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1

The sterile insect technique for controlling populations of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) on Reunion Island: mating vigour of sterilized males.  

PubMed

Reunion Island suffers from high densities of the chikungunya and dengue vector Aedes albopictus. The sterile insect technique (SIT) offers a promising strategy for mosquito-borne diseases prevention and control. For such a strategy to be effective, sterile males need to be competitive enough to fulfil their intended function by reducing wild mosquito populations in natura. We studied the effect of irradiation on sexual maturation and mating success of males, and compared the sexual competitiveness of sterile versus wild males in the presence of wild females in semi-field conditions. For all untreated or sterile males, sexual maturation was completed within 13 to 20 h post-emergence and some males were able to inseminate females when 15 h old. In the absence of competition, untreated and sterile males were able to inseminate the same number of virgin females during 48 h, in small laboratory cages: an average of 93% of females was inseminated no matter the treatment, the age of males, and the sex ratio. Daily mating success of single sterile males followed the same pattern as for untreated ones, although they inseminated significantly fewer females after the ninth day. The competitiveness index of sterile males in semi-field conditions was only 0.14 when they were released at 1-day old, but improved to 0.53 when the release occurred after a 5-day period in laboratory conditions. In SIT simulation experiments, a 5:1 sterile to wild male ratio allowed a two-fold reduction of the wild population's fertility. This suggests that sterile males could be sufficiently competitive to mate with wild females within the framework of an SIT component as part of an AW-IPM programme for suppressing a wild population of Ae. albopictus in Reunion Island. It will be of interest to minimise the pre-release period in controlled conditions to ensure a good competitiveness without increasing mass rearing costs. PMID:23185329

Oliva, Clelia F; Jacquet, Maxime; Gilles, Jeremie; Lemperiere, Guy; Maquart, Pierre-Olivier; Quilici, Serge; Schooneman, François; Vreysen, Marc J B; Boyer, Sebastien

2012-01-01

2

The Sterile Insect Technique for Controlling Populations of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) on Reunion Island: Mating Vigour of Sterilized Males  

PubMed Central

Reunion Island suffers from high densities of the chikungunya and dengue vector Aedes albopictus. The sterile insect technique (SIT) offers a promising strategy for mosquito-borne diseases prevention and control. For such a strategy to be effective, sterile males need to be competitive enough to fulfil their intended function by reducing wild mosquito populations in natura. We studied the effect of irradiation on sexual maturation and mating success of males, and compared the sexual competitiveness of sterile versus wild males in the presence of wild females in semi-field conditions. For all untreated or sterile males, sexual maturation was completed within 13 to 20 h post-emergence and some males were able to inseminate females when 15 h old. In the absence of competition, untreated and sterile males were able to inseminate the same number of virgin females during 48 h, in small laboratory cages: an average of 93% of females was inseminated no matter the treatment, the age of males, and the sex ratio. Daily mating success of single sterile males followed the same pattern as for untreated ones, although they inseminated significantly fewer females after the ninth day. The competitiveness index of sterile males in semi-field conditions was only 0.14 when they were released at 1-day old, but improved to 0.53 when the release occurred after a 5-day period in laboratory conditions. In SIT simulation experiments, a 5?1 sterile to wild male ratio allowed a two-fold reduction of the wild population’s fertility. This suggests that sterile males could be sufficiently competitive to mate with wild females within the framework of an SIT component as part of an AW-IPM programme for suppressing a wild population of Ae. albopictus in Reunion Island. It will be of interest to minimise the pre-release period in controlled conditions to ensure a good competitiveness without increasing mass rearing costs.

Oliva, Clelia F.; Jacquet, Maxime; Gilles, Jeremie; Lemperiere, Guy; Maquart, Pierre-Olivier; Quilici, Serge; Schooneman, Francois; Vreysen, Marc J. B.; Boyer, Sebastien

2012-01-01

3

Male Sterility  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The control of pollen fertility is central to the production of F1-hybrid seed in self-pollinating crops, and is potentially\\u000a applicable to the containment of transgenes deployed in crop plants. Pollen sterility can be achieved through cytoplasmic\\u000a male sterility (CMS) encoded by the plant mitochondrial genome, or through genic male sterility encoded by the nuclear genome.\\u000a Both routes have been exploited

C. D. Chase; A. Ribarits; E. Heberle-Bors

4

Pre-Release Consumption of Methyl Eugenol Increases the Mating Competitiveness of Sterile Males of the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, in Large Field Enclosures  

PubMed Central

The sterile insect technique may be implemented to control populations of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), when environmental concerns preclude widespread use of chemical attractants or toxicants. The goal of the present study was to evaluate whether the mating competitiveness of sterile B. dorsalis males could be increased via pre-release feeding on methyl eugenol. Males of the oriental fruit fly are strongly attracted to this plant-borne compound, which they ingest and use in the synthesis of the sex pheromone. Previous studies conducted in the laboratory and small field-cages have shown that males given methyl eugenol produce a more attractive pheromone for females and have a higher mating success rate than males denied methyl eugenol. Here, levels of egg sterility were compared following the release of wild-like flies and either methyl eugenol-fed (treated) or methyl eugenol-deprived (control) sterile males in large field enclosures at four over flooding ratios ranging from 5:1 to 60:1 (sterile: wild-like males). Treated sterile males were fed methyl eugenol for 1–4 h (depending on the over flooding ratio tested) 3 d prior to release. Eggs were dissected from introduced fruits (apples), incubated in the laboratory, and scored for hatch rate. The effect of methyl eugenol was most pronounced at lower over flooding ratios. At the 5:1 and 10:1 over flooding ratios, the level of egg sterility observed for treated, sterile males was significantly greater than that observed for control, sterile males. In addition, the incidence of egg sterility reported for treated sterile males at these lower over flooding ratios was similar to that noted for treated or control sterile males at the 30:1 or 60:1 over flooding ratios. This latter result, in particular, suggests that pre-release feeding on methyl eugenol allows for a reduction in the number of sterile flies that are produced and released, thus increasing the cost-effectiveness of the sterile insect technique.

Shelly, Todd E.; Edu, James; McInnis, Donald

2010-01-01

5

Swarming and mating behavior of male Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae) in an area of the Sterile Insect Technique Project in Dongola, northern Sudan.  

PubMed

The problems facing the conventional mosquito control methods including resistance to insecticides have led to the development of alternative methods such as the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) to suppress populations of the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis in northern Sudan. This method entails the release of large numbers of irradiated males to compete against wild conspecifics for mating with virgin females in the field. The swarming and mating behaviors of this species were conducted at two field sites during the period 2009-2012 in Dongola, northern Sudan. Observations were made in the field sites and in a contained semi-field enclosure. In addition, participation of released irradiated-marked males in the swarms of wild mosquito was investigated. Swarms were observed on sunset in the vicinity of larval habitats around irrigation channel and stopped with the onset of the darkness about 21-25min after the start. Swarms were observed above visual markers such as palm trees, bare ground, and manure. Several couples were observed leaving the swarms in copula in the direction of the sunlight. The majority of copulations were observed within 12-15min of the start of swarming. Relatively low insemination rates (28%) of females collected from coupling pairs were observed. Irradiated-marked males were observed to join the natural swarms regularly, indicating their probable competitiveness with the other wild males. These findings enhance the feasibility of staging an SIT campaign against malaria vector in Northern State-Sudan. PMID:24291461

Hassan, Mo'awia M; Zain, Hussam M; Basheer, Mohammed A; Elhaj, Hassab-Elrasoul F; El-Sayed, Badria B

2014-04-01

6

[Sterilization of the male].  

PubMed

Vasoresection has great significance as a method of contraception. Next to surgicial sterilization of the female it is the most reliable method of contraception if surgical technical errors are avoided and postoperative speriograms are carried out. According to a review by Leader (2711 cases), 1 patient in 400 remaining capable of procreation must nevertheless be reckoned with. The failure is due to the fact that the surgeon did not identify a vas deferens or a spermatogranuloma led to a spontaneous recanilization. For this reason ths stumps of the vas should be stitched round. The question of electrocoagulation of the intima with ligature of the adventitia also arises. PMID:820974

Klosterhalfen, H

1976-07-01

7

Male Dominance Rank, Female Mate Choice and Male Mating and Reproductive Success in Captive Chimpanzees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mating and consequently reproductive success in male vertebrates are predominantly determined by intermale competition and female mate choice. Their relative importance however, is still poorly understood. We investigated the interrelationship between male dominance rank — a formal indicator of male competitive ability — female mate choice, and male mating success in a multimale-multifemale group of captive chimpanzees. In addition, we

Ekaterina Klinkova; J. Keith Hodges; Kerstin Fuhrmann; Tom de Jong; Michael Heistermann

2005-01-01

8

Evolution of female mate choice based on male age: Are older males better mates?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many empirical studies suggest that females often prefer to mate with older males. It is gener- ally assumed that females prefer older males because older males are of higher genetic quality. We used a viability-based simulation model to determine whether female preference for older mates is more likely to evolve than female preference for younger mates when males provide only

Christopher W. Beck; Larkin A. Powell

2000-01-01

9

A role for copula duration in fertility of Queensland fruit fly females mated by irradiated and unirradiated males.  

PubMed

Females of many tephritid fruit flies can mate more than once, and can store ejaculates from multiple males. As well as being an important element of reproductive biology, multiple mating by females is of particular relevance for sterile insect technique programs used to control major tephritid pests. Here we investigate the consequences of multiple mating on fertility of Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni) females sequentially mated to irradiated ('sterile') and unirradiated ('normal') males. Females mated by two normal males showed persistent high fertility whereas females mated by two sterile males showed persistent low fertility. Despite lack of association between copula duration and sperm number, fertility of females mated to a normal and then a sterile male increased with duration of the first copulation and decreased with duration of the second. Fertility of females mated to a sterile male and then a normal male was not influenced by duration of the first copulation but increased with duration of the second. These findings reveal a need for increased attention to how factors other than sperm number influence post-copulatory sexual selection in tephritid flies, and in particular how copula duration is linked to sperm storage and usage. PMID:22906778

Collins, Samuel R; Pérez-Staples, Diana; Taylor, Phillip W

2012-11-01

10

Fine mapping of the recessive genic male-sterile gene ( Bnms1 ) in Brassica napus L  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recessive genic male sterility (RGMS) system, S45 AB, has been developed from spontaneous mutation in Brassica napus canola variety Oro, and is being used for hybrid cultivar development in China. The male sterility of S45 was controlled by two duplicated recessive genes, named as Bnms1 and Bnms2. In this study, a NIL (near-isogenic line) population from the sib-mating of

Bin Yi; Yuning Chen; Shaolin Lei; Jinxing Tu; Tingdong Fu

2006-01-01

11

Infertility and Male Mating Behavior Deficits Associated With Pde1c in Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

Pde1c is a calcium/calmodulin-regulated, dual-specificity cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase. We have used a transposon insertion line to investigate the physiological function of Pde1c in Drosophila melanogaster and to show that the insertion leads to male sterility and male mating behavior defects that include reduced copulation rates. Sterility appears to be primarily due to elimination of sperm from the female reproductive system. The male mating behavior defects were fully rescued by expression of exogenous Pde1c under the control of either a Pde1c or a pan-neuronal promoter, whereas the sterility could be only partially rescued by expression of exogenous Pde1c under the control of these promoters. We also show that Pde1c has a male-specific expression pattern in the CNS with an increased number of Pde1c-expressing neurons in the abdominal ganglion in males.

Morton, David B.; Clemens-Grisham, Rachel; Hazelett, Dennis J.; Vermehren-Schmaedick, Anke

2010-01-01

12

Sperm competition risk affects male mate choice copying  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mate choice copying was mostly described as a strategy employed by females to assess the quality of potential mates, but also\\u000a males can copy other malesmate choice. An open question in this context is whether and how copying males evaluate sperm\\u000a competition risk, as mating with a female that has already copulated with another male obviously sets the stage

David Bierbach; Claudia Kronmarck; Carmen Hennige-Schulz; Stefan Stadler; Martin Plath

13

Mechanism of Sterility and Breeding Strategies for Photoperiod\\/ThermoSensitive Genic Male Sterile Rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand the male sterility mechanism of photoperiod\\/thermo-sensitive genic male sterile [P(T)GMS] lines in rice, the research progress on genetics of photoperiod and\\/or temperature sensitive genic male sterility in rice was reviewed. A new idea was proposed to explain the sterility mechanism of P(T)GMS rice. The fertility transition from sterile to fertile is the result of cooperative regulation of major-effect

Li-yun CHEN; Ying-hui XIAO; Dong-yang LEI

2010-01-01

14

Covariation and repeatability of male mating effort and mating preferences in a promiscuous fish  

PubMed Central

Although mate choice by males does occur in nature, our understanding of its importance in driving evolutionary change remains limited compared with that for female mate choice. Recent theoretical models have shown that the evolution of male mate choice is more likely when individual variation in male mating effort and mating preferences exist and positively covary within populations. However, relatively little is known about the nature of such variation and its maintenance within natural populations. Here, using the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata) as a model study system, we report that mating effort and mating preferences in males, based on female body length (a strong correlate of fecundity), positively covary and are significantly variable among subjects. Individual males are thus consistent, but not unanimous, in their mate choice. Both individual mating effort (including courtship effort) and mating preference were significantly repeatable. These novel findings support the assumptions and predictions of recent evolutionary models of male mate choice, and are consistent with the presence of additive genetic variation for male mate choice based on female size in our study population and thus with the opportunity for selection and further evolution of large female body size through male mate choice.

Godin, Jean-Guy J; Auld, Heather L

2013-01-01

15

Spermless males elicit large-scale female responses to mating in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae.  

PubMed

Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto is the major vector of malaria, a disease with devastating consequences for human health. Given the constant spread of the disease, alternative approaches to the use of insecticides are urgently needed to control vector populations. Females of this species undergo large behavioral changes after mating, which include a life-long refractoriness to further insemination and the induction of egg laying in blood-fed individuals. Genetic control strategies aimed at impacting Anopheles fertility through the release of sterile males are being advocated to reduce the size of mosquito field populations. Such strategies depend on the ability of the released sterile males to mate successfully with wild females and to switch off the female receptivity to further copulation. Here we evaluate the role of sperm in regulating female behavioral responses after mating in An. gambiae. We developed spermless males by RNAi silencing of a germ cell differentiation gene. These males mated successfully and preserved standard accessory gland functions. Females mated to spermless males exhibited normal postcopulatory responses, which included laying large numbers of eggs upon blood feeding and becoming refractory to subsequent insemination. Moreover, spermless males induced transcriptional changes in female reproductive genes comparable to those elicited by fertile males. Our data demonstrate that, in contrast to Drosophila, targeting sperm in An. gambiae preserves normal male and female reproductive behavior for the traits and time frame analyzed and validate the use of approaches based on incapacitation or elimination of sperm for genetic control of vector populations to block malaria transmission. PMID:21825136

Thailayil, Janis; Magnusson, Kalle; Godfray, H Charles J; Crisanti, Andrea; Catteruccia, Flaminia

2011-08-16

16

Molecular analysis of cytoplasmic male sterility  

SciTech Connect

The ultimate aims of the project are to understand the molecular mechanism of the disruption in pollen development which occurs in cytoplasmic male sterile plants and to understand the control of respiratory energy flow in the higher plant cell. A mitochondrial locus termed S-pcf segregates with sterility and with an alteration in respiration in Petunia. This cloned locus contains three genes, an abnormal fused gene termed pcf, a gene for a subunit of an NADH dehydrogenase complex, and a small ribosomal subunit protein. The pcf gene is comprised of partial sequences of ATPase subunit 9, cytochrome oxidase subunit II, and an unidentified reading frame. Components of the S-Pcf locus will be introduced into the nuclear of a fertile genotype under the control of appropriate regulatory signals, and polypeptide products of introduced genes will be directed to the mitochondrion with a transit peptide. By examining transgenic plants, we can determine what elements of the locus are critical for altered respiration or sterility. Such knowledge could explain how mitochondrial DNA affects pollen development in the large number of plant species which exhibit the agronomically important trait of male sterility. 10 refs., 3 figs.

Hanson, M.R.

1990-01-01

17

Male mating patterns in wild multimale mountain gorilla groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although mountain gorillas,Gorilla gorilla beringei, are classified as having a one-male mating system, approximately 40% of the social units are multimale groups. I observed two multimale groups of mountain gorillas at the Karisoke Research Center, Rwanda, Africa, for 17 months to determine male mating patterns and male–male mating harassment in relation to both male dominance rank and female reproductive status.

MARTHA M. ROBBINS

1999-01-01

18

Suppression of Pest Lepidoptera by Releasing Partially Sterile Males  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses population growth models to calculate the theoretical suppression of reproduction achieved by releasing irradiated male moths carrying genetic sterility factors. Shows that releasing partially sterile males should be more effective than releasing fully sterile males. Discusses the costs and advantages of applying this approach to the control…

Knipling. E. F.

1970-01-01

19

Already Mated Females Constrain Male Mating Success in the European Starling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most models explaining polygyny in birds have concentrated on variation in male or territorial quality, ignoring the role of females in maintaining monogramy. Although field observations have suggested that already mated females may maintain monogamy by either behaving aggressively toward prospecting females or by interupting male mate attraction behaviour, no experiments have been done to test if already mated females

Maria I. Sandell; Henrik G. Smith

1996-01-01

20

Preferred Males Acquire Mates of Higher Phenotypic Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several field studies have shown that ornamented males of both polygynous and monogamous animals gain an advantage in terms of mate acquisition. Male reproductive success is strongly positively related to the number of mates acquired, but differential quality of female mates may also play an important role. Darwin (The descent of man, and selection in relation to sex (1871)) and

Anders Pape Moller

1991-01-01

21

Last-Male Sperm Precedence Breaks down when Females Mate with Three Males  

Microsoft Academic Search

Females of many species commonly mate with several males, yet our knowledge of sperm precedence patterns is based almost exclusively on laboratory experiments in which females were mated to only two males. In both birds and insects, these investigations have generally shown strong mating order effects, usually with the second male to mate siring most of the offspring. In the

Jeanne A. Zeh; David W. Zeh

1994-01-01

22

Factors influencing male mating behaviour in Gambusia affinis (Baird & Girard) with a coercive mating system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of male and female body size, and correlated characteristics, on male mating behaviour were investigated in the western mosquitofish Gambusia affinis. Because larger females typically have larger broods in Gambusia sp., it was predicted that males would attempt more copulations with larger females. Two-way ANOVA showed that female body size was a significant predictor of male mating behaviour

R. Deaton

2008-01-01

23

Sperm competition in the damselfly Enallagma hageni Walsh (Odonata: Coenagrionidae): benefits of multiple mating to males and females  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sperm competition was investigated in the non-territorial damselfly, Enallagma hageni. Using irradiated (sterile) male techniques, the last male to mate was found to fertilize up to 95% \\u000a$${\\\\text{(}}\\\\bar x = {\\\\text{80\\\\% )}}$$\\u000a of the eggs of the first clutch laid after mating. Dissection of females collected before, during, and after copula showed that a male removes a maximum of 87%

Ola M. Fincke

1984-01-01

24

Reduction in sea lamprey hatching success due to release of sterilized males  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Male sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus), sterilized by injection with bisazir, were released in Lake Superior tributaries from 1991 to 1996 and exclusively in the St. Marys River (the outflow from Lake Superior to Lake Huron) since 1997 as an alternative to chemical control. To determine effectiveness in reducing reproductive potential through the time of hatch, males were observed on nests and egg viability was determined in nests in selected Lake Superior tributaries and the St. Marys River. The proportions of sterilized males observed on nests were not significantly different than their estimated proportion in the population for all streams and years combined or for the St. Marys River alone. It was concluded that sterilized males survive, appear on the spawning grounds, and nest at near their estimated proportion in the population. There was a significant reduction in egg viability corresponding with release of sterilized males for all streams and years combined or for the St. Marys River alone. In the St. Marys River from 1993 to 2000, the percent reduction in egg viability was significantly correlated with the observed proportion of sterile males on nests. It was further concluded that sterilized males remain sterile through nesting and attract and mate with females. Reduction in reproductive potential in the St. Marys River due to both removal of females by traps and sterile-male-release ranged from 34 to 92% from 1993 to 2001 and averaged 64%. From 1999 to 2001, when the program stabilized, reductions ranged from 71 to 92% and averaged 81%. The current release of sterile males in the St. Marys River effectively reduced reproductive potential through the time of hatch and did so near theoretical levels based on numbers released, estimates of population size, and the assumptions of full sterility and competitiveness.

Bergstedt, Roger A.; McDonald, Rodney B.; Twohey, Michael B.; Mullett, Katherine M.; Young, Robert J.; Heinrich, John W.

2003-01-01

25

A character demonstrating the occurrence of mating in male Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)  

SciTech Connect

The reproductive system of adult male Cactoblastis cactorum, the cactus moth, was examined to determine whether the mating status of males could be ascertained. In unmated males, the posterior portion of the primary ductus ejaculatorius simplex is opaque yellow in color and contains many small football-shaped hyaline granules 3-5 x 5-10 {mu}m in size. In mated males, the posterior simplex is clear and contains no granules. The presence or absence of these characters was found to be highly reliable and should be of value in determining mating status in marked-recaptured males of this species in a sterile insect release program directed against Cactoblastis. (author)

Marti, O.G.; Carpenter, J.E. [United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Crop Protection and Management Research Service, P.O. Box 748, Tifton, GA 31793 (United States)

2007-03-15

26

Mating alters gene expression patterns in Drosophila melanogaster male heads  

PubMed Central

Background Behavior is a complex process resulting from the integration of genetic and environmental information. Drosophila melanogaster rely on multiple sensory modalities for reproductive success, and mating causes physiological changes in both sexes that affect reproductive output or behavior. Some of these effects are likely mediated by changes in gene expression. Courtship and mating alter female transcript profiles, but it is not known how mating affects male gene expression. Results We used Drosophila genome arrays to identify changes in gene expression profiles that occur in mated male heads. Forty-seven genes differed between mated and control heads 2 hrs post mating. Many mating-responsive genes are highly expressed in non-neural head tissues, including an adipose tissue called the fat body. One fat body-enriched gene, female-specific independent of transformer (fit), is a downstream target of the somatic sex-determination hierarchy, a genetic pathway that regulates Drosophila reproductive behaviors as well as expression of some fat-expressed genes; three other mating-responsive loci are also downstream components of this pathway. Another mating-responsive gene expressed in fat, Juvenile hormone esterase (Jhe), is necessary for robust male courtship behavior and mating success. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that mating causes changes in male head gene expression profiles and supports an increasing body of work implicating adipose signaling in behavior modulation. Since several mating-induced genes are sex-determination hierarchy target genes, additional mating-responsive loci may be downstream components of this pathway as well.

2010-01-01

27

Male mate choice influences female promiscuity in Soay sheep  

PubMed Central

In most animal species, males are predicted to compete for reproductive opportunities, while females are expected to choose between potential mates. However, when males’ rate of reproduction is constrained, or females vary widely in ‘quality’, male mate choice is also predicted to occur. Such conditions exist in the promiscuous mating system of feral Soay sheep on St Kilda, Scotland, where a highly synchronized mating season, intense sperm competition and limitations on sperm production constrain males’ potential reproductive rate, and females vary substantially in their ability to produce successful offspring. We show that, consistent with predictions, competitive rams focus their mating activity and siring success towards heavier females with higher inclusive fitness. To our knowledge, this is the first time that male mate choice has been identified and shown to lead to assortative patterns of parentage in a natural mammalian system, and occurs despite fierce male–male competition for mates. An additional consequence of assortative mating in this population is that lighter females experience a series of unstable consorts with less adept rams, and hence are mated by a greater number of males during their oestrus. We have thus also identified a novel male-driven mechanism that generates variation in female promiscuity, which suggests that the high levels of female promiscuity in this system are not part of an adaptive female tactic to intensify post-copulatory competition between males.

Preston, B.T.; Stevenson, I.R.; Pemberton, J.M.; Coltman, D.W.; Wilson, K.

2005-01-01

28

The evolution and significance of male mate choice.  

PubMed

The distinct reproductive roles of males and females, which for many years were characterised in terms of competitive males and choosy females, have remained a central focus of sexual selection since Darwin's time. Increasing evidence now shows that males can be choosy too, even in apparently unexpected situations, such as under polygyny or in the absence of male parental care. Here, we provide a synthesis of the theory on male mate choice and examine the factors that promote or constrain its evolution. We also discuss the evolutionary significance of male mate choice and the contrasts in male versus female mate choice. We conclude that mate choice by males is potentially widespread and has a distinct role in how mating systems evolve. PMID:21890230

Edward, Dominic A; Chapman, Tracey

2011-12-01

29

Mass rearing history and irradiation affect mating performance of the male fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua.  

PubMed

As an initial step to improve the efficiency of the sterile insect technique applied to eradicate, suppress, and control wild Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in mango producing areas of Mexico, the effect of radiation dose and mass rearing history on male mating performance was examined. Field cage tests in which both male and female laboratory flies were irradiated at different doses (0, 40, and 80 Gy) were released with cohorts of wild flies of both sexes, revealing that both mass rearing history and irradiation affected male mating performance. Laboratory males were accepted for copulation by wild females less frequently than wild males. Copulations involving laboratory males were shorter than those involving wild males. Irradiated males mated less frequently with wild females than wild males, and irradiated females appeared to be less able to reject courting males of both origins. High levels of fertility for untreated laboratory females crossed with males irradiated at different doses may reflect problems in mass rearing affecting homogeneity of pupal age before irradiation, and possibly masked a dose effect. Proposed remedial measures to improve male mating performance are discussed. PMID:22957485

Rull, Juan; Encarnación, Nery; Birke, Andrea

2012-01-01

30

Sequential male mate choice under sperm competition risk  

PubMed Central

Male eagerness to mate is a central paradigm of sexual selection theory. However, limited sperm supplies mean that male sexual restraint might sometimes be favored under promiscuous mating. Here, we demonstrate dynamic plasticity in male mating effort when females are encountered sequentially under varying sperm competition risk. Rather than showing consistent eagerness to mate, male house mice (Mus musculus domesticus) instead tailor their mating effort according to likely reproductive payoffs. They are significantly less likely to mate when sperm competition is certain and potential reproductive payoffs low, but dramatically increase investment if they do choose to mate under such circumstances. By contrast, male mice are significantly more likely to mate in situations simulating extra-territorial copulations, where future risk of competition is high but so too are potential reproductive rewards. Differential mating propensity appears to be the primary mechanism by which male house mice allocate sperm adaptively under sperm competition risk because we find no evidence for facultative adjustment of sperm numbers per ejaculate or ejaculation frequency in response to female-related cues. We conclude that sequential male mate choice under sperm competition risk could be a widespread but often unappreciated mechanism of strategic sperm allocation.

2014-01-01

31

Mating experience and juvenile hormone enhance sexual signaling and mating in male Caribbean fruit flies  

PubMed Central

Young mated male Caribbean fruit flies [Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)] have greater sexual prowess than their virgin counterparts. After mating for the first time, 6- to 7-day-old males released twice as much sex pheromone and acquired another mate in less than half the time required by virgin males of the same age. Mass spectroscopic analysis of extracts of hemolymph from mated and virgin 7-day-old males resulted in identification of juvenile hormone III bisepoxide and juvenile hormone III in a ratio of 2.5:1. Extracts from mated males contained 3-fold more juvenile hormone than did extracts from virgins. Enhancement of sexual signaling, pheromone release, and mating was induced by topical application of juvenile hormone, methoprene, or fenoxycarb. Newly eclosed adult males treated with juvenoids engaged in sexual signaling, released pheromone, and mated at significantly earlier ages than control males. We conclude that juvenile hormone mediated a positive feedback system that imparted a competitive advantage, guaranteeing that males who mated at an early age would out-compete virgins of the same age for mating opportunities. Additionally, the results support the hypothesis that juvenile hormone is a pivotal hormone coordinating the development of sexual signaling and reproductive maturity in these flies.

Teal, P. E. A.; Gomez-Simuta, Y.; Proveaux, A. T.

2000-01-01

32

Mating experience and juvenile hormone enhance sexual signaling and mating in male Caribbean fruit flies.  

PubMed

Young mated male Caribbean fruit flies [Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)] have greater sexual prowess than their virgin counterparts. After mating for the first time, 6- to 7-day-old males released twice as much sex pheromone and acquired another mate in less than half the time required by virgin males of the same age. Mass spectroscopic analysis of extracts of hemolymph from mated and virgin 7-day-old males resulted in identification of juvenile hormone III bisepoxide and juvenile hormone III in a ratio of 2.5:1. Extracts from mated males contained 3-fold more juvenile hormone than did extracts from virgins. Enhancement of sexual signaling, pheromone release, and mating was induced by topical application of juvenile hormone, methoprene, or fenoxycarb. Newly eclosed adult males treated with juvenoids engaged in sexual signaling, released pheromone, and mated at significantly earlier ages than control males. We conclude that juvenile hormone mediated a positive feedback system that imparted a competitive advantage, guaranteeing that males who mated at an early age would out-compete virgins of the same age for mating opportunities. Additionally, the results support the hypothesis that juvenile hormone is a pivotal hormone coordinating the development of sexual signaling and reproductive maturity in these flies. PMID:10706642

Teal, P E; Gomez-Simuta, Y; Proveaux, A T

2000-03-28

33

Cytoplasmic male sterility in Brassicaceae crops.  

PubMed

Brassicaceae crops display strong hybrid vigor, and have long been subject to F1 hybrid breeding. Because the most reliable system of F1 seed production is based on cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), various types of CMS have been developed and adopted in practice to breed Brassicaceae oil seed and vegetable crops. CMS is a maternally inherited trait encoded in the mitochondrial genome, and the male sterile phenotype arises as a result of interaction of a mitochondrial CMS gene and a nuclear fertility restoring (Rf) gene. Therefore, CMS has been intensively investigated for gaining basic insights into molecular aspects of nuclear-mitochondrial genome interactions and for practical applications in plant breeding. Several CMS genes have been identified by molecular genetic studies, including Ogura CMS from Japanese radish, which is the most extensively studied and most widely used. In this review, we discuss Ogura CMS, and other CMS systems, and the causal mitochondrial genes for CMS. Studies on nuclear Rf genes and the cytoplasmic effects of alien cytoplasm on general crop performance are also reviewed. Finally, some of the unresolved questions about CMS are highlighted. PMID:24987289

Yamagishi, Hiroshi; Bhat, Shripad R

2014-05-01

34

Cytoplasmic male sterility in Brassicaceae crops  

PubMed Central

Brassicaceae crops display strong hybrid vigor, and have long been subject to F1 hybrid breeding. Because the most reliable system of F1 seed production is based on cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), various types of CMS have been developed and adopted in practice to breed Brassicaceae oil seed and vegetable crops. CMS is a maternally inherited trait encoded in the mitochondrial genome, and the male sterile phenotype arises as a result of interaction of a mitochondrial CMS gene and a nuclear fertility restoring (Rf) gene. Therefore, CMS has been intensively investigated for gaining basic insights into molecular aspects of nuclear-mitochondrial genome interactions and for practical applications in plant breeding. Several CMS genes have been identified by molecular genetic studies, including Ogura CMS from Japanese radish, which is the most extensively studied and most widely used. In this review, we discuss Ogura CMS, and other CMS systems, and the causal mitochondrial genes for CMS. Studies on nuclear Rf genes and the cytoplasmic effects of alien cytoplasm on general crop performance are also reviewed. Finally, some of the unresolved questions about CMS are highlighted.

Yamagishi, Hiroshi; Bhat, Shripad R.

2014-01-01

35

Genetic bases of instability of male sterility and fertility reversibility in photoperiod-sensitive genic male-sterile rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photoperiod-sensitive genetic male-sterile (PSGMS) rice, with its male fertility regulated by photoperiod length, is very\\u000a useful for hybrid rice development. However, breeding for new PSGMS lines has faced two major difficulties – the stability\\u000a of male sterility and the reversibility of male fertility. In this study we assessed the genetic bases of stability of sterility\\u000a and fertility reversibility using a

Y. Q. He; J. Yang; C. G. Xu; Z. G. Zhang; Q. Zhang

1999-01-01

36

Sexual Experience Enhances Drosophila melanogaster Male Mating Behavior and Success  

PubMed Central

Competition for mates is a wide-spread phenomenon affecting individual reproductive success. The ability of animals to adjust their behaviors in response to changing social environment is important and well documented. Drosophila melanogaster males compete with one another for matings with females and modify their reproductive behaviors based on prior social interactions. However, it remains to be determined how male social experience that culminates in mating with a female impacts subsequent male reproductive behaviors and mating success. Here we show that sexual experience enhances future mating success. Previously mated D. melanogaster males adjust their courtship behaviors and out-compete sexually inexperienced males for copulations. Interestingly, courtship experience alone is not sufficient in providing this competitive advantage, indicating that copulation plays a role in reinforcing this social learning. We also show that females use their sense of hearing to preferentially mate with experienced males when given a choice. Our results demonstrate the ability of previously mated males to learn from their positive sexual experiences and adjust their behaviors to gain a mating advantage. These experienced-based changes in behavior reveal strategies that animals likely use to increase their fecundity in natural competitive environments.

Saleem, Sehresh; Ruggles, Patrick H.; Abbott, Wiley K.; Carney, Ginger E.

2014-01-01

37

Strategic male mating effort and cryptic male choice in a scorpionfly  

Microsoft Academic Search

In animal species with high male mating e¡ort, males often ¢nd themselves in a dilemma: by increasing their mating e¡ort, the gain from each copulation increases but simultaneously reduces available resources and, thus, the opportunity for future copulations. Therefore, we expect males to spend less reproductive resources on matings that provide low reproductive potential, thereby saving resources for future copulations,

Leif Engqvist; Klaus Peter Sauer

2001-01-01

38

The Nucleo-Mitochondrial Conflict in Cytoplasmic Male Sterilities Revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in plants is a classical example of genomic conflict, opposing maternally-inherited cytoplasmic genes (mitochondrial genes in most cases), which induce male sterility, and nuclear genes, which restore male fertility. In natural populations, this type of sex control leads to gynodioecy, that is, the co-occurrence of female and hermaphroditic individuals within a population. According to theoretical models,

Françoise Budar; Pascal Touzet; Rosine De Paepe

2003-01-01

39

Pilot field trials with Aedes albopictus irradiated sterile males in Italian urban areas.  

PubMed

The pilot field studies here presented are part of a long-term research program aimed to develop a cost-effective sterile insect technique (SIT) methodology to suppress Aedes albopictus (Skuse) populations. Aedes albopictus is a mosquito species mainly developing in man-made containers and with an island-like urban and suburban distribution. These two features make the application of the sterile insect technique a possible control strategy. Five trials have been performed in three small towns from 2005 to 2009 (Emilia-Romagna region, northern Italy). Reared male pupae, sexed by a sieving technique allowing the recovery of approximately 26-29% of males, were exposed to gamma rays and immediately released in the field. Adult population density was estimated based on a weekly monitoring of egg density in the ovitraps, whereas induced sterility was estimated by measuring the hatching percentage of weekly collected eggs in SIT and control areas. Results showed that sterile males released at the rate of 896-1,590 males/ha/wk induced a significant sterility level in the local population. In addition, when the sterility level achieved values in the range of 70-80%, a similar reduction also was found for the egg density in the ovitraps. We could estimate that the minimum egg sterility value of 81% should be maintained to obtain suppression of the local population. Immigration of mated females was not a main issue in the small villages where trials have been run. PMID:23540120

Bellini, R; Medici, A; Puggioli, A; Balestrino, F; Carrieri, M

2013-03-01

40

Density-dependent male mating harassment, female resistance, and male mimicry.  

PubMed

Genetic variation in female resistance and tolerance to male mating harassment can affect the outcome of sexually antagonistic mating interactions. We investigated female mating rates and male mating harassment in natural populations of a damselfly (Ischnura elegans). This damselfly species has a heritable sex-limited polymorphism in females, where one of the morphs is a male mimic (androchrome females). The three female morphs differ in mating rates, and these differences are stable across populations and years. However, the degree of premating resistance toward male mating attempts varied across generations and populations. Male mating harassment of the female morphs changed in a density-dependent fashion, suggesting that male mate preferences are plastic and vary with the different morph densities. We quantified morph differences in male mating harassment and female fecundity, using path analysis and structural equation modeling. We found variation between the morphs in the fitness consequences of mating, with the fecundity of one of the nonmimetic morphs declining with increasing male mating harassment. However, androchrome females had lower overall fecundity, presumably reflecting a cost of male mimicry. Density-dependent male mating harassment on the morphs and fecundity costs of male mimicry are thus likely to contribute to the maintenance of this female polymorphism. PMID:19382852

Gosden, Thomas P; Svensson, Erik I

2009-06-01

41

Mate guarding and gallivanting by male hoary marmots ( Marmota caligata )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven years data on the vernal behavior of hoarty marmots, Marmota caligata, suggest that males engage in a two-part reproductive strategy, which consists of guarding their mates against possible copulation with additional males, and also gallivanting — wandering about in search of additional reproductive opportunities for themselves. Data are presented which support seven predictions derived from the assumption that mate

David P. Barash

1981-01-01

42

Male satin bowerbird problem-solving ability predicts mating success  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mate choice and mate attraction are important behaviours influencing the evolution of elaborate traits. It is possible that male general cognitive performance plays an important role in sexual attractiveness, but there has been no direct test of this hypothesis. Satin bowerbirds,Ptilonorhynchus violaceus, are an excellent species for testing this hypothesis because their complex male courtship, including use of decorations of

Jason Keagy; Jean-François Savard; Gerald Borgia

2009-01-01

43

Sensory regulation of C. elegans male mate-searching behaviour  

PubMed Central

Summary How do animals integrate internal drives and external environmental cues to coordinate behaviours? We address this question studying mate-searching behaviour in C. elegans. C. elgans males explore their environment in search of mates (hermaphrodites) and will leave food if mating partners are absent. However, when mates and food coincide, male exploratory behaviour is suppressed and males are retained on the food source. We show that the drive to explore is stimulated by male specific neurons in the tail, the ray neurons. Periodic contact with the hermaphrodite detected through ray neurons changes the male’s behaviour during periods of no contact and prevents the male from leaving the food source. The hermaphrodite signal is conveyed by male-specific interneurons that are post-synaptic to the rays and that send processes to the major integrative center in the head. This study identifies key parts of the neural circuit that regulates a sexual appetitive behaviour in C. elegans.

Barrios, Arantza; Nurrish, Stephen; Emmons, Scott W.

2009-01-01

44

Dual reproductive cost of aging in male medflies: dramatic decrease in mating competitiveness and gradual reduction in mating performance  

PubMed Central

Although age-based effects on the reproductive success of males have been reported in several animal taxa the cost of aging on male mating success in lekking species has not been fully explored. We used the Mediterranean fruit fly, a lekking species, to investigate possible cost of aging on male reproductive success. We performed no choice and choice mating tests to test the hypothesis that aging does not affect the mating performance (mating success in conditions lacking competition) or the mating competitiveness (mating success against younger rivals) of males. The mating probability of older males decreased significantly when competing with younger males. Aging gradually reduced the mating performance of males but older males were still accepted as mating partners in conditions lacking competition. Therefore, older males are capable of performing the complete repertoire of sexual performance but fail to be chosen by females in the presence of young rivals. Older males achieved shorter copulations than younger ones, and female readiness to mate was negatively affected by male age. Older and younger males transferred similar amount of spermatozoids to female spermathecae. Females stored spermatozoids asymmetrically in the two spermathecae regardless the age of their mating partner. Aging positively affected the amount of spermatozoids in testes of both mated and non mated males. No significant differences were observed on the amount of spermatozoids between mated and non mated males.

Papanastasiou, Stella A.; Diamantidis, Alexandros D.; Nakas, Christos T.; Carey, James R.; Papadopoulos, Nikos T.

2011-01-01

45

Effects of age and size on Anopheles gambiae s.s. male mosquito mating success.  

PubMed

Before the release of genetically-modified or sterile male mosquitoes in an attempt to control local populations of malaria vectors, it is crucial to determine male traits involved in mating success. The effects of male size and age as determinants of male mating success in Anopheles gambiae s.s. were measured in the field and under laboratory conditions in Burkina Faso. First, the body sizes (estimated by wing length) of mating, swarming, and indoor-resting male mosquitoes were compared over a 3-yr period (2006-2009) from July to October in Soumousso and Vallée du Kou, two villages in western Burkina Faso. Second, the age structure of swarming and resting male mosquitoes were characterized based on the number of spermatocysts and the proportion of sperm in the reservoir of wild-caught male testis. Third, male age effects on the insemination rate of female An. gambiae were investigated in the laboratory. The mean size of males collected in copula was significantly larger than the mean for swarming males and indoor-resting males. The optimum male age for successful insemination of females was 4-8 d. These results suggest that male size is an important trait in determining male mating competitiveness in the field. Although age was not found to be a significant factor in mating competitiveness, it was significantly correlated with swarming behaviors in the field and insemination success in the laboratory. The implications of these results in terms of sexual selection in An. gambiae and vector control programs are further discussed. PMID:23540115

Sawadogo, Simon P; Diabaté, Abdoulaye; Toé, Hyacinthe K; Sanon, Antoine; Lefevre, Thierry; Baldet, Thierry; Gilles, Jeremie; Simard, Frederic; Gibson, Gabriella; Sinkins, Stevens; Dabiré, Roch K

2013-03-01

46

Male Financial Consumption is Associated with Higher Mating Intentions and Mating Success  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cross-culturally, male economic power is directly related to reproductive success. Displays of wealth and social status are an important part of human male mating effort. The degree of male financial consumption may be related to variance in life history strategies, as differences in life history patterns are fundamentally differences in the allocation of effort and\\/or resources. Males who have higher

Daniel J. Kruger

47

Alternative Mating Tactics and Extreme Male Dimorphism in Fig Wasps  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dimorphisms in morphology and behaviour of male fig wasps are among the most extreme in the animal kingdom, and offer excellent opportunities to test the predictions of certain sexual selection models. Winged males resemble their conspecific females closely, but wingless males are so divergent in form that they have repeatedly been classified into different taxa. Wingless males mate within

James M. Cook; Steven G. Compton; E. Allen Herre; Stuart A. West

1997-01-01

48

Spatial distribution and male mating success of Anopheles gambiae swarms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  \\u000a Anopheles gambiae mates in flight at particular mating sites over specific landmarks known as swarm markers. The swarms are composed of males;\\u000a females typically approach a swarm, and leave in copula. This mating aggregation looks like a lek, but appears to lack the component of female choice. To investigate the possible\\u000a mechanisms promoting the evolution of swarming in this

Abdoulaye Diabaté; Alpha S Yaro; Adama Dao; Moussa Diallo; Diana L Huestis; Tovi Lehmann

2011-01-01

49

Associations between body morphology, mating success and mate preferences among Slovak males and females.  

PubMed

Human body morphology is thought to be correlated with sexual behaviour and sociosexuality (defined as an increased willingness to engage in sex without commitment) influences the perception of certain cues of physical attractiveness. Based on a sample of Slovak university students, we investigated relationships between 1) male and female mating success and reported body morphology (body mass index, BMI and waist-to-hip ratio, WHR) and 2) mate preference characteristics and mating success. Both males and females reported a similar number of long-term sexual partners and frequency of engaging in extra-pair copulation (EPC). The mating success of both sexes was positively mediated by self-perceived attractiveness. However, female BMI was inversely associated with mating success whereas increasing BMI was positively associated with male mating success (the total number of lifetime sexual partners) as well as with the likelihood of engaging in EPC. Unrestricted sociosexuality positively correlated with direct and indirect benefits from mating and negatively with the religious/political background of a potential mate and with the desire for a home/ children. These results confirm the hypothesis that human body morphology is associated with sexual behaviour and that cues of direct/indirect benefits in a potential mate positively correlate with sociosexuality. PMID:23980387

Prokop, Pavol; Fedor, Peter

2013-01-01

50

Inaccurate mate recognition as a mating strategy of a 'pioneer male'  

PubMed Central

Heterosubspecific mating experiments were carried out between two subspecies of cabbage butterflies, British Pieris rapae rapae and Japanese P. rapae crucivora, to examine how accurately males recognize the mates. The two subspecies are different in that the wings of female P. rapae rapae reflect little UV light, whereas those of female P. rapae crucivora are strongly UV-reflective. The wing colouration of P. rapae crucivora involving UV is believed to be critical in mate recognition. The results showed that males of both subspecies displayed mating behaviours, to and copulated with, females of both subspecies. Furthermore, P. rapae crucivora males exhibited mating behaviours and attempted to copulate with females of Pieris melete with low UV reflectance which are critically different from P. rapae crucivora females with high UV reflectance. Based on these findings, we propose the “pioneer male” hypothesis, which argues that such inaccurate mate recognition may sometimes be selectively beneficial for males and thus an adaptive mating strategy. The “pioneer male” was discussed in terms of its possible role in the evolution.

Obara, Yoshiaki; Majerus, Mike E. N.

2009-01-01

51

Mating behavior and mate recognition pheromone blocking of male receptors in Brachionus plicatilis Müller (Rotifera)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Copulatory behavior of three S and three L type B. plicatilis strains from different geographic areas was analyzed. A 29 KD surface glycoprotein on females, characterized as a Mate Recognition Pheromone (MRP), binds to receptors in the corona of males and blocks mate recognition. Blocking was observed in all S and L strains even though the MRP was isolated from

Roberto Rico-Martinez; Terry W. Snell

1995-01-01

52

Risk-taking as a situationally sensitive male mating strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evolutionary theorists suggest that men engage in risk-taking more than women do in part because, throughout human evolutionary history, men have faced greater sexual selection pressures. We build on this idea by testing the hypothesis that risk-taking reflects a male mating strategy that is sensitive to characteristics of a potential mate. Consistent with this hypothesis, the current experiment demonstrated a

Michael D. Baker; Jon K. Maner

2008-01-01

53

Genetics and cytology of a genic male-sterile, female-sterile mutant from a transposon-containing soybean population  

Microsoft Academic Search

A male-sterile, female-sterile soybean mutant (w4-m sterile) was identified among progeny of germinal revertants of a gene-tagging study. Our objectives were to determine the genetics (inheritance, allelism, and linkage) and the cytology (micro- sporogenesis and microgametogenesis) of the w4-m sterile. The mutant was in- herited as a single recessive nuclear gene and was nonallelic to known male-sterile, female-sterile mutants st2

R. G. Palmer; H. T. Horner

2000-01-01

54

Male Phenotypes and Mating Efficiency in CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS  

PubMed Central

Mating behavior in adult male nematodes can be assayed by mating efficiency, i.e., the number of cross progeny sired by males under standard conditions. Mutant males from 220 strains, representing most of the known complementation groups of C. elegans, have been examined for mating efficiency and for anatomical abnormalities of the specialized male copulatory organs. These data extend the phenotypic description of these mutants and indicate what anatomical and behavioral components are necessary for the ability to mate successfully. Also, mutants with specific defects in the male were sought by establishing superficially wild-type hermaphrodite stocks after mutagenesis and testing the males segregated by these stocks for mating efficiency. Forty-nine of 1119 stocks yielded abnormal males. Seventeen were characterized in detail and found to be abnormal in sensory behavior (carrying mutations in the genes che-2 or che-3) or male genital anatomy (carrying mutations in one of the genes mab-1 to mab-10). Four of the mab (male abnormal) genes affect specific postembryonic cell lineages.

Hodgkin, Jonathan

1983-01-01

55

Alternative male mating tactics in garter snakes, Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative mating strategies occur in many animal lineages, often because males adopt tactics best suited to their own phenotypes or to spatiotemporal heterogeneity in the distribution of females. Garter snakes near a communal overwintering den in Manitoba show courtship in two contexts: competition from rival males is intense close to the den, but weak or absent when males court solitary

RICHARD SHINE; T RACY LANGKILDE; M ICHAEL WALL; ROBERT T. MASON

2005-01-01

56

Determinants of male mating success in a scorpion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scorpion, Euscorpiusflavicaudis, occurs in a large, well established colony at Sheerness in Kent. Males exhibit a life-history polymorphism: some males mature at the sixth instar, and some delay maturity until the seventh. The reproductive ecology of this population was studied, both at Sheerness and in the laboratory. Males became vagrant before the mating season, and searched for 'cracks' occupied

T. G. BENTON

1992-01-01

57

A Dominant Gene for Male Sterility in Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge  

PubMed Central

A natural male sterile mutant of Salvia miltiorrhiza (Labiatae, Sh-B) was found during field survey in 2002. Our objective was to analyze its genetic mechanism for producing F1 hybrid seeds and to develop a molecular marker linked to male sterile gene for selection of a hybrid parent line. The segregation ratios of male sterile plants to fertile plants in the progenies of both testcross and backcross were 1:1 in continuous experiments conducted in 2006–2009. The male sterile Sh-B was heterozygous (Msms). The male sterile plants could capture most pollen (2 granule/cm2·24 h) with row ratio (female : male 2 : 1) within 45-cm distance and harvest the largest amount of 6495 g hybrid seeds per hectare. We also developed DNA markers linked to the male sterile gene in a segregating population using bulked segregant analysis (BSA) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) techniques. The segregating population was subjected to BSA-AFLP with 128 primer combinations. One out of fourteen AFLP markers (E11/M4208) was identified as tightly linked to the dominant male sterile gene with a recombination frequency of 6.85% and at a distance of 6.89 cM. This marker could be converted to PCR-based assay for large-scale selection of fertile plants in MAS (marker-assisted selection) at the seedling stage. Blastn analysis indicated that the male sterile gene sequence showed higher identity with nucleotides in Arabidopsis chromosome 1–5, and was more likely to encode S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferase, in which DNA methylation regulated the development of plant gametogenesis.

Mu, Xiaoqian; Liang, Zongsuo; Guo, Hongbo

2012-01-01

58

MATING SEASONALITY IN CASTRATED MALE RHESUS MONKEYS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many species of non-human primates have relatively discrete breeding seasons. Under free-ranging conditions, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) mate most frequently during November to January in North India (Prakash, 1962; Southwick, Beg & Siddiqi, 1965; Lindburg, 1971), during September to November on Cayo Santiago (Conaway & Koford, 1964; Loy, 1971) and during November to December at La Parguera in the Caribbean

RICHARD P. MICHAEL; MARGO I. WILSON

1975-01-01

59

Sequential male mate choice in a fish, the Pacific blue-eye Pseudomugil signifer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mate choice is not just a female preoccupation. Under some circumstances, males may also be choosy. However, studies of male mate choice have generally been confined to situations where males can make direct comparisons between potential partners. In contrast, sequential male mate choice has largely been overlooked despite its biologically importance, especially if current investment in mate attraction diminishes a

Bob B. M. Wong; Michael D. Jennions; J. Scott Keogh

2004-01-01

60

Male mating behaviour and mating systems of bees:an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable interspecific diversity exists among bees in the rendezvous sites where males search for females and in the behaviours employed by males in their efforts to secure matings. I present an evolutionary framework in which to interpret this variation, and highlight the importance for the framework of (i) the distribution of receptive (typically immediate post-emergence) females, which ordinarily translates into

Robert John Paxton

2005-01-01

61

Courtship feeding in katydids benefits the mating male's offspring  

Microsoft Academic Search

For species exhibiting courtship feeding it is typically argued that the food gift presented by males is a sexually-selected trait in serving to acquire fertilizations. An alternative hypothesis is that the trait is maintained by natural selection for parental investment in which the fitness of the mating male's offspring is increased. Here I argue that the spermatophylax, a nutritious part

D. T. Gwynne

1988-01-01

62

Low-oxygen atmospheric treatment improves the performance of irradiation-sterilized male cactus moths used in SIT.  

PubMed

As part of sterile insect technique (SIT) programs, irradiation can effectively induce sterility in insects by damaging genomic DNA. However, irradiation also induces other off-target side effects that reduce the quality and performance of sterilized males. Thus, treatments that reduce off-target effects of irradiation on male performance while maintaining sterility can improve the feasibility and economy of SIT programs. Exposure to ionizing radiation induces the formation of damaging free radicals in biological systems that may reduce sterile male performance. Here, we test whether exposure to an anoxic environment for 1 h before and during irradiation improves male performance, while maintaining sterility in males of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg). We show that exposure to 1 h of anoxia increases the moth's antioxidant capacity and that irradiation in anoxia after 1 h of anoxic conditioning decreases irradiation-induced oxidative damage to the moth's lipids and proteins. Anoxia treatment that reduced oxidative damage after irradiation also produced moths with greater flight performance, mating success, and longevity, while maintaining F1 male sterility at acceptable levels for SIT. We conclude that anoxia pretreatment followed by irradiation in anoxia is an efficient way to improve the quality of irradiated moths and perhaps lower the number of moths needed for release SIT moth operations. PMID:24665701

López-Martínez, Giancarlo; Carpenter, James E; Hight, Stephen D; Hahn, Daniel A

2014-02-01

63

DNA Loss at the Ceratocystis fimbriata Mating Locus Results in Self-Sterility  

PubMed Central

Fungi have evolved a remarkable diversity of reproductive strategies. Some of these, most notably those of the model fungi, have been well studied but others are poorly understood. The latter is also true for uni-directional mating type switching, which has been reported in only five fungal genera, including Ceratocystis. Mating type switching allows a self-fertile fungal isolate to produce both self-fertile and self-sterile offspring. This study considered the molecular nature of uni-directional mating type switching in the type species of Ceratocystis, C. fimbriata. To do this, the genome of C. fimbriata was first examined for the presence of mating type genes. Three mating genes (MAT1-1-1, MAT1-2-1 and MAT1-1-2) were found in an atypical organisation of the mating type locus. To study the effect that uni-directional switching has on this locus, several self-sterile offspring were analysed. Using a combination of next generation and conventional Sanger sequencing, it was shown that a 3581 base pair (bp) region had been completely deleted from the MAT locus. This deletion, which includes the entire MAT1-2-1 gene, results in the permanent loss of self-fertility, rendering these isolates exclusively self-sterile. Our data also suggest that the deletion mechanism is tightly controlled and that it always occurs at the same genomic position. Two 260 bp direct repeats flanking the deleted region are strongly implicated in the process, although the exact mechanism behind the switching remains unclear.

Wilken, P. Markus; Steenkamp, Emma T.; Wingfield, Michael J.; de Beer, Z. Wilhelm; Wingfield, Brenda D.

2014-01-01

64

Sugar administration to newly emerged Aedes albopictus males increases their survival probability and mating performance.  

PubMed

Aedes albopictus male survival in laboratory cages is no more than 4-5 days when kept without any access to sugar indicating their need to feed on a sugar source soon after emergence. We therefore developed a device to administer energetic substances to newly emerged males when released as pupae as part of a sterile insect technique (SIT) programme, made with a polyurethane sponge 4 cm thick and perforated with holes 2 cm in diameter. The sponge was imbibed with the required sugar solution and due to its high retention capacity the sugar solution was available for males to feed for at least 48 h. When evaluated in lab cages, comparing adults emerged from the device with sugar solution vs the device with water only (as negative control), about half of the males tested positive for fructose using the Van Handel anthrone test, compared to none of males in the control cage. We then tested the tool in semi-field and in field conditions with different sugar concentrations (10%, 15%, and 20%) and compared results to the controls fed with water only. Males were recaptured by a battery operated manual aspirator at 24 and 48 h after pupae release. Rather high share 10-25% of captured males tested positive for fructose in recollections in the vicinity of the control stations, while in the vicinity of the sugar stations around 40-55% of males were positive, though variability between replicates was large. The sugar positive males in the control test may have been released males that had access to natural sugar sources found close to the release station and/or wild males present in the environment. Only a slight increase in the proportion of positive males was obtained by increasing the sugar concentration in the feeding device from 10% to 20%. Surprisingly, modification of the device to add a black plastic inverted funnel above the container reduced rather than increased the proportion of fructose positive males collected around the station. No evidence of difference in the capacity of sterile (irradiated with 30 Gy) males to take a sugar meal relative to fertile males was observed in field comparison. A clear effect of temperature and relative humidity (RH) on the rate of sugar positive males was observed, with an increase of temperature and a decrease in RH strongly increasing the % of sugar positive males. In large enclosures we tested the effect of our sugar supplying tool on the mating competitiveness of sterile vs fertile males, which produced an evident favorable effect both on sterile and fertile males. PMID:24299923

Bellini, Romeo; Puggioli, Arianna; Balestrino, Fabrizio; Brunelli, Paolo; Medici, Anna; Urbanelli, Sandra; Carrieri, Marco

2014-04-01

65

Male sterile mutant from somatic cell culture of rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using MS medium supplemented with 6% sucrose and hormones, plantlets were regenerated from the expiants of mature seeds and young panicles of IRs and IR54. Out of 157 regenerated plants (R1), three were found to be male sterile (ms): one from IRs and two from IR54, including a fertile and sterile chimaera. In the second generations (R2) of IR24 and

D. H. Ling; Z. R. Ma; W. Y. Chen; M. F. Chen

1987-01-01

66

The mating system of a bee fly (Diptera: Bombyliidae). II. Factors affecting male territorial and mating success  

Microsoft Academic Search

Males of an undescribed bombyliidfly (Comptosia sp.)occupy traditional territories on a Southeast Queensland hilltop, to which females come solely for the purpose of mating. Territorial fights between males involve aerial collisions during which modified spines on the wing margins produce scars on the bodies of opponents. Territory owners and mating males are not different in size or age from the

Gary Dodson; David Yeates

1990-01-01

67

Male care and mating effort among Hadza foragers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paternal care figures prominently in many scenarios of human evolution. Recently, however, such scenarios have been challenged\\u000a on two scores. First, the level of male contribution may be insignificant. Second, male care may be provided as a form of\\u000a mating effort, rather than parenting effort. In theory, since men can enhance their Darwinian fitness both by providing care\\u000a to their

Frank Marlowe

1999-01-01

68

Chemosensory cues allow male Tenebrio molitor beetles to assess the reproductive status of potential mates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Males of many insect species, including beetles, choose their mates according to their reproductive status. However, the ways in which male beetles evaluate female reproductive status have received little attention. We tested the existence of male mate choice in the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor, by observing mating and courtship behaviour of males given simultaneous access to pairs of females differing

P. Carazo; E. Sanchez; E. Desfilis

2004-01-01

69

Sterilization.  

PubMed

Sterilization is accepted as a permanent method of contraception by many couples in the world. Female sterilization is more widely used than male sterilization, but the latter is used by many couples in developed countries. The most widely used methods for female sterilization are simple tubal ligation, electrocautery of the fallopian tubes, and occlusion of the tubes by Hulka or Filshie clips or Falope rings. These procedures may be carried out either by minilaparotomy or by laparoscopy, under local anaesthesia. Sterilization may be performed immediately following pregnancy, or as an interval operation. The effectiveness of female sterilization is high, with failure rates of about 1-2 per 1000 procedures. Immediate complications are few and minor, while there appear to be no serious, long-term adverse effects. It is possible that there is a protective effect against ovarian cancer. Potential new technologies for female sterilization include the use of chemicals, such as quinacrine, for transcervical tubal occlusion, and hysteroscopic methods. Male sterilization is more simple and can readily be performed under local anaesthesia. A new technique originating in China, the no-scalpel technique, has made the procedure even more simple and produces fewer complications such as haematoma. It is possible that the direct injection of plug-forming material into the vas may render the procedure more reversible. Concerns about possible adverse effects of vasectomy on cardiovascular diseases and testicular cancer largely have been dispelled, but a possible weak association between vasectomy and prostatic cancer continues to be studied. PMID:8736725

Wilson, E W

1996-04-01

70

Use of Rapid Quality Control in Determining Mating Propensity and Mating Competitiveness of Irradiated Mediterranean Fruit Flies. Ceratitis Capitata (Wiedeman) at Various Ages.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Success of using irradiation to sterile males of various insect species for control or eradication by the sterile-insect release technique requires a certain dose for sterilizing without effects on mating behavior. This study was conducted at the Tropical...

R. Poramarcom R. M. Kobayashi

1983-01-01

71

Swarming and mating behavior of a mayfly Baetis bicaudatus suggest stabilizing selection for male body size  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large size often confers a fitness advantage to female insects because fecundity increases with body size. However, the fitness benefits of large size for male insects are less clear. We investigated the mating behavior of the mayfly Baetis bicaudatus to determine whether the probability of male mating success increased with body size. Males formed mating aggregations (swarms) ranging from a

Barbara L. Peckarsky; Angus R. McIntosh; Christopher C. Caudill; Jonas Dahl

2002-01-01

72

Genetics and Evolution of Hybrid Male Sterility in House Mice  

PubMed Central

Comparative genetic mapping provides insights into the evolution of the reproductive barriers that separate closely related species. This approach has been used to document the accumulation of reproductive incompatibilities over time, but has only been applied to a few taxa. House mice offer a powerful system to reconstruct the evolution of reproductive isolation between multiple subspecies pairs. However, studies of the primary reproductive barrier in house mice—hybrid male sterility—have been restricted to a single subspecies pair: Mus musculus musculus and Mus musculus domesticus. To provide a more complete characterization of reproductive isolation in house mice, we conducted an F2 intercross between wild-derived inbred strains from Mus musculus castaneus and M. m. domesticus. We identified autosomal and X-linked QTL associated with a range of hybrid male sterility phenotypes, including testis weight, sperm density, and sperm morphology. The pseudoautosomal region (PAR) was strongly associated with hybrid sterility phenotypes when heterozygous. We compared QTL found in this cross with QTL identified in a previous F2 intercross between M. m. musculus and M. m. domesticus and found three shared autosomal QTL. Most QTL were not shared, demonstrating that the genetic basis of hybrid male sterility largely differs between these closely related subspecies pairs. These results lay the groundwork for identifying genes responsible for the early stages of speciation in house mice.

White, Michael A.; Stubbings, Maria; Dumont, Beth L.; Payseur, Bret A.

2012-01-01

73

Mating advantage for rare males in wild guppy populations.  

PubMed

To understand the processes that maintain genetic diversity is a long-standing challenge in evolutionary biology, with implications for predicting disease resistance, response to environmental change, and population persistence. Simple population genetic models are not sufficient to explain the high levels of genetic diversity sometimes observed in ecologically important traits. In guppies (Poecilia reticulata), male colour pattern is both diverse and heritable, and is arguably one of the most extreme examples of morphological polymorphism known. Negative frequency-dependent selection (NFDS), a form of selection in which genotypes are favoured when they are rare, can potentially maintain such extensive polymorphism, but few experimental studies have confirmed its operation in nature. Here we use highly replicated experimental manipulations of natural populations to show that males with rare colour patterns have higher reproductive fitness, demonstrating NFDS mediated by sexual selection. Rare males acquired more mates and sired more offspring compared to common males and, as previously reported, had higher rates of survival. Orange colour, implicated in other studies of sexual selection in guppies, did predict male reproductive success, but only in one of three populations. These data support the hypothesis that NFDS maintains diversity in the colour patterns of male guppies through two selective agents, mates and predators. Similar field-based manipulations of genotype frequencies could provide a powerful approach to reveal the underlying ecological and behavioural mechanisms that maintain genetic and phenotypic diversity. PMID:24172904

Hughes, Kimberly A; Houde, Anne E; Price, Anna C; Rodd, F Helen

2013-11-01

74

Mating tactics and socioecology of male white-bellied spider monkeys (Ateles belzebuth chamek)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male mating strategies depend on female dispersion in space and time, male-male competition, and sexual conflict between males and females, all of which influence male access to females. In this study, social behavior and range use data are used to further our understanding of the mating tactics, inter-sexual conflict, and territoriality of the spider monkey. Data were gathered during nearly

KIMBERLY NICOLE GIBSON

75

Transfer of wild abortive cytoplasmic male sterility through protoplast fusion in rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wild abortive cytoplasmic male sterility has been extensively used in hybrid seed production in the tropics. Using protoplast fusion between cytoplasmic male sterile and fertile maintainer lines; we report here, transfer of wild abortive cytoplasmic male sterility to the nuclear background of RCPL1-2C, an advance breeding line which also served as maintainer of this cytoplasm. In total, 27 putative cybrids

Bijoya Bhattacharjee; Aniruddha P. Sane; Hari S. Gupta

1999-01-01

76

Several nuclear genes control both male sterility and mitochondrial protein synthesis in Nicotiana sylvestris protoclones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male sterile plants appeared in the progeny of three fertile plants obtained after one cycle of protoplast culture from a fertile botanical line and two androgenetic lines ofNicotiana sylvestris. These plants showed the same foliar and floral abnormalities as the cytoplasmic male sterile (cms) mitochondrial variants obtained after two cycles of culture. We show that male sterility in these plants

R. De Paepe; P. Chétrit; V. Vitart; F. Ambard-Bretteville; D. Prat; F. Vedel

1990-01-01

77

Complex determination of male sterility in Thymus vulgaris L.: genetic and molecular analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nucleocytoplasmic determination of male sterility in Thymus vulgaris L. has been assumed in all papers attempting to explain the remarkably high frequencies of male steriles found in natural populations of this species. This paper provides strong evidence that both nuclear and cytoplasmic genes are involved in the determination of male sterility of this species, giving a complex inheritance. Interpopulation and

E. Belhassen; B. Dommée; A. Atlan; P. H. Gouyon; D. Pomente; M. W. Assouad; D. Couvet

1991-01-01

78

Modified complementation test of male sterility mutants in pepper ( Capsicum annuum L.): preliminary study to convert male sterility system from GMS to CMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The male sterility system in hybrid seed production can eliminate the cost of emasculation and ensure seed hybridity through\\u000a avoidance of self pollination. GMS and CMS are two types of male sterility system that currently employed in pepper breeding.\\u000a Conversion from GMS to CMS will increase the male sterility proportion of female parent from 50 to 100%. In this study,

Mulyantoro; Shu-Yun Chen; Andi Wahyono; Hsin-Mei Ku

2009-01-01

79

Sexual Conflict: Males with Highest Mating Success Convey the Lowest Fertilization Benefits to Females  

Microsoft Academic Search

In natural populations of a coral reef fish (the bluehead wrasse, Thalassoma bifasciatum), males with the highest daily mating success produce the fewest sperm per mating, and this is reflected in significantly lower fertilization rates. The average amount released by males in pair-mating was 3.3 × 106 spermatozoa, resulting in a fertilization rate of 96%. Sperm released per spawn declined

Robert R. Warner; Douglas Y. Shapiro; Andrea Marcanato; Christopher W. Petersen

1995-01-01

80

Courtship tactics in garter snakes: how do a male's morphology and behaviour influence his mating success?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behavioural determinants of male mating success play a pivotal role in sexual selection, but remain poorly known for most kinds of organisms, including most reptiles. In Manitoba, Canada, large numbers of red-sided garter snakes, Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis, court and mate in early spring near communal overwintering dens. To understand how a male's morphology and behaviour might influence his mating

Richard Shine; Tracy Langkilde; ROBERT T. MASON

2004-01-01

81

Male Mating Competitiveness of a Wolbachia-Introgressed Aedes polynesiensis Strain under Semi-Field Conditions  

PubMed Central

Background Lymphatic filariasis (LF), a global public health problem affecting approximately 120 million people worldwide, is a leading cause of disability in the developing world including the South Pacific. Despite decades of ongoing mass drug administration (MDA) in the region, some island nations have not yet achieved the threshold levels of microfilaremia established by the World Health Organization for eliminating transmission. Previously, the generation of a novel Aedes polynesiensis strain (CP) infected with an exogenous type of Wolbachia has been described. The CP mosquito is cytoplasmically incompatible (i.e., effectively sterile) when mated with wildtype mosquitoes, and a strategy was proposed for the control of A. polynesiensis populations by repeated, inundative releases of CP males to disrupt fertility of wild females. Such a strategy could lead to suppression of the vector population and subsequently lead to a reduction in the transmission of filarial worms. Methodology/Principal Findings CP males and F1 male offspring from wild-caught A. polynesiensis females exhibit near equal mating competitiveness with F1 females under semi-field conditions. Conclusions/Significance While laboratory experiments are important, prior projects have demonstrated the need for additional testing under semi-field conditions in order to recognize problems before field implementation. The results reported here from semi-field experiments encourage forward progression toward small-scale field releases.

Bossin, Herve; Dobson, Stephen L.

2011-01-01

82

Male mating performance and cytoplasmic incompatibility in a wPip Wolbachia trans-infected line of Aedes albopictus (Stegomyia albopicta).  

PubMed

Wolbachia pipientis Hertig (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) is a maternally inherited endosymbiont of a large number of insects and other arthropods that induces various effects on host reproductive biology. Among these, cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) is a form of sterility induced in eggs produced by mating between infected males and females uninfected or infected by an incompatible Wolbachia strain. This phenomenon has been proposed as a potential way to produce functionally sterile males to be used in genetic control programmes. In this paper, we report on experiments carried out to evaluate the mating performances of males of an Aedes albopictus (Stegomyia albopicta) (Diptera: Culicidae) line (ARwP), harbouring a new Wolbachia infection [the wPip strain from Culex pipiens Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae)], in comparison with naturally infected males (SR line). ARwP males did not differ from SR males with regard to insemination capacity. Mating competitiveness did not differ significantly between lines in either laboratory or greenhouse conditions. Moreover, crosses with SR females were characterized by a 100% CI regardless of ARwP male age. All of these findings suggest that ARwP males may represent a very efficient tool for control programmes against Ae. albopictus based on the release of functionally sterile males. PMID:23171418

Moretti, R; Calvitti, M

2013-12-01

83

AGE-SPECIFIC CAUSES OF MORTALITY AMONG MALE WHITE TAILED DEER SUPPORT MATE-COMPETITION THEORY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mate-competition theory predicts that males will invest resources toward intrasexual competition for mates until reproductive benefits are outweighed by costs to future fitness. In populations that have a substantial proportion of mature males, theory predicts that young males will forego reproduction to reduce exposure to mor- tality that may result from breeding efforts. We examined age-specific mortality of males in

STEPHEN S. DITCHKOFF; EDGAR R. WELCH; ROBERT L. LOCHMILLER; RONALD E. MASTERS; WILLIAM R. STARRY

84

The effect of age on the mating competitiveness of male Glossina fuscipes fuscipes and G. palpalis palpalis  

PubMed Central

The effect of age on male Glossina fuscipes fuscipes, Newstead, and Glossina palpalis palpalis, Austin (Diptera: Glossinidae) competiveness were investigated with a view to estimate optimal age for sterile male release. Sterile insect technique involves the mass production, sterilization and sequential release of males of the target species to out compete the wild male population. Mating between released sterile males and wild females produce inviable progeny and the population is reduced over several generations to unsustainable levels. It is vital that the released male are of high quality and are sexually competitive. Age is one parameter affecting the sexual competiveness of the male tsetse fly. The optimal release age was estimated by assessing sexual competitiveness of flies of different age categories, 1, 5, 8 and 13-days after adult eclosion. A walk-in field-cage was used in order to approximate as closely as possible the actual field scenario during sterile insect release programes. It was shown that 8 and 13-day old males mated significantly more frequently, i.e. were more competitive, in the presence of equal numbers of 1 and 5-day old males. The age of male tsetse flies significantly affected competitiveness in both species studied. The ability of G. f. fuscipes to inseminate was not age dependent, and insemination occurred in all females that mated regardless of male age. In G. p. palpalis, however, 1-day old males were least able to inseminate. Mating duration was not significantly affected by age in both species. Eight to thirteen day old males of the test species are here recommended as the optimal sterile male release age. Résumé L'effet de l'âge sur la compétitivité des mâles de Glossina fuscipes fuscipes et de Glossina palpalis palpalis a été étudié en vue de déterminer l'âge optimal pour le lâcher de mâles stériles. La technique de l'insecte stérile (TIS) consiste en une production de masse, en la stérilisation et au lâchage de mâles de l'espèce cible afin qu'ils competissent avec la population de mâles sauvages. L'accouplement entre mâles stériles lâches et femelles sauvages ne produit pas de progéniture, ce qui conduit au bout de plusieurs générations à une réduction de la population à un niveau non sur vivable. Il est primordial que les mâles lâches soient de bonne qualité et sexuellement compétitifs. L'âge est l'un des paramètres affectant la compétitivité des mouches tsetse mâles. Il était donc nécessaire d'estimer l'âge optimal pour lâcher des mâles en comparant la compétitivité de différentes catégories d?âges (1, 5, 8 et 13 jours après leur émergence). La méthode dite du « field-cage » a été utilisée afin d'étudier le comportement des mâles TIS dans les conditions aussi proches que possible de la réalité. Il a été démontré que les mâles de 8 et 13 jours s'accouplent plus fréquemment que les mâles de 1 a 5 jours. Pour les deux espèces étudiées, l'âge affecte significativement la compétitivité des tsetse mâles. La capacité des mâles de G. f. fuscipes à inséminer n'est pas fonction de l'âge ; toutes les femelles accouplées sont inséminées. Chez G. p. palpalis cependant, les mâles de 1 jours sont les moins inséminées. La durée de l'accouplement n'est pas significativement affectée par l'âge dans les deux espèces. Les mâles de 8 et 13 jours des deux espèces testées sont les plus recommandés pour le lâcher des mâles stériles.

Abila, P. P.; Kiendrebeogo, M.; Mutika, G.N.; Parker, A.G.; Robinson, A.S.

2003-01-01

85

Fine mapping of the recessive genic male-sterile gene (Bnms1) in Brassica napus L.  

PubMed

A recessive genic male sterility (RGMS) system, S45 AB, has been developed from spontaneous mutation in Brassica napus canola variety Oro, and is being used for hybrid cultivar development in China. The male sterility of S45 was controlled by two duplicated recessive genes, named as Bnms1 and Bnms2. In this study, a NIL (near-isogenic line) population from the sib-mating of S45 AB was developed and used for the fine mapping of the Bnms1 gene, in which the recessive allele was homozygous at the second locus. AFLP technology combined with BSA (bulked segregant analysis) was used. From a survey of 2,560 primer combinations (+3/+3 selective bases), seven AFLP markers linked closely to the target gene were identified, of which four were successfully converted to sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers. For further analysis, a population of 1,974 individuals was used to map the Bnms1 gene. On the fine map, Bnms1 gene was flanked by two SCAR markers, SC1 and SC7, with genetic distance of 0.1 cM and 0.3 cM, respectively. SC1 was subsequently mapped on linkage group N7 using doubled-haploid mapping populations derived from the crosses Tapidor x Ningyou7 and DH 821 x DHBao 604, available at IMSORB, UK, and our laboratory, respectively. Linkage of an SSR marker, Na12A02, with the Bnms1 gene further confirmed its location on linkage group N7. Na12A02, 2.6 cM away from Bnms1, was a co-dominant marker. These molecular markers developed from this research will facilitate the marker-assisted selection of male sterile lines and the fine map lays a solid foundation for map-based cloning of the Bnms1 gene. PMID:16804725

Yi, Bin; Chen, Yuning; Lei, Shaolin; Tu, Jinxing; Fu, Tingdong

2006-08-01

86

Poisson distribution of male mating success in laboratory populations of Drosophila melanogaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Variation among males and females in reproductive success is a major determinant of eective population size. Most studies of male mating success in Drosophila, however, have been done under conditions very dierent from those in typical cultures. We determined the distribution of male mating success in five laboratory populations of D. melanogaster maintained on a 1 4d , discrete

AMITABH JOSHI; MICHAEL H. DO; LAURENCE D. MUELLER

1999-01-01

87

Female sticklebacks use male coloration in mate choice and hence avoid parasitized males  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AN important problem in evolutionary biology since the time of Darwin has been to understand why females preferentially mate with males handicapped by secondary sexual ornaments1-3. One hypothesis of sexual selection theory is that these ornaments reliably reveal the male's condition4-6, which can be affected for example by parasites4,7-13. Here we show that in the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) the intensity of male red breeding coloration positively correlates with physical condition. Gravid females base their active mate choice on the intensity of the male's red coloration. Choice experiments under green light prevent the use of red colour cues by females, and males that were previously preferred are now chosen no more than randomly, although the courtship behaviour of the males remains unchanged. Parasitieation causes a deterioration in the males' condition and a decrease in the intensity of their red coloration. Tests under both lighting conditions reveal that the females recognize the formerly parasitized males by the lower intensity of their breeding coloration. Female sticklebacks possibly select a male with a good capacity for paternal care14 but if there is additive genetic variation for parasite resistance, then they might also select for resistance genes, as proposed by Hamilton and Zuk4.

Milinski, Manfred; Bakker, Theo C. M.

1990-03-01

88

Male mating history and body size influence female fecundity and longevity of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti.  

PubMed

Male reproductive success is dependent on insemination success and reproductive output. During mating, male mosquitoes transfer not just sperm, but also seminal fluid proteins that may have profound effects on mated female biology and behavior. In this study, we investigated the role of male body size and mating history on semen depletion, female longevity, and reproductive success in Aedes aegypti L. Small and large males were mated in rapid succession with up to five females. Our results indicate that large males had greater mating capacity than small males. A reduction in fecundity by >50% was observed in females that were fourth to mate with small males in comparison with females that mated earlier in sequence. For females mated to large males, this reduction became evident for females that mated fifth in sequence. No loss of fertility (measured as hatch rate) was observed in females that were third-fifth in mating sequence compared with females mated to virgin males. When females were maintained on a low-quality (5% sucrose) diet, those mated to virgin males had a greater longevity compared with females mated third in sequence. We conclude that small males experience more rapid seminal depletion than large males, and discuss the role of semen depletion in the mated female. Our results contribute toward a better understanding of the complexity of Ae. aegypti mating biology and provide refined estimates of mating capacity for genetic control efforts. PMID:21485355

Helinski, Michelle E H; Harrington, Laura C

2011-03-01

89

The Effects of Perceived Mating Opportunities on Patterns of Reproductive Investment by Male Guppies  

PubMed Central

Males pay considerable reproductive costs in acquiring mates (precopulatory sexual selection) and in producing ejaculates that are effective at fertilising eggs in the presence of competing ejaculates (postcopulatory sexual selection). Given these costs, males must balance their reproductive investment in a given mating to optimise their future reproductive potential. Males are therefore expected to invest in reproduction prudently according to the likelihood of obtaining future matings. In this study we tested this prediction by determining whether male reproductive investment varies with expected future mating opportunities, which were experimentally manipulated by visually exposing male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) to high or low numbers of females in the absence of competing males. Our experiment did not reveal consistent effects of perceived future mating opportunity on either precopulatory (male mate choice and mating behaviour) or postcopulatory (sperm quality and quantity) investment. However, we did find that male size and female availability interacted to influence mating behaviour; large males visually deprived of females during the treatment phase became more choosy and showed greater interest in their preferred female than those given continuous visual access to females. Overall, our results suggest males tailor pre- rather than postcopulatory traits according to local female availability, but critically, these effects depend on male size.

Barrett, Luke T.; Evans, Jonathan P.; Gasparini, Clelia

2014-01-01

90

The effects of perceived mating opportunities on patterns of reproductive investment by male guppies.  

PubMed

Males pay considerable reproductive costs in acquiring mates (precopulatory sexual selection) and in producing ejaculates that are effective at fertilising eggs in the presence of competing ejaculates (postcopulatory sexual selection). Given these costs, males must balance their reproductive investment in a given mating to optimise their future reproductive potential. Males are therefore expected to invest in reproduction prudently according to the likelihood of obtaining future matings. In this study we tested this prediction by determining whether male reproductive investment varies with expected future mating opportunities, which were experimentally manipulated by visually exposing male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) to high or low numbers of females in the absence of competing males. Our experiment did not reveal consistent effects of perceived future mating opportunity on either precopulatory (male mate choice and mating behaviour) or postcopulatory (sperm quality and quantity) investment. However, we did find that male size and female availability interacted to influence mating behaviour; large males visually deprived of females during the treatment phase became more choosy and showed greater interest in their preferred female than those given continuous visual access to females. Overall, our results suggest males tailor pre- rather than postcopulatory traits according to local female availability, but critically, these effects depend on male size. PMID:24705713

Barrett, Luke T; Evans, Jonathan P; Gasparini, Clelia

2014-01-01

91

Male fish use prior knowledge about rivals to adjust their mate choice  

PubMed Central

Mate choice as one element of sexual selection can be sensitive to public information from neighbouring individuals. Here, we demonstrate that males of the livebearing fish Poecilia mexicana gather complex social information when given a chance to familiarize themselves with rivals prior to mate choice. Focal males ceased to show mating preferences when being observed by a rival (which prevents rivals from copying mating decisions), but this effect was only seen when focal males have perceived rivals as sexually active. In addition, focal males that were observed by a familiar, sexually active rival showed a stronger behavioural response when rivals were larger and thus, more attractive to females. Our study illustrates an unparalleled adjustment in the expression of mating preferences based on social cues, and suggests that male fish are able to remember and strategically exploit information about rivals when performing mate choice.

Bierbach, David; Girndt, Antje; Hamfler, Sybille; Klein, Moritz; Mucksch, Frauke; Penshorn, Marina; Schwinn, Michael; Zimmer, Claudia; Schlupp, Ingo; Streit, Bruno; Plath, Martin

2011-01-01

92

Male fish use prior knowledge about rivals to adjust their mate choice.  

PubMed

Mate choice as one element of sexual selection can be sensitive to public information from neighbouring individuals. Here, we demonstrate that males of the livebearing fish Poecilia mexicana gather complex social information when given a chance to familiarize themselves with rivals prior to mate choice. Focal males ceased to show mating preferences when being observed by a rival (which prevents rivals from copying mating decisions), but this effect was only seen when focal males have perceived rivals as sexually active. In addition, focal males that were observed by a familiar, sexually active rival showed a stronger behavioural response when rivals were larger and thus, more attractive to females. Our study illustrates an unparalleled adjustment in the expression of mating preferences based on social cues, and suggests that male fish are able to remember and strategically exploit information about rivals when performing mate choice. PMID:21208944

Bierbach, David; Girndt, Antje; Hamfler, Sybille; Klein, Moritz; Mücksch, Frauke; Penshorn, Marina; Schwinn, Michael; Zimmer, Claudia; Schlupp, Ingo; Streit, Bruno; Plath, Martin

2011-06-23

93

Genetic studies on cytoplasmic male sterility in maize  

SciTech Connect

Our research concerns the basic mechanisms of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) and fertility restoration in maize. The molecular determination of CMS is in the DNA of the mitochondria (mtDNA) but specific nuclear restorer-of-fertility (Rf) genes can overrule the male-sterile effect of the cytoplasm. Our approach to the study of the Rf genes is threefold. We are attempting to tag the cms-S Rf genes and the cms-T Rf2 gene with controlling elements (CEs). Since we have identified a number of spontaneous Rf genes for cms-S and have demonstrated that they are themselves transposable, we are also searching for cases in which an Rf gene is inserted into a wild-type gene. The other aspect of our research involves the nuclear control over the organization of the mitochondrial genome. We found that the changes in mtDNA organization upon cytoplasmic reversion to fertility were characteristic of the nuclear background in which the reversion event occurred. We have investigated whether these differences are a reflection of differences in the organization of the mtDNA genome before reversion.

Laughnan, J.R.

1992-01-01

94

Improving mating performance of mass-reared sterile Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) through changes in adult holding conditions: demography and mating competitiveness  

SciTech Connect

Mass rearing conditions affect the mating behavior of Mediterranean fruit flies (medflies) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). We evaluated the effect of slight changes in the adult holding conditions of adult flies maintained for egg production on their mating performance. Colonization was initiated from wild flies collected as larvae from infested coffee berries (Coffea arabica L.). When pupae were close to adult emergence, they were randomly divided into 3 groups and the emerging adults were reared under the following conditions: (1) Metapa System (MS, control), consisting of 70 x 45 x 15 cm aluminum frame, mesh covered cages, with a density of 2,200 flies per cage and a 1:1 initial sex ratio; (2) Insert System (IS), with the same type of cage, and the same fly density and sex ratio as in the MS treatment, but containing twelve Plexiglas pieces (23 x 8.5 cm) to provide additional horizontal surface areas inside the cage; and (3) Sex-ratio System (SS), same as IS, but in this case the initial male: female ratio was 4:1. Three d later, newly emerged females were introduced, so the ratio became 3:1 and on the 6th d another group of newly emerged females was added to provide a 2:1 final sex ratio, at which the final density reached 1,675 flies per cage. The eggs collected from each of the 3 treatments were reared independently following standard procedures and the adults were held under the same experimental conditions. This process was repeated for over 10 to 13 generations (1 year). The experiment was repeated 3 times in 3 consecutive years, starting each replicate with a new collection of wild flies. Life tables were constructed for each treatment at the parental, 3rd, 6th, and 9th generations. Standard quality control parameters (pupation at 24 h, pupal weight, adult emergence, and flight ability), were estimated for each treatment every third generation in the third year. For the last generation each year, mating competitiveness was evaluated in field cage tests with wild flies. As colonization progressed, life expectancy and fecundity rates increased in the 3 rearing systems. There was no significant difference in standard quality control parameters among the 3 rearing systems. Wild males always achieved more matings than any of the mass reared males. Mating competitiveness of males from the IS, although surprisingly not from the SS, was significantly greater than that of males from the MS. Our results indicate that these slight changes in the adult holding conditions can significantly reduce the harmful effects of mass rearing on the mating performance of sterile flies. (author) [Spanish] Se ha demostrado que las condiciones de cria masiva afectan el comportamiento de apareamiento de la mosca del Mediterraneo Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Nosotros evaluamos el efecto de ligeros cambios en las condiciones en las que los adultos son mantenidos para la produccion de huevos, en el desempeno de apareamiento de las moscas esteriles. La colonizacion se inicio con moscas silvestres colectadas como larvas en cerezas de cafe (Coffea arabica L.) infestadas. Cuando las pupas estuvieron cerca de la emergencia de los adultos, se dividieron en tres grupos al azar y los adultos recien emergidos fueron criados en las siguientes condiciones: (1) Sistema Metapa (MS, testigo), consistente en jaulas con marco de aluminio de 70 x 45 x 15 cm, cubiertas con malla, con una densidad de 2,200 moscas por jaula y una relacion de sexos inicial de 1:1; (2); Sistema Insertos (IS), con el mismo tipo de jaula, densidad de moscas, y relacion de sexos que en el MS, pero conteniendo 12 piezas de plexiglas (23 x 8.5 cm) para proporcionar superficie horizontal al interior de la jaula; y (3) Sistema de Relacion de Sexos (SS), igual que el IS, pero en este caso la relacion inicial macho: hembra fue de 4:1, tres dias despues se introdujeron hembras recien emergidas para tener una relacion de 3:1 y en el 6 dia se anadio otro grupo de hembras para tener una relacion final de sexos de 2:1, que equivale a una densidad final de 1,675 moscas por jaula. Los huevos

Liedo, P.; Salgado, S.; Oropeza, A.; Toledo, J. [Departamento de Entomologia Tropical, El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, Apartado Postal 36, C. P. 30700, Tapachula, Chiapas (Mexico)

2007-03-15

95

Snakes in search of sex: the relation between mate-locating ability and mating success in male garter snakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Is a male's ability to find fertilizable females an important determinant of his mating success? We exploited unique logistical advantages offered by courting aggregations of garter snakes, Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis, in Manitoba, Canada, to ask: (1) does the order at which a male arrives at a solitary female affect either his courtship tactics or his chances of inseminating her; and

Richard Shine; Ryan P. O'Donnell; Tracy Langkilde; Michael D. Wall; Robert T. Mason

2005-01-01

96

Genetic vasectomy-overexpression of Prm1-EGFP fusion protein in elongating spermatids causes dominant male sterility in mice.  

PubMed

Transgenic mice are vital tools in both basic and applied research. Unfortunately, the transgenesis process as well as many other assisted reproductive techniques involving embryo transfer rely on vasectomized males to induce pseudopregnancy in surrogate mothers. Vasectomy is a surgical procedure associated with moderate pain and must be carried out under full anaesthesia by qualified personnel. Eliminating the need for vasectomy would be beneficial from the economic and animal welfare point of view. Our aim was to develop a transgene-based alternative to the surgical vasectomy procedure. We generated several transgenic mouse lines expressing a Protamine-1 (Prm1) EGFP fusion protein under the transcriptional and translational regulatory control of Prm1. Male mice from lines showing moderate transgene expression were fully fertile whereas strong overexpression of the Prm1-EGFP fusion protein resulted in complete and dominant male sterility without affecting the ability to mate and to produce copulatory plugs. Sterility was due to impaired spermatid maturation affecting sperm viability and motility. Furthermore, sperm having high Prm1-EGFP levels failed to support preimplantation embryonic development following Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI). The "genetic vasectomy system" was further improved by genetically linking the dominant male sterility to ubiquitous EGFP expression in the soma as an easy phenotypic marker enabling rapid genotyping of transgenic males and females. This double transgenic approach represents a reliable and cost-effective "genetic vasectomy" procedure making the conventional surgical vasectomy methodology obsolete. PMID:20095053

Haueter, Sabine; Kawasumi, Miyuri; Asner, Igor; Brykczynska, Urszula; Cinelli, Paolo; Moisyadi, Stefan; Bürki, Kurt; Peters, Antoine H F M; Pelczar, Pawel

2010-03-01

97

Genetic Vasectomy--Overexpression of Prm1-EGFP Fusion Protein in Elongating Spermatids Causes Dominant Male Sterility in Mice  

PubMed Central

Summary Transgenic mice are vital tools in both basic and applied research. Unfortunately, the transgenesis process as well as many other assisted reproductive techniques involving embryo transfer rely on vasectomized males to induce pseudopregnancy in surrogate mothers. Vasectomy is a surgical procedure associated with moderate pain and must be carried out under full anaesthesia by qualified personnel. Eliminating the need for vasectomy would be beneficial from the economic and animal welfare point of view. Our aim was to develop a transgene-based alternative to the surgical vasectomy procedure. We generated several transgenic mouse lines expressing a Protamine-1 (Prm1) EGFP fusion protein under the transcriptional and translational regulatory control of Prm1. Male mice from lines showing moderate transgene expression were fully fertile whereas strong overexpression of the Prm1-EGFP fusion protein resulted in complete and dominant male sterility without affecting the ability to mate and to produce copulatory plugs. Sterility was due to impaired spermatid maturation affecting sperm viability and motility. Furthermore, sperm having high Prm1-EGFP levels failed to support preimplantation embryonic development following Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI). The “genetic vasectomy system” was further improved by genetically linking the dominant male sterility to ubiquitous EGFP expression in the soma as an easy phenotypic marker enabling rapid genotyping of transgenic males and females. This double transgenic approach represents a reliable and cost-effective “genetic vasectomy” procedure making the conventional surgical vasectomy methodology obsolete.

Haueter, Sabine; Kawasumi, Miyuri; Asner, Igor; Brykczynska, Urszula; Cinelli, Paolo; Moisyadi, Stefan; Burki, Kurt; Peters, Antoine H.F.M.; Pelczar, Pawel

2012-01-01

98

Sex and the public: Social eavesdropping, sperm competition risk and male mate choice.  

PubMed

Mate choice can be sensitive to social cues from neighboring individuals, e.g., animals can copy mate choice decisions. Males that are at risk of being copied by others may respond to this with reduced preference expression ("audience effects"). We review the various pathways by which sperm competition risk affects (1) male mate copying behavior and (2) audience effects. For example, a recent study suggests that males gather complex social information on rivals' sexual competitiveness (sexual activity and attractiveness to females) and respond with reduced expression of mating preferences only "when it matters," i.e., when a sexually competitive rival is present. PMID:21980557

Plath, Martin; Bierbach, David

2011-05-01

99

The KLP-6 Kinesin Is Required for Male Mating Behaviors and Polycystin Localization in Caenorhabditis elegans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Male mating behavior of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans offers an intriguing model to study the genetics of sensory behavior, cilia function, and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). The C. elegans polycystins LOV-1 and PKD-2 act in male-specific sensory cilia required for response and vulva-location mating behaviors.Results: Here, we identify and characterize a new mating mutant, sy511. sy511 behavioral

Erik M. Peden; Maureen M. Barr

2005-01-01

100

Female cooperation, consortship maintenance, and male mating success in savanna baboons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of female choice as a potential mechanism influencing male reproductive success in non-human primates is unclear. Few systematic studies have explicitly evaluated how female reproductive tactics modify male mating success. A 19-month field study of savanna baboons,Papio cynocephalus, was undertaken in Kenya in order to document patterns of mate choice and mate competition. Neither size dimorphism nor female

FRED B. BERCOVITCH

1995-01-01

101

No male agonistic experience effect on pre-copulatory mate choice in female earwigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mating with dominant males may confer considerable benefits, but also incur significant costs, hence intrasexual competitiveness\\u000a is a likely target of mate choice. In addition to established modes of mate assessment, females may use cues or signals associated\\u000a with agonistic experience effects to assess the relative competiveness of males. Experience effects, where the outcome of\\u000a a fight increases the likelihood

Emile van Lieshout; Ellen van Wilgenburg; Mark Adrian Elgar

2009-01-01

102

Biased sex ratio and low population density increase male mating success in the bug Nysius huttoni (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Demographic factors such as operational sex ratio (OSR) and local population density (LPD) are temporally and spatially dynamic in the natural environment but the influence of these variables on male mating success and the mechanisms behind it are still poorly understood and highly controversial. Here, we manipulated the OSR and LPD of a seed bug, Nysius huttoni, and carried out a series of mating trials to test how these variables affected male mating success. The two demographic factors had no significant interactions, suggesting that they affect male mating success independently in N. huttoni. In this species male mating success was significantly higher in both male- and female-biased OSR than in even OSR. It is suggested that, in male-biased OSR, the increased intensity of competition and interference does not result in lower male mating success; rather, males may make more effort in courting and females may have more chance to encounter better males, resulting in higher male mating success. In female-biased OSR, females may become less choosy and less likely to reject male mating attempt, leading to the higher male mating success. Lower male mating success in N. huttoni in high LPD may be due to increased interference between males and/or delayed female receptiveness for mating. OSR had a stronger effect on male mating success than LPD in N. huttoni, suggesting that OSR and LPD affect mating success in different ways and intensities.

Wang, Qiao; He, Xiong Zhao; Yang, Linghuan; Hedderley, Duncan; Davis, Lorraine K.

2009-01-01

103

The importance of female choice, male-male competition, and signal transmission as causes of selection on male mating signals.  

PubMed

Selection on advertisement signals arises from interacting sources including female choice, male-male competition, and the communication channel (i.e., the signaling environment). To identify the contribution of individual sources of selection, we used previously quantified relationships between signal traits and each putative source to predict relationships between signal variation and fitness in Enchenopa binotata treehoppers (Hemiptera: Membracidae). We then measured phenotypic selection on signals and compared predicted and realized relationships between signal traits and mating success. We recorded male signals, then measured lifetime mating success at two population densities in a realistic environment in which sources of selection could interact. We identified which sources best predicted the relationship between signal variation and mating success using a multiple regression approach. All signal traits were under selection in at least one of the two breeding seasons measured, and in some cases selection was variable between years. Female preference was the strongest source of selection shaping male signals. The E. binotata species complex is a model of ecological speciation initiated by host shifts. Signal and preference divergence contribute to behavioral isolation within the complex, and the finding that female mate preferences drive signal evolution suggests that speciation in this group results from both ecological divergence and sexual selection. PMID:20624180

Sullivan-Beckers, Laura; Cocroft, Reginald B

2010-11-01

104

Analysis of male bioacoustic calls and male mating success in the Bunchgrass Grasshopper, Pseudopomala brachyptera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual selection and the mate-choice mechanism of the Bunchgrass Grasshopper Pseudopomala brachyptera were studied with particular regard to biometric measurements (femur, tegmen, and pronotum length, mass, total length, width, height, and volume) and bioacoustic call parameters (syllable length, number of pulses\\/syllable, syllable:pause duration ratio, and dominant power frequency). Male and female P. brachyptera were collected over a three week period

Aileen Kelly

105

Female choice and the benefits of mate guarding by male mallards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pair formation and breeding in many species of waterfowl are separated both temporally and spatially. Most studies of female choice in this group have focused on male characteristics at the time of pairing, with less attention given to how mate choice affects breeding season outcomes. In this study I compared pairing success, male plasma testosterone level and mate-guarding ability of

Ellen S. Davis

2002-01-01

106

Effects of Visual Exposure to the Opposite Sex: Cognitive Aspects of Mate Attraction in Human Males  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research is an investigation into the cognitive aspects of mate attraction in human males. Two experiments demonstrate that visual exposure to women (in person or within photo- graphs) can prime large changes in the attitudes, mood states, and personality trait descriptions of male participants. These changes, furthermore, are such that participants show greater conformity to female mate preferences as

James R. Roney

2003-01-01

107

Alarm calling best predicts mating and reproductive success in ornamented male fowl, Gallus gallus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of female mate choice in fowl typically invoke ornament size as the best predictor of male repro- ductive success. The strongest evidence comes from experiments in which a hen is presented with two unfamiliar and physically separated males that she can evaluate and mate with for up to 120 min. This design controls for prior experience and maleemale competition,

David R. Wilson; Karen L. Bayly; Ximena J. Nelson; Michael Gillings; Christopher S. Evans

2008-01-01

108

Male coercion and the costs of promiscuous mating for female chimpanzees  

Microsoft Academic Search

For reasons that are not yet clear, male aggression against females occurs frequently among primates with promiscuous mating systems. Here, we test the sexual coercion hypothesis that male aggression functions to constrain female mate choice. We use 10 years of behavioural and endocrine data from a community of wild chimpanzees (Pantroglodytes schweinfurthii) to show that sexual coercion is the probable

Martin N. Muller; Sonya M. Kahlenberg; Melissa Emery Thompson; Richard W. Wrangham

2007-01-01

109

Temperature preferences of male field crickets ( Gryllus integer ) alter their mating calls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temperature affects the mating displays of many ectothermic animals, yet almost no information exists on the temperature preferences of ectotherms while they are displaying for mates. This study investigated the preferences of displaying male field crickets (Gryllus integer) for microhabitats of different temperatures. G. integer males attract sexually receptive females by calling from cracks in the ground. We collected data

A. V. Hedrick; D. Perez; N. Lichti; J. Yew

2002-01-01

110

Feminization of pheromone-sensing neurons affects mating decisions in Drosophila males.  

PubMed

The response of individual animals to mating signals depends on the sexual identity of the individual and the genetics of the mating targets, which represent the mating social context (social environment). However, how social signals are sensed and integrated during mating decisions remains a mystery. One of the models for understanding mating behaviors in molecular and cellular terms is the male courtship ritual in the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster). We have recently shown that a subset of gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs) that are enriched in the male appendages and express the ion channel ppk23 play a major role in the initiation and maintenance of male courtship via the perception of cuticular contact pheromones, and are likely to represent the main chemosensory pathway that influences mating decisions by males. Here we show that genetic feminization of ppk23-expressing GRNs in male flies resulted in a significant increase in male-male sexual attraction without an apparent impact on sexual attraction to females. Furthermore, we show that this increase in male-male sexual attraction is sensory specific, which can be modulated by variable social contexts. Finally, we show that feminization of ppk23-expressing sensory neurons lead to major transcriptional shifts, which may explain the altered interpretation of the social environment by feminized males. Together, these data indicate that the sexual cellular identity of pheromone sensing GRNs plays a major role in how individual flies interpret their social environment in the context of mating decisions. PMID:24463366

Lu, Beika; Zelle, Kathleen M; Seltzer, Raya; Hefetz, Abraham; Ben-Shahar, Yehuda

2014-01-01

111

Roving females and patient males: a new perspective on the mating strategies of chimpanzees.  

PubMed

Mating strategies are sets of decisions aimed at maximizing reproductive success. For male animals, the fundamental problem that these strategies address is attaining mating access to females in a manner that maximizes their chances of achieving paternity. For chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), despite substantial interest in mating strategies, very little attention has been paid to the most fundamental problem that mating strategies need to solve: finding mates. Only a single model, Dunbar's general model of male mating strategies, exists to explain mate-searching behaviour in chimpanzees. Under this model, males in most populations are regarded as pursuing a 'roving' strategy: searching for and sequestering fertile females who are essentially passive with respect to mate searching. The roving mating strategy is an assumption deeply embedded in the way chimpanzee behaviour is considered; it is implicit in the conventional model for chimpanzee social structure, which posits that male ranging functions both to monitor female reproductive state and to ward these females from other groups of males through collective territoriality: essentially, ranging as mating effort. This perspective is, however, increasingly at odds with observations of chimpanzee behaviour. Herein, I review the logic and evidence for the roving-male mating strategy and propose a novel alternative, a theoretical framework in which roving is a strategy pursued by female chimpanzees in order to engage successfully in promiscuous mating. Males, unable to thwart this female strategy, instead maximise the number of reproductive opportunities encountered by focusing their behaviour on countering threats to health, fertility and reproductive career. Their prolonged grooming bouts are seen, in consequence, as functioning to mitigate the negative impacts of socially induced physiological stress. In this new framework, the roving-male strategy becomes, at best, a 'best of a bad job' alternative for low-ranking males when faced with high levels of competition for mating access. Male chimpanzees do not search for mates, but for one another, for food, and, at times, for rivals in other communities. To the extent that female promiscuity functions to counter infanticide risk, mate searching by female chimpanzees-and any associated costs-can be seen as an unavoidable consequence of male sexual coercion. This novel framework is a better fit to the available data than is the conventional account. This review highlights the desperate need for additional work in an area of chimpanzee biology that has been somewhat neglected, perhaps in part because assumptions of roving males have remained unquestioned for too long. It also highlights the need, across taxa, to revisit and revise theory, and to test old assumptions, when faced with contrary data. PMID:24393574

Newton-Fisher, Nicholas E

2014-05-01

112

Sterilizing effects of cobalt-60 and cesium-137 radiation on male sea lampreys  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Male spawning-run sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus were exposed to various doses of cobalt-60 or cesium-137 radiation in an attempt to sterilize them for use in a program for controlling sea lampreys through the release of sterile males. Males captured and irradiated during the early part of the upstream migration were not effectively sterilized at the doses tested. After irradiation, the sea lampreys were more susceptible to fungal infections by Saprolegnia sp., and many died without attempting to spawn. Males captured and irradiated during the middle and late parts of the spawning migration were effectively sterilized at a dose of 2,000 rads. However, some radiation-induced mortality was observed in males captured and irradiated during the middle part of the spawning migration. Radiation is not as effective as the chemosterilant bisazir for sterilizing male sea lampreys.

Hanson, L. H.

1990-01-01

113

Variation in the Male Pheromones and Mating Success of Wild Caught Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

Drosophila melanogaster males express two primary cuticular hydrocarbons (male-predominant hydrocarbons). These act as sex pheromones by influencing female receptivity to mating. The relative quantities of these hydrocarbons vary widely among natural populations and can contribute to variation in mating success. We tested four isofemale lines collected from a wild population to assess the effect of intrapopulation variation in male-predominant hydrocarbons on mating success. The receptivity of laboratory females to males of the four wild-caught lines varied significantly, but not consistently in the direction predicted by variation in male-predominant hydrocarbons. Receptivity of the wild-caught females to laboratory males also varied significantly, but females from lines with male-predominant hydrocarbon profiles closer to a more cosmopolitan one did not show a correspondingly strong mating bias toward a cosmopolitan male. Among wild-caught lines, the male-specific ejaculatory bulb lipid, cis-vaccenyl acetate, varied more than two-fold, but was not associated with variation in male mating success. We observed a strong inverse relationship between the receptivity of wild-caught females and the mating success of males from their own lines, when tested with laboratory flies of the opposite sex.

Scott, David; Shields, Alicia; Straker, Michaela; Dalrymple, Heidi; Dhillon, Priya K.; Harbinder, Singh

2011-01-01

114

Mating system and sex ratios of a pollinating fig wasp with dispersing males.  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have used sex ratios to quantify the mating systems of organisms, the argument behind it being that more female-biased sex ratios are an indication of higher local mate competition, which goes hand-in-hand with higher levels of inbreeding. Although qualitative tests of the effects of mating systems on sex ratios abound, there is a dearth of studies that quantify both the mating system and the sex ratio. I use a colour dimorphism with a simple Mendelian inheritance to quantify the mating system of an unusual fig-pollinating wasp in which males disperse to obtain matings on non-natal mating patches. In qualitative agreement with initial expectations, the sex ratios of single foundresses are found to be higher than those of regular species. However, by quantifying the mating system, it is shown that the initial expectation is incorrect and this species' sex ratio is a poor predictor of its mating system (it underestimates the frequency of sib-mating). The species has a very high variance in sex ratio suggesting that excess males can simply avoid local mate competition (and hence a lowered fitness to their mother) by dispersing to other patches.

Greeff, Jaco M

2002-01-01

115

Does mating experience of male house crickets affect their behavior to subsequent females and female choice?  

PubMed

Male mating experience was shown to play an important role in settling conflicts between males; however, little is known about whether and how prior access to females influences male behavior during intersexual interactions and female choice itself. Here, I experimentally test this relationship in the house cricket (Acheta domesticus) by combining one-on-one interaction between the male and female with direct comparison of males by the female, but precluding aggression between males. I found that solitary males were more active during subsequent courtship displays than paired males, suggesting the detrimental effect of mating on courtship performance. At the same time, females spent significantly more time close to solitary males or playbacks of male's natural courtship songs, and responded positively to the condition of males, ignoring body size of males. In contrast, females responded similarly to computer-modified playbacks of courtship songs of solitary and paired males with standardized rate of phrases and amplitudes; however, when females were additionally allowed to contact with anesthetized males they spent more time close to bigger males, irrespective of the acoustic parameters of courtship songs. These results show that although females were able to differentiate between many behavioral and morphological characteristics of males, including voluntary and intrinsic ones, they preferred traits conditional upon the costliness of male's displays. In addition, mating experience appeared to be a crucial factor in the choice of a particular costly mating strategy by males. PMID:23162206

R?k, Pawe?

2012-12-01

116

Inheritance of male hybrid sterility in the house musk shrew (Suncus murinus, Insectivora, Soricidae).  

PubMed

Two geographic races of the house musk shrew (Suncus murinus) were crossed and intercrossed in the laboratory. Many cases of male sterility were detected among the hybrids. Segregation analysis of the pedigree data showed that the inheritance of male sterility in interracial hybrids of S. murinus can be described within the framework of monogene polyallele model with sterility of a single allele combination. This model is similar if not identical to that proposed by Dobzhansky and Muller. PMID:9924792

Axenovich, T I; Rogatcheva, M B; Oda, S; Borodin, P M

1998-12-01

117

Effects of density experience on mate guarding behavior by adult male Kanzawa spider mites  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Kanzawa spider mite, Tetranychus kanzawai (Acari: Tetranychidae), adult males guard pre-reproductive quiescent females. I experimentally examined the effects of density\\u000a experience during development and\\/or after adult emergence on precopulatory mate guarding behavior by T. kanzawai males. Mate guarding behavior was modified by density experience after adult emergence. When males had previously experienced\\u000a high density after adult emergence (n = 71),

Keiko Oku

2009-01-01

118

Mate choice when males are in patches: optimal strategies and good rules of thumb  

Microsoft Academic Search

In standard mate-choice models, females encounter males sequentially and decide whether to inspect the quality of another male or to accept a male already inspected. What changes when males are clumped in patches and there is a significant cost to travel between patches? We use stochastic dynamic programming to derive optimum strategies under various assumptions. With zero costs to returning

John M. C. Hutchinson; Konrad Halupka

2004-01-01

119

Male Megacyllene robiniae (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) Use Multiple Tactics When Aggressively Competing for Mates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult maleMegacyllenerobiniae (Forster) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) that are paired with a female often are challenged by conspeciÞc males that attempt to displace them. In staged laboratory bouts, challenging males used seven distinct tactics to displace defending males, including wedging their head between the defender and the female (termed wedging), straddling the mated pair and pulling the defender off (prying), pulling it

Ann M. Ray; Matthew D. Ginzel; Lawrence M. Hanks

2009-01-01

120

Mating skew in Barbary macaque males: the role of female mating synchrony, female behavior, and male–male coalitions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fundamental question of sexual selection theory concerns the causes and consequences of reproductive skew among males. The\\u000a priority of access (PoA) model (Altmann, Ann NY Acad Sci 102:338–435, 1962) has been the most influential framework in primates living in permanent, mixed-sex groups, but to date it has only been\\u000a tested with the appropriate data on female synchrony in a

Annie Bissonnette; Nicole Bischofberger; Carel P van Schaik

2011-01-01

121

Mating enhances the probability of winning aggressive encounters in male lobster cockroaches.  

PubMed

In the present study, we report that contact with isolated female antenna significantly increases both the pheromone 3-hydroxy-2-butanone (3H-2B) release and the hemolymph JH III level in all examined aggressive posture-adopting (AP) and NP (non-AP-adopting) socially naïve males, with significantly faster concomitant pre-mating wing-raising behavior in AP as compared to NP males. 3H-2B release and JH III level were significantly increased after mating in both AP and NP males. A positive correlation was observed between mating experience and dominant status. Furthermore, mated-AP males initiated fights more rapidly and fought for a significantly longer duration than mated-NP males; retention with the paired female for 24h did not affect this increase. JH III level and 3H-2B release were significantly increased in dominant males as compared to subordinates. These results suggest that prior mating experience in invertebrates may enhance aggression in subsequent male-male encounters, with accompanying physiological (hormone and pheromone) responses. PMID:23939458

Kou, Rong; Hsu, Chu-Chun

2013-08-01

122

A possible non-sexual origin of mate preference: are male guppies mimicking fruit?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In most animals, the origins of mating preferences are not clear. Thesensory-bias' hypothesis proposes that biases in female sensory or neural systems are important in triggering sexual selection and in determin- ing which male traits will become elaborated into sexual ornaments. Subsequently, other mechanisms can evolve for discriminating between high- and low-quality mates. Female guppies (Poecilia reticulata) gener- ally show

F. Helen Rodd; Kimberly A. Hughes; Gregory F. Grether; Colette T. Baril

2002-01-01

123

The Effect of Behavior and Ecology on Male Mating Success in Overwintering Monarch Butterflies ( Danaus plexippus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) appear to forego the chemical courtship that is typical of other danaid butterflies, and instead employ a coercive mating system. Females have been described as using resistance behaviors in response to male coercion. Much of our understanding of sexual selection in monarchs is based on observations of mating attempts that occur on the ground, but recent

Michelle J. Solensky

2004-01-01

124

The Contribution of the Y Chromosome to Hybrid Male Sterility in House Mice  

PubMed Central

Hybrid sterility in the heterogametic sex is a common feature of speciation in animals. In house mice, the contribution of the Mus musculus musculus X chromosome to hybrid male sterility is large. It is not known, however, whether F1 male sterility is caused by X–Y or X-autosome incompatibilities or a combination of both. We investigated the contribution of the M. musculus domesticus Y chromosome to hybrid male sterility in a cross between wild-derived strains in which males with a M. m. musculus X chromosome and M. m. domesticus Y chromosome are partially sterile, while males from the reciprocal cross are reproductively normal. We used eight X introgression lines to combine different X chromosome genotypes with different Y chromosomes on an F1 autosomal background, and we measured a suite of male reproductive traits. Reproductive deficits were observed in most F1 males, regardless of Y chromosome genotype. Nonetheless, we found evidence for a negative interaction between the M. m. domesticus Y and an interval on the M. m. musculus X that resulted in abnormal sperm morphology. Therefore, although F1 male sterility appears to be caused mainly by X-autosome incompatibilities, X–Y incompatibilities contribute to some aspects of sterility.

Campbell, Polly; Good, Jeffrey M.; Dean, Matthew D.; Tucker, Priscilla K.; Nachman, Michael W.

2012-01-01

125

Adult female hamsters require long and sustained exposures to heterospecific males to avoid interspecific mating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interspecific mating normally decreases female fitness. In many species, females avoid heterospecific males innately or by\\u000a imprinting on their parents. Alternatively, adult females could learn to discriminate against heterospecific males after exposure\\u000a to such males. For example, Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) females learn to discriminate between conspecific males and Turkish hamster (M. brandti) males during adulthood by exposure to males

Javier delBarco-Trillo; Robert E. Johnston

2011-01-01

126

When not to copy: female fruit flies use sophisticated public information to avoid mated males  

PubMed Central

Semen limitation (lack of semen to fertilize all of a female's eggs) imposes high fitness costs to female partners. Females should therefore avoid mating with semen-limited males. This can be achieved by using public information extracted from watching individual males' previous copulating activities. This adaptive preference should be flexible given that semen limitation is temporary. We first demonstrate that the number of offspring produced by males Drosophila melanogaster gradually decreases over successive copulations. We then show that females avoid mating with males they just watched copulating and that visual public cues are sufficient to elicit this response. Finally, after males were given the time to replenish their sperm reserves, females did not avoid the males they previously saw copulating anymore. These results suggest that female fruit flies may have evolved sophisticated behavioural processes of resistance to semen-limited males, and demonstrate unsuspected adaptive context-dependent mate choice in an invertebrate.

Loyau, Adeline; Blanchet, Simon; Van Laere, Pauline; Clobert, Jean; Danchin, Etienne

2012-01-01

127

When not to copy: female fruit flies use sophisticated public information to avoid mated males  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Semen limitation (lack of semen to fertilize all of a female's eggs) imposes high fitness costs to female partners. Females should therefore avoid mating with semen-limited males. This can be achieved by using public information extracted from watching individual males' previous copulating activities. This adaptive preference should be flexible given that semen limitation is temporary. We first demonstrate that the number of offspring produced by males Drosophila melanogaster gradually decreases over successive copulations. We then show that females avoid mating with males they just watched copulating and that visual public cues are sufficient to elicit this response. Finally, after males were given the time to replenish their sperm reserves, females did not avoid the males they previously saw copulating anymore. These results suggest that female fruit flies may have evolved sophisticated behavioural processes of resistance to semen-limited males, and demonstrate unsuspected adaptive context-dependent mate choice in an invertebrate.

Loyau, Adeline; Blanchet, Simon; van Laere, Pauline; Clobert, Jean; Danchin, Etienne

2012-10-01

128

Pest management programmes in vineyards using male mating disruption.  

PubMed

Israeli vine growers have been reluctant to adopt the mating disruption technique for control of the European vine moth, Lobesia botrana Den. & Schiff. Since the chemically controlled honeydew moth, Cryptoblabes gnidiella Mill., coexists with the European vine moth, growers have maintained that the use of mating disruption would fail to bring about a significant reduction in pesticide use. In this study, the efficacy of mating disruption techniques against C. gnidiella was tested, as well as the effect of these methods on pesticide use and damage to clusters when the method was employed against both of the pests in wine grapes. Comparisons were made between plots treated with (1) L. botrana mating disruption pheromone, (2) L. botrana and C. gnidiella mating disruption pheromones and (3) control plots. A significant difference in the number of clusters infested with the developmental stages of the moths was seen between pheromone-treated plots and controls, while no such difference was observed between plots treated with one versus two pheromones. A similar pattern was observed in the number of insecticide applications; the greatest number of applications was used in control plots, followed by plots treated with L. botrana mating disruption pheromone and by plots treated with pheromones against both pests, in which no pesticides were applied. PMID:17523143

Harari, Ally R; Zahavi, Tirtza; Gordon, Dvora; Anshelevich, Leonid; Harel, Miriam; Ovadia, Shmulik; Dunkelblum, Ezra

2007-08-01

129

Cytoplasmic male sterility contributes to hybrid incompatibility between subspecies of Arabidopsis lyrata.  

PubMed

In crosses between evolutionarily diverged populations, genomic incompatibilities may result in sterile hybrids, indicating evolution of reproductive isolation. In several plant families, crosses within a population can also lead to male sterile progeny because of conflict between the maternally and biparentally inherited genomes. We examined hybrid fertility between subspecies of the perennial outcrossing self-incompatible Lyrate rockcress (Arabidopsis lyrata) in large reciprocal F2 progenies and three generations of backcrosses. In one of the reciprocal F2 progenies, almost one-fourth of the plants were male-sterile. Correspondingly, almost one-half of the plants in one of the four reciprocal backcross progenies expressed male sterility. In an additional four independent F2 and backcross families, three segregated male sterility. The observed asymmetrical hybrid incompatibility is attributable to male sterility factors in one cytoplasm, for which the other population lacks effective fertility restorers. Genotyping of 96 molecular markers and quantitative trait locus mapping revealed that only 60% of the plants having the male sterile cytoplasm and lacking the corresponding restorers were phenotypically male-sterile. Genotyping data showed that there is only one restorer locus, which mapped to a 600-kb interval at the top of chromosome 2 in a region containing a cluster of pentatricopeptide repeat genes. Male fertility showed no trade-off with seed production. We discuss the role of cytoplasm and genomic conflict in incipient speciation and conclude that cytoplasmic male sterility-lowering hybrid fitness is a transient effect with limited potential to form permanent reproductive barriers between diverged populations of hermaphrodite self-incompatible species. PMID:23935000

Aalto, Esa A; Koelewijn, Hans-Peter; Savolainen, Outi

2013-10-01

130

A possible non-sexual origin of mate preference: are male guppies mimicking fruit?  

PubMed Central

In most animals, the origins of mating preferences are not clear. The "sensory-bias" hypothesis proposes that biases in female sensory or neural systems are important in triggering sexual selection and in determining which male traits will become elaborated into sexual ornaments. Subsequently, other mechanisms can evolve for discriminating between high- and low-quality mates. Female guppies (Poecilia reticulata) generally show a preference for males with larger, more chromatic orange spots. It has been proposed that this preference originated because it enabled females to obtain high-quality mates. We present evidence for an alternative hypothesis, that the origin of the preference is a pleiotropic effect of a sensory bias for the colour orange, which might have arisen in the context of food detection. In field and laboratory experiments, adult guppies of both sexes were more responsive to orange-coloured objects than to objects of other colours, even outside a mating context. Across populations, variation in attraction to orange objects explained 94% of the inter-population variation in female mate preference for orange coloration on males. This is one of the first studies to show both an association between a potential trigger of a mate-choice preference and a sexually selected trait, and also that an innate attraction to a coloured inanimate object explains almost all of the observed variation in female mate choice. These results support the "sensory-bias" hypothesis for the evolution of mating preferences.

Rodd, F Helen; Hughes, Kimberly A; Grether, Gregory F; Baril, Colette T

2002-01-01

131

Female Medflies Mate Selectively with Young Males but Gain No Apparent Fitness Benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Species in which female choice is not strongly shaped by male-controlled resources present a challenge to sexual selection\\u000a research, because it is typically difficult to identify the male phenotypic cues used in female mate selection or the fitness\\u000a benefits accruing from such selection. In such species, mate selection is presumably based on direct benefits associated with\\u000a sperm quantity or quality

Todd E. Shelly; James Edu; Elaine Pahio

2011-01-01

132

Sperm competition games played by dimorphic male beetles: fertilization gains with equal mating access  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative mating tactics can generate asymmetry in the sperm competition risk between males within species. Theory predicts that adaptations to sperm competition should arise in males facing the greater risk. This prediction is met in the dung beetle Onthophagus binodis where minor males which sneak copulations have a greater expenditure on the ejaculate. In its congener Onthophagus taurus there is

Joseph L. Tomkins; Leigh W. Simmons

2000-01-01

133

Evidence for adaptive male mate choice in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theory predicts that males will benefit when they bias their mating effort towards females of higher reproductive potential, and that this discrimination will increase as males become more resource limited. We conducted a series of experiments to test these predictions in a laboratory population of the fruitfly, Drosophila melanogaster. In this species, courtship and copulation have significant costs to males,

Phillip G. Byrne; William R. Rice

2006-01-01

134

Male mating behavior and ejaculate expenditure under sperm competition risk in the eastern mosquitofish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theory predicts that males should tailor the size of their ejaculates according to temporal changes in the risk of sperm competition. Specifically, males are predicted to allocate more sperm to each mating event with increasing risk (i.e., the probability that the sperm from two males will compete for fertilization). We tested this hypothesis by using the eastern mosquitofish, a freshwater

Jonathan P. Evans; Michele Pierotti; Andrea Pilastro

2003-01-01

135

Female mate preferences for male body size and shape promote sexual isolation in threespine sticklebacks  

PubMed Central

Female mate preferences for ecologically relevant traits may enhance natural selection, leading to rapid divergence. They may also forge a link between mate choice within species and sexual isolation between species. Here, we examine female mate preference for two ecologically important traits: body size and body shape. We measured female preferences within and between species of benthic, limnetic, and anadromous threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus species complex). We found that mate preferences differed between species and between contexts (i.e., within vs. between species). Within species, anadromous females preferred males that were deep bodied for their size, benthic females preferred larger males (as measured by centroid size), and limnetic females preferred males that were more limnetic shaped. In heterospecific mating trials between benthics and limnetics, limnetic females continued to prefer males that were more limnetic like in shape when presented with benthic males. Benthic females showed no preferences for size when presented with limnetic males. These results show that females use ecologically relevant traits to select mates in all three species and that female preference has diverged between species. These results suggest that sexual selection may act in concert with natural selection on stickleback size and shape. Further, our results suggest that female preferences may track adaptation to local environments and contribute to sexual isolation between benthic and limnetic sticklebacks.

Head, Megan L; Kozak, Genevieve M; Boughman, Janette W

2013-01-01

136

Sexual selection on Drosophila serrata male pheromones does not vary with female age or mating status.  

PubMed

Mate preferences are costly and are thought to evolve due to the direct and/or indirect benefits they provide. Such costs and benefits may vary in response to intrinsic and extrinsic factors with important evolutionary consequences. Limited attention has been given to quantifying such variation and understanding its causes, most notably with respect to the direction and strength of preferences for multivariate sexual displays. In Drosophila serrata, female preferences target a pheromone blend of long-chain cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs). We used a factorial design to test whether female age and mating status generated variation in the strength and direction of sexual selection on male CHCs. Replicate choice mating trials were conducted using young and old females (4 or 10 days post-emergence) that were either virgin or previously mated. The outcome of such trials is known to capture variation in female mate preferences, although male-male interactions may also contribute. Directional sexual selection on male CHCs was highly significant within each treatment, but there was little evidence of any variation among treatments. The absence of treatment effects implies that the multivariate combination of male CHCs preferred by females was constant with respect to female age and mating status. To the extent that male-male interactions may also contribute, our results similarly imply that these did not vary among treatments groups. With respect to D. serrata mate preferences, our results suggest that either plasticity with respect to age and mating status is not beneficial to females, or preference expression is somehow constrained. PMID:24828752

Gershman, S; Delcourt, M; Rundle, H D

2014-06-01

137

Male control of mating duration following exposure to rivals in fruitflies?  

PubMed Central

Males of many species assess the likely level of sperm competition and respond adaptively, for example by increasing the level of courtship they deliver, by transferring more sperm or seminal fluids or by extending matings. In mechanistic terms, it may be easier for males to adjust the level of their investment to the likely level of sperm competition for male-limited traits such as sperm and seminal fluid production over which they have control. However, for shared traits, such as mating duration, that are expressed at a level determined by direct interactions between males and females, adaptive responses by males to competition could be constrained. This need not be the case, however, if males have significant influence over the expression of such traits. Understanding which sex can most influence the expression of shared traits in response to sexual competition is important in order to document the range of strategic, plastic responses that are available to each sex. However, direct tests of these ideas require, as in this study, measurements of the effect on a shared trait of manipulating the ability of one, but not the other, sex to influence it. We studied the responses of male Drosophila melanogaster to sexual competition, in which mating duration is increased following exposure to rivals, resulting in significantly increased paternity share. Males were allowed to respond normally to the presence of rivals prior to mating, but female responses to males were reduced via decapitation and immobilisation. We found that matings with both intact and decapitated, immobilised females were significantly longer with males that had been exposed to rivals prior to mating. Hence males could maintain their responses to rivals with intact and decapitated females, suggesting significant male influence over the ability to extend mating duration in this context. However, overall, mating duration was significantly longer with intact in comparison to decapitated females. Whether this is due to a female influence over mating duration in general, or whether males respond differently to immobilised females, is not yet known. Gaining a fuller understanding of sex-specific control of plastic traits will be important in the future for understanding how reproductive traits evolve and function.

Bretman, Amanda; Westmancoat, James D.; Chapman, Tracey

2013-01-01

138

Male control of mating duration following exposure to rivals in fruitflies.  

PubMed

Males of many species assess the likely level of sperm competition and respond adaptively, for example by increasing the level of courtship they deliver, by transferring more sperm or seminal fluids or by extending matings. In mechanistic terms, it may be easier for males to adjust the level of their investment to the likely level of sperm competition for male-limited traits such as sperm and seminal fluid production over which they have control. However, for shared traits, such as mating duration, that are expressed at a level determined by direct interactions between males and females, adaptive responses by males to competition could be constrained. This need not be the case, however, if males have significant influence over the expression of such traits. Understanding which sex can most influence the expression of shared traits in response to sexual competition is important in order to document the range of strategic, plastic responses that are available to each sex. However, direct tests of these ideas require, as in this study, measurements of the effect on a shared trait of manipulating the ability of one, but not the other, sex to influence it. We studied the responses of male Drosophila melanogaster to sexual competition, in which mating duration is increased following exposure to rivals, resulting in significantly increased paternity share. Males were allowed to respond normally to the presence of rivals prior to mating, but female responses to males were reduced via decapitation and immobilisation. We found that matings with both intact and decapitated, immobilised females were significantly longer with males that had been exposed to rivals prior to mating. Hence males could maintain their responses to rivals with intact and decapitated females, suggesting significant male influence over the ability to extend mating duration in this context. However, overall, mating duration was significantly longer with intact in comparison to decapitated females. Whether this is due to a female influence over mating duration in general, or whether males respond differently to immobilised females, is not yet known. Gaining a fuller understanding of sex-specific control of plastic traits will be important in the future for understanding how reproductive traits evolve and function. PMID:23727302

Bretman, Amanda; Westmancoat, James D; Chapman, Tracey

2013-08-01

139

Genetic basis of X-Y chromosome dissociation and male sterility in interspecific hybrids.  

PubMed Central

A high frequency of X-Y chromosome dissociation (95%) was found at first meiotic metaphase (MI) in spermatocytes of interspecific hybrids between laboratory mice, C57BL/6J (BL/6) and Mus spretus, compared with an X-Y dissociation frequency of only 3-4% in parental mice. The X-Y dissociation in F1 hybrids occurred before diakinesis rather than as a precocious dissociation at MI. The high X-Y dissociation was accompanied by spermatogenic breakdown after MI, resulting in male sterility. All F1 males were sterile and approximately half of the backcross males from fertile F1 females crossed with either BL/6 or M. spretus males were sterile. Male sterility was highly correlated with X-Y dissociation in both backcrosses. All of the mice with high X-Y dissociation were sterile and all of the males with low X-Y dissociation were fertile or subfertile. This correlation suggested that genetic divergence of the X-Y pairing region could contribute to the male sterile phenotype such that the BL/6 X chromosome would not pair with the M. spretus Y chromosome. The segregation of species-type alleles of amelogenin (Amelb and Amels), a distal X chromosome locus adjacent to the X-Y pairing region, was followed in backcross males that were analyzed for X-Y dissociation and sterility (we have used Amel as the designation for the mouse amelogenin locus; the current designation for this locus is Amg). A 95% concordance between Amelb with fertility and Amels with sterility was observed in backcrosses with BL/6, whereas the converse was observed in the backcross to M. spretus. These results imply that X-Y pairing plays an important role in male fertility and suggest that genetic divergence in X-Y pairing region between Mus species can contribute to the reproductive barriers between species and the process of speciation. Images

Matsuda, Y; Hirobe, T; Chapman, V M

1991-01-01

140

Premature dissolution of the microsporocyte callose wall causes male sterility in transgenic tobacco.  

PubMed Central

Male sterility in a petunia cytoplasmic male sterile line has been attributed to the early appearance of active callase, a beta-1,3-glucanase, in the anther locule. This leads to premature dissolution of the callose walls surrounding the microsporogenous cells. We have mimicked this aspect of the petunia line in transgenic tobacco by engineering the secretion of a modified pathogenesis-related vacuolar beta-1,3-glucanase from the tapetum prior to the appearance of callase activity in the locule. Plants expressing the modified glucanase from tapetum-specific promoters exhibited reduced male fertility, ranging from complete to partial male sterility. Callose appearance and distribution are normal in the male sterile transgenic plants up to prophase I, whereupon callose is prematurely degraded. Meiosis and cell division occur normally. The resultant microspores have an abnormally thin cell wall that lacks sculpturing. The tapetum shows hypertrophy. Male sterility is probably caused by bursting of the aberrant microspores at a time corresponding to microspore release. These results demonstrate that premature callose degradation is sufficient to cause male sterility and suggest that callose is essential for the formation of a normal microspore cell wall.

Worrall, D; Hird, D L; Hodge, R; Paul, W; Draper, J; Scott, R

1992-01-01

141

Male Mating Rate Is Constrained by Seminal Fluid Availability in Bedbugs, Cimex lectularius  

PubMed Central

Sexual selection, differences in reproductive success between individuals, continues beyond acquiring a mating partner and affects ejaculate size and composition (sperm competition). Sperm and seminal fluid have very different roles in sperm competition but both components encompass production costs for the male. Theoretical models predict that males should spend ejaculate components prudently and differently for sperm and seminal fluid but empirical evidence for independent variation of sperm number and seminal fluid volume is scarce. It is also largely unknown how sperm and seminal fluid variation affect future mating rate. In bedbugs we developed a protocol to examine the role of seminal fluids in ejaculate allocation and its effect on future male mating rate. Using age-related changes in sperm and seminal fluid volume we estimated the lowest capacity at which mating activity started. We then showed that sexually active males allocate 12% of their sperm and 19% of their seminal fluid volume per mating and predicted that males would be depleted of seminal fluid but not of sperm. We tested (and confirmed) this prediction empirically. Finally, the slightly faster replenishment of seminal fluid compared to sperm did not outweigh the faster decrease during mating. Our results suggest that male mating rate can be constrained by the availability of seminal fluids. Our protocol might be applicable to a range of other organisms. We discuss the idea that economic considerations in sexual conflict research might benefit from distinguishing between costs and benefits that are ejaculate dose-dependent and those that are frequency-dependent on the mating rate per se.

Reinhardt, Klaus; Naylor, Richard; Siva-Jothy, Michael T.

2011-01-01

142

Development of the components of a cytoplasmic male sterility hybrid system in rye through anther culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anther culture was applied as a method to develop the essential components of a cytoplasmic male sterility hybrid system in\\u000a rye (Secale cereale L.). These components are the male sterile seed parent (A line), its isogenic maintainer counterpart (B\\u000a line) and the restorer pollen parent (R line). Australian rye cultivars were crossed reciprocally to the cultivar ‘Luchs’\\u000a which carries the

Earl H. Bicar; Norman L. Darvey

1997-01-01

143

Transgenic induction of mitochondrial rearrangements for cytoplasmic male sterility in crop plants  

PubMed Central

Stability of the mitochondrial genome is controlled by nuclear loci. In plants, nuclear genes suppress mitochondrial DNA rearrangements during development. One nuclear gene involved in this process is Msh1. Msh1 appears to be involved in the suppression of illegitimate recombination in plant mitochondria. To test the hypothesis that Msh1 disruption leads to the type of mitochondrial DNA rearrangements associated with naturally occurring cytoplasmic male sterility in plants, a transgenic approach for RNAi was used to modulate expression of Msh1 in tobacco and tomato. In both species, these experiments resulted in reproducible mitochondrial DNA rearrangements and a condition of male (pollen) sterility. The male sterility was, in each case, heritable, associated with normal female fertility, and apparently maternal in its inheritance. Segregation of the transgene did not reverse the male sterile phenotype, producing stable, nontransgenic male sterility. The reproducible transgenic induction of mitochondrial rearrangements in plants is unprecedented, providing a means to develop novel cytoplasmic male sterile lines for release as non-GMO or transgenic materials.

Sandhu, Ajay Pal S.; Abdelnoor, Ricardo V.; Mackenzie, Sally A.

2007-01-01

144

Transgenic induction of mitochondrial rearrangements for cytoplasmic male sterility in crop plants.  

PubMed

Stability of the mitochondrial genome is controlled by nuclear loci. In plants, nuclear genes suppress mitochondrial DNA rearrangements during development. One nuclear gene involved in this process is Msh1. Msh1 appears to be involved in the suppression of illegitimate recombination in plant mitochondria. To test the hypothesis that Msh1 disruption leads to the type of mitochondrial DNA rearrangements associated with naturally occurring cytoplasmic male sterility in plants, a transgenic approach for RNAi was used to modulate expression of Msh1 in tobacco and tomato. In both species, these experiments resulted in reproducible mitochondrial DNA rearrangements and a condition of male (pollen) sterility. The male sterility was, in each case, heritable, associated with normal female fertility, and apparently maternal in its inheritance. Segregation of the transgene did not reverse the male sterile phenotype, producing stable, nontransgenic male sterility. The reproducible transgenic induction of mitochondrial rearrangements in plants is unprecedented, providing a means to develop novel cytoplasmic male sterile lines for release as non-GMO or transgenic materials. PMID:17261806

Sandhu, Ajay Pal S; Abdelnoor, Ricardo V; Mackenzie, Sally A

2007-02-01

145

Testosterone and Male Mating Success on the Black Grouse Leks  

Microsoft Academic Search

On black grouse (Tetrao tetrix) leks females prefer dominant, viable males that have managed to acquire relatively central territories. The immunocompetence hypothesis predicts that, because high levels of testosterone are costly to the immune system, male sexual traits that are controlled by testosterone are likely to serve as reliable indicators of male health. Indeed, testosterone concentrations of black grouse males

Rauno V. Alatalo; Jacob Hoglund; Arne Lundberg; Pekka T. Rintamaki; Bengt Silverin

1996-01-01

146

Mating success of resident versus non-resident males in a territorial butterfly  

PubMed Central

Male–male competition over territorial ownership suggests that winning is associated with considerable benefits. In the speckled wood butterfly, Pararge aegeria, males fight over sunspot territories on the forest floor; winners gain sole residency of a sunspot, whereas losers patrol the forest in search of females. It is currently not known whether residents experience greater mating success than non-residents, or whether mating success is contingent on environmental conditions. Here we performed an experiment in which virgin females of P. aegeria were allowed to choose between a resident and a non-resident male in a large enclosure containing one territorial sunspot. Resident males achieved approximately twice as many matings as non-residents, primarily because matings were most often preceded by a female being discovered when flying through a sunspot. There was no evidence that territorial residents were more attractive per se, with females seen to reject them as often as non-residents. Furthermore, in the cases where females were discovered outside of the sunspot, they were just as likely to mate with non-residents as residents. We hypothesize that the proximate advantage of territory ownership is that light conditions in a large sunspot greatly increase the male's ability to detect and intercept passing receptive females.

Bergman, Martin; Gotthard, Karl; Berger, David; Olofsson, Martin; Kemp, Darrell J; Wiklund, Christer

2007-01-01

147

Instability in mitochondrial membranes in Polima cytoplasmic male sterility of Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis.  

PubMed

Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is an important factor to observe heterosis in Brassica rapa. Although several studies have documented the rearrangements of mitochondrial DNA and dysfunction in the mitochondria have been observed in most types of CMS, the basis of the molecular mechanisms involved in these processes and other effects on CMS remain unclear. In this study, suppression subtractive hybridization was performed in the flowers of an alloplasmic Polima CMS system from B. rapa ssp. chinensis to identify genes that are differentially expressed between fertile and sterile plants. A total of 443 clones were isolated (156 were upregulated in fertile buds, and 287 were upregulated in sterile ones). Real-time RT-PCR further demonstrated the credibility of SSH. Among these genes, many membrane protein genes (LTP12, PIP2A, and GRP14) were inhibited in the sterile male line. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) assay was then performed. Results showed that the sterile MMP was unstable and failed to create a potential difference; thus, mitochondrial dysfunction occurred. Moreover, abnormal microtubules and photosynthetic pathways were found in sterile male cells. Unstable MMP, nutritional deficiency, and abnormal microtubules were the causes of Polima CMS in Brassica campestris. H2O2, MDA, and O(2-), accumulated as byproducts of energy metabolism disorder in sterile male cells. PMID:24652098

Li, Ying; Liu, Tongkun; Duan, Weike; Song, Xiaoming; Shi, Gongjun; Zhang, Jingyi; Deng, Xiaohui; Zhang, Shuning; Hou, Xilin

2014-06-01

148

Energetic Constraints and Male Mate-Securing Tactics in the Damselfly Calopteryx splendens xanthostoma (Charpentier)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Males of the damselfly Calopteryx splendens xanthostoma (Charpentier) demonstrate territorial and non-territorial mate securing tactics. Non-territorial males obtain a territory in one of two ways: they either wait for a territory to become vacant, or they fight with and displace a territory holder. The estimated reproductive success of territorial males was a thousand times greater than that of non-territorial males,

Stewart Plaistow; Michael T. Siva-Jothy

1996-01-01

149

The sterile-male-release technique in Great Lakes sea lamprey management  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The implementation of a sterile-male-release technique from 1991 through 1999 and evaluation of its effectiveness in the Great Lakes sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) management program is reviewed. Male sea lampreys were injected with the chemosterilant bisazir (P,P-bis(1-aziridinyl)-N-methylphosphinothioic amide) using a robotic device. Quality assurance testing indicated the device delivered a consistent and effective dose of bisazir. Viability of embryos in an untreated control group was 64% compared to 1% in a treatment group. A task force developed nine hypotheses to guide implementation and evaluation of the technique. An annual average of 26,000 male sea lampreys was harvested from as many as 17 Great Lakes tributaries for use in the technique. An annual average of 16,100 sterilized males was released into 33 tributaries of Lake Superior to achieve a theoretical 59% reduction in larval production during 1991 to 1996. The average number of sterile males released in the St. Marys River increased from 4,000 during 1991 to 1996 to 20,100 during 1997 to 1999. The theoretical reduction in reproduction when combined with trapping was 57% during 1991 to 1996 and 86% during 1997 to 1999. Evaluation studies demonstrated that sterilized males were competitive and reduced production of larvae in streams. Field studies and simulation models suggest reductions in reproduction will result in fewer recruits, but there is risk of periodic high recruitment events independent of sterile-male release. Strategies to reduce reproduction will be most reliable when low densities of reproducing females are achieved. Expansion of the technique is limited by access to additional males for sterilization. Sterile-male release and other alternative controls are important in delivering integrated pest management and in reducing reliance on pesticides.

Twohey, Michael B.; Heinrich, John W.; Seelye, James G.; Fredricks, Kim T.; Bergstedt, Roger A.; Kaye, Cheryl A.; Scholefield, Ron J.; McDonald, Rodney B.; Christie, Gavin C.

2003-01-01

150

Male Enchenopa treehoppers (Hemiptera: Membracidae) vary mate-searching behavior but not signaling behavior in response to spider silk.  

PubMed

Finding and attracting mates can impose costs on males in terms of increased encounters with, and attraction of, predators. To decrease the likelihood of predation, males may modify mate-acquisition efforts in two main ways: they may reduce mate-searching efforts or they may reduce mate-attraction efforts. The specific behavior that males change in the presence of predator cues should depend upon the nature of risk imposed by the type of predator present in the environment. For example, sit-and-wait predators impose greater costs to males moving in search of mates. Here, we test whether cues of the presence of a sit-and-wait predator lead to a reduction in mate-searching but not mate-acquisition behavior. We used a member of the Enchenopa binotata complex of treehoppers-a clade of vibrationally communicating insects in which males fly in search of mates and produce mate-attraction signals when they land on plant stems. We tested for changes in mate-searching and signaling behaviors when silk from a web-building spider was present or absent. We found that males delayed flight when spider silk was present but only if they were actively searching for mates. These results suggest that males have been selected to reduce predation risk by adjusting how they move about their environment according to the cues of sit-and-wait predators. PMID:24487912

Fowler-Finn, Kasey D; Al-Wathiqui, Nooria; Cruz, Daniel; Al-Wathiqui, Mishal; Rodríguez, Rafael L

2014-03-01

151

Quantity matters: male sex pheromone signals mate quality in the parasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis  

PubMed Central

Sexual selection theory asserts that females are well adapted to sense signals indicating the quality of potential mates. One crucial male quality parameter is functional fertility (i.e. the success of ejaculates in fertilizing eggs). The phenotype-linked fertility hypothesis (PLFH) predicts that functional fertility of males is reflected by phenotypic traits that influence female mate choice. Here, we show for Nasonia vitripennis, a parasitic wasp with haplodiploid sex determination and female-biased sex ratios, that females use olfactory cues to discriminate against sperm-limited males. We found sperm limitation in newly emerged and multiply mated males (seven or more previous matings) as indicated by a higher proportion of sons in the offspring fathered by these males. Sperm limitation correlated with clearly reduced pheromone titres. In behavioural bioassays, females oriented towards higher doses of the synthetic pheromone and were attracted more often to scent marks of males with a full sperm load than to those of sperm-limited males. Our data support the PLFH and suggest that N. vitripennis females are able to decrease the risk of getting constrained to produce suboptimal offspring sex ratios by orienting towards gradients of the male sex pheromone.

Ruther, Joachim; Matschke, Michael; Garbe, Leif-Alexander; Steiner, Sven

2009-01-01

152

FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH REDUCED FERTILITY AND IMPLANTATION RATES IN FEMALES MATED TO ACRYLAMIDE TREATED MALES  

EPA Science Inventory

A series of studies was conducted to examine the role of copulatory dysfunction, spermatotoxicity, and/or impaired fertilization in the reduced rates of fertility and implantation observed in females mated to acrylamid-treated male rats. In initial experiments, males were gavaged...

153

Assortative mating among Lake Malawi cichlid fish populations is not simply predictable from male nuptial colour  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Research on the evolution of reproductive isolation in African cichlid fishes has largely focussed on the role of male colours and female mate choice. Here, we tested predictions from the hypothesis that allopatric divergence in male colour is associated with corresponding divergence in preference. METHODS: We studied four populations of the Lake Malawi Pseudotropheus zebra complex. We predicted that

Jonatan Blais; Martin Plenderleith; Ciro Rico; Martin I Taylor; Ole Seehausen; Cock van Oosterhout; George F Turner

2009-01-01

154

A polycystic kidney-disease gene homologue required for male mating behaviour in C. elegans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stereotyped mating behaviour of the Caenorhabditis elegans male is made up of several substeps: response, backing, turning, vulva location, spicule insertion and sperm transfer. The complexity of this behaviour is reflected in the sexually dimorphic anatomy and nervous system. Behavioural functions have been assigned to most of the male-specific sensory neurons by means of cell ablations; for example, the

Maureen M. Barr; Paul W. Sternberg

1999-01-01

155

Influence of Male Mating Behavior on Wing Morphology in Brassolini Butterflies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of male mating behavior on wing morphology in two genera of the tribe Brassolini, Caligo and Opsiphanes, was examined. This study consisted of fieldwork and laboratory components. During fieldwork, male and female butterflies from each genus were flown through a flight tunnel and recorded with a video camera for further analysis of flight speed in the laboratory. In

Susan E. Frichter

2012-01-01

156

VISUAL MATE DETECTION IN A TERRITORIAL MALE BUTTERFLY (ASTEROCAMPA LEILIA): EFFECTS OF DISTANCE AND PERCH LOCATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary We experimentally investigated proximate factors inè uencing the visual detection of è y- ing conspecié cs by male butterè ies (Asterocampa leilia) engaged in a sit-and-wait mate- searching tactic. Model butterè ies were presented to perched males in the é eld using an ap- paratus that permitted us to control the path and speed of a model while varying

Ronald L. Rutowski; Lee McCoy; Michael J. Demlong

2001-01-01

157

Pairs during hibernation in a temperate frog: an unusual male mating strategy among anurans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amplexus in which a male grasps a female from behind, characterizes most anurans as their strategy to ensure mating success.\\u000a The behavior usually takes place some minutes, hours or days before gamete release. In a few species, however, it forms very\\u000a early and lasts up to months, assumed to be an extreme pattern of mate guarding. Rana chensinensis is a

Wei ChenLixia; Lixia Zhang; Xin Lu

158

Male and female mate choice affects offspring quality in a sex-role-reversed pipefish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Where both sexes invest substantially in o¡spring, both females and males should discriminate between potential partners when choosing mates. The degree of choosiness should relate to the costs of choice and to the potential bene¢ts to be gained. We measured o¡spring quality from experimentally staged matings with preferred and non-preferred partners in a sex-role-reversed pipe¢sh, Syngnathus typhle L. Here, a

Maria Sandvik; Gunilla Rosenqvist; Anders Berglund

2000-01-01

159

Molecular mapping of three male-sterile, female-fertile mutants and generation of a comprehensive map of all known male sterility genes in soybean.  

PubMed

In soybean, an environmentally stable male sterility system is vital for making hybrid seed production commercially viable. Eleven male-sterile, female-fertile mutants (ms1, ms2, ms3, ms4, ms5, ms6, ms7, ms8, ms9, msMOS, and msp) have been identified in soybean. Of these, eight (ms2, ms3, ms5, ms7, ms8, ms9, msMOS, and msp) have been mapped to soybean chromosomes. The objectives of this study were to (i) locate the ms1, ms4, and ms6 genes to soybean chromosomes; (ii) generate genetic linkage maps of the regions containing these genes; and (iii) develop a comprehensive map of all known male-sterile, female-fertile genes in soybean. The bulked segregant analysis technique was used to locate genes to soybean chromosomes. Microsatellite markers from the corresponding chromosomes were used on F2 populations to generate genetic linkage maps. The ms1 and ms6 genes were located on chromosome 13 (molecular linkage group F) and ms4 was present on chromosome 2 (molecular linkage group D1b). Molecular analyses revealed markers Satt516, BARCSOYSSR_02_1539, and AW186493 were located closest to ms1, ms4, and ms6, respectively. The ms1 and ms6 genes, although present on the same chromosome, were independently assorting with a genetic distance of 73.7 cM. Using information from this study and compiled information from previously published male sterility genes in soybean, a comprehensive genetic linkage map was generated. Eleven male sterility genes were present on seven soybean chromosomes. Four genes were present in two regions on chromosome 2 (molecular linkage group D1b) and two genes were present on chromosome 13 (molecular linkage group F). PMID:24814801

Yang, Yang; Speth, Benjamin D; Boonyoo, Napatsakorn; Baumert, Eric; Atkinson, Taylor R; Palmer, Reid G; Sandhu, Devinder

2014-03-01

160

RNAi-mediated male sterility of tobacco by silencing TA29.  

PubMed

The superior performance of F1 hybrids has a significant impact on agricultural productivity. For commercial application, the availability of an efficient system for obtaining male-sterile lines of crops is an essential prerequisite. Here we have investigated the use of RNA interference (RNAi) technology to silence a male-specific gene in the model host tobacco. TA29 is expressed exclusively in anthers at the time of microspore development. About 10 out of 13 tobacco lines transformed with a hairpin RNAi construct containing TA29 sequences were male sterile. Transgenic plants were phenotypically indistinguishable from non-transgenic plants. At the anthesis stage, pollen grains from transgenic, male-sterile plants were aborted and lysed in comparison to the round and fully developed pollen in non-transgenic plants. Microscopic analysis of anthers showed selective degradation of tapetum in transgenic plants with no microspore development. One week after self-pollination, the ovules of non-transgenic plants were double the size of those in transgenic plants, due to successful self-fertilization. Male sterile transgenic plants set seed normally, when cross-pollinated with pollen from non-transgenic plants, confirming no adverse effect on the female parts of the flower. These results show that silencing of male-specific genes by RNAi is potentially a useful tool for generating male-sterile lines for producing hybrid seed. PMID:17914195

Nawaz-ul-Rehman, Muhammad Shah; Mansoor, Shahid; Khan, Asif Ali; Zafar, Yusuf; Briddon, Rob W

2007-06-01

161

Mating dominance amongst male Himalayan tahr: blonds do better.  

PubMed

In ungulates, rank order is determined by differences in weight, body size, weapon size and age. In the Caprini tribe (Bovidae: Caprinae), adult male Himalayan tahr are unique to show different coat colours, but no sexual dimorphism in weapons. A highly significant correlation between hair colour and rank order was found during the rut: males with a lighter coloured ruff dominated over darker ruffed ones, in both aggressive interactions and access to oestrus females. We studied colour-based dominance in relation to weight, age and testosterone levels, which establish the social rank in most ungulates. No differences in weight and testosterone concentrations were found between adult male colour classes, but males with paler ruffs were significantly younger than darker adult males. The distribution of physical traumas from fights confirmed that younger, lighter-coloured males had a higher rank than older, darker males, a pattern which is unusual amongst ungulates. Coat colour seems to work as a signal of rank in male-male aggressive interactions and it changes according to age, whereas the relevant physiological determinants deserve further research. Intrasexual male competition has not changed weapon size or shape in the Himalayan tahr, but ruff colours are apparently used to signal rank and dominance. Colour patterns of adult males may then be homologous to ritualised weapons, apparently being a unique feature of male tahr amongst mammals. PMID:19133319

Lovari, S; Pellizzi, B; Boesi, R; Fusani, L

2009-05-01

162

Female Japanese Quail (Coturnix japonica) Mated With Males That Harassed Them Are Unlikely to Lay Fertilized Eggs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of previous studies of courtship and mating in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) suggest that females avoid conspecific males because, while courting and mating, males engage in behaviors that are potentially injurious to females. However, prior experiments provided no direct evidence that females avoided harassing males. Here the authors show that a female quail choosing between a previous sex partner

Kamini N. Persaud; Bennett G. Galef

2005-01-01

163

WHY DO SOME SOCIAL INSECT QUEENS MATE WITH SEVERAL MALES? TESTING THE SEX-RATIO MANIPULATION HYPOTHESIS IN LASIUS NIGER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although multiple mating most likely increases mortality risk for social insect queens and lowers the kin benefits for nonreproductive workers, a significant proportion of hymenopteran queens mate with several males. It has been suggested that queens may mate multiply as a means to manipulate sex ratios to their advantage. Multiple paternity reduces the extreme relatedness value of females for workers,

Else J. Fjerdingstad; Pia J. Gertsch; Laurent Keller

2002-01-01

164

Male-to-female transfer of 5-hydroxytryptophan glucoside during mating in Zygaena filipendulae (Lepidoptera).  

PubMed

Zygaena filipendulae accumulates the cyanogenic glucosides linamarin and lotaustralin by larval sequestration from the food plant or de novo biosynthesis. We have previously demonstrated that the Z. filipendulae male transfers linamarin and lotaustralin to the female in the course of mating. In this study we report the additional transfer of 5-hydroxytryptophan glucoside (5-(?-d-glucopyranosyloxy)-L-Tryptophan) from the Z. filipendulae male internal genitalia to the female spermatophore around 5 h into the mating process. 5-Hydroxytryptophan glucoside is present in the virgin male internal genitalia, and production continues during the early phase of mating. Following initiation of 5-hydroxytryptophan glucoside transfer to the female, the amount in male internal genitalia is drastically reduced until after mating where it is slowly replenished. For unambiguous structural identification, 5-hydroxytryptophan glucoside was chemically synthesized and used as an authentic standard. The biological function of 5-hydroxytryptophan glucoside remains to be established, although we have indications that it may be involved in inducing the female to stay in copula and delay egg-laying to prevent re-mating of the female. To our knowledge 5-hydroxytryptophan glucoside has not previously been reported present in animal tissues. PMID:24012995

Zagrobelny, Mika; Motawia, Mohammed Saddik; Olsen, Carl Erik; Bak, Søren; Møller, Birger Lindberg

2013-11-01

165

Sex Combs are Important for Male Mating Success in Drosophila melanogaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sex comb is one of the most rapidly evolving male-specific traits in Drosophila, making it an attractive model to study sexual selection and developmental evolution. Drosophila males use their sex combs to grasp the females’ abdomen and genitalia and to spread their wings prior to copulation. To test\\u000a the role of this structure in male mating success in Drosophila

Chen Siang Ng; Artyom Kopp

2008-01-01

166

Sexual dimorphism and male mating success in the tentacled blenny, Parablennius tentacularis (Teleostei: Blenniidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although external sexually dimorphic traits are commonly found in males of combtooth blenny species, little is known about\\u000a the benefit they can convey to male mating success. Indeed, while female preferences for large males have been demonstrated\\u000a in some species, the possible role played by dimorphic ornaments has been neglected. We now report on the tentacled blenny,\\u000a Parablennius tentacularis, a

Eva Giacomello; Maria B. Rasotto

2005-01-01

167

Mating types in screwworm populations  

SciTech Connect

Response is given to questions raised by L.E. LaChance, et al., regarding the types of screwworm that occur in Mexico and anatomical differences in male genitalia among types. Errors in chromosome length and arm ratios are discussed. Results of testing the V-81 strain (sterile males) indicate that mating barriers exist even at high release rates. Mating discrimination must be high for a population to withstand an excess of sterile flies. The relevance of this to eradication programs is discussed. (RJC)

Richardson, R.H.; Ellison, J.R.; Averhoff, W.W.

1982-12-10

168

Genetically Marked Male Sterile Genes and Hybrid Seed Production. Final Report on Phase 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project was intended to make practical the use of nuclear male sterile (ms) genes in hybrid seed production by linking a marker gene to the male fertile allele of the ms gene and selecting for the segregating ms seed by discarding segregants showing t...

A. Morgan

1991-01-01

169

Meiotic Sex Chromosome Inactivation Is Disrupted in Sterile Hybrid Male House Mice  

PubMed Central

In male mammals, the X and Y chromosomes are transcriptionally silenced in primary spermatocytes by meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI) and remain repressed for the duration of spermatogenesis. Here, we test the longstanding hypothesis that disrupted MSCI might contribute to the preferential sterility of heterogametic hybrid males. We studied a cross between wild-derived inbred strains of Mus musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus in which sterility is asymmetric: F1 males with a M. m. musculus mother are sterile or nearly so while F1 males with a M. m. domesticus mother are normal. In previous work, we discovered widespread overexpression of X-linked genes in the testes of sterile but not fertile F1 males. Here, we ask whether this overexpression is specifically a result of disrupted MSCI. To do this, we isolated cells from different stages of spermatogenesis and measured the expression of several genes using quantitative PCR. We found that X overexpression in sterile F1 primary spermatocytes is coincident with the onset of MSCI and persists in postmeiotic spermatids. Using a series of recombinant X genotypes, we then asked whether X overexpression in hybrids is controlled by cis-acting loci across the X chromosome. We found that it is not. Instead, one large interval in the proximal portion of the M. m. musculus X chromosome is associated with both overexpression and the severity of sterility phenotypes in hybrids. These results demonstrate a strong association between X-linked hybrid male sterility and disruption of MSCI and suggest that trans-acting loci on the X are important for the transcriptional regulation of the X chromosome during spermatogenesis.

Campbell, Polly; Good, Jeffrey M.; Nachman, Michael W.

2013-01-01

170

Audience Effect Alters Male Mating Preferences in Zebra Finches (Taeniopygia guttata)  

PubMed Central

The social environment of animals strongly influences the mating preferences of both the choosing and the observing individuals. Notably, there is recent evidence that polygamous males decrease their selectivity when being observed by competitors in order to direct their rivals’ attention away from their true interest and, consequently, reduce sperm competition risk. Yet, other mechanisms, whose importance remains unexplored, could induce similar effects. In monogamous species with mutual choice, particularly, if males adjust their selectivity according to the risk of being rejected by their preferred mate, they should as well become less selective when potential rivals are present. Here, we investigated whether the presence of bystanders modifies male mating preferences when the risk of sperm competition is low, by carrying out mate-choice experiments with male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) whose preferences for two females were measured twice: with and without an audience. We found that the presence of potential rivals had no effect on the males’ choosiness. However, with an audience, they spent more time with the female that was considered as the less attractive one in the control condition. These findings support the hypothesis that monogamous males alter their mate choice decisions in the presence of a male audience to reduce the risk of remaining unpaired. Thus, our results indicate that several explanations can account for the changes in male preferences due to the presence of competitors and highlight the importance of assessing the relative role of each mechanism potentially involved, to be able to make conclusions about the effect of an audience on signal evolution.

Dubois, Frederique; Belzile, Alexandra

2012-01-01

171

Molecular tagging of a genic male-sterile gene in rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sterility of Pingxiang male-sterile rice (Pms), possibly derided from a spontaneous mutation in Pingxiang fertile rice\\u000a (Pmf), was previously reported to be controlled by a single dominant nuclear gene. It can be restored to fertility either\\u000a by a dominant epistatic gene or by higher temperature treatment at the early stage of inflorescence development. In order\\u000a to tag the genic

Xuewei Chen; Shigui Li; Wenming Wang; Hanyun Li; Kaida Zhou; Lihuang Zhu

2001-01-01

172

Fighting success and attractiveness as predictors of male mating success in the black field cricket, Teleogryllus commodus : the effectiveness of no-choice tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Females are generally assumed to prefer larger, more dominant males. However, a growing number of studies that control for male-male competition have shown no correlation between dominance and attractiveness. Aggressive males can interfere with female mate preference either by physically coercing females into mating or by driving submissive males away and restricting mate choice. The most common method of assessing

Michelle A. Shackleton; Michael D. Jennions; John Hunt

2005-01-01

173

Mating Increases Neuronal Tyrosine Hydroxylase Expression and Selectively Gates Transmission of Male Chemosensory Information in Female Mice  

PubMed Central

Exposure to chemosensory signals from unfamiliar males can terminate pregnancy in recently mated female mice. The number of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons in the main olfactory bulb has been found to increase following mating and has been implicated in preventing male-induced pregnancy block during the post-implantation period. In contrast, pre-implantation pregnancy block is mediated by the vomeronasal system, and is thought to be prevented by selective inhibition of the mate’s pregnancy blocking chemosignals, at the level of the accessory olfactory bulb. The objectives of this study were firstly to identify the level of the vomeronasal pathway at which selective inhibition of the mate’s pregnancy blocking chemosignals occurs. Secondly, to determine whether a post-mating increase in tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons is observed in the vomeronasal system, which could play a role in preventing pre-implantation pregnancy block. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that mating induced an increase in tyrosine-hydroxylase positive neurons in the arcuate hypothalamus of BALB/c females, and suppressed c-Fos expression in these neurons in response to mating male chemosignals. This selective suppression of c-Fos response to mating male chemosignals was not apparent at earlier levels of the pregnancy-blocking neural pathway in the accessory olfactory bulb or corticomedial amygdala. Immunohistochemical staining revealed an increase in the number of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons in the accessory olfactory bulb of BALB/c female mice following mating. However, increased dopamine-mediated inhibition in the accessory olfactory bulb is unlikely to account for the prevention of pregnancy block to the mating male, as tyrosine hydroxylase expression did not increase in females of the C57BL/6 strain, which show normal mate recognition. These findings reveal an association of mating with increased dopaminergic modulation in the pregnancy block pathway and support the hypothesis that mate recognition prevents pregnancy block by suppressing the activation of arcuate dopamine release.

Matthews, Gillian A.; Patel, Ronak; Walsh, Alison; Davies, Owain; Martinez-Ricos, Joana; Brennan, Peter A.

2013-01-01

174

Release of thiotepa sterilized males into caged populations of Aedes aegypti: life table analysis.  

PubMed

Successful SIT trials against mosquitoes in the 1960-70s were achieved by sterilizing male mosquitoes using chemosterilants. Their use was discontinued after concerns were raised about the effect of residues on non-target organisms, although scant evidence has been published. Irradiation is an expensive process; chemosterilization could be an affordable option for implementing SIT programs in developing countries. We compare life table parameters of three Aedes aegypti populations comprising different ratios of thiotepa-treated and non-treated males in order to identify the impact on reproductive potential of the presence of sterile males. No difference was observed in the survival of the treated and untreated males. The release of thiotepa sterilized males into caged Ae. aegypti populations had no effect on death or survival probability of the individuals in the cages but the fecundity of females was significantly reduced, as evaluated by hatch rate and stable age structure parameters. The significant decreases in net reproduction rate, finite rate of natural increase and intrinsic rate of natural increase in populations including sterile males are sufficient to indicate that such populations would not be able to proliferate in natural conditions. This suggests that release of Ae. aegypti thiotepa-treated males could be effective in reducing the reproductive capability of the target population and consequently contribute to vector control. PMID:24513037

Gato, René; Companioni, Ariamys; Bruzón, Rosa Y; Menéndez, Zulema; González, Aileen; Rodríguez, Misladys

2014-04-01

175

No evidence for local adaptation between cytoplasmic male sterility and nuclear restorer genes in the gynodioecious species Thymus vulgaris L  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Thymus vulgaris L., sex determination involves both the nuclear and the cytoplasmic genomes: the cytoplasm is responsible for male sterility (the female phenotype) whereas specific nuclear genes may restore male fertility (the hermaphrodite phenotype). The evolutionary dynamics of cytoplasmic male-sterility genes and nuclear restorer genes represents a coevolutionary conflict. Here we draw a parallel between this conflict and the

L. GIGORD; C Lavigne; J. A. SHYKOFF; A Atlan

1998-01-01

176

Synthesis of male sterile, triazine-resistant Brassica napus by somatic hybridization between cytoplasmic male sterile B. oleracea and atrazine-resistant B. campestris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusion of leaf protoplasts from an inbred line of Brassica oleracea ssp. botrytis (cauliflower, n=9) carrying the Ogura (R1) male sterile cytoplasm with hypocotyl protoplasts of B. campestris ssp. oleifera (cv “Candle”, n=10) carrying an atrazine-resistant (ATR) cytoplasm resulted in the production of synthetic B. napus (n=19). Thirty-four somatic hybrids were produced; they were characterized for morphology, phosphoglucose isomerase isoenzymes,

P. S. Jourdan; E. D. Earle; M. A. Mutschler

1989-01-01

177

Do unattractive friends make you look better? Context-dependent male mating preferences in the guppy  

PubMed Central

Recent theory predicts that in species where females tend to mate with the relatively most ornamented males, males may increase their attractiveness to females, and hence mating success, by preferentially associating with females that are surrounded by less ornamented competitors. Despite this prediction, we still lack explicit experimental evidence that males strategically prefer females surrounded by less attractive competitors to maximize their relative attractiveness. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive test of this hypothesis in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a species where a female's perception of a male's attractiveness depends on his coloration relative to that of surrounding males. We found that males preferentially associated with females that were surrounded by relatively drab competitors, and that the strength of an individual male's preference was negatively correlated with his level of ornamentation. A series of control experiments made it possible to exclude the potentially confounding effects of male–male competition or social motivations when drawing these conclusions. The ability of males to choose social context to increase their relative attractiveness has important evolutionary consequences, for example, by contributing towards the maintenance of variability in male sexual ornamentation despite the strong directional selection exerted by female preferences.

Gasparini, Clelia; Serena, Giovanna; Pilastro, Andrea

2013-01-01

178

Male Dominance Rank, Mating and Reproductive Success in Captive Bonobos (Pan paniscus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the recent past, application of DNA genotyping techniques has enabled researchers to more accurately test relationships between dominance rank (DR), mating success (MS) and reproductive success (RS). Paternity studies often reveal that reproductive outcome does not always correlate with male DR and\\/or MS and thus open room for discussion and interpretation of alternative reproductive tactics of both sexes. In

R. Marvan; J. M. G. Stevens; A. D. Roeder; I. Mazura; M. W. Bruford; J. R. de Ruiter

2006-01-01

179

Associative odour learning affects mating behaviour in Aphidius ervi males (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used the aphid parasitoid Aphidius ervi reared in its host Acyrthosiphon pisum to examine if male sexual attractive responses can be conditioned to an odour (vanilla) that is not present in the natural environment. We used prior mating experience (exposure to females) as a non-conditioning stimulus and vanilla odour as a conditioning stimulus. The behavioural responses were tested in

CRISTIAN A. VILLAGRA; RODRIGO A. VÁSQUEZ; HERMANN M. NIEMEYER

180

Patterns of biomass allocation to male and female functions in plants with different mating systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using dry weight biomass we examined the patterns of investment in male and female functions (prezygotic cost) in plants with different mating systems. All the flower parts of both xenogamous and facultatively xenogamous species were heavier, i.e., larger, than those of facultatively autogamous species. Likewise, the dry weights of all the flower parts of xenogamous species exceeded those of facultatively

Robert William Cruden; David L. Lyon

1985-01-01

181

Ultraviolet Ornamentation and Male Mating Success in a High-Density Assemblage of the Butterfly Colias eurytheme  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultraviolet (UV) colour patterns, particularly those deriving from surface structures, serve a role in sexual signalling and mate choice in a range of animal groups. In the butterfly Colias eurytheme (Pieridae), male-limited iridescent UV functions in species recognition, and has potential as an intraspecific sexual signal of mate quality. I compared the dorsal colouration and body size of males discovered

Darrell. J. Kemp

2006-01-01

182

Factors influencing male mating success in bur oak, Quercus macrocarpa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application. Genotyping at DNA microsatellite loci identified pollen donors of a large sample of acorns and saplings in one stand of bur oak. The data were used to test if several character- istics of pollen donors were correlated with reproductive success. Male reproductive success could not be completely explained by any factor tested, including distance from maternal tree, direction of

BEVERLY D. DOW; MARY V. ASHLEY

1998-01-01

183

Factors influencing male mating success in bur oak, Quercus macrocarpa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollen donors of acorns and saplings in a stand of bur oak were identified by paternity exclusion using microsatellite genotype analysis. Here we examine the influence of several factors likely to affect reproductive success of males with wind-dispersed pollen, including distance of pollen donor from maternal tree, genetic relatedness of pollen donor to maternal tree, direction of pollen donor relative

Beverly D. Dow; Mary V. Ashley

1998-01-01

184

Genetic polymorphism for alternative mating behaviour in lekking male ruff Philomachus pugnax  

Microsoft Academic Search

ALTERNATIVE male mating tactics are widespread among animal taxa1-3, but there are few well documented examples of genetic polymorphisms for them4-6. The dimorphism in male courtship behaviour between independent and satellite ruffs, Philomachm pugnax7,8 (a lekking sandpiper), has often been cited as a potential example but this has been questioned9,10 because of the lack of data11 and the widespread phenotypic

David B. Lank; Constance M. Smith; Olivier Hanotte; Terry Burke; Fred Cooke

1995-01-01

185

Mating competition and intergroup transfer of males in Tibetan macaques ( Macaca thibetana ) at Mt. Emei, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In five groups of seasonally provisioned Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) at Mt. Emei, males were sampled for wounds as an indicator of their competition for females during about 80 days in the\\u000a 1987 mating season. Quantitative data on intergroup transfer were collected in a period between June 1986 and December 1987.\\u000a The young adult (YA) males, the most active age-class

Qi-Kun Zhao

1994-01-01

186

Effect of Adult Feeding on Male Mating Behaviour in the Butterfly, Bicyclus anynana (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many species of lepidopterans supplement their nectar diet with foods rich in nitrogen and minerals, which are present only\\u000a in trace amounts in nectar. We examined the effect of adult diet on mating behaviour and spermatophore characteristics in\\u000a male Bicyclus anynana (Butler, 1879) butterflies, which feed on rotten fruits as adults. We found little effect of adult diet\\u000a on male

Z. Lewis; N. Wedell

2007-01-01

187

Scheduled Daily Mating Induces Circadian Anticipatory Activity Rhythms in the Male Rat  

PubMed Central

Daily schedules of limited access to food, palatable high calorie snacks, water and salt can induce circadian rhythms of anticipatory locomotor activity in rats and mice. All of these stimuli are rewarding, but whether anticipation can be induced by neural correlates of reward independent of metabolic perturbations associated with manipulations of food and hydration is unclear. Three experiments were conducted to determine whether mating, a non-ingestive behavior that is potently rewarding, can induce circadian anticipatory activity rhythms in male rats provided scheduled daily access to steroid-primed estrous female rats. In Experiment 1, rats anticipated access to estrous females in the mid-light period, but also exhibited post-coital eating and running. In Experiment 2, post-coital eating and running were prevented and only a minority of rats exhibited anticipation. Rats allowed to see and smell estrous females showed no anticipation. In both experiments, all rats exhibited sustained behavioral arousal and multiple mounts and intromissions during every session, but ejaculated only every 2–3 days. In Experiment 3, the rats were given more time with individual females, late at night for 28 days, and then in the midday for 28 days. Ejaculation rates increased and anticipation was robust to night sessions and significant although weaker to day sessions. The anticipation rhythm persisted during 3 days of constant dark without mating. During anticipation of nocturnal mating, the rats exhibited a significant preference for a tube to the mating cage over a tube to a locked cage with mating cage litter. This apparent place preference was absent during anticipation of midday mating, which may reflect a daily rhythm of sexual reward. The results establish mating as a reward stimulus capable of inducing circadian rhythms of anticipatory behavior in the male rat, and reveal a critical role for ejaculation, a modulatory role for time of day, and a potential confound role for uncontrolled food intake.

Landry, Glenn J.; Opiol, Hanna; Marchant, Elliott G.; Pavlovski, Ilya; Mear, Rhiannon J.; Hamson, Dwayne K.; Mistlberger, Ralph E.

2012-01-01

188

Neuroendocrine mechanisms underlying regulation of mating flight behaviors in male honey bees (Apis mellifera L.).  

PubMed

We determined the neuroendocrine mechanisms underlying regulation of mating flight behaviors in male honey bees. Both a precursor of dopamine (3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine: DOPA) and a precursor of octopamine (tyramine) in the brain decreased in an age-dependent fashion before sexual maturation (i.e. 8days of age), whereas the levels of brain dopamine, dopamine metabolites (N-acetyldopamine and norepinephrine) and octopamine were increased. These age-dependent increases of dopamine and octopamine were also detected in the meso-metathoracic ganglia. Injection of either dopamine or octopamine into 7-8-day-old males shortened the duration for flight-initiation and increased the duration of wing vibration, indicating that both dopamine and octopamine enhance the flight-initiation and -sustaining activities in males. Applications of a juvenile hormone analog (methoprene) enhanced the levels of dopamine in the brains of 4-day-old males, but this enhancement was not detected in either brain octopamine or meso-metathoracic dopamine and octopamine. Thus, we found that both dopamine and octopamine in the brain and meso-metathoracic ganglia increase until sexual maturation and could enhance the activities of mating flight independently; in addition, the increase in levels of dopamine in the brain could be selectively regulated by juvenile hormone. The regulatory systems of dopamine and octopamine in honey bee males might be 'classical' and similar to those of primitively eusocial hymenopterans, and partly adapt to the short lifespan with a single mating system in the males. PMID:23510859

Mezawa, Ryusuke; Akasaka, Shinya; Nagao, Takashi; Sasaki, Ken

2013-06-01

189

Efficient transformation of Kalanchoe blossfeldiana and production of male-sterile plants by engineered anther ablation.  

PubMed

Engineered male sterility in ornamental plants has many applications such as facilitate hybrid seed production, eliminate pollen allergens, reduce the need for deadheading to extend the flowering period, redirect resources from seeds to vegetative growth, increase flower longevity and prevent gene flow between genetically modified and related native plants. We have developed a reliable and efficient Agrobacterium-mediated protocol for the genetic transformation of different Kalanchoe blossfeldiana commercial cultivars. Transformation efficiency for cv. 'Hillary' was 55.3% whereas that of cv. 'Tenorio' reached 75.8%. Selection was carried out with the nptII gene and increasing the kanamycin concentration from 25 to 100 mg l(-1) allowed to reduced escapes from 50 to 60% to virtually 0%. This method was used to produce male-sterile plants through engineered anther ablation. In our approach, we tested a male sterility chimaeric gene construct (PsEND1::barnase) to evaluate its effectiveness and effect on phenotype. No significant differences were found in the growth patterns between the transgenic lines and the wild-type plants. No viable pollen grains were observed in the ablated anthers of any of the lines carrying the PsEND1::barnase construct, indicating that the male sterility was complete. In addition, seed set was completely abolished in all the transgenic plants obtained. Our engineered male-sterile approach could be used, alone or in combination with a female-sterility system, to reduce the invasive potential of new ornamentals, which has become an important environmental problem in many countries. PMID:19921199

García-Sogo, Begoña; Pineda, Benito; Castelblanque, Lourdes; Antón, Teresa; Medina, Mónica; Roque, Edelín; Torresi, Claudia; Beltrán, José Pío; Moreno, Vicente; Cañas, Luis Antonio

2010-01-01

190

Alternative reproductive tactics in male common shrews: relationships between mate-searching behaviour, sperm production, and reproductive success as revealed by DNA fingerprinting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The common shrew (Sorex araneus) is a solitary small mammal with a promiscuous mating system. Previous studies of this species suggest that females typically mate multiply, and that males may adopt alternative mate-searching tactics. We studied two generations of common shrews in a population near Oxford, England. Males were found to adopt two different mate-searching tactics. Those classed as type

P. Stockley; J. B. Searle; D. W. Macdonald; C. S. Jones

1994-01-01

191

Effect of prolonged frequency of mating by the male rat on his fertility and on the sex ratio of his offspring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barto~, L. and Trojan, S., 1988. Effect of prolonged frequency of mating by the male rat on his fertility and on the sex ratio of his offspring. Anita. Reprod. Sci., 17: 271-279. Sixteen male rats were allowed to mate with five intact primiparous females over a period of 5 days at the beginning (initial mating), middle (second mating) and end

L. BARTOS; S TROJAN

1988-01-01

192

Identification and characterization of double-stranded RNA associated with cytoplasmic male sterility in Vicia faba  

PubMed Central

The cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) trait of at least one line of Vicia faba plants is always associated with the presence of high molecular weight double-stranded RNA in the leaf tissue extracts. Subcellular fractions of leaf tissue from CMS and fertile maintainer plants were initially analyzed in an attempt to locate, identify, and characterize the genetic material involved with the sterility trait. This CMS-associated high molecular weight RNA was found only in the cytosol of the “447” male sterile line of V.faba plants and could not be isolated from the recurrent parent (maintainer), from lines that had been fertility-restored, or from lines that had reverted from the sterile condition. We have been able to move the CMS-associated RNA from donor to fertile host plants through a dodder bridge. These hots not only contain the RNA but now exhibit a male sterile phenotype, as detected by visual examination of the flower, the pollen, morphological characteristics, and pollen staining ability. Images

Grill, L. K.; Garger, S. J.

1981-01-01

193

Mating increases neuronal tyrosine hydroxylase expression and selectively gates transmission of male chemosensory information in female mice.  

PubMed

Exposure to chemosensory signals from unfamiliar males can terminate pregnancy in recently mated female mice. The number of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons in the main olfactory bulb has been found to increase following mating and has been implicated in preventing male-induced pregnancy block during the post-implantation period. In contrast, pre-implantation pregnancy block is mediated by the vomeronasal system, and is thought to be prevented by selective inhibition of the mate's pregnancy blocking chemosignals, at the level of the accessory olfactory bulb. The objectives of this study were firstly to identify the level of the vomeronasal pathway at which selective inhibition of the mate's pregnancy blocking chemosignals occurs. Secondly, to determine whether a post-mating increase in tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons is observed in the vomeronasal system, which could play a role in preventing pre-implantation pregnancy block. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that mating induced an increase in tyrosine-hydroxylase positive neurons in the arcuate hypothalamus of BALB/c females, and suppressed c-Fos expression in these neurons in response to mating male chemosignals. This selective suppression of c-Fos response to mating male chemosignals was not apparent at earlier levels of the pregnancy-blocking neural pathway in the accessory olfactory bulb or corticomedial amygdala. Immunohistochemical staining revealed an increase in the number of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons in the accessory olfactory bulb of BALB/c female mice following mating. However, increased dopamine-mediated inhibition in the accessory olfactory bulb is unlikely to account for the prevention of pregnancy block to the mating male, as tyrosine hydroxylase expression did not increase in females of the C57BL/6 strain, which show normal mate recognition. These findings reveal an association of mating with increased dopaminergic modulation in the pregnancy block pathway and support the hypothesis that mate recognition prevents pregnancy block by suppressing the activation of arcuate dopamine release. PMID:23936125

Matthews, Gillian A; Patel, Ronak; Walsh, Alison; Davies, Owain; Martínez-Ricós, Joana; Brennan, Peter A

2013-01-01

194

Sexual cooperation and conflict in butterflies: a male-transferred anti-aphrodisiac reduces harassment of recently mated females.  

PubMed Central

Sexual selection theory predicts that the different selection pressures on males and females result in sexual conflict. However, in some instances males and females share a common interest which could lead to sexual cooperation. In the pierid butterfly Pieris napi the male and the recently mated female share a common interest in reducing female harassment by other males soon after mating. Here we show that P. napi males transfer an anti-aphrodisiac to the female at mating, methyl-salicylate (MeS), which is a volatile substance which mated females emit when courted and which makes males quickly abandon them. A 13C-labelling experiment demonstrated that only males synthesize MeS. The effect of this antiaphrodisiac is so strong that most males will refrain from mating with virgin females to whom MeS has been artificially applied. In P. napi, males also transfer nutrients to females at mating. This increases female fecundity and longevity and so females benefit from remating. Hence, sexual cooperation gradually turns to conflict. Future research is required to reveal which sex controls the gradual decrease in the MeS titre which is necessary for allowing mated females to regain attractiveness and remate.

Andersson, J; Borg-Karlson, A K; Wiklund, C

2000-01-01

195

Disruption of Arabidopsis thaliana MYB26 results in male sterility due to non-dehiscent anthers.  

PubMed

A male sterile mutant with a defect in anther dehiscence was identified in an Arabidopsis thaliana population mutagenized with the Zea mays transposon En-1/Spm. Mutants produce viable pollen that can fertilize when released mechanically from the anthers. Mutant stamens are of normal size and shape, but lack cell wall fortifications in the endothecial cell layer of the anther, which are required for the dehiscence process. The mutant phenotype was shown to be caused by a transposon insertion in AtMYB26, disrupting the putative DNA-binding domain of this R2R3-type MYB transcription factor. RT-PCR revealed that expression of AtMYB26 is restricted to inflorescences. Sterility was shown to be stable under several environmental conditions. The high stability of the sterile phenotype, together with the fact that pollen is functional, makes AtMYB26 and its orthologs a valuable tool for manipulating male fertility in higher plants. PMID:12753590

Steiner-Lange, Sabine; Unte, Ulrike S; Eckstein, Luca; Yang, Caiyun; Wilson, Zoe A; Schmelzer, Elmon; Dekker, Koen; Saedler, Heinz

2003-05-01

196

Selection and characterization of a novel photoperiod-sensitive male sterile line in upland cotton.  

PubMed

Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) shows strong heterosis. However, heterosis is not widely utilized owing to the high cost of hybrid seed production. Creation of a photoperiod-sensitive genetic male sterile line could substantially reduce the cost of hybrid seed production in upland cotton. Such a mutant with virescent marker was found by space mutation in near-earth orbit and its traits had been stable after 4 years of selection in Anyang and Sanya, China. This mutant was fertile with an 11-12.5?h photoperiod when the temperature was higher than 21.5?°C and was sterile with a 13-14.5?h photoperiod. Genetic analysis indicated that both traits were controlled by a single recessive gene or two closely linked genes. Also, the cytological observations and transcriptome profiling analysis showed that the degradation of pollen grain cytoplasm should be the primary reason why the mutant line were male sterile under long-day conditions. PMID:23691935

Ma, Jianhui; Wei, Hengling; Liu, Ji; Song, Meizhen; Pang, Chaoyou; Wang, Long; Zhang, Wenxiang; Fan, Shuli; Yu, Shuxun

2013-07-01

197

Production of male- and female-sterile plants through reproductive tissue ablation.  

PubMed

Male and female sterilities have many useful applications in horticultural crops, including reducing the invasive potential of new ornamentals, elimination of pollen allergens and redirecting resources from seeds to vegetative growth. In this study, we tested a male- and female-sterility (MS; FS) gene construct in Nicotiana tabacum to evaluate its effectiveness and effect on phenotype. Three T1 Nicotiana tabacum lines expressing the MS (p108:barnase) and FS (sp41:barnase) genes (MS/FS lines) and a control Nicotiana tabacum line (WT GUS) were measured for plant height, leaf length and width, corolla length, number of nodes on the main stem and stem diameter. No significant differences were found in these growth measurements between MS/FS lines and WT GUS. No pollen was observed on any of the lines carrying the MS and FS genes, indicating that the male sterility was complete. Seed set was greatly reduced or completely eliminated in plants with the MS and FS genes, after heavy pollinations of mature flowers with WT GUS pollen. However, pollinations of immature flowers resulted in very low seed set. This may be due to the nature of the promoter controlling expression of the FS gene as it had the highest expression levels at anthesis. The combination of male- and female-sterility genes was effective in eliminating seed set in all the lines examined and has direct application for reducing invasiveness of ornamental plants. PMID:19070936

Gardner, Nicole; Felsheim, Roderick; Smith, Alan G

2009-05-15

198

Early tapetal degeneration and meiotic defects are involved in the male sterility of Solanum commersonii (+) S. tuberosum somatic hybrids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Somatic hybridization between Solanum commersonii and S. tuberosum resulted in the production of male-sterile hybrid plants, except for one fully male-fertile hybrid. The male-sterile hybrids\\u000a exhibited a“pollen-less” phenotype, with rare pollen grains which were abnormal in shape and exine sculpture. Microsporogenesis\\u000a and tapetal development were investigated both in male-sterile and male-fertile somatic hybrids to assess the cytological\\u000a events that were

C. Conicella; G. Genualdo; R. Lucia; K. S. Ramulu; T. Cardi

1997-01-01

199

A male-sterile insertion in the mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Is(7;l)40H was found in the daughter of a male mouse given spermatozoal X-irradiation. It is a non-inverted insertion of about half of chromosome 7 into chromosome 1, generating a long somatic marker chromosome. Breakpoints are in bands IB, 7B1, and 7F1; linkage tests show that these breakpoints are about midway between fz and In on the 1, and 0.2 units

A. G. Searle; C. V. Beechey; P. de Boer; D. G. de Rooij; E. P. Evans; M. Kirk

1983-01-01

200

Restoration of fertility by antisense RNA in genetically engineered male sterile tobacco plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transgenic tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum L.) expressing the rolC gene of Agrobacterium rhizogenes under the transcriptional control of the 35S RNA promoter are male sterile. When these plants are genetically crossed with others containing the rolC gene linked in antisense orientation to the 35S RNA promoter, hybrid progeny display restoration of male fertility. Moreover, hybrid progeny are revertant for other

Thomas Schmülling; Horst Röhrig; Silke Pilz; Richard Walden; Jeff Schell

1993-01-01

201

RNAi-mediated male sterility of tobacco by silencing TA29  

Microsoft Academic Search

The superior performance of F1 hybrids has a significant impact on agricultural productivity. For commercial application, the availability of an efficient\\u000a system for obtaining male-sterile lines of crops is an essential prerequisite. Here we have investigated the use of RNA interference\\u000a (RNAi) technology to silence a male-specific gene in the model host tobacco. TA29 is expressed exclusively in anthers at

Muhammad Shah Nawaz-ul-Rehman; Shahid Mansoor; Asif Ali Khan; Yusuf Zafar; Rob W. Briddon

2007-01-01

202

Poeciliid male mate preference is influenced by female size but not by fecundity.  

PubMed

While female mate preference is very well studied, male preference has only recently begun to receive significant attention. Its existence is found in numerous taxa, but empirical research has mostly been limited to a descriptive level and does not fully address the factors influencing its evolution. We attempted to address this issue using preference functions by comparing the strength of male preference for females of different sizes in nine populations of four poeciliid species. Due to environmental constraints (water toxicity and surface versus cave habitat), females from these populations vary in the degree to which their size is correlated to their fecundity. Hence, they vary in how their size signals their quality as mates. Since female size is strongly correlated with fecundity in this subfamily, males were sequentially presented with conspecific females of three different size categories and the strength of their preference for each was measured. Males preferred larger females in all populations, as predicted. However, the degree to which males preferred each size category, as measured by association time, was not correlated with its fecundity. In addition, cave males discriminated against smaller females more than surface males. Assuming that male preference is correlated with female fitness, these results suggest that factors other than fecundity have a strong influence on female fitness in these species. PMID:24010018

Arriaga, Luis R; Schlupp, Ingo

2013-01-01

203

Novel composition of mitochondrial genomes in Petunia somatic hybrids derived from cytoplasmic male sterile and fertile plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mitochondrial genomes of petunia somatic hybrid plants, which were derived from the fusion of male fertile P. hybrida protoplasts with cytoplasmic male sterile P. parodii protoplasts, were analyzed by endonuclease restriction and Southern blot hybridization analyses. We studied sterile and fertile somatic hybrids to address two main questions. First, is there any correlation between the mitochondrial DNA restriction banding

Maury L. Boeshore; Irit Lifshitz; Maureen R. Hanson; Shamay Izhar

1983-01-01

204

Protozoan Parasite Toxoplasma gondii Manipulates Mate Choice in Rats by Enhancing Attractiveness of Males  

PubMed Central

Females in various species typically avoid males infected with parasites, while parasite-free males advertise their status through conspicuous phenotypic traits. This process selects for heritable resistance and reduces direct exposure of the female to parasites. Coevolving parasites are likely to attempt to circumvent this obstacle. In this paper, we demonstrate a case of parasitic manipulation of host mate choice. We report that Toxoplasma gondii, a sexually transmitted infection of brown rats, enhances sexual attractiveness of infected males. Thus under some evolutionary niches, parasites can indeed manipulate host sexual signaling to their own advantage.

Dutta, Deborah; Soh, Linda Jing Ting; Sapolsky, Robert Morris; Vyas, Ajai

2011-01-01

205

Incipient sexual isolation in the nasuta-albomicans complex of Drosophila: mating preference in male-, female- and multiple-choice mating experiments.  

PubMed

Interracial divergence is an important facet of speciation. The nasuta-albomicans complex of Drosophila with sixteen morphologically identical, karyotypically different but cross-fertile races is an excellent system to study a few dimensions of raciation. Drosophila nasuta nasuta, Drosophila nasuta albomicans, Cytorace 1, Cytorace 2, Cytorace 3 and Cytorace 4 of this subgroup have been subjected to male-, female- and multiple-choice mating experiments. Out of 8456 crosses conducted, 7185 had successful matings. The overall impression is that mating is far from random amongst these six closely related races of the nasuta-albomicans complex. The males of D. n. albomicans, Cytorace 1 and Cytorace 4 in male-choice, the females of Cytorace 1 and Cytorace 2 in female-choice, and the males and females of D. n. nasuta, D. n. albomicans, Cytorace 1 and Cytorace 4 against the males and females of Cytorace 2 in multiple-choice experiments, had significantly more homogamic matings than expected. Thus in this study of evolutionary experimentation on raciation under laboratory conditions, we have documented the initiation of preference for conspecific matings among closely related and independently evolving members of the nasuta-albomicans complex of Drosophila. PMID:11568482

Tanuja, M T; Ramachandra, N B; Ranganath, H A

2001-09-01

206

Alternative Male Mating Behaviors Dependent on Relative Body Size in Captive Oval Squid Sepioteuthis lessoniana (Cephalopoda, Loliginidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We observed the reproductive behavior of the oval squid Sepioteuthis lessoniana in captiv- ity. The male used three different mating behaviors: male-parallel (MP), male-upturned (MU) and sneaking. Male competition over females frequently occurred before and during the female egg-laying period, and the outcome of most fights depended on male body size. Larger males guarded their partners from other males and

Toshifumi Wada; Takeshi Takegaki; Tohru Mori; Yutaka Natsukari

2005-01-01

207

Fine mapping of the recessive genic male sterility gene (Bnms3) in Brassica napus L.  

PubMed

The Brassica napus oilseed rape line, 7-7365AB, is a recessive epistatic genic male sterile (RGMS) two-type line system. The sterility is controlled by two pairs of recessive duplicate genes (Bnms3 and Bnms4) and one pair of recessive epistatic inhibitor gene (Bnrf). Homozygosity at the Bnrf locus (Bnrfrf) inhibits the expression of the two recessive male sterility genes in homozygous Bnms3ms3ms4ms4 plants and produces a male fertile phenotype. This line has a good potential for heterosis utilization but it is difficult to breed heterotic hybrids without molecular markers. To develop markers linked to the BnMs3 gene, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) technology was applied to screen the bulks of sterile and fertile individuals selected randomly from a population of near-isogenic lines (NIL) consisting of 2,000 plants. From a survey of 1,024 primer combinations, we identified 17 AFLP markers linked to the BnMs3 gene. By integrating the previous markers linked to the BnMs3 gene into the genetic map of the NIL population, two markers, EA01MC12 and EA09P06, were located on either side of the BnMs3 gene at a distance of 0.1 and 0.3 cM, respectively. In order to use the markers for male sterile line breeding, five AFLP markers, P05MG05, P03MG04, P11MG02, P05MC11(250), and EA09P06, were successfully converted into sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers. Two of these, P06MG04 and sR12384, were subsequently mapped on to linkage group N19 using two doubled-haploid mapping populations available at our laboratory derived from the crosses Tapidor x Ningyou7 and Quantum x No2127-17. The markers found in the present study should improve our knowledge of recessive genic male sterility (RGMS), and accelerate the development of male sterile line breeding and map-based cloning. PMID:17479242

Huang, Zhen; Chen, Yufeng; Yi, Bin; Xiao, Lu; Ma, Chaozhi; Tu, Jinxing; Fu, Tingdong

2007-06-01

208

Multiple mating and its relationship to alternative modes of gestation in male-pregnant versus female-pregnant fish species  

PubMed Central

We construct a verbal and graphical theory (the “fecundity-limitation hypothesis”) about how constraints on the brooding space for embryos probably truncate individual fecundity in male-pregnant and female-pregnant species in ways that should differentially influence selection pressures for multiple mating by males or by females. We then review the empirical literature on genetically deduced rates of multiple mating by the embryo-brooding parent in various fish species with three alternative categories of pregnancy: internal gestation by males, internal gestation by females, and external gestation (in nests) by males. Multiple mating by the brooding gender was common in all three forms of pregnancy. However, rates of multiple mating as well as mate numbers for the pregnant parent averaged higher in species with external as compared with internal male pregnancy, and also for dams in female-pregnant species versus sires in male-pregnant species. These outcomes are all consistent with the theory that different types of pregnancy have predictable consequences for a parent's brood space, its effective fecundity, its opportunities and rewards for producing half-sib clutches, and thereby its exposure to selection pressures for seeking multiple mates. Overall, we try to fit these fecundity-limitation phenomena into a broader conceptual framework for mating-system evolution that also includes anisogamy, sexual-selection gradients, parental investment, and other selective factors that can influence the relative proclivities of males versus females to seek multiple sexual partners.

Avise, John C.; Liu, Jin-Xian

2010-01-01

209

A potential role of male and female androgen in species recognition in a unisexual-bisexual mating complex.  

PubMed

Hormones play a critical role in the regulation of vertebrate mating behavior, including receptivity, and several components of mate choice. However, less is known about the role of these chemical messengers in mediating behavior associated with premating reproductive isolation. The bisexual-unisexual mating complex of sailfin mollies, Poecilia latipinna, and Amazon mollies, Poecilia formosa (sexual parasites of sailfins) has been a model system for studying ultimate mechanisms of species recognition. However proximate mechanisms, such as variation in hormone levels, have not been examined. We paired male sailfin mollies with either female conspecifics or Amazon mollies and obtained water-borne hormone samples before and after mating for all fish. We measured 11-ketotestosterone, testosterone, and estradiol from the water samples. As expected from previous studies, males mated with conspecifics more frequently than with Amazon mollies. 11-Ketotestosterone production by males increased when they mated with female sailfin mollies who themselves also showed elevated production of 11-ketotestosterone. This increase in male and female 11-ketotestosterone levels was not seen when males mated with Amazon mollies. This unique endocrine interaction represents a potential proximate mechanism for species recognition by male sailfin mollies. We found no significant change in testosterone or estradiol under these conditions suggesting that a single hormone mediates bidirectional interactions between males and females during courtship. PMID:20100486

Gabor, Caitlin R; Grober, Matthew S

2010-04-01

210

Audience effects in the Atlantic molly (Poecilia mexicana)-prudent male mate choice in response to perceived sperm competition risk?  

PubMed Central

Background Multidirectional interactions in social networks can have a profound effect on mate choice behavior; e.g., Poecilia mexicana males show weaker expression of mating preferences when being observed by a rival. This may be an adaptation to reduce sperm competition risk, which arises because commonly preferred female phenotypes will receive attention also from surrounding males, and/or because other males can copy the focal male's mate choice. Do P. mexicana males indeed respond to perceived sperm competition risk? We gave males a choice between two females and repeated the tests under one of the following conditions: (1) an empty transparent cylinder was presented (control); (2) another ("audience") male inside the cylinder observed the focal male throughout the 2nd part, or (3) the audience male was presented only before the tests, but could not eavesdrop during the actual choice tests (non-specific sperm competition risk treatments); (4) the focal male could see a rival male interact sexually with the previously preferred, or (5) with the non-preferred female before the 2nd part of the tests (specific sperm competition risk treatments). Results The strength of individual male preferences declined slightly also during the control treatment (1). However, this decrease was more than two-fold stronger in audience treatment (2), i.e., with non-specific sperm competition risk including the possibility for visual eavesdropping by the audience male. No audience effect was found in treatments (3) and (5), but a weak effect was also observed when the focal male had seen the previously preferred female sexually interact with a rival male (treatment 4; specific sperm competition risk). Conclusion When comparing the two 'non-specific sperm competition risk' treatments, a very strong effect was found only when the audience male could actually observe the focal male during mate choice [treatment (2)]. This suggests that focal males indeed attempt to conceal their mating preferences so as to prevent surrounding males from copying their mate choice. When there is no potential for eavesdropping [treatment (3)], non-specific specific sperm competition risk seems to play a minor or no role. Our results also show that P. mexicana males tend to share their mating effort more equally among females when the resource value of their previously preferred mate decreases after mating with a rival male (perceived specific sperm competition risk), but this effect is comparatively weak.

Ziege, Madlen; Mahlow, Kristin; Hennige-Schulz, Carmen; Kronmarck, Claudia; Tiedemann, Ralph; Streit, Bruno; Plath, Martin

2009-01-01

211

Mitochondrial DNA diversity and male sterility in natural populations of Daucus carota ssp carota.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial variability was investigated in natural populations of wild carrot (Daucus carota ssp carota) in different regions: South of France, Greece, and various sites in the Mediterranean Basin and Asia. Total DNA was digested with two restriction endonucleases (EcoRV and HindIII) and probed with three mitochondrial DMA-specific genes (coxI, atp6, and coxII). Twenty-five different mitochondrial types were found in 80 analyzed individuals. Thirteen mitotypes were found among the 7 French populations studied. On average, 4.4 different mitotypes were observed per population, and these mitotypes were well-distributed among the populations. All of the mitochondrial types were specific to a single region. However, the proportion of shared restriction fragments between 2 mitotypes from different regions was not particularly lower than that which occurred among mitotypes from a single region. On the basis of the sexual phenotype [male-sterile (MS) or hermaphrodite] of the plants studied in situ and that of their progeny, 2 mitotypes were found to be highly associated with male sterility. Eighty percent of the plants bearing these mitotypes were MS in situ, and all of these plants produced more than 30% MS plants in their progeny. This association with male sterility was consistent in several populations, suggesting an association with a cytoplasmic male-sterility system. Moreover, these two mitotypes had very similar mitochondrial DNA restriction patterns and were well-differentiated from the other mitotypes observed in wild plants and also from those observed in the two CMS types already known in the cultivated carrot. This suggests that they correspond to a third cytoplasmic sterility. PMID:24169681

Ronfort, J; Saumitou-Laprade, P; Cuguen, J; Couvet, D

1995-07-01

212

Phosphatase and ATPase activities in isonuclear lines of cytoplasmic male-sterile and male-fertile petunia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soluble and membrane-bound fractions of plant leaves, cell suspension cultures and seedlings of petunia were examined for phosphohydrolase activity on p-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPPase) and adenosine triphosphate (ATPase). One cytoplasmic male-sterile (CMS) and one fertile (F) line was examined for each tissue. Both pNPPase and ATPase exhibited a broad optimal activity between pH 5.5–7.0 for the membrane-bound fraction and between 4.5–7.0

M. Perl; D. Swartzberg; S. Izhar

1993-01-01

213

Age-specific Effects of Novel Mutations in Drosophila Melanogaster II. Fecundity and Male Mating Ability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evolutionary theories of senescence assume that mutations with age-specific effects exist, yet until now, there has been little\\u000a experimental evidence to support this assumption. In this study, we allowed mutations to accumulate in an outbred, wild population\\u000a of Drosophila melanogaster to test for age-specific differences in both male mating ability and fecundity. We assayed for age-specific effects of mutations\\u000a after

Paul D. Mack; Vanessa K. Lester; Daniel E. L. Promislow

2000-01-01

214

Ontogenetic shifts in male mating preference and morph-specific polyandry in a female colour polymorphic insect  

PubMed Central

Background Sexual conflict over mating rates may favour the origin and maintenance of phenotypes with contrasting reproductive strategies. The damselfly Ischnura elegans is characterised by a female colour polymorphism that consists of one androchrome and two gynochrome female morphs. Previous studies have shown that the polymorphism is genetic and to a high extent maintained by negative frequency-dependent mating success that varies temporally and spatially. However, the role of learning in male mating preferences has received little attention. We used molecular markers to investigate differences in polyandry between female morphs. In addition, we experimentally investigated innate male mating preferences and experience-dependent shifts in male mating preferences for female morphs. Results Field and molecular data show that androchrome females were less polyandrous than gynochrome females. Interestingly, we found that naïve males showed significantly higher sexual preferences to androchrome than to gynochrome females in experimental trials. In contrast, experienced males showed no preference for androchrome females. Conclusions The ontogenetic change in male mate preferences occurs most likely because of learned mate recognition after experience with females, which in this case does not result in a preference for one of the morphs, but rather in the loss of an innate preference for androchrome females.

2013-01-01

215

Individual consistency in exploratory behaviour and mating tactics in male guppies.  

PubMed

While behavioural plasticity is considered an adaptation to fluctuating social and environmental conditions, many animals also display a high level of individual consistency in their behaviour over time or across contexts (generally termed 'personality'). However, studies of animal personalities that include sexual behaviour, or functionally distinct but correlated traits, are relatively scarce. In this study, we tested for individual behavioural consistency in courtship and exploratory behaviour in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in two light environments (high vs. low light intensity). Based on previous work on guppies, we predicted that males would modify their behaviour from sneak mating tactics to courtship displays under low light conditions, but also that the rank orders of courtship effort would remain unchanged (i.e. highly sexually active individuals would display relatively high levels of courtship under both light regimes). We also tested for correlations between courtship and exploratory behaviour, predicting that males that had high display rates would also be more likely to approach a novel object. Although males showed significant consistency in their exploratory and mating behaviour over time (1 week), we found no evidence that these traits constituted a behavioural syndrome. Furthermore, in contrast to previous work, we found no overall effect of the light environment on any of the behaviours measured, although males responded to the treatment on an individual-level basis, as reflected by a significant individual-by-environment interaction. The future challenge is to investigate how individual consistency across different environmental contexts relates to male reproductive success. PMID:24036665

Kelley, Jennifer L; Phillips, Samuel C; Evans, Jonathan P

2013-10-01

216

Extreme cost of rivalry in a monandrous species: male-male interactions result in failure to acquire mates and reduced longevity.  

PubMed

Mating system variation is profound in animals. In insects, female willingness to remate varies from mating with hundreds of males (extreme polyandry) to never remating (monandry). This variation in female behaviour is predicted to affect the pattern of selection on males, with intense pre-copulatory sexual selection under monandry compared to a mix of pre- and post-copulatory forces affecting fitness under polyandry. We tested the hypothesis that differences in female mating biology would be reflected in different costs of pre-copulatory competition between males. We observed that exposure to rival males early in life was highly costly for males of a monandrous species, but had lower costs in the polyandrous species. Males from the monandrous species housed with competitors showed reduced ability to obtain a mate and decreased longevity. These effects were specific to exposure to rivals compared with other types of social interactions (heterospecific male and mated female) and were either absent or weaker in males of the polyandrous species. We conclude that males in monandrous species suffer severe physiological costs from interactions with rivals and note the significance of male-male interactions as a source of stress in laboratory culture. PMID:24827446

Lizé, Anne; Price, Thomas A R; Heys, Chloe; Lewis, Zenobia; Hurst, Gregory D D

2014-07-01

217

Genetics of hybrid male sterility among strains and species in the Drosophila pseudoobscura species group  

PubMed Central

Taxa in the early stages of speciation may bear intraspecific allelic variation at loci conferring barrier traits in hybrids such as hybrid sterility. Additionally, hybridization may spread alleles that confer barrier traits to other taxa. Historically, few studies examine within- and between-species variation at loci conferring reproductive isolation. Here, we test for allelic variation within Drosophila persimilis and within the Bogota subspecies of D. pseudoobscura at regions previously shown to contribute to hybrid male sterility. We also test whether D. persimilis and the USA subspecies of D. pseudoobscura share an allele conferring hybrid sterility in a D. pseudoobscura bogotana genetic background. All loci conferred similar hybrid sterility effects across all strains studied, though we detected some statistically significant quantitative effect variation among D. persimilis alleles of some hybrid incompatibility QTLs. We also detected allelism between D. persimilis and D. pseudoobscura USA at a 2nd chromosome hybrid sterility QTL. We hypothesize that either the QTL is ancestral in D. persimilis and D. pseudoobscura USA and lost in D. pseudoobscura bogotana, or gene flow transferred the QTL from D. persimilis to D. pseudoobscura USA. We discuss our findings in the context of population features that may contribute to variation in hybrid incompatibilities.

McDermott, Shannon R.; Noor, Mohamed A. F.

2011-01-01

218

Testosterone or oestradiol implants in the medial preoptic area induce mating in noncopulating male rats.  

PubMed

Noncopulating (NC) male rats are those males that do not mount, intromit or ejaculate when repeatedly tested with receptive females. The lack of sexual behaviour in these males is not associated with alterations in testosterone or oestradiol (E2 ) plasma concentrations. Instead, it has been shown that androgen receptors are higher and oestrogen receptors are lower in the medial preoptic area (MPOA) of NC male rats than those observed in copulating (C) male rats. We have also observed reduced aromatase activity in the MPOA (but not in other brain regions) of NC male rats. The aim of the present study was to determine whether testosterone or E2 implants in the MPOA of NC male rats could induce sexual behaviour. Accordingly, in Experiment 1, we evaluated the long-term effects of testosterone or E2 implants in the MPOA, the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus or the medial amygdala with respect to inducing sexual behaviour in castrated C male rats. Male rats were bilaterally implanted with a guide cannula, either empty or containing testosterone or E2 . Starting 1 week later, all male rats were mated once weekly for 5 months. As described previously, the site where hormone implants most consistently induced sexual behaviour in castrated C male rats was the MPOA. Experiment 1 extended these findings showing that the males continued mating even 5 months after the implant. In the second experiment, NC males were implanted in the MPOA with a guide cannula empty or filled with testosterone or E2. One week after the testosterone or E2 implant, the percentage of males that mounted and intromitted started to increase and, 5 weeks after the implant, 50% of the subjects displayed mounts and intromissions. All NC males implanted with testosterone ejaculated consistently from week 11 after the implant until the end of testing (5 months), whereas all subjects implanted with E2 ejaculated from week 16 after the implant until the end of testing. These results support the hypothesis that, in the MPOA of NC male rats, there is a hormonal alteration associated with the lack of sexual behaviour. PMID:24824045

Antonio-Cabrera, E; Paredes, R G

2014-07-01

219

Induction of male sterility in plants by metabolic engineering of the carbohydrate supply  

PubMed Central

Extracellular invertase mediates phloem unloading via an apoplastic pathway. The gene encoding isoenzyme Nin88 from tobacco was cloned and shown to be characterized by a specific spatial and temporal expression pattern. Tissue-specific antisense repression of Nin88 under control of the corresponding promoter in tobacco results in a block during early stages of pollen development, thus, causing male sterility. This result demonstrates a critical role of extracellular invertase in pollen development and strongly supports the essential function of extracellular sucrose cleavage for supplying carbohydrates to sink tissues via the apoplast. The specific interference with phloem unloading, the sugar status, and metabolic signaling during pollen formation will be a potentially valuable approach to induce male sterility in various crop species for hybrid seed production.

Goetz, Marc; Godt, Dietmute E.; Guivarc'h, Anne; Kahmann, Uwe; Chriqui, Dominique; Roitsch, Thomas

2001-01-01

220

Is embryonic mortality increased in normal female rats mated to subfertile males?  

PubMed

Normal female rats were mated to control males or males which were subjected to unilateral testicular heating (43 degrees C for 30 min), irradiation (500 R), efferent duct ligation, arterial ligation or castration; in all males, the contralateral ductus deferens was ligated. All treatments caused reduced fertility and eventually infertility, as judged by the percentage of females becoming pregnant; the infertility was temporary after heating and irradiation. During the periods of reduced fertility, the numbers of fetuses per pregnant female and the fetus/corpus luteum ratios were reduced. In subsequent experiments, after heating of the testis, there was not only failure of fertilization despite the presence of normal numbers of spermatozoa in the uterus, but also an increased rate of embryonic degeneration in normal females. These results provide evidence that the male, while still fertile, can affect the fecundity of the female and the rate of embryo mortality. PMID:3361491

Setchell, B P; D'Occhio, M J; Hall, M J; Laurie, M S; Tucker, M J; Zupp, J L

1988-03-01

221

Male territoriality and mating system in the European beewolf Philanthus triangulum F. (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae): evidence for a “hotspot” lek polygyny  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of the mating system of a species is strongly influenced by the spatial and temporal distribution of females\\u000a and\\/or resources. Here, we describe aspects of the territorial behavior of males of a solitary digger wasp, the European beewolf\\u000a (Philanthus triangulum) and characterize the mating system. We show that beewolf males establish small territories that do not contain any

Johannes Kroiss; Klaus Lechner; Erhard Strohm

2010-01-01

222

Fine mapping of a male sterility gene, vr1 , on chromosome 4 in rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

xs1 is a male sterile rice mutant derived from a spontaneous mutation. Pollen development in the xs1 mutant proceeds normally until the vacuolation stage, at which time xs1 pollen fails to vacuolate and no viable pollen is produced. Genetic analysis indicates that the xs1 mutant phenotype is controlled by a single recessive gene, designated vacuolation retardation 1 (vr1), which was

M. G. Chu; S. C. Li; S. Q. Wang; A. P. Zheng; Q. M. Deng; L. Ding; J. Zhang; M. H. Zhang; M. He; H. N. Liu; J. Zhu; L. X. Wang; P. Li

2011-01-01

223

Sterility and Gene Expression in Hybrid Males of Xenopus laevis and X. muelleri  

PubMed Central

Background Reproductive isolation is a defining characteristic of populations that represent unique biological species, yet we know very little about the gene expression basis for reproductive isolation. The advent of powerful molecular biology tools provides the ability to identify genes involved in reproductive isolation and focuses attention on the molecular mechanisms that separate biological species. Herein we quantify the sterility pattern of hybrid males in African Clawed Frogs (Xenopus) and apply microarray analysis of the expression pattern found in testes to identify genes that are misexpressed in hybrid males relative to their two parental species (Xenopus laevis and X. muelleri). Methodology/Principal Findings Phenotypic characteristics of spermatogenesis in sterile male hybrids (X. laevis x X. muelleri) were examined using a novel sperm assay that allowed quantification of live, dead, and undifferentiated sperm cells, the number of motile vs. immotile sperm, and sperm morphology. Hybrids exhibited a dramatically lower abundance of mature sperm relative to the parental species. Hybrid spermatozoa were larger in size and accompanied by numerous undifferentiated sperm cells. Microarray analysis of gene expression in testes was combined with a correction for sequence divergence derived from genomic hybridizations to identify candidate genes involved in the sterility phenotype. Analysis of the transcriptome revealed a striking asymmetric pattern of misexpression. There were only about 140 genes misexpressed in hybrids compared to X. laevis but nearly 4,000 genes misexpressed in hybrids compared to X. muelleri. Conclusions/Significance Our results provide an important correlation between phenotypic characteristics of sperm and gene expression in sterile hybrid males. The broad pattern of gene misexpression suggests intriguing mechanisms creating the dominance pattern of the X. laevis genome in hybrids. These findings significantly contribute to growing evidence for allelic dominance in hybrids and have implications for the mechanism of species differentiation at the transcriptome level.

Malone, John H.; Chrzanowski, Thomas H.; Michalak, Pawel

2007-01-01

224

Molecular analysis of cytoplasmic male sterility in chives ( Allium schoenoprasum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mitochondria of chive plants with normal N or male-sterile S cytoplasms have been examined by restriction fragment analysis and Southern hybridizations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and in organello protein biosynthesis. Restriction fragment patterns of the mtDNA differed extensively between N-and S-cytoplasms. The percentage of fragments with different mobility varied between 44–48% depending on the restriction enzyme used. In contrast

H. Potz; T. Tatlioglu

1993-01-01

225

A new type of cytoplasmic male sterility in rye ( Secale cereale L.): analysis of mitochondrial DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitochondrial (mt) DNA of a new type of rye cytoplasm (‘Gülzow’, G) that induces cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) was analyzed and compared with rye mtDNAs of different origins MtDNA of the G type was easily distinguishable from mtDNA of another CMS source, ‘Pampa’ (P) type, and from mtDNA of fertile lines with respect to restriction fragment patterns and hybridization with

R. Steinborn; W. Schwabe; A. Weihe; K. Adolf; G. Melz; T. Börner

1993-01-01

226

Nuclear and cytoplasmic genes controlling synthesis of variant mitochondrial polypeptides in male-sterile maize  

PubMed Central

The polypeptides synthesized in vitro by mitochondria isolated from etiolated maize shoots of a number of different nuclear and cytoplasmic genotypes have been compared by using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. We have previously shown that mitochondria from maize plants carrying the T or C forms of cytoplasmically inherited male sterility (cms-T and cms-C mitochondria) can be distinguished from each other and from the mitochondria of normal (N) plants by the synthesis of a single additional or variant polypeptide species. Using lines that carry the T cytoplasm, and that differ principally in the presence or absence of nuclear “restorer” alleles that suppress the male-sterile phenotype, we find that these nuclear genes specifically suppress synthesis of the 13,000 Mr variant polypeptide. A 21,000 Mr polypeptide that is synthesized by N mitochondria is not detectable among the translation products of cms-T mitochondria from either restored or nonrestored lines. Results obtained with a number of lines possessing dominant restorer alleles from different sources indicate that it is the restorer gene at the Rf1 locus that is primarily responsible for regulating synthesis of the 13,000 Mr polypeptide. Mitochondria from lines with the S form of cytoplasmic male sterility (cms-S) were found to synthesize a group of minor polypeptides, ranging in molecular weight from 42,000 to 88,000, which were not detected in N, cms-T, or cms-C mitochondria. In the case of the S and C forms of male sterility no differences were found between the translation products of mitochondria from restored and nonrestored lines. Images

Forde, Brian G.; Leaver, Christopher J.

1980-01-01

227

Cell Type-Specific Loss of atp6 RNA Editing in Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Sorghum bicolor  

Microsoft Academic Search

RNA editing and cytoplasmic male sterility are two important phenomena in higher plant mitochondria. To determine whether correlations might exist between the two, RNA editing in different tissues of Sorghum bicolor was compared employing reverse transcription-PCR and subsequent sequence analysis. In etiolated shoots, RNA editing of transcripts of plant mitochondrial atp6, atp9, nad3, nad4, and rps12 genes was identical among

Werner Howad; Frank Kempken

1997-01-01

228

Pregnancy blockage following multiple-male copulation or exposure at the time of mating in deer mice, Peromyscus maniculatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pregnancy blockage resulting from multiple-male copulation or exposure around the time of mating was studied in three experiments on deer mice, Peromyscus maniculatus. First, significantly more females were pregnant after copulating, either with or without disturbance and a delay, with one male than after receiving the same total number of ejaculations from two males. Second, when females received three ejaculations

Donald A. Dewsbury

1982-01-01

229

Egg-mimicry as a mating strategy in the fantail darter, Etheostoma flabellare : females prefer males with eggs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In some species of fishes with paternal care, females prefer to spawn with males already defending eggs. Such female preference appears to have resulted in adoption of unrelated eggs as a male mating strategy in several species. Page and Swofford (1984) proposed that such female preference may have also resulted in the evolution of male egg-mimics in several species of

Roland A. Knapp; Robert Craig Sargent

1989-01-01

230

Engineering Cytoplasmic Male Sterility via the Chloroplast Genome by Expression of ?-Ketothiolase1  

PubMed Central

While investigating expression of the polydroxybutyrate pathway in transgenic chloroplasts, we addressed the specific role of ?-ketothiolase. Therefore, we expressed the phaA gene via the chloroplast genome. Prior attempts to express the phaA gene in transgenic plants were unsuccessful. We studied the effect of light regulation of the phaA gene using the psbA promoter and 5? untranslated region, and evaluated expression under different photoperiods. Stable transgene integration into the chloroplast genome and homoplasmy were confirmed by Southern analysis. The phaA gene was efficiently transcribed in all tissue types examined, including leaves, flowers, and anthers. Coomassie-stained gel and western blots confirmed hyperexpression of ?-ketothiolase in leaves and anthers, with proportionately high levels of enzyme activity. The transgenic lines were normal except for the male-sterile phenotype, lacking pollen. Scanning electron microscopy revealed a collapsed morphology of the pollen grains. Floral developmental studies revealed that transgenic lines showed an accelerated pattern of anther development, affecting their maturation, and resulted in aberrant tissue patterns. Abnormal thickening of the outer wall, enlarged endothecium, and vacuolation affected pollen grains and resulted in the irregular shape or collapsed phenotype. Reversibility of the male-sterile phenotype was observed under continuous illumination, resulting in viable pollen and copious amount of seeds. This study results in the first engineered cytoplasmic male-sterility system in plants, offers a new tool for transgene containment for both nuclear and organelle genomes, and provides an expedient mechanism for F1 hybrid seed production.

Ruiz, Oscar N.; Daniell, Henry

2005-01-01

231

Male mate choice relies on major histocompatibility complex class I in a sex-role-reversed pipefish.  

PubMed

Mate choice for compatible genes is often based on genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Although MHC-based mate choice is commonly observed in female choice, male mate choice remains elusive. In particular, if males have intense paternal care and are thus the choosing sex, male choice for females with dissimilar MHC can be expected. Here, we investigated whether male mate choice relies on MHC class I genes in the sex-role reversed pipefish Syngnathus typhle. In a mate choice experiment, we determined the relative importance of visual and olfactory cues by manipulating visibility and olfaction. We found that pipefish males chose females that maximize sequence-based amino acid distance between MHC class I genotypes in the offspring when olfactory cues were present. Under visual cues, large females were chosen, but in the absence of visual cues, the choice pattern was reversed. The use of sex-role reversed species thus revealed that sexual selection can lead to the evolution of male mate choice for MHC class I genes. PMID:24725009

Roth, O; Sundin, J; Berglund, A; Rosenqvist, G; Wegner, K M

2014-05-01

232

The effect of male coloration on female mate choice in closely related Lake Victoria cichlids ( Haplochromis nyererei complex)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the effect of male coloration on interspecific female mate choice in two closely related species of haplochromine\\u000a cichlids from Lake Victoria. The species differ primarily in male coloration. Males of one species are red, those of the other\\u000a are blue. We recorded the behavioral responses of females to males of both species in paired male trials under white

Ole Seehausen; Jacques J. M. van Alphen

1998-01-01

233

Anopheles gambiae males produce and transfer the vitellogenic steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone to females during mating  

PubMed Central

In female insects, the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) plays a major role in activating vitellogenesis, a process required for egg development. By contrast with vertebrates, production of large amounts of hormonal steroids has not been reported in adult male insects. In the present study, we analyzed steroidogenesis in both male and female adult of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae and we found that A. gambiae male mosquitoes produce high amounts of the steroid hormone 20E. Importantly, we found that male accessory glands, but not testes, are the source of 20E. Moreover, this steroid hormone is stored in male accessory glands and delivered to females during mating. These findings suggest that male 20E may not act as a true male sex steroid, but more likely as an allohormone. Our results give new insights into species-specific physiological processes that govern the reproductive success of the malaria mosquito. This could thus lead to the identification of new target genes for manipulating male and/or female reproductive success, a promising way to reduce or eliminate mosquito population and therefore to control malaria transmission.

Pondeville, Emilie; Maria, Annick; Jacques, Jean-Claude; Bourgouin, Catherine; Dauphin-Villemant, Chantal

2008-01-01

234

Costs of mating competition limit male lifetime breeding success in polygynous mammals.  

PubMed

Although differences in breeding lifespan are an important source of variation in male fitness, the factors affecting the breeding tenure of males have seldom been explored. Here, we use cross-species comparisons to investigate the correlates of breeding lifespan in male mammals. Our results show that male breeding lifespan depends on the extent of polygyny, which reflects the relative intensity of competition for access to females. Males have relatively short breeding tenure in species where individuals have the potential to monopolize mating with multiple females, and longer ones where individuals defend one female at a time. Male breeding tenure is also shorter in species in which females breed frequently than in those where females breed less frequently, suggesting that the costs of guarding females may contribute to limiting tenure length. As a consequence of these relationships, estimates of skew in male breeding success within seasons overestimate skew calculated across the lifetime and, in several polygynous species, variance in lifetime breeding success is not substantially higher in males than in females. PMID:24827443

Lukas, Dieter; Clutton-Brock, Tim

2014-07-01

235

Anther-specific carbohydrate supply and restoration of metabolically engineered male sterility.  

PubMed

Male-sterile plants are used in hybrid breeding as well as for gene confinement for genetically modified plants in field trials and agricultural production. Apart from naturally occurring mutations leading to male sterility, biotechnology has added new possibilities for obtaining male-sterile plants, although so far only one system is used in practical breeding due to limitations in propagating male-sterile plants without segregations in the next generation or insufficient restoration of fertility when fruits or seeds are to be harvested from the hybrid varieties. Here a novel mechanism of restoration for male sterility is presented that has been achieved by interference with extracellular invertase activity, which is normally specifically expressed in the anthers to supply the developing microspores with carbohydrates. Microspores are symplastically isolated in the locular space of the anthers, and thus an unloading pathway of assimilates via the apoplasmic space is mandatory for proper development of pollen. Antisense repression of the anther-specific cell wall invertase or interference with invertase activity by expressing a proteinacious inhibitor under the control of the anther-specific invertase promoter results in a block during early stages of pollen development, thus causing male sterility without having any pleiotropic effects. Restoration of fertility was successfully achieved by substituting the down-regulated endogenous plant invertase activity by a yeast invertase fused to the N-terminal portion of potato-derived vacuolar protein proteinase II (PiII-ScSuc2), under control of the orthologous anther-specific invertase promoter Nin88 from tobacco. The chimeric fusion PiII-ScSuc2 is known to be N-glycosylated and efficiently secreted from plant cells, leading to its apoplastic location. Furthermore, the Nin88::PiII-ScSuc2 fusion does not show effects on pollen development in the wild-type background. Thus, such plants can be used as paternal parents of a hybrid variety, thereby the introgression of Nin88::PiII-ScSuc2 to the hybrid is obtained and fertility is restored. In order to broaden the applicability of this male sterility/restoration system to other plant species, a phylogenic analysis of plant invertases(beta-fructofuranosidases) and related genes of different species was carried out. This reveals a specific clustering of the cell wall invertases with anther-specific expression for dicotyl species and another cluster for monocotyl plants. Thus, in both groups of plants, there seems to be a kind of co-evolution, but no recent common ancestor of these members of the gene family. These findings provide a helpful orientation to classify corresponding candidate genes in further plant species, in addition to the species analysed so far (Arabidopsis, tobacco, tomato, potato, carrots, rice, and wheat). PMID:20427415

Engelke, T; Hirsche, J; Roitsch, T

2010-06-01

236

Male ornament variation in a sexually dimorphic seabird with variable male mating success  

Microsoft Academic Search

Questions: Are sex-specific ornaments necessarily under sexual selection? Could previous sexual selection have eliminated meaningful variation in male ornaments, as envisioned by the lek paradox? Background: The lek paradox proposes that sexual selection on a trait can become limited by the availability of genetic variation. If prolonged directional selection leads to an exhaustion of genetic variation in male ornaments, selection

Stephanie G. Wright; Donald C. Dearborn

2009-01-01

237

The evolution of wing color: male mate choice opposes adaptive wing color divergence in Colias butterflies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Correlated evolution of mate signals and mate preference may be constrained if selection pressures acting on mate preference differ from those acting on mate signals. In particular, opposing selection pressures may act on mate preference and signals when traits have sexual as well as nonsexual functions. In the butterfly Colias philodice eriphyle, divergent selection on wing color across an elevational

Jacintha Ellers; Carol L. Boggs

2003-01-01

238

Frequency-dependent male mate harassment and intra-specific variation in its avoidance by females of the damselfly Ischnura elegans  

Microsoft Academic Search

We focused on male harassment on different female color morphs of the damselfly Ischnura elegans and on variation in morph-specific mating avoidance tactics by females. In I. elegans, one of the female morphs is colored like the conspecific male (andromorphs) while the other morphs are not (gynomorphs). Our first goal was to quantify morph-specific male mating attempts, hence male harassment,

Hans Van Gossum; Robby Stoks; Luc De Bruyn

2001-01-01

239

Motile Male Gametes of the Araphid Diatom Tabularia fasciculata Search Randomly for Mates  

PubMed Central

Sexuality in the marine araphid diatom Tabularia involves an unusual type of gamete, not only among diatoms but possibly in all of nature. The non-flagellated male gamete is free and vigorously motile, propelled by pseudopodia. However, the cues (if any) in their search for compatible female gametes and the general search patterns to locate them are unknown. We tracked and compared male gamete movements in the presence and absence of receptive female gametes. Path linearity of male movement was not affected by presence of female gametes. Male gametes did not move towards female gametes regardless of their proximity to each other, suggesting that the detection range for a compatible mate is very small compared to known algal examples (mostly spermatozoids) and that mate recognition requires (near) contact with a female gamete. We therefore investigated how male gametes move to bring insight into their search strategy and found that it was consistent with the predictions of a random-walk model with changes in direction coming from an even distribution. We further investigated the type of random walk by determining the best-fit distribution on the tail of the move length distribution and found it to be consistent with a truncated power law distribution with an exponent of 2.34. Although consistent with a Lévy walk search pattern, the range of move lengths in the tail was too narrow for Lévy properties to emerge and so would be best described as Brownian motion. This is somewhat surprising because female gametes were often outnumbered by male gametes, thus contrary to the assumption that a Brownian search mode may be most optimal with an abundant target resource. This is also the first mathematically analysed search pattern of a non-flagellated protistan gamete, supporting the notion that principles of Brownian motion have wide application in biology.

Edgar, Robyn; Drolet, David; Ehrman, James M.; Kaczmarska, Irena

2014-01-01

240

Evidence for a receiver bias underlying female preference for a male mating pheromone in sea lamprey  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Receiver bias models suggest that a male sexual signal became exaggerated to match a pre-existing sensory, perceptual or cognitive disposition of the female. Accordingly, these models predict that females of related taxa possessing the ancestral state of signalling evolved preference for the male trait in a non-sexual context. We postulated that female preference for the male-released bile alcohol mating pheromone, 3 keto petromyzonol sulfate (3kPZS), of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) evolved as a result of a receiver bias. In particular, we propose that migratory silver lamprey (Ichthyomyzon unicuspis), a basal member of the Petromyzontidae, evolved a preference for 3kPZS released by stream-resident larvae as a means of identifying productive habitat for offspring. Larval silver lamprey released 3kPZS at rates sufficient to be detected by migratory lampreys. Females responded to 3kPZS by exhibiting upstream movement behaviours relevant in a migratory context, but did not exhibit proximate behaviours important to mate search and spawning. Male silver lamprey did not release 3kPZS at rates sufficient to be detected by females in natural high-volume stream environments. We infer that female silver lamprey cue onto 3kPZS excreted by stream-resident larvae as a mechanism to locate habitat conducive to offspring survival and that males do not signal with 3kPZS. We suggest that this female preference for a male signal in a non-sexual context represents a bias leading to the sexual signalling observed in sea lamprey.

Buchinger, Tyler J.; Wang, Huiyong; Li, Weiming; Johnson, Nicholas S.

2013-01-01

241

FEMALE PRAIRIE VOLE MATE-CHOICE IS AFFECTED BY THE MALES' BIRTH LITTER COMPOSITION  

PubMed Central

Experimental testing and retrospective examination of breeding records were used to examine the influence of sex composition and/or size of males’ birth litters on female mate-choice. Sexually naïve female prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) avoided males derived from all-male litters, but showed no preference for, or aversion to, males from single-male litters or from more typical mixed-sex litters. Examination of the pregnancy status of females after two weeks of pairing with a male allowed us to estimate the probabilites of a pups’ intrauterine position relative to siblings for various litter sizes. The typical prairie vole pup derived from a mixed-sex litter comprised of 4.4 pups, and had a 13% chance of being isolated from siblings in utero and a 22% chance of being between siblings in utero. Pups from single-sex litters tended to be larger at weaning than did pups from mixed-sex litters; however, male size did not influence female choice behavior. These results suggest that some aspect of the perinatal experience of prairie vole pups from single sex litters can influence social interactions later in life.

Curtis, J. Thomas

2010-01-01

242

Molecular mapping of a rice gene conditioning thermosensitive genic male sterility using AFLP, RFLP and SSR techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discovery and application of the thermosensitive genic male sterility (TGMS) system has great potential for revolutionizing\\u000a hybrid seed production technology in rice. Use of the TGMS system in two-line breeding is simple, inexpensive, efficient,\\u000a and eliminates the limitations associated with the cytoplasmic-genetic male sterility (CMS) system. An F2 population developed from a cross between a TGMS indica mutant, TGMS–VN1,

N. V. Dong; P. K. Subudhi; P. N. Luong; V. D. Quang; T. D. Quy; H. G. Zheng; B. Wang; H. T. Nguyen

2000-01-01

243

A chimeric gene containing the 5? portion of atp6 is associated with cytoplasmic male-sterility of rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three ATPase subunit 6 (atp6) genes of rice mitochondria were isolated, one from normal and two from cms-Bo male-sterile cytoplasms, in order to determine whether the extra atp6 gene in cms-Bo rice plays a role in cytoplasmic male-sterility (CMS). The nucleotide sequences of all three genes were determined and analysis showed a chimeric atp6 gene (urf-rmc) as well as a

Koh-ichi Kadowaki; Takeshi Suzuki; Shigeru Kazama

1990-01-01

244

Characterization and identification of the candidate gene of rice thermo-sensitive genic male sterile gene tms5 by mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has demonstrated that the thermo-sensitive genic male-sterile (TGMS) gene in rice was regulated by temperature.\\u000a TGMS rice is important to hybrid rice production because the application of the TGMS system in two-line breeding is cost-effective,\\u000a simple, efficient and overcomes the limitations of the cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) system. AnnongS is the first discovered\\u000a and deeply studied TGMS rice

Qingkai Yang; Chunyang Liang; Wen Zhuang; Jun Li; Huabing Deng; Qiyun Deng; Bin Wang

2007-01-01

245

Restoration of normal stamen development and pollen formation by fusion of different cytoplasmic male-sterile cultivars of Nicotiana tabacum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusion of two cytoplasmic male-sterile cultivars of Nicotiana tabacum, one with N. bigelovii cytoplasm and one with N. undulata cytoplasm, resulted in the restoration of male fertility in cybrid plants. All male-fertile cybrids exhibited fused corollas, which is characteristic for the cultivar with N. undulata cytoplasm, while their stamen structures varied from cybrid to cybrid, some producing stamens with anthers

Waltraud Kofer; Kristina Glimelius; Howard T. Bonnett

1991-01-01

246

Male mating success and survival in the field with respect to size and courtship song characters in Drosophila littoralis and D. montana (Diptera: Drosophilidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the importance of male song and morphological characters to the male mating success in a two-year field study in natural populations ofD. littoralis andD. montana. We compared the properties of mating flies with those of a random male sample taken at the same time and place. InD. littoralis the male's size had no effect on his mating success,

Jouni Aspi; Anneli Hoikkala

1995-01-01

247

Intron hairpin and transitive RNAi mediated silencing of orf H522 transcripts restores male fertility in transgenic male sterile tobacco plants expressing orf H522  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work was aimed at developing vector construct(s) suitable for restoring fertility in transgenic male sterile tobacco\\u000a plants expressing male-sterility-inducing ORFH522 in tapetal cell layer (Nizampatnam et al. Planta 229:987–1001, 2009). PTGS vectors that could produce either intron spliced hairpin RNA against the orfH522 or induce silencing of orfH522 by heterologous 3?UTR region were developed using the selected 316 bp

Narasimha Rao Nizampatnam; Viswanathaswamy Dinesh Kumar

248

Directional transfer of a multiple-allele male sterile line in Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis (L.) Makino var. rosularis Tsen et Lee  

PubMed Central

To produce hybrid seeds of Wutacai (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis (L.) Makino var. rosularis Tsen et Lee), a “directional transfer program” was designed to breed the multiple-allele male sterile line of Wutacai. A multiple-allele male sterile line of Naibaicai (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis L., S01) was used as the male sterile resource, and an inbred line of Wutacai (WT01) was used as the target line. Recurrent backcrossing was employed to transfer the male sterility and other botanical traits simultaneously, while the genotype was identified through test crossing. The male sterility was successfully transferred from S01 to WT01. A new male sterile line, GMS-3, with similar botanical traits to WT01, was bred. Four hybrid combinations were generated with GMS-3 as the female parent. One hybrid (C1) that contained the most desirable traits was developed from the new male sterile line.

Wang, Qiu Shi; Zhang, Xi; Li, Cheng Yu; Liu, Zhi Yong; Feng, Hui

2014-01-01

249

Directional transfer of a multiple-allele male sterile line in Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis (L.) Makino var. rosularis Tsen et Lee.  

PubMed

To produce hybrid seeds of Wutacai (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis (L.) Makino var. rosularis Tsen et Lee), a "directional transfer program" was designed to breed the multiple-allele male sterile line of Wutacai. A multiple-allele male sterile line of Naibaicai (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis L., S01) was used as the male sterile resource, and an inbred line of Wutacai (WT01) was used as the target line. Recurrent backcrossing was employed to transfer the male sterility and other botanical traits simultaneously, while the genotype was identifiedthrough test crossing. The male sterility was successfully transferred from S01 to WT01. A new male sterile line, GMS-3, with similar botanical traits to WT01, was bred. Four hybrid combinations were generated with GMS-3 as the female parent. One hybrid (C1) that contained the most desirable traits was developed from the new male sterile line. PMID:24987301

Wang, Qiu Shi; Zhang, Xi; Li, Cheng Yu; Liu, Zhi Yong; Feng, Hui

2014-06-01

250

New cytoplasmic male sterility sources in common wheat: Their genetical and breeding considerations.  

PubMed

Nuclei from Triticum aestivum L. cultivars 'Penjamo 62' and 'Siete Cerros 66' were introduced into the cytoplasms of different species of Aegilops and some subspecies (varieties) of T. dicoccoides by backcrossing. The sterile alloplasmic lines obtained were compared with the normal cultivars used as the recurrent pollen parents. According to the cytoplasmic effect, these cytoplasms were subdivided into three main groups. The first group possesses C(u) type cytoplasm, the second one possesses M type and the third group includes S, C and G type. Promising male sterile cytoplasms for hybrid wheat production were found in Ae. mutica, Ae. triuncialis and T. dicoccoides var. 'spontaneovillosum'. Based on these results and other information some conjectures were made concerning hybrid wheat breeding and phylogenetic differentiations of the cytoplasm. PMID:24305794

Panayotov, I

1980-07-01

251

Paternal care and male mate-attraction effort in the European starling is adjusted to clutch size.  

PubMed Central

In facultative polygynous birds with biparental care, a trade-off may occur between male parental care and attraction of additional mates. If there is a cost associated with reduced male parental care, the relative benefit of mate attraction may be predicted to decrease as the size of a male's clutch or brood increases. We tested this prediction in monogamous pairs of facultatively polygynous European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). The larger the clutch, the more time the male spent incubating and the less time he spent attracting an additional female (i.e. singing near and carrying green nesting material into adjacent empty nest-boxes). Reduced paternal incubation resulted in lower overall incubation (the female did not compensate) and lower hatching success. Immediately after experimental reduction of clutches, males spent significantly less time incubating and more time singing and carrying greenery, and vice versa for experimentally enlarged clutches. Males with experimentally reduced clutches attracted a second female more often than males with experimentally enlarged clutches. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to provide experimental evidence for an adjustment of paternal care and male mate-attraction effort to clutch size. However, a trade-off between paternal nestling provisioning and mate attraction was not revealed, probably due to the absence of unpaired females by that time in the breeding season. Experiments showed that the relative contribution of the male and female to nestling provisioning was unrelated to brood size.

Komdeur, Jan; Wiersma, Popko; Magrath, Michael

2002-01-01

252

Co-Evolution of the Mating Position and Male Genitalia in Insects: A Case Study of a Hangingfly  

PubMed Central

Hangingflies are unique for the male providing a nuptial gift to the female during mating and taking a face-to-face hanging copulation with the female. Their male genitalia are peculiar for an extremely elongated penisfilum, a pair of well-developed epandrial lobes (9th tergum), and a pair of degenerated gonostyli. However, the co-evolution of their face-to-face copulation behavior and the male genitalia has rarely been studied hitherto. In this paper the mating behavior of the hangingfly Bittacus planus Cheng, 1949 was observed under laboratory conditions, and the morphology of the male and female external genitalia was investigated using light and scanning electron microscopy. The male provides an insect prey as a nuptial gift to the female in courtship and mating process, and commits a face-to-face copulation. During copulation, the male abdomen twists temporarily about 180° to accommodate their face-to-face mating position. The aedeagal complex has an extremely elongated penisfilum, corresponding to the elongated spermathecal duct of the female. The well-developed epandrial lobes serve as claspers to grasp the female subgenital plate during copulation, replacing the function of gonostyli, which are greatly reduced in Bittacidae. The modified proctiger assists the penisfilum to stretch and to enter into the female spermathecal duct. The possible reasons why this species might mate face-to-face are briefly discussed.

Gao, Qionghua; Hua, Baozhen

2013-01-01

253

Do sex-changing male snails use mate choice to get a jump on their “size advantage”?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals of species that change sex from male to female may gain a “size advantage” from that sex change; that is, as males\\u000a become larger, they become female, thus increasing their fecundity with their size. However, males could also gain an early\\u000a and different reproductive size advantage by choosing large females as mates. While male preference for large females has

Olivia V. Ambrogio; Jan A. Pechenik

2009-01-01

254

Reproductive trade-offs from mating with a successful male: the case of the tephritid fly Anastrepha obliqua  

Microsoft Academic Search

In lekking species, females may become sperm-limited when mating with sexually successful males, and this may be exacerbated\\u000a by a poor male diet. Polygynous males may also be limited by the amount of accessory gland products (AGPs) they can transmit\\u000a to females, which in turn may influence the females’ refractory period and longevity. Here, we tested the effect of male

Diana Perez-Staples; Martín Aluja; Rogelio Macías-Ordóñez; John Sivinski

2008-01-01

255

Why small males have big sperm: dimorphic squid sperm linked to alternative mating behaviours  

PubMed Central

Background Sperm cells are the target of strong sexual selection that may drive changes in sperm structure and function to maximize fertilisation success. Sperm evolution is regarded to be one of the major consequences of sperm competition in polyandrous species, however it can also be driven by adaptation to the environmental conditions at the site of fertilization. Strong stabilizing selection limits intra-specific variation, and therefore polymorphism, among fertile sperm (eusperm). Here we analyzed reproductive morphology differences among males employing characteristic alternative mating behaviours, and so potentially different conditions of sperm competition and fertilization environment, in the squid Loligo bleekeri. Results Large consort males transfer smaller (average total length = 73 ?m) sperm to a female's internal sperm storage location, inside the oviduct; whereas small sneaker males transfer larger (99 ?m) sperm to an external location around the seminal receptacle near the mouth. No significant difference in swimming speed was observed between consort and sneaker sperm. Furthermore, sperm precedence in the seminal receptacle was not biased toward longer sperm, suggesting no evidence for large sperm being favoured in competition for space in the sperm storage organ among sneaker males. Conclusions Here we report the first case, in the squid Loligo bleekeri, where distinctly dimorphic eusperm are produced by different sized males that employ alternative mating behaviours. Our results found no evidence that the distinct sperm dimorphism was driven by between- and within-tactic sperm competition. We propose that presence of alternative fertilization environments with distinct characteristics (i.e. internal or external), whether or not in combination with the effects of sperm competition, can drive the disruptive evolution of sperm size.

2011-01-01

256

Female mating receptivity inhibited by injection of male-derived extracts in Callosobruchus chinensis.  

PubMed

The effects of male-derived extracts on female receptivity to remating were investigated in Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Injection of aqueous extracts of male reproductive tracts into the abdomen of females reduced receptivity. When aqueous extracts of male reproductive tracts were divided to three molecular weight (MW) fractions by ultrafiltration: <3, 3-14, and >14 kDa, the filtrate containing MW substances <3 kDa reduced female receptivity 3h and 1 day after injection, whereas the fraction containing MW substances >14 kDa inhibited receptivity 2 and 4 days after injection. Finally, male reproductive tract organs were divided into accessory gland, seminal vesicle, and testis. Aqueous extracts of testis reduced receptivity of females on the second day and at 3h, and aqueous extracts of accessory gland reduced receptivity of females on the second day after injection. On the other hand, aqueous extracts of seminal vesicle did not reduce female receptivity. The results indicate that more than one mechanism may be involved in producing the effects of male-derived substances on female receptivity; low MW male-derived substances, which possibly exist in testis, cause short-term inhibition, while high MW substances, which possibly exist in the accessory gland, inhibit female mating later than low MW substances in C. chinensis. PMID:18177665

Yamane, Takashi; Kimura, Yoshinobu; Katsuhara, Maki; Miyatake, Takahisa

2008-02-01

257

Chemical defense: Bestowal of a nuptial alkaloidal garment by a male moth on its mate  

PubMed Central

Males of the moth Cosmosoma myrodora (Arctiidae) acquire pyrrolizidine alkaloid by feeding on the excrescent fluids of certain plants (for instance, Eupatorium capillifolium). They incorporate the alkaloid systemically and as a result are protected against spiders. The males have a pair of abdominal pouches, densely packed with fine cuticular filaments, which in alkaloid-fed males are alkaloid laden. The males discharge the filaments on the female in bursts during courtship, embellishing her with alkaloid as a result. The topical investiture protects the female against spiders. Alkaloid-free filaments, from alkaloid-deprived males, convey no such protection. The males also transmit alkaloid to the female by seminal infusion. The systemic alkaloid thus received, which itself may contribute to the female's defense against spiders, is bestowed in part by the female on the eggs. Although paternal contribution to egg defense had previously been demonstrated for several arctiid moths, protective nuptial festooning of a female by its mate, such as is practiced by C. myrodora, appears to be without parallel among insects.

Conner, William E.; Boada, Ruth; Schroeder, Frank C.; Gonzalez, Andres; Meinwald, Jerrold; Eisner, Thomas

2000-01-01

258

Chemical defense: bestowal of a nuptial alkaloidal garment by a male moth on its mate.  

PubMed

Males of the moth Cosmosoma myrodora (Arctiidae) acquire pyrrolizidine alkaloid by feeding on the excrescent fluids of certain plants (for instance, Eupatorium capillifolium). They incorporate the alkaloid systemically and as a result are protected against spiders. The males have a pair of abdominal pouches, densely packed with fine cuticular filaments, which in alkaloid-fed males are alkaloid laden. The males discharge the filaments on the female in bursts during courtship, embellishing her with alkaloid as a result. The topical investiture protects the female against spiders. Alkaloid-free filaments, from alkaloid-deprived males, convey no such protection. The males also transmit alkaloid to the female by seminal infusion. The systemic alkaloid thus received, which itself may contribute to the female's defense against spiders, is bestowed in part by the female on the eggs. Although paternal contribution to egg defense had previously been demonstrated for several arctiid moths, protective nuptial festooning of a female by its mate, such as is practiced by C. myrodora, appears to be without parallel among insects. PMID:11114202

Conner, W E; Boada, R; Schroeder, F C; González, A; Meinwald, J; Eisner, T

2000-12-19

259

Induction of functional sterility in male rats by low dose Carica papaya seed extract treatment.  

PubMed

The result revealed that a short term administration of an aqueous extract of Carica papaya seed manifested an androgen deprived effect on the target organs and thereby caused antifertility effect in adult male albino rats. The complete loss of fertility is attributed to decline in sperm motility and alteration in their morphology as well as to reduced contractile response of the vas deferens. The androgen deprived effect of the extract led to slight alteration in the histoarchitecture and weight of the reproductive organs, mainly cauda and distal vas deferens which has been related to their greater androgen sensitivity in comparison to the other target organs and or their greatly diminished target organ response to testosterone or its metabolites. The data revealed that functional sterility could be induced in male rats by papaya extract treatment, which promises to be a potential male contraceptive. PMID:6675389

Chinoy, N J; George, S M

1983-01-01

260

A PDF/NPF neuropeptide signaling circuitry of male Drosophila melanogaster controls rival-induced prolonged mating.  

PubMed

A primary function of males for many species involves mating with females for reproduction. Drosophila melanogaster males respond to the presence of other males by prolonging mating duration to increase the chance of passing on their genes. To understand the basis of such complex behaviors, we examine the genetic network and neural circuits that regulate rival-induced Longer-Mating-Duration (LMD). Here, we identify a small subset of clock neurons in the male brain that regulate LMD via neuropeptide signaling. LMD requires the function of pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) in four s-LNv neurons and its receptor PDFR in two LNd neurons per hemisphere, as well as the function of neuropeptide F (NPF) in two neurons within the sexually dimorphic LNd region and its receptor NPFR1 in four s-LNv neurons per hemisphere. Moreover, rival exposure modifies the neuronal activities of a subset of clock neurons involved in neuropeptide signaling for LMD. PMID:24314729

Kim, Woo Jae; Jan, Lily Yeh; Jan, Yuh Nung

2013-12-01

261

Safe sex: male-female coalitions and pre-copulatory mate-guarding in a fiddler crab.  

PubMed

In fiddler crabs both males and females defend territories that are essential for survival. Given pronounced sexual dimorphism in weaponry, how do weaponless females defend their territory from well-armed males? Using observational data and two simple experiments, we test whether male Uca annulipes protect their female neighbours from conspecific intruders. We show that males defend their female neighbours against male but not female intruders. We also show that females sometimes mate with their immediate neighbours. Male defence of female neighbours appears to represent both pre-copulatory mate-guarding and a territorial coalition. Males who ensure that their neighbour remains female could benefit through increased opportunity for future reproductive success and lower boundary maintenance costs. PMID:19889695

Milner, Richard N C; Jennions, Michael D; Backwell, Patricia R Y

2010-04-23

262

Male-biased sex ratios, female promiscuity, and copulatory mate guarding in an aggregating tropical bug, Dysdercus bimaculatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ecological and social bases of the mating system of the seed-feeding bug, Dysdercus bimaculatus(Hemiptera: Pyrrhocoridae), were studied in the lab and in aggregations at the host tree, Sterculia apetala(Malvales: Malvaceae), in Panama. On theoretical grounds, two factors are predicted to be of importance in determining the evolution of male mating tactics in Ms species: the operational sex ratio and

Scott P. Carroll; Jenella E. Loye

1990-01-01

263

Deletion of the Parkin coregulated gene causes male sterility in the quakingviable mouse mutant  

PubMed Central

Quakingviable (qkv) is a recessive neurological mouse mutation with severe dysmyelination of the CNS and spermiogenesis failure. The molecular lesion in the qkv mutant is a deletion of ?1 Mb on mouse chromosome 17 that alters the expression of the qk gene in oligodendrocytes. Complementation analysis between the qkv mutation and qk mutant alleles generated through chemical mutagenesis showed that the male sterility is a distinctive feature of the qkv allele. This observation suggested that the sperm differentiation defect in qkv is due to the deletion of a gene(s) distinct from qk. Here, we demonstrate that the deletion of Pacrg is the cause of male sterility in the qkv mutant. Pacrg is the mouse homologue of the human PARKIN-coregulated gene (PACRG), which encodes for a protein whose biochemical function remains unclear. We show that Pacrg is highly expressed in the testes in both mice and humans. In addition, the expression pattern of Pacrg during spermiogenesis suggests that it plays a role in sperm differentiation. In support of this hypothesis, we show that transgenic expression of Pacrg in testes restores spermiogenesis and fertility in qkv males. This finding provides the first in vivo evidence, to our knowledge, for the function of Pacrg in a model organism. Immunolocalization experiments on isolated spermatozoa show that the Pacrg protein is present in mature sperm. Remarkably, the mammalian Pacrg protein shares significant sequence similarities with gene products from flagellated protozoans, suggesting that Pacrg may be necessary for proper flagellar formation in many organisms.

Lorenzetti, Diego; Bishop, Colin E.; Justice, Monica J.

2004-01-01

264

Engineering cytoplasmic male sterility via the chloroplast genome by expression of {beta}-ketothiolase.  

PubMed

While investigating expression of the polydroxybutyrate pathway in transgenic chloroplasts, we addressed the specific role of beta-ketothiolase. Therefore, we expressed the phaA gene via the chloroplast genome. Prior attempts to express the phaA gene in transgenic plants were unsuccessful. We studied the effect of light regulation of the phaA gene using the psbA promoter and 5' untranslated region, and evaluated expression under different photoperiods. Stable transgene integration into the chloroplast genome and homoplasmy were confirmed by Southern analysis. The phaA gene was efficiently transcribed in all tissue types examined, including leaves, flowers, and anthers. Coomassie-stained gel and western blots confirmed hyperexpression of beta-ketothiolase in leaves and anthers, with proportionately high levels of enzyme activity. The transgenic lines were normal except for the male-sterile phenotype, lacking pollen. Scanning electron microscopy revealed a collapsed morphology of the pollen grains. Floral developmental studies revealed that transgenic lines showed an accelerated pattern of anther development, affecting their maturation, and resulted in aberrant tissue patterns. Abnormal thickening of the outer wall, enlarged endothecium, and vacuolation affected pollen grains and resulted in the irregular shape or collapsed phenotype. Reversibility of the male-sterile phenotype was observed under continuous illumination, resulting in viable pollen and copious amount of seeds. This study results in the first engineered cytoplasmic male-sterility system in plants, offers a new tool for transgene containment for both nuclear and organelle genomes, and provides an expedient mechanism for F(1) hybrid seed production. PMID:16009998

Ruiz, Oscar N; Daniell, Henry

2005-07-01

265

Cytological Study of Radiation Induced Alterations in Cytoplasmic Factors Controlling Male Sterility in Corn. Progress Report, February 28, 1975--December 1, 1975.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Progress is reported on the following research projects: cytoplasmic constituents of the embryo of various gymnosperms and angiosperms; cytoplasmic male sterility in corn; modification of cytoplasmic sterility factors using gamma radiation, EMS, and ethid...

J. R. Edwardson

1975-01-01

266

Why do some social insect queens mate with several males? Testing the sex-ratio manipulation hypothesis in Lasius niger.  

PubMed

Although multiple mating most likely increases mortality risk for social insect queens and lowers the kin benefits for nonreproductive workers, a significant proportion of hymenopteran queens mate with several males. It has been suggested that queens may mate multiply as a means to manipulate sex ratios to their advantage. Multiple paternity reduces the extreme relatedness value of females for workers, selecting for workers to invest more in males. In populations with female-biased sex ratios, queens heading such male-producing colonies would achieve a higher fitness. We tested this hypothesis in a Swiss and a Swedish population of the ant Lasius niger. There was substantial and consistent variation in queen mating frequency and colony sex allocation within and among populations, but no evidence that workers regulated sex allocation in response to queen mating frequency; the investment in females did not differ among paternity classes. Moreover, population-mean sex ratios were consistently less female biased than expected under worker control and were close to the queen optimum. Queens therefore had no incentive to manipulate sex ratios because their fitness did not depend on the sex ratio of their colony. Thus, we found no evidence that the sex-ratio manipulation theory can explain the evolution and maintenance of multiple mating in L. niger. PMID:11989685

Fjerdingstad, Else J; Gertsch, Pia J; Keller, Laurent

2002-03-01

267

Mate choice for a male carotenoid-based ornament is linked to female dietary carotenoid intake and accumulation  

PubMed Central

Background The coevolution of male traits and female mate preferences has led to the elaboration and diversification of sexually selected traits; however the mechanisms that mediate trait-preference coevolution are largely unknown. Carotenoid acquisition and accumulation are key determinants of the expression of male sexually selected carotenoid-based coloration and a primary mechanism maintaining the honest information content of these signals. Carotenoids also influence female health and reproduction in ways that may alter the costs and benefits of mate choice behaviours and thus provide a potential biochemical link between the expression of male traits and female preferences. To test this hypothesis, we manipulated the dietary carotenoid levels of captive female house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus) and assessed their mate choice behavior in response to color-manipulated male finches. Results Females preferred to associate with red males, but carotenoid supplementation did not influence the direction or strength of this preference. Females receiving a low-carotenoid diet were less responsive to males in general, and discrimination among the colorful males was positively linked to female plasma carotenoid levels at the beginning of the study when the diet of all birds was carotenoid-limited. Conclusions Although female preference for red males was not influenced by carotenoid intake, changes in mating responsiveness and discrimination linked to female carotenoid status may alter how this preference is translated into choice. The reddest males, with the most carotenoid rich plumage, tend to pair early in the breeding season. If carotenoid-related variations in female choice behaviour shift the timing of pairing, then they have the potential to promote assortative mating by carotenoid status and drive the evolution of carotenoid-based male plumage coloration.

2012-01-01

268

Male genital traits and mating interval affect male fertilization success in the water strider Gerris lacustris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parker's seminal work brought attention to the possibility of postmating sexual selection by non-random fertilization success.\\u000a Mechanisms for these processes are still only partly understood and there is clearly a need for more studies of intraspecific\\u000a variation in sperm precedence. Here, we report results from an experimental study of the variation in fertilization success\\u000a between males of the water strider

Ingela Danielsson; Conny Askenmo

1999-01-01

269

A recessive gene controlling male sterility sensitive to short daylength/low temperature in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)*  

PubMed Central

Utilization of a two-line breeding system via photoperiod-thermo sensitive male sterility has a great potential for hybrid production in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). 337S is a novel wheat male sterile line sensitive to both short daylength/low temperature and long daylength/high temperature. Five F2 populations derived from the crosses between 337S and five common wheat varieties were developed for genetic analysis. All F1’s were highly fertile while segregation occurred in the F2 populations with a ratio of 3 fertile:1 sterile under short daylength/low temperature. It is shown that male sterility in 337S was controlled by a single recessive gene, temporarily designated as wptms3. Bulked segregant analysis (BSA) coupled with simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers was applied to map the sterile gene using one mapping population. The wptms3 gene was mapped to chromosome arm 1BS and flanked by Xgwm413 and Xgwm182 at a genetic distance of 3.2 and 23.5 cM, respectively. The accuracy and efficiency of marker-assisted selection were evaluated and proved essential for identifying homozygous recessive male sterile genotypes of the wptms3 gene in F2 generation.

Chen, Xiao-dong; Sun, Dong-fa; Rong, De-fu; Peng, Jun-hua; Li, Cheng-dao

2011-01-01

270

A recessive gene controlling male sterility sensitive to short daylength/low temperature in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).  

PubMed

Utilization of a two-line breeding system via photoperiod-thermo sensitive male sterility has a great potential for hybrid production in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). 337S is a novel wheat male sterile line sensitive to both short daylength/low temperature and long daylength/high temperature. Five F(2) populations derived from the crosses between 337S and five common wheat varieties were developed for genetic analysis. All F(1)'s were highly fertile while segregation occurred in the F(2) populations with a ratio of 3 fertile:1 sterile under short daylength/low temperature. It is shown that male sterility in 337S was controlled by a single recessive gene, temporarily designated as wptms3. Bulked segregant analysis (BSA) coupled with simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers was applied to map the sterile gene using one mapping population. The wptms3 gene was mapped to chromosome arm 1BS and flanked by Xgwm413 and Xgwm182 at a genetic distance of 3.2 and 23.5 cM, respectively. The accuracy and efficiency of marker-assisted selection were evaluated and proved essential for identifying homozygous recessive male sterile genotypes of the wptms3 gene in F(2) generation. PMID:22042660

Chen, Xiao-dong; Sun, Dong-fa; Rong, De-fu; Peng, Jun-hua; Li, Cheng-dao

2011-11-01

271

Genetic characterization of a new cytoplasmic male sterility system (hau) in Brassica juncea and its transfer to B. napus.  

PubMed

A novel cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) was identified in Brassica juncea, named as hau CMS (00-6-102A). Subsequently, the male sterility was transferred to B. napus by interspecific hybridization. The hau CMS has stable male sterility. Flowers on the A line are absolutely male sterile, and seeds harvested from the line following pollinations with the maintainer gave rise to 100% sterile progeny. The anthers in CMS plants are replaced by thickened petal-like structures and pollen grains were not detected. In contrast, in other CMS systems viz. pol, nap, tour, and ogu, anthers are formed but do not produce viable pollen. The sterility of hau CMS initiates at the stage of stamen primordium polarization, which is much earlier compared with the other four CMS systems. We have successfully transferred hau CMS from B. juncea to B. napus. Restorer lines for pol, ogu, nap, and tour CMS systems were found to be ineffective to restore fertility in hau CMS. Sixteen out of 40 combinations of mitochondrial probe/enzyme used for RFLP analysis distinguished the hau CMS system from the other four systems. Among these sixteen combinations, five ones alone could distinguish the five CMS systems from each other. The evidence from genetic, morphological, cytological and molecular studies confirmed that the hau CMS system is a novel CMS system. PMID:18034224

Wan, Zhengjie; Jing, Bing; Tu, Jinxing; Ma, Caozhi; Shen, Jinxiong; Yi, Bin; Wen, Jing; Huang, Tao; Wang, Xianjun; Fu, Tingdong

2008-02-01

272

EST analysis of male accessory glands from Heliconius butterflies with divergent mating systems  

PubMed Central

Background Heliconius butterflies possess a remarkable diversity of phenotypes, physiologies, and behaviors that has long distinguished this genus as a focal taxon in ecological and evolutionary research. Recently Heliconius has also emerged as a model system for using genomic methods to investigate the causes and consequences of biological diversity. One notable aspect of Heliconius diversity is a dichotomy in mating systems which provides an unusual opportunity to investigate the relationship between sexual selection and the evolution of reproductive proteins. As a first step in pursuing this research, we report the generation and analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from the male accessory gland of H. erato and H. melpomene, species representative of the two mating systems present in the genus Heliconius. Results We successfully sequenced 933 ESTs clustering into 371 unigenes from H. erato and 1033 ESTs clustering into 340 unigenes from H. melpomene. Results from the two species were very similar. Approximately a third of the unigenes showed no significant BLAST similarity (E-value <10-5) to sequences in GenBank's non-redundant databases, indicating that a large proportion of novel genes are expressed in Heliconius male accessory glands. In both species only a third of accessory gland unigenes were also found among genes expressed in wing tissue. About 25% of unigenes from both species encoded secreted proteins. This includes three groups of highly abundant unigenes encoding repetitive proteins considered to be candidate seminal fluid proteins; proteins encoded by one of these groups were detected in H. erato spermatophores. Conclusion This collection of ESTs will serve as the foundation for the future identification and evolutionary analysis of male reproductive proteins in Heliconius butterflies. These data also represent a significant advance in the rapidly growing collection of genomic resources available in Heliconius butterflies. As such, they substantially enhance this taxon as a model system for investigating questions of ecological, phenotypic, and genomic diversity.

Walters, James R; Harrison, Richard G

2008-01-01

273

A low molecular weight proteome comparison of fertile and male sterile 8 anthers of Zea mays.  

PubMed

During maize anther development, somatic locular cells differentiate to support meiosis in the pollen mother cells. Meiosis is an important event during anther growth and is essential for plant fertility as pollen contains the haploid sperm. A subset of maize male sterile mutants exhibit meiotic failure, including ms8 (male sterile 8) in which meiocytes arrest as dyads and the locular somatic cells exhibit multiple defects. Systematic proteomic profiles were analysed in biological triplicates plus technical triplicates comparing ms8 anthers with fertile sibling samples at both the premeiotic and meiotic stages; proteins from 3.5 to 20 kDa were fractionated by 1-D PAGE, cleaved with Lys-C and then sequenced using a LTQ Orbitrap Velos MS paradigm. Three hundred and 59 proteins were identified with two or more assigned peptides in which each of those peptides were counted at least two or more times (0.4% peptide false discovery rate (FDR) and 0.2% protein FDR); 2761 proteins were identified with one or more assigned peptides (0.4% peptide FDR and 7.6% protein FDR). Stage-specific protein expression provides candidate stage markers for early anther development, and proteins specifically expressed in fertile compared to sterile anthers provide important clues about the regulation of meiosis. 49% of the proteins detected by this study are new to an independent whole anther proteome, and many small proteins missed by automated maize genome annotation were validated; these outcomes indicate the value of focusing on low molecular weight proteins. The roles of distinctive expressed proteins and methods for mass spectrometry of low molecular weight proteins are discussed. PMID:22748129

Wang, Dongxue; Adams, Christopher M; Fernandes, John F; Egger, Rachel L; Walbot, Virginia

2012-10-01

274

Comparisons Among Two Fertile and Three Male-Sterile Mitochondrial Genomes of Maize  

PubMed Central

We have sequenced five distinct mitochondrial genomes in maize: two fertile cytotypes (NA and the previously reported NB) and three cytoplasmic-male-sterile cytotypes (CMS-C, CMS-S, and CMS-T). Their genome sizes range from 535,825 bp in CMS-T to 739,719 bp in CMS-C. Large duplications (0.5–120 kb) account for most of the size increases. Plastid DNA accounts for 2.3–4.6% of each mitochondrial genome. The genomes share a minimum set of 51 genes for 33 conserved proteins, three ribosomal RNAs, and 15 transfer RNAs. Numbers of duplicate genes and plastid-derived tRNAs vary among cytotypes. A high level of sequence conservation exists both within and outside of genes (1.65–7.04 substitutions/10 kb in pairwise comparisons). However, sequence losses and gains are common: integrated plastid and plasmid sequences, as well as noncoding “native” mitochondrial sequences, can be lost with no phenotypic consequence. The organization of the different maize mitochondrial genomes varies dramatically; even between the two fertile cytotypes, there are 16 rearrangements. Comparing the finished shotgun sequences of multiple mitochondrial genomes from the same species suggests which genes and open reading frames are potentially functional, including which chimeric ORFs are candidate genes for cytoplasmic male sterility. This method identified the known CMS-associated ORFs in CMS-S and CMS-T, but not in CMS-C.

Allen, James O.; Fauron, Christiane M.; Minx, Patrick; Roark, Leah; Oddiraju, Swetha; Lin, Guan Ning; Meyer, Louis; Sun, Hui; Kim, Kyung; Wang, Chunyan; Du, Feiyu; Xu, Dong; Gibson, Michael; Cifrese, Jill; Clifton, Sandra W.; Newton, Kathleen J.

2007-01-01

275

Reduced activity of ATP synthase in mitochondria causes cytoplasmic male sterility in chili pepper.  

PubMed

Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is a maternally inherited trait characterized by the inability to produce functional pollen. The CMS-associated protein Orf507 (reported as Orf456 in previous researches) was previously identified as a candidate gene for mediating male sterility in pepper. Here, we performed yeast two-hybrid analysis to screen for interacting proteins, and found that the ATP synthase 6 kDa subunit containing a mitochondrial signal peptide (MtATP6) specifically interacted with Orf507. In addition, the two proteins were found to be interacted in vivo using bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) and co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) assays. Further functional characterization of Orf507 revealed that the encoded protein is toxic to bacterial cells. Analysis of tissue-specific expression of ATP synthase 6 kDa showed that the transcription level was much lower in anthers of the CMS line than in their wild type counterparts. In CMS plants, ATP synthase activity and content were reduced by more than half compared to that of the normal plants. Taken together, it can be concluded that reduced ATP synthase activity and ATP content might have affected pollen development in CMS plants. Here, we hypothesize that Orf507 might cause MtATP6 to be nonfunctional by changing the latter's conformation or producing an inhibitor that prevents the normal functioning of MtATP6. Thus, further functional analysis of mitochondrial Orf507 will provide insights into the mechanisms underlying CMS in plants. PMID:23274393

Li, Jinjie; Pandeya, Devendra; Jo, Yeong Deuk; Liu, Wing Yee; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl

2013-04-01

276

[Cloning of a rice male sterility gene by a modified MutMap method].  

PubMed

A pollen defective male sterile rice mutant, osms55, was isolated from an elite indica cultivar HHZ using EMS (ethyl methanesulfonate) mutagenesis strategy. Genetic analysis showed that osms55 was controlled by a single recessive gene. Genome-wide SNP analysis using the high-throughput Illumina Infinium iSelect SNP (50 K) microarray technology indicated that the genetic makeup of osms55 is the same as wild type (WT) HHZ. Using a modified MutMap method, we successfully identified a mutation in the LOC_Os02g40450 (MER3) gene that is co-segregated with the male sterility phenotype. The mutation is located at the intron splice-recognition site, leading to a 15 nucleotide deletion in the fifth exon. Different from the published MutMap method that aligns the mutant pool DNA sequence with the assembled WT genome, the method used in this study was to align the re-sequencing data of the mutant pool DNA and WT HHZ with the Nipponbare reference genome. The resulting SNPs of mutant/Nipponbare and WT HHZ/Nipponbare were further compared to determine the candidate mutant gene. This modified method does not need an assembled WT genome as reference and thus is more cost-effective and widely applicable. PMID:24846922

Chen, Zhufeng; Yan, Wei; Wang, Na; Zhang, Wenhui; Xie, Gang; Lu, Jiawei; Jian, Zhihua; Liu, Dongfeng; Tang, Xiaoyan

2014-01-01

277

Adaptive production of fighter males: queens of the ant Cardiocondyla adjust the sex ratio under local mate competition.  

PubMed Central

Hamilton's concept of local mate competition (LMC) is the standard model to explain female-biased sex ratios in solitary Hymenoptera. In social Hymenoptera, however, LMC has remained controversial, mainly because manipulation of sex allocation by workers in response to relatedness asymmetries is an additional powerful mechanism of female bias. Furthermore, the predominant mating systems in the social insects are thought to make LMC unlikely. Nevertheless, several species exist in which dispersal of males is limited and mating occurs in the nest. Some of these species, such as the ant Cardiocondyla obscurior, have evolved dimorphic males, with one morph being specialized for dispersal and the other for fighting with nest-mate males over access to females. Such life history, combining sociality and alternative reproductive tactics in males, provides a unique opportunity to test the power of LMC as a selective force leading to female-biased sex ratios in social Hymenoptera. We show that, in concordance with LMC predictions, an experimental increase in queen number leads to a shift in sex allocation in favour of non-dispersing males, but does not influence the proportion of disperser males. Furthermore, we can assign this change in sex allocation at the colony level to the queens and rule out worker manipulation.

Cremer, Sylvia; Heinze, Jurgen

2002-01-01

278

Cytogenetics of Flower Modification of a Cytoplasmic Male-Sterile Tobacco  

PubMed Central

Plants combining the cytoplasm of Nicotiana debneyi and the 48 chromosomes from N. tabacum are male sterile. Early backcross generations of the amphidiploid hybrid to male N. tabacum produced a great variety of plants from which a series of phenotypes with characteristic flower forms and transmission rates have been isolated. Type 1A possesses completely feminized stamens and deeply split corollas, breeds true when backcrossed to normal males and carries 48 N. tabacum chromosomes. Other phenotypes, 2C, 3E and 4H, range toward normal morphology of corollas and stamens. Like 1A, 2C forms no anther tissue and has 48 chromosomes. This type is transmitted to 36.3% of the backcross progeny, the remainder being of type 1A; presumably 2C carries a chromosome segment from N. debneyi that is responsible for the partial restoration of flower structure. In contrast, both 3E and 4H produce anthers and possess an extra chromosome. The extra chromosomes are transmitted to only 19.9% and 7.1% of the progeny, respectively. Significantly, the extra chromosomes found in the anther-forming types are nucleolus organizing and carry a satellite from N. debneyi. On the basis of these observations, we surmise that differentiation of anthers in plants with N. debneyi cytoplasm may depend on the presence of a nucleolus-organizing chromosome from that species. This chromosome is unstable; unaltered, it conditions a highly restored phenotype (4H), but when structurally modified, it may control different phenotypic expressions. Other examples of satellited restorer chromosomes had been reported for different cytoplasmically male-sterile combinations; therefore, the phenomenon may have more general significance.

Gerstel, D. U.; Burns, J. A.; Sand, S. A.

1980-01-01

279

In vitro propagation and germplasm cold-storage of fertile and male-sterile Allium trifoliatum subsp. hirsutum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Procedures for in vitro clonal propagation and for cold-storage of propagules were developed for fertile and male-sterile genotypes of Allium trifoliatum subsp. hirsutum, var. hirsutum and var. sterile, respectively. Highest rate of shoot multiplication was achieved from basal leaf and umbel explants on a modified BDS medium supplemented with 9 mg\\/l benzyladenine. Naphthalene acetic acid reduced the propagation rate, and

Ada Viterbo; Arie Altman; Haim D. Rabinowitch

1994-01-01

280

Expression of a pathogen-induced cysteine protease (AdCP) in tapetum results in male sterility in transgenic tobacco.  

PubMed

Usable male sterility systems have immense potential in developing hybrid varieties in crop plants, which can also be used as a biological safety containment to prevent horizontal transgene flow. Barnase-Barstar system developed earlier was the first approach to engineer male sterility in plants. In an analogous situation, we have evolved a system of inducing pollen abortion and male sterility in transgenic tobacco by expressing a plant gene coding for a protein with known developmental function in contrast to the Barnase-Barstar system, which deploys genes of prokaryotic origin, i.e., from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. We have used a plant pathogen-induced gene, cysteine protease for inducing male sterility. This gene was identified in the wild peanut, Arachis diogoi differentially expressed when it was challenged with the late leaf spot pathogen, Phaeoisariopsis personata. Arachis diogoi cysteine protease (AdCP) was expressed under the strong tapetum-specific promoter (TA29) and tobacco transformants were generated. Morphological and histological analysis of AdCP transgenic plants showed ablated tapetum and complete pollen abortion in three transgenic lines. Furthermore, transcript analysis displayed the expression of cysteine protease in these male sterile lines and the expression of the protein was identified in western blot analysis using its polyclonal antibody raised in the rabbit system. PMID:24615687

Shukla, Pawan; Singh, Naveen Kumar; Kumar, Dilip; Vijayan, Sambasivam; Ahmed, Israr; Kirti, Pulugurtha Bharadwaja

2014-06-01

281

Influence of the Male Ejaculate on Post-Mating Prezygotic Barriers in Field Crickets  

PubMed Central

Post-copulatory interactions between males and females involve highly coordinated, complex traits that are often rapidly evolving and divergent between species. Failure to produce and deposit eggs may be a common post-mating prezygotic barrier, yet little is known about what prevents the induction of egg-laying between species. The field crickets, Gryllus firmus and G. pennsylvanicus are isolated by a one-way reproductive incompatibility; G. pennsylvanicus males fail to fertilize G. firmus eggs or to induce normal egg-laying in G. firmus females. We use experimental crosses to elucidate the role of accessory gland-derived vs. testis-derived components of the G. firmus male ejaculate on egg-laying in conspecific and heterospecific crosses. Using surgical castrations to create ‘spermless’ males that transfer only seminal fluid proteins (SFPs) we test whether G. firmus male SFPs can induce egg-laying in conspecific crosses and rescue egg-laying in crosses between G. pennsylvanicus males and G. firmus females. We find G. firmus SFPs induce only a small short-term egg-laying response and that SFPs alone cannot explain the normal induction of egg-laying. Gryllus firmus SFPs also do not rescue the heterospecific cross. Testis-derived components, such as sperm or prostaglandins, most likely stimulate egg-laying or act as transporters for SFPs to targets in the female reproductive tract. These results highlight the utility of experimental approaches for investigating the phenotypes that act as barriers between species and suggest that future work on the molecular basis of the one-way incompatibility between G. firmus and G. pennsylvanicus should focus on divergent testis-derived compounds or proteins in addition to SFPs.

Larson, Erica L.; Andres, Jose A.; Harrison, Richard G.

2012-01-01

282

Mate recognition in a freshwater fish: geographical distance, genetic differentiation, and variation in female preference for local over foreign males.  

PubMed

It often is assumed that more distant allopatry should reflect reduced rates of contemporary gene flow and/or greater divergence in mate recognition systems. This assumption, however, is rarely tested and may not always be appropriate. Here we investigated female preference for local and foreign males in a morphologically variable Australian freshwater fish, the Pacific blue-eye Pseudomugil signifer. Using a multidisciplinary approach that combined molecular phylogeography with conventional mate choice experiments, we found female blue-eyes spent more time in association with local males only when the alternative was a foreigner from a geographically and genetically more distant population. When offered the choice between two foreign males, females associated more with males from the population that was more closely adjacent to their own. Our results suggest that female preference for local over foreign males in blue-eyes may depend on how genetically and geographically separated populations are from one another. PMID:15149412

Wong, B B M; Keogh, J S; Jennions, M D

2004-05-01

283

Molecular validation of multiple allele inheritance for dominant genic male sterility gene in Brassica napus L.  

PubMed

Dominant genic male sterility (DGMS) has been playing an increasingly important role, not only as a tool for assisting in recurrent selection but also as an alternative approach for efficient production of hybrids. Previous studies indicate that fertility restoration of DGMS is the action of another unlinked dominant gene. Recently, through classical genetic analysis with various test populations we have verified that in a DGMS line 609AB the trait is inherited in a multiple allelic pattern. In this study, we applied molecular marker technology to provide further validation of the results. Eight amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers tightly linked to the male sterility allele (Ms) were identified in a BC1 population from a cross between 609A (a sterile plant in 609AB) and a temporary maintainer GS2467 as recurrent parent. Four out of the eight markers reproduced the same polymorphism in a larger BC(1) population generated with microspore-derived doubled haploid (DH) parents (S148 and S467). The two nearest AFLP markers SA12MG14 and P05MG15, flanking the Ms locus at respective distances of 0.3 centiMorgan (cM) and 1.6 cM, were converted into sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers designated SC6 and SC9. Based on the sequence difference of the marker P05MG15 between S148 and a DH restorer line S103, we further developed a SCAR marker SC9f that is specific to the restorer allele (Mf). The map distance between SC9f and Mf was consistent with that between SC9 and Ms allele. Therefore, successful conversion of the marker tightly linked to Ms into a marker tightly linked to Mf suggested that the restoration for DGMS in 609AB is controlled by an allele at the Ms locus or a tightly linked gene (regarded as an allele in practical application). The Ms and Mf-specific markers developed here will facilitate the breeding for new elite homozygous sterile lines and allow further research on map-based cloning of the Ms gene. PMID:16783591

Song, Lai-Qiang; Fu, Ting-Dong; Tu, Jin-Xing; Ma, Cao-Zhi; Yang, Guang-Sheng

2006-06-01

284

Sexually dimorphic neurons in the ventromedial hypothalamus govern mating in both sexes and aggression in males  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Sexual dimorphisms in the brain underlie behavioral sex differences, but the function of individual sexually dimorphic neuronal populations is poorly understood. Neuronal sexual dimorphisms typically represent quantitative differences in cell number, gene expression, or other features, and it is unknown if these dimorphisms control sex-typical behavior in one sex exclusively or in both sexes. The progesterone receptor (PR) controls female sexual behavior, and we find many sex differences in number, distribution, or projections of PR-expressing neurons in the adult mouse brain. We have ablated one such PR-expressing neuronal population located in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) using a novel genetic strategy. Ablation of these neurons in females greatly diminishes sexual receptivity. Strikingly, the corresponding ablation in males reduces mating and aggression. Our findings reveal the functions of a molecularly-defined, sexually dimorphic neuronal population in the brain. Moreover we show that sexually dimorphic neurons can control distinct sex-typical behaviors in both sexes.

Yang, Cindy F.; Chiang, Michael; Gray, Daniel C.; Prabhakaran, Mahalakshmi; Alvarado, Maricruz; Juntti, Scott A.; Unger, Elizabeth K.; Wells, James A.; Shah, Nirao M.

2013-01-01

285

Silencing of the Hsf gene, the transcriptional regulator of A. gambiae male accessory glands, inhibits the formation of the mating plug in mated females and disrupts their monogamous behaviour.  

PubMed

Discovering the molecular factors that shape the mating behaviour and the fertility of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae, the principal vector of human malaria, is regarded as critical to better understand its reproductive success as well as for identifying new leads for malaria control measures. In A. gambiae mating induces complex behavioural and physiological changes in the females, including refractoriness to subsequent mating and induction of egg-laying. In other insects including Drosophila a group of proteins named Accessory gland proteins (Acps), produced by males and transferred with sperm to the female reproductive tract, have been implicated in this post-mating response. Although Acps represent a set of promising candidates for unravelling the mating physiology, their role in inducing behavioural changes in mated A. gambiae females remains largely unknown. In this work, we demonstrate that a down-regulation of a large fraction of Acp genes via silencing of the Acp regulating transcription factor Hsf, abolishes the formation of mating plug in mated females and fails to induce refractoriness of mated female to subsequent inseminations. A significant fraction of females mated to Hsf silenced males (66%) failed to receive the mating plug though seminal fluid had been transferred as documented by the presence of spermatozoa in the female sperm storage organ. Furthermore, nearly all females (95%) mated to HSF-silenced males were re-inseminated when exposed to males carrying EGPF marked sperm. Our findings provide evidence showing that Acp genes regulated by the transcription factor HSF play a key role in the function of the male accessory glands. PMID:23265612

Dottorini, Tania; Persampieri, Tania; Palladino, Pietro; Spaccapelo, Roberta; Crisanti, Andrea

2012-11-01

286

Cytoplasmic male sterility in sunflower is correlated with the co-transcription of a new open reading frame with the atpA gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The organization and expression of the mitochondrial (mt) genome of fertile, male-sterile and restored lines of Helianthus annuus and of H. petiolaris were compared to identify alterations which might lead to cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS). The mtDNAs of fertile and male-sterile lines differ by an 11 kb inversion and a 5 kb insertion. The rearrangements seem to be the result

Rainer Hans Kiihler; Renate Horn; Andreas Lössl; Klaus Zetsche

1991-01-01

287

A long noncoding RNA regulates photoperiod-sensitive male sterility, an essential component of hybrid rice  

PubMed Central

Hybrid rice has greatly contributed to the global increase of rice productivity. A major component that facilitated the development of hybrids was a mutant showing photoperiod-sensitive male sterility (PSMS) with its fertility regulated by day length. Transcriptome studies have shown that large portions of the eukaryotic genomic sequences are transcribed to long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). However, the potential roles for only a few lncRNAs have been brought to light at present. Thus, great efforts have to be invested to understand the biological functions of lncRNAs. Here we show that a lncRNA of 1,236 bases in length, referred to as long-day–specific male-fertility–associated RNA (LDMAR), regulates PSMS in rice. We found that sufficient amount of the LDMAR transcript is required for normal pollen development of plants grown under long-day conditions. A spontaneous mutation causing a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) between the wild-type and mutant altered the secondary structure of LDMAR. This change brought about increased methylation in the putative promoter region of LDMAR, which reduced the transcription of LDMAR specifically under long-day conditions, resulting in premature programmed cell death (PCD) in developing anthers, thus causing PSMS. Thus, a lncRNA could directly exert a major effect on a trait like a structure gene, and a SNP could alter the function of a lncRNA similar to amino acid substitution in structural genes. Molecular elucidating of PSMS has important implications for understanding molecular mechanisms of photoperiod regulation of many biological processes and also for developing male sterile germplasms for hybrid crop breeding.

Ding, Jihua; Lu, Qing; Ouyang, Yidan; Mao, Hailiang; Zhang, Pingbo; Yao, Jialing; Xu, Caiguo; Li, Xianghua; Xiao, Jinghua; Zhang, Qifa

2012-01-01

288

A mitochondrial dysfunction induces the expression of nuclear-encoded complex I genes in engineered male sterile Arabidopsis thaliana.  

PubMed

To study the effect of a mitochondrial dysfunction induced by the expression of the unedited form of the subunit 9 of ATP synthase gene (u-atp9) in Arabidopsis, we constructed transgenic plants expressing u-atp9 under the control of three different promoters: CaMV 35S, apetala 3 and A9. The size and shape of transgenic plants bearing the apetala3::u-atp9 and A9::u-atp9 genes looked normal while the 35S::u-atp9 transformed plants showed a dwarf morphology. All u-atp9 expressing plants, independent of the promoter used, exhibited a male sterile phenotype. Molecular analysis of male sterile plants revealed the induction of the mitochondrial nuclear complex I (nCI) genes, psst, tyky and nadh binding protein (nadhbp), associated with a mitochondrial dysfunction. These results support the hypothesis that the expression of u-atp9 can induce male sterility and reveal that the apetala3::u-atp9 and A9::u-atp9 plants induced the sterile phenotype without affecting the vegetative development of Arabidopsis plants. Moreover, male sterile plants produced by this procedure are an interesting model to study the global changes generated by an engineered mitochondrial dysfunction at the transcriptome and proteome levels in Arabidopsis plants. PMID:12459465

Gómez-Casati, Diego F; Busi, Maria V; Gonzalez-Schain, Nahuel; Mouras, Armand; Zabaleta, Eduardo J; Araya, Alejandro

2002-12-01

289

Variability of Female Responses to Conspecific vs. Heterospecific Male Mating Calls in Polygynous Deer: An Open Door to Hybridization?  

PubMed Central

Males of all polygynous deer species (Cervinae) give conspicuous calls during the reproductive season. The extreme interspecific diversity that characterizes these vocalizations suggests that they play a strong role in species discrimination. However, interbreeding between several species of Cervinae indicates permeable interspecific reproductive barriers. This study examines the contribution of vocal behavior to female species discrimination and mating preferences in two closely related polygynous deer species known to hybridize in the wild after introductions. Specifically, we investigate the reaction of estrous female red deer (Cervus elaphus) to playbacks of red deer vs. sika deer (Cervus nippon) male mating calls, with the prediction that females will prefer conspecific calls. While on average female red deer preferred male red deer roars, two out of twenty females spent more time in close proximity to the speaker broadcasting male sika deer moans. We suggest that this absence of strict vocal preference for species-specific mating calls may contribute to the permeability of pre-zygotic reproductive barriers observed between these species. Our results also highlight the importance of examining inter-individual variation when studying the role of female preferences in species discrimination and intraspecific mate selection.

Wyman, Megan T.; Charlton, Benjamin D.; Locatelli, Yann; Reby, David

2011-01-01

290

GENETICS OF INCIPIENT SPECIATION IN DROSOPHILA MOJAVENSIS. I. MALE COURTSHIP SONG, MATING SUCCESS, AND GENOTYPE X ENVIRONMENT INTERACTIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

microsatellite loci distributed across all five major chromosomes were used to localize effects of mating success, time to copulation, and courtship song components. Male courtship success was influenced by a single detected QTL, the main effect of cactus, and four GxE interactions, whereas time to copulation was influenced by three different QTLs on the fourth chromosome. Multiple- locus restricted maximum

William J. Etges; Cássia Cardoso de Oliveira; Erin Gragg; Daniel Ortíz-Barrientos; Mohamed A. F. Noor; Michael G. Ritchie

2007-01-01

291

Male mate location behaviour and encounter sites in a community of tropical butterflies: taxonomic and site associations and distinctions.  

PubMed

Male mate location behaviour and encounter sites have been studied in 72 butterfly species at Nagpur, India, and related to taxonomy, morphology, habitat and population parameters. Species can be placed in three broad classes of mate location behaviour: invariant patrolling, invariant perching, and perch-patrol, the latter associated with increasing site fidelity, territorial defence and male assemblages. Significant taxonomic differences occur, closely related species tending to share mate location behaviours. Morphological differences are found with heavier and larger butterflies displaying greater site fidelity and territorial defence, and differences occur between individuals of species which both perch and patrol. Invariant patrolling is particularly associated with tracks through vegetation, host planttrack distributions, and high female to male numbers observed on transects; invariant perching is linked more to edge features than patrolling, and to lower population counts on transects. Species which perch-patrol, defend territories and establish male assemblages are associated with more complex vegetation structures, and have encounter sites at vegetation edges, landforms and predictable resource (host plant) concentrations. Attention is drawn to the importance of distinctive mate encounter sites for the conservation of butterfly species' habitats. PMID:21289445

Tiple, Ashish D; Padwad, Sonali V; Dapporto, Leonardo; Dennis, Roger L H

2010-12-01

292

The effect of male sodium diet and mating history on female reproduction in the puddling squinting bush brown Bicyclus anynana (Lepidoptera)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The males of butterflies transfer a spermatophore to the female during mating that can contain nutrients enhancing the reproductive potential of their partners. The nutrients transferred by males can be derived from both larval and adult feeding. These nutrients may be depleted by multiple matings. An apparent difference in adult feeding behaviour between the sexes is puddling on mud, dung

Freerk Molleman; Bas J. Zwaan; Paul M. Brakefield

2004-01-01

293

Brain control of mating behavior in the male cricket Gryllus bimaculatus DeGeer: the center for inhibition of copulation actions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We re-examined the functional role of the brain and suboesophageal ganglion (SOG) in inhibiting mating behavior in the male cricket Gryllus bimaculatus DeGeer. Experiments were conducted by using mimetic stimulation to elicit copulation actions. To induce a change in the male internal state from a sexually responsive state to a sexually unresponsive state in the mating stage, noxious stimulation, head

Y Matsumoto; M Sakai

2000-01-01

294

Cytochemical Analysis of Pollen Development in Wild-Type Arabidopsis and a Male-Sterile Mutant.  

PubMed Central

Microsporogenesis has been examined in wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana and the nuclear male-sterile mutant BM3 by cytochemical staining. The mutant lacks adenine phosphoribosyltransferase, an enzyme of the purine salvage pathway that converts adenine to AMP. Pollen development in the mutant began to diverge from wild type just after meiosis, as the tetrads of microspores were released from their callose walls. The first indication of abnormal pollen development in the mutant was a darker staining of the microspore wall due to an incomplete synthesis of the intine. Vacuole formation was delayed and irregular in the mutant, and the majority of the mutant microspores failed to undergo mitotic divisions. Enzyme activities of alcohol dehydrogenase and esterases decreased in the mutant soon after meiosis and were undetectable in mature pollen grains of the mutant. RNA accumulation was also diminished. These results are discussed in relation to the possible role(s) of adenine salvage in pollen development.

Regan, SM; Moffatt, BA

1990-01-01

295

Have sex differences in spatial ability evolved from male competition for mating and female concern for survival?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drawing on the theoretical and empirical foundations of two evolutionary models, we argue that, among humans and other mammals, a twofold selection process would parsimoniously account for sex-linked advantages in spatial contexts. In males, a superiority for both solving navigation-related spatial problems and understanding physical principles that apply to the behavior of projectiles could have been inherited from mating-oriented male

Isabelle Ecuyer-Dab; Michèle Robert

2004-01-01

296

Males, but not females, mate with multiple partners: a laboratory study of a primitively eusocial wasp Ropalidia marginata  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intense interest in social Hymenoptera, on account of their elaborate sociality and the paradox of altruism, has often\\u000a suffered from considerable gender imbalance. This is partly due to the fact that worker behaviour and altruism are restricted\\u000a to the females and partly because males often live off the nest. Yet, understanding the males, especially in the context of\\u000a mating

M. C. Shilpa; R. Sen; S. Samudre; R. Gadagkar

297

Classification of Normal and Male-Sterile Cytoplasms in Maize. I. Electrophoretic Analysis of Variation in Mitochondrially Synthesized Proteins  

PubMed Central

Male-sterile cytoplasms of maize have previously been classified into three groups (T, S and C) according to their fertility ratings in various inbred backgrounds. In earlier studies, mitochondria from three male-sterile cytoplasms, representing each of these three groups, have been found to synthesize characteristic variant polypeptides that distinguish them from each other and from those of normal (N) cytoplasm. In order to determine the extent of cytoplasmic variation, we have now analyzed the translation products of mitochondria from 28 additional cytoplasmic sources. The results show that on this basis 18 of the cytoplasms are identical to the USDA (S) cytoplasm, three are identical to the Texas (T) cytoplasm and two are identical to the C cytoplasm. The five remaining cytoplasms are indistinguishable from normal, male-fertile (N) cytoplasm. Our classification of the cytoplasms is in general agreement with those based on fertility restoration. However, of three cytoplasms that have previously remained unclassified, two (B and D) have now been assigned to the S group and one (LF) to the N group. No heterogeneity in mitochondrial translation products was detected within the normal or any of the three male-sterile groups. The usefulness of the analysis of mitochondrial translation products as a method for classifying normal and male-sterile cytoplasms is discussed.

Forde, B. G.; Oliver, R. J. C.; Leaver, C. J.; Gunn, R. E.; Kemble, R. J.

1980-01-01

298

Heaven It's My Wife! Male Canaries Conceal Extra-Pair Courtships but Increase Aggressions When Their Mate Watches  

PubMed Central

Many animals live in a communication network, an environment where individuals can obtain information about competitors or potential mates by observing interactions between conspecifics. In such an environment, interactants might benefit by changing their signalling behaviour in the presence of an audience. This audience effect seems widespread among species, has been observed during various types of interaction (e.g. intra-sexual vs. inter-sexual interaction) and varies according to the social context (e.g. gender, hierarchical or mating status of the audience). However, the way individuals might adapt their signalling behaviour to a combination of these factors remains poorly understood. To address this question, we studied how the presence of an audience affects the behaviour of male domestic canaries Serinus canaria during two types of interactions: (i) an extra-pair interaction and (ii) a male-male competition for food. Males were observed under three conditions: (a) in the absence of audience, (b) in the presence of their mate or (c) of a familiar female. Our results show that male domestic canaries minutely adapt their courting and agonistic behaviours to a combination of: (i) the type of interaction (extra-pair interaction/male-male competition), (ii) the social context (mate, familiar female or nobody in audience) and (iii) the behaviours of both the audience and the interactant. These results highlight the ability of animals to subtly adapt their behaviour to the social environment. This also raises questions about the cognitive foundations and evolution of these processes especially considering that canaries are known neither for having high cognitive abilities nor for being a typical example for the social intelligence hypothesis.

Ung, Davy; Amy, Mathieu; Leboucher, Gerard

2011-01-01

299

Synthesis of hexaploid (AABBCC) somatic hybrids: a bridging material for transfer of ‘tour’ cytoplasmic male sterility to different Brassica species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the alloplasmic cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) systems are known to be associated with a number of floral abnormalities that result from nuclear-cytoplasmic incompatibilities. One such system, ‘tour’, which is derived from Brassica tournefortii, induces additional floral abnormalities and causes chlorosis in Brassica spp. While the restorer for this CMS has been reported to be present in B. napus,

N. Arumugam; A. Mukhopadhyay; V. Gupta; D. Pental; A. K. Pradhan

1996-01-01

300

Cytoplasmic male sterility in alloplasmic Brassica juncea carrying Diplotaxis catholica cytoplasm: molecular characterization and genetics of fertility restoration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was aimed at characterizing cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) and identifying the fertility restorer gene for CMS ( Diplotaxis catholica) Brassica juncea derived through sexual hybridization. The fertility restorer gene was identified by crossing the CMS line with progeny plants derived from somatic hybrids of B. juncea and D. cathoilca. The CMS line is comparable to the nuclear

A. Pathania; S. R. Bhat; V. Dinesh Kumar; Ashutosh; P. B. Kirti; S. Prakash; V. L. Chopra

2003-01-01

301

The C. elegans Male Exercises Directional Control during Mating through Cholinergic Regulation of Sex-Shared Command Interneurons  

PubMed Central

Background Mating behaviors in simple invertebrate model organisms represent tractable paradigms for understanding the neural bases of sex-specific behaviors, decision-making and sensorimotor integration. However, there are few examples where such neural circuits have been defined at high resolution or interrogated. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we exploit the simplicity of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to define the neural circuits underlying the male’s decision to initiate mating in response to contact with a mate. Mate contact is sensed by male-specific sensilla of the tail, the rays, which subsequently induce and guide a contact-based search of the hermaphrodite’s surface for the vulva (the vulva search). Atypically, search locomotion has a backward directional bias so its implementation requires overcoming an intrinsic bias for forward movement, set by activity of the sex-shared locomotory system. Using optogenetics, cell-specific ablation- and mutant behavioral analyses, we show that the male makes this shift by manipulating the activity of command cells within this sex-shared locomotory system. The rays control the command interneurons through the male-specific, decision-making interneuron PVY and its auxiliary cell PVX. Unlike many sex-shared pathways, PVY/PVX regulate the command cells via cholinergic, rather than glutamatergic transmission, a feature that likely contributes to response specificity and coordinates directional movement with other cholinergic-dependent motor behaviors of the mating sequence. PVY/PVX preferentially activate the backward, and not forward, command cells because of a bias in synaptic inputs and the distribution of key cholinergic receptors (encoded by the genes acr-18, acr-16 and unc-29) in favor of the backward command cells. Conclusion/Significance Our interrogation of male neural circuits reveals that a sex-specific response to the opposite sex is conferred by a male-specific pathway that renders subordinate, sex-shared motor programs responsive to mate cues. Circuit modifications of these types may make prominent contributions to natural variations in behavior that ultimately bring about speciation.

Sherlekar, Amrita L.; Janssen, Abbey; Siehr, Meagan S.; Koo, Pamela K.; Caflisch, Laura; Boggess, May; Lints, Robyn

2013-01-01

302

Estimation of the Number of Sex Alleles and Queen Matings from Diploid Male Frequencies in a Population of APIS MELLIFERA  

PubMed Central

The distribution of diploid males in a population of Apis mellifera was obtained by direct examination of the sexual phenotypes of the larvae. Using these data, estimates are derived for the number of sex alleles and the number of matings undergone by the queen. The number of sex alleles is estimated to be 18.9. The estimate is larger than previous ones, which have ranged between 10 and 12. However, the increase in the number of sex alleles can be explained by the large effective population number for our data. The best estimator of the number of matings by a queen is a maximum likelihood type that assumes a prior distribution on the number of matings. For the data presented here, this estimate is 17.3. This estimate is compared to others in the literature obtained by different approaches.

Adams, Julian; Rothman, Edward D.; Kerr, Warwick E.; Paulino, Zila L.

1977-01-01

303

The Effect of Abiotic Factors on the Male Mate Searching Behavior and the Mating Success of Aphidius ervi (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of wind speed and distance from the source on the male response of the aphid parasitoid, Aphidius ervi (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae), to a pheromone source was studied in a wind tunnel. The number of males taking flight, entering\\u000a the plume and successfully reaching the source, decreased at wind speeds >50 cm\\/s. Furthermore, the proportion of those attempting\\u000a upwind flight that

Melanie McClure; Jeremy N. McNeil

2009-01-01

304

Natural Variation in the Strength and Direction of Male Mating Preferences for Female Pheromones in Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

Many animal species communicate using chemical signals. In Drosophila, cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) are involved in species and sexual identification, and have long been thought to act as stimulatory pheromones as well. However, a previous study reported that D. melanogaster males were more attracted to females that were lacking CHCs. This surprising result is consistent with several evolutionary hypotheses but is at odds with other work demonstrating that female CHCs are attractive to males. Here, we investigated natural variation in male preferences for female pheromones using transgenic flies that cannot produce CHCs. By perfuming females with CHCs and performing mate choice tests, we found that some male genotypes prefer females with pheromones, some have no apparent preference, and at least one male genotype prefers females without pheromones. This variation provides an excellent opportunity to further investigate the mechanistic causes and evolutionary implications of divergent pheromone preferences in D. melanogaster males.

Pischedda, Alison; Shahandeh, Michael P.; Cochrane, Wesley G.; Cochrane, Veronica A.; Turner, Thomas L.

2014-01-01

305

Do Males Bite Females' Antennae to Coerce Copulation or to Continue Mate Guarding in Oiceoptoma subrufum (Coleoptera: Silphinae)?  

PubMed

In several species, males frequently immobilize females during copulation. In some species, female immobilization enables males to copulate with unwilling females, while in others, female immobilization prolongs postcopulatory guarding. Male carrion beetles often bite and pull hard on one of the female's antennae during copulatory mounting. Previous descriptive studies have hypothesized that antenna biting is important for postcopulatory guarding in Silphinae. Here, we observed the mating behavior of Oiceoptoma subrufum, to understand the roles of antenna-biting in the initiation and termination of copulation. We compared the success and duration of intromission and pre- and postcopulatory mounting duration between males that did and did not bite female antennae during copulatory mounting. The success and duration of intromission and precopulatory mounting duration were unaffected by antenna biting. However, antenna-biting males mounted females for longer after intromission compared to non-biting males. These results indicate that antenna biting contributes to postcopulatory guarding behavior, not coercive copulation, in O. subrufum. PMID:24882093

Sumitomo, Hiroyuki; Shiraishi, Kyosuke; Hirota, Tadao

2014-06-01

306

Drosophila male sex peptide inhibits siesta sleep and promotes locomotor activity in the post-mated female  

PubMed Central

Quiescence, or a sleep-like state, is a common and important feature of the daily lives of animals from both invertebrate and vertebrate taxa, suggesting that sleep appeared early in animal evolution. Recently, Drosophila melanogaster has been shown to be a relevant and powerful model for the genetic analysis of sleep behaviour. The sleep architecture of D. melanogaster is sexually dimorphic, with females sleeping much less than males during day-time, presumably because reproductive success requires greater foraging activity by the female as well as the search for egg-laying sites. However, this loss of sleep and increase in locomotor activity will heighten the risk for the female from environmental and predator hazards. In this study, we show that virgin females can minimize this risk by behaving like males, with an extended afternoon ‘siesta’. Copulation results in the female losing 70 per cent of day-time sleep and becoming more active. This behaviour lasts for at least 8 days after copulation and is abolished if the mating males lack sex peptide (SP), normally present in the seminal fluid. Our results suggest that SP is the molecular switch that promotes wakefulness in the post-mated female, a change of behaviour compatible with increased foraging and egg-laying activity. The stress resulting from SP-dependent sleep deprivation might be an important contribution to the toxic side-effects of male accessory gland products that are known to reduce lifespan in post-mated females.

Isaac, R. Elwyn; Li, Chenxi; Leedale, Amy E.; Shirras, Alan D.

2010-01-01

307

Transcriptional Profiles of Mating-Responsive Genes from Testes and Male Accessory Glands of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata  

PubMed Central

Background Insect seminal fluid is a complex mixture of proteins, carbohydrates and lipids, produced in the male reproductive tract. This seminal fluid is transferred together with the spermatozoa during mating and induces post-mating changes in the female. Molecular characterization of seminal fluid proteins in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, is limited, although studies suggest that some of these proteins are biologically active. Methodology/Principal Findings We report on the functional annotation of 5914 high quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from the testes and male accessory glands, to identify transcripts encoding putative secreted peptides that might elicit post-mating responses in females. The ESTs were assembled into 3344 contigs, of which over 33% produced no hits against the nr database, and thus may represent novel or rapidly evolving sequences. Extraction of the coding sequences resulted in a total of 3371 putative peptides. The annotated dataset is available as a hyperlinked spreadsheet. Four hundred peptides were identified with putative secretory activity, including odorant binding proteins, protease inhibitor domain-containing peptides, antigen 5 proteins, mucins, and immunity-related sequences. Quantitative RT-PCR-based analyses of a subset of putative secretory protein-encoding transcripts from accessory glands indicated changes in their abundance after one or more copulations when compared to virgin males of the same age. These changes in abundance, particularly evident after the third mating, may be related to the requirement to replenish proteins to be transferred to the female. Conclusions/Significance We have developed the first large-scale dataset for novel studies on functions and processes associated with the reproductive biology of Ceratitis capitata. The identified genes may help study genome evolution, in light of the high adaptive potential of the medfly. In addition, studies of male recovery dynamics in terms of accessory gland gene expression profiles and correlated remating inhibition mechanisms may permit the improvement of pest management approaches.

Scolari, Francesca; Gomulski, Ludvik M.; Ribeiro, Jose M. C.; Siciliano, Paolo; Meraldi, Alice; Falchetto, Marco; Bonomi, Angelica; Manni, Mose; Gabrieli, Paolo; Malovini, Alberto; Bellazzi, Riccardo; Aksoy, Serap; Gasperi, Giuliano; Malacrida, Anna R.

2012-01-01

308

Gene expression divergence and nucleotide differentiation between males of different color morphs and mating strategies in the ruff  

PubMed Central

By next generation transcriptome sequencing, it is possible to obtain data on both nucleotide sequence variation and gene expression. We have used this approach (RNA-Seq) to investigate the genetic basis for differences in plumage coloration and mating strategies in a non-model bird species, the ruff (Philomachus pugnax). Ruff males show enormous variation in the coloration of ornamental feathers, used for individual recognition. This polymorphism is linked to reproductive strategies, with dark males (Independents) defending territories on leks against other Independents, whereas white morphs (Satellites) co-occupy Independent's courts without agonistic interactions. Previous work found a strong genetic component for mating strategy, but the genes involved were not identified. We present feather transcriptome data of more than 6,000 de-novo sequenced ruff genes (although with limited coverage for many of them). None of the identified genes showed significant expression divergence between males, but many genetic markers showed nucleotide differentiation between different color morphs and mating strategies. These include several feather keratin genes, splicing factors, and the Xg blood-group gene. Many of the genes with significant genetic structure between mating strategies have not yet been annotated and their functions remain to be elucidated. We also conducted in-depth investigations of 28 pre-identified coloration candidate genes. Two of these (EDNRB and TYR) were specifically expressed in black- and rust-colored males, respectively. We have demonstrated the utility of next generation transcriptome sequencing for identifying and genotyping large number of genetic markers in a non-model species without previous genomic resources, and highlight the potential of this approach for addressing the genetic basis of ecologically important variation.

Ekblom, Robert; Farrell, Lindsay L; Lank, David B; Burke, Terry

2012-01-01

309

MALE STERILITY1 Is Required for Tapetal Development and Pollen Wall Biosynthesis[W][OA  

PubMed Central

The Arabidopsis thaliana MALE STERILITY1 (MS1) gene is critical for viable pollen formation and has homology to the PHD-finger class of transcription factors; however, its role in pollen development has not been fully defined. We show that MS1 transcription appears to be autoregulated by the wild-type MS1 transcript or protein. Using a functional green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion to analyze the temporal and spatial expression of MS1, we demonstrate that the MS1:GFP protein is nuclear localized within the tapetum and is expressed in a developmentally regulated manner between late tetraspore and microspore release, then rapidly breaks down, probably by ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis. Absence of MS1 expression results in changes in tapetal secretion and exine structure. Microarray analysis has shown that 260 (228 downregulated and 32 upreglated) genes have altered expression in young ms1 buds. These genes are primarily associated with pollen wall and coat formation; however, a number of transcription factors and Cys proteases have also been identified as the putative primary regulatory targets of MS1. Ectopic expression of MS1 alters transcriptional regulation of vegetative gene expression, resulting in stunted plants with increased levels of branching, partially fertile flowers and an apparent increase in wall material on mature pollen. MS1 therefore plays a critical role in the induction of pollen wall and pollen coat materials in the tapetum and, ultimately, the production of viable pollen.

Yang, Caiyun; Vizcay-Barrena, Gema; Conner, Katie; Wilson, Zoe A.

2007-01-01

310

DNA methylation changes in photoperiod-thermo-sensitive male sterile rice PA64S under two different conditions.  

PubMed

Epigenetic modification can occur at a high frequency in crop plants and might generate phenotypic variation without changes in DNA sequences. DNA methylation is an important epigenetic modification that may contribute to environmentally-induced phenotypic variations by regulating gene expression. Rice Photoperiod-Thermo-Sensitive Genic Male Sterile (PTGMS) lines can transform from sterility to fertility under lower temperatures and short-day (SD) conditions during anther development. So far, little is known about the DNA methylation variation of PTGMS throughout the genome in rice. In this study, we investigated DNA cytosine methylation alterations in the young panicles of PTGMS line PA64S under two different conditions using methylation sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) method. Compared with the DNA methylation level of PA64S under lower temperatures and SD conditions (fertility), higher methylation was observed in PA64S (sterility). The sequences of 25 differentially amplified fragments were successfully obtained and annotated. Three methylated fragments, which are homologous to D2, NAD7 and psaA, were confirmed by bisulfite sequencing and their expression levels were also evaluated by qPCR. Real time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that five of the six selected methylated genes were downregulated in PA64S (sterility). These results suggested that DNA methylation may be involved in the sterility-fertility transition of PA64S under two different environmental conditions. PMID:24365594

Chen, Xiaojun; Hu, Jihong; Zhang, Hongyuan; Ding, Yi

2014-03-01

311

A randomized, controlled, multicenter contraceptive efficacy clinical trial of the intravas device, a nonocclusive surgical male sterilization  

PubMed Central

Because of unavoidable complications of vasectomy, this study was undertaken to assess the efficacy and safety of male sterilization with a nonobstructive intravas device (IVD) implanted into the vas lumen by a mini-surgical method compared with no-scalpel vasectomy (NSV). IVDs were categorized into two types: IVD-B has a tail used for fixing to the vas deferens (fixed wing) whereas IVD-A does not. A multicenter prospective randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in China. The study was comprised of 1459 male volunteers seeking vasectomy who were randomly assigned to the IVD-A (n = 487), IVD-B (n = 485) or NSV (n = 487) groups and underwent operation. Follow-up included visits at the 3rd–6th and 12th postoperative months. The assessments of the subjects involved regular physical examinations (including general and andrological examinations) and semen analysis. The subjects’ partners also underwent monitoring for pregnancy by monthly interviews regarding menstruation and if necessary, urine tests. There were no significant differences in pregnancy rates (0.65% for IVD-A, 0 for IVD-B and 0.21% for NSV) among the three groups (P > 0.05). The cumulative rates of complications at the 12th postoperative month were zero, 0.9% and 1.7% in the three groups, respectively. In conclusion, IVD male sterilization exhibits a low risk of long-term adverse events and was found to be effective as a male sterilization method, similar to the NSV technique. IVD male sterilization is expected to be a novel contraceptive method.

Lu, Wen-Hong; Liang, Xiao-Wei; Gu, Yi-Qun; Wu, Wei-Xiong; Bo, Li-Wei; Zheng, Tian-Gui; Chen, Zhen-Wen

2014-01-01

312

A randomized, controlled, multicenter contraceptive efficacy clinical trial of the intravas device, a nonocclusive surgical male sterilization.  

PubMed

Because of unavoidable complications of vasectomy, this study was undertaken to assess the efficacy and safety of male sterilization with a nonobstructive intravas device (IVD) implanted into the vas lumen by a mini-surgical method compared with no-scalpel vasectomy (NSV). IVDs were categorized into two types: IVD-B has a tail used for fixing to the vas deferens (fixed wing) whereas IVD-A does not. A multicenter prospective randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in China. The study was comprised of 1459 male volunteers seeking vasectomy who were randomly assigned to the IVD-A (n = 487), IVD-B (n = 485) or NSV (n = 487) groups and underwent operation. Follow-up included visits at the 3 rd -6 th and 12 th postoperative months. The assessments of the subjects involved regular physical examinations (including general and andrological examinations) and semen analysis. The subjects' partners also underwent monitoring for pregnancy by monthly interviews regarding menstruation and if necessary, urine tests. There were no significant differences in pregnancy rates (0.65% for IVD-A, 0 for IVD-B and 0.21% for NSV) among the three groups (P > 0.05). The cumulative rates of complications at the 12 th postoperative month were zero, 0.9% and 1.7% in the three groups, respectively. In conclusion, IVD male sterilization exhibits a low risk of long-term adverse events and was found to be effective as a male sterilization method, similar to the NSV technique. IVD male sterilization is expected to be a novel contraceptive method. PMID:24589454

Lu, Wen-Hong; Liang, Xiao-Wei; Gu, Yi-Qun; Wu, Wei-Xiong; Bo, Li-Wei; Zheng, Tian-Gui; Chen, Zhen-Wen

2014-01-01

313

Efficient production of male and female sterile plants by expression of a chimeric repressor in Arabidopsis and rice.  

PubMed

Male and female sterile plants are particularly useful for the effective production of commercial hybrid plants and for preventing the diffusion of seeds or pollen grains of genetically modified plants in the open field. In an attempt to create several types of sterile plant by genetic manipulation, we applied our Chimeric REpressor Gene-Silencing Technology (CRES-T) to four transcription factors, namely APETALA3, AGAMOUS, LEAFY and AtMYB26, involved in the regulation of petal and stamen identity, stamen and carpel identity, floral meristem identity and anther dehiscence, respectively, in Arabidopsis. Transgenic plants expressing each chimeric repressor exhibited, at high frequency, a sterile phenotype that resembled the loss-of-function phenotype of each corresponding gene. Furthermore, in the monocotyledonous crop plant 'rice', expression of the chimeric repressor derived from SUPERWOMAN1, the rice orthologue of APETALA3, resulted in the male sterile phenotype with high efficiency. Our results indicate that CRES-T provides a powerful tool for controlling the fertility of both monocots and dicots by exploiting transcription factors that are strongly conserved amongst plants. PMID:17147638

Mitsuda, Nobutaka; Hiratsu, Keiichiro; Todaka, Daisuke; Nakashima, Kazuo; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru

2006-05-01

314

Semen quality and onset of sterility following administration of a 4.7-mg deslorelin implant in adult male dogs.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to define (i) the interval between treatment and sterility, and (ii) semen quality in male dogs administered a 4.7-mg deslorelin implant. Six healthy, adult dogs of various breeds and body weights were implanted with deslorelin (Suprelorin, Virbac) and followed every 2 weeks with semen and blood collections. Semen quality remained stable or even improved during the first month following treatment and then showed a progressive decline until the end of the study, except for sperm morphology, which was unaffected by the treatment. Complete sterility was achieved on post-treatment days 70, 84, 60, 23, 51 and 40 for dogs 1 to 6, respectively. The 4.7 mg deslorelin implant caused a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in serum testosterone as well as sperm motility. Our results (i) confirm the efficacy of deslorelin in causing reversible sterility in male dogs, (ii) confirm and provide details about endocrine and seminal parameters involved in this process and (iii) contribute to define the interval between treatment and achievement of complete sterility. Practitioners should be aware that such interval may be longer than 2 months in some cases, and that fertility may actually be increased during the first 2-4 weeks post-treatment. PMID:23279546

Romagnoli, S; Siminica, A; Sontas, B H; Milani, C; Mollo, A; Stelletta, C

2012-12-01

315

An experimental test of frequency-dependent selection on male mating strategy in the field  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide field-based experimental evidence for the frequency-dependent nature of the fitness of alternative mating strategies. We manipulated the frequency of genetically determined phenotypic strategies in six wild populations of the side-blotched lizard, Uta stansburiana. The within-population pattern of mating was assessed using nine microsatellite loci to assign paternity. Within populations of the side-blotched lizard exist three colour morphs (orange,

C. Bleay; T. Comendant; B. Sinervo

2007-01-01

316

THE DYNAMICS OF MALE BROODING, MATING PATTERNS, AND SEX ROLES IN PIPEFISHES AND SEAHORSES (FAMILY SYNGNATHIDAE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern theory predicts that relative parental investment of the sexes in their young is a key factor responsible for sexual selection. Seahorses and pipefishes (family Syngnathidae) are extraordinary among fishes in their remarkable adaptations for paternal care and frequent occurrences of sex-role reversals (i.e., female-female competition for mates), offering exceptional opportunities to test predictions of sexual selection theory. During mating,

ANTHONY B. WILSON; INGRID AHNESJO; AMANDA C. J. VINCENT; AXEL MEYER

2003-01-01

317

Differential Expression of Mitochondrial Proteins Between C-Type Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Line C48-2 and Its Maintainer Line in Maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

To seek some evidence and explanation for the sterility mechanism of C-type cytoplasmic male sterility (C-CMS) in maize (Zea mays L.), a C-type sterile line (C48-2) and its maintainer (N48-2) were used, for analyzing the differential expression of their anther mitochondrial proteome. The mitochondrial proteins in the anthers were separated first by two-dimensional electrophoresis, with immobilized pI (3–10, nonlinear) gradients,

Ke XU; MoJu CAO; Ying-Guo ZHU; Guang-Tang PAN; Ting-Zhao RONG

2008-01-01

318

Proteome Analysis of the Wild and YX-1 Male Sterile Mutant Anthers of Wolfberry (Lycium barbarum L.)  

PubMed Central

Pollen development is disturbed in the early tetrad stage of the YX-1 male sterile mutant of wolfberry (Lycium barbarum L.). The present study aimed to identify differentially expressed anther proteins and to reveal their possible roles in pollen development and male sterility. To address this question, the proteomes of the wild-type (WT) and YX-1 mutant were compared. Approximately 1760 protein spots on two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) gels were detected. A number of proteins whose accumulation levels were altered in YX-1 compared with WT were identified by mass spectrometry and the NCBInr and Viridiplantae EST databases. Proteins down-regulated in YX-1 anthers include ascorbate peroxidase (APX), putative glutamine synthetase (GS), ATP synthase subunits, chalcone synthase (CHS), CHS-like, putative callose synthase catalytic subunit, cysteine protease, 5B protein, enoyl-ACP reductase, 14-3-3 protein and basic transcription factor 3 (BTF3). Meanwhile, activities of APX and GS, RNA expression levels of apx and atp synthase beta subunit were low in YX-1 anthers which correlated with the expression of male sterility. In addition, several carbohydrate metabolism-related and photosynthesis-related enzymes were also present at lower levels in the mutant anthers. In contrast, 26S proteasome regulatory subunits, cysteine protease inhibitor, putative S-phase Kinase association Protein 1(SKP1), and aspartic protease, were expressed at higher levels in YX-1 anthers relative to WT anthers. Regulation of wolfberry pollen development involves a complex network of differentially expressed genes. The present study lays the foundation for future investigations of gene function linked with wolfberry pollen development and male sterility.

Zheng, Rui; Sijun Yue; Xu, Xiaoyan; Liu, Jianyu; Xu, Qing; Wang, Xiaolin; Han, Lu; Yu, Deyue

2012-01-01

319

Dominant male sterility in sorghum: effect of nuclear background on inheritance of tissue-culture-induced mutation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Occurrence of genetic instability and formation of stable mutations are basic genetic processes. This study demonstrates that\\u000a nuclear background may influence the formation of stable dominant nuclear gene of male sterility (MS) on the basis of unstable\\u000a mutation, which was induced in tissue culture of the sorghum haploid (cv. Milo-145). The mutants with complete or partial\\u000a MS segregated in variable

Lev A. Elkonin

2005-01-01

320

Construction and characterization of a bacterial artificial chromosome library of thermo-sensitive genie male-sterile rice 5460S  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to develop a detailed physical map of the thermo-sensitive genie male-sterile (TGMS) gene-encompassing region and\\u000a finally clone the TGMS gene, a high-quality rice bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library from TGMS rice 5460S was constructed.\\u000a The method of constructing BAC library was examined and optimized. The 5460S library consists of 19 584 BAC clones with an\\u000a average insert size

Fang Qiu; Demin Jin; Jianmin Fu; Chaoliang Zhang; Weiwu Xie; Rencui Yang; Hongbin Zhang; Bin Wang

1999-01-01

321

The Male-Sterility Polymorphism of Silene vulgaris: Analysis of Genetic Data From Two Populations and Comparison With Thymus vulgaris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are given of genetic studies of male sterility using plants from two natural populations from Sussex, England. Both populations have substantial frequencies of females, z0.25 in population 1 and 0.60 in population 3. As in the few other gynodioecious populations studied in detail, many genetic factors are present. In population 1, there are at least two, and more likely

D. Charlesworth; Valerie Laporte

322

Male reproductive biology of Aedes mosquitoes.  

PubMed

Among Aedes mosquitoes are species responsible for transmission of serious pathogens to humans. To cope with the current threats to long-term effectiveness of the traditional vector control methods, non-conventional control strategies are being developed. These include autocidal control such as the release of sterile males (sterile insect technique) and the release of Wolbachia-infected males to induce sexual sterility (incompatible insect technique) and pathogen-refractory strain replacement variations using Wolbachia. Sterile male types of techniques particularly depend on released males' ability to successfully mate with wild females. For that reason, a good understanding of male mating biology, including a thorough understanding of the reproductive system and mating capacity, increases the likelihood of success of such genetic vector control programmes. Here we review the literature concerning the reproduction of Aedes mosquitoes with an emphasis on the male biology. We consider sexual maturation, mate finding, insemination, male reproductive capacity, and the occurrence of multiple matings. We also discuss which parameters are of greatest importance for the successful implementation of autocidal control methods and propose questions for future research. PMID:24308996

Oliva, Clelia F; Damiens, David; Benedict, Mark Q

2014-04-01

323

Two male-sterile mutants of Zea Mays (Poaceae) with an extra cell division in the anther wall.  

PubMed

Two recessive male-sterile mutants of maize with similar patterns of pollen abortion were studied. Genetic studies showed that one of the two mutations was allelic with a previously identified male-sterility locus (ms23) and the other mutation was in a newly identified male-sterility locus (ms32). Cytological characterization of homozygous mutants and fertile heterozygous control siblings was performed using brightfield, fluorescence, and electron microscopy. During normal anther development, the final anther wall periclinal division divides the secondary parietal anther wall layer into the middle layer and tapetum, forming an anther with four wall layers. This is followed by differentiation of the tapetal cells into protoplastic binucleate, secretory tissue. In both the ms23 and ms32 mutants, the prospective tapetal layer divided into two layers, termed t1 and t2, forming an anther with five wall layers. Neither the t1 nor the t2 layers differentiated normally into tapetal layers, as determined by examination of cell walls, nucleus number, and cytoplasmic organization. Pollen mother cells aborted after the onset of prophase I of meiosis, suggesting that an early developmental coordination may exist between tapetum and pollen mother cells. PMID:10948005

Chaubal, R; Zanella, C; Trimnell, M R; Fox, T W; Albertsen, M C; Bedinger, P

2000-08-01

324

Pheromonally mediated mate attraction by males of the burying beetle Nicrophorus orbicollis: alternative calling tactics conditional on both intrinsic and extrinsic factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male burying beetles attract females using a pheromonal signal and can provide parental care and a food resource, vertebrate carrion, for their developing offspring. But males attempt to attract females even when they have no carrion. We examined the factors that influence male behavior directed toward finding or attracting mates in both field-caught and laboratory-reared Nicrophorus orbicollis, a North American

Andria E. Beeler; Claudia M. Rauter; Allen J. Moore

1999-01-01

325

Transgene flow to hybrid rice and its male-sterile lines.  

PubMed

Gene flow from genetically modified (GM) crops to the same species or wild relatives is a major concern in risk assessment. Transgenic rice with insect and/or disease resistance, herbicide, salt and/or drought tolerance and improved quality has been successfully developed. However, data on rice gene flow from environmental risk assessment studies are currently insufficient for the large-scale commercialization of GM rice. We have provided data on the gene flow frequency at 17 distances between a GM japonica line containing the bar gene as a pollen donor and two indica hybrid rice varieties and four male-sterile (ms) lines. The GM line was planted in a 640 m2 in an isolated experimental plot (2.4 ha), which simulates actual conditions of rice production with pollen competition. Results showed that: (1) under parallel plantation at the 0-m zone, the transgene flow frequency to the ms lines ranged from 3.145 to 36.116% and was significantly higher than that to hybrid rice cultivars (0.037-0.045%). (2) Gene flow frequency decreased as the distance increased, with a sharp cutoff point at about 1-2 m; (3) The maximum distance of transgene flow was 30-40 m to rice cultivars and 40-150 m to ms lines. We believe that these data will be useful for the risk assessment and management of transgenic rice lines, especially in Asia where 90% of world's rice is produced and hybrid rice varieties are extensively used. PMID:17443417

Jia, Shirong; Wang, Feng; Shi, Lei; Yuan, Qianhua; Liu, Wuge; Liao, Yilong; Li, Shuguang; Jin, Wujun; Peng, Huipu

2007-08-01

326

Multiple mating and a low incidence of cuckoldry for nest-holding males in the two-spotted goby, Gobiusculus flavescens  

PubMed Central

Background A major question in behavioural ecology concerns the relationship between genetic mating systems and the strength of sexual selection. In this study, we investigated the genetic mating system of the two-spotted goby (Gobiusculus flavescens), a useful fish model for the study of sexual selection whose genetic mating system remains uncharacterized. We developed four polymorphic microsatellite markers and used them to conduct parentage analyses on 21 nests collected during the breeding season to examine the rates of multiple mating by males and to test for evidence of alternative mating strategies. Results Results of this study indicate that male G. flavescens mate with multiple females and enjoy confidence of paternity. We detected only one instance of sneaking, so cuckoldry contributed a very small percentage (~0.1%) of the total fertilizations in this population. Nests were nearly full and males that maintain larger nests have higher mating and reproductive success, irrespective of body size. Conclusion Overall, our investigation shows that G. flavescens is similar to other, related gobies in that the nests of care-giving males often contain eggs from multiple females. However, G. flavescens differs from other gobies in displaying an extremely low rate of cuckoldry. The study of ecological factors responsible for this important difference between G. flavescens and related species should be a fertile area for future work.

Mobley, Kenyon B; Amundsen, Trond; Forsgren, Elisabet; Svensson, Per A; Jones, Adam G

2009-01-01

327

Underwater oviposition in a damselfly (Odonata: Coenagrionidae) favors male vigilance, and multiple mating by females  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female Enallagma hageni oviposit underwater where they are inaccessible to males. I demonstrate that males guard submerged females rather than perch sites, and are behaviorally distinct from lone males at the water. In contrast to lone males, which always attempt to copulate with females presented to them, guarding males exhibit a conditional latency to remating which corresponds closely to the

Ola M. Fincke

1986-01-01

328

Humor Ability Reveals Intelligence, Predicts Mating Success, and Is Higher in Males  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A good sense of humor is sexually attractive, perhaps because it reveals intelligence, creativity, and other "good genes" or "good parent" traits. If so, intelligence should predict humor production ability, which in turn should predict mating success. In this study, 400 university students (200 men and 200 women) completed measures of abstract…

Greengross, Gil; Miller, Geoffrey

2011-01-01

329

Male mate choice scales female ornament allometry in a cichlid fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Studies addressing the adaptive significance of female ornamentation have gained ground recently. However, the expression of female ornaments in relation to body size, known as trait allometry, still remains unexplored. Here, we investigated the allometry of a conspicuous female ornament in Pelvicachromis taeniatus, a biparental cichlid that shows mutual mate choice and ornamentation. Females feature an eye-catching pelvic fin

Sebastian A Baldauf; Theo CM Bakker; Fabian Herder; Harald Kullmann; Timo Thünken

2010-01-01

330

Fertilization dynamics of sperm from different male mating tactics in bluegill ( Lepomis macrochirus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sperm competition results in the evolution of ejaculate characteristics such as high sperm density, high mo- tility, and fast sperm swimming speed. A fundamental assumption of sperm competition theory is that ejaculates with high motility and fast-swimming sperm have an advantage with respect to fertilization success. We tested this assump- tion by studying the fertilization dynamics of alternative mating tactics

Albrecht I. Schulte-Hostedde; Gary Burness

2005-01-01

331

Responsiveness of expectant male cotton-top tamarins, Saguinus oedipus, to mate's pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the cotton-top tamarin, a primate where paternal care is critical to the survival of the offspring, we found that expectant fathers experienced multiple hormonal changes during their mate's pregnancy. Fathers that had experienced several previous births showed significant changes in urinary estrogens, androgens, prolactin and cortisol in the last 2 months before birth, whereas less-experienced fathers (LEF) did not.

Toni E. Ziegler; Kate F. Washabaugh; Charles T. Snowdona

2004-01-01

332

Cytological and Comparative Proteomic Analyses on Male Sterility in Brassica napus L. Induced by the Chemical Hybridization Agent Monosulphuron Ester Sodium  

PubMed Central

Male sterility induced by a chemical hybridization agent (CHA) is an important tool for utilizing crop heterosis. Monosulphuron ester sodium (MES), a new acetolactate synthase-inhibitor herbicide belonging to the sulphonylurea family, has been developed as an effective CHA to induce male sterility in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). To understand MES-induced male sterility in rapeseed better, comparative cytological and proteomic analyses were conducted in this study. Cytological analysis indicated that defective tapetal cells and abnormal microspores were gradually generated in the developing anthers of MES-treated plants at various development stages, resulting in unviable microspores and male sterility. A total of 141 differentially expressed proteins between the MES-treated and control plants were revealed, and 131 of them were further identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. Most of these proteins decreased in abundance in tissues of MES-treated rapeseed plants, and only a few increased. Notably, some proteins were absent or induced in developing anthers after MES treatment. These proteins were involved in several processes that may be crucial for tapetum and microspore development. Down-regulation of these proteins may disrupt the coordination of developmental and metabolic processes, resulting in defective tapetum and abnormal microspores that lead to male sterility in MES-treated plants. Accordingly, a simple model of CHA-MES-induced male sterility in rapeseed was established. This study is the first cytological and dynamic proteomic investigation on CHA-MES-induced male sterility in rapeseed, and the results provide new insights into the molecular events of male sterility.

Li, Zhanjie; Cui, Jianmin; Hu, Shengwu; Zhao, Huixian; Chen, Mingshun

2013-01-01

333

Cytological and comparative proteomic analyses on male sterility in Brassica napus L. induced by the chemical hybridization agent monosulphuron ester sodium.  

PubMed

Male sterility induced by a chemical hybridization agent (CHA) is an important tool for utilizing crop heterosis. Monosulphuron ester sodium (MES), a new acetolactate synthase-inhibitor herbicide belonging to the sulphonylurea family, has been developed as an effective CHA to induce male sterility in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). To understand MES-induced male sterility in rapeseed better, comparative cytological and proteomic analyses were conducted in this study. Cytological analysis indicated that defective tapetal cells and abnormal microspores were gradually generated in the developing anthers of MES-treated plants at various development stages, resulting in unviable microspores and male sterility. A total of 141 differentially expressed proteins between the MES-treated and control plants were revealed, and 131 of them were further identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. Most of these proteins decreased in abundance in tissues of MES-treated rapeseed plants, and only a few increased. Notably, some proteins were absent or induced in developing anthers after MES treatment. These proteins were involved in several processes that may be crucial for tapetum and microspore development. Down-regulation of these proteins may disrupt the coordination of developmental and metabolic processes, resulting in defective tapetum and abnormal microspores that lead to male sterility in MES-treated plants. Accordingly, a simple model of CHA-MES-induced male sterility in rapeseed was established. This study is the first cytological and dynamic proteomic investigation on CHA-MES-induced male sterility in rapeseed, and the results provide new insights into the molecular events of male sterility. PMID:24244648

Cheng, Yufeng; Wang, Qian; Li, Zhanjie; Cui, Jianmin; Hu, Shengwu; Zhao, Huixian; Chen, Mingshun

2013-01-01

334

Effects of day-length and temperature on floral structure and fertility restoration in a season-dependent male-sterile Solanum villosum Mill. mutant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solanum villosum is an important African leafy vegetable whose yield is limited mainly by competition from early and excess fruit-set. Induced\\u000a male-sterility is a potential tool to reduce this competition and enhance yields. This study was conducted to investigate\\u000a the influence of photoperiod and temperature on the floral dynamics of a season-dependent male-sterile mutant. The mutant,\\u000a named T-5, has flowers

Christopher O. Ojiewo; Kenji Murakami; Peter W. Masinde; Stephen G. Agong; Masaharu Masuda

2007-01-01

335

Analyses of mitochondrial DNA structure and expression in three cytoplasmic male-sterile chicories originating from somatic hybridisation between fertile chicory and CMS sunflower protoplasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytoplasmic male-sterile (CMS) chicories have been previously obtained by somatic hybridisation between fertile industrial\\u000a chicory protoplasts and CMS sunflower protoplasts. In this study, we compared three different CMS chicory cybrids that originated\\u000a from three different fusion events. The cybrids were backcrossed with different witloof chicories in order to transfer the\\u000a three male-sterile cytoplasms from an industrial chicory nuclear environment to

A. Dubreucq; B. Berthe; J.-F. Asset; L. Boulidard; F. Budar; J. Vasseur; C. Rambaud

1999-01-01

336

A chimeric and truncated mitochondrial atpA gene is transcribed in alloplasmic cytoplasmic male-sterile tobacco with Nicotiana bigelovii mitochondria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protoplast fusions were performed between two sexually produced alloplasmic male-sterile tobacco cultivars, with cytoplasms from Nicotiana bigelovii [Nta (big)S] and N. undulata[Nta(und)S], both of which exhibit homeotic-like phenotypes affecting the petal and stamen whorls. Among the fusion products obtained, both novel male-sterile and pollen-producing cybrid plants were identified. Of the pollen-producing cybrid plants, all of which were indehiscent, some had

P. Bergman; W. Kofer; G. Håkansson; K. Glimelius

1995-01-01

337

Mammalian mating systems.  

PubMed

Male mammals show a diverse array of mating bonds, including obligate monogamy, unimale and group polygyny and promiscuity. These are associated with a wide variety of different forms of mate guarding, including the defence of feeding and mating territories, the defence of female groups and the defence of individual receptive females. Female mating bonds include long-term monogamy, serial monogamy, polyandry and promiscuity. Both male and female mating behaviour varies widely within species. Variation in male mating behaviour is related to the effect of male assistance in rearing young and to the defensibility of females by males. The latter is, in turn, related to female ranging behaviour and to the size and stability of female groups. Much of the variation in mammalian mating bonds and systems of mate guarding can be attributed to differences in these three variables. PMID:2567517

Clutton-Brock, T H

1989-05-22

338

Production of second generation triploid and tetraploid rainbow trout by mating tetraploid males and diploid females - Potential of tetraploid fish.  

PubMed

First generation tetraploids were produced by hydrostatic pressure treatment before the first cleavage and raised until the adult stage. Their survival and growth were severely depressed when compared to the diploid control: after two years, no ovulated females were found although males produced sperm at 1 and 2 years of age and were mated individually with diploid females. The progenies were consistently normal with high survival rates. They were found to be almost all triploids by karyology, which failed to detect a significant rate of aneuploidies. However, the fertilizing ability of tetraploid males was always low (0 to 97% of the control; average 40%). Several arguments presented here support the hypothesis that diploid spermatozoas, which are wider than haploid ones, would be frequently blocked during their penetration through the micropyle canal. Second generation tetraploids were produced after such matings by heat shocks, causing the retention of the second polar body. Their survival and growth were much more satisfactory than in the first generation, although still lower than in diploid and triploid controls issuing from diploid parents. Performances of second generation triploids were comparable to those of diploids, and slightly better than those of conventional triploids issuing from diploid parents. 94.5% of the second generation tetraploids were male. PMID:24247834

Chourrout, D; Chevassus, B; Krieg, F; Happe, A; Burger, G; Renard, P

1986-03-01

339

Irradiation of adult Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae): egg sterility in parental and F1 generations.  

PubMed

Adult Epiphyas postvittana Walker were irradiated using a Cobalt 60 source to determine the dose needed to achieve complete egg sterility of mated female moths, and egg sterility of female moths mated to F1 generation males. Adult male and female E. postvittana were irradiated at 100, 200, 250, and 300 Gy and their fertility (when crossed with normal moths) was compared with nonirradiated moths. Viable progeny (determined by egg hatch) were found at doses of 100 and 200 Gy, but very little at 250 and 300 Gy. In particular, there was no survival of female progeny into the F1 generation. Males irradiated at 250 and 300 Gy had very low egg eclosion rates (2.25 and 1.86% at 250 and 300 Gy, respectively) when mated with normal females. The F2 generation from those male progeny had a mean percent hatched of < 1.02%. Based on our results, a dose of 250-300 Gy is recommended for irradiation of E. postvittana adults used for sterile insect technique (SIT) if sterility of parental moths is the desired outcome. Our data also suggests that inclusion of F1 hybrid sterility rather than parental generation sterility into programs using the SIT may allow for doses lower than what we have reported, especially during initial phases of an eradication program where increase fitness of moths might be desirable. Further research is needed to verify the use of F1 hybrid sterility in light brown apple moth SIT programs. PMID:22420255

Jang, Eric B; McInnis, Donald O; Kurashima, Rick; Woods, Bill; Suckling, David M

2012-02-01

340

The Evolutionary Consequences of Disrupted Male Mating Signals: An Agent-Based Modelling Exploration of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals in the Guppy  

PubMed Central

Females may select a mate based on signalling traits that are believed to accurately correlate with heritable aspects of male quality. Anthropogenic actions, in particular chemicals released into the environment, are now disrupting the accuracy of mating signals to convey information about male quality. The long-term prediction for disrupted mating signals is most commonly loss of female preference. Yet, this prediction has rarely been tested using quantitative models. We use agent-based models to explore the effects of rapid disruption of mating signals. In our model, a gene determines survival. Males signal their level of genetic quality via a signal trait, which females use to select a mate. We allowed this system of sexual selection to become established, before introducing a disruption between the male signal trait and quality, which was similar in nature to that induced by exogenous chemicals. Finally, we assessed the capacity of the system to recover from this disruption. We found that within a relatively short time frame, disruption of mating signals led to a lasting loss of female preference. Decreases in mean viability at the population-level were also observed, because sexual-selection acting against newly arising deleterious mutations was relaxed. The ability of the population to recover from disrupted mating signals was strongly influenced by the mechanisms that promoted or maintained genetic diversity in traits under sexual selection. Our simple model demonstrates that environmental perturbations to the accuracy of male mating signals can result in a long-term loss of female preference for those signals within a few generations. What is more, the loss of this preference can have knock-on consequences for mean population fitness.

Senior, Alistair McNair; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Grimm, Volker

2014-01-01

341

Male Mating Interest Varies with Female Fecundity in Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii of Kanyawara, Kibale National Park  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female chimpanzees mate promiscuously during a period of extended receptivity marked by prominent sexual swelling. Recent\\u000a studies of wild chimpanzees indicate that subtle variations in swelling size could act as a reliable cue of female fertilization\\u000a potential both within and between cycles (Emery and Whitten Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 54, 340–351, 2003; Deschner et al.\\u000a Hormones and Behavior, 46, 204–215,

Melissa Emery Thompson; Richard W. Wrangham

2008-01-01

342

Amounts Spent on Engagement Rings Reflect Aspects of Male and Female Mate Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has shown that the qualities of nuptial gifts among nonhumans and marriage-related property transfers in\\u000a human societies such as bridewealth and dowry covary with aspects of mate quality. This article explores this issue for another\\u000a type of marriage-related property transfer: engagement rings. We obtained data on engagement ring costs and other variables\\u000a through a mail survey sent to

Lee Cronk; Bria Dunham

2007-01-01

343

Multi-male mating and female choice increase offspring growth in the spider Neriene litigiosa (Linyphiidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this controlled-breeding study was to investigate the viability consequences of female choice and sequential polyandry for offspring in a way that would separate the influences of these two aspects of female sexual behaviour. Female sierra dome spiders,Neriene litigiosa(=Linyphia litigiosa) typically mate two to three times before production of their first batch of eggs, although some females (ca16%)

PAUL J. WATSON

1998-01-01

344

Reproductive Ecology of Male and Female Strobili and Mating System in Two Different Populations of Pinus roxburghii  

PubMed Central

We studied several flowering traits, namely, male-female cone phenology, male-female cone production per tree, mating system, sex ratio, air-borne pollen grains and pollen migration, over four successive years in two different natural populations of P. roxburghii from Garhwal Himalaya, India. Assessment of each trait mentioned except pollen dispersion was done by selecting five representative trees randomly in each population. The pollen migration was studied on naturally isolated source trees. The pollen trapping was done in all directions up to 2.5?km. The average reproductive period in P. roxburghii was 36 days with 3–5 days protandry. There were significant year and population effects for male and female cone output and pollen grains production per tree. In mass production year (1999), an average production of pollen cone per tree was estimated as 42.44 ± 8.32 × 103 at lower altitude and 28.1 ± 0.89 × 103 at higher altitude. The controlled pollination results in high level of outcrossing with 90% seed setting. We conclude that the high male-female ratio and tremendous pollen production capacity in P. roxburghii indicate high male competition among trees within populations. The isolation strip of 600?m is considered minimal for the management of seed orchard.

Sharma, Chandra Mohan; Khanduri, Vinod Prasad; Ghildiyal, Sunil Kumar

2012-01-01

345

Fitness improvement of mass-reared sterile males of Ceratitis capitata (Vienna 8 strain) (Diptera: Tephritidae) after gut enrichment with probiotics.  

PubMed

Successful mass rearing is crucial for sterile insect technique programs. It has been shown that the sterilizing process using gammaradiation results in damage to midgut tissue, cellular organelles, and gut microbiota of flies. This can be responsible for the inferiority of sterile males compared with wild males. A bacteria-enhanced diet could contribute to the improvement of the fly's fitness. We investigated ways of increasing the competitiveness of mass-reared Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) sterile males. We tested the hypothesis that the addition of beneficial bacteria to the larvae's diet would lead to a significant increase in their levels in the gut of the sterile adults and consequently improve their size and fitness. As expected, enriching the diet of mass-rearing Vienna-8 strain larvae with beneficial bacteria (Klebsiella pneumonia, Enterobacter spp., and Citrobacter freundii) resulted in increase in the number of Enterobacteriacae communities inhabiting the male's gut and a subsequent significant increase in the size of males and other morphometric traits and enhanced sexual performance of males at emergence. PMID:23786049

Hamden, Heithem; Guerfali, Meriem M'Saad; Fadhl, Selma; Saidi, Mouldi; Chevrier, Claude

2013-04-01

346

Prior encounters with the opposite sex affect male and female mating behavior in a wolf spider (Araneae, Lycosidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mate availability can vary widely in nature depending upon population density and sex ratio and can affect the ability of\\u000a individuals to be selective in mate choice. We tested the effects of prior encounters with the opposite sex (i.e., exposure\\u000a to the opposite sex either with or without mating) on subsequent mating behavior in two experiments that manipulated mate\\u000a availability

Shawn M. Wilder; Ann L. Rypstra

2008-01-01

347

Fine mapping of the epistatic suppressor gene (esp) of a recessive genic male sterility in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.).  

PubMed

9012AB, a recessive genic male sterility (RGMS) line derived from spontaneous mutation in Brassica napus, has been playing an important role in rapeseed hybrid production in China. The male sterility of 9012AB is controlled by two recessive genes (ms3 and ms4) interacting with one recessive epistatic suppressor gene (esp). The objective of this study was to develop PCR-based markers tightly linked to the esp gene and construct a high-resolution map surrounding the esp gene. From the survey of 512 AFLP primer combinations, 3 tightly linked AFLP markers were obtained and successfully converted to codominant or dominant SCAR markers. Furthermore, a codominant SSR marker (Ra2G08) associated with the esp gene was identified through genetic map integration. For fine mapping of the esp gene, these PCR-based markers were analyzed in a large BC1 population of 2545 plants. The esp gene was then genetically restricted to a region of 1.03 cM, 0.35 cM from SSR marker Ra2G08 and 0.68 cM from SCAR marker WSC6. The SCAR marker WSC5 co-segregated with the target gene. These results lay a solid foundation for map-based cloning of esp and will facilitate the selection of RGMS lines and their temporary maintainers. PMID:19935923

Xu, Zhenghua; Xie, Yanzhou; Hong, Dengfeng; Liu, Pingwu; Yang, Guangsheng

2009-09-01

348

Cytological Characterization and Allelism Testing of Anther Developmental Mutants Identified in a Screen of Maize Male Sterile Lines  

PubMed Central

Proper regulation of anther differentiation is crucial for producing functional pollen, and defects in or absence of any anther cell type result in male sterility. To deepen understanding of processes required to establish premeiotic cell fate and differentiation of somatic support cell layers a cytological screen of maize male-sterile mutants has been conducted which yielded 42 new mutants including 22 mutants with premeiotic cytological defects (increasing this class fivefold), 7 mutants with postmeiotic defects, and 13 mutants with irregular meiosis. Allelism tests with known and new mutants confirmed new alleles of four premeiotic developmental mutants, including two novel alleles of msca1 and single new alleles of ms32, ms8, and ocl4, and two alleles of the postmeiotic ms45. An allelic pair of newly described mutants was found. Premeiotic mutants are now classified into four categories: anther identity defects, abnormal anther structure, locular wall defects and premature degradation of cell layers, and/or microsporocyte collapse. The range of mutant phenotypic classes is discussed in comparison with developmental genetic investigation of anther development in rice and Arabidopsis to highlight similarities and differences between grasses and eudicots and within the grasses.

Timofejeva, Ljudmilla; Skibbe, David S.; Lee, Sidae; Golubovskaya, Inna; Wang, Rachel; Harper, Lisa; Walbot, Virginia; Cande, William Zacheus

2013-01-01

349

Method to produce sterile male flowers and partenocarpic fruits by genetic silencing, associated sequences and vectors containing said sequences  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Genes VvPI from Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon and LePI from Lycopersicon esculentum are described; together with the use of these genes to produce sterile male flowers and seedless or parthenocarpic fruits. Silencing vectors that comprise these sequences or a part thereof are disclosed. The methods of the invention are directed to producing sterile male flowers and parthenocarpic fruits by genetic silencing, and includes: obtaining the codifying sequence of Pistillata (PI)-homologous genes from the target species; analyzing the expression of the sequence obtained in step (a) to test its expression according to the pattern described for Pistillata genes; analyzing the complementation of PI-gene mutant with the PI sequence obtained from the target species, to assess that the obtained sequence fulfills the function of a PI gene; making a genetic silencing construct that comprises a region of the codifying sequence of PI in a plant expression vector; incorporation of the constructed vector into Agrobacterium tumefaciens; transforming target plants with Agrobacterium tumefaciens modified with the silencing vector and selecting said transformed plants; and checking the absence of Agrobacterium contamination and corroborating transgenic plants by transgene amplification.

2011-08-09

350

[Identification and analysis of the specific molecular marker associated with fertile maintenance of cytoplasmic male sterility cauliflower].  

PubMed

Analysis of RAPD (Randomly Amplification Polymorphic DNA) was performed between cytoplasmic male sterility line and its maintainer line of cauliflower. Totally 2160 detectable bands were obtained by RAPD using 406 10-bp random primers. Averagely, 5 to 10 bands were produced per primer. Among all the primers only the amplification of primer S2121 was polymorphic in two lines. A 934-bp specific band was only detected in maintainer line. After cloning and sequencing, specific primers were designed to transform the RAPD marker to PCR marker, which was named S2121(900). To identify the specificity of S2121(900), southern dot blotting was performed. To further identify its specificity, individual plant and candidate materials testing were also performed. All these results indicated that the S2121(900) was specific. It can be used to screen the maintainer lines of cauliflower in early stage. Analysis of the sequence suggested that this fragment was high homologous with the part sequences of mitochondrial genome in Brassica napus and Arabidopsis thaliana. So we supposed the S2121(900) may also derive from mitochondrial genome. Our results here offer new clues for explaining the molecular mechanism of cytoplasic male sterility of cauliflower in other way. PMID:16944598

Wang, Chun Guo; Li, Hui; Song, Wen Qin

2006-06-01

351

Characterization of cytoplasmic male sterility of rice with Lead Rice cytoplasm in comparison with that with Chinsurah Boro II cytoplasm.  

PubMed

Rice with LD-type cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) possesses the cytoplasm of 'Lead Rice' and its fertility is recovered by a nuclear fertility restorer gene Rf1. Rf1 promotes processing of a CMS-associated mitochondrial RNA of atp6-orf79, which consists of atp6 and orf79, in BT-CMS with the cytoplasm of 'Chinsurah Boro II'. In this study, we found that LD-cytoplasm contained a sequence variant of orf79 downstream of atp6. Northern blot analysis showed that atp6-orf79 RNA of LD-cytoplasm was co-transcribed and was processed in the presence of Rf1 in the same manner as in BT-cytoplasm. Western blot analysis showed that the ORF79 peptide did not accumulate in an LD-CMS line, while ORF79 accumulated in a BT-CMS line and was diminished by Rf1. These results suggest that accumulation of ORF79 is not the cause of CMS in LD-cytoplasm and the mechanism of male-sterility induction/fertility restoration in LD-CMS is different from that in BT-CMS. PMID:18956194

Itabashi, Etsuko; Kazama, Tomohiko; Toriyama, Kinya

2009-02-01

352

Determinants of male mating success in the red bishop ( Euplectes orix )  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied sexual selection in the red bishop, Euplectes orix, a colonial, polygynous weaverbird widely distributed over sub-Saharan Africa. Male reproductive success measured in terms\\u000a of the number of nests accepted by females and the number of eggs and nestlings in all the nests on a male's territory varied\\u000a considerably. The standardized variance (variance\\/mean2) in male reproductive success ranged from

Thomas W. P. Friedl; Georg M. Klump

1999-01-01

353

Testosterone predicts future dominance rank and mating activity among male chacma baboons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the many benefits that testosterone has on male reproduction, sustaining high levels of testosterone for long periods\\u000a can be costly. The challenge hypothesis predicts that males will show temporarily sustained elevations of testosterone at\\u000a critical periods, counterbalanced by decreased levels during noncritical periods. We investigated male testosterone measures\\u000a extracted from fecal samples in a group of chacma baboons (Papio

J. C. Beehner; T. J. Bergman; D. L. Cheney; R. M. Seyfarth; P. L. Whitten

2006-01-01

354

Male age, mating probability, and progeny fitness in the bulb mite  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many species, the accumulation of mutations in the male germline can result in decreased progeny fitness. Consequently, females may evolve preferences for younger partners. Here, we used a promiscuous and relatively long-living bulb mite (Rhizoglyphus robini) to test whether male age affects his progeny fitness. We found that daughters of 4- to 5-week-old males had a 6% lower fecundity

Zofia Maria Prokop; Jacek Radwan

2007-01-01

355

Male pheromone–stimulated neurogenesis in the adult female brain: possible role in mating behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The regulation of female reproductive behaviors may involve memories of male pheromone signatures, formed in part by neural circuitry involving the olfactory bulb and hippocampus. These neural structures are the principal sites of adult neurogenesis; however, previous studies point to their independent regulation by sensory and physiological stimuli. Here we report that the pheromones of dominant (but not subordinate) males

Gloria K Mak; Emeka K Enwere; Christopher Gregg; Tomi Pakarainen; Matti Poutanen; Ilpo Huhtaniemi; Samuel Weiss

2007-01-01

356

Body temperature, size, nuptial colouration and mating success in male Moor Frogs ( Rana arvalis )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variation in colouration has rarely been related to sexual selection in anuran amphibians, even though such a relationship has been proven for many other vertebrate taxa. Male and female Moor Frogs (Rana arvalis )h ave ac ryptic brown colour pattern, but males develop a conspicuous blue nuptial colouration during the reproductive season. To investigate the possibility that colouration plays a

Attila Hettyey; Gábor Herczeg; Anssi Laurila; Pierre-André Crochet; Juha Merilä

2009-01-01

357

Male Demography, Female Mating Behavior, and Infanticide in Wild Patas Monkeys (Erythrocebus patas)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infanticide by males has been hypothesized to be a naturally selected behavioral strategy that increases the infanticidal male's reproductive success. The sexual selection hypothesis has been challenged via alternative, nonadaptive hypotheses that dispute its empirical and theoretical bases. Two of the most widely recognized alternatives are the social pathology hypothesis, in which infanticide results from overcrowding or recent human disturbance,

Karin L. Enstam; Lynne A. Isbell; Thomas W. De Maar

2002-01-01

358

Male Demography, Female Mating Behavior, and Infanticide in Wild Patas Monkeys (Erythrocebus patas)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infanticide by males has been hypothesized to be a naturally selected behavioral strategy that increases the infanticidal male's reproductive success. The sexual selection hypothesis has been challenged via alternative, nonadap- tive hypotheses that dispute its empirical and theoretical bases. Two of the most widely recognized alternatives are the social pathology hypothesis, in which infanticide results from overcrowding or recent human

Karin L. Enstam; Lynne A. Isbell; Thomas W. De Maar

2002-01-01

359

Efficient production of genetically engineered, male-sterile Arabidopsis thaliana using anther-specific promoters and genes derived from Brassica oleracea and B. rapa.  

PubMed

Prevention of transgene flow from genetically modified crops to food crops and wild relatives is of concern in agricultural biotechnology. We used genes derived from food crops to produce complete male sterility as a strategy for gene confinement as well as to reduce the food purity concerns of consumers. Anther-specific promoters (A3, A6, A9, MS2, and MS5) were isolated from Brassica oleracea and B. rapa and fused to the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene and candidate genes for male sterility, including the cysteine proteases BoCysP1 and BoCP3, and negative regulatory components of phytohormonal responses involved in male development. These constructs were then introduced into Arabidopsis thaliana. GUS analyses revealed that A3, A6, and A9 had tapetum-specific promoter activity from the anther meiocyte stage. Male sterility was confirmed in tested constructs with protease or gibberellin insensitive (gai) genes. In particular, constructs with BoCysP1 driven by the A3 or A9 promoter most efficiently produced plants with complete male sterility. The tapetum and middle layer cells of anthers expressing BoCysP1 were swollen and excessively vacuolated when observed in transverse section. This suggests that the ectopic expression of cysteine protease in the meiocyte stage may inhibit programmed cell death. The gai gene also induced male sterility, although at a low frequency. This is the first report to show that plant cysteine proteases and gai from food crops are available as a novel tool for the development of genetically engineered male-sterile plants. PMID:18758783

Konagaya, Ken-ichi; Ando, Sugihiro; Kamachi, Shinichiro; Tsuda, Mai; Tabei, Yutaka

2008-11-01

360

Influences of mating group composition on the behavioral time-budget of male and female Alpine Ibex (Capra ibex) during the rut.  

PubMed

During the rut, polygynous ungulates gather in mixed groups of individuals of different sex and age. Group social composition, which may vary on a daily basis, is likely to have strong influences on individual's time-budget, with emerging properties at the group-level. To date, few studies have considered the influence of group composition on male and female behavioral time budget in mating groups. Focusing on a wild population of Alpine ibex, we investigated the influence of group composition (adult sex ratio, the proportion of dominant to subordinate males, and group size) on three behavioral axes obtained by Principal Components Analysis, describing male and female group time-budget. For both sexes, the first behavioral axis discerned a trade-off between grazing and standing/vigilance behavior. In females, group vigilance behavior increased with increasingly male-biased sex ratio, whereas in males, the effect of adult sex ratio on standing/vigilance behavior depended on the relative proportion of dominant males in the mating group. The second axis characterized courtship and male-male agonistic behavior in males, and moving and male-directed agonistic behavior in females. Mating group composition did not substantially influence this axis in males. However, moving and male-directed agonistic behavior increased at highly biased sex ratios (quadratic effect) in females. Finally, the third axis highlighted a trade-off between moving and lying behavior in males, and distinguished moving and female-female agonistic behavior from lying behavior in females. For males, those behaviors were influenced by a complex interaction between group size and adult sex ratio, whereas in females, moving and female-female agonistic behaviors increased in a quadratic fashion at highly biased sex ratios, and also increased with increasing group size. Our results reveal complex behavioral trade-offs depending on group composition in the Alpine ibex, and emphasize the importance of social factors in influencing behavioral time-budgets of wild ungulates during the rut. PMID:24416453

Tettamanti, Federico; Viblanc, Vincent A

2014-01-01

361

Grasshoppers mating  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Unlike plants, animals are able to move around and find mates to reproduce with. The male grasshopper deposits his sperm (like pollen on a carpel) inside the female which fertilizes her eggs. The female then lays her eggs containing a growing embryo and waits for them to hatch.

Katie Hale (CSUF;Biological Sciences)

2007-06-19

362

Why does size matter? A test of the benefits of female mate choice in a teleost fish based on morphological and physiological indicators of male quality.  

PubMed

In female mate choice, a female chooses a reproductive partner based on direct or indirect benefits to the female. While sexual selection theory regarding female mate choice is well developed, there are few mechanistic studies of the process by which females evaluate reproductive partners. Using paternal-care-providing smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) as a model, the purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between female mate choice and the morphological and physiological status of chosen males. This was accomplished by locating nests within 1 d of spawning and categorizing brood size (indicator of female mate choice). This was followed by capture of parental males, which were blood sampled (for nutritional analyses), digitally photographed (for morphometric analyses), and released. Principal components analysis (PCA) of morphometric measurements described 72.7% of the variance associated with body morphology and generated three principal components (PCs) indicative of fusiform body shape, increased posterior size, and body stoutness. PCA of nutritional indicators described 75.4% of the variance associated with physiological metrics and generated two PCs indicative of plasma mineral content (Ca(++) and Mg(+)) and energetic condition (total protein, triglyceride, and cholesterol). Male total length and body stoutness were the only significant predictors of female mate choice. Interestingly, no nutritional indicators were predictive of female mate choice, and there were no direct relationships between morphological variables and nutritional physiology indicators. Further research is needed to elucidate the mechanistic relationships between morphology and nutritional physiology (especially in relation to the parental-care period) of individual fish to determine the basis of female mate preference. PMID:19769537

Hanson, Kyle C; Cooke, Steven J

2009-01-01

363

Differential Effects of the Kit W Mutation with Other Kit Allelic Combinations on Male Sterility Among Inter or Intrasubspecific Hybrids in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combination of the KitW mutation and KitS allele from Mus spretus leads to male hybrid sterility. The effects of other combinations between KitW and KitM from Mus m. molossinus or KitN from Mus m. musculus on male reproductive ability were examined in this study. The KitW\\/KitM and KitW\\/KitN males were fertile and showed the normal pattern of spermatogenesis in

Abeer El-Nahas; Samir El-Shazly; Said El-Fiky; Tomomasa Watanabe

2002-01-01

364

Molecular cloning, sequence characterization of a novel pepper gene NADP-ICDH and its effect on cytoplasmic male sterility.  

PubMed

NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP-ICDH) is an important enzyme involved in energy metabolism. The complete coding sequence of the pepper (Capsicum annuum) NADP-ICDH gene was amplified using a reverse transcriptase PCR based on the conserved sequence information of the tomato and other Solanaceae plants and known highly homologous pepper ESTs. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that the pepper NADP-ICDH gene encodes a protein of 415 amino acids that has high homology with the proteins of seven species, Solanum tuberosum (100%), Citrus limon (98%), Daucus carota (98%), Nicotiana tabacum (98%), Vitis vinifera (99%), Arabidopsis thaliana (97%), and Oryza sativa (98%). Tissue expression analysis demonstrated that the pepper NADP-ICDH gene is over expressed in flower, pericarp and seed, moderately in placenta, weakly in stem and leaf, hardly expressed in root. At the abortion stages, activities and expression levels of NADP-ICDH in anthers of a sterile line were strongly reduced, while those in an F(1) hybrid remained normal. Activities and expression levels of NADP-ICDH were too low to maintain balanced energy metabolism in the sterile line, which indicated that stable transcripts of NADP-ICDH are necessary to maintain energy metabolism at a normal level. When the restorer gene was transferred to the cytoplasmic male sterile line, activities and expression level of NADP-ICDH were regulated by the restorer gene and became stable. The restorer gene likely plays an important role in keeping the balance of the energy metabolism within normal levels during microspore development. PMID:22653649

Deng, M H; Wen, J F; Huo, J L; Zhu, H S; Dai, X Z; Zhang, Z Q; Zhou, H; Zou, X X

2012-01-01

365

Improving Blast Resistance of a ThermoSensitive Genic Male Sterile Rice Line GD8S by Molecular Marker-Assisted Selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The broad-spectrum blast resistance gene Pi-1, from donor line BL122, was introduced into a thermo-sensitive genic male sterile rice line GD-8S, which possessed good grain quality but high susceptibility to rice blast, by using backcross breeding and molecular marker-assisted selection. Five elite improved male sterile lines, RGD8S-1, RGD8S-2, RGD8S-3, RGD8S-4 and RGD8S-5, were selected based on the results of molecular

Wu-ge LIU; Su-juan JIN; Xiao-yuan ZHU; Feng WANG; Jin-hua LI; Zhen-rong LIU; Yi-long LIAO; Man-shan ZHU; Hui-jun HUANG; Yi-bai LIU

2008-01-01

366

Female Control of Paternity in the Internally Fertilizing Compound Ascidian Diplosoma listerianum. II. Investigation of Male Mating Success Using RAPD Markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA paternity markers were used to assess male success during simultaneous, three-way mating opportunities between cultured clones of the hermaphroditic protochordate Diplosoma listerianum. The previously reported blockage of sperm movement in the oviduct, barring access to the site of fertilization in the ovary, was shown to prevent cross-fertilization between two particular clones. The same mechanism prevents selfing.

John D. D. Bishop; Cathy S. Jones; Leslie R. Noble

1996-01-01

367

Male mating preferences pre-date the origin of a female trait polymorphism in an incipient species complex of Lake Victoria cichlids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disruptive sexual selection on colour patterns has been suggested as a major cause of diversification in the cichlid species flock of Lake Victoria. In Neochromis omnicaeruleus, a colour and sex determination polymorphism is associated with a polymorphism in male and female mating preferences. Theoretical work on this incipient species complex found conditions for rapid sympatric speciation by selection on sex

M. E. R. PIEROTTI; O. SEEHAUSEN

2006-01-01

368

Polyamines and Flower Development in the Male Sterile Stamenless-2 Mutant of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) 1  

PubMed Central

The levels of free putrescine, spermidine, and spermine, and the activities of ornithine decarboxylase and s-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase were determined in the floral organs of the normal and a male sterile stamenless-2 (sl-2/sl-2) mutant of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Under the intermediate temperature regime, all mutant floral organs possessed significantly higher levels of polyamines and enzyme activities than their normal counterparts. In the low temperature-reverted mutant stamens, the polyamine levels and the activity of PA biosynthetic enzymes were not significantly different from the normal. It is suggested that the abnormal stamen development in the sl-2/sl-2 mutant is, in part, related to elevated levels of endogenous PAs.

Rastogi, Rajeev; Sawhney, Vipen K.

1990-01-01

369

Male Genital Morphology and Its Influence on Female Mating Preferences and Paternity Success in Guppies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In internally fertilizing species male genitalia often show a higher degree of elaboration than required for simply transferring sperm to females. Among the hypotheses proposed to explain such diversity, sexual selection has received the most empirical support, with studies revealing that genital morphology can be targeted by both pre-and postcopulatory sexual selection. Until now, most studies have focused on these

Clelia Gasparini; Andrea Pilastro; Jonathan P. Evans

2011-01-01

370

Carotenoids, oxidative stress and female mating preference for longer lived males  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some of the most spectacular exaggerated sexual ornaments are carotenoid dependent. It has been suggested that such ornaments have evolved because carotenoid pigments are limiting for both signal expression and in their role as antioxidants and immunostimulants. An implicit assumption of this hypothesis is that males which can afford to produce more elaborate carotenoid-dependent displays are signalling their enhanced ability

Thomas W. Pike; Jonathan D. Blount; Bjørn Bjerkeng; Jan Lindström; Neil B. Metcalfe

2007-01-01

371

Extra-pair paternity in tree swallows: why do females mate with more than one male?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies of monogamous tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) suggest that females may receive some type of genetic benefit from extra-pair fertilizations. In this study we attempted to determine what type of genetic benefits might be gained by females. We compared numerous morphological and behavioral traits (Table 1) of every male nesting on one grid of nest-boxes (n = 23) to

Peter O. Dunn; Raleigh J. Robertson; Denise Michaud-Freeman; Peter T. Boag

1994-01-01

372

Female mating receptivity after injection of male-derived extracts in Callosobruchus maculatus.  

PubMed

The effects of male-derived extracts on female receptivity were investigated in Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Injection of aqueous extracts of the male reproductive tract into the abdomen of females reduced receptivity. Aqueous extracts of male reproductive tracts were divided to three molecular weight (MW) fractions by ultrafiltration: Fractions: (I) MW<3 kDa, (II) 3-14 kDa, and (III)>14 kDa. Fraction II reduced female receptivity from 3h after injection, and Fraction III reduced female receptivity from 2 days after injection. On the other hand, no effect on receptivity was found for Fraction I. Furthermore, male reproductive tract organs were divided into accessory gland, testis, and seminal vesicle including the ejaculatory duct. Aqueous extracts of the seminal vesicle reduced receptivity of females immediately following injection, while aqueous extracts of the accessory gland reduced receptivity at the second day. The results suggest that the components of Fraction II existed in the seminal vesicle, and those of Fraction III in the accessory gland. The results of the present and the previous studies in Callosobruchus chinensis, a species closely related to C. maculatus, were compared and are discussed from the viewpoint of the significance of ejaculation in the two species. PMID:18831977

Yamane, Takashi; Miyatake, Takahisa; Kimura, Yoshinobu

2008-12-01

373

Human male mating strategies: I. Courtship tactics of the “quality” and “quantity” alternatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human males may adopt the “quality” strategy, a long-term pair bond with considerable paternal investment, or the “quantity” reproductive strategy, short-term pair bonds with little paternal investment. We hypothesized that (1) the two strategies require different courtship tactics, which can be derived from their different goals, and (2) the behavior used by quality courters is perceived as honest while the

Linda R. Hirsch; Luci Paul

1996-01-01

374

Study of Male Mating Behavior in Some Drosophila melanogaster Strains in Experiments with Fertilized Females  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male courtship ritual is among the main behavioral characteristics of Drosophila. This is a complex, genetically determined process consisting of four general stages: orientation, vibration, licking, and attempts at copulation (or successful copulation). Several genes are known that control some stages of this behavior. Most of them have pleiotropic effects and are involved in other biological processes. Earlier, we have

E. A. Soubotcheva; N. I. Romanova; A. I. Kim

2004-01-01

375

A radiotracer technique for the determination of male mating success in natural populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Males of a natural population of Antechinus stuartii (Marsupialia) were injected at the beginning of their short, synchronous breeding period with one of twelve gamma-emitting nuclides which are individually recognizable by their unique spectial properties. This label passed to the females during ejaculation and was identified when the females were captured and counted in a whole-body counter. This technique established

Micholle Pellissier Scott; T. N. Tan

1985-01-01

376

Male Mating Success and Paternity in the Grey Seal, Halichoerus grypus: A Study Using DNA Fingerprinting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grey seals breed colonially on remote coastal sites. Within the colony, males compete aggressively for access to the females. We compare field observations of breeding behaviour with paternity, as determined by DNA fingerprinting, in the breeding colony on the island of North Rona. In 89% of cases where paternity was assigned, the father was observed near the mother during her

William Amos; Sean Twiss; Patrick P. Pomeroy; Sheila S. Anderson

1993-01-01

377

Microarray analysis reveals altered expression of a large number of nuclear genes in developing cytoplasmic male sterile Brassica napus flowers.  

PubMed

To gain new insights into the mechanism underlying cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), we compared the nuclear gene expression profiles of flowers of a Brassica napus CMS line with that of the fertile B. napus maintainer line using Arabidopsis thaliana flower-specific cDNA microarrays. The CMS line used has a B. napus nuclear genome, but has a rearranged mitochondrial (mt) genome consisting of both B. napus and A. thaliana DNA. Gene expression profiling revealed that a large number of genes differed in expression between the two lines. For example, nuclear genes coding for proteins that are involved in protein import into organelles, genes expressed in stamens and pollen, as well as genes implicated in either cell-wall remodeling or architecture, were repressed in the CMS line compared with B. napus. These results show that the mt genome of the CMS line strongly influences nuclear gene expression, and thus reveal the importance of retrograde signalling between the mitochondria and the nucleus. Furthermore, flowers of the CMS line are characterized by a replacement of stamens with carpelloid organs, and thus partially resemble the APETALA3 (AP3) and PISTILLATA (PI) mutants. In accordance with this phenotype, AP3 expression was downregulated in the stamens, shortly before these organs developed carpelloid characteristics, even though it was initiated correctly. Repression of PI succeeded that of AP3 and might be a consequence of a loss of AP3 activity. These results suggest that AP3 expression in stamens depends on proper mt function and a correct nuclear-mt interaction, and that mt alterations cause the male sterility phenotype of the CMS line. PMID:17217466

Carlsson, Jenny; Lagercrantz, Ulf; Sundström, Jens; Teixeira, Rita; Wellmer, Frank; Meyerowitz, Elliot M; Glimelius, Kristina

2007-02-01

378

On the consequences of aggressive male mate-locating behaviour and micro-climate for female host plant use in the butterfly Lycaena hippothoe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of ecological resources and their significance for males and females may vary considerably. Intersexual behavioural\\u000a interactions may lead, combined with particular resource configurations, to sexual spatial segregation. We investigated this\\u000a issue relative to host plant use in females of the purple-edged copper butterfly, Lycaena hippothoe. Males exhibited nectar resource-based territoriality, which is an uncommon mate-locating system in butterflies.

Camille Turlure; Hans Van Dyck

2009-01-01

379

Mate choice in adult female Bengalese finches: females express consistent preferences for individual males and prefer female-directed song performances.  

PubMed

In the process of mate selection by female songbirds, male suitors advertise their quality through reproductive displays in which song plays an important role. Females evaluate the quality of each signal and the associated male, and the results of that evaluation guide expression of selective courtship displays. Some studies reveal broad agreement among females in their preferences for specific signal characteristics, indicating that those features are especially salient in female mate choice. Other studies reveal that females differ in their preference for specific characteristics, indicating that in those cases female evaluation of signal quality is influenced by factors other than simply the physical properties of the signal. Thus, both the physical properties of male signals and specific traits of female signal evaluation can impact female mate choice. Here, we characterized the mate preferences of female Bengalese finches. We found that calls and copulation solicitation displays are equally reliable indicators of female preference. In response to songs from an array of males, each female expressed an individual-specific song preference, and those preferences were consistent across tests spanning many months. Across a population of females, songs of some males were more commonly preferred than others, and females preferred female-directed songs more than undirected songs, suggesting that some song features are broadly attractive. Preferences were indistinguishable for females that did or did not have social experience with the singers, indicating that female preference is strongly directed by song features rather than experiences associated with the singer. Analysis of song properties revealed several candidate parameters that may influence female evaluation. In an initial investigation of those parameters, females could be very selective for one song feature yet not selective for another. Therefore, multiple song parameters are evaluated independently. Together these findings reveal the nature of signal evaluation and mate choice in this species. PMID:24558501

Dunning, Jeffery L; Pant, Santosh; Bass, Aaron; Coburn, Zachary; Prather, Jonathan F

2014-01-01

380

[Molecular markers linked to mono-dominant genic male sterile gene in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)].  

PubMed

Bulked segregant analysis (BSA) was used to identify randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers linked to the MS gene in mono-dominant GMS of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.), which was bred by Hybrid Rapeseed Research Center of Shaanxi Province. A total of 300 random 10-mer oligonucleotide primers were screened on the DNA from fertile and sterile bulks. Primer S(243) (5'CTATGCCGAC3') gave identical 1.5 kb DNA polymorphic segment OPU-03(1500) in the bulk S, but not in the bulk F (Fig.2). The DNAs from individual plants of each bulk and from their sister lines, which were generated from the same original crossing, were then screened with the primer S(243), and the same results were obtained (Figs.3,4). Other types of GMS and CMS were analyzed using primer S(243), and the specific 1.5 kb DNA segment was not found (Fig.5). Therefore, the RAPD marker OPU-03(1500) is linked to the mono-dominant GMS trait in rapeseed. This RAPD marker OPU-03(1500) was cloned into a T-easy vector and sequenced. The sequence here obtained was highly homologous to one of the Arabidopsis DNA sequences. According to this DNA conserved region in different species, we designed a pair of specific primers P1 (5'ATGTCGCTGAGGCCG-AGCAC3') and P2 (5'GGCACACTGTCACG-ATCCTTGG3') and amplified only one specific 2.3 kb DNA fragment in each bulk. There are two mutant loci between the two DNA fragments after sequencing. We designed another pair of specific primers P3 (5'CTCCAGCAGCAGCAGC-AGCCT3') and P4 (5'GCAGGAATGAGAA-CCGTAGG3') according to the DNA sequence at the mutant loci. A specific DNA segment was amplified only in the fertile line but not in the sterile line using the primers P3 and P4 (Fig.6). Therefore the RAPD marker were converted into SCAR marker. Moreover, the SCAR marker detection method was improved (Fig.7). PMID:17075173

Wang, Dao-Jie; Guo, Ai-Guang; Li, Dian-Rong; Tian, Jian-Hua

2006-10-01

381

Fos expression at the cerebellum following non-contact arousal and mating behavior in male rats.  

PubMed

The cerebellum is considered a center underlying fine movements, cognition, memory and sexual responses. The latter feature led us to correlate sexual arousal and copulation in male rats with neural activity at the cerebellar cortex. Two behavioral paradigms were used in this investigation: the stimulation of males by distant receptive females (non-contact sexual stimulation), and the execution of up to three consecutive ejaculations. The vermis area of the cerebellum was removed following behavioral experiments, cut into sagittal sections, and analyzed with Fos immunohistochemistry to determine neuronal activation. At the mid-vermis region (sections from the midline to 0.1 mm laterally), non-contact stimulation significantly increased the activity of granule neurons. The number of activated cells increased in every lobule, but lobules 1 and 6 to 9 showed the greatest increment. In sexual behavior tests, males reaching one ejaculation had a high number of activated neurons similar to those counted after non-contact stimulation. However, two or three consecutive ejaculations showed a smaller number of Fos-ir cells. In contrast to the mid-vermis region, sections farthest from the midline (0.1 to 0.9 mm laterally) revealed that only lobule 7 expressed activated neurons. These data suggest that a well-delineated group of granule neurons have a sexual biphasic response at the cerebellar vermis, and that Fos in them is under an active degradation mechanism. Thus, they participate as a neural substrate for male rat sexual responses with an activation-deactivation process corresponding with the sensory stimulation and motor performance occurring during copulation. PMID:17936859

Manzo, Jorge; Miquel, Marta; Toledo, Rebeca; Mayor-Mar, Justo Abraham; Garcia, Luis I; Aranda-Abreu, Gonzalo E; Caba, Mario; Hernandez, Maria Elena

2008-01-28

382

Mating compatibility and competitiveness of transgenic and wild type Aedes aegypti (L.) under contained semi-field conditions.  

PubMed

We conducted the world's first experiments under semi-field conditions (ACL-2 field house) to assess the mating competitiveness of genetically sterile RIDL male mosquitoes (513A strain). The field house is a state-of-the-art, fully-contained trial facility, simulating the living space for a household of 2-4 people in Peninsular Malaysia. Ten genetically sterile RIDL male A. aegypti mosquitoes competed with ten wild type males inside this field house to mate with ten wild type females. Hatched larvae from mated females were screened under a fluorescent microscope for genetic markers to determine if they were fathered by RIDL male or wild type male, and all results were cross-checked by PCR. Two such experiments were conducted, each repeated sufficient number of times. All strains were on a Malaysian lab strain background for the first experiment, while the RIDL males alone were on a recently-colonised Mexican strain background for the second experiment. A total of 52 % of the matings were with RIDL males in the first experiment, while 45 % of the matings were with RIDL (Mexican) males in the second experiment. Statistically, this is not significantly different from 50 % of the matings expected to take place with RIDL males if the latter were as competitive as that of the wild type males. This shows that A. aegypti RIDL-513A has excellent mating competitiveness under semi-field conditions, verifying earlier trends obtained in small lab cages. We also observed high mating compatibility between recently-colonised Mexican RIDL males and lab-reared Malaysian wild type females. PMID:22700207

Lee, H L; Vasan, Seshadri; Ahmad, Nazni Wasi; Idris, Iswarti; Hanum, Norhaida; Selvi, S; Alphey, Luke; Murad, Shahnaz

2013-02-01

383

Male and female gamete abortions, and reduced affinity between the uniting gametes as the causes for sterility in an indica\\/japonica hybrid in rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid sterility frequently occurs in crosses between indica and japonica subspecies of Asian cultivated rice. In this study, we investigated the cytological processes involved in formation and development of male and female gametes as well as their interactions in fertilization, using an indica\\/japonica hybrid in comparison with an indica\\/indica hybrid. It was found that more than 50% of the microspores

H. Y. Liu; C. G. Xu; Qifa Zhang

2004-01-01

384

The production of male-sterile wheat plants through split barnase expression is promoted by the insertion of introns and flexible peptide linkers.  

PubMed

The successful use of transgenic plants depends on the strong and stable expression of the heterologous genes. In this study, three introns (PSK7-i1 and PSK7-i3 from Petunia and UBQ10-i1 from Arabidopsis) were tested for their ability to enhance the tapetum-specific expression of a split barnase transgene. We also analyzed the effects of introducing multiple copies of flexible peptide linkers that bridged the fusion domains of the assembled protein. The barnase fragments were assembled into a functional cytotoxin via intein-mediated trans-splicing, thus leading to male sterility through pollen ablation. A total of 14 constructs carrying different combinations of introns and peptide linkers were transformed into wheat plants. The resulting populations (between 41 and 301 independent plants for each construct) were assayed for trait formation. Depending on which construct was used, there was an increase of up to fivefold in the proportion of plants exhibiting male sterility compared to the populations harboring unmodified constructs. Furthermore, the average barnase copy number in the plants displaying male sterility could be reduced. The metabolic profiles of male-sterile transgenic plants and non-transgenic plants were compared using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The profiles generated from leaf tissues displayed no differences, thus corroborating the anther specificity of barnase expression. The technical advances achieved in this study may be a valuable contribution for future improvement of transgenic crop systems. PMID:23720222

Kempe, Katja; Rubtsova, Myroslava; Riewe, David; Gils, Mario

2013-12-01

385

iTRAQ-Based Quantitative Proteomics Analysis Revealed Alterations of Carbohydrate Metabolism Pathways and Mitochondrial Proteins in a Male Sterile Cybrid Pummelo.  

PubMed

Comprehensive and quantitative proteomic information on citrus floral bud is significant for understanding male sterility of the cybrid pummelo (G1+HBP) with nuclear genome of HBP and foreign mitochondrial genome of G1. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy analyses of the anthers showed that the development of pollen wall in G1+HBP was severely defective with a lack of exine and sporopollenin formation. Proteomic analysis was used to identify the differentially expressed proteins between male sterile G1+HBP and fertile type (HBP) with the aim to clarify their potential roles in anther development and male sterility. On the basis of iTRAQ quantitative proteomics, we identified 2235 high-confidence protein groups, 666 of which showed differentially expressed profiles in one or more stages. Proteins up- or down-regulated in G1+HBP were mainly involved in carbohydrate and energy metabolism (e.g., pyruvate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, ATP synthase, and malate dehydrogenase), nucleotide binding (RNA-binding proteins), protein synthesis and degradation (e.g., ribosome proteins and proteasome subunits). Additionally, the proteins located in mitochondria also showed changed expression patterns. These findings provide a valuable inventory of proteins involved in floral bud development and contribute to elucidate the mechanism of cytoplasmic male sterility in the cybrid pummelo. PMID:24824475

Zheng, Bei-Bei; Fang, Yan-Ni; Pan, Zhi-Yong; Sun, Li; Deng, Xiu-Xin; Grosser, Jude W; Guo, Wen-Wu

2014-06-01

386

Mating Behaviour in Laevicaudatan Clam Shrimp (Crustacea, Branchiopoda) and Functional Morphology of Male Claspers in a Phylogenetic Context: A Video-Based Analysis  

PubMed Central

Clam shrimps are freshwater branchiopod crustaceans which often present complicated breeding systems including asexual reproduction (parthenogenesis) and mixed mating systems (in androdioecious species both selfing and outcrossing occurs due to the co-presence of hermaphrodites and males). Reproductive patterns of Spinicaudata, which contains most clam shrimp species, have received much attention. Another group of clam shrimps, Laevicaudata, which holds a key position in branchiopod phylogeny, has practically not been studied. As a part of the mating process, males clasp to the carapace margin of the females with a pair (or two pairs) of anterior trunk limbs modified as claspers. Previous studies have shown that clasper morphology is important in a phylogenetic context, and that some parts of the claspers in Spinicaudata and Laevicaudata may have undergone a remarkable parallel evolution. Here we have used video microscopy to study aspects of the mating behaviour, egg extrusion, and fertilization in Lynceus brachyurus (Laevicaudata). It is shown that fertilization is likely to be external and that the peculiar tri-lobed lateral lamellae of female's hind body assist in guiding the egg mass to the exopodal egg carriers where they are collected by their distal setation. The functional morphology of the male claspers was studied in detail by close-up video recordings. The movable “finger” of the clasper bends around the female's carapace edge and serves to hold the female during mating. The larger palp grasps around the female carapace margin in a way very similar to the movable “finger”, possibly indirectly providing sensory input on the “finger” position. A brief comparative study of the claspers of a spinicaudatan clam shrimp showed both similarities and differences to the laevicaudatan claspers. The presence of two pairs of claspers in Spinicaudata seems to give males a better hold of the female which may play a role during extended mate guarding.

Sigvardt, Zandra M. S.; Olesen, J?rgen

2014-01-01

387

The relationship between multiple mating by queens, within-colony genetic variability and fitness in the ant Lasius niger.  

PubMed

Multiple mating has been suggested to benefit social insect queens because high genetic variation within colonies might decrease the load imposed by sterile diploid males, enhance resistance to parasites and pathogens, and lead to a more effective division of labour and/or a wider range of tolerable environmental conditions. We tested these hypotheses in the ant Lasius niger with three population samples from Switzerland and Sweden. We found no diploid males in young or mature colonies suggesting a lack of diploid male load. Colonies with multiply-mated queens were not larger nor did they produce more sexuals than colonies with singly-mated queens. We did find a significantly lower frequency of multiple mating among newly mated queens than among the queens heading mature colonies in one population sample (Switzerland 1997). However, this result was not repeated in the other study population, or in the following year in the Swiss population. PMID:14635899

Fjerdingstad, E J; Gertsch, P J; Keller, L

2003-09-01

388

Pericentric inversion in human chromosome 1 and the risk for male sterility.  

PubMed Central

A pericentric inversion in chromosome 1 of a severely oligospermic human male is reported. Pachytene analysis in microspread preparations shows an absence of full loop formation in the inversion bivalent and only the rare occurrence of a partial loop. The majority of cells exhibit extensive asynapsis across the inverted segment, or a normal looking synaptonemal complex indicative of heterologous pairing along the length of the inversion. Crossing over is reduced in the No 1 bivalent with only a rare chiasma being seen in the inverted region at metaphase I. Males heterozygous for a pericentric inversion in chromosome 1 appear to be at severe risk for infertility brought about by spermatogenic disturbance. The dearth of full loops at prophase in this patient, and in other pericentric inversion cases studied both in man and other species, raises the question of whether recombinant offspring might be rarer than anticipated on a theoretical basis owing to asynapsis or early heterologous synapsis across inverted segments. Images

Chandley, A C; McBeath, S; Speed, R M; Yorston, L; Hargreave, T B

1987-01-01

389

Computer simulation of genetic control. Comparison of sterile males and field-female killing systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computer program, GENCON, designed to simulate genetic control using field-female killing systems, is described. These systems incorporate sex-linked translocations and conditional lethal mutations. Genetic death in field populations is caused by semisterility of the translocation and by homozygosis of the mutations in females and non-translocation males of field origin. Simulations using the program compare the effectiveness, in populations regulated

G. G. Foster; W. G. Vogt; T. L. Woodburn; P. H. Smith

1988-01-01

390

Neither vegetative nor reproductive advantages account for high frequency of male-steriles in southern Spanish gynodioecious Daphne laureola (Thymelaeaceae).  

PubMed

In gynodioecious species, male-steriles (termed "females" hereafter) usually exhibit some reproductive advantage over hermaphrodites that allow them to compensate for the loss of male reproductive function. This compensation can result from higher fecundity, vegetative outperformance, and/or lower inbreeding depression. In this study we compared vegetative and reproductive parameters of female and hermaphrodite Daphne laureola individuals in two southeastern Spanish populations and estimated the magnitude of inbreeding depression up to the seedling emergence stage by conducting controlled pollinations and experimental sowings of seed progenies in the field. Reproductive shrubs of both sexes did not differ significantly in size, leaf production, leaf size, leaf growth, nutrient allocation to leaves, and production of flowers and fruits. Seed set and seed size of cross- and self-pollinated flowers of hermaphrodites and cross-pollinated females were also similar. Seedling emergence rates of self- and cross-pollinated seeds from hermaphrodites under natural field conditions were similar, suggesting a minor role of inbreeding depression up to that reproductive stage. Seeds from females produced more seedlings than selfed seeds from hermaphrodites. In 21 populations surveyed in the study region over a broad geographical and elevational gradient, the proportion of females ranged between 20.6 and 56.1% and was inversely related to elevation. The establishment and maintenance of females in southeastern Spanish populations of D. laureola seem to be mainly mediated by ecological factors. PMID:11410465

Alonso, C; Herrera, C M

2001-06-01

391

Improving panicle exsertion of rice cytoplasmic male sterile line by combination of artificial microRNA and artificial target mimic.  

PubMed

The adoption of hybrid rice caused the second leap in rice yield after the 'green revolution' and contributes substantially to food security of China and the world. However, almost all cytoplasmic male sterile lines (A lines) as females of hybrid rice have a natural deficiency of 'panicle enclosure', which blocks pollination between the A line and the fertility restorer line as the male (R line) of hybrid rice and decreases seed yield. In hybrid rice seed production, exogenous '920' (the active ingredient is gibberellin A3 ) must be applied to eliminate or alleviate panicle enclosure of the A line; however, this not only increases production cost and pollutes the environment, it also decreases seed quality. In this study, we designed a transgenic approach to improve plant height and panicle exsertion of the A line to facilitate hybrid rice production and maintain the semi-dwarf plant type of the hybrid. This approach comprising two components-artificial microRNA (amiRNA) and artificial target mimicry-can manipulate the differential expression of the endogenous Eui1 gene that is associated with rice internode elongation in the A line and the hybrid. amiRNA is a recently developed gene silencing method with high specificity, while target mimicry is a natural mechanism inhibiting the miRNA function that was also recently characterized. This approach provides a paradigm to tune the expression of endogenous genes to achieve the desired phenotype by combining amiRNA and artificial target mimicry technologies. PMID:23164055

Chen, Hao; Jiang, Shan; Zheng, Jie; Lin, Yongjun

2013-04-01

392

Mlh1 Deficiency in Zebrafish Results in Male Sterility and Aneuploid as Well as Triploid Progeny in Females  

PubMed Central

In most eukaryotes, recombination of homologous chromosomes during meiosis is necessary for proper chromosome pairing and subsequent segregation. The molecular mechanisms of meiosis are still relatively unknown, but numerous genes are known to be involved, among which are many mismatch repair genes. One of them, mlh1, colocalizes with presumptive sites of crossing over, but its exact action remains unclear. We studied meiotic processes in a knockout line for mlh1 in zebrafish. Male mlh1 mutants are sterile and display an arrest in spermatogenesis at metaphase I, resulting in increased testis weight due to accumulation of prophase I spermatocytes. In contrast, females are fully fertile, but their progeny shows high rates of dysmorphology and mortality within the first days of development. SNP-based chromosome analysis shows that this is caused by aneuploidy, resulting from meiosis I chromosomal missegregation. Surprisingly, the small percentage of progeny that develops normally has a complete triploid genome, consisting of both sets of maternal and one set of paternal chromosomes. As adults, these triploid fish are infertile males with wild-type appearance. The frequency of triploid progeny of mlh1 mutant females is much higher than could be expected for random chromosome segregation. Together, these results show that multiple solutions exist for meiotic crossover/segregation problems.

Feitsma, Harma; Leal, Marcelo C.; Moens, Peter B.; Cuppen, Edwin; Schulz, Rudiger W.

2007-01-01

393

Properties of the linear N1 and N2 plasmid-like DNAs from mitochondria of cytoplasmic male-sterile Sorghum bicolor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The linear N1 and N2 plasmid-like DNAs were recovered from mitochondria of the IS1112C line of cytoplasmic male-sterile (CMS) Sorghum bicolor (S. bicolor). Molecular clones containing internal sequences of these plasmids were constructed. These clones were used to probe Southern blots of mitochondrial genomes from six CMS and five male-fertile (MF) lines of S. bicolor, as well as Southern blots

Christine D. Chase; Daryl R. Pring

1986-01-01

394

Analysis of the mating behavior and some possible causes of male copulatory success in Dryas iulia alcionea (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we examined the mating behavior of Dryas iulia and the acceptance and rejection mechanisms of females during courtship activity. An ethogram of mating behavior was organized\\u000a on the basis of 100 h of observation in an insectarium. Several different behaviors were catalogued and separated into two\\u000a behavioral repertoires (pre-coupling, post-coupling). The behavioral sequence of mating behavior was also

Nicolás Oliveira Mega; Aldo Mellender de Araújo

2010-01-01

395

Is the rapid post-mating inhibition of pheromone response triggered by ecdysteroids or other factors from the sex accessory glands in the male moth Agrotis ipsilon?  

PubMed

In many animals, male copulation is dependent on the detection and processing of female-produced sex pheromones, which is generally followed by a sexual refractory post-ejaculatory interval (PEI). In the male moth, Agrotis ipsilon, this PEI is characterized by a transient post-mating inhibition of behavioral and central nervous responses to sex pheromone, which prevents males from re-mating until they have refilled their reproductive tracts for a potential new ejaculate. However, the timing and possible factors inducing this rapid olfactory switch-off are still unknown. Here, we determined the initial time delay and duration of the PEI. Moreover, we tested the hypothesis that the brain, the testis and/or the sex accessory glands (SAGs) could produce a factor inducing the PEI. Lastly, we investigated the possible involvement of ecdysteroids, hormones essential for development and reproduction in insects, in this olfactory plasticity. Using brain and SAG cross-injections in virgin and newly-mated males, surgical treatments, wind tunnel behavioral experiments and EIA quantifications of ecdysteroids, we show that the PEI starts very shortly after the onset of copulation, and that SAGs contain a factor, which is produced/accumulated after copulation to induce the PEI. Moreover, SAGs were found to be the main source of ecdysteroids, whose concentration decreased after mating, whereas it increased in the haemolymph. 20-Hydroxyecdysone (20E) was identified as the major ecdysteroid in SAGs of A. ipsilon males. Finally, 20E injections did not reduce the behavioral pheromone response of virgin males. Altogether our data indicate that 20E is probably not involved in the PEI. PMID:23562716

Vitecek, Simon; Maria, Annick; Blais, Catherine; Duportets, Line; Gaertner, Cyril; Dufour, Marie-Cécile; Siaussat, David; Debernard, Stéphane; Gadenne, Christophe

2013-05-01

396

Development of PCR-based markers for thermosensitive genetic male sterility gene tms3(t) in rice (Oryza sativa L.).  

PubMed

Development of simple and reliable PCR-based markers is an important component of marker-aided selection (MAS) activities for agronomically important genes in rice breeding. In order to develop PCR-based markers for a rice thermosensitive genetic male sterility gene tms3(t), located on chromosome 6, the nucleotide sequences of four linked RAPD markers OPF18(2600), OPAC3(640), OPB19(750) and OPM7(550) were used to design and synthesize several pairs of specific primers for PCR amplification of the genomic DNA of both the parents IR32364TGMS (sterile) and IR68 (fertile), involved in mapping this gene. For the RAPD marker OPF 18(2600), two pairs of specific primer pair combination from different positions of the sequence resulted in generation of two codominant STS (Sequence Tagged Sites) markers. In case of markers OPAC3(640), OPB19(750) and OPAA7(550) the first two could generate dominant polymorphism, while the last one could not be successful in PCR amplification. Both the codominant STSs with primer combinations F18F/F18RM and F18FM/F18RM were found to be tightly linked to the tms3(t) gene with a genetic distance of 2.7 cM. The sizes of the different alleles in case of F18F/F18RM, F18FM/F18RM combinations were 2300 bp, 1050 bp, and 1900 bp, 1000 bp respectively. The efficiency of marker-assisted selection for this trait was estimated as 84.6%. Polymorphism survey of 12 elite rice lines, indicated that these PCR-based markers for tms3(t) can now be used in selecting TGMS plants at seeding stage in the segregating populations in environment independent of controlled temperature regime. PMID:10680295

Lang, N T; Subudhi, P K; Virmani, S S; Brar, D S; Khush, G S; Li, Z; Huang, N

1999-01-01

397

Effects of Rootstocks on Cryotolerance and Overwintering Survivorship of Genic Male Sterile Lines in Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)  

PubMed Central

Grafting desirable scion on stress-tolerant rootstocks provides an opportunity to improve the cryotolerance of scion. Genic male sterile (GMS) lines of plant could be used as sterile line and maintainer in breeding, and they have the conspicuous characteristics that the fertility of which is easy to regain but hard to maintain by sexual reproduction. In order to maintain the fertility of GMS cotton by means of its perennial growth on the basis of frostless winters in Nanning, Guangxi autonomous region, GMS line A4 was grafted onto 7 cryotolerant rootstocks (F118, F697, F098, F112, F113, P098 and P113), and the cryotolerance and the overwintering survivorship of scions were investigated. In consequence, when compared with control (self-grafted A4), the relative conductivity of the grafted plants in shoot bark was reduced (8.80%), the content of soluble sugar, soluble protein and free proline were higher, 25.00, 1.55, 3.46%, respectively; the overwintering survival rate and the height of regeneration bud under field condition of grafted plants were higher, 10.44, 15.75%, respectively; the order of the grafted plants based on the average subordinate function value of overwintering survivorship was A4/F113>A4/F118>A4/F098>A4/F697>A4/F112>A4/P098>A4/P113>A4/A4(CK); the correlation analyses indicated that the physiological parameters of cryotolerance could be used for forecasting the overwintering survivorship, and the relative conductivity could be chosen as the first physiological parameter for forecasting cryotolerance or overwintering survivorship. The results indicate that the cryotolerance and the overwintering survivorship of GMS cotton could be improved by grafting, and F113 appeared to be a valuable rootstock.

Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Zhiyong; Wang, Qinglian; Chen, Peng; Chen, Guoping; Zhou, Ruiyang

2013-01-01

398

Potential of chromium(III) picolinate for reproductive or developmental toxicity following exposure of male CD-1 mice prior to mating.  

PubMed

Chromium(III) picolinate, [Cr(pic)(3)], is a commonly used nutritional supplement in humans, which has also been approved for use in animals. Health concerns have arisen over the use of [Cr(pic)(3)]. At high [Cr(pic)(3)] doses, developmental toxicity tests in female mice have shown a higher litter incidence of split cervical arch in exposed fetuses, but this was not consistently reproducible. In the current study, male CD-1 mice were used to further assess the potential for reproductive or developmental toxicity. Four weeks prior to mating, the males were fed a diet providing 200 mg/kg/day [Cr(pic)(3)] for comparison with untreated controls. Females were not treated. Each male was mated with two females, which were sacrificed on gestation day 17, and their litters were examined for adverse effects. Mating and fertility indices were not significantly altered by treatment. Male exposure to [Cr(pic)(3)] also had no effect on prenatal mortality, fetal weight, or gross or skeletal morphology. These results suggest that paternal dietary exposure to chromium(III) picolinate has little potential for adverse reproductive effects, even at exposure levels considerably higher than expected human exposures from nutritional supplements (1 mg of Cr per day or less). PMID:21369713

McAdory, DeAna; Rhodes, Nicholas R; Briggins, Felicia; Bailey, Melissa M; Di Bona, Kristin R; Goodwin, Craig; Vincent, John B; Rasco, Jane F

2011-12-01

399

Genetic dissection of hybrid incompatibilities between Drosophila simulans and D. mauritiana. I. Differential accumulation of hybrid male sterility effects on the X and autosomes.  

PubMed Central

The genetic basis of hybrid incompatibility in crosses between Drosophila mauritiana and D. simulans was investigated to gain insight into the evolutionary mechanisms of speciation. In this study, segments of the D. mauritiana third chromosome were introgressed into a D. simulans genetic background and tested as homozygotes for viability, male fertility, and female fertility. The entire third chromosome was covered with partially overlapping segments. Many segments were male sterile, while none were female sterile or lethal, confirming previous reports of the rapid evolution of hybrid male sterility (HMS). A statistical model was developed to quantify the HMS accumulation. In comparison with previous work on the X chromosome, we estimate that the X has approximately 2.5 times the density of HMS factors as the autosomes. We also estimate that the whole genome contains approximately 15 HMS "equivalents"-i.e., 15 times the minimum number of incompatibility factors necessary to cause complete sterility. Although some caveats for the quantitative estimate of a 2.5-fold density difference are described, this study supports the notion that the X chromosome plays a special role in the evolution of reproductive isolation. Possible mechanisms of a "large X" effect include selective fixation of new mutations that are recessive or partially recessive and the evolution of sex-ratio distortion systems.

Tao, Yun; Chen, Sining; Hartl, Daniel L; Laurie, Cathy C

2003-01-01

400

Effects of Carthamus tinctorius on Semen Quality and Gonadal Hormone Levels in Partially Sterile Male Rats  

PubMed Central

Purpose Traditional herbal medicine is just one of the many different approaches using plants in the remedy of diseases. Carthamus tinctorius (CT) or safflower is a popular plant that is used for coloring and flavoring in food industries. The effect of CT on spermatogenesis and sperm parameters has been reported in traditional medicine but has not yet been confirmed scientifically. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the effects of CT on spermatogenesis and the male reproductive system in an animal model. Materials and Methods Sixty male rats were divided into five groups. Four groups were injected with 5 mg/kg of busulfan as a model of partial infertility. Then, the experimental groups were treated with 10 mg/kg, 25 mg/kg, or 50 mg/kg of CT extract for 35 days. The control was treated with busulfan (infertile control) or distilled water only. After this period, the animals were sacrificed and blood samples were taken for hormonal assay. The semen was collected from the epididymis and the reproductive organs were assessed. Sperm count and motility were measured and smears were prepared for assessment of the other parameters. Results The results indicated that the percentage of sperm with good morphology, motility, and count increased significantly in the group treated with 10 mg/kg CT (p=0.002, p=0.03, and p=0.00001, respectively). The effects on hormonal changes and genital organ weights were also positive. Conclusions It is probable that the CT extract affects spermatogenesis and as a result sperm quality. Further studies are needed.

Vojdani, Zahra; Panjehshahin, Mohamad Reza; Hoballah, Hassan; Kassas, Hamza

2012-01-01