong negative statistical correlation, for example, they are not independent. No selfing or automixis was apparent in the diploid population, instead, moderate levels of outcrossing were detected (23%). Low but significant levels of outcrossing (2-4%) seemed to occur in the male-sterile tetraploid populations; this may be due to genotyping error of this level. Overall, this study shows apomixis can be partial, and provides evidence for higher levels of inbreeding in polyploids compared to diploids and for significant levels of apomixis in a diploid plant population. PMID:16721390

  2. Female Stick Insects Mate Multiply to Find Compatible Mates.

    PubMed

    Arbuthnott, Devin; Crespi, Bernard J; Schwander, Tanja

    2015-10-01

    Why females of many species mate multiply in the absence of direct benefits remains an open question in evolutionary ecology. Interacting and mating with multiple males can be costly to females in terms of time, resources, predation risk, and disease transmission. A number of indirect genetic benefits have been proposed to explain such behaviors, but the relative importance of these mechanisms in natural systems remains unclear. We tested for several direct and indirect benefits of polyandry in the walking stick Timema cristinae. We found no evidence of direct benefits with respect to longevity or fecundity. However, male × female genotypic interactions affected egg-hatching success and offspring production independent of relatedness, suggesting that mating with certain males benefits females and that the best male may differ for each female. Furthermore, multiply mated females biased paternity toward one or few males, and the extent of this bias was positively correlated to egg-hatching success. Our data, therefore, provide evidence for indirect benefits through compatibility effects in this species. By mating multiply, females may improve their chances of mating with a compatible male if compatibility cannot be assessed before mating. Such compatibility effects can explain the evolution and maintenance of polyandry in Timema and many other species. PMID:26655575

  3. A new generation of X ray irradiators for insect sterilization.

    PubMed

    Mastrangelo, T; Parker, A G; Jessup, A; Pereira, R; Orozco-Dávila, D; Islam, A; Dammalage, T; Walder, J M M

    2010-02-01

    Recent fears of terrorism have provoked an increase in delays and denials of transboundary shipments of radioisotopes. This represents a serious constraint to sterile insect technique (SIT) programs around the world as they rely on the use of ionizing radiation from radioisotopes for insect sterilization. To validate a novel X ray irradiator, a series of studies on Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) were carried out, comparing the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) between X rays and traditional gamma radiation from 60Co. Male C. capitata pupae and pupae of both sexes of A. fraterculus, both 24-48 h before adult emergence, were irradiated with doses ranging from 15 to 120 Gy and 10-70 Gy, respectively. Estimated mean doses of 91.2 Gy of X and 124.9 Gy of gamma radiation induced 99% sterility in C. capitata males. Irradiated A. fraterculus were 99% sterile at approximately 40-60 Gy for both radiation treatments. Standard quality control parameters and mating indices were not significantly affected by the two types of radiation. The RBE did not differ significantly between the tested X and gamma radiation, and X rays are as biologically effective for SIT purposes as gamma rays are. This work confirms the suitability of this new generation of X ray irradiators for pest control programs that integrate the SIT. PMID:20214372

  4. Registration of cytoplasmic male-sterile oilseed sunflower genetic stocks CMS GIG2 and CMS GIG2-RV, and fertility restoration lines RF GIG2-MAX 1631 and RF GIG2-MAX 1631-RV

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two cytoplasmic male-sterile (CMS) oilseed sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) genetic stocks, CMS GIG2 (Reg. No. xxx, PI xxxx), and CMS GIG2-RV (Reg. No. xxx, PI xxxx), and corresponding fertility restoration lines RF GIG2-MAX 1631 (Reg. No. xxx, PI xxxx) and RF GIG2-MAX 1631-RV (Reg. No. xxx, PI xxx...

  5. Spacecraft sterilization.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalfayan, S. H.

    1972-01-01

    Spacecraft sterilization is a vital factor in projects for the successful biological exploration of other planets. The microorganisms of major concern are the fungi and bacteria. Sterilization procedures are oriented toward the destruction of bacterial spores. Gaseous sterilants are examined, giving attention to formaldehyde, beta-propiolactone, ethylene oxide, and the chemistry of the bactericidal action of sterilants. Radiation has been seriously considered as another method for spacecraft sterilization. Dry heat sterilization is discussed together with the effects of ethylene oxide decontamination and dry heat sterilization on materials.

  6. Individual differences in mate poaching: an examination of hormonal, dispositional, and behavioral mate-value traits.

    PubMed

    Sunderani, Shafik; Arnocky, Steven; Vaillancourt, Tracy

    2013-05-01

    The personality and hormonal correlates of mate poaching (attempting to steal another person's partner away) and of the target of the seducer (the mate poached) were examined in a sample 154 undergraduate university students (91 females; 63 males). Thirteen variables were modeled into two regression equations to predict and profile mate poachers and the mate poached. Findings revealed that (1) male mate poachers were better looking and had higher cortisol levels, lower levels of testosterone, and reported being higher on self-esteem, cold affect, and criminal tendencies and (2) female mate poachers and targets of mate poachers reported being more physically attractive, as did male targets of mate poachers. Sex differences in the context of mate poaching attraction as well as the characteristics of those who are successful in their attempts to lure away another person's romantic partner were discussed. PMID:22695642

  7. Female Fitness Optimum at Intermediate Mating Rates under Traumatic Mating

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Rolanda; Gerlach, Tobias; Beninde, Joscha; Werminghausen, Johanna; Reichel, Verena; Anthes, Nils

    2012-01-01

    Traumatic mating behaviors often bear signatures of sexual conflict and are then typically considered a male strategy to circumvent female choice mechanisms. In an extravagant mating ritual, the hermaphroditic sea slug Siphopteron quadrispinosum pierces the integument of their mating partners with a syringe-like penile stylet that injects prostate fluids. Traumatic injection is followed by the insertion of a spiny penis into the partner’s gonopore to transfer sperm. Despite traumatic mating, field mating rates exceed those required for female fertilization insurance, possibly because costs imposed on females are balanced by direct or indirect benefits of multiple sperm receipt. To test this idea, we exposed animals to a relevant range of mating opportunity regimes and assessed the effects on mating behavior and proxies of female fitness. We find penis intromission duration to decrease with mating rates, and a female fecundity maximum at intermediate mating rates. The latter finding indicates that benefits beyond fertilization insurance can make higher mating rates also beneficial from a female perspective in this traumatically mating species. PMID:22937024

  8. A triallelic genetic male sterility locus in Brassica napus: an integrative strategy for its physical mapping and possible local chromosome evolution around it

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Wei; Liu, Jun; Xin, Qiang; Wan, Lili; Hong, Dengfeng; Yang, Guangsheng

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Spontaneous male sterility is an advantageous trait for both constructing efficient pollination control systems and for understanding the developmental process of the male reproductive unit in many crops. A triallelic genetic male-sterile locus (BnMs5) has been identified in Brassica napus; however, its complicated genome structure has greatly hampered the isolation of this locus. The aim of this study was to physically map BnMs5 through an integrated map-based cloning strategy and analyse the local chromosomal evolution around BnMs5. Methods A large F2 population was used to integrate the existing genetic maps around BnMs5. A map-based cloning strategy in combination with comparative mapping among B. napus, Arabidopsis, Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea was employed to facilitate the identification of a target bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone covering the BnMs5 locus. The genomic sequences from the Brassica species were analysed to reveal the regional chromosomal evolution around BnMs5. Key Results BnMs5 was finally delimited to a 0·3-cM genetic fragment from an integrated local genetic map, and was anchored on the B. napus A8 chromosome. Screening of a B. napus BAC clone library and identification of the positive clones validated that JBnB034L06 was the target BAC clone. The closest flanking markers restrict BnMs5 to a 21-kb region on JBnB034L06 containing six predicted functional genes. Good collinearity relationship around BnMs5 between several Brassica species was observed, while violent chromosomal evolutionary events including insertions/deletions, duplications and single nucleotide mutations were also found to have extensively occurred during their divergence. Conclusions This work represents major progress towards the molecular cloning of BnMs5, as well as presenting a powerful, integrative method to mapping loci in plants with complex genomic architecture, such as the amphidiploid B. napus. PMID:23243189

  9. Microwave powered sterile access port

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, Richard L. (Inventor); Atwater, James E. (Inventor); Dahl, Roger W. (Inventor); Garmon, Frank C. (Inventor); Lunsford, Teddie D. (Inventor); Michalek, William F. (Inventor); Wheeler, Jr., Richard R. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A device and method for elimination of contamination during transfer of materials either into or from bioreactors, food containers, or other microbially vulnerable systems. Using microwave power, thermal sterilizations of mating fixtures are achieved simply, reliably, and quickly by the volatilization of small quantities of water to produce superheated steam which contacts all exposed surfaces.

  10. Mating system of the meadow vole, Microtus pennsylvanicus

    E-print Network

    Xia, Xuhua

    , some males can monop- olize groups of females, leading to a polygynous mating system. Morever, males in large mammals. To assess this prediction, we need detailed knowledge of mating systems and reproductive success of males in many small mammalian species. The mating systems of voles and mice are difficult

  11. Heterosis Increases Fertility, Fecundity, and Survival of Laboratory-Produced F1 Hybrid Males of the Malaria Mosquito Anopheles coluzzii

    PubMed Central

    Ekechukwu, Nkiru E.; Baeshen, Rowida; Traorè, Sékou F.; Coulibaly, Mamadou; Diabate, Abdoulaye; Catteruccia, Flaminia; Tripet, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    The success of vector control strategies aiming to decrease disease transmission via the release of sterile or genetically-modified male mosquitoes critically depends on mating between laboratory-reared males and wild females. Unfortunately, mosquito colonization, laboratory rearing, and genetic manipulations can all negatively affect male competitiveness. Heterosis is commonly used to produce domestic animals with enhanced vigor and homogenous genetic background and could therefore potentially improve the mating performance of mass-reared male mosquitoes. Here, we produced enhanced hybrid males of the malaria mosquito Anopheles coluzzii by crossing two strains colonized >35 and 8 years ago. We compared the amount of sperm and mating plug proteins they transferred to females, as well as their insemination rate, reproductive success and longevity under various experimental conditions. Across experiments, widespread adaptations to laboratory mating were detected in the older strain. In large-group mating experiments, no overall hybrid advantage in insemination rates and the amount of sperm and accessory gland proteins transferred to females was detected. Despite higher sperm activity, hybrid males did not appear more fecund. However, individual-male mating and laboratory-swarm experiments revealed that hybrid males, while inseminating fewer females than older inbred males, were significantly more fertile, producing larger mating plugs and drastically increasing female fecundity. Heterotic males also showed increased longevity. These results validate the use of heterosis for creating hybrid males with improved fitness from long-established inbred laboratory strains. Therefore, this simple approach could facilitate disease control strategies based on male mosquito releases with important ultimate benefits to human health. PMID:26497140

  12. Mouse autosomal homolog of DAZ, a candidate male sterility gene in humans, is expressed in male germ cells before and after puberty

    SciTech Connect

    Reijo, R.; Seligman, J.; Jaffe, T.

    1996-07-15

    Deletion of the Azoospermia Factor (AZF) region of the human Y chromosome results in spermatogenic failure. While the identity of the critical missing gene has yet to be established, a strong candidate is the putative RNA-binding protein DAZ (Deleted in Azoospermia). Here we describe the mouse homolog of DAZ. Unlike human DAZ, which is Y-linked, in mouse the Dazh (DAZ homolog) gene maps to chromosome 17. Nonetheless, the predicted amino acid sequences of the gene products are quite similar, especially in their RNP/RRM (putative RNA-binding) domains, and both genes are transcribed predominantly in testes; the mouse gene is transcribed at a lower level in ovaries. Dazh transcripts were not detected in testes of mice that lack germ cells. In testes of wildtype mice, Dazh transcription is detectable 1 day after birth (when the only germ cells are prospermatogonia), increases steadily as spermatogonial stem cells appear, plateaus as the first wave of spermatogenic cells enters meiosis (10 days after birth), and is sustained at this level thereafter. This unique pattern of expression suggests the Dazh participates in differentiation, proliferation, or maintenance of germ cell founder populations before, during, and after the pubertal onset of spermatogenesis. Such functions could readily account for the diverse spermatogenic defects observed in human males with AZF deletion. 29 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Reversible Sterilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Largey, Gale

    1977-01-01

    Notes that difficult questions arise concerning the use of sterilization for alleged eugenic and euthenic purposes. Thus, how reversible sterilization will be used with relation to the poor, mentally ill, mentally retarded, criminals, and minors, is questioned. (Author/AM)

  14. Genetic characterization of a pentatricopeptide repeat protein gene, orf687, that restores fertility in the cytoplasmic male-sterile Kosena radish.

    PubMed

    Koizuka, Nobuya; Imai, Ritsuko; Fujimoto, Hideya; Hayakawa, Takahiko; Kimura, Yusuke; Kohno-Murase, Junko; Sakai, Takako; Kawasaki, Shinji; Imamura, Jun

    2003-05-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in plants is a maternally inherited inability to produce functional pollen, and is often associated with mitochondrial DNA abnormalities. Specific nuclear loci that suppress CMS, termed as restorers of fertility (Rf), have been identified. Previously, we identified an Rf for the CMS Kosena radish and used genetic analysis to identify the locus and create a contig covering the critical interval. To identify the Rf gene, we introduced each of the lambda and cosmid clones into the CMS Brassica napus and scored for fertility restoration. Fertility restoration was observed when one of the lambda clones was introduced into the CMS B. napus. Furthermore, introduction of a 4.7-kb BamHI/HpaI fragment of the lambda clone is enough to restore male fertility. A cDNA strand isolated from a positive fragment contained a predicted protein (ORF687) of 687 amino acids comprising 16 repeats of the 35-amino acid pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) motif. Kosena CMS radish plants were found to express an allele of this gene possessing four substituted amino acids in the second and third repeats of the PPR suggesting that the domains formed by these repeats in ORF687 are essential for fertility restoration. Protein levels of the Kosena CMS-associated mitochondrial protein ORF125 were considerably reduced in plants in which fertility was restored, although mRNA expression was normal. Regarding the possible role for PPR-containing proteins in the regulation of the mitochondrial gene, we propose that ORF687 functions either directly or indirectly to lower the levels of ORF125, resulting in the restoration of fertility in CMS plants. PMID:12753581

  15. The fertility restorer gene, Rf2, for Lead Rice-type cytoplasmic male sterility of rice encodes a mitochondrial glycine-rich protein.

    PubMed

    Itabashi, Etsuko; Iwata, Natsuko; Fujii, Sota; Kazama, Tomohiko; Toriyama, Kinya

    2011-02-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is associated with a mitochondrial mutation that causes an inability to produce fertile pollen. The fertility of CMS plants is restored in the presence of a nuclear-encoded fertility restorer (Rf) gene. In Lead Rice-type CMS, discovered in the indica variety 'Lead Rice', fertility of the CMS plant is restored by the single nuclear-encoded gene Rf2 in a gametophytic manner. We performed map-based cloning of Rf2, and proved that it encodes a protein consisting of 152 amino acids with a glycine-rich domain. Expression of Rf2 mRNA was detected in developing and mature anthers. An RF2-GFP fusion was shown to be targeted to mitochondria. Replacement of isoleucine by threonine at amino acid 78 of the RF2 protein was considered to be the cause of functional loss in the rf2 allele. As Rf2 does not encode a pentatricopeptide repeat protein, unlike a majority of previously identified Rf genes, the data from this study provide new insights into the mechanism for restoring fertility in CMS. PMID:21265890

  16. Physical and gene organization of mitochondrial DNA in fertile and male sterile sunflower. CMS-associated alterations in structure and transcription of the atpA gene.

    PubMed Central

    Siculella, L; Palmer, J D

    1988-01-01

    To study the molecular basis of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in sunflower (Helianthus annuus), we compared the physical organization and transcriptional properties of mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) from isonuclear fertile and CMS lines. Mapping studies revealed much greater similarity between the two mtDNAs than in previous comparisons of fertile and CMS lines from other plant species. The two sunflower mtDNAs 1) are nearly identical in size (300 kb and 305 kb); 2) contain the same 12 kb recombination repeat and associated tripartite structure; 3) have the same dispersed distribution of mitochondrial genes and chloroplast DNA-homologous sequences; 4) are greater than 99.9% identical in primary sequence; and 5) are colinear over a contiguous region encompassing 94% of the genome. Detectable alterations are limited to a 17 kb region of the genome and reflect as few as two mutations--a 12 kb inversion and a 5 kb insertion/deletion. One endpoint of both rearrangements is located within or near atpA, which is also the only mitochondrial gene whose transcripts differ between the fertile and CMS lines. Furthermore, a nuclear gene that restores fertility to CMS plants specifically influences the pattern of atpA transcripts. Rearrangements at the atpA locus may, therefore, be responsible for CMS in sunflower. Images PMID:2836801

  17. Sterile neutrinos?

    E-print Network

    S. M. Bilenky; C. Giunti

    1999-05-05

    The notion of sterile neutrinos is discussed. The schemes of mixing of four massive neutrinos, which imply the existence of sterile neutrinos, are briefly considered. Several model independent methods that allow to reveal possible transitions of solar neutrinos into sterile states are presented.

  18. Sub-lethal glyphosate exposure alters flowering phenology and causes transient male-sterility in Brassica spp

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Herbicide resistance in weedy plant populations can develop through different mechanisms such as gene flow of herbicide resistance transgenes from crop species into compatible weedy species or by natural evolution of herbicide resistance or tolerance following selection pressure. Results from our previous studies suggest that sub-lethal levels of the herbicide glyphosate can alter the pattern of gene flow between glyphosate resistant Canola®, Brassica napus, and glyphosate sensitive varieties of B. napus and B. rapa. The objectives of this study were to examine the phenological and developmental changes that occur in Brassica crop and weed species following sub-lethal doses of the herbicides glyphosate and glufosinate. We examined several vegetative and reproductive traits of potted plants under greenhouse conditions, treated with sub-lethal herbicide sprays. Results Our results indicate that exposure of Brassica spp. to a sub-lethal dose of glyphosate results in altering flowering phenology and reproductive function. Flowering of all sensitive species was significantly delayed and reproductive function, specifically male fertility, was suppressed. Higher dosage levels typically contributed to an increase in the magnitude of phenotypic changes. Conclusions These results demonstrate that Brassica spp. plants that are exposed to sub-lethal doses of glyphosate could be subject to very different pollination patterns and an altered pattern of gene flow that would result from changes in the overlap of flowering phenology between species. Implications include the potential for increased glyphosate resistance evolution and spread in weedy communities exposed to sub-lethal glyphosate. PMID:24655547

  19. Behavioral Ecology Vol. 12 No. 1: 5964 Female mate choice in a mating system

    E-print Network

    Pilastro, Andrea

    Behavioral Ecology Vol. 12 No. 1: 59­64 Female mate choice in a mating system dominated by male investigated the tendency of female mosquitofish to approach males in relation to their reproductive status Padova, via U. Bassi 58/b, I-35131 Padova, Italy In poeciliid fishes, males can gain copulation either

  20. Juvenile hormone titers in virgin and mated Choristoneura fumiferana and C. rosaceana females: assessment of the capacity of males to produce and transfer JH to the female during copulation.

    PubMed

    Cusson, M; Delisle, J; Miller, D

    1999-07-01

    We used a radioimmunoassay (RIA) to assess the effect of mating on juvenile hormone (JH) titer in females of the tortricid moths Choristoneura fumiferana and C. rosaceana. Virgins had undetectable levels of JH in their hemolymph on the 5th day of the pupal stage but titers rose to 1-4 and 0.2-0.5 ng JH II eq./ml, respectively, after emergence. On days 1, 3 and 5 following copulation, females of both species had higher JH titers than virgins of the same ages, with the greatest difference between virgin and mated females observed on day 3 for C. fumiferana and on day 5 for C. rosaceana. This increase was apparently not the result of a male-to-female transfer of JH during copulation since: (i) the accessory sex glands (ASGs) of males of both species displayed a very limited ability to convert JH acid into JH, (ii) ASGs produced no JH when incubated in vitro in the presence of L-[methyl-(3)H]-methionine, (iii) ASGs of males injected with L-[methyl-(3)H]-methionine 24 h prior to dissection contained no JH-associated radioactivity, and (iv) freshly formed spermatophores dissected out of females mated to similarly injected males contained no trace of radioactive JH. In addition, the JH content of ASGs and spermatophores, as measured by RIA, was not higher than that of virgin-female hemolymph, on a per-mg basis. However, in contrast with earlier findings in other species of moths, the CA of male C. fumiferana and C. rosaceana maintained in vitro in the presence of tritiated methionine produced and released JH I, JH II and JH III in quantities and proportions similar to those reported for female glands. PMID:12770349

  1. The roles played by mitochondrial DNA and nuclear genes in reversion to fertility in S-Type male-sterile maize. Progress report, April 1, 1985--March 31, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Laughnan, J.R.

    1995-03-01

    This is a progress report/renewal request for work of the roles played by mitochondrial DNA and nuclear genes in reversion to fertility in s-type male sterile maize. Information is included for the following major catagories of research on this project: molecular basis for nuclear reversion; molecular characterization of cytoplasmic revertants; nuclear control over cytoplasmic reversion and over replication of S1 and S2; developmental studies; transposition of nuclear restorer elements.

  2. Mating scars reveal mate size in immature female blue shark Prionace glauca.

    PubMed

    Calich, H J; Campana, S E

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the size and maturity status of the male blue sharks Prionace glauca attempting to mate with small, immature females in the north-west Atlantic Ocean. The relationship between male curved fork length (LFC ) and jaw gape was used in conjunction with the diameter of the mating scar to estimate the LFC and infer the maturity status of the male shark that produced the mating scar. The results indicate that mature males with a mean ± s.d. LFC of 218 cm ± 23 cm were attempting to mate with sexually immature females. PMID:25903032

  3. Female mate choice and mate search tactics in a sex role reversed population of the peacock blenny Salaria pavo

    E-print Network

    Female mate choice and mate search tactics in a sex role reversed population of the peacock blenny on a sex role reversed population of the blenny Salaria pavo to investigate possible mate choice behaviour of the females. Females mated with relatively larger males, with a larger head crest, anal gland and genital

  4. Special Issue: Social Evolution The mate choice mind: studying mate preference, aversion and social

    E-print Network

    Cummings, Molly E.

    vary across mating systems, but what about the female mind? In poeciliid fishes, we observe that female in poeciliid male reproductive phenotypes, we can probe female responses in different social contexts with different mating systems provide the first hint of a shared neuromolecular pathway underlying female mate

  5. Mating behavior of Diabrotica speciosa (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Nardi, C; Luvizotto, R A; Parra, J R P; Bento, J M S

    2012-06-01

    Diabrotica speciosa (Germar) is an economically important pest of Neotropical cultures and represents a quarantine risk for Neartic and Paleartic Regions. Despite its agricultural importance, few studies have been done on mating behavior and chemical communication, which has delayed the development of behavioral techniques for population management, such as the use of pheromone traps. In this study, we determined 1) the age at first mating; 2) diel rhythm of matings; 3) number of matings over 7 d; 4) the sequence of D. speciosa activities during premating, mating, and postmating; 5) the duration of each activity; and 6) response to male and female conspecific volatiles in Y-tube olfactometer. The first mating occurred between the third and seventh day after adult emergence and the majority of pairs mated on the fourth day after emergence. Pairs of D. speciosa showed a daily rhythm of mating with greater sexual activity between the end of the photophase and the first half of the scotophase. During the 7 d of observation, most pairs mated only once, although 30% mated two, three, or four times. In a Y-tube olfactometer, males were attracted by virgin females as well as by the volatile compounds emitted by females. Neither males nor their volatiles were attractive to either sex. Our observation provide information about mating behavior of D. speciosa, which will be useful in future research in chemical communication, such as identification of the pheromone and development of management techniques for this species using pheromone traps. PMID:22732614

  6. Loss-of-Function Mutations in TBC1D20 Cause Cataracts and Male Infertility in blind sterile Mice and Warburg Micro Syndrome in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Liegel, Ryan P.; Handley, Mark T.; Ronchetti, Adam; Brown, Stephen; Langemeyer, Lars; Linford, Andrea; Chang, Bo; Morris-Rosendahl, Deborah J.; Carpanini, Sarah; Posmyk, Renata; Harthill, Verity; Sheridan, Eamonn; Abdel-Salam, Ghada M.H.; Terhal, Paulien A.; Faravelli, Francesca; Accorsi, Patrizia; Giordano, Lucio; Pinelli, Lorenzo; Hartmann, Britta; Ebert, Allison D.; Barr, Francis A.; Aligianis, Irene A.; Sidjanin, Duska J.

    2013-01-01

    blind sterile (bs) is a spontaneous autosomal-recessive mouse mutation discovered more than 30 years ago. Phenotypically, bs mice exhibit nuclear cataracts and male infertility; genetic analyses assigned the bs locus to mouse chromosome 2. In this study, we first positionally cloned the bs locus and identified a putative causative mutation in the Tbc1d20 gene. Functional analysis established the mouse TBC1D20 protein as a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) for RAB1 and RAB2, and bs as a TBC1D20 loss-of-function mutation. Evaluation of bs mouse embryonic fibroblasts (mEFs) identified enlarged Golgi morphology and aberrant lipid droplet (LD) formation. Based on the function of TBC1D20 as a RABGAP and the bs cataract and testicular phenotypes, we hypothesized that mutations in TBC1D20 may contribute to Warburg micro syndrome (WARBM); WARBM constitutes a spectrum of disorders characterized by eye, brain, and endocrine abnormalities caused by mutations in RAB3GAP1, RAB3GAP2, and RAB18. Sequence analysis of a cohort of 77 families affected by WARBM identified five distinct TBC1D20 loss-of-function mutations, thereby establishing these mutations as causative of WARBM. Evaluation of human fibroblasts deficient in TBC1D20 function identified aberrant LDs similar to those identified in the bs mEFs. Additionally, our results show that human fibroblasts deficient in RAB18 and RAB3GAP1 function also exhibit aberrant LD formation. These findings collectively indicate that a defect in LD formation/metabolism may be a common cellular abnormality associated with WARBM, although it remains unclear whether abnormalities in LD metabolism are contributing to WARBM disease pathology. PMID:24239381

  7. Expression levels of meristem identity and homeotic genes are modified by nuclear-mitochondrial interactions in alloplasmic male-sterile lines of Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Rita Teresa; Farbos, Isabelle; Glimelius, Kristina

    2005-06-01

    Homeotic conversions of anthers were found in cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) plants of Brassica napus derived from somatic hybrids of B. napus and Arabidopsis thaliana. CMS line flowers displayed petals reduced in size and width and stamens replaced by carpelloid structures. In order to investigate when these developmental aberrations appeared, flower development was analysed histologically, ultrastructurally and molecularly. Disorganized cell divisions were detected in the floral meristems of the CMS lines at stage 4. As CMS is associated with mitochondrial aberrations, ultrastructural analysis of the mitochondria in the floral meristems was performed. Two mitochondrial populations were found in the CMS lines. One type had disrupted cristae, while the other resembled mitochondria typical of B. napus. Furthermore, expression patterns of genes expressed in particular floral whorls were determined. In spite of the aberrant development of the third whorl organs, BnAP3 was expressed as in B. napus during the first six stages of development. However, the levels of BnPI were reduced. At later developmental stages, the expression of both BnAP3 and BnPI was strongly reduced. Interestingly the expression levels of genes responsible for AP3 and PI activation such as LFY, UFO and ASK1 were higher in the CMS lines, which indicates that activation of B-genes in the CMS lines does not occur as in B. napus. Disrupted and dysfunctional mitochondria seem to be one of the first aberrations manifested in CMS which result in a retrograde influence of the expression levels of genes responsible for the second and third whorl organ differentiation. PMID:15918886

  8. Sexual selection and mating systems.

    PubMed

    Shuster, Stephen M

    2009-06-16

    Sexual selection is among the most powerful of all evolutionary forces. It occurs when individuals within one sex secure mates and produce offspring at the expense of other individuals within the same sex. Darwin was first to recognize the power of sexual selection to change male and female phenotypes, and, in noting that sexual selection is nonubiquitous, Darwin was also first to recognize the importance of mating system--the "special circumstances" in which reproduction occurs within species. Analyses of mating systems since Darwin have emphasized either the genetic relationships between male and female mating elements, usually among plants, or the numbers of mates males and females may obtain, usually among animals. Combining these schemes yields a quantitative methodology that emphasizes measurement of the sex difference in the variance in relative fitness, as well as phenotypic and genetic correlations underlying reproductive traits that may arise among breeding pairs. Such information predicts the degree and direction of sexual dimorphism within species, it allows the classification of mating systems using existing genetic and life history data, and with information on the spatial and temporal distributions of fertilizations, it may also predict floral morphology in plants. Because this empirical framework identifies selective forces and genetic architectures responsible for observed male-female differences, it compliments discoveries of nucleotide sequence variation and the expression of quantitative traits. Moreover, because this methodology emphasizes the process of evolutionary change, it is easier to test and interpret than frameworks emphasizing parental investment in offspring and its presumed evolutionary outcomes. PMID:19528645

  9. Environmental Predictors of Geographic Variation in Human Mating Preferences

    E-print Network

    Antonovics, Janis

    Environmental Predictors of Geographic Variation in Human Mating Preferences Kevin J. Mc classically posits consistent and directional mate- preferences for male traits that provide bene®ts to females. However, ¯exible mate-choice tactics may persist within a species when males display multiple

  10. Sterilization System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Cox Sterile Products, Inc.'s Rapid Heat Transfer Sterilizer employs a heat exchange process that induces rapid air movement; the air becomes the heat transfer medium, maintaining a uniform temperature of 375 degrees Fahrenheit. It features pushbutton controls for three timing cycles for different instrument loads, a six-minute cycle for standard unpackaged instruments, eight minutes for certain specialized dental/medical instruments and 12 minutes for packaged instruments which can then be stored in a drawer in sterile condition. System will stay at 375 degrees all day. Continuous operation is not expensive because of the sterilizer's very low power requirements.

  11. Homosexual behaviour increases male attractiveness to females.

    PubMed

    Bierbach, David; Jung, Christian T; Hornung, Simon; Streit, Bruno; Plath, Martin

    2013-02-23

    Male homosexual behaviour-although found in most extant clades across the Animal Kingdom-remains a conundrum, as same-sex mating should decrease male reproductive fitness. In most species, however, males that engage in same-sex sexual behaviour also mate with females, and in theory, same-sex mating could even increase male reproductive fitness if males improve their chances of future heterosexual mating. Females regularly use social information to choose a mate; e.g. male attractiveness increases after a male has interacted sexually with a female (mate choice copying). Here, we demonstrate that males of the tropical freshwater fish Poecilia mexicana increase their attractiveness to females not only by opposite-sex, but likewise, through same-sex interactions. Hence, direct benefits for males of exhibiting homosexual behaviour may help explain its occurrence and persistence in species in which females rely on mate choice copying as one component of mate quality assessment. PMID:23234866

  12. BASICS OF STERILE COMPOUNDING: Sterilization Methods in Sterile Product Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Akers, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Sterilization methods to produce sterile preparations include heat, gas, radiation, and filtration. This article focuses on heat, gas, and radiation sterilization, plus a brief introduction to bright-light sterilization. Microbiology basics and microbial death kinetics, key to understanding why these sterilization methods work, will also be briefly discussed. Filtration sterilization will be covered in a separate article. PMID:26685494

  13. Do males time their mate-guarding effort with the fertile phase in order to secure fertilisation in Cayo Santiago rhesus macaques?

    E-print Network

    Widdig, Anja

    in Cayo Santiago rhesus macaques? Constance Dubuc a,b,c,d, , Laura Muniz b , Michael Heistermann e , Anja Reproductive strategies Fertile phase Genetic paternity analysis Primates Rhesus macaques In contrast to most timed mate-guarding effort towards female fertile phases in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta

  14. Discovery of global genomic re-organization based on comparison of two newly sequenced rice mitochondrial genomes with cytoplasmic male sterility-related genes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Plant mitochondrial genomes are known for their complexity, and there is abundant evidence demonstrating that this organelle is important for plant sexual reproduction. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is a phenomenon caused by incompatibility between the nucleus and mitochondria that has been discovered in various plant species. As the exact sequence of steps leading to CMS has not yet been revealed, efforts should be made to elucidate the factors underlying the mechanism of this important trait for crop breeding. Results Two CMS mitochondrial genomes, LD-CMS, derived from Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica (434,735 bp), and CW-CMS, derived from Oryza rufipogon Griff. (559,045 bp), were newly sequenced in this study. Compared to the previously sequenced Nipponbare (Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica) mitochondrial genome, the presence of 54 out of 56 protein-encoding genes (including pseudo-genes), 22 tRNA genes (including pseudo-tRNAs), and three rRNA genes was conserved. Two other genes were not present in the CW-CMS mitochondrial genome, and one of them was present as part of the newly identified chimeric ORF, CW-orf307. At least 12 genomic recombination events were predicted between the LD-CMS mitochondrial genome and Nipponbare, and 15 between the CW-CMS genome and Nipponbare, and novel genetic structures were formed by these genomic rearrangements in the two CMS lines. At least one of the genomic rearrangements was completely unique to each CMS line and not present in 69 rice cultivars or 9 accessions of O. rufipogon. Conclusion Our results demonstrate novel mitochondrial genomic rearrangements that are unique in CMS cytoplasm, and one of the genes that is unique in the CW mitochondrial genome, CW-orf307, appeared to be the candidate most likely responsible for the CW-CMS event. Genomic rearrangements were dynamic in the CMS lines in comparison with those of rice cultivars, suggesting that 'death' and possible 'birth' processes of the CMS genes occurred during the breeding history of rice. PMID:20346185

  15. Female choice and the relatedness of mates in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata)

    E-print Network

    Sokolowski, Marla

    Female choice and the relatedness of mates in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) Mate choice- copulatory or post-copulatory mate choice to bias paternity toward more compatible males. One source of genetic incompatibility is the degree of relatedness among mates; unrelated males are expected

  16. Copyright 2002 by the Genetics Society of America Hybrid Sterility, Haldane's Rule and Speciation in Heliconius cydno

    E-print Network

    Linares, Mauricio

    a "large X" (Z) effect on sterility. Expression of female sterility varies among crosses. The effect of female sterility is comparable to that of selection against non-mimetic hybrids, while mate crosses alleles in their effect on hybrid sterility, the heteroga- metic sex will suffer incompatibilities

  17. The mating behavior of Iguana iguana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodda, G.H.

    1992-01-01

    Over a 19 month period I observed the social behaviors of individually recognized green iguanas, Iguana iguana, at three sites in the llanos of Venezuela. The behavior of iguanas outside the mating season differed from that seen during the mating season in three major ways: (1) during normal waking hours outside the breeding season, adult iguanas spent the majority of time immobile, apparently resting; (2) their interactions involved fewer high intensity displays; and (3) their day to day movements were often nomadic. During the mating season, one site was watched continuously during daylight hours (iguanas sleep throughout the night), allowing a complete count of all copulation attempts (N = 250) and territorial interactions. At all sites, dominant males controlled access to small mating territories. Within the territories there did not appear to be any resources needed by females or their offspring. Thus, females could choose mates directly on the basis of male phenotype. Females aggregated in the mating territories of the largest males and mated preferentially with them. Territorial males copulated only once per day, although on several occasions more than one resident female was receptive on the same day. A few small nonterritorial males exhibited pseudofemale behavior (i.e., they abstained from sexual competition), but most nonterritorial males stayed on the periphery of mating territories and attempted to force copulations on unguarded females (peripheral male behavior). Uncooperative females were mounted by as many as three males simultaneously. Females resisted 95% of the 200 observed mating attempts by peripheral males, but only 56% of the attempts by territorial males (N = 43). The selectivity of the females probably increased the genetic representation of the territorial males in the next generation. During the mating season females maintained a dominance hierarchy among themselves. Low ranked females tended to be excluded from preferred mating territories. In this system, both sexes may be subjected to sexual selection. I hypothesize that the ecological factors responsible for the unusual mating system are related to the lack of defendable resources, the iguana's folivory, and the high density of iguanas present in preferred mating areas.

  18. Sexual competitiveness and compatibility between mass-reared sterile flies and wild populations of Anastrepha Ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) from different regions in Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Orozco-Davila, D.; Hernandez, R.; Meza, S.; Dominguez, J.

    2007-03-15

    The mass-reared colony of Anastrepha ludens (Loew) currently used in Mexico for suppression of the Mexican fruit fly has been in use for over 10 years. Sterile flies are released into a wide range of environmental conditions as part of an integrated area-wide approach to suppress diverse populations of this pest in the Mexican Republic. This paper assesses the performance of the sterile flies interacting with wild populations from the different environments. We investigated the sexual compatibility and competitiveness of the sterile flies when competing with wild populations from 6 representatives Mexican states: Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas, Sinaloa, Nayarit, Michoacan, and Chiapas. Results show that the males of the wild populations differed in the time to the onset and peak of sexual activity. Nevertheless, the index of sexual isolation (ISI) reflected sexual compatibility between the populations and the mass-reared strain, indicating that the sterile individuals mate satisfactorily with the wild populations from the 6 states. The male relative performance index (MRPI) showed that the sterile male is as effective in copulating as the wild males. The female relative performance index (FRPI) reflected a general tendency for wild females to copulate in greater proportion than the sterile females, except for the strains from Tamaulipas and Chiapas. In general, the lower participation of the sterile females in copulation increases the possibilities of sterile males to mate with wild females. The relative sterility index (RSI) showed that the acceptance by wild females of the sterile males (25-55%) was similar to that of wild males. Females of the Chiapas strain showed the lowest acceptance of sterile males. Finally, the results obtained in the Fried test (which measures induced sterility in eggs) showed a competitiveness coefficient ranging from 0.2 to 0.5. This suggests that sterile males successfully compete and are compatible with flies from different geographic origins. (author) [Spanish] La colonia actualmente usada para controlar la mosca mexicana de la fruta, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), en Mexico tiene mas de 10 anos en cria masiva. Los insectos esteriles son liberados en una gran variedad de condiciones ambientales como parte de un control integrado para suprimir diversas poblaciones de esta plaga dentro de la Republica Mexicana. El objetivo de este documento esta dirigido a revisar el desempeno de las moscas esteriles frente a poblaciones silvestres procedentes de diferentes ambientes y para esto se realizaron comparaciones de compatibilidad y competitividad sexual de las moscas esteriles contra poblaciones silvestres de seis estados representativos de la Republica Mexicana: Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas, Sinaloa, Nayarit, Michoacan y Chiapas. Los resultados obtenidos manifiestan diferencias en el horario de inicio de llamado y mayor actividad sexual del macho entre las moscas provenientes de cada estado. Sin embargo el indice de aislamiento (ISI) reflejo compatibilidad sexual entre la cepa de laboratorio y todas las poblaciones analizadas, indicando que los individuos esteriles pueden aparearse satisfactoriamente con las poblaciones silvestres de los seis estados. El indice de efectividad de apareamiento del macho (MRPI) reflejo de manera global que los machos esteriles son tan efectivos para copular como los silvestres. El indice de efectividad de apareamiento de la hembra (FRPI) reflejo que en la mayoria de los estados las hembras silvestres copularon en mayor proporcion que las hembras esteriles, excepto para las poblaciones de Tamaulipas y Chiapas. En general, la baja participacion de las hembras esteriles en el campo permitio al macho esteril ampliar su probabilidad de apareamiento con las hembras silvestres. En cuanto al indice de esterilidad relativa (RSI), observamos que la aceptacion de las hembras silvestres al macho esteril (25-55%) fue similar a la de los machos silvestres. Las hembras de la poblacion de Chiapas registro la menor aceptacion. Finalmente, los resultados obtenidos en la prueba de Fried, la cual determi

  19. Flexible mate choice when mates are rare and time is short

    PubMed Central

    Tinghitella, Robin M; Weigel, Emily G; Head, Megan; Boughman, Janette W

    2013-01-01

    Female mate choice is much more dynamic than we once thought. Mating decisions depend on both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, and these two may interact with one another. In this study, we investigate how responses to the social mating environment (extrinsic) change as individuals age (intrinsic). We first conducted a field survey to examine the extent of natural variation in mate availability in a population of threespine sticklebacks. We then manipulated the sex ratio in the laboratory to determine the impact of variation in mate availability on sexual signaling, competition, and mating decisions that are made throughout life. Field surveys revealed within season heterogeneity in mate availability across breeding sites, providing evidence for the variation necessary for the evolution of plastic preferences. In our laboratory study, males from both female-biased and male-biased treatments invested most in sexual signaling late in life, although they competed most early in life. Females became more responsive to courtship over time, and those experiencing female-biased, but not male-biased sex ratios, relaxed their mating decisions late in life. Our results suggest that social experience and age interact to affect sexual signaling and female mating decisions. Flexible behavior could mediate the potentially negative effects of environmental change on population viability, allowing reproductive success even when preferred mates are rare. PMID:24101975

  20. Mate-sampling costs and sexy sons.

    PubMed

    Kokko, H; Booksmythe, I; Jennions, M D

    2015-01-01

    Costly female mating preferences for purely Fisherian male traits (i.e. sexual ornaments that are genetically uncorrelated with inherent viability) are not expected to persist at equilibrium. The indirect benefit of producing 'sexy sons' (Fisher process) disappears: in some models, the male trait becomes fixed; in others, a range of male trait values persist, but a larger trait confers no net fitness advantage because it lowers survival. Insufficient indirect selection to counter the direct cost of producing fewer offspring means that preferences are lost. The only well-cited exception assumes biased mutation on male traits. The above findings generally assume constant direct selection against female preferences (i.e. fixed costs). We show that if mate-sampling costs are instead derived based on an explicit account of how females acquire mates, an initially costly mating preference can coevolve with a male trait so that both persist in the presence or absence of biased mutation. Our models predict that empirically detecting selection at equilibrium will be difficult, even if selection was responsible for the location of the current equilibrium. In general, it appears useful to integrate mate sampling theory with models of genetic consequences of mating preferences: being explicit about the process by which individuals select mates can alter equilibria. PMID:25399634

  1. [Voluntary sterilization: USA and China].

    PubMed

    Presl, J

    1978-09-01

    At the present time, there are in the U.S. 9.5 million married people and 2 million single people who have undergone voluntary surgical sterilization. That means that in 29% of married couples, one of the partners has been surgically sterilized. Women are more frequently sterilized than men, in the ratio of about 8:1. In 60% of the cases, women are sterilized after delivery, and in 40% of the cases the procedure is carried out at another time. If present trends continue, voluntary sterilization will soon replace birth control pills as the most frequently used contraceptive method in the U.S. In China, about 34 million married people have been sterilized. This represents about 20% of all married couples. In the Shaghai area, about 30% of women in the child-bearing ages have been sterilized; one Shaghai hospital performed 4000 sterilizations to 3000 deliveries in 1976. In China, the government dicted "norm" is 2 children, and couples experience considerable social pressure to limit their families to this size. The male method of surgical sterilization is vasectomy, while conventional laparotomy, mini-laparotomy, colpotomy, laparoscopy, and culdoscopy can be performed in women. The drawback of surgical sterilization is its relative irreversability. In India, 1% of sterilized women and 4% of sterilized men have had their fertility restored. Furthermore, a study of British sterilized women showed that 3.3-4.6% of them regretted their decision to be sterilized. This study showed that divorce, the death of a child, a change in opinion, and sexual dysfunction were the most common reasons women had for wanting reversals of surgical sterilization. Tubal ligation is theoretically reversible in 10 to 50% of the cases. Success of the reversal procedure depends largely on the skill of the surgeon and the amount of damaged tube. New methods for occluding the tube, namely the Yoon ring, the fallope ring, and the Hulka-Clemens clip damage the least amount of tube and therefore offer the best hope for reversal. PMID:688441

  2. The evolution of female mate choice by sexual con ict

    E-print Network

    Gavrilets, Sergey

    The evolution of female mate choice by sexual con ict Sergey Gavrilets1* , Go« ran Arnqvist2 sexual selection by female mate choice, our understanding of the adaptive value of female mating females evolving resistance rather than attraction to males, but this has been disputed. Here, we develop

  3. The Evolution of Crustacean Mating

    E-print Network

    Shuster, Stephen M.

    Paracerceis sculpta allow reproductive females (here inside the sponge) to enter their host sponges; beta (PIT). According to this view, female reproduction is limited by the availability of resources requiredThe Evolution of Crustacean Mating Systems 2 Stephen M. Shuster The alpha males of the isopod

  4. Biparental incubation in the chestnut-vented tit-babbler Parisoma subcaeruleum: Mates devote equal time, but males keep eggs warmer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Auer, S.K.; Bassar, R.D.; Martin, T.E.

    2007-01-01

    Biparental care in birds is less common during incubation than in other nesting stages. Males share in incubating eggs in a minority of bird species, and male effort is generally thought to be lower than females when sharing does occur. However, male assistance and incubation efficacy is poorly studied in such species. We examined sex differences in incubation effort in 12 pairs of a species with biparental incubation, the chestnut-vented tit-babbler Parisoma subcaeruleum. Males and females did not differ in the amount of time spent incubating during the day, time of day spent incubating, nor in their ability to rewarm eggs. Yet, males consistently maintained eggs at higher temperatures than their female partners, despite the absence of a brood patch. ?? Journal of Avian Biology.

  5. Differential Sperm Priming by Male Sailfin Mollies (Poecilia latipinna): Effects of Female and Male Size

    E-print Network

    Gabor, Caitlin - Department of Biology, Texas State University

    for studies of female mate choice (e.g. guppies: reviewed in Houde 1997; mollies: Ptacek & Travis 1997; Witte information on how this interacts with male traits presumably affected by female mate choice, such as larger fecundity may be used by males as cues in male mate choice. Corresponding author: Andrea S. Aspbury

  6. Interspecific Cross-Mating Between Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus Laboratory Strains: Implication of Population Density on Mating Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Marcela, P; Hassan, A Abu; Hamdan, A; Dieng, H; Kumara, T K

    2015-12-01

    Mating behavior between Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus, established colony strains were examined under laboratory conditions (30-cm(3) screened cages) for 5 consecutive days. The effect of selected male densities (30, 20, 10) and female density (20) on the number of swarming, mating pairs, eggs produced, and inseminated females were evaluated. Male densities significantly increased swarming behavior, mating pairs, and egg production of heterospecific females, but female insemination was reduced. Aedes aegypti males mate more readily with heterospecific females than do Ae. albopictus males. The current study suggests that Ae. aegypti males were not species-specific in mating, and if released into the field as practiced in genetically modified mosquito techniques, they may mate with both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus females, hence reducing populations of both species by producing infertile eggs. PMID:26675452

  7. Hysteroscopic sterilization.

    PubMed

    Cooper, J M

    1992-06-01

    After a brief history of sterilization, this article is devoted to hysteroscopic techniques and instrumentation, and a presentation of hysteroscopic sterilization techniques: electrocoagulation techniques, hysteroscopic injection of chemicals, and hysteroscopically directed placement of intratubal mechanical devices (ceramic plugs, polyethylene plugs, preformed silicone plugs, nylon intratubal plugs, and formed-in-place silicone rubber plugs. Problems are identified that are common to all hysteroscopic sterilization techniques. There are also practical considerations which limit the development of hysteroscopic sterilization techniques, and these considerations are presented. Various means have been used historically to block the tubal ostia, including the insertion of nitric acid in 1984, but it was not until 1927 that the hysteroscope was used for sterilization. Hysteroscopy itself was discovered in 1869 for diagnosis of intrauterine diseases. Even with the hysteroscope and the 1934 procedure of using an electric current in the tubal ostia, hysteroscopic sterilization was little used. In 1973 a convention was convened to discuss the use of the procedure and the ramifications. Currently, the hysteroscope is a modified cytoscope with a 4 mm wide telescope with a fore-oblique lens, a 7 mm wide metallic sheath, a fiberoptic bundle for transmission of light, and additional instruments for intrauterine manipulation or surgical intervention. Under local anesthesia, sterilization is effected by 1) destruction of the interstitial portion of the oviduct by thermal energy, 2) injection techniques for the delivery of sclerosing substances or tissue adhesives, or 3) mechanical occlusive devices or plugs to block the oviduct. Recent uterine, cervical, or adnexal infections and pregnancy prevent the performance of sterilization, because infections are exacerbated by the procedure. Uterine perforation is a complication. Other complications involve allergic reactions to the solutions. The problems involved in performing the procedure are uterotubal spasm; inadequate intrauterine visualization resulting from mucus, blood, and endometrial fragments; and unsuspected uterine pathology. Carbon dioxide is inappropriate for longer procedures and can create diaphragmatic irritation in the peritoneal cavity and edema. 5% dextrose in water impairs visualization. Hyskon has been used for procedures up to 80 minutes. Other problems are discussed. Reversibility is dependent on the extent of tubal destruction. This procedure is unlikely to be as widely applicable ass are traditional procedures. PMID:1638821

  8. Sexual conflict over mating in Gnatocerus cornutus? Females prefer lovers not fighters

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Kensuke; Katsuki, Masako; Sharma, Manmohan D.; House, Clarissa M.; Hosken, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Female mate choice and male–male competition are the typical mechanisms of sexual selection. However, these two mechanisms do not always favour the same males. Furthermore, it has recently become clear that female choice can sometimes benefit males that reduce female fitness. So whether male–male competition and female choice favour the same or different males, and whether or not females benefit from mate choice, remain open questions. In the horned beetle, Gnatocerus cornutus, males have enlarged mandibles used to fight rivals, and larger mandibles provide a mating advantage when there is direct male–male competition for mates. However, it is not clear whether females prefer these highly competitive males. Here, we show that female choice targets male courtship rather than mandible size, and these two characters are not phenotypically or genetically correlated. Mating with attractive, highly courting males provided indirect benefits to females but only via the heritability of male attractiveness. However, mating with attractive males avoids the indirect costs to daughters that are generated by mating with competitive males. Our results suggest that male–male competition may constrain female mate choice, possibly reducing female fitness and generating sexual conflict over mating. PMID:24807253

  9. Mating Behavior III: Mating Systems

    E-print Network

    Brown, Christopher A.

    of a leaf, away from water. A, A week after oviposition, the male returns and retrieves its tadpoles then deposits the tadpole in an unoccupied pool of water within the pair's territory. The male will then survey, breaking the tadpole free from the egg sack and allowing the tadpole to wriggle onto its back. B, The male

  10. Diploid males, diploid sperm production, and triploid females in the ant Tapinoma erraticum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cournault, Laurent; Aron, Serge

    2009-12-01

    Under complementary sex determination (CSD), females of Hymenoptera arise from diploid, fertilized eggs and males from haploid, unfertilized eggs. Incidentally, fertilized eggs that inherit two identical alleles at the CSD locus will develop into diploid males. Diploid males are usually unviable or sterile. In a few species, however, they produce diploid sperm and father a triploid female progeny. Diploid males have been reported in a number of social Hymenoptera, but the occurrence of triploid females has hardly ever been documented. Here, we report the presence of triploid females, diploid males, and diploid sperm (produced by diploid males and stored in queen spermathecae) in the ant Tapinoma erraticum. Moreover, we show variations in the frequency of triploids among female castes: Triploid females are more frequent among workers than virgin queens; they are absent among mated, reproductive queens. The frequency of triploid workers also varies between populations and between nests within populations.

  11. An investigation of a sterile access technique for the repair and adjustment of sterile spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, F. H.; Fuller, H. V.; Hueschen, R. M.

    1973-01-01

    A description is presented of a unique system for the sterilization and sterile repair of spacecraft and the results of a test program designed to assess the biological integrity and engineering reliability of the system. This trailer-mounted system, designated the model assembly sterilizer for testing (MAST), is capable of the dry-heat sterilization of spacecraft and/or components less than 2.3 meters in diameter at temperatures up to 433 K and the steam sterilization of components less than 0.724 meter in diameter. Sterile access to spacecraft is provided by two tunnel suits, called the bioisolator suit systems (BISS), which are contiguous with the walls of the sterilization chambers. The test program was designed primarily to verify the biological and engineering reliability of the MAST system by processing simulated space hardware. Each test cycle simulated the initial sterilization of a spacecraft, sterile repair of a failed component, removal of the spacecraft from the MAST for mating with the bus, and a sterile recycle repair.

  12. Lifetime number of mates interacts with female age to determine reproductive success in female guppies.

    PubMed

    Evans, Jonathan P

    2012-01-01

    In many species, mating with multiple males confers benefits to females, but these benefits may be offset by the direct and indirect costs associated with elevated mating frequency. Although mating frequency (number of mating events) is often positively associated with the degree of multiple mating (actual number of males mated), most studies have experimentally separated these effects when exploring their implications for female fitness. In this paper I describe an alternative approach using the guppy Poecilia reticulata, a livebearing freshwater fish in which females benefit directly and indirectly from mating with multiple males via consensual matings but incur direct and indirect costs of mating as a consequence of male sexual harassment. In the present study, females were experimentally assigned different numbers of mates throughout their lives in order to explore how elevated mating frequency and multiple mating combine to influence lifetime reproductive success (LRS) and survival (i.e. direct components of female fitness). Under this mating design, survival and LRS were not significantly affected by mating treatment, but there was a significant interaction between brood size and reproductive cycle (a correlate of female age) because females assigned to the high mating treatment produced significantly fewer offspring later in life compared to their low-mating counterparts. This negative effect of mating treatment later in life may be important in these relatively long-lived fishes, and this effect may be further exacerbated by the known cross-generational fitness costs of sexual harassment in guppies. PMID:23071816

  13. Status and Mating Success Amongst Visual Artists

    PubMed Central

    Clegg, Helen; Nettle, Daniel; Miell, Dorothy

    2011-01-01

    Geoffrey Miller has hypothesized that producing artwork functions as a mating display. Here we investigate the relationship between mating success and artistic success in a sample of 236 visual artists. Initially, we derived a measure of artistic success that covered a broad range of artistic behaviors and beliefs. As predicted by Miller’s evolutionary theory, more successful male artists had more sexual partners than less successful artists but this did not hold for female artists. Also, male artists with greater artistic success had a mating strategy based on longer term relationships. Overall the results provide partial support for the sexual selection hypothesis for the function of visual art. PMID:22059085

  14. Evolution of mating systems in coral reef gobies and constraints on mating system plasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernaman, V.; Munday, P. L.

    2007-09-01

    Social and mating systems can be influenced by the distribution, abundance, and economic defendability of breeding partners and essential resources. Polygyny is predicted where males can economically defend multiple females or essential resources used by females. In contrast, monogamy is predicted where neither sex can monopolise multiple partners, either directly or through resource control, but where one mate is economically defendable. The mating system and reproductive behaviour of five species of coral reef goby were investigated and contrasted with population density and individual mobility. The two most abundant species ( Asterropteryx semipunctatus and Istigobius goldmanni) were polygynous. In contrast, the less populous and more widely dispersed epibenthic species ( Amblygobius bynoensis, Amblygobius phalaena and Valenciennea muralis) were pair forming and monogamous. All five species had low mobility, mostly remaining within metres (3 epibenthic species) or centimetres (2 cryptobenthic species) of a permanent shelter site. Interspecific differences in the mating system may have been shaped by differences in population density and the ability of reproductive individuals to economically defend breeding partners/sites. However, in a test of mating system plasticity, males of the three monogamous species did not mate polygynously when given the opportunity to do so in experimental manipulations of density and sex ratio. Mate guarding and complex spawning characteristics, which have likely co-evolved with the monogamous mating system, could contribute to mating system inflexibility by making polygynous mating unprofitable for individuals of the pair forming species, even when presented with current-day ecological conditions that usually favour polygyny.

  15. Geographic variation in female mate-copying in the species complex of a unisexual fish, Poecilia formosa

    E-print Network

    Ryan, Michael J.

    these increase their attractiveness to the conspecific sexual females. In mixed shoals, mate-copying potentially matings with males of closely related sexual species. In mixed popu- lations, males mate with conspecific sexual females and heterospecific asexual females. Such matings are not isolated dyadic interactions

  16. Heterozygosity-based assortative mating in blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus): implications for the evolution of mate choice

    PubMed Central

    García-Navas, Vicente; Ortego, Joaquín; Sanz, Juan José

    2009-01-01

    The general hypothesis of mate choice based on non-additive genetic traits suggests that individuals would gain important benefits by choosing genetically dissimilar mates (compatible mate hypothesis) and/or more heterozygous mates (heterozygous mate hypothesis). In this study, we test these hypotheses in a socially monogamous bird, the blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus). We found no evidence for a relatedness-based mating pattern, but heterozygosity was positively correlated between social mates, suggesting that blue tits may base their mating preferences on partner's heterozygosity. We found evidence that the observed heterozygosity-based assortative mating could be maintained by both direct and indirect benefits. Heterozygosity reflected individual quality in both sexes: egg production and quality increased with female heterozygosity while more heterozygous males showed higher feeding rates during the brood-rearing period. Further, estimated offspring heterozygosity correlated with both paternal and maternal heterozygosity, suggesting that mating with heterozygous individuals can increase offspring genetic quality. Finally, plumage crown coloration was associated with male heterozygosity, and this could explain unanimous mate preferences for highly heterozygous and more ornamented individuals. Overall, this study suggests that non-additive genetic traits may play an important role in the evolution of mating preferences and offers empirical support to the resolution of the lek paradox from the perspective of the heterozygous mate hypothesis. PMID:19474042

  17. Modeling the suppression of sea lamprey populations by use of the male sex pheromone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klassen, Waldemar; Adams, Jean V.; Twohey, Michael B.

    2005-01-01

    The suppression of sea lamprey populations, Petromyzon marinus (Linnaeus), was modeled using four different applications of the male sex pheromone: (1) pheromone-baited traps that remove females from the spawning population, (2) pheromone-baited decoys that exhaust females before they are able to spawn, (3) pheromone-enhanced sterile males that increase the proportion of non-fertile matings, and (4) camouflaging of the pheromone emitted by calling males to make it difficult for females to find a mate. The models indicated that thousands of traps or hundreds of thousands of decoys would be required to suppress a population of 100,000 animals. The potential efficacy of pheromone camouflages is largely unknown, and additional research is required to estimate how much pheromone is needed to camouflage the pheromone plumes of calling males. Pheromone-enhanced sterile males appear to be a promising application in the Great Lakes. Using this technique for three generations each of ca. 7 years duration could reduce sea lamprey populations by 90% for Lakes Huron and Ontario and by 98% for Lake Michigan, based on current trapping operations that capture 20 to 30% of the population each year.

  18. [Sterile packing materials for formaldehyde sterilization].

    PubMed

    Fleck, H; Steiger, E

    1983-08-01

    Apart from the already widely applied sterilization by ethylene oxide, the sterilization by gaseous formaldehyde is another reliable procedure for the sterilization of thermolabile instruments. An essential advantage of the sterilization by gaseous formaldehyde over the so-called wet sterilization is that it can be performed in a recontamination-proof sterile packing. Packing materials produced in the GDR, the germ-tightness and toxicological safety of which were already known, were tested to evaluate their suitability for sterilization by gaseous formaldehyde. An appropriate packing variant was found and tested for microbiological reliability. PMID:6679444

  19. Learning affects mate choice in female fruit flies Reuven Dukas

    E-print Network

    Dukas, Reuven

    Learning affects mate choice in female fruit flies Reuven Dukas Animal Behaviour Group, Department behavior by male fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster), I tested for the effect of learning on mate choice by female fruit flies. Compared to young virgin females that experienced courtship by large males, young

  20. ATTRACTION OF MALE SUMMERFORM PEAR PSYLLA TO VOLATILES FROM FEMALE PSYLLA: EFFECTS OF FEMALE AGE, MATING STATUS, AND PRESENCE OF HOST PLANT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola (Förster) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is a pest of pears throughout North America and western Europe. Previous studies in our laboratory showed that males of the overwintering form (winterform morphotype) were attracted to volatiles from pear shoots infested with post-d...

  1. How multiple mating by females affects sexual selection

    PubMed Central

    Shuster, Stephen M.; Briggs, William R.; Dennis, Patricia A.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple mating by females is widely thought to encourage post-mating sexual selection and enhance female fitness. We show that whether polyandrous mating has these effects depends on two conditions. Condition 1 is the pattern of sperm utilization by females; specifically, whether, among females, male mating number, m (i.e. the number of times a male mates with one or more females) covaries with male offspring number, o. Polyandrous mating enhances sexual selection only when males who are successful at multiple mating also sire most or all of each of their mates' offspring, i.e. only when Cov?(m,o), is positive. Condition 2 is the pattern of female reproductive life-history; specifically, whether female mating number, m, covaries with female offspring number, o. Only semelparity does not erode sexual selection, whereas iteroparity (i.e. when Cov?(m,o), is positive) always increases the variance in offspring numbers among females, which always decreases the intensity of sexual selection on males. To document the covariance between mating number and offspring number for each sex, it is necessary to assign progeny to all parents, as well as identify mating and non-mating individuals. To document significant fitness gains by females through iteroparity, it is necessary to determine the relative magnitudes of male as well as female contributions to the total variance in relative fitness. We show how such data can be collected, how often they are collected, and we explain the circumstances in which selection favouring multiple mating by females can be strong or weak. PMID:23339237

  2. Development of PCR-based markers linked to the fertility restorer gene for the polima cytoplasmic male sterility in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, J X; Yang, G S; Fu, T D; Meng, J L

    2000-01-01

    Bulked segregant analysis was used to identify RAPD markers linked to the Rfp of pol cms in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) from the fertile and sterile DNA bulks. DNA bands amplified from 1040 random 10-mer primers were screened. Two polymorphic bands S1019(720) and S1036(810) were found linked to the Rfp locus at the same side with a map distance of 5.8 cM and 12.3 cM respectively. These polymorphic fragments were cloned and sequenced. Nucleotide sequence information was used to design 20-24-mer oligo nucleotide primers for PCR amplification. The SCAR markers that generated from the long primers showed the same pattern of segregation as the original RAPD markers in the backcross population. The SCAR markers would facilitate selection on the Pol CMS restorer lines in rapeseed. PMID:11209683

  3. Why do female Callosobruchus maculatus kick their mates?

    PubMed

    van Lieshout, Emile; McNamara, Kathryn B; Simmons, Leigh W

    2014-01-01

    Sexual conflict is now recognised as an important driver of sexual trait evolution. However, due to their variable outcomes and effects on other fitness components, the detection of sexual conflicts on individual traits can be complicated. This difficulty is exemplified in the beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, where longer matings increase the size of nutritious ejaculates but simultaneously reduce female future receptivity. While previous studies show that females gain direct benefits from extended mating duration, females show conspicuous copulatory kicking behaviour, apparently to dislodge mating males prematurely. We explore the potential for sexual conflict by comparing several fitness components and remating propensity in pairs of full sibling females where each female mated with a male from an unrelated pair of full sibling males. For one female, matings were terminated at the onset of kicking, whereas the other's matings remained uninterrupted. While fecundity (number of eggs) was similar between treatments, uninterrupted matings enhanced adult offspring numbers and fractionally also longevity. However, females whose matings were interrupted at the onset of kicking exhibited an increased propensity to remate. Since polyandry can benefit female fitness in this species, we argue that kicking, rather than being maladaptive, may indicate that females prefer remating over increased ejaculate size. It may thus be difficult to assess the presence of sexual conflict over contested traits such as mating duration when females face a trade off between direct benefits gained from one mating and indirect benefits from additional matings. PMID:24752530

  4. Asymmetric dominance and asymmetric mate choice oppose premating isolation after allopatric divergence

    PubMed Central

    Sefc, Kristina M; Hermann, Caroline M; Steinwender, Bernd; Brindl, Hanna; Zimmermann, Holger; Mattersdorfer, Karin; Postl, Lisbeth; Makasa, Lawrence; Sturmbauer, Christian; Koblmüller, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Assortative mating promotes reproductive isolation and allows allopatric speciation processes to continue in secondary contact. As mating patterns are determined by mate preferences and intrasexual competition, we investigated male–male competition and behavioral isolation in simulated secondary contact among allopatric populations. Three allopatric color morphs of the cichlid fish Tropheus were tested against each other. Dyadic male–male contests revealed dominance of red males over bluish and yellow-blotch males. Reproductive isolation in the presence of male–male competition was assessed from genetic parentage in experimental ponds and was highly asymmetric among pairs of color morphs. Red females mated only with red males, whereas the other females performed variable degrees of heteromorphic mating. Discrepancies between mating patterns in ponds and female preferences in a competition-free, two-way choice paradigm suggested that the dominance of red males interfered with positive assortative mating of females of the subordinate morphs and provoked asymmetric hybridization. Between the nonred morphs, a significant excess of negative assortative mating by yellow-blotch females with bluish males did not coincide with asymmetric dominance among males. Hence, both negative assortative mating preferences and interference of male–male competition with positive assortative preferences forestall premating isolation, the latter especially in environments unsupportive of competition-driven spatial segregation. PMID:25937900

  5. Asymmetric dominance and asymmetric mate choice oppose premating isolation after allopatric divergence.

    PubMed

    Sefc, Kristina M; Hermann, Caroline M; Steinwender, Bernd; Brindl, Hanna; Zimmermann, Holger; Mattersdorfer, Karin; Postl, Lisbeth; Makasa, Lawrence; Sturmbauer, Christian; Koblmüller, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    Assortative mating promotes reproductive isolation and allows allopatric speciation processes to continue in secondary contact. As mating patterns are determined by mate preferences and intrasexual competition, we investigated male-male competition and behavioral isolation in simulated secondary contact among allopatric populations. Three allopatric color morphs of the cichlid fish Tropheus were tested against each other. Dyadic male-male contests revealed dominance of red males over bluish and yellow-blotch males. Reproductive isolation in the presence of male-male competition was assessed from genetic parentage in experimental ponds and was highly asymmetric among pairs of color morphs. Red females mated only with red males, whereas the other females performed variable degrees of heteromorphic mating. Discrepancies between mating patterns in ponds and female preferences in a competition-free, two-way choice paradigm suggested that the dominance of red males interfered with positive assortative mating of females of the subordinate morphs and provoked asymmetric hybridization. Between the nonred morphs, a significant excess of negative assortative mating by yellow-blotch females with bluish males did not coincide with asymmetric dominance among males. Hence, both negative assortative mating preferences and interference of male-male competition with positive assortative preferences forestall premating isolation, the latter especially in environments unsupportive of competition-driven spatial segregation. PMID:25937900

  6. Misleading mollies: The effect of an audience on the expression of mating preferences.

    PubMed

    Plath, Martin; Schlupp, Ingo

    2008-01-01

    An increasing body of literature considers the question of how mate choice is influenced by the social environment of the choosing individual (non-independent mate choice). For example, individuals may copy the mate choice of others. A very simple form of socially influenced mate choice, however, remained comparatively little investigated: choosing individuals may adjust their mate choice to the mere presence of rivals. Recent studies in our groups1-4 have examined this question. Using live bearing fish (mollies, Poecilia spp.) as a model, we could show that (a) males will copy the mate choice of other males,5 (b) males cease expressing mating preferences in the presence of a conspecific rival male,1,2 whereas (c) females copy each other's mate choice, but are otherwise not affected by an audience.3 (d) Most importantly, males, when presented with an audience (potential rival), first approached the previously non-preferred female, suggesting that males attempt to lead the rival away from their preferred mate, thereby exploiting male mate choice copying behavior.4 We discuss that these effects are best explained as male adaptations to reduce the risk of sperm competition in a highly dynamic mating system with frequent multiple mating. PMID:19513259

  7. Genomic Networks of Hybrid Sterility

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Leslie M.; White, Michael A.; Tautz, Diethard; Payseur, Bret A.

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid dysfunction, a common feature of reproductive barriers between species, is often caused by negative epistasis between loci (“Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities”). The nature and complexity of hybrid incompatibilities remain poorly understood because identifying interacting loci that affect complex phenotypes is difficult. With subspecies in the early stages of speciation, an array of genetic tools, and detailed knowledge of reproductive biology, house mice (Mus musculus) provide a model system for dissecting hybrid incompatibilities. Male hybrids between M. musculus subspecies often show reduced fertility. Previous studies identified loci and several X chromosome-autosome interactions that contribute to sterility. To characterize the genetic basis of hybrid sterility in detail, we used a systems genetics approach, integrating mapping of gene expression traits with sterility phenotypes and QTL. We measured genome-wide testis expression in 305 male F2s from a cross between wild-derived inbred strains of M. musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus. We identified several thousand cis- and trans-acting QTL contributing to expression variation (eQTL). Many trans eQTL cluster into eleven ‘hotspots,’ seven of which co-localize with QTL for sterility phenotypes identified in the cross. The number and clustering of trans eQTL—but not cis eQTL—were substantially lower when mapping was restricted to a ‘fertile’ subset of mice, providing evidence that trans eQTL hotspots are related to sterility. Functional annotation of transcripts with eQTL provides insights into the biological processes disrupted by sterility loci and guides prioritization of candidate genes. Using a conditional mapping approach, we identified eQTL dependent on interactions between loci, revealing a complex system of epistasis. Our results illuminate established patterns, including the role of the X chromosome in hybrid sterility. The integrated mapping approach we employed is applicable in a broad range of organisms and we advocate for widespread adoption of a network-centered approach in speciation genetics. PMID:24586194

  8. Biased learning affects mate choice in a butterfly

    PubMed Central

    Westerman, Erica L.; Hodgins-Davis, Andrea; Dinwiddie, April; Monteiro, Antónia

    2012-01-01

    Early acquisition of mate preferences or mate-preference learning is associated with signal diversity and speciation in a wide variety of animal species. However, the diversity of mechanisms of mate-preference learning across taxa remains poorly understood. Using the butterfly Bicyclus anynana we uncover a mechanism that can lead to directional sexual selection via mate-preference learning: a bias in learning enhanced ornamentation, which is independent of preexisting mating biases. Naïve females mated preferentially with wild-type males over males with enhanced wing ornamentation, but females briefly exposed to enhanced males mated significantly more often with enhanced males. In contrast, females exposed to males with reduced wing ornamentation did not learn to prefer drab males. Thus, we observe both a learned change of a preexisting mating bias, and a bias in ability to learn enhanced male ornaments over reduced ornaments. Our findings demonstrate that females are able to change their preferences in response to a single social event, and suggest a role for biased learning in the evolution of visual sexual ornamentation. PMID:22689980

  9. Mate choice and mate competition by a tropical hummingbird at a floral resource

    PubMed Central

    Temeles, Ethan J.; Kress, W. John

    2010-01-01

    The influence of male territorial and foraging behaviours on female choice has received little attention in studies of resource-defence mating systems even though such male behaviours are thought to affect variation in their territory quality and mating success. Here we show that female purple-throated carib hummingbirds Eulampis jugularis preferred to mate with males that had high standing crops of nectar on their flower territories. A male's ability to maintain high nectar standing crops on his territory not only depended on the number of flowers in his territory, but also on his ability to enhance his territory through the prevention of nectar losses to intruders. We observed that males defended nectar supplies that were two to five times greater than their daily energy needs and consistently partitioned their territories in order to provide some resources to attract intruding females as potential mates. Such territorial behaviour resulted in males defending some flowers for their own food and other flowers as food for intruding females. Collectively, our results suggest that variation in mating success among males is driven primarily by variation in territory quality, which ultimately depends on a male's fighting ability and size. PMID:20129990

  10. How Effective Is Male Contraception?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... men, methods of contraception include male condoms and sterilization (vasectomy). Male condoms. This condom is a thin sheath ... are disposable after a single use. 1 , 2 Vasectomy ( va-SEK-tuh-mee ) is a surgical procedure ...

  11. Chemical mating cues in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Chute, Christopher D; Srinivasan, Jagan

    2014-09-01

    In the natural environment it is vital that organisms are capable of locating mates to reproduce and, consequently, increase the diversity of their gene pool. Many species make use of audio and visual communication for mate location. However, the more ancient form of chemical communication is used by all forms of life, from bacteria to mammals. In the past decade, much information has been discovered regarding pheromones in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. In this review, chemical signals that govern mating behavior in C. elegans will be discussed, from the existence and identification of mating cues, to the neurons involved in the behavioral response. Specifically, mate attraction is dictated by specific glycosides and side chains of the dideoxysugar ascarylose, a class of molecules known as ascarosides. Intriguingly, modifications of the ascarosides can dictate different behaviors such as male attraction, hermaphrodite attraction, and dauer formation. In general, interactions between core sensory neurons such as ASK and sex-specific neurons like CEM are critical for detecting these small molecules. These data reveal the existence of a complex, synergistic, chemical mating cue system between males and hermaphrodites in C. elegans, thereby highlighting the importance of mate attraction in a primarily hermaphroditic population. PMID:24977334

  12. Female teneral mating in a monandrous species

    PubMed Central

    Monceau, Karine; van Baaren, Joan

    2012-01-01

    Schultesia nitor is a gregarious species living in Cacicus and Psarocolius ssp. pouch-like nests. Due to gregariousness, opportunities for multiple copulations in both sexes are not supposed to be restricted. Females produce only one brood during their life and die within a few days following the birth of their nymphs, but this unique brood could be the result of either single or multiple mating events (i.e., monandry vs. polyandry). In this study, we first determined the age of sexual receptivity of both males and females. Larval development in this species is shorter in males than in females and thus, this species is protandric. Males were not able to copulate the day after emergence. Contrary to males, teneral females (i.e., females achieving their imaginal molt but not yet fully sclerotised and colored) were attractive and were able to mate with males. In the second experiment, we tested the existence of multiple matings in both sexes. Our results showed that females were monandrous whereas males were polygynous. Since we had observed that females were monoandrous, we expected them to be choosy and we determined their ability to discriminate between virgin and nonvirgin males. When given the choice, females preferred virgin males and overall, they were more successful at mating than experienced ones. Our results suggest that monandry may be primarily driven by the female’s short life-span fecundity. The occurrence of teneral mating in this species calls into question the existence of a male strategy for monopolizing females, and as well as the implication of female choice. Although further work is required, this species provides an interesting model for understanding sexual conflicts. PMID:22957151

  13. Male fertility versus sterility, cytotype, and DNA quantitative variation in seed production in diploid and tetraploid sea lavenders (Limonium sp., Plumbaginaceae) reveal diversity in reproduction modes.

    PubMed

    Róis, Ana Sofia; Teixeira, Generosa; Sharbel, Timothy F; Fuchs, Jörg; Martins, Sérgio; Espírito-Santo, Dalila; Caperta, Ana D

    2012-12-01

    The genus Limonium Miller, a complex taxonomic group, comprises annuals and perennials that can produce sexual and/or asexual seeds (apomixis). In this study, we used diverse cytogenetic and cytometric approaches to analyze male sporogenesis and gametogenesis for characterizing male reproductive output on seed production in Limonium ovalifolium and Limonium multiflorum. We showed here that the first species is mostly composed of diploid cytotypes with 2n = 16 chromosomes and the latter species by tetraploid cytotypes with 2n = 32, 34, 35, 36 chromosomes and had a genome roughly twice as big as the former one. In both species, euploid and aneuploid cytotypes with large metacentric chromosomes having decondensed interstitial sites were found within and among populations, possibly involved in chromosomal reconstructions. L. ovalifolium diploids showed regular meiosis resulting in normal tetrads, while diverse chromosome pairing and segregation irregularities leading to the formation of abnormal meiotic products are found in balanced and non-balanced L. multiflorum tetraploids. Before anther dehiscence, the characteristic unicellular, bicellular, or tricellular pollen grains showing the typical Limonium micro- or macro-reticulate exine ornamentation patterns were observed in L. ovalifolium using scanning electron microscopy. Most of these grains were viable and able to produce pollen tubes in vitro. In both balanced and unbalanced L. multiflorum tetraploids, microspores only developed until the "ring-vacuolate stage" with a collapsed morphology without the typical exine patterns, pointing to a sporophytic defect. These microspores were unviable and therefore never germinated in vitro. L. ovalifolium individuals presented larger pollen grains than those of L. multiflorum, indicating that pollen size and ploidy levels are not correlated in the Limonium system. Cytohistological studies in mature seeds from both species revealed that an embryo and a residual endosperm were present in each seed. Flow cytometric seed screens using such mature seeds showed quantitative variations in seeds ploidy level. It is concluded that male function seems to play an important role in the reproduction modes of Limonium diploids and tetraploids. PMID:23086613

  14. Male pregnancy and the formation of seahorse species

    E-print Network

    Jones, Adam

    Male pregnancy and the formation of seahorse species Male pregnancy and the formation of seahorse mating behaviour reveals that male pregnancy in seahorses and their relatives has had profound effects to appreciate the evolutionary implications of male pregnancy. The pregnant male and his devoted wife Mating

  15. The construction of a high-density linkage map for identifying SNP markers that are tightly linked to a nuclear-recessive major gene for male sterility in Cryptomeria japonica D. Don

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background High-density linkage maps facilitate the mapping of target genes and the construction of partial linkage maps around target loci to develop markers for marker-assisted selection (MAS). MAS is quite challenging in conifers because of their large, complex, and poorly-characterized genomes. Our goal was to construct a high-density linkage map to facilitate the identification of markers that are tightly linked to a major recessive male-sterile gene (ms1) for MAS in C. japonica, a species that is important in Japanese afforestation but which causes serious social pollinosis problems. Results We constructed a high-density saturated genetic linkage map for C. japonica using expressed sequence-derived co-dominant single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers, most of which were genotyped using the GoldenGate genotyping assay. A total of 1261 markers were assigned to 11 linkage groups with an observed map length of 1405.2 cM and a mean distance between two adjacent markers of 1.1 cM; the number of linkage groups matched the basic chromosome number in C. japonica. Using this map, we located ms1 on the 9th linkage group and constructed a partial linkage map around the ms1 locus. This enabled us to identify a marker (hrmSNP970_sf) that is closely linked to the ms1 gene, being separated from it by only 0.5 cM. Conclusions Using the high-density map, we located the ms1 gene on the 9th linkage group and constructed a partial linkage map around the ms1 locus. The map distance between the ms1 gene and the tightly linked marker was only 0.5 cM. The identification of markers that are tightly linked to the ms1 gene will facilitate the early selection of male-sterile trees, which should expedite C. japonica breeding programs aimed at alleviating pollinosis problems without harming productivity. PMID:22424262

  16. Yeast Media Sterilization Guidelines

    E-print Network

    Aris, John P.

    bucket (to minimize exposure to heat). 2. Syringe filter sterilize into sterile 100 ml glass bottle. 31 Yeast Media Sterilization Guidelines: Use the following exposure times for liquids and remove temperature. Add carbon source from sterilized 20% solution. SD (Synthetic Dextrose) "Drop In" Medium: 1 L 20

  17. Observing free-swimming copepods mating

    PubMed Central

    Strickler, J. R.

    1998-01-01

    Planktonic copepods are small transparent animals swimming in water. To observe how a male finds its mate, special optical systems had to be designed. The animals are treated as phase objects and matched spatial filters allow three-dimensional recordings of the swimming behaviour in a 1-litre vessel. Application of the techniques described shows how a male cyclopoid copepod swims for 20 s in synchronicity with the female before mating. Results stemming from observations with this optical system are published in this volume.

  18. The rice pentatricopeptide repeat protein RF5 restores fertility in Hong-Lian cytoplasmic male-sterile lines via a complex with the glycine-rich protein GRP162.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jun; Wang, Kun; Huang, Wenchao; Liu, Gai; Gao, Ya; Wang, Jianming; Huang, Qi; Ji, Yanxiao; Qin, Xiaojian; Wan, Lei; Zhu, Renshan; Li, Shaoqing; Yang, Daichang; Zhu, Yingguo

    2012-01-01

    The cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) phenotype in plants can be reversed by the action of nuclear-encoded fertility restorer (Rf) genes. The molecular mechanism involved in Rf gene-mediated processing of CMS-associated transcripts is unclear, as are the identities of other proteins that may be involved in the CMS-Rf interaction. In this study, we cloned the restorer gene Rf5 for Hong-Lian CMS in rice and studied its fertility restoration mechanism with respect to the processing of the CMS-associated transcript atp6-orfH79. RF5, a pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) protein, was unable to bind to this CMS-associated transcript; however, a partner protein of RF5 (GRP162, a Gly-rich protein encoding 162 amino acids) was identified to bind to atp6-orfH79. GRP162 was found to physically interact with RF5 and to bind to atp6-orfH79 via an RNA recognition motif. Furthermore, we found that RF5 and GRP162 are both components of a restoration of fertility complex (RFC) that is 400 to 500 kD in size and can cleave CMS-associated transcripts in vitro. Evidence that a PPR protein interacts directly with a Gly-rich protein to form a subunit of the RFC provides a new perspective on the molecular mechanisms underlying fertility restoration. PMID:22247252

  19. Cooling water before panicle initiation increases chilling-induced male sterility and disables chilling-induced expression of genes encoding OsFKBP65 and heat shock proteins in rice spikelets.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kensaku; Aoki, Naohiro; Matsumura, Hisakazu; Okamura, Masaki; Ohsugi, Ryu; Shimono, Hiroyuki

    2015-07-01

    In rice (Oryza sativa L.), chilling-induced male sterility increased when plants experienced low water temperature (Tw , 18 °C for 14 d) before panicle initiation. The number of mature pollen grains after chilling at the booting stage (12 °C for 5 d) was only 45% of total pollen grains in low-Tw plants, whereas it was 71% in normal-Tw plants (Tw not controlled; approximately 23 °C under air temperature of 26 °C/21 °C, day/night). Microarray and quantitative PCR analyses showed that many stress-responsive genes (including OsFKBP65 and genes encoding the large heat shock protein OsHSP90.1, heat-stress transcription factors and many small heat shock proteins) were strongly up-regulated by chilling in normal-Tw spikelets, but were unaffected or even down-regulated by chilling in low-Tw spikelets. OsAPX2 and genes encoding some other antioxidant enzymes were also significantly down-regulated by low Tw in chilled spikelets. The levels of lipid peroxidation products (malondialdehyde equivalents) were significantly increased in low-Tw spikelets by chilling. Ascorbate peroxidase activity in chilled spikelets was significantly lower in low-Tw plants than in normal-Tw plants. Our data suggest that an OsFKBP65-related chilling response, which protects proteins from oxidative damage, is indispensable for chilling tolerance but is lost in low-Tw spikelets. PMID:25496090

  20. Conservation of Male Sterility 2 function during spore and pollen wall development supports an evolutionarily early recruitment of a core component in the sporopollenin biosynthetic pathway.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Simon; Chater, Caspar C; Kamisugi, Yasuko; Cuming, Andrew C; Wellman, Charles H; Beerling, David J; Fleming, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    The early evolution of plants required the acquisition of a number of key adaptations to overcome physiological difficulties associated with survival on land. One of these was a tough sporopollenin wall that enclosed reproductive propagules and provided protection from desiccation and UV-B radiation. All land plants possess such walled spores (or their derived homologue, pollen). We took a reverse genetics approach, consisting of knock-out and complementation experiments to test the functional conservation of the sporopollenin-associated gene MALE STERILTY 2 (which is essential for pollen wall development in Arabidopsis thaliana) in the bryophyte Physcomitrella patens. Knock-outs of a putative moss homologue of the A. thaliana MS2 gene, which is highly expressed in the moss sporophyte, led to spores with highly defective walls comparable to that observed in the A. thaliana ms2 mutant, and extremely compromised germination. Conversely, the moss MS2 gene could not rescue the A. thaliana ms2 phenotype. The results presented here suggest that a core component of the biochemical and developmental pathway required for angiosperm pollen wall development was recruited early in land plant evolution but the continued increase in pollen wall complexity observed in angiosperms has been accompanied by divergence in MS2 gene function. PMID:25195943

  1. Mapping Eight Male-Sterile, Female-Sterile Soybean Mutants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In soybean, mutations in genes involved in meiosis can lead to altered chromosome pairing and result in non-functional gametes.Mutability of the w4 flower color locus in soybean is due to an unstable allele designated w4-m (mutable). Several germinal revertant studies using the w4-m system resulted ...

  2. Revisiting telegony: offspring inherit an acquired characteristic of their mother's previous mate.

    PubMed

    Crean, Angela J; Kopps, Anna M; Bonduriansky, Russell

    2014-12-01

    Newly discovered non-genetic mechanisms break the link between genes and inheritance, thereby also raising the possibility that previous mating partners could influence traits in offspring sired by subsequent males that mate with the same female ('telegony'). In the fly Telostylinus angusticollis, males transmit their environmentally acquired condition via paternal effects on offspring body size. We manipulated male condition, and mated females to two males in high or low condition in a fully crossed design. Although the second male sired a large majority of offspring, offspring body size was influenced by the condition of the first male. This effect was not observed when females were exposed to the first male without mating, implicating semen-mediated effects rather than female differential allocation based on pre-mating assessment of male quality. Our results reveal a novel type of transgenerational effect with potential implications for the evolution of reproductive strategies. PMID:25270393

  3. Virgin ant queens mate with their own sons to avoid failure at colony foundation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Christine Vanessa; Frohschammer, Sabine; Schrempf, Alexandra; Heinze, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Mother-son mating (oedipal mating) is practically non-existent in social Hymenoptera, as queens typically avoid inbreeding, mate only early in life and do not mate again after having begun to lay eggs. In the ant genus Cardiocondyla mating occurs among sib in the natal nests. Sex ratios are extremely female-biased and young queens face the risk of remaining without mating partners. Here, we show that virgin queens of Cardiocondyla argyrotricha produce sons from their own unfertilized eggs and later mate with them to produce female offspring from fertilized eggs. Oedipal mating may allow C. argyrotricha queens to found new colonies when no mating partners are available and thus maintains their unusual life history combining monogyny, mating in the nest, and low male production. Our result indicates that a trait that sporadically occurs in solitary haplodiploid animals may evolve also in social Hymenoptera under appropriate ecological and social conditions.

  4. Conditional sterility in plants

    DOEpatents

    Meagher, Richard B. (Athens, GA); McKinney, Elizabeth (Athens, GA); Kim, Tehryung (Taejeon, KR)

    2010-02-23

    The present disclosure provides methods, recombinant DNA molecules, recombinant host cells containing the DNA molecules, and transgenic plant cells, plant tissue and plants which contain and express at least one antisense or interference RNA specific for a thiamine biosynthetic coding sequence or a thiamine binding protein or a thiamine-degrading protein, wherein the RNA or thiamine binding protein is expressed under the regulatory control of a transcription regulatory sequence which directs expression in male and/or female reproductive tissue. These transgenic plants are conditionally sterile; i.e., they are fertile only in the presence of exogenous thiamine. Such plants are especially appropriate for use in the seed industry or in the environment, for example, for use in revegetation of contaminated soils or phytoremediation, especially when those transgenic plants also contain and express one or more chimeric genes which confer resistance to contaminants.

  5. Enhanced stability of Mcl1, a prosurvival Bcl2 relative, blunts stress-induced apoptosis, causes male sterility, and promotes tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Toru; Coultas, Leigh; Metcalf, Donald; van Delft, Mark F.; Glaser, Stefan P.; Takiguchi, Megumi; Strasser, Andreas; Bouillet, Philippe; Adams, Jerry M.; Huang, David C. S.

    2014-01-01

    The B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (Bcl2) relative Myeloid cell leukemia sequence 1 (Mcl1) is essential for cell survival during development and for tissue homeostasis throughout life. Unlike Bcl2, Mcl1 turns over rapidly, but the physiological significance of its turnover has been unclear. We have gained insight into the roles of Mcl1 turnover in vivo by analyzing mice harboring a modified allele of Mcl1 that serendipitously proved to encode an abnormally stabilized form of Mcl1 due to a 13-aa N-terminal extension. Although the mice developed normally and appeared unremarkable, the homozygous males unexpectedly proved infertile due to defective spermatogenesis, which was evoked by enhanced Mcl1 prosurvival activity. Under unstressed conditions, the modified Mcl1 is present at levels comparable to the native protein, but it is markedly stabilized in cells subjected to stresses, such as protein synthesis inhibition or UV irradiation. Strikingly, the modified Mcl1 allele could genetically complement the loss of Bcl2, because introduction of even a single allele significantly ameliorated the severe polycystic kidney disease and consequent runting caused by Bcl2 loss. Significantly, the development of c-MYC–induced acute myeloid leukemia was also accelerated in mice harboring that Mcl1 allele. Our collective findings reveal that, under certain circumstances, the N terminus of Mcl1 regulates its degradation; that some cell types require degradation of Mcl1 to induce apoptosis; and, most importantly, that rapid turnover of Mcl1 can serve as a tumor-suppressive mechanism. PMID:24363325

  6. Enhanced stability of Mcl1, a prosurvival Bcl2 relative, blunts stress-induced apoptosis, causes male sterility, and promotes tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Toru; Coultas, Leigh; Metcalf, Donald; van Delft, Mark F; Glaser, Stefan P; Takiguchi, Megumi; Strasser, Andreas; Bouillet, Philippe; Adams, Jerry M; Huang, David C S

    2014-01-01

    The B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (Bcl2) relative Myeloid cell leukemia sequence 1 (Mcl1) is essential for cell survival during development and for tissue homeostasis throughout life. Unlike Bcl2, Mcl1 turns over rapidly, but the physiological significance of its turnover has been unclear. We have gained insight into the roles of Mcl1 turnover in vivo by analyzing mice harboring a modified allele of Mcl1 that serendipitously proved to encode an abnormally stabilized form of Mcl1 due to a 13-aa N-terminal extension. Although the mice developed normally and appeared unremarkable, the homozygous males unexpectedly proved infertile due to defective spermatogenesis, which was evoked by enhanced Mcl1 prosurvival activity. Under unstressed conditions, the modified Mcl1 is present at levels comparable to the native protein, but it is markedly stabilized in cells subjected to stresses, such as protein synthesis inhibition or UV irradiation. Strikingly, the modified Mcl1 allele could genetically complement the loss of Bcl2, because introduction of even a single allele significantly ameliorated the severe polycystic kidney disease and consequent runting caused by Bcl2 loss. Significantly, the development of c-MYC-induced acute myeloid leukemia was also accelerated in mice harboring that Mcl1 allele. Our collective findings reveal that, under certain circumstances, the N terminus of Mcl1 regulates its degradation; that some cell types require degradation of Mcl1 to induce apoptosis; and, most importantly, that rapid turnover of Mcl1 can serve as a tumor-suppressive mechanism. PMID:24363325

  7. The scent of inbreeding: a male sex pheromone betrays inbred males

    PubMed Central

    van Bergen, Erik; Brakefield, Paul M.; Heuskin, Stéphanie; Zwaan, Bas J.; Nieberding, Caroline M.

    2013-01-01

    Inbreeding depression results from mating among genetically related individuals and impairs reproductive success. The decrease in male mating success is usually attributed to an impact on multiple fitness-related traits that reduce the general condition of inbred males. Here, we find that the production of the male sex pheromone is reduced significantly by inbreeding in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana. Other traits indicative of the general condition, including flight performance, are also negatively affected in male butterflies by inbreeding. Yet, we unambiguously show that only the production of male pheromones affects mating success. Thus, this pheromone signal informs females about the inbreeding status of their mating partners. We also identify the specific chemical component (hexadecanal) probably responsible for the decrease in male mating success. Our results advocate giving increased attention to olfactory communication as a major causal factor of mate-choice decisions and sexual selection. PMID:23466986

  8. Published online 15 May 2003 Mating strategies in flowering plants

    E-print Network

    Barrett, Spencer C.H.

    by reducing lost mating opportunities through male function. The results from experiments with marker genes and floral manipulations provide evidence for the function of herkogamy and dichogamy in reducing self; selfing; outcrossing 1. INTRODUCTION Mating influences the movement of genes in space

  9. Mating Behavior of Daphnia: Impacts of Predation Risk, Food Quantity, and Reproductive Phase of Females

    PubMed Central

    La, Geung-Hwan; Choi, Jong-Yun; Chang, Kwang-Hyeon; Jang, Min-Ho; Joo, Gea-Jae; Kim, Hyun-Woo

    2014-01-01

    High predation risk and food depletion lead to sexual reproduction in cyclically parthenogenetic Daphnia. Mating, the core of sexual reproduction, also occurs under these conditions. Assessment of the environmental conditions and alteration of mating efforts may aid in determining the success of sexual reproduction. Here, we evaluated the impacts of predation risk, food quantity, and reproductive phase of females on the mating behavior of Daphnia obtusa males including contact frequency and duration using video analysis. Mating–related behavior involved male–female contact (mating) as well as male–male contact (fighting). Mating frequency increased while unnecessary fighting decreased in the presence of predation risk. In addition, low food concentration reduced fighting between males. Males attempted to attach to sexual females more than asexual females, and fighting occurred more frequently in the presence of sexual females. Duration of mating was relatively long; however, males separated shortly after contact in terms of fighting behavior. Thus, assessment of environmental factors and primary sexing of mates were performed before actual contact, possibly mechanically, and precise sex discrimination was conducted after contact. These results suggest that mating in Daphnia is not a random process but rather a balance between predation risk and energetic cost that results in changes in mating and fighting strategies. PMID:25111600

  10. Plasticity of the mate choice mind: courtship evokes choice-like brain responses in females from a coercive mating system.

    PubMed

    Wang, S M T; Ramsey, M E; Cummings, M E

    2014-04-01

    Female mate choice is fundamental to sexual selection, and determining molecular underpinnings of female preference variation is important for understanding mating character evolution. Previously it was shown that whole-brain expression of a synaptic plasticity marker, neuroserpin, positively correlates with mating bias in the female choice poeciliid, Xiphophorus nigrensis, when exposed to conspecific courting males, whereas this relationship is reversed in Gambusia affinis, a mate coercive poeciliid with no courting males. Here we explore whether species-level differences in female behavioral and brain molecular responses represent 'canalized' or 'plastic' traits. We expose female G. affinis to conspecific males and females, as well as coercive and courting male Poecilia latipinna, for preference assays followed by whole-brain gene expression analyses of neuroserpin, egr-1 and early B. We find positive correlations between gene expression and female preference strength during exposure to courting heterospecific males, but a reversed pattern following exposure to coercive heterospecific males. This suggests that the neuromolecular processes associated with female preference behavior are plastic and responsive to different male phenotypes (courting or coercive) rather than a canalized response linked to mating system. Further, we propose that female behavioral plasticity may involve learning because female association patterns shifted with experience. Compared to younger females, we found larger, more experienced females spend less time near coercive males but associate more with males in the presence of courters. We thus suggest a conserved learning-based neuromolecular process underlying the diversity of female mate preference across the mate choice and coercion-driven mating systems. PMID:24548673

  11. Seasonal Variation in Mate Choice of Photinus ignitus Fireflies Christopher K. Cratsley* & Sara M. Lewis

    E-print Network

    Lewis, Sara

    Seasonal Variation in Mate Choice of Photinus ignitus Fireflies Christopher K. Cratsley* & Sara M ignitus fireflies to determine if mate choice in either sex varied with the availability and relative on either operational sex ratio or variation in mate quality. Male fireflies of the genus Photinus transfer

  12. The Mating Game: A Classroom Activity for Undergraduates that Explores the Evolutionary Basis of Sex Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Dani; Holbrook, C. Tate; Meadows, Melissa G.; Taylor, Lisa A.

    2012-01-01

    In species that reproduce sexually, an individual's fitness depends on its ability to secure a mate (or mates). Although both males and females are selected to maximize their reproductive output, the mating strategies of the two sexes can differ dramatically. We present a classroom simulation that allows undergraduates to actively experience how…

  13. Sexual experience can affect use of public information in mate choice

    E-print Network

    Galef Jr., Bennett G.

    Sexual experience can affect use of public information in mate choice ALEXANDER G. OPHIR & BENNETT9582R) The mate choices of sexually experienced, female Japanese quail, Coturnix japonica. Female quail show an increased preference both for males that they have seen mate with another female

  14. Anim. Behav., 1998, 55, 545552 Mate-choice copying in Japanese quail, Coturnix coturnix japonica

    E-print Network

    White, David J.

    Anim. Behav., 1998, 55, 545­552 Mate-choice copying in Japanese quail, Coturnix coturnix japonica performed four experiments to examine effects on the mate choices of female Japanese quail, Coturnix coturnix japonica, of observing a male mate with another female. Each experiment was conducted in three

  15. Acoustic radiation patterns of mating calls of the tngara frog (Physalaemus pustuosus): Implications for multiple

    E-print Network

    Ryan, Michael J.

    Acoustic radiation patterns of mating calls of the túngara frog (Physalaemus pustuosus. In previous measurements of the horizontal directivity of mating calls of frogs, the signals were analyzed radiation of the mating calls of male túngara frogs Physalaemus pustulosus , along axes relevant to three

  16. The Mating Game http://www.sunspot.net/news/nationworld/bal-te.mating04aug04,0,3863406.story

    E-print Network

    Sandercock, Brett K.

    a seduction ritual in which a male lures a female away from her mate by bringing her an acacia petal in his only been documented in the past two decades thanks to the same DNA fingerprinting techniques

  17. Social network analysis of mating patterns in American black bears (Ursus americanus).

    PubMed

    Moore, Jennifer A; Xu, Ran; Frank, Kenneth; Draheim, Hope; Scribner, Kim T

    2015-08-01

    Nonrandom mating can structure populations and has important implications for population-level processes. Investigating how and why mating deviates from random is important for understanding evolutionary processes as well as informing conservation and management. Prior to the implementation of parentage analyses, understanding mating patterns in solitary, elusive species like bears was virtually impossible. Here, we capitalize on a long-term genetic data set collected from black bears (Ursus americanus) (N = 2422) in the Northern Lower Peninsula (NLP) of Michigan, USA. We identified mated pairs using parentage analysis and applied logistic regression (selection) models that controlled for features of the social network, to quantify the effects of individual characteristics, and spatial and population demographic factors on mating dynamics. Logistic regression models revealed that black bear mating was associated with spatial proximity of mates, male age, the time a pair had coexisted, local population density and relatedness. Mated pairs were more likely to contain older males. On average, bears tended to mate with nearby individuals to whom they were related, which does not support the existence of kin recognition in black bears. Pairwise relatedness was especially high for mated pairs containing young males. Restricted dispersal and high male turnover from intensive harvest mortality of NLP black bears are probably the underlying factors associated with younger male bears mating more often with female relatives. Our findings illustrate how harvest has the potential to disrupt the social structure of game species, which warrants further attention for conservation and management. PMID:26113220

  18. Gestural Communication and Mating Tactics in Wild Chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Anna Ilona; Roberts, Sam George Bradley

    2015-01-01

    The extent to which primates can flexibly adjust the production of gestural communication according to the presence and visual attention of the audience provides key insights into the social cognition underpinning gestural communication, such as an understanding of third party relationships. Gestures given in a mating context provide an ideal area for examining this flexibility, as frequently the interests of a male signaller, a female recipient and a rival male bystander conflict. Dominant chimpanzee males seek to monopolize matings, but subordinate males may use gestural communication flexibly to achieve matings despite their low rank. Here we show that the production of mating gestures in wild male East African chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweunfurthii) was influenced by a conflict of interest with females, which in turn was influenced by the presence and visual attention of rival males. When the conflict of interest was low (the rival male was present and looking away), chimpanzees used visual/ tactile gestures over auditory gestures. However, when the conflict of interest was high (the rival male was absent, or was present and looking at the signaller) chimpanzees used auditory gestures over visual/ tactile gestures. Further, the production of mating gestures was more common when the number of oestrous and non-oestrus females in the party increased, when the female was visually perceptive and when there was no wind. Females played an active role in mating behaviour, approaching for copulations more often when the number of oestrus females in the party increased and when the rival male was absent, or was present and looking away. Examining how social and ecological factors affect mating tactics in primates may thus contribute to understanding the previously unexplained reproductive success of subordinate male chimpanzees. PMID:26536467

  19. Gestural Communication and Mating Tactics in Wild Chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Anna Ilona; Roberts, Sam George Bradley

    2015-01-01

    The extent to which primates can flexibly adjust the production of gestural communication according to the presence and visual attention of the audience provides key insights into the social cognition underpinning gestural communication, such as an understanding of third party relationships. Gestures given in a mating context provide an ideal area for examining this flexibility, as frequently the interests of a male signaller, a female recipient and a rival male bystander conflict. Dominant chimpanzee males seek to monopolize matings, but subordinate males may use gestural communication flexibly to achieve matings despite their low rank. Here we show that the production of mating gestures in wild male East African chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweunfurthii) was influenced by a conflict of interest with females, which in turn was influenced by the presence and visual attention of rival males. When the conflict of interest was low (the rival male was present and looking away), chimpanzees used visual/ tactile gestures over auditory gestures. However, when the conflict of interest was high (the rival male was absent, or was present and looking at the signaller) chimpanzees used auditory gestures over visual/ tactile gestures. Further, the production of mating gestures was more common when the number of oestrous and non-oestrus females in the party increased, when the female was visually perceptive and when there was no wind. Females played an active role in mating behaviour, approaching for copulations more often when the number of oestrus females in the party increased and when the rival male was absent, or was present and looking away. Examining how social and ecological factors affect mating tactics in primates may thus contribute to understanding the previously unexplained reproductive success of subordinate male chimpanzees. PMID:26536467

  20. Sterilization for Women and Men

    MedlinePLUS

    f AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ011 CONTRACEPTION Sterilization for Women and Men • What is sterilization? • How does tubal occlusion work to prevent pregnancy? • How effective is female sterilization? • Does female sterilization ...

  1. Sterilizing the Poor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Sheila M.

    1977-01-01

    Suggests that freedom for the middle classes may mean vulnerability for the poor. The enthusiasm for sterilization may be so intense as to deprive the poor of their right not to be sterilized. (Author/AM)

  2. Sterile Delivery of Pigs 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    (sterilization) and trap and translocation (deer removal) efforts in managing white-tailed deer on JSC. In general, single treatments of removals or sterilization (less than 75 percent of female deer treated) were not effective in reducing population growth (R...

  3. Female choice and the relatedness of mates in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata): mate choice and inbreeding depression.

    PubMed

    Pitcher, Trevor E; Rodd, F Helen; Rowe, Locke

    2008-09-01

    Several studies suggest that females may offset the costs of genetic incompatibility by exercising pre-copulatory or post-copulatory mate choice to bias paternity toward more compatible males. One source of genetic incompatibility is the degree of relatedness among mates; unrelated males are expected to be genetically more compatible with a female than her relatives. To address this idea, we investigated the potential for inbreeding depression and paternity biasing mechanisms (pre- and post-copulatory) of inbreeding avoidance in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata. Inbreeding resulted in a reduction in offspring number and quality. Females mated to siblings gave birth to significantly fewer offspring compared to females mated to non-siblings and inbred male offspring took longer to reach sexual maturity. There was no evidence of inbreeding avoidance in pre-copulatory behaviors of females or males. Sexual responsiveness of females to courting males and the number of sexual behaviors males directed at females did not decrease as a function of the relatedness of the two individuals. We also tested whether female guppies can use post-copulatory mechanisms to bias sperm usage toward unrelated males by comparing the number of offspring produced by females mated to two of their siblings (SS), two males unrelated to the female (NN), or to one unrelated male and a sibling male (NS). We found that NS females produced a number of offspring not significantly different than what would be expected if fertilization success were halfway between completely outbreeding (NN) and completely inbreeding (SS) females. This suggests that there is no significant improvement in the number of offspring produced by females mating to both related and unrelated males, relative to that which would be expected if sperm from both males were used equally. Our results suggest that female guppies do not discriminate against closely related males or their sperm. PMID:18297404

  4. The malleability of mate selection in speed-dating events.

    PubMed

    Overbeek, Geertjan; Nelemans, Stefanie A; Karremans, Johan; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2013-10-01

    This study examined to what extent individual mate selectivity could be explained by characteristics of the mating market. Specifically, we hypothesized that females' selectivity would be more malleable, or context-dependent, than males' mate selectivity (cf. Baumeister, 2000; Gangestad & Simpson, 2000). In a series of 22 speed-dating events in which 546 adults aged 22-42 years participated, we investigated whether the proportion of available potential mates (i.e., male-female ratio), which sex rotated during the speed-date event (i.e., approached the other sex), and mate qualities of same-sex competitors affected individuals' selectivity, as indexed by the proportion of no's given during the speed-dating events. Results from multilevel analyses demonstrated that, as hypothesized, event characteristics explained mate selectivity only for females. Specifically, women with a lower facial attractiveness and more deviant body mass index (BMI) values were overall less selective, but this trend was only present in speed-dating events characterized by higher intrasex competition--when females rotated or when other females in the event were more attractive or had healthier BMI. The findings partially support the idea of "erotic plasticity" in females, demonstrating that females' mate selectivity is more malleable and dependent on context than males' mate selectivity. PMID:23358858

  5. Apparatus Circulates Sterilizing Gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, John H.; Schwarz, Ray P.

    1991-01-01

    Apparatus circulates sterilizing gas containing ethylene oxide and chlorofluorocarbon through laboratory or medical equipment. Confines sterilizing gas, circulating it only through parts to be treated. Consists of two units. One delivers ethylene oxide/chlorofluorocarbon gas mixture and removes gas after treatment. Other warms, humidifies, and circulates gas through equipment to be treated. Process provides reliable sterilization with negligible residual toxicity from ethylene oxide. Particularly suitable for sterilization of interiors of bioreactors, heart/lung machines, dialyzers, or other equipment including complicated tubing.

  6. The economics of sterilization.

    PubMed

    Brinston, R M

    1995-06-01

    In this approach to selecting the most appropriate sterilization method, comparisons are made of the initial and ongoing costs for sterilization by ethylene oxide, gamma radiation, and electron radiation. Considerations that have an impact on cost include the monetary value of the time that elapses between sending a product for processing and its release for sale, anticipated growth in the level of product to be sterilized, labour, electricity and utilities, and the price of the sterilant. PMID:10155389

  7. Exceptionally high levels of multiple mating in an army ant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denny, A. Jay; Franks, Nigel R.; Powell, Scott; Edwards, Keith J.

    Most species of social insects have singly mated queens, although there are notable exceptions. Competing hypotheses have been proposed to explain the evolution of high levels of multiple mating, but this issue is far from resolved. Here we use microsatellites to investigate mating frequency in the army ant Eciton burchellii and show that queens mate with an exceptionally large number of males, eclipsing all but one other social insect species for which data are available. In addition we present evidence that suggests that mating is serial, continuing throughout the lifetime of the queen. This is the first demonstration of serial mating among social hymenoptera. We propose that high paternity within colonies is most likely to have evolved to increase genetic diversity and to counter high pathogen and parasite loads.

  8. Sterilization: a comparative review.

    PubMed

    Keeping, J D; Chang, A; Morrison, J

    1979-11-01

    Publications relating to surgical procedures for sterilization have been reviewed, and the incidences of complications and subsequent pregnancies compared. Laparoscopic sterilization has the lowest incidence of complication, the morbidity rate being lower than that of laparotomy sterilization or hysterectomy, and the mortality rate lower than that of a single pregnancy or taking oral contraceptives for 1 year. PMID:161703

  9. Sterile neutrino states

    E-print Network

    Alexander Kusenko

    2006-09-17

    Neutrino masses are likely to be a manifestation of the right-handed, or sterile neutrinos. The number of sterile neutrinos and the scales of their Majorana masses are unknown. We explore theoretical arguments in favor of the high and low scale seesaw mechanisms, review the existing experimental results, and discuss the astrophysical hints regarding sterile neutrinos.

  10. Mate Choice in Mus musculus Is Relative and Dependent on the Estrous State

    PubMed Central

    Zinck, Léa; Lima, Susana Q.

    2013-01-01

    Mate choice is a critical behavioral decision process with profound impact on evolution. However, the mechanistic basis of mate choice is poorly understood. In this study we focused on assortative mate choice, which is known to contribute to the reproductive isolation of the two European subspecies of house mouse, Mus musculus musculus and Mus musculus domesticus. To understand the decision process, we developed both full mating and limited-contact paradigms and tested musculus females' preference for musculus versus domesticus males, mimicking the natural musculus/domesticus contact zone. As hypothesized, when allowed to mate we found that sexually receptive musculus females exhibited a robust preference to mate with musculus males. In contrast, when non-receptive, females did not exhibit a preference and rather alternated between males in response to male mount attempts. Moreover in a no-choice condition, females mated readily with males from both subspecies. Finally, when no physical contact was allowed, and therefore male's behavior could not influence female's behavior, female's preference for its own subspecies was maintained independently of the estrous state. Together, our results suggest that the assortative preference is relative and based on a comparison of the options available rather than on an absolute preference. The results of the limited-contact experiments highlight the interplay between female's internal state and the nature of the interaction with prospective mates in the full mating conditions. With these experiments we believe we established an assortative mate preference assay that is appropriate for the investigation of its underlying substrates. PMID:23762466

  11. Proteomic analyses of male-fertility restoration in CMS onion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The production of hybrid-onion seed is dependent on cytoplasmic-genic male sterility (CMS) systems. For the most commonly used CMS, male-sterile (S) cytoplasm interacts with a dominant allele at one nuclear male-fertility restoration locus (Ms) to condition male fertility. We are using a proteomics ...

  12. Proteomic Analysis of Male-Fertility Restoration in CMS Onion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The production of hybrid-onion seed is dependent on cytoplasmic-genic male sterility (CMS) systems. For the most commonly used CMS, male-sterile (S) cytoplasm interacts with a dominant allele at one nuclear male-fertility restoration locus (Ms) to condition male fertility. We are using proteomics ...

  13. Mate Choice and Multiple Paternity in the Xiphophorus Malinche/X. Birchmanni Hybrid System 

    E-print Network

    Squire, Mattie Katherine

    2015-07-31

    choice, fitness costs are potentially everywhere: one could mate with the “wrong” type of individual and waste time producing less fit offspring; on the other hand, one could waste time and potential mating opportunities by narrowing the range... literature, males are not usually regarded as active choosers when it comes to mating; however their mating preferences, or lack thereof, can be extremely important in the natural history and evolution of a species (Trivers 1972; Emlen and Oring 1977...

  14. (Molecular analysis of cytoplasmic male sterility)

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    We have determined the actual RNA sequence of four mitochondrial genes: pcf, nad3, rps12, and coxII. Because plant mitochondrial proteins cannot be predicted from DNA sequences, the actual primary structures of the encoded proteins were unknown. We have gained information concerning the process of RNA editing. Editing can occur before splicing. Our data is consistent with the hypothesis that RNA editing is not simultaneous with transcription. Unlike other systems, the process of editing in plant does not exhibit a discernable direction. As a result of our RNA editing studies, we have produced a number of clones of the proper coding regions tube used for incorporating these mitochondrial genes into the nucleus. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  15. MALE STERILITY AND HYBRID PRODUCTION SYSTEMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability to exploit the long known phenomenon of hybrid vigor or heterosis, the superior performance of the F1 hybrid compared to either parent line, has greatly impacted the goal of production agriculture to meet world food demands. Hybrid production systems rely on an efficient and effective me...

  16. Abstract Although socioecological theory predicts that differences in male and female parental investment will

    E-print Network

    Fashing, Peter J.

    directly or indirectly. A male accomplishes direct mate defense during intergroup encounters by driving the direct male mate defense and indirect male mate defense via resource defense hypotheses, but no evidence of the female resource defense hypothesis beyond the fact that females occa- sionally participated in intergroup

  17. Low-impact mating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, James L. (Inventor); Carroll, Monty B. (Inventor); Le, Thang D. (Inventor); Morales, Ray H. (Inventor); Robertson, Brandan R. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An androgynous mating system for mating two exoatmospheric space modules comprising a first mating assembly capable of mating with a second mating assembly; a second mating assembly structurally identical to said first mating assembly, said first mating assembly comprising; a load ring; a plurality of load cell subassemblies; a plurality of actuators; a base ring; a tunnel; a closed loop control system; one or more electromagnets; and one or more striker plates, wherein said one or more electomagnets on said second mating assembly are capable of mating with said one or more striker plates on said first mating assembly, and wherein said one or more striker plates is comprised of a plate of predetermined shape and a 5-DOF mechanism capable of maintaining predetermined contact requirements during said mating of said one or more electromagnets and said one or more striker plates.

  18. Mate choice and genetic monogamy in a biparental, colonial fish

    PubMed Central

    van Dongen, Wouter F.D.; Wagner, Richard H.

    2015-01-01

    In socially monogamous species, in which both sexes provide essential parental care, males as well as females are expected to be choosy. Whereas hundreds of studies have examined monogamy in biparental birds, only several such studies exist in fish. We examined mate choice in the biparental, colonial cichlid fish Neolamprologus caudopunctatus in Lake Tanganyika, Zambia. We genotyped more than 350 individuals at 11 microsatellite loci to investigate their mating system. We found no extrapair paternity, identifying this biparental fish as genetically monogamous. Breeders paired randomly according to their genetic similarity, suggesting a lack of selection against inbreeding avoidance. We further found that breeders paired assortatively by body size, a criterion of quality in fish, suggesting mutual mate choice. In a subsequent mate preference test in an aquarium setup, females showed a strong preference for male size by laying eggs near the larger of 2 males in 13 of 14 trials. PMID:26023276

  19. Do pheromones reveal male immunocompetence?

    PubMed Central

    Rantala, Markus J; Jokinen, Ilmari; Kortet, Raine; Vainikka, Anssi; Suhonen, Jukka

    2002-01-01

    Pheromones function not only as mate attractors, but they may also relay important information to prospective mates. It has been shown that vertebrates can distinguish, via olfactory mechanisms, major histocompatibility complex types in their prospective mates. However, whether pheromones can transmit information about immunocompetence is unknown. Here, we show that female mealworm beetles (Tenebrio molitor) prefer pheromones from males with better immunocompetence, indicated by a faster encapsulation rate against a novel antigen, and higher levels of phenoloxidase in haemolymph. Thus, the present study indicates that pheromones could transmit information about males' parasite resistance ability and may work as a reliable sexual ornament for female choice. PMID:12204128

  20. Sterile Pink Bollworm Moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) Pheromone Emission and Courtship Success

    E-print Network

    Sterile Pink Bollworm Moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) Pheromone Emission and Courtship Success, California 92521 Environ Entomol 19(1):21-25 (1990) ABSTRACT Sterile female pink bollworm moths, Pectinophora not significantly different from field-collected females Sterile males ftom the same shipments were as successful