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1

The Sterile Insect Technique for Controlling Populations of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) on Reunion Island: Mating Vigour of Sterilized Males  

PubMed Central

Reunion Island suffers from high densities of the chikungunya and dengue vector Aedes albopictus. The sterile insect technique (SIT) offers a promising strategy for mosquito-borne diseases prevention and control. For such a strategy to be effective, sterile males need to be competitive enough to fulfil their intended function by reducing wild mosquito populations in natura. We studied the effect of irradiation on sexual maturation and mating success of males, and compared the sexual competitiveness of sterile versus wild males in the presence of wild females in semi-field conditions. For all untreated or sterile males, sexual maturation was completed within 13 to 20 h post-emergence and some males were able to inseminate females when 15 h old. In the absence of competition, untreated and sterile males were able to inseminate the same number of virgin females during 48 h, in small laboratory cages: an average of 93% of females was inseminated no matter the treatment, the age of males, and the sex ratio. Daily mating success of single sterile males followed the same pattern as for untreated ones, although they inseminated significantly fewer females after the ninth day. The competitiveness index of sterile males in semi-field conditions was only 0.14 when they were released at 1-day old, but improved to 0.53 when the release occurred after a 5-day period in laboratory conditions. In SIT simulation experiments, a 5?1 sterile to wild male ratio allowed a two-fold reduction of the wild population’s fertility. This suggests that sterile males could be sufficiently competitive to mate with wild females within the framework of an SIT component as part of an AW-IPM programme for suppressing a wild population of Ae. albopictus in Reunion Island. It will be of interest to minimise the pre-release period in controlled conditions to ensure a good competitiveness without increasing mass rearing costs. PMID:23185329

Oliva, Clelia F.; Jacquet, Maxime; Gilles, Jeremie; Lemperiere, Guy; Maquart, Pierre-Olivier; Quilici, Serge; Schooneman, François; Vreysen, Marc J. B.; Boyer, Sebastien

2012-01-01

2

Male Sterility  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The control of pollen fertility is central to the production of F1-hybrid seed in self-pollinating crops, and is potentially\\u000a applicable to the containment of transgenes deployed in crop plants. Pollen sterility can be achieved through cytoplasmic\\u000a male sterility (CMS) encoded by the plant mitochondrial genome, or through genic male sterility encoded by the nuclear genome.\\u000a Both routes have been exploited

C. D. Chase; A. Ribarits; E. Heberle-Bors

3

Male mating biology  

PubMed Central

Before sterile mass-reared mosquitoes are released in an attempt to control local populations, many facets of male mating biology need to be elucidated. Large knowledge gaps exist in how both sexes meet in space and time, the correlation of male size and mating success and in which arenas matings are successful. Previous failures in mosquito sterile insect technique (SIT) projects have been linked to poor knowledge of local mating behaviours or the selection of deleterious phenotypes during colonisation and long-term mass rearing. Careful selection of mating characteristics must be combined with intensive field trials to ensure phenotypic characters are not antagonistic to longevity, dispersal, or mating behaviours in released males. Success has been achieved, even when colonised vectors were less competitive, due in part to extensive field trials to ensure mating compatibility and effective dispersal. The study of male mating biology in other dipterans has improved the success of operational SIT programmes. Contributing factors include inter-sexual selection, pheromone based attraction, the ability to detect alterations in local mating behaviours, and the effects of long-term colonisation on mating competitiveness. Although great strides have been made in other SIT programmes, this knowledge may not be germane to anophelines, and this has led to a recent increase in research in this area. PMID:19917078

Howell, Paul I; Knols, Bart GJ

2009-01-01

4

Prerelease exposure to methyl eugenol increases the mating competitiveness of sterile males of the oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in a Hawaiian orchard.  

PubMed

Males of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), are strongly attracted to methyl eugenol (ME), and recent work demonstrated that ingestion of this chemical enhances male mating success, apparently owing its role as a precursor in the synthesis of the male sex pheromone. The current study expanded upon earlier laboratory and field-cage experiments by assessing whether prerelease exposure to ME increased the mating competitiveness of mass-reared, sterile males in Hawaiian orchards. Releases of sterile males from a pupal color-based sexing strain were made weekly in two fruit orchards over 8 mo, with the sterile males at one site given ME for 24 h before release (treated) and the sterile males at the other site given no ME before release (control). Fruits were collected periodically during the study period, and eggs were dissected and incubated to score hatch rate. At both sites, releases of sterile males increased the proportion of unhatched eggs well above prerelease levels, but the incidence of egg sterility was consistently, and statistically, greater in the orchard receiving ME-exposed males. Computed over the entire release period, the average value of Fried's competitive index (that characterizes the mating success of sterile males relative to their wild counterparts) for ME-treated males was 3.5 times greater than that for control males, although this difference was not statistically significant. However, when computed over the period during which egg sterility values were elevated and stable, presumably when females inseminated before the releases were rare or absent, the competitive indices were significantly higher for ME-treated sterile males. The implications of these results for implementing the Sterile Insect Technique against this species are discussed. PMID:22299359

McInnis, D; Kurashima, R; Shelly, T; Komatsu, J; Edu, J; Pahio, E

2011-12-01

5

Application of Orange Oil to PreRelease Holding Boxes Increases the Mating Success of Sterile Males of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly in Field Cage Trials (Diptera: Tephritidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research showed that exposure to the aroma of orange oil (Citrus sinensis L.) increased the mating success of male Mediterranean fruit flies (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). This work, however, involved the exposure of small groups of males (n = 25) in small containers (volume 400 ml). In implementing the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), several programs use plastic adult rearing

Todd E. Shelly; Elaine Pahio

6

Additional Tests on the Efficacy of Ginger Root Oil in Enhancing the Mating Competitiveness of Sterile Males of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

4 USDA-ARS, 2727 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822. Abstract. Recent studies have shown that exposure to the aroma of ginger root oil (Zingiber officinale Roscoe; termed GRO hereafter) increases the mating competitive- ness of males of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). This result suggests that pre-release exposure of sterile males to GRO might increase the effectiveness of

Todd E. Shelly; Ernie Steiner; Vanessa Bosco; Donald McInnis

7

Additional tests on the efficacy of ginger root oil in enhacing the mating competitiveness of sterile males of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recent studies have shown that exposure to the aroma of ginger root oil (Zingiber officinale Roscoe; termed GRO hereafter) increases the mating competitiveness of males of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). This result suggests that pre-release exposure of sterile ...

8

Aromatherapy on a large scale: Exposing entire holding rooms to ginger root oil increases the mating competitiveness of sterile males of the Mediterranean fruit fly in field cage trials  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The sterile insect technique (SIT) is widely used in integrated programs against fruit fly pests, particularly the Mediterranean fruit fly. Unfortunately, the mass-rearing procedures inherent to the SIT often lead to a reduction in male mating competitiveness. The sterile insect technique (SIT) is w...

9

Assessment of effect of partial sterility on mating performance in sweetpotato weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).  

PubMed

The sterile insect technique (SIT) is widely used to suppress or eradicate target pest insect populations. Although the effectiveness of SIT depends on the ability of released sterile males to mate with and inseminate wild females, the use of gamma radiation to induce sterility negatively impacts reproductive cells as well as somatic cells. Consequently, sterilization by irradiation drastically diminishes mating performance over time. In the current study, we evaluated the effect of irradiation dose intensity on fertility, mating propensity, and mating competitiveness in sweetpotato weevil, Cylas formicarius elegantulus (Summers) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), for 16 d after irradiation. Although the mating propensity of males irradiated with 200 Gy, the dose currently used to induce complete sterility of C. f. elegantulus in the SIT program in Okinawa Prefecture, was equal to that of nonirradiated weevils for the first 6 d, the mating propensity of males irradiated with doses between of 75 and 150 Gy was maintained for the first 12 d. The potential fertilization ability of weevils was highly depressed compared with the control weevils, even in those treated with 75 Gy. Mating performance was severely compromised in weevils that were irradiated with a dose of 100 Gy or more. These results demonstrate that partial sterilization can be highly advantageous in eradication programs for the sweetpotato weevil. We discuss the advantages of the application of partial irradiation in insect eradication programs. PMID:21309223

Kumano, N; Kuriwada, T; Shiromoto, K; Haraguchi, D; Kohama, T

2010-12-01

10

Mating in the monogamous male: Behavioral consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

In monogamous mammals, males typically show selective affiliation with a single mate, high levels of paternal care, and aggression towards conspecifics to protect mate and offspring. We have previously described how selective aggression and affiliation increase after mating in the male prairie vole, Microtus ochrogaster. The current studies further explored the behavioral changes that follow mating in the male of

Thomas R. Insel; Stephanie Preston; James T. Winslow

1995-01-01

11

Improving Male Mating Competitiveness and Survival in the Field for Medfly, Ceratitis Capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) SIT Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The success of the sterile insect technique (SIT) depends critically upon mating between released sterilized males and wild females. In Hawaii, improvements in the efficiency of sterile males were attempted on two separate fronts – mating enhancement and survival improvement. In the former, two methods have been investigated – selective breeding and aromatherapy. In the latter, flies which survived in

D. O. McInnis; T. E. Shelly; J. Komatsu

2002-01-01

12

Effects of male sterility on female remating in the mediterranean fruitfly, Ceratitis capitata.  

PubMed Central

Mating-induced reductions in female receptivity are common in insects. These responses are of interest because of their utility in insect pest control. In addition, the control of receptivity is likely to be the subject of sexual conflict over remating frequency. We investigated the specific effect of male sterility on female receptivity in an important pest species, the Mediterranean fruitfly (medfly), in which sterile males are often used for population suppression. Sterile males performed less courtship, obtained significantly fewer first and second matings than fertile males, and reduced female receptivity significantly less effectively than did fertile males. We modelled the likelihood of fertile matings and show that the low mating success of sterile males represents a significant problem for medfly sterile insect technique (SIT) programmes. PMID:15252986

Kraaijeveld, Ken; Chapman, Tracey

2004-01-01

13

Modeling the suppression of sea lamprey populations by the release of sterile males or sterile females  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The suppressive effects of trapping adult sea lampreys, Petromyzon marinus Linnaeus, and releasing sterile males (SMRT) or females (SFRT) into a closed system were expressed in deterministic models. Suppression was modeled as a function of the proportion of the population removed by trapping, the number of sterile animals released, the reproductive rate and sex ratio of the population, and (for the SFRT) the rate of polygyny. Releasing sterile males reduced populations more quickly than did the release of sterile females. For a population in which 30% are trapped, sterile animals are initially released at ratio of 10 sterile to 1 fertile animal, 5 adult progeny are produced per fertile mating, 60% are male, and males mate with an average of 1.65 females, the initial population is reduced 87% by SMRT and 68% by SFRT in one generation. The extent of suppression achieved is most sensitive to changes in the initial sterile release ratio. Given the current status of sea lamprey populations and trapping operations in the Great Lakes, the sterile-male-release technique has the best chance for success on a lake-wide basis if implemented in Lake Michigan. The effectiveness of the sterile-female-release technique should be investigated in a controlled study. Advancing trapping technology should be a high priority in the near term, and artificial rearing of sea lampreys to the adult stage should be a high priority in the long term. The diligent pursuit of sea lamprey suppression over a period of several decades can be expected to yield great benefits.

Klassen, Waldemar; Adams, Jean V.; Twohey, Michael B.

2004-01-01

14

Mating in the monogamous male: behavioral consequences.  

PubMed

In monogamous mammals, males typically show selective affiliation with a single mate, high levels of paternal care, and aggression towards conspecifics to protect male and offspring. We have previously described how selective aggression and affiliation increase after mating in the male prairie vole, Microtus ochrogaster. The current studies further explored the behavioral changes that follow mating in the male of this species. The first set of experiments tested males on several behavioral measures after 24 h of either mating, social (but not sexual) exposure, or no social contact. After 24 h of mating, but not after the other two conditions, aggression and affiliation (partner preference) increased as previously reported. In addition, mated animals showed increased exploration of the open arms of a plus maze, consistent with decreased fearfulness. There were no group differences in paternal behavior (which was high in all three conditions) or analgesia (assessed by tail flick latency). To determine the minimum amount of mating necessary for the induction of aggression, males were tested in a resident-intruder paradigm after 1,6, or 24 h of mating. Although 1 h of mating was associated with a transient increase in the frequency of threats and attacks, the full spectrum of enduring aggression was observed only in the males given 24 h of mating. In a final experiment, the behavioral consequences of mating were studied in males of the closely related montane vole (Microtus montanus) which does not pair bond. Males of this nonmonogamous vole species did not show increased aggression, partner preference, or alterations in plus maze exploration following 24 h of mating. These results demonstrate the importance of prolonged mating for the induction of pair bonding in the monogamous male and they suggest that increases in aggression and affiliation are associated with decreased fearfulness in pair bonded males. PMID:7777594

Insel, T R; Preston, S; Winslow, J T

1995-04-01

15

Manipulation of the microbiota of mass-reared Mediterranean fruit flies Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) improves sterile male sexual performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a method of biological control whereby millions of factory reared sterile male insects are released into the field. This technique is commonly used to combat the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata, Diptera: Tephritidae). Sterile medfly males are less competent in attracting and mating with wild females, a property commonly linked to the irradiation process

Eyal Ben Ami; Boaz Yuval; Edouard Jurkevitch

2010-01-01

16

Male or female sterilization: a comparative study.  

PubMed

The study compares 709 males and 546 females recruited from a well-defined geographic area and sterilized during a 5-year period at the same hospital. Medical records were reviewed and questionnaires sent out. Widespread satisfaction with the sterilization was found. The sterilized women had experienced contraceptive side effects and failures more often than the men. Only 70% of the laparoscopic sterilizations could be carried out during a 1-day admission, 25% of the women complained about long-term sequelae, and there were 1% failures. The vasectomies were carried out on an outpatient basis, there were few postoperative symptoms, and 0.5% failures were recorded. Female sterilization was at least four times as expensive as vasectomy. It is concluded that vasectomy is generally to be preferred to female sterilization, and that the preoperative guidance should involve both man and wife. PMID:2920844

Kjersgaard, A G; Thranov, I; Rasmussen, O V; Hertz, J

1989-03-01

17

The Decision for Male versus Female Sterilization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The increasing popularity of sterilization underscores the need for knowledge about couples choosing male and female procedures. This research delineates four sets of variables that may be important for the decision and examines their relationship with the choice of male or female procedure among a sample of married couples. (Author)

Clark, Margaret Pruitt; And Others

1979-01-01

18

Mating tactics and mate choice in relation to age and social rank in male mountain goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

In polygynous mammals, mating success of males often depends on intense male-male competition and the use of alternative mating tactics. Because reproduction incurs substantial energetic costs and risks of fight injuries, mate selection by males should be expected, particularly when females vary in their ability to produce offspring but can only be defended 1 at a time. Here, we investigated

Julien Mainguy; Steeve D. Côté; Etienne Cardinal; Mélina Houle

2008-01-01

19

Estimating SIT-driven population reduction in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, from sterile mating.  

PubMed

Area-wide sterile insect technique (SIT) programs assume that offspring reduction of the target population correlates with the mating success of the sterile males released. However, there is a lack of monitoring tools to prove the success of these programs in real-time. Field-cage tests were conducted under the environmental conditions of the Mediterranean coast of Spain to estimate: (a) the mating success of sterile Vienna-8 (V8) Ceratitis capitata males using molecular markers and (b) their efficacy to reduce C. capitata populations under six release ratios of wild females to wild males to V8 males (1:0:0, 1:1:0, 1:1:1, 1:1:5, 1:1:10, and 1:1:20). Statistical models were developed to predict: (a) the number of females captured in traps, (b) sperm ID (sterile or not) in spermathecae of the trapped females, and (c) the viable offspring produced, using release ratio and temperature as predictors. The number of females captured was affected by relative humidity. However, its influence in the model was low. Female captures were significantly higher in ratios 1:0:0 compared to ratios where V8 males were released. The proportion of V8 sperm in spermathecae increased with temperature and with the number of V8 males released, but leveled off between ratios 1:1:10 and 1:1:20. In all seasons, except winter (no offspring), viable offspring increased with temperature and was lowest for ratio 1:1:20. For the first time, a strong negative relationship between proportion of V8 sperm detected by molecular tools and C. capitata offspring was established. The models obtained should contribute to enhance the efficacy of SIT programs against this pest. PMID:24444376

Juan-Blasco, M; Sabater-Muñoz, B; Pla, I; Argilés, R; Castañera, P; Jacas, J A; Ibáñez-Gual, M V; Urbaneja, A

2014-04-01

20

Male motion coordination in anopheline mating swarms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Anopheles gambiae species complex comprises the primary vectors of malaria in much of sub-Saharan Africa. Most of the mating in these species occurs in swarms composed almost entirely of males. Intermittent, organized patterns in such swarms have been observed, but a detailed description of male-male interactions has not previously been available. We identify frequent, time-varying interactions characterized by periods of parallel flight in data from 8 swarms of Anopheles gambiae and 3 swarms of Anopheles coluzzii filmed in 2010 and 2011 in the village of Donéguébogou, Mali. We use the cross correlation of flight direction to quantify these interactions and to induce interaction graphs, which show that males form synchronized subgroups whose size and membership change rapidly. A swarming model with damped springs between each male and the swarm centroid shows good agreement with the correlation data, provided that local interactions represented by damping of relative velocity between males are included.

Shishika, Daigo; Manoukis, Nicholas C.; Butail, Sachit; Paley, Derek A.

2014-09-01

21

Age-Dependent Male Mating Investment in Drosophila pseudoobscura  

PubMed Central

Male mating investment can strongly influence fitness gained from a mating. Yet, male mating investment often changes with age. Life history theory predicts that mating investment should increase with age, and males should become less discriminatory about their mate as they age. Understanding age-dependent changes in male behavior and their effects on fitness is important for understanding how selection acts in age-structured populations. Although the independent effects of male or female age have been studied in many species, how these interact to influence male mating investment and fitness is less well understood. We mated Drosophila pseudoobscura males of five different age classes (4-, 8-, 11-, 15-, 19-day old) to either young (4-day) or old (11-day) females, and measured copulation duration and early post-mating fecundity. Along with their independent effects, we found a strong interaction between the effects of male and female ages on male mating investment and fitness from individual matings. Male mating investment increased with male age, but this increase was more prominent in matings with young females. Male D. pseudoobscura made smaller investments when mating with old females. The level of such discrimination based on female age, however, also changed with male age. Intermediate aged males were most discriminatory, while the youngest and the oldest males did not discriminate between females of different ages. We also found that larger male mating investments resulted in higher fitness payoffs. Our results show that male and female ages interact to form a complex pattern of age-specific male mating investment and fitness. PMID:24586373

Dhole, Sumit; Pfennig, Karin S.

2014-01-01

22

Suppression of Pest Lepidoptera by Releasing Partially Sterile Males  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses population growth models to calculate the theoretical suppression of reproduction achieved by releasing irradiated male moths carrying genetic sterility factors. Shows that releasing partially sterile males should be more effective than releasing fully sterile males. Discusses the costs and advantages of applying this approach to the control…

Knipling. E. F.

1970-01-01

23

Methyl eugenol aromatherapy enhances the mating competitiveness of male Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae).  

PubMed

Males of Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae) are strongly attracted to methyl eugenol (ME) (1,2-dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl)benzene), a natural compound occurring in variety of plant species. ME-feeding is known to enhance male B. carambolae mating competitiveness 3 days after feeding. Enhanced male mating competitiveness due to ME-feeding can increase the effectiveness of sterile insect technique (SIT) manifolds. However, the common methods for emergence and holding fruit flies prior to field releases do not allow the inclusion of any ME feeding treatment after fly emergence. Therefore this study was planned to assess the effects of ME-aromatherapy in comparison with ME feeding on male B. carambolae mating competitiveness as aromatherapy is pragmatic for fruit flies emergence and holding facilities. Effects of ME application by feeding or by aromatherapy for enhanced mating competitiveness were evaluated 3d after treatments in field cages. ME feeding and ME aromatherapy enhanced male mating competitiveness as compared to untreated males. Males treated with ME either by feeding or by aromatherapy showed similar mating success but mating success was significantly higher than that of untreated males. The results are discussed in the context of application of ME by aromatherapy as a pragmatic approach in a mass-rearing facility and its implications for effectiveness of SIT. PMID:24995839

Haq, Ihsan; Vreysen, Marc J B; Cacéres, Carlos; Shelly, Todd E; Hendrichs, Jorge

2014-09-01

24

Male mating patterns in wild multimale mountain gorilla groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although mountain gorillas,Gorilla gorilla beringei, are classified as having a one-male mating system, approximately 40% of the social units are multimale groups. I observed two multimale groups of mountain gorillas at the Karisoke Research Center, Rwanda, Africa, for 17 months to determine male mating patterns and male–male mating harassment in relation to both male dominance rank and female reproductive status.

MARTHA M. ROBBINS

1999-01-01

25

Female pied flycatchers trade between male quality and mating status in mate choice  

PubMed Central

According to mate choice theory, females should consider both male quality and mating status when choosing a mate. In birds, strong experimental evidence indicates that females prefer males with elaborate traits. No comparable evidence exists to determine whether females take male mating status into account or how they may trade between male quality and male mating status. We studied mate choice of female pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) in outdoor aviaries where the effect of territory quality could be eliminated and where we could control which males were mated and which were unmated. We used male plumage colour as our measure of male quality. In the aviaries, focal females could easily compare males and assess their plumage colour and mating status, and resident females were prevented from attacking prospecting females because of separation in different compartments. The study provided evidence for a trade-off in mate choice. Females may compromise by choosing an already mated male if he is more brightly coloured and, presumably, of higher quality than available unmated males. The study did not support the idea that polygyny is based on male deception of females, but the results were consistent with the female aggression hypothesis.

Slagsvold, T.; Drevon, T.

1999-01-01

26

Effects of the juvenile hormone analogue methoprene and dietary protein on male melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) mating success.  

PubMed

The effect of access to dietary protein (P) and the topical application of a juvenile hormone analogue (methoprene (M)) on mating behaviour of male melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae was assessed in the laboratory and in field cages. Age, dietary protein and methoprene application increased the mating success and influenced the mating behaviour. Treatment with methoprene (M+) to protein-deprived (P-) males had only a modest effect on the acceleration of sexual maturity, but application of methoprene (M+) to protein-fed (P+) males greatly accelerated sexual maturity. Protein diet (P+) increased mating success of males in comparison to protein-deprived (P-) males. Protein and methoprene have a synergistic effect on mating behaviour, since M+P+ treated males exhibit reduced mating latency and achieved higher mating in younger ages than methoprene and/or protein-deprived males. Copulation duration was correlated with nutritional status and M+P+ males copulated longer at the age of advanced sexual maturity than M-P+ males. Our results suggest that in this species with a lek mating system, females discriminate between the males based on their sexual signals, which were influenced by protein in the adult diet, methoprene application and age. The results are discussed in the light of mating competitiveness of precocious treated young males and their relevance to Sterile Insect Technique application against this pest species. PMID:20438735

ul Haq, Ihsan; Cáceres, Carlos; Hendrichs, Jorge; Teal, Peter; Wornoayporn, Viwat; Stauffer, Christian; Robinson, Alan S

2010-11-01

27

A character demonstrating the occurrence of mating in male Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)  

SciTech Connect

The reproductive system of adult male Cactoblastis cactorum, the cactus moth, was examined to determine whether the mating status of males could be ascertained. In unmated males, the posterior portion of the primary ductus ejaculatorius simplex is opaque yellow in color and contains many small football-shaped hyaline granules 3-5 x 5-10 {mu}m in size. In mated males, the posterior simplex is clear and contains no granules. The presence or absence of these characters was found to be highly reliable and should be of value in determining mating status in marked-recaptured males of this species in a sterile insect release program directed against Cactoblastis. (author)

Marti, O.G.; Carpenter, J.E. [United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Crop Protection and Management Research Service, P.O. Box 748, Tifton, GA 31793 (United States)

2007-03-15

28

Comparative risks and costs of male and female sterilization.  

PubMed Central

Couples who are considering elective sterilization should compare the risks and costs of male and female sterilization procedures as part of the decision process. Morbidity, mortality, failure rates, and short-term costs associated with male and female sterilization procedures were estimated from data available in previous case series. Male sterilization procedures were found to have zero attributable deaths and significantly less major complications when compared to female sterilization procedures. No less than 14 deaths a year can be attributed to female sterilization procedures in the US. Male and female sterilization procedures have efficacy rates that are not significantly different from each other. The short-term costs of female sterilization are 3.0 to 4.1 times that of vasectomy. PMID:3976963

Smith, G L; Taylor, G P; Smith, K F

1985-01-01

29

Optimizing methyl-eugenol aromatherapy to maximize posttreatment effects to enhance mating competitiveness of male Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera: Tephritidae).  

PubMed

Methyl-eugenol (ME) (1,2-dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl)benzene), a natural phytochemical, did enhance male Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae) mating competitiveness 3 d after ingestion. Enhanced male mating competitiveness can significantly increase the effectiveness of the sterile insect technique (SIT). ME application to mass reared sterile flies by feeding is infeasible. ME application by aromatherapy however, would be a very practical way of ME application in fly emergence and release facilities. This approach was shown to enhance mating competitiveness of B. carambolae 3 d posttreatment (DPT). Despite this added benefit, every additional day of delaying release will reduce sterile fly quality and will add cost to SIT application. The present study was planned to assess the effects of ME-aromatherapy on male B. carambolae mating competitiveness 1DPT and 2DPT. ME aromatherapy 1DPT or 2DPT did enhance mating competitiveness of B. carambolae males whereas ME feeding 1DPT and 2DPT did not. Male mating competitiveness was enhanced by the ME aromatherapy irrespective if they received 1DPT, 2DPT or 3DPT. ME aromatherapy, being a viable approach for its application, did enhance mating competitiveness of male B. carambolae 1?d posttreatment as ME feeding did 3 d after ingestion. PMID:24935641

Haq, Ihsan Ul; Vreysen, Marc J B; Cacéres, Carlos; Shelly, Todd E; Hendrichs, Jorge

2014-06-17

30

Mass Rearing History and Irradiation Affect Mating Performance of the Male Fruit Fly, Anastrepha obliqua  

PubMed Central

As an initial step to improve the efficiency of the sterile insect technique applied to eradicate, suppress, and control wild Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in mango producing areas of Mexico, the effect of radiation dose and mass rearing history on male mating performance was examined. Field cage tests in which both male and female laboratory flies were irradiated at different doses (0, 40, and 80 Gy) were released with cohorts of wild flies of both sexes, revealing that both mass rearing history and irradiation affected male mating performance. Laboratory males were accepted for copulation by wild females less frequently than wild males. Copulations involving laboratory males were shorter than those involving wild males. Irradiated males mated less frequently with wild females than wild males, and irradiated females appeared to be less able to reject courting males of both origins. High levels of fertility for untreated laboratory females crossed with males irradiated at different doses may reflect problems in mass rearing affecting homogeneity of pupal age before irradiation, and possibly masked a dose effect. Proposed remedial measures to improve male mating performance are discussed. PMID:22957485

Rull, Juan; Encarnación, Nery; Birke, Andrea

2012-01-01

31

Incubation feeding by male Scarlet Tanagers: a mate removal experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incubation feeding, where males feed their mates, is a common behavior in birds and may improve female condition, nest attentiveness, and nesting success. We used behavioral observations and a temporary mate removal experiment to test the female nutrition hypothesis for incubation feeding by male Scarlet Tanagers (Piranga olivacea). All males (N = 20) were observed incubation feeding and fed females

Paul H. Klatt; Bridget J. M. Stutchbury; Melissa L. Evans

2008-01-01

32

Male mate preferences in mutual mate choice: finches modulate their songs across and within male-female interactions.  

PubMed

Male songbirds use song to advertise their attractiveness as potential mates, and the properties of those songs have a powerful influence on female mate preferences. One idea is that males may exert themselves maximally in each song performance, consistent with female evaluation and formation of mate preferences being the primary contributors to mate choice. Alternatively, males may modulate their song behaviour to different degrees in the presence of different females, consistent with both male and female mate preferences contributing to mutual mate choice. Here we consider whether male Bengalese finches, Lonchura striata domestica, express mate preferences at the level of individual females, and whether those preferences are manifest as changes in song behaviour that are sufficient to influence female mate choice. We tested this idea by recording songs performed by individual unmated males during a series of 1 h interactions with each of many unmated females. Across recording sessions, males systematically varied both the quantity and the quality of the songs that they performed to different females. Males also varied their song properties throughout the course of each interaction, and behavioural tests using female birds revealed that songs performed at the onset of each interaction were significantly more attractive than songs performed by the same male later during the same interaction. This demonstration of context-specific variation in the properties of male reproductive signals and a role for that variation in shaping female mate preference reveals that male mate preferences play an important role in mutual mate choice in this species. Because these birds thrive so well in the laboratory and are so amenable to observation and experimentation across generations, these results yield a new model system that may prove especially advantageous in disentangling the role of male and female mate preferences in shaping mutual mate choice and its long-term benefits or consequences. PMID:25242817

Heinig, Abbie; Pant, Santosh; Dunning, Jeffery; Bass, Aaron; Coburn, Zachary; Prather, Jonathan F

2014-10-01

33

Cytoplasmic male sterility in Brassicaceae crops  

PubMed Central

Brassicaceae crops display strong hybrid vigor, and have long been subject to F1 hybrid breeding. Because the most reliable system of F1 seed production is based on cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), various types of CMS have been developed and adopted in practice to breed Brassicaceae oil seed and vegetable crops. CMS is a maternally inherited trait encoded in the mitochondrial genome, and the male sterile phenotype arises as a result of interaction of a mitochondrial CMS gene and a nuclear fertility restoring (Rf) gene. Therefore, CMS has been intensively investigated for gaining basic insights into molecular aspects of nuclear-mitochondrial genome interactions and for practical applications in plant breeding. Several CMS genes have been identified by molecular genetic studies, including Ogura CMS from Japanese radish, which is the most extensively studied and most widely used. In this review, we discuss Ogura CMS, and other CMS systems, and the causal mitochondrial genes for CMS. Studies on nuclear Rf genes and the cytoplasmic effects of alien cytoplasm on general crop performance are also reviewed. Finally, some of the unresolved questions about CMS are highlighted. PMID:24987289

Yamagishi, Hiroshi; Bhat, Shripad R.

2014-01-01

34

Timing of callase activity and cytoplasmic male sterility in Petunia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of callase activity in relation to cytogenetical expressions in cytoplasmic male sterile and male fertile Petunia indicated differential timing of the localized enzyme activity. Enzyme activity was determined by a new test. The possible relations between the mode of action of the extrachromosomal gene, timing of the enzyme activity, and male sterility are discussed.

Rafael Frankel; Shamay Izhar; Joseph Nitsan

1969-01-01

35

Sequential male mate choice under sperm competition risk  

PubMed Central

Male eagerness to mate is a central paradigm of sexual selection theory. However, limited sperm supplies mean that male sexual restraint might sometimes be favored under promiscuous mating. Here, we demonstrate dynamic plasticity in male mating effort when females are encountered sequentially under varying sperm competition risk. Rather than showing consistent eagerness to mate, male house mice (Mus musculus domesticus) instead tailor their mating effort according to likely reproductive payoffs. They are significantly less likely to mate when sperm competition is certain and potential reproductive payoffs low, but dramatically increase investment if they do choose to mate under such circumstances. By contrast, male mice are significantly more likely to mate in situations simulating extra-territorial copulations, where future risk of competition is high but so too are potential reproductive rewards. Differential mating propensity appears to be the primary mechanism by which male house mice allocate sperm adaptively under sperm competition risk because we find no evidence for facultative adjustment of sperm numbers per ejaculate or ejaculation frequency in response to female-related cues. We conclude that sequential male mate choice under sperm competition risk could be a widespread but often unappreciated mechanism of strategic sperm allocation. PMID:24822023

2014-01-01

36

Gene, protein, and network of male sterility in rice  

PubMed Central

Rice is one of the most important model crop plants whose heterosis has been well-exploited in commercial hybrid seed production via a variety of types of male-sterile lines. Hybrid rice cultivation area is steadily expanding around the world, especially in Southern Asia. Characterization of genes and proteins related to male sterility aims to understand how and why the male sterility occurs, and which proteins are the key players for microspores abortion. Recently, a series of genes and proteins related to cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), photoperiod-sensitive male sterility, self-incompatibility, and other types of microspores deterioration have been characterized through genetics or proteomics. Especially the latter, offers us a powerful and high throughput approach to discern the novel proteins involving in male-sterile pathways which may help us to breed artificial male-sterile system. This represents an alternative tool to meet the critical challenge of further development of hybrid rice. In this paper, we reviewed the recent developments in our understanding of male sterility in rice hybrid production across gene, protein, and integrated network levels, and also, present a perspective on the engineering of male-sterile lines for hybrid rice production. PMID:23596452

Wang, Kun; Peng, Xiaojue; Ji, Yanxiao; Yang, Pingfang; Zhu, Yingguo; Li, Shaoqing

2013-01-01

37

Costs influence male mate choice in a freshwater fish.  

PubMed Central

It is well known that female mate choice decisions depend on the direct costs of choosing (either because of search costs or male-imposed costs). Far less is known about how direct fitness costs affect male mate choice. We conducted an experiment to investigate male mate choice in a fish, the Pacific blue-eye (Pseudomugil signifer). Preferred females were larger, probably because larger females are also more fecund. Males, however, were consistent in their choice of female only when the costs of associating with prospective mates were equal. By contrast, males were far less consistent in their choice when made to swim against a current to remain with their initially preferred mate. Our results suggest that males may also respond adaptively to changes in the costs of choosing. PMID:12952630

Wong, Bob B M; Jennions, Michael D

2003-01-01

38

Sexual Experience Enhances Drosophila melanogaster Male Mating Behavior and Success  

PubMed Central

Competition for mates is a wide-spread phenomenon affecting individual reproductive success. The ability of animals to adjust their behaviors in response to changing social environment is important and well documented. Drosophila melanogaster males compete with one another for matings with females and modify their reproductive behaviors based on prior social interactions. However, it remains to be determined how male social experience that culminates in mating with a female impacts subsequent male reproductive behaviors and mating success. Here we show that sexual experience enhances future mating success. Previously mated D. melanogaster males adjust their courtship behaviors and out-compete sexually inexperienced males for copulations. Interestingly, courtship experience alone is not sufficient in providing this competitive advantage, indicating that copulation plays a role in reinforcing this social learning. We also show that females use their sense of hearing to preferentially mate with experienced males when given a choice. Our results demonstrate the ability of previously mated males to learn from their positive sexual experiences and adjust their behaviors to gain a mating advantage. These experienced-based changes in behavior reveal strategies that animals likely use to increase their fecundity in natural competitive environments. PMID:24805129

Saleem, Sehresh; Ruggles, Patrick H.; Abbott, Wiley K.; Carney, Ginger E.

2014-01-01

39

Mitochondria and cytoplasmic male sterility in plants.  

PubMed

Mitochondria are essential organelles in cells not only because they supply over 90% of the cell's energy but also because their dysfunction is associated with disease. Owing to the importance of mitochondria, there are many questions about mitochondria that must be answered. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is a mysterious natural phenomenon, and the mechanism of the origin of CMS is unknown. Despite successful utilization of CMS and restoration of fertility (Rf) in practice, the underlying mechanisms of these processes remain elusive. This review summarizes the genes involved in CMS and Rf, with a special focus on recent studies reporting the mechanisms of the CMS and Rf pathways, and concludes with potential working models. PMID:24566371

Hu, Jun; Huang, Wenchao; Huang, Qi; Qin, Xiaojian; Yu, Changchun; Wang, Lili; Li, Shaoqing; Zhu, Renshan; Zhu, Yingguo

2014-11-01

40

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Male mating bias and its potential reproductive consequence  

E-print Network

different roles, and that members of one sex generally compete more intensely for access to receptive mates /Accepted: 22 July 2006 / Published online: 5 October 2006 # Springer-Verlag 2006 Abstract Male mating of these biases are often unclear, especially in species for which the operational sex ratio is strongly male

Macedonia, Joseph

41

INTRODUCTION Understanding both male and female mating beha-  

E-print Network

(Linnaeus). The two-spot ladybird is a naturally pro- miscuous beetle, with both males and females mating consider male and female mating behaviour in two populations of the two-spot ladybird, Adalia bipunc- tata; Haddrill et al., 2008). Two-spot ladybird populations are known to Eur. J. Entomol. 110(1): 87­93, 2013

42

Wing Color Predicts Future Mating Success in Male Monarch Butterflies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predictors of male monarch butterßy mating success have eluded researchers for years. Although it has long been known that there is variation in male mating success in this species, the source of this variation remains unclear. We used digital image analysis techniques to measure Þne-scale variation in three components of the orange color (hue, saturation and brightness of the orange)

Andrew K. Davis; Natalie Cope; Amy Smith; Michelle J. Solensky

2007-01-01

43

Effects of age and size on Anopheles gambiae s.s. male mosquito mating success.  

PubMed

Before the release of genetically-modified or sterile male mosquitoes in an attempt to control local populations of malaria vectors, it is crucial to determine male traits involved in mating success. The effects of male size and age as determinants of male mating success in Anopheles gambiae s.s. were measured in the field and under laboratory conditions in Burkina Faso. First, the body sizes (estimated by wing length) of mating, swarming, and indoor-resting male mosquitoes were compared over a 3-yr period (2006-2009) from July to October in Soumousso and Vallée du Kou, two villages in western Burkina Faso. Second, the age structure of swarming and resting male mosquitoes were characterized based on the number of spermatocysts and the proportion of sperm in the reservoir of wild-caught male testis. Third, male age effects on the insemination rate of female An. gambiae were investigated in the laboratory. The mean size of males collected in copula was significantly larger than the mean for swarming males and indoor-resting males. The optimum male age for successful insemination of females was 4-8 d. These results suggest that male size is an important trait in determining male mating competitiveness in the field. Although age was not found to be a significant factor in mating competitiveness, it was significantly correlated with swarming behaviors in the field and insemination success in the laboratory. The implications of these results in terms of sexual selection in An. gambiae and vector control programs are further discussed. PMID:23540115

Sawadogo, Simon P; Diabaté, Abdoulaye; Toé, Hyacinthe K; Sanon, Antoine; Lefevre, Thierry; Baldet, Thierry; Gilles, Jeremie; Simard, Frederic; Gibson, Gabriella; Sinkins, Stevens; Dabiré, Roch K

2013-03-01

44

Mating alters gene expression patterns in Drosophila melanogaster male heads  

PubMed Central

Background Behavior is a complex process resulting from the integration of genetic and environmental information. Drosophila melanogaster rely on multiple sensory modalities for reproductive success, and mating causes physiological changes in both sexes that affect reproductive output or behavior. Some of these effects are likely mediated by changes in gene expression. Courtship and mating alter female transcript profiles, but it is not known how mating affects male gene expression. Results We used Drosophila genome arrays to identify changes in gene expression profiles that occur in mated male heads. Forty-seven genes differed between mated and control heads 2 hrs post mating. Many mating-responsive genes are highly expressed in non-neural head tissues, including an adipose tissue called the fat body. One fat body-enriched gene, female-specific independent of transformer (fit), is a downstream target of the somatic sex-determination hierarchy, a genetic pathway that regulates Drosophila reproductive behaviors as well as expression of some fat-expressed genes; three other mating-responsive loci are also downstream components of this pathway. Another mating-responsive gene expressed in fat, Juvenile hormone esterase (Jhe), is necessary for robust male courtship behavior and mating success. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that mating causes changes in male head gene expression profiles and supports an increasing body of work implicating adipose signaling in behavior modulation. Since several mating-induced genes are sex-determination hierarchy target genes, additional mating-responsive loci may be downstream components of this pathway as well. PMID:20937114

2010-01-01

45

Dual reproductive cost of aging in male Medflies: dramatic decrease in mating competitiveness and gradual reduction in mating performance.  

PubMed

Although age-based effects on the reproductive success of males have been reported in several animal taxa the cost of aging on male mating success in lekking species has not been fully explored. We used the Mediterranean fruit fly, a lekking species, to investigate possible cost of aging on male reproductive success. We performed no choice and choice mating tests to test the hypothesis that aging does not affect the mating performance (mating success in conditions lacking competition) or the mating competitiveness (mating success against younger rivals) of males. The mating probability of older males decreased significantly when competing with younger males. Aging gradually reduced the mating performance of males but older males were still accepted as mating partners in conditions lacking competition. Therefore, older males are capable of performing the complete repertoire of sexual performance but fail to be chosen by females in the presence of young rivals. Older males achieved shorter copulations than younger ones, and female readiness to mate was negatively affected by male age. Older and younger males transferred similar amount of spermatozoids to female spermathecae. Females stored spermatozoids asymmetrically in the two spermathecae regardless the age of their mating partner. Aging positively affected the amount of spermatozoids in testes of both mated and nonmated males. No significant differences were observed on the amount of spermatozoids between mated and nonmated males. PMID:21801728

Papanastasiou, Stella A; Diamantidis, Alexandros D; Nakas, Christos T; Carey, James R; Papadopoulos, Nikos T

2011-10-01

46

Inaccurate mate recognition as a mating strategy of a ‘pioneer male  

PubMed Central

Heterosubspecific mating experiments were carried out between two subspecies of cabbage butterflies, British Pieris rapae rapae and Japanese P. rapae crucivora, to examine how accurately males recognize the mates. The two subspecies are different in that the wings of female P. rapae rapae reflect little UV light, whereas those of female P. rapae crucivora are strongly UV-reflective. The wing colouration of P. rapae crucivora involving UV is believed to be critical in mate recognition. The results showed that males of both subspecies displayed mating behaviours, to and copulated with, females of both subspecies. Furthermore, P. rapae crucivora males exhibited mating behaviours and attempted to copulate with females of Pieris melete with low UV reflectance which are critically different from P. rapae crucivora females with high UV reflectance. Based on these findings, we propose the “pioneer male” hypothesis, which argues that such inaccurate mate recognition may sometimes be selectively beneficial for males and thus an adaptive mating strategy. The “pioneer male” was discussed in terms of its possible role in the evolution. PMID:19521057

Obara, Yoshiaki; Majerus, Mike E. N.

2009-01-01

47

Anther developmental defects in Arabidopsis thaliana male-sterile mutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

We identified Arabidopsis thaliana sterility mutants by screening T-DNA and EMS-mutagenized lines and characterized several male-sterile mutants with defects\\u000a specific for different anther processes. Approximately 44 and 855 sterile mutants were uncovered from the T-DNA and EMS screens,\\u000a respectively. Several mutants were studied in detail with defects that included the establishment of anther morphology, microspore\\u000a production, pollen differentiation, and anther

Paul M. Sanders; Anhthu Q. Bui; Koen Weterings; Katherine N. McIntire; Yung-Chao Hsu; Pei Yun Lee; Mai Thy Truong; T. P. Beals; R. B. Goldberg

1999-01-01

48

Investigation of methods for sterilization of potting compounds and mated surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of using formaldehyde-liberating synthetic resins or polymers for the sterilization of potting compounds, mated and occluded areas, and spacecraft surfaces was demonstrated. The detailed study of interrelated parameters of formaldehyde gas sterilization revealed that efficient cycle conditions can be developed for the sterilization of spacecraft components. It was determined that certain parameters were more important than others in the development of cycles for specific applications. The use of formaldehyde gas for the sterilization of spacecraft components provides NASA with a highly efficient method which is inexpensive, reproducible, easily quantitated, materials compatible, operationally simple, generally non-hazardous and not thermally destructive.

Tulius, J. J.; Daley, D. J.; Phillips, G. B.

1972-01-01

49

Evidence for minority male mating success and minority female mating disadvantage in Drosophila ananassae.  

PubMed

Frequency-dependent mating success was tested for three pairs of wild-type and mutant strains of Drosophila ananassae, MY and yellow body color (y), PN and claret eye color (ca), and TIR and cut wing (ct). The two strains of each pair were chosen for their approximately equal mating propensities. Multiple-choice experiments, using different experimental procedures, were employed. The tests were carried out by direct observation in Elens-Wattiaux mating chambers with five different sex ratios (4:16, 8:12, 10:10, 12:8, and 16:4). There was no assortative mating and sexual isolation between the strains, based on 2 x 2 contingency chi2 analysis and isolation estimate values. One-sided rare male mating advantages were found in two experiments, one for ca males and the other for wild-type males (TIR). However, no advantage was found for rare males in the experiment with MY and y flies. Mating disadvantages for rare females were found for sex-linked mutants (y and ct). Two different observational methods (removal or direct observation of mating pairs) imparted no overall significant effects on the outcome of the frequency-dependent mating tests. PMID:15841431

Som, Arundhati; Singh, Bashisth N

2005-01-01

50

Species-isolating mechanisms in a mating system with male mate choice (garter snakes,  

E-print Network

, Thamnophis sirtalis (L., 1758), and plains garter snakes, Thamnophis radix (Baird and Girard, 1853'isolement reproductif entre des taxons sympatri- ques. Les couleuvres rayées, Thamnophis sirtalis (L., 1758), et lesSpecies-isolating mechanisms in a mating system with male mate choice (garter snakes, Thamnophis

Mason, Robert T.

51

Reversible frequency-dependent switches in male mate choice.  

PubMed Central

Current sexual-selection theories predict that mating should occur preferentially with the highest-quality partner, and assume that for distinguishing among potential mates the choosy sex applies an internal representation of the characteristics of the desired mate, i.e. a template. Binary choice experiments were performed to test male mate choice between two different female colour morphs in the damselfly Ischnura elegans. Choice experiments were conducted before and after an habituation period, during which males were exposed to only one female colour morph. Given the choice between the two female morphs, males did exhibit a choice for the most recently experienced female morph. This is the first evidence for a reversible switch in mate choice in a frequency-dependent way. In contrast with previous studies on mate choice, template formation in male I. elegans seems not to be based on quality. Switching mate choice in a frequency-dependent manner, choosing the most common morph, probably allows males to minimize their search efforts and to maximize fitness. PMID:12123302

van Gossum, H; Stoks, R; De Bruyn, L

2001-01-01

52

Time-pattern and frequency analyses of sounds produced by irradiated and untreated male Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) during mating behavior  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Behavior and sounds associated with mating of mass-reared irradiated and untreated (non-irradiated) Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) males were analyzed using synchronous acoustic and video recordings. The flies tested were from a population used in sterile release programs that help maintain fruit-fly...

53

Multiple mating in a lekking bird: why do peahens mate with more than one male and with the same male more than once?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 50% of marked peahens (Pavo cristatus) mate more than once with lek males. Some females mate with more than one male, others copulate repeatedly with the same male. The frequency of courtship also shows marked variation. Some females repeatedly engage males in courtship interactions after they have succesfully copulated with them. The likelihood of mating with more than one

Marion Petrie; Marion Hall; Tim Halliday; Helen Budgey; Chris Pierpoint

1992-01-01

54

Low-oxygen atmospheric treatment improves the performance of irradiation-sterilized male cactus moths used in SIT.  

PubMed

As part of sterile insect technique (SIT) programs, irradiation can effectively induce sterility in insects by damaging genomic DNA. However, irradiation also induces other off-target side effects that reduce the quality and performance of sterilized males. Thus, treatments that reduce off-target effects of irradiation on male performance while maintaining sterility can improve the feasibility and economy of SIT programs. Exposure to ionizing radiation induces the formation of damaging free radicals in biological systems that may reduce sterile male performance. Here, we test whether exposure to an anoxic environment for 1 h before and during irradiation improves male performance, while maintaining sterility in males of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg). We show that exposure to 1 h of anoxia increases the moth's antioxidant capacity and that irradiation in anoxia after 1 h of anoxic conditioning decreases irradiation-induced oxidative damage to the moth's lipids and proteins. Anoxia treatment that reduced oxidative damage after irradiation also produced moths with greater flight performance, mating success, and longevity, while maintaining F1 male sterility at acceptable levels for SIT. We conclude that anoxia pretreatment followed by irradiation in anoxia is an efficient way to improve the quality of irradiated moths and perhaps lower the number of moths needed for release SIT moth operations. PMID:24665701

López-Martínez, Giancarlo; Carpenter, James E; Hight, Stephen D; Hahn, Daniel A

2014-02-01

55

Mating order and reproductive success in male Columbian ground squirrels (Urocitellus columbianus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple mating by females is common in many mammalian species, often resulting in mixed paternity litters. In such mating systems, mating order, male age, and male body mass frequently play an important role in determining male reproductive success. We tested for these effects on male reproductive success in Columbian ground squirrels (Urocitellus columbianus). The mating activity of estrous females was

Shirley Raveh; Dik Heg; F. Stephen Dobson; David W. Coltman; Jamieson C. Gorrell; Adele Balmer; Peter Neuhaus

2010-01-01

56

Reproductive Allocation and Resource Compensation in Male-Sterile and Hermaphroditic Plants of Plantago lanceolata (Plantaginaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gynodioecy is a breeding system in which hermaphrodites coexist with male steriles. Theoretical models predict that without any compensation in female fitness male steriles will disappear from a population due to their reproductive disad- vantage. In the present study I investigated whether male-sterile (MS), partially male-sterile (IN), and hermaphroditic (H) plants of Plantago lanceolata differed in reproductive growth and allocation.

Pieter Poot

1997-01-01

57

Manipulation of the microbiota of mass-reared Mediterranean fruit flies Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) improves sterile male sexual performance.  

PubMed

The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a method of biological control whereby millions of factory reared sterile male insects are released into the field. This technique is commonly used to combat the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata, Diptera: Tephritidae). Sterile medfly males are less competent in attracting and mating with wild females, a property commonly linked to the irradiation process responsible for the sterilization. As bacteria are important partners in the fly's life cycle, we used molecular analytical methods to study the community structure of the gut microbiota in irradiated male medflies. We find that the sterilizing irradiation procedure affects the gut bacterial community structure of the Mediterranean fruit fly. Although the Enterobacteriaceae family remains the dominant bacterial group present in the gut, the levels of Klebsiella species decreases significantly in the days after sterilization. In addition, we detected substantial differences in some bacterial species between the mass rearing strain Vienna 8 and the wild strain. Most notable among these are the increased levels of the potentially pathogenic species Pseudomonas in the industrial strain. Testing the hypothesis that regenerating the original microbiota community could result in enhanced competitiveness of the sterile flies, we found that the addition of the bacterial species Klebsiella oxytoca to the postirradiation diet enables colonization of these bacteria in the gut while resulting in decreased levels of the Pseudomonas sp. Feeding on diets containing bacteria significantly improved sterile male performance in copulatory tests. Further studies will determine the feasibility of bacterial amelioration in SIT operations. PMID:19617877

Ben Ami, Eyal; Yuval, Boaz; Jurkevitch, Edouard

2010-01-01

58

Male mating behavior and ejaculate expenditure under sperm competition  

E-print Network

; Simmons et al., 1993) and recently birds (Hunter et al., 2000; Nicholls et al., 2001). In fishes, in whichMale mating behavior and ejaculate expenditure under sperm competition risk in the eastern of their ejaculates according to temporal changes in the risk of sperm competition. Specifically, males are predicted

59

Male mate choice and sperm allocation in a sexual/asexual mating complex of Poecilia (Poeciliidae, Teleostei)  

PubMed Central

Male mate choice is critical for understanding the evolution and maintenance of sexual/asexual mating complexes involving sperm-dependent, gynogenetic species. Amazon mollies (Poecilia formosa) require sperm to trigger embryogenesis, but the males (e.g. Poecilia mexicana) do not contribute genes. Males benefit from mating with Amazon mollies, because such matings make males more attractive to conspecific females, but they might control the cost of such matings by providing less sperm to Amazon mollies. We examined this at the behavioural and sperm levels. P. mexicana males preferred to mate with, and transferred more sperm to conspecific females. However, if males mated with P. formosa, sperm was readily transferred. This underscores the importance of male choice in this system. PMID:17148157

Schlupp, I; Plath, M

2005-01-01

60

Sugar administration to newly emerged Aedes albopictus males increases their survival probability and mating performance.  

PubMed

Aedes albopictus male survival in laboratory cages is no more than 4-5 days when kept without any access to sugar indicating their need to feed on a sugar source soon after emergence. We therefore developed a device to administer energetic substances to newly emerged males when released as pupae as part of a sterile insect technique (SIT) programme, made with a polyurethane sponge 4 cm thick and perforated with holes 2 cm in diameter. The sponge was imbibed with the required sugar solution and due to its high retention capacity the sugar solution was available for males to feed for at least 48 h. When evaluated in lab cages, comparing adults emerged from the device with sugar solution vs the device with water only (as negative control), about half of the males tested positive for fructose using the Van Handel anthrone test, compared to none of males in the control cage. We then tested the tool in semi-field and in field conditions with different sugar concentrations (10%, 15%, and 20%) and compared results to the controls fed with water only. Males were recaptured by a battery operated manual aspirator at 24 and 48 h after pupae release. Rather high share 10-25% of captured males tested positive for fructose in recollections in the vicinity of the control stations, while in the vicinity of the sugar stations around 40-55% of males were positive, though variability between replicates was large. The sugar positive males in the control test may have been released males that had access to natural sugar sources found close to the release station and/or wild males present in the environment. Only a slight increase in the proportion of positive males was obtained by increasing the sugar concentration in the feeding device from 10% to 20%. Surprisingly, modification of the device to add a black plastic inverted funnel above the container reduced rather than increased the proportion of fructose positive males collected around the station. No evidence of difference in the capacity of sterile (irradiated with 30 Gy) males to take a sugar meal relative to fertile males was observed in field comparison. A clear effect of temperature and relative humidity (RH) on the rate of sugar positive males was observed, with an increase of temperature and a decrease in RH strongly increasing the % of sugar positive males. In large enclosures we tested the effect of our sugar supplying tool on the mating competitiveness of sterile vs fertile males, which produced an evident favorable effect both on sterile and fertile males. PMID:24299923

Bellini, Romeo; Puggioli, Arianna; Balestrino, Fabrizio; Brunelli, Paolo; Medici, Anna; Urbanelli, Sandra; Carrieri, Marco

2014-04-01

61

Males achieve greater reproductive success through multiple broods than through extrapair mating in house wrens  

Microsoft Academic Search

In polygynous species, it is unclear whether extrapair matings provide a better reproductive payoff to males than additional social mates. Male house wrens, Troglodytes aedon, show three types of social mating behaviour: single-brooded monogamy, sequential monogamy (two broods) and polygyny. Thus, male reproductive success can vary depending on the number of mates, the number of broods and the number of

Nicole E. Poirier; Linda A. Whittingham; Peter O. Dunn

2004-01-01

62

Phenotypic correlates and survival consequences of male mating success in lek-mating greater prairie-chickens ( Tympanuchus cupido )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female choice and male–male aggression are two modes of sexual selection that can lead to elaboration of male morphological\\u000a and behavioral traits. In lek-mating species, male mating success is often strongly skewed, and it is puzzling why variation\\u000a in male traits is still observed given directional female choice. If male traits correlated with reproductive success are\\u000a honest signals of male

Jacqueline K. Nooker; Brett K. Sandercock

2008-01-01

63

Association patterns among male and female spotted hyenas ( Crocuta crocuta ) reflect male mate choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although female animals tend to be choosier than males in selecting mates, sexual selection theory predicts that males should also be choosy when female fecundity varies. Reproductive success among female spotted hyenas varies greatly with social rank. Our goals were therefore to determine whether male hyenas preferentially associate with high-ranking females, and whether male preferences are affected by female reproductive

Micaela Szykman; Anne L. Engh; Russell C. Van Horn; Stephan M. Funk; Kim T. Scribner; Kay E. Holekamp

2001-01-01

64

Sexual reproduction in Daphnia pulex (Crustacea: Cladocera): observations on male mating behaviour  

E-print Network

Sexual reproduction in Daphnia pulex (Crustacea: Cladocera): observations on male mating behaviour conditions. Keywords: clone, Daphnia, inbreeding, mating behaviour, sexual reproduction Introduction with the dif®culty of locating and identifying poten- tial mates during sexual reproduction. Gerritsen (1980

Innes, David J.

65

The heritability of multiple male mating in a promiscuous mammal  

PubMed Central

The tendency of females to mate with multiple males is often explained by direct and indirect benefits that could outweigh the many potential costs of multiple mating. However, behaviour can only evolve in response to costs and benefits if there is sufficient genetic variation on which selection can act. We followed 108 mating chases of 85 North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) during 4 years, to measure each female's degree of multiple male mating (MMM), and used an animal model analysis of our multi-generational pedigree to provide what we believe is the first estimate of the heritability of MMM in the wild. Female red squirrels were highly polyandrous, mating with an average of 7.0 ± 0.2 males on their day of oestrus. Although we found evidence for moderate levels of additive genetic variation (CVA = 5.1), environmental variation was very high (CVE = 32.3), which resulted in a very low heritability estimate (h2 < 0.01). So, while there is genetic variation in this trait, the large environmental variation suggests that any costs or benefits associated with differences among females in MMM are primarily owing to environmental and not genetic differences, which could constrain the evolutionary response to natural selection on this trait. PMID:21159688

McFarlane, S. Eryn; Lane, Jeffrey E.; Taylor, Ryan W.; Gorrell, Jamieson C.; Coltman, David W.; Humphries, Murray M.; Boutin, Stan; McAdam, Andrew G.

2011-01-01

66

The heritability of multiple male mating in a promiscuous mammal.  

PubMed

The tendency of females to mate with multiple males is often explained by direct and indirect benefits that could outweigh the many potential costs of multiple mating. However, behaviour can only evolve in response to costs and benefits if there is sufficient genetic variation on which selection can act. We followed 108 mating chases of 85 North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) during 4 years, to measure each female's degree of multiple male mating (MMM), and used an animal model analysis of our multi-generational pedigree to provide what we believe is the first estimate of the heritability of MMM in the wild. Female red squirrels were highly polyandrous, mating with an average of 7.0 ± 0.2 males on their day of oestrus. Although we found evidence for moderate levels of additive genetic variation (CV(A) = 5.1), environmental variation was very high (CV(E) = 32.3), which resulted in a very low heritability estimate (h(2) < 0.01). So, while there is genetic variation in this trait, the large environmental variation suggests that any costs or benefits associated with differences among females in MMM are primarily owing to environmental and not genetic differences, which could constrain the evolutionary response to natural selection on this trait. PMID:21159688

McFarlane, S Eryn; Lane, Jeffrey E; Taylor, Ryan W; Gorrell, Jamieson C; Coltman, David W; Humphries, Murray M; Boutin, Stan; McAdam, Andrew G

2011-06-23

67

Novel male trait prolongs survival in suicidal mating  

PubMed Central

Male redback spiders (Latrodectus hasselti) maximize paternity if they copulate twice with their cannibalistic mate. Facilitating cannibalistic attack during their first copulation yields paternity benefits. However, females have paired sperm-storage organs inseminated during two separate copulations, so males that succumb to partial cannibalism during the first copulation lose at least 50% of their paternity to rivals. In this paper, we describe a novel male trait—an abdominal constriction that appears during courtship—that allows males to survive and mate with females for a second time, despite the substantial cannibalistic damage inflicted during the first copulation. Constricted males that were wounded to simulate early cannibalism had higher endurance, greater survivorship, longer subsequent courtship and higher mating success than wounded males that were not constricted. Constriction was not found in a non-sacrificial congener that rarely survived simulated cannibalism, and the protective effect of constriction in redbacks was specific to the type of damage inflicted by females during the first copulation. Thus, the abdominal constriction allows males to overcome the potential fitness limit imposed by their own suicidal strategy—paradoxically, by prolonging survival across two cannibalistic copulations. PMID:17148186

Andrade, Maydianne C.B; Gu, Lei; Stoltz, Jeffrey A

2005-01-01

68

DNA Loss at the Ceratocystis fimbriata Mating Locus Results in Self-Sterility  

PubMed Central

Fungi have evolved a remarkable diversity of reproductive strategies. Some of these, most notably those of the model fungi, have been well studied but others are poorly understood. The latter is also true for uni-directional mating type switching, which has been reported in only five fungal genera, including Ceratocystis. Mating type switching allows a self-fertile fungal isolate to produce both self-fertile and self-sterile offspring. This study considered the molecular nature of uni-directional mating type switching in the type species of Ceratocystis, C. fimbriata. To do this, the genome of C. fimbriata was first examined for the presence of mating type genes. Three mating genes (MAT1-1-1, MAT1-2-1 and MAT1-1-2) were found in an atypical organisation of the mating type locus. To study the effect that uni-directional switching has on this locus, several self-sterile offspring were analysed. Using a combination of next generation and conventional Sanger sequencing, it was shown that a 3581 base pair (bp) region had been completely deleted from the MAT locus. This deletion, which includes the entire MAT1-2-1 gene, results in the permanent loss of self-fertility, rendering these isolates exclusively self-sterile. Our data also suggest that the deletion mechanism is tightly controlled and that it always occurs at the same genomic position. Two 260 bp direct repeats flanking the deleted region are strongly implicated in the process, although the exact mechanism behind the switching remains unclear. PMID:24651494

Wilken, P. Markus; Steenkamp, Emma T.; Wingfield, Michael J.; de Beer, Z. Wilhelm; Wingfield, Brenda D.

2014-01-01

69

Sexual selection in lekking sage grouse: phenotypic correlates of male mating success  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mate choice cues in sage grouse were reinvestigated by analyzing relationships between male mating success and a range of suggested cues. Display cues were implicated by significant relationships between mating status (whether or not a male mated) and lek attendance, display rate (corrected for effects of female proximity and time of day) and an acoustic component related to temporal and

R. M. Gibson; J. W. Bradbury

1985-01-01

70

The molecular basis of cytoplasmic male sterility and fertility restoration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is a maternally inherited condition in which a plant is unable to produce functional pollen. It occurs in many plant species and is often associated with chimeric mitochondrial open reading frames. In a number of cases, transcripts originating from these altered open reading frames are translated into unique proteins that appear to interfere with mitochondrial function

Patrick S Schnable; Roger P Wise

1998-01-01

71

Extreme costs of mating for male two-spot ladybird beetles.  

PubMed

Male costs of mating are now thought to be widespread. The two-spot ladybird beetle (Adalia bipunctata) has been the focus of many studies of mating and sexual selection, yet the costs of mating for males are unknown. The mating system of A. bipunctata involves a spermatophore nuptial gift ingested by females after copulation. In this study, we investigate the cost to males of mating and of transferring spermatophores in terms of lifespan, ejaculate production and depletion of nutritional reserves. We found that males faced a strong trade-off between mating and survival, with males that were randomly assigned to mate a single time experiencing a 53% reduction in post-mating lifespan compared to non-mating males. This is among the most severe survival costs of a single mating yet reported. However, spermatophore transfer did not impact male survival. Instead, the costs associated with spermatophores appeared as a reduced ability to transfer spermatophores in successive matings. Furthermore, males ingested more food following spermatophore transfer than after matings without spermatophores, suggesting that spermatophore transfer depletes male nutritional reserves. This is to our knowledge the first report of an effect of variation in copulatory behaviour on male foraging behaviour. Overall, our study highlights the advantages of assessing mating costs using multiple currencies, and suggests that male A. bipunctata should exhibit mate choice. PMID:24339980

Perry, Jennifer C; Tse, Crystal T

2013-01-01

72

Extreme Costs of Mating for Male Two-Spot Ladybird Beetles  

PubMed Central

Male costs of mating are now thought to be widespread. The two-spot ladybird beetle (Adalia bipunctata) has been the focus of many studies of mating and sexual selection, yet the costs of mating for males are unknown. The mating system of A. bipunctata involves a spermatophore nuptial gift ingested by females after copulation. In this study, we investigate the cost to males of mating and of transferring spermatophores in terms of lifespan, ejaculate production and depletion of nutritional reserves. We found that males faced a strong trade-off between mating and survival, with males that were randomly assigned to mate a single time experiencing a 53% reduction in post-mating lifespan compared to non-mating males. This is among the most severe survival costs of a single mating yet reported. However, spermatophore transfer did not impact male survival. Instead, the costs associated with spermatophores appeared as a reduced ability to transfer spermatophores in successive matings. Furthermore, males ingested more food following spermatophore transfer than after matings without spermatophores, suggesting that spermatophore transfer depletes male nutritional reserves. This is to our knowledge the first report of an effect of variation in copulatory behaviour on male foraging behaviour. Overall, our study highlights the advantages of assessing mating costs using multiple currencies, and suggests that male A. bipunctata should exhibit mate choice. PMID:24339980

Perry, Jennifer C.; Tse, Crystal T.

2013-01-01

73

Male mate choice selects for female coloration in a fish  

PubMed Central

Although sexual selection theory has proved successful in explaining a wide array of male ornaments, the function of ornaments occurring in females is largely unknown. Traditionally, female ornaments have been considered nonfunctional, being merely a genetically correlated response to selection for male ornamentation. However, this hypothesis is only relevant to species in which the ornament is basically the same in the two sexes. Alternatively, female ornaments may be influenced by selection acting directly on the females, either through female–female competition or male choice. We tested the latter hypothesis in mate-choice experiments with two-spotted gobies (Gobiusculus flavescens). In this small marine fish, females have bright yellow-orange bellies during the breeding season, a conspicuous trait that is not present in males. We conducted two aquarium experiments to test whether males preferred to mate with more colorful females. In the first experiment, males had a choice between two females that varied in natural coloration (and belly roundness). In the second experiment, we manipulated belly coloration and kept roundness constant. Males spent more time with colorful than with drab females in both experiments and also performed far more courtship displays toward colorful females. Our study provides experimental evidence that males prefer ornamented females in a fish that is not sex-role reversed, supporting the hypothesis that female ornamentation is sexually selected. PMID:11606720

Amundsen, Trond; Forsgren, Elisabet

2001-01-01

74

Males achieve greater reproductive success through multiple broods than through extrapair mating in house wrens  

E-print Network

provide a better reproductive payoff to males than additional social mates. Male house wrens, Troglodytes aedon, show three types of social mating behaviour: single-brooded monogamy, sequential monogamy (two

Dunn, Peter O.

75

Gynodioecy in plantago lanceolata L. II Inheritance of three male sterility types2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inheritance of male sterility has been studied in Plantago lanceolata. Crosses between plants, obtained from a 50 m2 area, yielded the entire array of possible sex phenotypes. Emphasis is put on nuclear inheritance of two nuclear-cytoplasmically determined male sterility types. In both types multiple interacting genes are involved. For MS1 a combination of two recessive and three dominant male sterility

J M M van Damme

1983-01-01

76

Tolerance of Low Temperature and Sterilizing Irradiation in Males of Glossina pallidipes (Diptera: Glossinidae).  

PubMed

Investigations into the possibility of using the chilled adult release system are continuing as an alternative method to the release of sterile tsetse flies, Glossina pallidipes Austen (Diptera: Glossinidae) in cardboard boxes. Exposing tsetse flies to 4°C for 6?h caused negligible mortality. A combination of chilling and irradiation resulted in reduced quantities of seminal contents being transferred to females. Mortality of flies after bulk irradiation was lower when a thermos flask was used than expanded polystyrene. Mortality after removal from cold storage increased with age. Flies that did not have a blood meal for 3 d prior to exposure to cold had a lower overnight survival than flies that were deprived of a blood meal for 1 or 2 d. Exposure of adult male tsetse flies to low temperature should be for as short a duration as is practical, so that the fitness of the released sterile flies is not unduly compromised. It is also necessary to ensure that losses are minimized during bulk irradiation of adult flies. It would be desirable to have minimal losses after the combined effects of irradiation, cold, and transportation, such that a sufficient number of sterile male flies will still be available to successfully compete for mating opportunities with wild females. PMID:25527576

Mutika, Gratian Nyambirai; Parker, Andrew Gordon

2014-01-01

77

Limited mating opportunities and male monogamy: a field study of white widow spiders, Latrodectus pallidus (Theridiidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reproductive success of a male is thought to be a function of the number of females he fertilizes. Nevertheless, various naturally occurring male behaviours seem to reduce dramatically the probability of obtaining additional matings. Such behaviours are expected when mating opportunities are limited for males and when males compete strongly for females or fertilizations. In widow spiders, males cohabit

Michal Segoli; Ally R. Harari; Yael Lubin

2006-01-01

78

Assortative mating and differential male mating success in an ash hybrid zone population  

PubMed Central

Background The structure and evolution of hybrid zones depend mainly on the relative importance of dispersal and local adaptation, and on the strength of assortative mating. Here, we study the influence of dispersal, temporal isolation, variability in phenotypic traits and parasite attacks on the male mating success of two parental species and hybrids by real-time pollen flow analysis. We focus on a hybrid zone population between the two closely related ash species Fraxinus excelsior L. (common ash) and F. angustifolia Vahl (narrow-leaved ash), which is composed of individuals of the two species and several hybrid types. This population is structured by flowering time: the F. excelsior individuals flower later than the F. angustifolia individuals, and the hybrid types flower in-between. Hybrids are scattered throughout the population, suggesting favorable conditions for their local adaptation. We estimate jointly the best-fitting dispersal kernel, the differences in male fecundity due to variation in phenotypic traits and level of parasite attack, and the strength of assortative mating due to differences in flowering phenology. In addition, we assess the effect of accounting for genotyping error on these estimations. Results We detected a very high pollen immigration rate and a fat-tailed dispersal kernel, counter-balanced by slight phenological assortative mating and short-distance pollen dispersal. Early intermediate flowering hybrids, which had the highest male mating success, showed optimal sex allocation and increased selfing rates. We detected asymmetry of gene flow, with early flowering trees participating more as pollen donors than late flowering trees. Conclusion This study provides striking evidence that long-distance gene flow alone is not sufficient to counter-act the effects of assortative mating and selfing. Phenological assortative mating and short-distance dispersal can create temporal and spatial structuring that appears to maintain this hybrid population. The asymmetry of gene flow, with higher fertility and increased selfing, can potentially confer a selective advantage to early flowering hybrids in the zone. In the event of climate change, hybridization may provide a means for F. angustifolia to further extend its range at the expense of F. excelsior. PMID:17107611

Gérard, Pierre R; Klein, Etienne K; Austerlitz, Frédéric; Fernández-Manjarrés, Juan F; Frascaria-Lacoste, Nathalie

2006-01-01

79

The best time to have sex: mating behaviour and effect of daylight time on male sexual competitiveness in the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).  

PubMed

Aedes albopictus is the most invasive mosquito worldwide and works as a vector for many important pathogens. Control tools rely to chemical treatments against larvae, indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated bed nets. Recently, huge efforts have been carried out to propose new eco-friendly alternatives, such as evaluation of plant-borne compounds and sterile insect technique (SIT) programs. Success of SIT is dependent to the ability of sterile males to compete for mates with wild ones. Little is still known about mating behaviour of Aedes males. Most of the studies focus on comparisons of insemination ability in sterilised and wild males, while behavioural analyses of mating behaviour are lacking. Here, I quantified the courtship and mating behaviour of A. albopictus and evaluated how daylight hours affect male mating behaviour and success. A. albopictus males chased females facing them frontally, from behind, or from a lateral side. If the female allowed genital contact, copulation followed. Otherwise, females performed rejection kicks and/or flew away. Thirty-seven percent of males obtained a successful copulation (i.e. sperm transfer occurs), lasting 63?±?4 s. Unsuccessful copulation (20 % of males) had shorter duration (18?±?1 s). Successful copulations followed longer male courtships (39?±?3 s), over courtships preceding unsuccessful copulation (20?±?2 s) or male's rejection (22?±?2 s). After copulation, the male rested 7?±?0.4 s close to the female, then move off. In a semi-natural environment, male mating success was lower in early afternoon, over morning and late afternoon. However, little differences in courtship duration over daylight periods were found. This study adds knowledge to the reproductive behaviour of A. albopictus, which can be used to perform comparisons among courtship and mating ethograms from different mosquito species and strains, allowing monitoring and optimisation of mass rearing quality over time in SIT programs. PMID:25487029

Benelli, Giovanni

2014-12-10

80

Cytoplasmic Male Sterility in Barley. Xi. the msm2 Cytoplasm  

PubMed Central

A new cytoplasmic male sterility in barley (Hordeum vulgare s.l.) is described and designated as msm2. The cytoplasm was derived from a selection of the wild progenitor of barley (H. vulgare ssp. spontaneum). This selection, 79BS14-3, originates from the Southern Coastal Plain of Israel. The selection 79BS14-3 has a normal spike fertility in Finland. When 79BS14-3 was crossed by cv. Adorra, the F1 displayed partial male fertility and progeny of recurrent backcrosses with cv. Adorra were completely male sterile. Evidently 79BS14-3 is a carrier of a recessive or semidominant restorer gene of fertility. The dominant restorer gene Rfm1a for another cytoplasmic male sterility, msm1, is also effective in msm2 cytoplasm. The different partial fertility restoration properties of msm2 and msm1 cause these cytoplasms to be regarded as being distinct. Seventy spontaneum accessions from Israel have been studied for their capacity to produce F1 restoration of male fertility both in msm1 and in msm2 cytoplasms with a cv. Adorra-like seed parent (nuclear gene) background. The msm2 cytoplasm shows partial restoration more commonly than msm1 in these F1 combinations. The mean restoration percentage per accession for msm2 is 28, and for msm1 4. Most of the F1 seed set differences of the two cytoplasms are statistically significant. When estimated with partially restored F1 combinations, msm2 cytoplasm appeared to be about 50 times more sensitive to the male fertility-promoting genes present in the spontaneum accessions. The spontaneum sample from Central and Western Negev, which has been found to be devoid of restoration ability in msm1 cytoplasm, had only low partial restoration ability in msm2 (mean 0.3%). The female fertility of msm2 appears normal. The new msm2 cytoplasm could be useful in producing hybrid barley. PMID:17246095

Ahokas, H.

1982-01-01

81

Body size, male aggression, and male mating success in the cottonwood borer, Plectrodera scalator (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The natural history and mating system ofPlectrodera scalator exhibit several unusual characteristics. Larvae and adults feed on the wood and foliage, respectively, of the same plant,Populus deltoides. The population sex ratio, based on censuses of oviposition areas, is female-biased. Females are significantly larger than males, yet males are intensely aggressive. Larger males tend to win escalated battles, which involve grasping

Steven K. Goldsmith; Zoe Stewart; Stacie Adams; Angela Trimble

1996-01-01

82

Hybrid male sterility in rice controlled by interaction between divergent alleles of two adjacent genes  

E-print Network

Hybrid male sterility in rice controlled by interaction between divergent alleles of two adjacent hybrid sterility reproductive barrier two-gene/three-component model Hybrid sterility is the most common, Kobe, Japan, October 9, 2008 (received for review July 27, 2008) Sterility is common in hybrids between

Nachman, Michael

83

Cytoplasmic male sterility in Plantago lanceolata L.: differences between male-sterile cytoplasms at the DNA and RNA-level  

Microsoft Academic Search

To establish the feasibility of a cytoplasmtype assay based on molecular hybridizations, mitochondrial DNAs from the two male-sterile cytoplasms of Plantago lanceolata (P and R) were compared by restriction endonuclease digestion. We cloned a 1.1 kbp Eco RI-HindIII fragment from P-mtDNA (pPl-311), which on hybridization to Southern blots of Bam HI digested mtDNA and total DNA from plants with P-cytoplasm,

G. J. A. Rouwendal; J. M. M. Damme; J. G. H. Wessels

1987-01-01

84

Male-male competition and large size mating advantage in European earwigs, Forficula auricularia.  

PubMed

European earwigs are sexually dimorphic in forceps shape and length. Male forceps are thought to be weapons in male contests for access to females, but recent findings suggest that females choose males on the basis of their forceps length. I investigated sexual selection on forceps length and body size and the occurrence of male-male competition. When I controlled for forceps length experimentally and statistically, relatively heavy males had greater copulation success than relatively light males. When I controlled for body size, males with relatively longer forceps had no tendency for greater copulation success than males with shorter forceps. Relatively heavy males more often took over copulations from smaller males than vice versa. Male contests were important for the outcome of mate competition, as males commonly interrupted and took over copulations. My results therefore suggest that intrasexual selection is significant in competition for copulations in male earwigs, and acts on body size. This contrasts with previous findings, which have shown intersexual selection on forceps length to be important. However, both modes of sexual selection may be acting through a two-stage process, where male-male competition first determines which males have access to females, and then through female choice among available males. Morphological measurements supported the conclusion that forceps length and body size are male secondary sexual characters, as these characters had large variance and skewed distributions in males, but were normally distributed in females. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:10792930

Forslund

2000-04-01

85

Male Mating Competitiveness of a Wolbachia-Introgressed Aedes polynesiensis Strain under Semi-Field Conditions  

PubMed Central

Background Lymphatic filariasis (LF), a global public health problem affecting approximately 120 million people worldwide, is a leading cause of disability in the developing world including the South Pacific. Despite decades of ongoing mass drug administration (MDA) in the region, some island nations have not yet achieved the threshold levels of microfilaremia established by the World Health Organization for eliminating transmission. Previously, the generation of a novel Aedes polynesiensis strain (CP) infected with an exogenous type of Wolbachia has been described. The CP mosquito is cytoplasmically incompatible (i.e., effectively sterile) when mated with wildtype mosquitoes, and a strategy was proposed for the control of A. polynesiensis populations by repeated, inundative releases of CP males to disrupt fertility of wild females. Such a strategy could lead to suppression of the vector population and subsequently lead to a reduction in the transmission of filarial worms. Methodology/Principal Findings CP males and F1 male offspring from wild-caught A. polynesiensis females exhibit near equal mating competitiveness with F1 females under semi-field conditions. Conclusions/Significance While laboratory experiments are important, prior projects have demonstrated the need for additional testing under semi-field conditions in order to recognize problems before field implementation. The results reported here from semi-field experiments encourage forward progression toward small-scale field releases. PMID:21829750

Bossin, Hervé; Dobson, Stephen L.

2011-01-01

86

Mating success of male bushy-tailed woodrats: when bigger is not always better  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the factors that regulate mating opportunities of male bushy-tailed woodrats (Neotoma cinerea), we used stepwise multiple regression on measurable morphological and behavioral traits. DNA fingerprinting was used to determine the paternity of juveniles, allowing mating success (the number of females mated with), and reproductive success (the number of offspring fathered) to be quantified. Both measures of male success

Michael G. Topping; John S. Millar

1999-01-01

87

Female Initiated Divorce in a Monogamous Songbird: Abandoning Mates for Males of Higher Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Divorcing a current partner to re-pair with a mate of higher quality may be a strategy to increase reproductive success used by socially monogamous birds. By increasing the availability of males through selective mate removal during the nest building period, we found that female black-capped chickadees, Parus atricapillus, will desert their mates to pair with males of higher social rank,

Ken Otter; Laurene Ratcliffe

1996-01-01

88

[Genetic study on two maize male sterile mutants obtained by space mutagenesis].  

PubMed

Two maize male sterile mutants were selected from the offspring of four maize inbred lines, which were carried into space by the Shenzhou spaceship 4. Their genetic characteristic and stability was analyzed in present study. Crosses were made between the male sterile plants and fertile plants from the same line, and other inbred lines with normal cytoplasm. The ratios of the sterile plants with the fertile plants in their F1, F2 generations, and their reciprocal backcross generations with the male sterile plants were calculated. The results showed that the characteristic in male sterility was stable in different years, different seasons and different locations, and was inheritable from generation to generation. This male sterile was controlled by a single nuclear recessive gene. Since no pollens or a few malformed pollens existed in the anther of the sterile plants, it was a completely sterile type. PMID:17650492

Li, Yu-Ling; Yu, Yong-Liang; Liu, Yan-Xia; Li, Xue-Hui; Fu, Jia-Feng

2007-06-01

89

Oxytocin mediates the antidepressant effects of mating behavior in male mice.  

PubMed

A significant association between plasma oxytocin (OT) levels and depression has been demonstrated. A recent study found that sexual activity and mating with a female induced the release of OT in the central nervous system of male rats. Here we examined the effect of mating behavior on depression-related behavior in wild-type (WT) and OT receptor-deficient (OTR KO) male mice. The WT males showed a reduction in depression-related behavior after mating behavior, but the OTR KO mice did not. Application of an OTR antagonist inhibited mating behavior-induced antidepressant effect in WT males. OT may mediate the antidepressant effects of mating behavior. PMID:20600375

Matsushita, Hiroaki; Tomizawa, Kazuhito; Okimoto, Naoki; Nishiki, Tei-Ichi; Ohmori, Iori; Matsui, Hideki

2010-10-01

90

Expression of Engineered Nuclear Male Sterility in Brassica napus (Genetics, Morphology, Cytology, and Sensitivity to Temperature).  

PubMed Central

A dominant genetic male sterility trait obtained through transformation in rapeseed (Brassica napus) was studied in the progenies of 11 transformed plants. The gene conferring the male sterility consists of a ribonuclease gene under the control of a tapetum-specific promoter. Two ribonuclease genes, RNase T1 and barnase, were used. The chimaeric ribonuclease gene was linked to the bialophos-resistance gene, which confers resistance to the herbicide phosphinotricine (PPT). The resistance to the herbicide was used as a dominant marker for the male sterility trait. The study presented here concerns three aspects of this engineered male sterility: genetics correlated with the segregation of the T-DNA in the progenies; expression of the male sterility in relation to the morphology and cytology of the androecium; and stability of the engineered male sterility under different culture conditions. Correct segregation, 50% male-sterile, PPT-resistant plants, and 50% male-fertile, susceptible plants were observed in the progeny of seven transformants. The most prominent morphological change in the male-sterile flowers was a noticeable reduction in the length of the stamen filament. The first disturbances of microsporogenesis were observed from the free microspore stage and were followed by a simultaneous degeneration of microspore and tapetal cell content. At anthesis, the sterile anthers contained only empty exines. In some cases, reversion to fertility of male-sterile plants has been observed. Both ribonuclease genes are susceptible to instability. Instability of the RNase T1-male sterility trait increased at temperatures higher than 25[deg] C. Our results do not allow us to confirm this observation for the barnase male-sterile plants. However, the male-sterile plants of the progeny of two independent RNase T1 transformants were stably male sterile under all conditions studied. PMID:12231785

Denis, M.; Delourme, R.; Gourret, J. P.; Mariani, C.; Renard, M.

1993-01-01

91

[Genetic analysis of maize cytoplasmic male sterile mutants obtained by space flight].  

PubMed

Three maize male sterile mutants were obtained from the offsprings of two maize inbred lines 18-599 and 08-641, which were carried into space by the Shijian 8 Satellite. The stability of male sterile expression was observed in different locations, years, and seasons. In order to analyze the genetic characteristic of male sterility, testcross, backcross and reciprocal cross were made with these male sterile plants. The results showed that the male sterility character was stable in different locations, years, and seasons, and the sterility was inheritable. Because the maintainer lines and restorer lines for these sterile materials were found, and there was no male sterile plant separated among the reciprocal cross F2. Thus, we concluded that these mutants could be cytoplasmic male sterile. Combining the results of male fertility restoration test and PCR analysis, we could conclude that the three male sterile mutants were classified into the CMS-C type in maize. Owing to their difference in fertility restoration, these mutants may belong to different subgroups of CMS-C type. The discovery of the three male sterile mutants increased the genetic diversity of CMS-C type, improved the tolerance to Bipolaris maydis, and laid a foundation for extensive application of CMS-C in seeds production. PMID:21377975

Zhang, Cai-Bo; Yuan, Guo-Zhao; Wang, Jing; Pan, Guang-Tang; Rong, Ting-Zhao; Cao, Mo-Ju

2011-02-01

92

Feeding on Papaya Flowers Enhances Mating Competitiveness of Male Oriental Fruit Flies, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Males of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), are attracted to and feed on methyl eugenol. The goal of the present study was to determine whether feeding on a methyl eugenol-bearing plant, papaya ( Carica papaya L.) would result in a mating advantage for B. dorsalis males. Mating frequencies of males given access to flowers (treated) and flower-deprived males

Todd E. Shelly

93

Mitochondrion role in molecular basis of cytoplasmic male sterility.  

PubMed

Cytoplasmic male sterility and its fertility restoration via nuclear genes offer the possibility to understand the role of mitochondria during microsporogenesis. In most cases rearrangements in the mitochondrial DNA involving known mitochondrial genes as well as unknown sequences result in the creation of new chimeric open reading frames, which encode proteins containing transmembrane domains. So far, most of the CMS systems have been characterized via restriction fragment polymorphisms followed by transcript analysis. However, whole mitochondrial genome sequence analyses comparing male sterile and fertile cytoplasm open options for deeper insights into mitochondrial genome rearrangements. We more and more start to unravel how mitochondria are involved in triggering death of the male reproductive organs. Reduced levels of ATP accompanied by increased concentrations of reactive oxygen species, which are produced more under conditions of mitochondrial dysfunction, seem to play a major role in the fate of pollen production. Nuclear genes, so called restorer-of-fertility are able to restore the male fertility. Fertility restoration can occur via pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins or via different mechanisms involving non-PPR proteins. PMID:24732436

Horn, Renate; Gupta, Kapuganti J; Colombo, Noemi

2014-11-01

94

Coalitionary mate guarding by male chimpanzees at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cooperative mate guarding by males is unusual in mammals and birds, largely because fertilizations are non-shareable. Chimpanzees\\u000a live in fission-fusion communities that have cores of philopatric males who cooperate in inter-group aggression and in defending\\u000a access to the females in their community. Male contest mating competition is restrained within communities, but single high-ranking\\u000a males sometimes try to mate guard estrous

David P. Watts

1998-01-01

95

[Genetic analysis about maize male sterile mutant obtained by space flight].  

PubMed

The seeds of maize single hybrid Chuandan No. 9 were carried into space in 1996 by satellite. After the seeds were planted in field in comparison with travel in space seeds which was not carried into space. Fortunately, male sterile plants were discovered in one of the ear rows. The stability of male sterile expression was observed in different years, different locations and different generations. In order to analysis the genetic characteristic of male sterility, test cross, sister cross, back cross, reciprocal cross and self-pollination were conducted with these male sterile plants. The results showed that the male sterility was stable in different years and different locations, it is inheritable from generation to generation. The sterility is controlled by a single nuclear recessive gene. The appearance of male sterile mutant is the conclusion of gene mutation which happened in nuclear by space flight. This mutant material always accompanies with lower plant height. PMID:14577372

Cao, Mo-Ju; Rong, Ting-Zhao; Pan, Guang-Tang

2003-09-01

96

Sterilization.  

PubMed

Male and female sterilization is a safe and effective form of permanent contraception. The number of patients accepting this method has rapidly increased over the last ten years and is likely to continue. In some countries the rate has plateaued out: in the USA it has been 31 per cent of all married women for the last eight years. Before sterilization it is important that adequate counselling is given to both partners and that the decision is not hurried. This is emphasized by the number of women and men requesting reversal of sterilization (thought to be between 0.1 and 10 per cent of all sterilizations). These requests for reversal usually come from couples who have remarried, tend to be younger, have fewer live children, have had more abortions, less schooling and are poor users of contraception. In these high-risk patients counselling and time to make the decision is essential. Other studies indicate that regret after puerperal sterilization may be commoner, but the risks of further pregnancies have to be weighed against sterilization regret. The methodology of male sterilization has changed little in the last ten years; it is simple and usually done under local anaesthesia. In contrast, female sterilization methods are constantly being refined, from laparotomy to laparoscopy and from extensive tubal destruction or excision to minimal tubal damage. The common methods now are mini-laparotomy and laparoscopy under local or general anaesthesia, with tubal occlusion by clips, rings or bipolar or thermal coagulation. There is no place now for unipolar diathermy, because of the higher complication rate, especially for major complications such as bowel burns. Recent multicentre studies comparing different methods give low rates for immediate morbidity and surgical complications (0.8 to 2.5 per cent of cases). Technical failure is rare but often due to a pre-existing condition, for example obesity or previous pelvic disease. Some failures are due, however, to difficulties with the instruments, especially at laparoscopy; here further developments and the use of teaching aids for those in training will help to reduce problems. Mortality from female sterilization is low, at 2 to 10 per 100 000 procedures; however, half is due in part to anaesthetic complications (hypoventilation), which can be avoided by intubation, and others are due to pre-existing medical conditions. Long-term follow-up has now shown that sterilization does not cause an increase in menstrual blood loss.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:6239731

Newton, J R

1984-12-01

97

Male sterility and enhanced radiation sensitivity in TLS–/– mice  

PubMed Central

TLS (also known as FUS) is an RNA-binding protein that contributes the N-terminal half of fusion oncoproteins implicated in the development of human liposarcomas and leukemias. Here we report that male mice homozygous for an induced mutation in TLS are sterile with a marked increase in the number of unpaired and mispaired chromosomal axes in pre-meiotic spermatocytes. Nuclear extracts from TLS–/– testes lack an activity capable of promoting pairing between homologous DNA sequences in vitro, and TLS–/– mice and embryonic fibroblasts exhibit increased sensitivity to ionizing irradiation. These results are consistent with a role for TLS in homologous DNA pairing and recombination. PMID:10654943

Kuroda, Masahiko; Sok, John; Webb, Lisa; Baechtold, Heidi; Urano, Fumihiko; Yin, Yin; Chung, Peter; de Rooij, Dirk G.; Akhmedov, Alexandre; Ashley, Terry; Ron, David

2000-01-01

98

All Male Strains and Chemical Stimulants: Two Ways to Boost Sterile Males in SIT Programs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Genetic and chemical means have been developed to significantly improve the effectiveness of the sterile insect technique against tephritid fruit flies in recent years. Beginning with the development of genetic sexing techniques some 25 years ago, all-male strains of several species of fruit flies h...

99

Testosterone correlates of mate guarding, singing and aggressive behaviour in male barn swallows, Hirundo rustica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual and social behaviour in male birds is largely controlled by gonadal secretions, most notably testosterone. In this paper the relationships between natural testosterone plasma concentrations and mate guarding, singing and rates of aggression in male barn swallows are reported. Behaviour of individually marked male swallows was observed in three breeding colonies. Individual mate-guarding rate was positively correlated with individual

N. SAINO; A. P. MØLLER

1995-01-01

100

Mating frequency of the male cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae), under laboratory conditions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study evaluated the number of times that males of the invasive cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) mate under laboratory conditions. Virgin females were provided to each male at 24 h intervals until male death. Females removed from the containers were dissected to ascertain their mating ...

101

Anim. Behav., 1998, 55, 16311635 Sex recognition and mate choice by male western toads, Bufo boreas  

E-print Network

Anim. Behav., 1998, 55, 1631­1635 Sex recognition and mate choice by male western toads, Bufo and mate choice in male western toads, Bufo boreas. When given a simultaneous choice between a male & Cohen 1995). Frog and toad advertisement calls may be considered a form of long-range courtship (Rand

Blaustein, Andrew R.

102

Adaptive significance of postcopulatory guarding of mates and nonmates by male Calopteryx maculata (Odonata)  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The postcopulatory behavior of the damselfly Calopteryx maculata (De Beauvois) (Odonata: Calopterygidae) was studied in field populations to determine the adaptive significance of guarding of ovipositing females by males. Of particular interest was an explanation for the guarding of ovipositing nonmates by males. A promiscuous mating system and the large variation in mating success (Table 1) among territorial males indicated

Jonathan K. Waage

1979-01-01

103

Mating Tactics and Reproductive Success in Male Columbian Ground Squirrels (Urocitellus columbianus) .  

E-print Network

??The widespread discovery of multiple mating tactics, particularly among males, highlights the diverse ways sexual selection may operate within a population. In polygynandrous populations, multiple… (more)

Balmer, Adele

2010-01-01

104

Female Preferences for Unmated Versus Mated Males in Two Species of Voles (Microtus ochrogaster and Microtus montanus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

One criterion of mate choice, female preferences for unmated versus mated males, was examined for prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster), a generally monogamous species, and montane voles (M. montanus), a generally polygamous species. In tether tests and anesthetization tests, prairie vole females preferentially associated with unmated males over males that had been mated for three ejaculations prior to testing. When mated

John D. Pierce; Donald A. Dewsbury

1991-01-01

105

Flexible mate choice: a male snake's preference for larger females is modified by the sizes of females encountered  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why do males exert strong mate choice in some taxa but not others? Theory suggests that mate discrim- ination will enhance male fitness when encounter rates with potential mates are high, when those poten- tial mates vary in the fitness consequences likely to accrue from an attempted insemination, and when courting one female reduces the male's opportunity to court other

Richard Shine; Jonathan K. Webb; Robert T. Mason

2006-01-01

106

The Effects of Perceived Mating Opportunities on Patterns of Reproductive Investment by Male Guppies  

PubMed Central

Males pay considerable reproductive costs in acquiring mates (precopulatory sexual selection) and in producing ejaculates that are effective at fertilising eggs in the presence of competing ejaculates (postcopulatory sexual selection). Given these costs, males must balance their reproductive investment in a given mating to optimise their future reproductive potential. Males are therefore expected to invest in reproduction prudently according to the likelihood of obtaining future matings. In this study we tested this prediction by determining whether male reproductive investment varies with expected future mating opportunities, which were experimentally manipulated by visually exposing male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) to high or low numbers of females in the absence of competing males. Our experiment did not reveal consistent effects of perceived future mating opportunity on either precopulatory (male mate choice and mating behaviour) or postcopulatory (sperm quality and quantity) investment. However, we did find that male size and female availability interacted to influence mating behaviour; large males visually deprived of females during the treatment phase became more choosy and showed greater interest in their preferred female than those given continuous visual access to females. Overall, our results suggest males tailor pre- rather than postcopulatory traits according to local female availability, but critically, these effects depend on male size. PMID:24705713

Barrett, Luke T.; Evans, Jonathan P.; Gasparini, Clelia

2014-01-01

107

Sexual competitiveness of Vienna 4\\/Tol-94 ‘genetic sexing’ sterile mediterranean fruit fly males in Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sterile insect technique (SIT) is used as an environment-friendly means of suppressing Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata; ‘medfly’) populations in the Arava valley of Israel. The technique depends on released sterile males effectively wresting\\u000a the reproductive potential away from wild, fertile males. Studies carried out in other countries have indicated that sterile\\u000a males may sometimes be of inferior sexual

Phillip W. Taylor; Allon Bear; Yoav Gazit; Yoram Rössler

2001-01-01

108

A Test for Rare Male Mating Advantage with DROSOPHILA PSEUDOOBSCURA Karyotypes  

PubMed Central

Recent work has called into question the reality of the rare male mating advantage, pointing out that it could be a statistical artifact of marking flies for behavioral observation or of experimental bias in collecting males. We designed an experiment to test for rare male mating advantage that avoids these sources of bias. Large numbers of males of three Drosophila pseudoobscura karyotypes were allowed to mate with females of one karyotype in population cages. The females were then isolated before multiple mating occurred and their progeny used to diagnose the males that mated them. Populations were studied at five sets of male karyotypic frequencies. The mating success of the male homokaryotypes ST/ST and CH/CH, relative to that of the heterokaryotype ST/CH, was frequency dependent. Both ST/ST and CH/CH males displayed a statistically significant mating advantage at low frequency by comparision with their mating success in the midrange of karyotypic frequencies. Both male homokaryotypes also showed a significantly greater mating success at high homokaryotypic frequency than at intermediate frequencies, which is the same as saying that the heterokaryotype not only failed to show a rare male advantage but actually suffered a mating disadvantage at low frequency. We conclude that rare male mating advantage is not always an experimental or methodological artifact but does occur in laboratory populations of D. pseudoobscura. It may occur for some genotypes and not for others, however, and it may be only one of several forms of frequency-dependent mating behavior operating in a population. PMID:17246224

Anderson, Wyatt W.; Brown, Celeste J.

1984-01-01

109

Specific expression in reproductive tissues and fate of a mitochondrial sterility-associated protein in cytoplasmic male-sterile bean.  

PubMed Central

In common bean, cytoplasmic male sterility has been associated with a unique sequence found in the mitochondrial genome, designated pvs (for Phaseolus vulgaris sterility sequence). Within the pvs sequence, two open reading frames are encoded, ORF98 and ORF239. We have raised rabbit polyclonal antibodies against Pvs-ORF239 to evaluate the role of this putative male sterility-associated protein. Histological investigation of pollen development revealed that in the male-sterile bean line, callose deposition was abnormal and microspores remained as tetrads as previously reported. Pvs-ORF239 was found to be localized within the reproductive tissues of the male-sterile bean line, in contrast to all other cytoplasmic male sterility systems studied to date. This protein was associated with mitochondria, the callose layer, and developing primary cell walls during microsporogenesis. Expression of pvs-orf239 was not detected in fertile plants containing restorer gene Fr2. These observations, together with previous reports, suggest that nuclear restorer gene Fr2 interferes with expression of the pvs region post-transcriptionally. PMID:7734962

Abad, A R; Mehrtens, B J; Mackenzie, S A

1995-01-01

110

Possible mitochondrial involvement in mechanism of cytoplasmic male sterility in maize ( Zea mays L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism of cytoplasmic male sterility was investigated in maize by isolating mitochondria from seedlings and various anther stages and analyzing cytochrome oxidase and succinic dehydrogenase biochemically and electrophoretically. Sterile anthers exhibited a lack of biochemical activity and fewer isozymatic bands for cytochrome oxidase. No apparent differences were detected biochemically or electrophoretically between fertile and sterile anthers for succinate dehydrogenase.

C. V. Watson; J. Nath; Dave Nanda

1977-01-01

111

Pushy males and choosy females: courtship disruption and mate choice in the lekking great snipe  

PubMed Central

We studied the effects of male disruptive behaviour on female mate choice and male mating success in the great snipe, Gallinago media, a lekking bird. Harassment from neighbouring males, a widespread behaviour in lekking animals, was the most prevalent cause of females leaving a male territory. Several lines of evidence show that females did not prefer to mate with males able to protect them from harassment. Males that obtained mating success were no less likely to suffer disruptions and females were no less likely to be disrupted when with their preferred male. Females returned to the male they later mated with, despite being repeatedly chased away by neighbours. The probability that an individual female returned and solicited mating from a male was 15 times higher for the male she was chased away from compared to the neighbour that chased her away. Females returned as often or more to the territory owner after being disrupted, compared to after leaving the territory without being harassed. Our results suggest that female great snipes are extremely choosy, but also that females do not gain direct benefits (harassment avoidance) by mating with certain males. Females appear to have neither direct nor indirect preferences for dominance that could give them such benefits: females appeared choosy despite, not because of, harassment. If females gain indirect benefits (genetically superior offspring) by being choosy, this is also likely to be unrelated to any dominance among males.

ther, S. A. S; Fiske, P.; s, J. A. K l

1999-01-01

112

Sterilizing effects of cobalt-60 and cesium-137 radiation on male sea lampreys  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Male spawning-run sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus were exposed to various doses of cobalt-60 or cesium-137 radiation in an attempt to sterilize them for use in a program for controlling sea lampreys through the release of sterile males. Males captured and irradiated during the early part of the upstream migration were not effectively sterilized at the doses tested. After irradiation, the sea lampreys were more susceptible to fungal infections by Saprolegnia sp., and many died without attempting to spawn. Males captured and irradiated during the middle and late parts of the spawning migration were effectively sterilized at a dose of 2,000 rads. However, some radiation-induced mortality was observed in males captured and irradiated during the middle part of the spawning migration. Radiation is not as effective as the chemosterilant bisazir for sterilizing male sea lampreys.

Hanson, L.H.

1990-01-01

113

No male agonistic experience effect on pre-copulatory mate choice in female earwigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mating with dominant males may confer considerable benefits, but also incur significant costs, hence intrasexual competitiveness\\u000a is a likely target of mate choice. In addition to established modes of mate assessment, females may use cues or signals associated\\u000a with agonistic experience effects to assess the relative competiveness of males. Experience effects, where the outcome of\\u000a a fight increases the likelihood

Emile van Lieshout; Ellen van Wilgenburg; Mark Adrian Elgar

2009-01-01

114

Male mate choice and malemale competition coexist in the humpback whale (Megaptera  

E-print Network

Male mate choice and male­male competition coexist in the humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) Alison S. Craig, Louis M. Herman, and Adam A. Pack Abstract: Male humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae more commonly in all-adult pods than in pods containing a calf. We concluded that male humpback whales

Hawaii at Hilo, University of

115

Effects of body size on male mating tactics and paternity in black bears, Ursus americanus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reproductive behaviour of large, solitary mammals is difficult to study. Owing to their secretive nature and wide-ranging habits, aspects of male mating behaviour are poorly documented in solitary than in social species. We used radiotelemetry and microsatellite DNA analysis to investigate the influence of body size on male mating tac- tics and short-term reproductive success in the black bear,

Adrienne I. Kovach; Roger A. Powell

2003-01-01

116

Nuptial gift-giving behaviour and male mating effort in the Neotropical spider Paratrechalea ornata (Trechaleidae)  

E-print Network

Nuptial gift-giving behaviour and male mating effort in the Neotropical spider Paratrechalea ornata selection spider nuptial gift The occurrence of nuptial gifts is rare in spiders, being well known only courtship. Although some males can mate without offering a prey, the gift in this species is thought

Wisenden, Brian D.

117

Female choice and the benefits of mate guarding by male mallards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pair formation and breeding in many species of waterfowl are separated both temporally and spatially. Most studies of female choice in this group have focused on male characteristics at the time of pairing, with less attention given to how mate choice affects breeding season outcomes. In this study I compared pairing success, male plasma testosterone level and mate-guarding ability of

Ellen S. Davis

2002-01-01

118

Food and the deceptive acquisition of mates by polygynous male harriers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female northern harriers Circus cyaneus are polygynous, marsh-nesting raptors, whose mate choices are enigmatic. I determined the mate choice cues employed by females by correlating the order in which males were chosen with characters that 1) significantly influenced reproductive success; 2) were assessable prior to settlement; and 3) varied between breeding situations. Only nest sites and male provisioning performance met

R. E. Simmons

1988-01-01

119

Behavior Genetics, Vol. 10, No. 2, 1980 Relative Male Age, Fertility, and Competitive Mating  

E-print Network

Behavior Genetics, Vol. 10, No. 2, 1980 Relative Male Age, Fertility, and Competitive Mating age on mating success in D. melanogaster. Experiments were conducted with a Canton-S (CS) strain, in which two virgin males of dif- ferent ages (2, 4, or 8 days old) were offered to virgin females. Older

Markow, Therese

120

Fertilization dynamics of sperm from different male mating tactics in bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus)  

E-print Network

Fertilization dynamics of sperm from different male mating tactics in bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus (Lepomis macrochirus Rafinesque, 1819) mâles en fonction de deux tactiques d'accouplement, celles de l the fertilization dynamics of alternative mating tactics (cuckolders and parentals) of male bluegill (Lepomis

Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht

121

Mate guarding and paternity in mandrills: factors influencing alpha male monopoly  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used long-term data on mate guarding and paternity in mandrills, Mandrillus sphinx, (1) to examine cycle day and cycle selection by males; (2) to examine associations between male rank, periovulatory mate guarding and paternity outcome; (3) to test the predictions of the priority-of-access model; and (4) to investigate factors influencing the ability of alpha males to monopolize females. Males

JOANNA M. S ETCHELL; MARIE C HARPENTIER; E. JEAN WICKINGS

2005-01-01

122

Feminization of pheromone-sensing neurons affects mating decisions in Drosophila males.  

PubMed

The response of individual animals to mating signals depends on the sexual identity of the individual and the genetics of the mating targets, which represent the mating social context (social environment). However, how social signals are sensed and integrated during mating decisions remains a mystery. One of the models for understanding mating behaviors in molecular and cellular terms is the male courtship ritual in the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster). We have recently shown that a subset of gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs) that are enriched in the male appendages and express the ion channel ppk23 play a major role in the initiation and maintenance of male courtship via the perception of cuticular contact pheromones, and are likely to represent the main chemosensory pathway that influences mating decisions by males. Here we show that genetic feminization of ppk23-expressing GRNs in male flies resulted in a significant increase in male-male sexual attraction without an apparent impact on sexual attraction to females. Furthermore, we show that this increase in male-male sexual attraction is sensory specific, which can be modulated by variable social contexts. Finally, we show that feminization of ppk23-expressing sensory neurons lead to major transcriptional shifts, which may explain the altered interpretation of the social environment by feminized males. Together, these data indicate that the sexual cellular identity of pheromone sensing GRNs plays a major role in how individual flies interpret their social environment in the context of mating decisions. PMID:24463366

Lu, Beika; Zelle, Kathleen M; Seltzer, Raya; Hefetz, Abraham; Ben-Shahar, Yehuda

2014-01-01

123

Feminization of pheromone-sensing neurons affects mating decisions in Drosophila males  

PubMed Central

Summary The response of individual animals to mating signals depends on the sexual identity of the individual and the genetics of the mating targets, which represent the mating social context (social environment). However, how social signals are sensed and integrated during mating decisions remains a mystery. One of the models for understanding mating behaviors in molecular and cellular terms is the male courtship ritual in the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster). We have recently shown that a subset of gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs) that are enriched in the male appendages and express the ion channel ppk23 play a major role in the initiation and maintenance of male courtship via the perception of cuticular contact pheromones, and are likely to represent the main chemosensory pathway that influences mating decisions by males. Here we show that genetic feminization of ppk23-expressing GRNs in male flies resulted in a significant increase in male–male sexual attraction without an apparent impact on sexual attraction to females. Furthermore, we show that this increase in male–male sexual attraction is sensory specific, which can be modulated by variable social contexts. Finally, we show that feminization of ppk23-expressing sensory neurons lead to major transcriptional shifts, which may explain the altered interpretation of the social environment by feminized males. Together, these data indicate that the sexual cellular identity of pheromone sensing GRNs plays a major role in how individual flies interpret their social environment in the context of mating decisions. PMID:24463366

Lu, Beika; Zelle, Kathleen M.; Seltzer, Raya; Hefetz, Abraham; Ben-Shahar, Yehuda

2014-01-01

124

Plasticity in adult development: experience with young males enhances mating competence in adult male cowbirds, Molothrus ater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The social environment can play an important role in organizing organisms' behavioural development. We studied the effect on adult male cowbirds' communication and mating- related behaviour of being housed in social groups with juvenile males. In two large outdoor aviaries, we housed adult males, juvenile females and adult females either with or without juvenile males. Conditions remained intact from

David J. White; Andrew P. King; Meredith J. West

2002-01-01

125

Hybridization using cytoplasmic male sterility and herbicide tolerance from nuclear genes  

SciTech Connect

An improved process is described for producing a substantially homogeneous population of plants of a predetermined hybrid variety of a crop which is capable of undergoing both self-pollination and cross-pollination. This process comprises: growing in a first planting area a substantially random population of cytoplasmic male sterile plants which exhibit tolerance to at least one herbicide attributable solely to homozygous dominant nuclear genes, and male fertile plants which are capable of pollinating the cytoplasmic male sterile plants and which lack the herbicide tolerance because the presence of homozygous recessive nuclear genes for such trait. The cytoplasmic male sterile plants and the male fertile plants are pollinated with pollen derived from the male fertile plants. Seed is formed on the cytoplasmic male sterile plants and on the male fertile plants. Harvesting in bulk the seed is formed on the plants of the first planting area.

Beversdorf, W.D.; Erickson, L.R.; Grant, I.

1987-04-14

126

Natural genetic variation in complex mating behaviors of male Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

Mating behavior, including courtship and copulation, is a main component of male fitness, especially in species with no parental care. Variation in this behavior can thus be a target for mate choice and sexual selection, and can lead to evolution. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has well-documented complex male courtship comprised of a sequence behaviors, and is an ideal model for behavior-genetic analysis. In order to evaluate genetic differences in the temporal pattern of mating behavior, we developed a high-throughput method that allows us to document the progression of male courtship and copulation using an ordinal scale (male mating progression scale, MMP). Using this method, we document natural genetic variation in the temporal pattern of behavior that was not detected using other metrics. This method was robust enough to detect genetic variation in this trait for males placed with both virgin and mated female targets. PMID:18369720

Ruedi, Elizabeth A; Hughes, Kimberly A

2008-07-01

127

Gynodioecy in Plantago lanceolata L. III. Sexual reproduction and the maintenance of male steriles1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of the reproductive part of the life cycle for the maintenance of the gynodioecious breeding system in Plantago lanceolata has been studied. Two male sterility types (MS1, MS2), the corresponding partial male sterility types or intermediates (IN1, IN2) and hermaphrodites (H) have been compared in four populations for seed production (ovule production [ ] female fertility) and weight

J M M Van Damme

1984-01-01

128

Early events in speciation: Polymorphism for hybrid male sterility in Drosophila  

E-print Network

Early events in speciation: Polymorphism for hybrid male sterility in Drosophila Laura K. Reed of hybrid male sterility in crosses between Drosophila mojavensis and its sister species, Drosophila variation in the Drosophila melanogaster species group. Mutations that rescue inviable hybrids have been

Markow, Therese

129

Improving mating performance of mass-reared sterile Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) through changes in adult holding conditions: demography and mating competitiveness  

SciTech Connect

Mass rearing conditions affect the mating behavior of Mediterranean fruit flies (medflies) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). We evaluated the effect of slight changes in the adult holding conditions of adult flies maintained for egg production on their mating performance. Colonization was initiated from wild flies collected as larvae from infested coffee berries (Coffea arabica L.). When pupae were close to adult emergence, they were randomly divided into 3 groups and the emerging adults were reared under the following conditions: (1) Metapa System (MS, control), consisting of 70 x 45 x 15 cm aluminum frame, mesh covered cages, with a density of 2,200 flies per cage and a 1:1 initial sex ratio; (2) Insert System (IS), with the same type of cage, and the same fly density and sex ratio as in the MS treatment, but containing twelve Plexiglas pieces (23 x 8.5 cm) to provide additional horizontal surface areas inside the cage; and (3) Sex-ratio System (SS), same as IS, but in this case the initial male: female ratio was 4:1. Three d later, newly emerged females were introduced, so the ratio became 3:1 and on the 6th d another group of newly emerged females was added to provide a 2:1 final sex ratio, at which the final density reached 1,675 flies per cage. The eggs collected from each of the 3 treatments were reared independently following standard procedures and the adults were held under the same experimental conditions. This process was repeated for over 10 to 13 generations (1 year). The experiment was repeated 3 times in 3 consecutive years, starting each replicate with a new collection of wild flies. Life tables were constructed for each treatment at the parental, 3rd, 6th, and 9th generations. Standard quality control parameters (pupation at 24 h, pupal weight, adult emergence, and flight ability), were estimated for each treatment every third generation in the third year. For the last generation each year, mating competitiveness was evaluated in field cage tests with wild flies. As colonization progressed, life expectancy and fecundity rates increased in the 3 rearing systems. There was no significant difference in standard quality control parameters among the 3 rearing systems. Wild males always achieved more matings than any of the mass reared males. Mating competitiveness of males from the IS, although surprisingly not from the SS, was significantly greater than that of males from the MS. Our results indicate that these slight changes in the adult holding conditions can significantly reduce the harmful effects of mass rearing on the mating performance of sterile flies. (author) [Spanish] Se ha demostrado que las condiciones de cria masiva afectan el comportamiento de apareamiento de la mosca del Mediterraneo Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Nosotros evaluamos el efecto de ligeros cambios en las condiciones en las que los adultos son mantenidos para la produccion de huevos, en el desempeno de apareamiento de las moscas esteriles. La colonizacion se inicio con moscas silvestres colectadas como larvas en cerezas de cafe (Coffea arabica L.) infestadas. Cuando las pupas estuvieron cerca de la emergencia de los adultos, se dividieron en tres grupos al azar y los adultos recien emergidos fueron criados en las siguientes condiciones: (1) Sistema Metapa (MS, testigo), consistente en jaulas con marco de aluminio de 70 x 45 x 15 cm, cubiertas con malla, con una densidad de 2,200 moscas por jaula y una relacion de sexos inicial de 1:1; (2); Sistema Insertos (IS), con el mismo tipo de jaula, densidad de moscas, y relacion de sexos que en el MS, pero conteniendo 12 piezas de plexiglas (23 x 8.5 cm) para proporcionar superficie horizontal al interior de la jaula; y (3) Sistema de Relacion de Sexos (SS), igual que el IS, pero en este caso la relacion inicial macho: hembra fue de 4:1, tres dias despues se introdujeron hembras recien emergidas para tener una relacion de 3:1 y en el 6 dia se anadio otro grupo de hembras para tener una relacion final de sexos de 2:1, que equivale a una densidad final de 1,675 moscas por jaula. Los huevos

Liedo, P.; Salgado, S.; Oropeza, A.; Toledo, J. [Departamento de Entomologia Tropical, El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, Apartado Postal 36, C. P. 30700, Tapachula, Chiapas (Mexico)

2007-03-15

130

Genetic Basis of the Sterile Insect Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of the sterile insect technique (SIT) for insect control relies on the introduction of sterility in the females of the wild population. This sterility is produced following the mating of these females with released males carrying, in their sperm, dominant lethal mutations that have been induced by ionizing radiation. The reasons why the SIT can only be effective

A. S. ROBINSON

131

Mothers matter! Maternal support, dominance status and mating success in male bonobos (Pan paniscus)  

PubMed Central

Variation in male mating success is often related to rank differences. Males who are unable to monopolize oestrous females alone may engage in coalitions, thus enhancing their mating success. While studies on chimpanzees and dolphins suggest that coalitions are independent of kinship, information from female philopatric species shows the importance of kin support, especially from mothers, on the reproductive success of females. Therefore, one might expect a similar effect on sons in male philopatric species. We evaluate mating success determinants in male bonobos using data from nine male individuals from a wild population. Results reveal a steep, linear male dominance hierarchy and a positive correlation between dominance status and mating success. In addition to rank, the presence of mothers enhances the mating success of sons and reduces the proportion of matings by the highest ranking male. Mothers and sons have high association rates and mothers provide agonistic aid to sons in conflicts with other males. As bonobos are male-philopatric and adult females occupy high dominance status, maternal support extends into adulthood and females have the leverage to intervene in male conflicts. The absence of female support to unrelated males suggests that mothers gain indirect fitness benefits by supporting their sons. PMID:20810444

Surbeck, Martin; Mundry, Roger; Hohmann, Gottfried

2011-01-01

132

Rare male mating advantage in a natural population of Drosophila pseudoobscura.  

PubMed Central

The natural selection acting on chromosomal inversions was studied in a natural population of Drosophila pseudoobscura. Females from this population were allowed to produce offspring from their matings in nature. They were then remated to males from a laboratory strain and again allowed to produce offspring. Offspring were also produced from matings of males from nature to laboratory females. Diagnosis of salivary chromosomes in these several sets of larval offspring allowed us to deduce the karyotypes of adult females and males from nature as well as the karyotypes of the offspring of these females by their matings in nature. We reason that the males collected with the females are a reasonable sample of those that mated the females and deposited the sperm they carried on capture. Chromosome frequencies in the offspring of wild females by their matings in nature were decomposed into male and female parental contributions. Changes in chromosome frequency due to male mating success were calculated by comparing chromosomal frequencies in adult males with those in the chromosomes they contributed to their offspring. These changes were sizable and provide direct evidence that male sexual selection is an important component of selection on the inversions in this natural population. We proceeded further to classify karyotypes on the basis of their frequencies and to calculate the fraction of offspring fathered by rare or common males. Rare male karyotypes as a group had a selective value nearly twice that of the common male karyotypes. PMID:3200863

Salceda, V M; Anderson, W W

1988-01-01

133

Variation in the Male Pheromones and Mating Success of Wild Caught Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

Drosophila melanogaster males express two primary cuticular hydrocarbons (male-predominant hydrocarbons). These act as sex pheromones by influencing female receptivity to mating. The relative quantities of these hydrocarbons vary widely among natural populations and can contribute to variation in mating success. We tested four isofemale lines collected from a wild population to assess the effect of intrapopulation variation in male-predominant hydrocarbons on mating success. The receptivity of laboratory females to males of the four wild-caught lines varied significantly, but not consistently in the direction predicted by variation in male-predominant hydrocarbons. Receptivity of the wild-caught females to laboratory males also varied significantly, but females from lines with male-predominant hydrocarbon profiles closer to a more cosmopolitan one did not show a correspondingly strong mating bias toward a cosmopolitan male. Among wild-caught lines, the male-specific ejaculatory bulb lipid, cis-vaccenyl acetate, varied more than two-fold, but was not associated with variation in male mating success. We observed a strong inverse relationship between the receptivity of wild-caught females and the mating success of males from their own lines, when tested with laboratory flies of the opposite sex. PMID:21858189

Scott, David; Shields, Alicia; Straker, Michaela; Dalrymple, Heidi; Dhillon, Priya K.; Harbinder, Singh

2011-01-01

134

Does mating prevent monogamous males from seeking other females? A study in prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster).  

PubMed

Male prairie voles form pair bonds under laboratory conditions, but show a variety of mating tactics in nature. We tested them in the laboratory to determine if their decision to reproduce with a single or multiple females is related to how they process sensory information from females. Three groups of mated males were tested for their attentiveness toward two females and their odors. Males given a choice to investigate a box holding their mate or a box holding a sexually receptive female spent more time with the box of the sexually receptive female than that of their mate. Similar results were found when females were removed and replaced by their odors. However, males did not attend preferentially to the sexually receptive female under all circumstances. When given a choice between a sexually unreceptive and a sexually receptive female, males did not display a difference in their attentiveness. Furthermore, males tested in presence of their mate were more attentive to the odor of the sexually receptive female than males tested in presence of a sexually unreceptive female. The data suggest that access to the mate's sensory cues may influence male's decision to seek females other than his mate. PMID:24140461

Rodriguez, Natalia A; Legzim, Karine M; Aliou, Fayeza; Al-Naimi, Omar Ali S; Bamshad, Maryam

2013-11-01

135

Females remate more frequently when mated with sperm-deficient males.  

PubMed

Polyandry is a source of sexual conflict and males often try to limit female promiscuity. Consequently, male manipulation of receptivity via antiaphrodisiacs and copulatory plugs that prevent female remating can be a source of sexual conflict. This sexual conflict may be intensified when females must remate for fertility insurance. Male red-sided garter snakes produce a large, gelatinous copulatory plug that has been proposed to 1) physically prevent remating and 2) contain an antiaphrodisiac that reduces female receptivity. These males may become sperm depleted because of their dissociated reproductive pattern. If a female mates with a sperm deficient male and is also rendered unreceptive to further mating, then this represents a serious conflict. We tested whether female remating frequency is affected when females are mated with a male that produces a sperm-less copulatory plug. We show that females are significantly more likely to remate after mating with vasectomized males than intact males, even though vasectomized males still produce a copulatory plug. These results suggest that the ejaculate material of the plug does not contain an antiaphrodisiac. Instead, females may use sperm as a cue for post-copulatory mate assessment and seek to remate for the direct benefit of fertility insurance if they have mated with sperm-depleted males. PMID:25366702

Friesen, Christopher R; Uhrig, Emily J; Mason, Robert T

2014-12-01

136

Mate choice when males are in patches: optimal strategies and good rules of thumb  

Microsoft Academic Search

In standard mate-choice models, females encounter males sequentially and decide whether to inspect the quality of another male or to accept a male already inspected. What changes when males are clumped in patches and there is a significant cost to travel between patches? We use stochastic dynamic programming to derive optimum strategies under various assumptions. With zero costs to returning

John M. C. Hutchinson; Konrad Halupka

2004-01-01

137

Variation in Male Fertilities and Pairwise Mating Probabilities in Picea glauca  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frequencies of multilocus male gametes in seeds collected from clones in several blocks of a white spruce seed orchard were analyzed as part of a 2-yr study of mating system variation in this species. Observed frequencies of male gamete types departed significantly from those expected assuming equal male fertilities among clones. Male gamete frequencies in seed crops were significantly hetero-

D. J. Schoen; S. C. Stewart

1987-01-01

138

The evolution of optimal female mating rate changes the coevolutionary dynamics of female resistance and male persistence  

PubMed Central

Mating decisions usually involve conflict of interests between sexes. Accordingly, males benefit from increased number of matings, whereas costs of mating favour a lower mating rate for females. The resulting sexual conflict underlies the coevolution of male traits that affect male mating success (‘persistence’) and female traits that affect female mating patterns (‘resistance’). Theoretical studies on the coevolutionary dynamics of male persistence and female resistance assumed that costs of mating and, consequently, the optimal female mating rate are evolutionarily constant. Costs of mating, however, are often caused by male ‘persistence’ traits that determine mating success. Here, we present a model where the magnitude of costs of mating depend on, and evolve with, male persistence. We find that allowing costs of mating to depend on male persistence results in qualitatively different coevolutionary dynamics. Specifically, we find that male traits such as penis spikes that harm females are not predicted to exhibit runaway selection with female resistance, in contrast to previous theory that predicts indefinite escalation. We argue that it is essential to determine when and to what extent costs of mating are caused by male persistence in order to understand and accurately predict coevolutionary dynamics of traits involved in mating decisions. PMID:22777021

Kazanc?o?lu, Erem; Alonzo, Suzanne H.

2012-01-01

139

Do female garter snakes evade males to avoid harassment or to enhance mate quality?  

PubMed

Females of many species behave in ways that make it difficult for males to locate, court, and inseminate them. Two hypotheses have been advanced to explain such behavior: either a female thereby minimizes costs of harassment (sexual conflict model) or by playing "hard to get" she discourages inferior suitors (indirect mate choice model). Our studies of garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) at a communal den in Manitoba support an interpretation of sexual conflict rather than indirect mate choice. Female snakes dispersed rapidly from the den through areas with relatively few males rather than waiting for additional courtship. Many females dispersed without mating. Experimental (pheromonal) manipulation of the intensity of courtship accelerated rates of female dispersal rather than delaying dispersal, as would be predicted if females wait to obtain matings. The behaviors of females escaping from courting groups were maximally effective in losing their suitors regardless of the number of courting males or whether or not the female was capable of mating (recently mated females cannot mate again because of a mating plug). In total, our data are most consistent with the hypothesis that female garter snakes at communal dens evade males to escape harassment rather than to enhance mate quality. PMID:15937746

Shine, Richard; Wall, Michael; Langkilde, Tracy; Mason, Robert T

2005-06-01

140

Male mating bias and its potential reproductive consequence in the butterfly Colias eurytheme  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male mating biases may be a widespread feature of animal mating systems but the phenotypic consequences of these biases are\\u000a often unclear, especially in species for which the operational sex ratio is strongly male-biased. In Colias butterflies, male choice is thought to be one of the factors responsible for maintaining a female-limited genetic color polymorphism,\\u000a in which female wings appear

Darrell J. Kemp

2007-01-01

141

Evaluating the potential of the sterile insect technique for malaria control: relative fitness and mating compatibility between laboratory colonized and a wild population of Anopheles arabiensis from the Kruger National Park, South Africa  

PubMed Central

Background The successful suppression of a target insect population using the sterile insect technique (SIT) partly depends on the premise that the laboratory insects used for mass rearing are genetically compatible with the target population, that the mating competitiveness of laboratory reared males is at least comparable to that of their wild counterparts, and that mass rearing and sterilization processes do not in themselves compromise male fitness to a degree that precludes them from successfully competing for mates in the wild. This study investigated the fitness and sexual cross-compatibility between samples of field collected and laboratory reared An. arabiensis under laboratory conditions. Results The physiological and reproductive fitness of the MALPAN laboratory strain is not substantially modified with respect to the field population at Malahlapanga. Further, a high degree of mating compatibility between MALPAN and the Malahlapanga population was established based on cross-mating experiments. Lastly, the morphological characteristics of hybrid ovarian polytene chromosomes further support the contention that the MALPAN laboratory colony and the An. arabiensis population at Malahlapanga are genetically homogenous and therefore compatible. Conclusions It is concluded that the presence of a perennial and isolated population of An. arabiensis at Malahlapanga presents a unique opportunity for assessing the feasibility of SIT as a malaria vector control option. The MALPAN laboratory colony has retained sufficient enough measures of reproductive and physiological fitness to present as a suitable candidate for male sterilization, mass rearing and subsequent mass release of sterile males at Malahlapanga in order to further assess the feasibility of SIT in a field setting. PMID:22041133

2011-01-01

142

Female extrapair mating behavior can evolve via indirect selection on males  

PubMed Central

In many species that form socially monogamous pair bonds, a considerable proportion of the offspring is sired by extrapair males. This observation has remained a puzzle for evolutionary biologists: although mating outside the pair bond can obviously increase the offspring production of males, the benefits of such behavior to females are less clear, yet females are known to actively solicit extrapair copulations. For more than two decades adaptionist explanations have dominated the discussions, yet remain controversial, and genetic constraint arguments have been dismissed without much consideration. An intriguing but still untested hypothesis states that extrapair mating behavior by females may be affected by the same genetic variants (alleles) as extrapair mating behavior by males, such that the female behavior could evolve through indirect selection on the male behavior. Here we show that in the socially monogamous zebra finch, individual differences in extrapair mating behavior have a hereditary component. Intriguingly, this genetic basis is shared between the sexes, as shown by a strong genetic correlation between male and female measurements of extrapair mating behavior. Hence, positive selection on males to sire extrapair young will lead to increased extrapair mating by females as a correlated evolutionary response. This behavior leads to a fundamentally different view of female extrapair mating: it may exist even if females obtain no net benefit from it, simply because the corresponding alleles were positively selected in the male ancestors. PMID:21670288

Forstmeier, Wolfgang; Martin, Katrin; Bolund, Elisabeth; Schielzeth, Holger; Kempenaers, Bart

2011-01-01

143

Mating Experience and Food Deprivation Modulate Odor Preference and Dispersal in Drosophila melanogaster Males  

PubMed Central

Rotting fruits offer all of the known resources required for the livelihood of Drosophila melanogaster Meigen (Diptera: Drosophilidae). During fruit fermentation, carbohydrates and proteins are decomposed to produce volatile alcohols and amines, respectively. It is hypothesized that D. melanogaster adults can detect these chemical cues at a distance to identify and locate the decaying fruits. In the present paper, we compared the olfactory responses and movement of male flies varying in mating status and nutritional state to methanol, ethanol, and ammonia sources using a glass Y-tube olfactometer. In general, ethanol vapor at low to moderate concentrations repelled more hungry mated males than satiated ones. In contrast, methanol showed little difference in the attractiveness to males at different nutritional states and mating status. Moreover, ammonia attracted more hungry mated males. The attractiveness increased almost linearly with ammonia concentration from lowest to highest. When ammonia and artificial diet were put together in the odor arm, the responses of male flies to mixed odor mimicked the response to ammonia. Furthermore, odorant concentration, mating status, and nutritional state affected the flies' dispersal. Mated and starved males dispersed at a higher rate than virgin and satiated ones. Thus, our results showed that starved, mated males increased dispersal and preferred ammonia that originated from protein. PMID:25368075

Wang, Shu-Ping; Guo, Wei-Yan; Muhammad, Shahid Arain; Chen, Rui-Rui; Mu, Li-Li; Li, Guo-Qing

2014-01-01

144

Consequences of snowy winters on male mating strategies and reproduction in a mountain ungulate.  

PubMed

Alternative mating tactics (AMTs) are intrasexual variants in mating behaviour of several species ranging from arthropods to mammals. Male AMTs coexist between and within populations. In particular, male ungulates rarely adopt just one tactic throughout their lifetime. Tactics commonly change according to internal factors (age, body size, condition) and external conditions (weather, resources, predation, animal density). However, the influence of weather has not yet been investigated in upper vertebrates. Such influence may be relevant in species whose rutting period occurs late in fall or in winter, when environmental conditions and the snow cover in particular may vary considerably. We detected two AMTs in Alpine ibex (Capra ibex) males: older and full-grown males mainly adopted the tending tactic, while younger males usually pursued an alternative one (coursing tactic). Weather was found to influence the use of AMTs by males: in snowy mating seasons, the coursing tactic was no longer used due to difficulties in moving through deep snow. In snowy rutting periods, males appeared to delay or even avoid mating activities and a decrease of births was reported in the second part of the following birth season. Snow cover may have a negative effect on population dynamics by reducing the recruitment and on population genetic variability, as a consequence of poorer mating opportunities. Studies on factors affecting mating behaviour and leading to a reduced availability of mates and a decrease in female productivity are especially relevant in species, like Alpine ibex, whose genetic variability is low. PMID:23669063

Apollonio, Marco; Brivio, Francesca; Rossi, Iva; Bassano, Bruno; Grignolio, Stefano

2013-09-01

145

Multiple mating in Calopteryx maculata (Odonata: Calopterygidae) and the advantage of non-contact guarding by males  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. (1)Both males and females in a population of Calopteryx maculata mated more than once in the course of a single afternoon. The possibility that females might mate with an intruder or with a neighbouring territory owner may have favoured the evolution of guarding behaviour by males. Territorial males employed non-contact guarding of their mates. They perched on vegetation overlooking

John Alcock

1979-01-01

146

Mating in the red-sided garter snake, Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis : differential effects on male and female sexual behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female red-sided garter snakes, Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis, become unattractive to most males after mating in the field and in the laboratory. Male red-sided garter snakes vary in their latencies to court attractive females following copulation, with courtship resuming in minutes to hours. Unsuccessful males in mating balls disperse from mating pairs, but are not residually inhibited from courting attractive females.

Joan M. Whittier; Robert T. Mason; David Crews

1985-01-01

147

Genetic determination of male sterility in gynodioecious Silene nutans  

PubMed Central

Gynodioecy, the coexistence of female and hermaphrodite plants within a species, is often under nuclear–cytoplasmic sex determination, involving cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) genes and nuclear restorers. A good knowledge of CMS and restorer polymorphism is essential for understanding the evolution and maintenance of gynodioecy, but reciprocal crossing studies remain scarce. Although mitochondrial diversity has been studied in a few gynodioecious species, the relationship between mitotype diversity and CMS status is poorly known. From a French sample of Silene nutans, a gynodioecious species whose sex determination remains unknown, we chose the four most divergent mitotypes that we had sampled at the cytochrome b gene and tested by reciprocal crosses whether they carry distinct CMS genes. We show that gynodioecy in S. nutans is under nuclear–cytoplasmic control, with at least two different CMSs and up to four restorers with epistatic interactions. Female occurrence and frequency were highly dependent on the mitotype, suggesting that the level of restoration varies greatly among CMSs. Two of the mitotypes, which have broad geographic distributions, represent different CMSs and are very unequally restored. We discuss the dynamics of gynodioecy at the large-scale meta-population level. PMID:20808324

Garraud, C; Brachi, B; Dufay, M; Touzet, P; Shykoff, J A

2011-01-01

148

Genetic determination of male sterility in gynodioecious Silene nutans.  

PubMed

Gynodioecy, the coexistence of female and hermaphrodite plants within a species, is often under nuclear-cytoplasmic sex determination, involving cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) genes and nuclear restorers. A good knowledge of CMS and restorer polymorphism is essential for understanding the evolution and maintenance of gynodioecy, but reciprocal crossing studies remain scarce. Although mitochondrial diversity has been studied in a few gynodioecious species, the relationship between mitotype diversity and CMS status is poorly known. From a French sample of Silene nutans, a gynodioecious species whose sex determination remains unknown, we chose the four most divergent mitotypes that we had sampled at the cytochrome b gene and tested by reciprocal crosses whether they carry distinct CMS genes. We show that gynodioecy in S. nutans is under nuclear-cytoplasmic control, with at least two different CMSs and up to four restorers with epistatic interactions. Female occurrence and frequency were highly dependent on the mitotype, suggesting that the level of restoration varies greatly among CMSs. Two of the mitotypes, which have broad geographic distributions, represent different CMSs and are very unequally restored. We discuss the dynamics of gynodioecy at the large-scale meta-population level. PMID:20808324

Garraud, C; Brachi, B; Dufay, M; Touzet, P; Shykoff, J A

2011-05-01

149

Cytoplasmic male sterility in Mimulus hybrids has pleiotropic effects on corolla and pistil traits  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms underlying genetic associations have important consequences for evolutionary outcomes, but distinguishing linkage from pleiotropy is often difficult. Here, we use a fine mapping approach to determine the genetic basis of association between cytonuclear male sterility and other floral traits in Mimulus hybrids. Previous work has shown that male sterility in hybrids between Mimulus guttatus and Mimulus nasutus is due to interactions between a mitochondrial gene from M. guttatus and two tightly linked nuclear restorer alleles on Linkage Group 7, and that male sterility is associated with reduced corolla size. In the present study, we generated a set of nearly isogenic lines segregating for the restorer region and male sterility, but with unique flanking introgressions. Male-sterile flowers had significantly smaller corollas, longer styles and greater stigmatic exsertion than fertile flowers. Because these effects were significant regardless of the genotypic composition of introgressions flanking the restorer region, they suggest that these floral differences are a direct byproduct of the genetic incompatibility causing anther abortion. In addition, we found a non-significant but intriguing trend for male-sterile plants to produce more seeds per flower than fertile siblings after supplemental pollination. Such pleiotropic effects may underlie the corolla dimorphism frequently observed in gynodioecious taxa and may affect selection on cytoplasmic male sterility genes when they initially arise. PMID:21245895

Barr, C M; Fishman, L

2011-01-01

150

MALE STERILITY, PROTOGYNY, AND POLLEN-PISTIL INTERFERENCE IN PLANTAGO MARITIMA (PLANTAGINACEAE), AW IND -POLLINATED, SELF-INCOMPATIBLE PERENNIAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evolution and maintenance of male sterility in seed plants can be explained by the maternal inheritance of mitochondria, which encode the trait, and by adaptive functions that enhance female fecundity in male-sterile compared to hermaphrodite individuals. Protogyny and male sterility can independently decrease the negative effect of pollen-pistil interference in self- incompatible species. In Plantago maritima, which possesses both traits,

PATRIK DINNETZ

151

Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Contributes to Hybrid Incompatibility Between Subspecies of Arabidopsis lyrata  

PubMed Central

In crosses between evolutionarily diverged populations, genomic incompatibilities may result in sterile hybrids, indicating evolution of reproductive isolation. In several plant families, crosses within a population can also lead to male sterile progeny because of conflict between the maternally and biparentally inherited genomes. We examined hybrid fertility between subspecies of the perennial outcrossing self-incompatible Lyrate rockcress (Arabidopsis lyrata) in large reciprocal F2 progenies and three generations of backcrosses. In one of the reciprocal F2 progenies, almost one-fourth of the plants were male-sterile. Correspondingly, almost one-half of the plants in one of the four reciprocal backcross progenies expressed male sterility. In an additional four independent F2 and backcross families, three segregated male sterility. The observed asymmetrical hybrid incompatibility is attributable to male sterility factors in one cytoplasm, for which the other population lacks effective fertility restorers. Genotyping of 96 molecular markers and quantitative trait locus mapping revealed that only 60% of the plants having the male sterile cytoplasm and lacking the corresponding restorers were phenotypically male-sterile. Genotyping data showed that there is only one restorer locus, which mapped to a 600-kb interval at the top of chromosome 2 in a region containing a cluster of pentatricopeptide repeat genes. Male fertility showed no trade-off with seed production. We discuss the role of cytoplasm and genomic conflict in incipient speciation and conclude that cytoplasmic male sterility–lowering hybrid fitness is a transient effect with limited potential to form permanent reproductive barriers between diverged populations of hermaphrodite self-incompatible species. PMID:23935000

Aalto, Esa A.; Koelewijn, Hans-Peter; Savolainen, Outi

2013-01-01

152

Mating alters gene expression patterns in Drosophila melanogaster male heads  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Behavior is a complex process resulting from the integration of genetic and environmental information. Drosophila melanogaster rely on multiple sensory modalities for reproductive success, and mating causes physiological changes in both sexes that affect reproductive output or behavior. Some of these effects are likely mediated by changes in gene expression. Courtship and mating alter female transcript profiles, but it

Lisa L Ellis; Ginger E Carney

2010-01-01

153

Multi-male mating, probability of conception, and litter size in the prairie vole ( Microtus ochrogaster)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a mating experiment in the laboratory using prairie voles, Microtus ochrogaster, to document that multi-male mating (MMM) can occur in this supposedly monogamous species and to test two hypotheses for the advantages of MMM in female mammals. The two hypotheses are that MMM (1) increases the probability of pregnancy and (2) increases litter size. We also tested the

Jerry O. Wolff; Aimee S. Dunlap

2002-01-01

154

Genetic Dissimilarity between Mates, but Not Male Heterozygosity, Influences Divorce in Schistosomes  

E-print Network

Genetic Dissimilarity between Mates, but Not Male Heterozygosity, Influences Divorce the relative influence of genetic similarity and heterozygosity in divorce and re-mating in the monogamous and similarity were predetermined before infection. Divorce rate increased significantly when females were given

Boyer, Edmond

155

When not to copy: female fruit flies use sophisticated public information to avoid mated males  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Semen limitation (lack of semen to fertilize all of a female's eggs) imposes high fitness costs to female partners. Females should therefore avoid mating with semen-limited males. This can be achieved by using public information extracted from watching individual males' previous copulating activities. This adaptive preference should be flexible given that semen limitation is temporary. We first demonstrate that the number of offspring produced by males Drosophila melanogaster gradually decreases over successive copulations. We then show that females avoid mating with males they just watched copulating and that visual public cues are sufficient to elicit this response. Finally, after males were given the time to replenish their sperm reserves, females did not avoid the males they previously saw copulating anymore. These results suggest that female fruit flies may have evolved sophisticated behavioural processes of resistance to semen-limited males, and demonstrate unsuspected adaptive context-dependent mate choice in an invertebrate.

Loyau, Adeline; Blanchet, Simon; van Laere, Pauline; Clobert, Jean; Danchin, Etienne

2012-10-01

156

X-ray-induced sterility in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) and male longevity following irradiation.  

PubMed

The mosquito Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1895) is a potent vector of several arboviral diseases, most notably chikungunya and dengue fever. In the context of the sterile insect technique (SIT), the sterilization of the male mosquitoes before their release can be achieved by gamma-ray irradiation. As gamma-ray irradiators are becoming increasingly problematic to purchase and transport, the suitability of an X-ray irradiator as an alternative for the sterilization of Ae. albopictus males was studied. The sterilization of up to 200,000 pupae at one time can be achieved with relative ease, and the sterility results obtained were comparable with those achieved by gamma irradiation, where 99% sterility is induced with a dose of 40 Gy. A significant reduction of longevity was observed in the latter stages of the males' life after irradiation treatments, especially at doses > 40 Gy, which is consistent with the negative effects on longevity induced by similar radiation doses using gamma rays. Females irradiated at 40 Gy were not only 100% sterile, but also failed to oviposit entirely, i.e., all of the females laid 0 eggs. Overall, it was found that the X-ray irradiator is generally suitable for the sterilization process for sterile insect technique programs, as it showed a high processing capacity, practicality, high effectiveness, and reproducibility. PMID:25118413

Yamada, H; Parker, A G; Oliva, C F; Balestrino, F; Gilles, J R L

2014-07-01

157

Husband-Wife Communication, Wife's Employment, and the Decision for Male or Female Sterilization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined relationships between perceptions of marital communication and the choice of male or female sterilization in 313 couples. The wife's perception of marital communication was negatively related to the tendency for the couple to choose female sterilization, conditional on female labor force participation. Communication questions are…

Bean, Frank D.; And Others

1983-01-01

158

Relative effects of female fecundity and male mating success on fertility selection in Drosophila pseudoobscura.  

PubMed Central

The fertility component of natural selection acting on chromosomal inversions in two experimental populations of Drosophila pseudoobscura was subdivided into the effects of female fecundity and male mating success. The offspring of the three female genotypes could be distinguished by their mitochondrial DNA haplotypes, thus permitting a direct measurement of the relative fecundities of the female genotype. The effects of male mating success on inversion frequency were measured by comparing inversion frequencies in parents and their offspring. Selection by fertility caused significant changes in inversion frequency in both populations. In one population, the changes in inversion frequency due to female fecundity and to male mating success were comparable. In the other population, however, the changes in inversion frequency due to male mating success were considerably larger than those due to female fecundity. The difference between the two populations underscores the intrinsic variability of the fertility component of fitness. PMID:8610171

Brockett, M M; Alavi, H; Anderson, W W

1996-01-01

159

Clonal growth is enhanced in the absence of a mating morph: a comparative study of fertile stylar polymorphic and sterile monomorphic populations of Nymphoides montana (Menyanthaceae)  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Many aquatic species with stylar polymorphisms have the capacity for clonal and sexual reproduction and are sensitive to the balance of the two reproductive modes when there are a limited number of mating morphs within a population. This study asked how the clonal and sexual reproductive modes perform in populations that contain only a single morph and where fitness gain through sexual reproduction is rare. In clonal aquatic Nymphoides montana, polymorphic populations normally contain two mating morphs in equal frequencies. Populations are sexually fertile and appear to be maintained by pollen transfer between the two partners. However, in a monomorphic population of N. montana where mating opportunities are unavailable, female and male function is impaired and clonality maintains the population. Here, the consequences of intraspecific variation in sexuality were explored between monomorphic and polymorphic N. montana populations in eastern Australia. Methods Comparative measurements of male and female fertility, total dry mass and genotypic diversity using ISSR markers were made between populations with variable sexuality. Key Results and Conclusions Very few seeds were produced in the monomorphic population under natural and glasshouse conditions due to dysfunctional pollen and ovules. Stigma–anther separation was minimal in the monomorphic population, which may be a consequence of the relaxed selective pressures that regulate the maintenance of sexual function. However, clonal reproduction was favoured at the expense of sexual reproduction in the monomorphic population; this may facilitate the establishment of sterility throughout the population via resource reallocation or pleiotropic effects. The ISSR results showed that the monomorphic population was one large, single genotype, unlike the multi-genotypic fertile polymorphic populations. Evolutionary loss of sex in a clonal population in which a mating morph is absent was evident; under these conditions clonal growth may assure reproduction and expand the population via spreading stolons. PMID:24287813

Haddadchi, Azadeh; Fatemi, Mohammad; Gross, C. L.

2014-01-01

160

Anim. Behav., 1996, 51, 12691277 Mate guarding constrains foraging activity of male baboons  

E-print Network

Anim. Behav., 1996, 51, 1269­1277 Mate guarding constrains foraging activity of male baboons SUSAN consortships, individual travel distance and duration of feeding bouts, for wild male baboons, Papio of species that live in multi-male, multi-female groups, including savannah baboons (Hall & DeVore 1965

Alberts, Susan C

161

Male mate-locating behavior in Euphydryas chalcedona (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) related to pupation site preferences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Males of the checkerspot butterfly (Euphydryas chalcedona)patrol and perch near but not on the larval foodplant in search of females. Experiments with tethered butterflies show that searching males chase virgin females for longer times than they do mated females or males. The larvae leave the larval food-plant to pupate. The correspondence between the distance from the larval foodplant to pupation

Ronald L. Rutowski; George W. Gilchrist; Barbara Terkanian

1988-01-01

162

A CHARACTER DEMONSTRATING THE OCCURRENCE OF MATING IN MALE CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM (LEPIDOPTERA: PYRALIDAE)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The reproductive system of adult male Cactoblastis cactorum, the cactus moth, was examined to determine whether the mating status of males could be ascertained. In unmated males, the posterior portion of the primary ductus ejaculatorius simplex is opaque yellow in color and contains many small footb...

163

Courting male garter snakes ( Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis ) use multiple cues to identify potential mates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mating aggregations of red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) in Manitoba provide a unique opportunity to identify the cues that attract a male snake and induce him to court. The snakes are abundant, tolerate human presence, and males direct courtship to a subset of other males (\\

R. Shine; R. T. Mason

2001-01-01

164

Male-specific Iridescent Coloration in the Pipevine Swallowtail (Battus philenor) is Used in Mate Choice  

E-print Network

in butterflies have been experimentally evaluated using manipula- tions of male color for only seven species male coloration of a swallowtail butterfly, the Pipevine Swallowtail, Battus philenor. This speciesMale-specific Iridescent Coloration in the Pipevine Swallowtail (Battus philenor) is Used in Mate

Rutowski, Ronald L.

165

Female Medflies Mate Selectively with Young Males but Gain No Apparent Fitness Benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Species in which female choice is not strongly shaped by male-controlled resources present a challenge to sexual selection\\u000a research, because it is typically difficult to identify the male phenotypic cues used in female mate selection or the fitness\\u000a benefits accruing from such selection. In such species, mate selection is presumably based on direct benefits associated with\\u000a sperm quantity or quality

Todd E. Shelly; James Edu; Elaine Pahio

2011-01-01

166

Male sterility, fitness gain curves and the evolution of gender specialization from distyly in Erythroxylum havanense.  

PubMed

The evolution of dioecy from a monomorphic hermaphroditic condition requires two mutations, one producing females and one producing males. Conversely, a single mutation sterilizing one sexual function in one morph of distylous species would result in functional dioecy because such a mutation also affects the complementary function in the other morph. In this study, we tested these ideas with Erythroxylum havanense, a distylous species with morph-biased male sterility. Based on sex allocation theory we evaluated whether the invasion of thrum females is favoured over the maintenance of this morph cosexuals. Completely male sterile thrum plants obtained higher fitness returns than hermaphrodites or partial male sterile individuals of the same morph, thus favouring the invasion of female thrum plants. We concluded that because fruit production of pin individuals depends on the pollen produced by thrum plants, the invasion of thrum females would result on the evolution of functional dioecy. PMID:18811662

Rosas, F; Domínguez, C A

2009-01-01

167

Pest management programmes in vineyards using male mating disruption.  

PubMed

Israeli vine growers have been reluctant to adopt the mating disruption technique for control of the European vine moth, Lobesia botrana Den. & Schiff. Since the chemically controlled honeydew moth, Cryptoblabes gnidiella Mill., coexists with the European vine moth, growers have maintained that the use of mating disruption would fail to bring about a significant reduction in pesticide use. In this study, the efficacy of mating disruption techniques against C. gnidiella was tested, as well as the effect of these methods on pesticide use and damage to clusters when the method was employed against both of the pests in wine grapes. Comparisons were made between plots treated with (1) L. botrana mating disruption pheromone, (2) L. botrana and C. gnidiella mating disruption pheromones and (3) control plots. A significant difference in the number of clusters infested with the developmental stages of the moths was seen between pheromone-treated plots and controls, while no such difference was observed between plots treated with one versus two pheromones. A similar pattern was observed in the number of insecticide applications; the greatest number of applications was used in control plots, followed by plots treated with L. botrana mating disruption pheromone and by plots treated with pheromones against both pests, in which no pesticides were applied. PMID:17523143

Harari, Ally R; Zahavi, Tirtza; Gordon, Dvora; Anshelevich, Leonid; Harel, Miriam; Ovadia, Shmulik; Dunkelblum, Ezra

2007-08-01

168

Incestuous Sisters: Mate Preference for Brothers over Unrelated Males in Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

The literature is full of examples of inbreeding avoidance, while recent mathematical models predict that inbreeding tolerance or even inbreeding preference should be expected under several realistic conditions like e.g. polygyny. We investigated male and female mate preferences with respect to relatedness in the fruit fly D. melanogaster. Experiments offered the choice between a first order relative (full-sibling or parent) and an unrelated individual with the same age and mating history. We found that females significantly preferred mating with their brothers, thus supporting inbreeding preference. Moreover, females did not avoid mating with their fathers, and males did not avoid mating with their sisters, thus supporting inbreeding tolerance. Our experiments therefore add empirical evidence for inbreeding preference, which strengthens the prediction that inbreeding tolerance and preference can evolve under specific circumstances through the positive effects on inclusive fitness. PMID:23251487

Loyau, Adeline; Cornuau, Jérémie H.; Clobert, Jean; Danchin, Étienne

2012-01-01

169

Female mate preferences for male body size and shape promote sexual isolation in threespine sticklebacks  

PubMed Central

Female mate preferences for ecologically relevant traits may enhance natural selection, leading to rapid divergence. They may also forge a link between mate choice within species and sexual isolation between species. Here, we examine female mate preference for two ecologically important traits: body size and body shape. We measured female preferences within and between species of benthic, limnetic, and anadromous threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus species complex). We found that mate preferences differed between species and between contexts (i.e., within vs. between species). Within species, anadromous females preferred males that were deep bodied for their size, benthic females preferred larger males (as measured by centroid size), and limnetic females preferred males that were more limnetic shaped. In heterospecific mating trials between benthics and limnetics, limnetic females continued to prefer males that were more limnetic like in shape when presented with benthic males. Benthic females showed no preferences for size when presented with limnetic males. These results show that females use ecologically relevant traits to select mates in all three species and that female preference has diverged between species. These results suggest that sexual selection may act in concert with natural selection on stickleback size and shape. Further, our results suggest that female preferences may track adaptation to local environments and contribute to sexual isolation between benthic and limnetic sticklebacks. PMID:23919161

Head, Megan L; Kozak, Genevieve M; Boughman, Janette W

2013-01-01

170

Female mate-choice drives the evolution of male-biased dispersal in a social mammal.  

PubMed

Dispersal has a significant impact on lifetime reproductive success, and is often more prevalent in one sex than the other. In group-living mammals, dispersal is normally male-biased and in theory this sexual bias could be a response by males to female mate preferences, competition for access to females or resources, or the result of males avoiding inbreeding. There is a lack of studies on social mammals that simultaneously assess these factors and measure the fitness consequences of male dispersal decisions. Here we show that male-biased dispersal in the spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta) most probably results from an adaptive response by males to simple female mate-choice rules that have evolved to avoid inbreeding. Microsatellite profiling revealed that females preferred sires that were born into or immigrated into the female's group after the female was born. Furthermore, young females preferred short-tenured sires and older females preferred longer-tenured sires. Males responded to these female mate preferences by initiating their reproductive careers in groups containing the highest number of young females. As a consequence, 11% of males started their reproductive career in their natal group and 89% of males dispersed. Males that started reproduction in groups containing the highest number of young females had a higher long-term reproductive success than males that did not. The female mate-choice rules ensured that females effectively avoided inbreeding without the need to discriminate directly against close kin or males born in their own group, or to favour immigrant males. The extent of male dispersal as a response to such female mate preferences depends on the demographic structure of breeding groups, rather than the genetic relatedness between females and males. PMID:17700698

Höner, O P; Wachter, B; East, M L; Streich, W J; Wilhelm, K; Burke, T; Hofer, H

2007-08-16

171

Mitochondrial DNA variation within P-type cytoplasmic male sterility of Plantago lanceolata L  

Microsoft Academic Search

MtDNA restriction fragment polymorphisms were found between cytoplasmic male-sterility types P and R of Plantago lanceolata with the homologous probe pPl311 and maize mtDNA fragments derived from the regions of atp1, cox1 and cox2. No mtDNA differences were observed between male-sterile and restored plants with the same cytoplasmic type. The consistency of the polymorphisms was studied in 83 plants from

CAROLINA F M GROENENDIJK; JOHANNES M SANDBRINK; JAN VAN BREDERODE; JOS M M VAN DAMME

1997-01-01

172

Indiscriminate Males: Mating Behaviour of a Marine Snail Compromised by a Sexual Conflict?  

PubMed Central

Background In promiscuous species, male fitness is expected to increase with repeated matings in an open-ended fashion (thereby increasing number of partners or probability of paternity) whereas female fitness should level out at some optimal number of copulations when direct and indirect benefits still outweigh the costs of courtship and copulation. After this fitness peak, additional copulations would incur female fitness costs and be under opposing selection. Hence, a sexual conflict over mating frequency may evolve in species where females are forced to engage in costly matings. Under such circumstance, if females could avoid male detection, significant fitness benefits from such avoidance strategies would be predicted. Methodology/Principal Findings Among four Littorina species, one lives at very much higher densities and has a longer mating season than the other three species. Using video records of snail behaviour in a laboratory arena we show that males of the low-density species discriminate among male and female mucous trails, trailing females for copulations. In the high-density species, however, males fail to discriminate between male and female trails, not because males are unable to identify female trails (which we show using heterospecific females), but because females do not, as the other species, add a gender-specific cue to their trail. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that there is likely a sexual conflict over mating frequency in the high-density species (L. saxatilis) owing to females most likely being less sperm-limited in this species. This has favoured the evolution of females that permanently or optionally do not release a cue in the mucus to decrease excessive and costly matings resulting in unusually high frequencies of male-male copulating attempts in the wild. This is one of few examples of masking gender identity to obtain fewer matings. PMID:20711254

Johannesson, Kerstin; Saltin, Sara H.; Duranovic, Iris; Havenhand, Jon N.; Jonsson, Per R.

2010-01-01

173

Interdependent effects of male and female body size plasticity on mating behaviour of predatory mites  

PubMed Central

The adaptive canalization hypothesis predicts that traits with low phenotypic plasticity are more fitness relevant, because they have been canalized via strong past selection, than traits with high phenotypic plasticity. Based on differing male body size plasticities of the predatory mites Phytoseiulus persimilis (low plasticity) and Neoseiulus californicus (high plasticity), we accordingly hypothesized that small male body size entails higher costs in female choice and male–male competition in P. persimilis than N. californicus. Males of both species are highly polygynous but females differ in the level of polyandry (low level in P. persimilis; medium level in N. californicus). We videotaped the mating interactions in triplets of either P. persimilis or N. californicus, consisting of a virgin female (small or standard-sized) and a small and a standard-sized male. Mating by both small and standard-sized P. persimilis females was biased towards standard-sized males, resulting from the interplay between female preference for standard-sized males and the inferiority of small males in male–male competition. In contrast, mating by N. californicus females was equally balanced between small and standard-sized males. Small N. californicus males were more aggressive (‘Napoleon complex’) in male–male competition, reducing the likelihood of encounter between the standard-sized male and the female, and thus counterbalancing female preference for standard-sized males. Our results support the hypothesis that male body size is more important to fitness in the low-level polyandrous P. persimilis than in the medium-level polyandrous N. californicus and provide a key example of the implications of sexually selected body size plasticity on mating behaviour. PMID:25673881

Walzer, Andreas; Schausberger, Peter

2015-01-01

174

[Cytological observation on pollen abortion of genetic male sterile mutant induced by space flight in maize].  

PubMed

In order to understand the cytological mechanism of pollen abortion of genetic male sterile mutant induced by space flight in maize, the sister cross population were used for sterility analysis and cytological observation. Intact anther observation, isolated cells observation and paraffin section were adopted in this research. The results showed that pollen abortion occured mostly in dyad stage of meiosis in genetic male sterile mutant. The dyad were degenerated with abnormal shape. In late anther developing stage, the tapetal cells were giant vacuolated and delayed degeneration. The pollen mother cells (PMC) began to dissolve and degenerate in a few anther before meiosis. PMID:18254342

Li, Shi Zhao; Cao, Mo Ju; Rong, Ting Zhao; Pan, Guang Tang; Tang, Qi Lin; Zhu, Ying Guo

2007-10-01

175

Sexual conflict and the evolution of female mate choice and male social dominance.  

PubMed Central

Conflicts between the sexes over control of reproduction are thought to lead to a cost of sexual selection through the evolution of male traits that manipulate female reproductive physiology and behaviour, and female traits that resist this manipulation. Although studies have begun to document negative fitness effects of sexual conflict, studies showing the expected association between sexual conflict and the specific behavioural mechanisms of sexual selection are lacking. Here we experimentally manipulated the opportunity for sexual conflict in the cockroach. Nauphoeta cinerea and showed that, for this species, odour cues in the social environment influence the behavioural strategies and fitness of males and females during sexual selection. Females provided with the opportunity for discriminating between males but not necessarily mating with preferred males produced fewer male offspring than females mated at random. The number of female offspring produced was not affected, nor was the viability of the offspring. Experimental modification of the composition of the males' pheromone showed that the fecundity effects were caused by exposure to the pheromone component that makes males attractive to females but also makes males less likely to be dominant. Female mate choice therefore carries a demographic cost but functions to avoid male manipulation and aggression. Male-male competition appears to function to circumvent mate choice rather than directly manipulating females, as the mate choice can be cryptic. The dynamic struggle between the sexes for control of mating opportunities and outcomes in N. cinerea therefore reveals a unique role for sexual conflict in the evolution of the behavioural components of sexual selection. PMID:11296864

Moore, A. J.; Gowaty, P. A.; Wallin, W. G.; Moore, P. J.

2001-01-01

176

Interactions among Fertile Male, Female, and Sterile Male Sea Lampreys during Spawning in the Carp River, Lake Superior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spawning interactions among fertile male, female, and sterilized male sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus were examined by placing externally attached radiotransmitters on 4% (52 animals) of the population of sea lampreys that was introduced above a barrier to their passage in the Carp River, which flows into Lake Superior, during 1996 and 1997. Movements and interactions on nests made by sea

J. R. M. Kelso; W. M. Gardner; R. B. McDonald

2001-01-01

177

Instability in mitochondrial membranes in Polima cytoplasmic male sterility of Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis.  

PubMed

Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is an important factor to observe heterosis in Brassica rapa. Although several studies have documented the rearrangements of mitochondrial DNA and dysfunction in the mitochondria have been observed in most types of CMS, the basis of the molecular mechanisms involved in these processes and other effects on CMS remain unclear. In this study, suppression subtractive hybridization was performed in the flowers of an alloplasmic Polima CMS system from B. rapa ssp. chinensis to identify genes that are differentially expressed between fertile and sterile plants. A total of 443 clones were isolated (156 were upregulated in fertile buds, and 287 were upregulated in sterile ones). Real-time RT-PCR further demonstrated the credibility of SSH. Among these genes, many membrane protein genes (LTP12, PIP2A, and GRP14) were inhibited in the sterile male line. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) assay was then performed. Results showed that the sterile MMP was unstable and failed to create a potential difference; thus, mitochondrial dysfunction occurred. Moreover, abnormal microtubules and photosynthetic pathways were found in sterile male cells. Unstable MMP, nutritional deficiency, and abnormal microtubules were the causes of Polima CMS in Brassica campestris. H2O2, MDA, and O(2-), accumulated as byproducts of energy metabolism disorder in sterile male cells. PMID:24652098

Li, Ying; Liu, Tongkun; Duan, Weike; Song, Xiaoming; Shi, Gongjun; Zhang, Jingyi; Deng, Xiaohui; Zhang, Shuning; Hou, Xilin

2014-06-01

178

The Indirect Benefits of Mating with Attractive Males Outweigh the Direct Costs  

PubMed Central

The fitness consequences of mate choice are a source of ongoing debate in evolutionary biology. Recent theory predicts that indirect benefits of female choice due to offspring inheriting superior genes are likely to be negated when there are direct costs associated with choice, including any costs of mating with attractive males. To estimate the fitness consequences of mating with males of varying attractiveness, we housed female house crickets, Acheta domesticus, with either attractive or unattractive males and measured a variety of direct and indirect fitness components. These fitness components were combined to give relative estimates of the number of grandchildren produced and the intrinsic rate of increase (relative net fitness). We found that females mated to attractive males incur a substantial survival cost. However, these costs are cancelled out and may be outweighed by the benefits of having offspring with elevated fitness. This benefit is due predominantly, but not exclusively, to the effect of an increase in sons' attractiveness. Our results suggest that the direct costs that females experience when mating with attractive males can be outweighed by indirect benefits. They also reveal the value of estimating the net fitness consequences of a mating strategy by including measures of offspring quality in estimates of fitness. PMID:15678167

2005-01-01

179

Choosy males from the underground: male mating preferences in surface- and cave-dwelling Atlantic mollies (Poecilia mexicana).  

PubMed

Atlantic mollies (Poecilia mexicana) inhabit a variety of surface habitats, but they also occur in a sulfur cave in southern Mexico. We examined male mate choice relative to female body size in the cave population and in the most closely related surface-dwelling population from a nearby river. Males from both populations were either light- or dark-reared and could choose between two differently sized females either on the basis of visual cues in light or on the basis of solely nonvisual cues in darkness. Sexual preferences were estimated from the degree of association. Cave molly males always showed a preference for the larger female, both in light and in darkness. Among the surface males, only light-reared males showed a preference in the visual cues test, but not in darkness. In a control experiment, we demonstrated that male association preferences directly translate into actual mating preferences. Apparently, using visual cues for mate choice is the ancestral state in this system, and using nonvisual cues has evolved as a novel trait in the cave population. We discuss the evolution of nonvisual male mate choice in the context of changed environmental conditions, namely the absence of light, hypoxia, and toxic hydrogen sulfide in the cave. PMID:16404589

Plath, Martin; Seggel, Uta; Burmeister, Heike; Heubel, Katja U; Schlupp, Ingo

2006-03-01

180

[Locating maize male sterility gene induced by space flight using microsatellite markers].  

PubMed

Two F2 populations with different kinds of spike derived from maize male sterility materials RP(3)195 (A) x S37 (inbred line) ,which had been sib-bred for many generations,were used for sterility analysis and gene location. There were 138 and 247 plants in the two F2 populations respectively. Among the 326 pairs of microsatellite primers selected,56 were found polymorphic. Linkage analysis of F2 populations with the 56 pairs of primers showed that microsatellite markers bnlg197 and umc1012 were linked with the male sterility gene. The genetic distance between marker bnlgl97 and the male sterility gene in the two different F2 populations were 7 cM and 14.5 cM respectively. The genetic distance between marker umc1012 and the male sterility gene in the 138 plants was 28.5 cM. Thus the male sterility gene was located on chromosome 3L. PMID:16078745

Liu, Fu-Xia; Cao, Mo-Ju; Rong, Ting-Zhao; Pan, Guang-Tang

2005-07-01

181

Courtship raises male fertilization success through post-mating sexual selection in a spider  

PubMed Central

Courtship is well known for its positive effects on mating success. However, in polyandrous species, sexual selection continues to operate after copulation. Cryptic female choice is expected under unpredictable mating rates in combination with sequential mate encounters. However, there are very few accounts of the effects of courtship on cryptic female choice, and the available evidence is often correlative. Mature Argiope bruennichi females are always receptive and never attack or reject males before mating, although sexual cannibalism after mating occurs regularly. Still, males usually perform an energetic vibratory display prior to copulation. We tested the hypothesis that beneficial effects of courtship arise cryptically, during or after mating, resulting in increased paternity success under polyandry. Manipulating courtship duration experimentally, we found that males that mated without display had a reduced paternity share even though no differences in post-copulatory cannibalism or copulation duration were detected. This suggests that the paternity advantage associated with courtship arose through female-mediated processes after intromission, meeting the definition of cryptic female choice. PMID:19515667

Schneider, Jutta M.; Lesmono, Kristiani

2009-01-01

182

No Evidence for the Effect of MHC on Male Mating Success in the Brown Bear  

PubMed Central

Mate choice is thought to contribute to the maintenance of the spectacularly high polymorphism of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) genes, along with balancing selection from parasites, but the relative contribution of the former mechanism is debated. Here, we investigated the association between male MHC genotype and mating success in the brown bear. We analysed fragments of sequences coding for the peptide-binding region of the highly polymorphic MHC class I and class II DRB genes, while controlling for genome-wide effects using a panel of 18 microsatellite markers. Male mating success did not depend on the number of alleles shared with the female or amino-acid distance between potential mates at either locus. Furthermore, we found no indication of female mating preferences for MHC similarity being contingent on the number of alleles the females carried. Finally, we found no significant association between the number of MHC alleles a male carried and his mating success. Thus, our results provided no support for the role of mate choice in shaping MHC polymorphism in the brown bear. PMID:25470381

Kuduk, Katarzyna; Babik, Wieslaw; Bellemain, Eva; Valentini, Alice; Zedrosser, Andreas; Taberlet, Pierre; Kindberg, Jonas; Swenson, Jon E.; Radwan, Jacek

2014-01-01

183

Costs of mate-guarding in wild male long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis): physiological stress and aggression.  

PubMed

Mate-guarding is an important determinant of male reproductive success in a number of species. However, it is known to potentially incur costs. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of mate-guarding on male physiological stress and aggression in long-tailed macaques, a species in which males mate-guard females to a lesser extent than predicted by the Priority of Access model (PoA). The study was carried out during two mating periods on three groups of wild long-tailed macaques in Indonesia by combining behavioral observations with non-invasive measurements of fecal glucocorticoid (fGC) levels. Mate-guarding was associated with a general rise in male stress hormone levels but, from a certain threshold of mate-guarding onwards, increased vigilance time was associated with a decrease in stress hormone output. Mate-guarding also increased male-male aggression rate and male vigilance time. Overall, alpha males were more physiologically stressed than other males independently of mating competition. Increased glucocorticoid levels during mate-guarding are most likely adaptive since it may help males to mobilize extra-energy required for mate-guarding and ultimately maintain a balanced energetic status. However, repeated exposure to high levels of stress over an extended period is potentially deleterious to the immune system and thus may carry costs. This potential physiological cost together with the cost of increased aggression mate-guarding male face may limit the male's ability to mate-guard females, explaining the deviance from the PoA model observed in long-tailed macaques. Comparing our results to previous findings we discuss how ecological factors, reproductive seasonality and rank achievement may modulate the extent to which costs of mate-guarding limit male monopolization abilities. PMID:25236888

Girard-Buttoz, Cédric; Heistermann, Michael; Rahmi, Erdiansyah; Agil, Muhammad; Fauzan, Panji Ahmad; Engelhardt, Antje

2014-09-01

184

Testosterone and Male Mating Success on the Black Grouse Leks  

Microsoft Academic Search

On black grouse (Tetrao tetrix) leks females prefer dominant, viable males that have managed to acquire relatively central territories. The immunocompetence hypothesis predicts that, because high levels of testosterone are costly to the immune system, male sexual traits that are controlled by testosterone are likely to serve as reliable indicators of male health. Indeed, testosterone concentrations of black grouse males

Rauno V. Alatalo; Jacob Hoglund; Arne Lundberg; Pekka T. Rintamaki; Bengt Silverin

1996-01-01

185

Effect of adult screwworm male size on mating competence  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Screwworms, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), were devastating pests in parts of North America and Central America before their eradication by means of the sterile insect technique (SIT). Now, a barrier is maintained to prevent re-entry of screwworms from endemic regions t...

186

Male-male contests for mates, sexual size dimorphism, and sex ratio in a natural population of a solitary parasitoid.  

PubMed

Understanding how different behavioural and life history traits interact is fundamental to developing ethological theory. Here we study the interaction of male-male competition for mates and sexual size dimorphism in a solitary wasp, with implications for sex allocation. In Hymenoptera, females are normally larger than males suggesting that males do not benefit as much as females from larger size. However, in our focal species, a solitary Eurytoma wasp, males compete for mates by pairwise contests at female emergence sites, suggesting that male size may strongly affect fitness. In contests observed in the field, larger males were more likely to win fights, and males fighting at female emergence sites were much larger than average males. Males showed higher variance in body size than females, such that all the smallest individuals were males, a majority of medium-to-large individuals were female, but the majority of largest individuals were male. Our data suggest that sexual size dimorphism in this species has been affected by intra-sexual selection for male size, which may have implications for sex allocation. PMID:23872503

Macedo, Margarete V; Monteiro, Ricardo F; Silveira, Mariana P; Mayhew, Peter J

2013-11-01

187

Male mate choice and male-male competition coexist in the humpback whale ( Megaptera novaeangliae )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) outnumber females on the winter grounds and compete physically for proximity to females. Analyses of identification photographs collected in Hawaii from 1976 through 1995 and scan samples collected in 1998 showed that (i) reproductive potential (calving rate) for the following winter was greater for females without a calf than females with a calf, (ii) females

Alison S. Craig; Louis M. Herman; Adam A. Pack

2002-01-01

188

Species-isolating mechanisms in a mating system with male mate choice (garter snakes, Thamnophis spp.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reproductive isolation between sympatric taxa can be maintained by specific mate-recognition behaviours or by ecological divergence that reduces interspecific contact during reproduction. Common garter snakes, Thamnophis sirtalis (L., 1758), and plains garter snakes, Thamnophis radix (Baird and Girard, 1853), are sympatric over large areas, but morphological data suggest that the prezygotic isolation between these two species partially breaks down in

Richard Shine; Benjamin Phillips; Heather Waye; Michael Lemaster; Robert T. Mason

2004-01-01

189

Sterilization.  

PubMed

Worldwide, sterilization (tubal sterilization and vasectomy) is used by more people than any other method of contraception. All techniques of tubal sterilization in widespread use in the United States have low risks of surgical complications. Although tubal sterilization is highly effective, the risk of pregnancy varies by age and method of occlusion. Pregnancies can occur many years after the procedure, and when they do, the risk of ectopic gestation is high. There is now strong evidence against the existence of a post-tubal ligation syndrome of menstrual abnormalities. Although women who have undergone tubal sterilization are more likely than other women to undergo hysterectomy subsequently, there is no known biologic basis for this relationship. Although sterilization is intended to be permanent, expressions of regret and requests for reversal are not uncommon and are much more likely to occur among women sterilized at young ages. Tubal sterilization has little or no effect on sexual function for most women. Vasectomy is less likely than tubal sterilization to result in serious complications. Minor complications, however, are not uncommon. Vasectomy does not increase the risk of heart disease, and available evidence argues against an increase in the risk of prostate cancer, testicular cancer, or overall mortality. Whether a postvasectomy pain syndrome exists remains controversial. Although the long-term effectiveness of vasectomy is less well-studied than that for tubal sterilization, it seems likely to be at least as effective. Intrauterine devices and progestin implants are long-acting, highly effective alternatives to sterilization. PMID:18165410

Peterson, Herbert B

2008-01-01

190

Male Texas Horned Lizards increase daily movements and area covered in spring: A mate searching strategy?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Texas Horned Lizards, Phrynosoma cornutum, were tracked using fluorescent powder to determine exact daily movements. Daily linear movements and daily space use were compared between adult males and females. Lizards that traveled the greatest linear distances also covered the largest areas. In Oklahoma, adults emerge from hibernation in late April and early May and mate soon afterward. Males traveled significantly greater distances (and covered significantly larger areas in a day) than females in May but not after May. We propose that males move more and cover more area than females early in the mating season to intercept receptive females. Copyright 2005 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

Stark, R.C.; Fox, S.F.; David, M.L., Jr.

2005-01-01

191

Correlated changes in male plumage coloration and female mate choice in cardueline finches  

E-print Network

Correlated changes in male plumage coloration and female mate choice in cardueline finches GEOFFREY to male ornamental coloration in two species of cardueline finch (the American goldfinch, Carduelis elaborate, ancestral colour pattern. Previous research on another cardueline finch taxon (a subspecies

McGraw, Kevin J.

192

An experimental approach to altering mating tactics in male horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative reproductive tactics are often correlated with phenotype, density, environment, or social context. Male horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus) have two mating tactics that are associated with phenotype. Males in good condition arrive at the nesting beach and spawn while attached to females, whereas those in poorer condition come ashore unattached and crowd around the nesting couples as satellites, fertilizing eggs

H. Jane Brockmann

2002-01-01

193

FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH REDUCED FERTILITY AND IMPLANTATION RATES IN FEMALES MATED TO ACRYLAMIDE TREATED MALES  

EPA Science Inventory

A series of studies was conducted to examine the role of copulatory dysfunction, spermatotoxicity, and/or impaired fertilization in the reduced rates of fertility and implantation observed in females mated to acrylamid-treated male rats. In initial experiments, males were gavaged...

194

Influence of methoprene and dietary protein on male Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae) mating aggregations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), like many polyphagous tephritids, exhibits a lek polygyny mating system. Juvenile hormone levels and adult diet have important effects on male sexual success. The components of this success, male attractiveness and competitiveness, and consequentl...

195

Aggressive male mating behavior can endanger species May 16th, 2011 in Biology / Plants & Animals  

E-print Network

dilemmas related to environmental pollution and global warming. In nature, the tragedy of the commons at the University of Zurich, has now demonstrated that aggressive male sexual behavior not only harms the female successful than less aggressive males; however, they harm the female during the mating process

Rankin, Daniel

196

Red coloration of male northern cardinals correlates with mate quality and territory quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

I investigated how mate quality and territory quality influence an extravagant ornament in a socially monogamous species that defends multipurpose territories. Northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis) are a highly dichromatic, socially monogamous species, and males are a brilliant red. I conducted a 3-year field study of northern cardinals and found that redder males produced more offspring in a breeding season. Two

L. LaReesa Wolfenbarger

1999-01-01

197

Male topi antelopes alarm snort deceptively to retain females for mating.  

PubMed

Despite intense interest in the role of deception in animal communication, empirical evidence is wanting that nonhuman animals are capable of actively falsifying signals to manipulate mates for reproductive benefits. Tactical use of false positive signals has thus been documented mainly where interests are consistently opposed, such as between predator and prey and between competitors for food and for mates. Here we report that male topi antelopes alarm snort deceptively to retain receptive females in their territories and thereby secure mating opportunities. The finding reveals that sexual conflict over mating, which is known to promote various forms of coercion and sensory bias exploitation, can also lead to active signal falsification. However, because honesty in sexual signals is generally assured by physical or cost-enforced constraints on signal production, sexually selected mate deception is likely to target mainly signals, such as alarm calls, that were originally not under sexual selection. PMID:20477537

Bro-Jørgensen, Jakob; Pangle, Wiline M

2010-07-01

198

Methoprene and protein supplements accelerate reproductive development and improve mating success of male tephritid flies  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We have been studying the physiological mechanisms responsible for coordination of reproductive maturity and sex pheromone communication in males of tephritid flies in order to develop methods for acceleration of reproductive maturity among sterilized males. Our studies revealed that the juvenile ho...

199

Male Enchenopa treehoppers (Hemiptera: Membracidae) vary mate-searching behavior but not signaling behavior in response to spider silk.  

PubMed

Finding and attracting mates can impose costs on males in terms of increased encounters with, and attraction of, predators. To decrease the likelihood of predation, males may modify mate-acquisition efforts in two main ways: they may reduce mate-searching efforts or they may reduce mate-attraction efforts. The specific behavior that males change in the presence of predator cues should depend upon the nature of risk imposed by the type of predator present in the environment. For example, sit-and-wait predators impose greater costs to males moving in search of mates. Here, we test whether cues of the presence of a sit-and-wait predator lead to a reduction in mate-searching but not mate-acquisition behavior. We used a member of the Enchenopa binotata complex of treehoppers-a clade of vibrationally communicating insects in which males fly in search of mates and produce mate-attraction signals when they land on plant stems. We tested for changes in mate-searching and signaling behaviors when silk from a web-building spider was present or absent. We found that males delayed flight when spider silk was present but only if they were actively searching for mates. These results suggest that males have been selected to reduce predation risk by adjusting how they move about their environment according to the cues of sit-and-wait predators. PMID:24487912

Fowler-Finn, Kasey D; Al-Wathiqui, Nooria; Cruz, Daniel; Al-Wathiqui, Mishal; Rodríguez, Rafael L

2014-03-01

200

Male Enchenopa treehoppers (Hemiptera: Membracidae) vary mate-searching behavior but not signaling behavior in response to spider silk  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Finding and attracting mates can impose costs on males in terms of increased encounters with, and attraction of, predators. To decrease the likelihood of predation, males may modify mate-acquisition efforts in two main ways: they may reduce mate-searching efforts or they may reduce mate-attraction efforts. The specific behavior that males change in the presence of predator cues should depend upon the nature of risk imposed by the type of predator present in the environment. For example, sit-and-wait predators impose greater costs to males moving in search of mates. Here, we test whether cues of the presence of a sit-and-wait predator lead to a reduction in mate-searching but not mate-acquisition behavior. We used a member of the Enchenopa binotata complex of treehoppers—a clade of vibrationally communicating insects in which males fly in search of mates and produce mate-attraction signals when they land on plant stems. We tested for changes in mate-searching and signaling behaviors when silk from a web-building spider was present or absent. We found that males delayed flight when spider silk was present but only if they were actively searching for mates. These results suggest that males have been selected to reduce predation risk by adjusting how they move about their environment according to the cues of sit-and-wait predators.

Fowler-Finn, Kasey D.; Al-Wathiqui, Nooria; Cruz, Daniel; Al-Wathiqui, Mishal; Rodríguez, Rafael L.

2014-03-01

201

Female-borne cues affecting Psyttalia concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) male behavior during courtship and mating.  

PubMed

Knowledge of the mechanisms that regulate courtship and mating behavior in Psyttalia concolor (Szépligeti)-a koinobiont endophagous solitary parasitoid of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), and of other fruit flies-is essential to its mass rearing and management. Augmentative releases of P. concolor for olive fruit fly control started in the Mediterranean areas in the 1950s and still continue with limited success. We determined the influence of visual and chemical cues on courtship and mating behavior of this braconid and the possible effect of the mating status of males and females in the perception of these cues. Our results suggest that integration of visual and chemical stimuli are fundamental for mate location and courtship. Indeed, the optimal response of the male was achieved when physical and chemical cues were simultaneously presented and vision and olfaction worked synergistically. PMID:23955889

Canale, Angelo; Benelli, Giovanni; Lucchi, Andrea

2013-06-01

202

Tied to the nest: male black-capped chickadees decrease dawn chorus movement behaviour when their mate is fertile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male songbirds typically mate-guard by closely following the female during her fertile period. At dawn, males may sing near the nest or roost to direct their chorus at mates. Recent evidence suggests males may also be involved in singing interactions with neighbours during the dawn chorus. We used a 16- channel acoustic location system to examine the movement behaviour of

Jennifer R. Foote; Lauren P. Fitzsimmons; Daniel J. Mennill; Laurene M. Ratcliffe

2008-01-01

203

A pentatricopeptide repeat-containing gene restores fertility to cytoplasmic male-sterile plants  

PubMed Central

Known in over 150 species, cytoplasmic male sterility is encoded by aberrant mitochondrial genes that prevent pollen development. The RNA- or protein-level expression of most of the mitochondrial genes encoding cytoplasmic male sterility is altered in the presence of one or more nuclear genes called restorers of fertility that suppress the male-sterile phenotype. Cytoplasmic male sterility/restorer systems have been proven to be an invaluable tool in the production of hybrid seeds. Despite their importance for both the production of major crops such as rice and sunflower and the study of organelle/nuclear interactions in plants, none of the nuclear fertility-restorer genes that reduce the expression of aberrant mitochondrial proteins have previously been cloned. Here we report the isolation of a gene directly involved in the control of the expression of a cytoplasmic male sterility-encoding gene. The Petunia restorer of fertility gene product is a mitochondrially targeted protein that is almost entirely composed of 14 repeats of the 35-aa pentatricopeptide repeat motif. In a nonrestoring genotype we identified a homologous gene that exhibits a deletion in the promoter region and is expressed in roots but not in floral buds. PMID:12136123

Bentolila, Stéphane; Alfonso, Antonio A.; Hanson, Maureen R.

2002-01-01

204

Testosterone positively associated with both male mating effort and paternal behavior in savanna baboons (Papio cynocephalus)  

PubMed Central

Testosterone (T) is often positively associated with male sexual behavior and negatively associated with paternal care. These associations have primarily been demonstrated in species where investment in paternal care begins well after mating activity is complete, when offspring are hatched or born. Different patterns may emerge in studies of species where investment in mating and paternal care overlap temporally, for instance in non-seasonal breeders in which males mate with multiple females sequentially and may simultaneously have multiple offspring of different ages. In a 9-year data set on levels of T in male baboons, fecal concentrations of T (fT) were positively associated with both mate guarding (“consortship”) – a measure of current reproductive activity – and with the number of immature offspring a male had in his social group – a measure of past reproductive activity and an indicator of likely paternal behavior. To further examine the relationship between T and potential paternal behavior, we next drew on an intensive 8-month study of male behavior, and found that fathers were more likely to be in close proximity to their offspring than expected by chance. Because male baboons are known to provide paternal care, and because time in proximity to offspring would facilitate such care, this suggests that T concentrations in wild male baboons may be associated with both current reproductive activity and with current paternal behavior. These results are consistent with the predicted positive association between T a mating effort but not nd with a negative association between T a paternal care; in male baboons, high levels of nd T occur in males that are differentially associating with their offspring. PMID:23206991

Onyango, Patrick Ogola; Gesquiere, Laurence R.; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C.

2012-01-01

205

Risky foraging leads to cost-free mate guarding in male teal Anas crecca  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mate guarding by males is common in species with long-lasting pair bonds. We tested if the need to guard females affected\\u000a foraging depth in male teal (Anas crecca), and if they were more vigilant than females when foraging with submerged eyes (preventing monitoring of competing males\\u000a and predators). These predictions were not supported, suggesting that foraging depth selection is primarily

Matthieu Guillemain; Céline Arzel; Pierre Legagneux; Johan Elmberg; Hervé Fritz; Michel Lepley; Christophe Pin; Antoine Arnaud; Grégoire Massez

2007-01-01

206

Low Incidence of Miscarriage Induced by the Scent of Male Littermates of Original Mates: Male Kinship Reduces the Bruce Effect in Female Mice, Mus musculus  

PubMed Central

The scent of a novel male can elicit pregnancy block in recently mated female mice (Mus musculus), a phenomenon known as the Bruce effect. Despite abundant literature on the Bruce effect in rodents, it remains unclear whether males related to a female’s original mate can induce the Bruce effect in out-bred, communally living mice. We investigated this question using Kunming (KM) male mice of varying genetic relatedness. Recently mated females were subjected to three treatments: exposure to the urine of the mate, urine of the mate’s male littermate, and urine of a male unrelated to the mate. It was found that the urine of male littermates of the females’ mates did not elicit more pregnancy block than that of the females’ mates. However, the urine of novel males caused a higher rate of female miscarriage than that of the females’ mates. By using a habituation-dishabituation paradigm, we found that unmated females could discriminate the urine scents of two male littermates from those of a novel male unrelated to the littermates. To understand how females use urinary cues to discriminate between males with different genetic relationships, we used gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to examine the volatile composition of urine from males with varying relatedness. It was found that KM male littermates shared similar volatile compositions in their urine. Our results suggest that male kinship reduces the Bruce effect in female KM mice, and provide additional evidence for mate choice being partly mediated by the Bruce effect in KM mice. PMID:23874716

Wang, Yuting; Liu, Dingzhen

2013-01-01

207

Inbreeding depresses sperm competitiveness, but not fertilization or mating success in male Tribolium castaneum.  

PubMed

As populations decline to levels where reproduction among close genetic relatives becomes more probable, subsequent increases in homozygous recessive deleterious expression and/or loss of heterozygote advantage can lead to inbreeding depression. Here, we measure how inbreeding across replicate lines of the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum impacts on male reproductive fitness in the absence or presence of male-male competition. Effects on male evolution from mating pattern were removed by enforcing monogamous mating throughout. After inbreeding across eight generations, we found that male fertility in the absence of competition was unaffected. However, we found significant inbreeding depression of sperm competitiveness: non-inbred males won 57 per cent of fertilizations in competition, while inbred equivalents only sired 42 per cent. We also found that the P(2) 'offence' role in sperm competition was significantly more depressed under inbreeding than sperm 'defence' (P(1)). Mating behaviour did not explain these differences, and there was no difference in the viability of offspring sired by inbred or non-inbred males. Sperm length variation was significantly greater in the ejaculates of inbred males. Our results show that male ability to achieve normal fertilization success was not depressed under strong inbreeding, but that inbreeding depression in these traits occurred when conditions of sperm competition were generated. PMID:20554548

Michalczyk, Lukasz; Martin, Oliver Y; Millard, Anna L; Emerson, Brent C; Gage, Matthew J G

2010-11-22

208

Evolution of the genetic covariance between male and female components of mate recognition: an experimental test.  

PubMed Central

The evolution of a positive genetic correlation between male and female components of mate recognition systems will result as a consequence of assortative mating and, in particular, is central to a number of theories of sexual selection. Although the existence of such genetic correlations has been investigated in a number of taxa, it has yet to be shown that such correlations evolve and whether they may evolve as rapidly as suggested by sexual selection models. In this study, I used a hybridization experiment to disrupt natural mate recognition systems and then observed the subsequent evolutionary dynamics of the genetic correlation between male and female components for 56 generations in hybrids between Drosophila serrata and Drosophila birchii. The genetic correlation between male and female components evolved from 0.388 at generation 5 to 1.017 at generation 37 and then declined to -0.040 after a further 19 generations. These results indicated that the genetic basis of the mate recognition system in the hybrid populations evolved rapidly. The initial rapid increase in the genetic correlation was consistent with the classic assumption that male and female components will coevolve under sexual selection. The subsequent decline in genetic correlation may be attributable to the fixation of major genes, or, alternatively, may be a result of a cyclic evolutionary change in mate recognition. PMID:10681248

Blows, M W

1999-01-01

209

Hybrid seed production and the challenge of propagating male-sterile plants.  

PubMed

The introduction of hybrid crop varieties has enabled spectacular increases in productivity owing to hybrid vigor and increased uniformity. To produce hybrid seeds, a pollination control system is required to prevent unwanted self-pollination. In crop species with hermaphrodite flowers, this can be a major challenge. Over the past decade, new pollination control systems have been developed with the aid of genetic engineering, mainly based on the generation of nuclear-encoded male sterility. The successful application of these systems for large-scale hybrid seed production depends on whether the male-sterile female parent line can be multiplied efficiently and economically. In spite of its relevance, the propagation of the male-sterile line has often been overlooked in the development of pollination control systems. PMID:11992824

Perez-Prat, Eva; van Lookeren Campagne, Michiel M

2002-05-01

210

Do Male Desert Gobies Compromise Offspring Care to Attract Additional Mating Opportunities?  

PubMed Central

Males often play a critical role in offspring care but the time and energy invested in looking after young can potentially limit their ability to seek out additional mating opportunities. Recent studies, however, suggest that a conflict between male parental effort and mating effort may not always be inevitable, especially if breeding occurs near the nest, or if parental behaviours are under sexual selection. Accordingly, we set out to experimentally investigate male care and courtship in the desert goby Chlamydogobius eremius, a nest-guarding fish with exclusive paternal care. Despite courtship occurring near the nest, we found that when egg-tending males were given the opportunity to attract additional females, they fanned their eggs less often, engaged in shorter fanning bouts, and spent more of their time outside their nests courting. Our findings highlight the importance of understanding the circumstances under which reproductive tradeoffs are expected to occur and how these, in turn, operate to influence male reproductive decisions. PMID:21687677

Symons, Nicholas; Svensson, P. Andreas; Wong, Bob B. M.

2011-01-01

211

Low-oxygen atmospheric treatment improves the performance of irradiation-sterilized male cactus moths used in SIT.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

As part of Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) programs, irradiation can effectively induce sterility in insects by damaging genomic DNA. However, irradiation also induces other off-target side effects that reduce the quality and performance of sterilized males. Thus, treatments that reduce off-target ef...

212

Male sterility in triploid dandelions: asexual females vs asexual hermaphrodites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male reproductive output, pollen in plants and sperm in animals has been shown to constitute a substantial cost for many organisms. In parthenogenetic hermaphrodites, selection is therefore expected to reduce the allocation of resources to male reproductive output. However, sustained production of pollen or sperm has been observed in numerous asexual hermaphrodites. We studied the widespread production of pollen by

P G Meirmans; P H Van Tienderen

2006-01-01

213

Female house mice avoid fertilization by t haplotype incompatible males in a mate choice experiment.  

PubMed

The t haplotype in house mice is a well-known selfish genetic element with detrimental, nonadditive fitness consequences to its carriers: recessive lethal mutations cause t/t homozygotes to perish in utero. Given the severe genetic incompatibility imposed by the t haplotype, we predict females to avoid fertilization by t haplotype incompatible males. Indeed, some of the strongest evidence for compatibility mate choice is related to the t haplotype in house mice. However, all previous evidence for compatibility mate choice in this system is based on olfactory preference. It is so far unknown how general these preferences are and whether they are relevant in an actual mating context. Here, we assess female compatibility mate choice related to t haplotypes in a setting that - for the first time - allowed females to directly interact and mate with males. This approach enabled us to analyse female behaviour during the testing period, and the resulting paternity success and fitness consequences of a given choice. We show that genetic incompatibilities arising from the t haplotype had severe indirect fitness consequences and t females avoided fertilization by t incompatible males. The results are inconclusive whether this avoidance of t fertilization by t females was caused by pre- or post-copulatory processes. PMID:25494878

Manser, A; König, B; Lindholm, A K

2015-01-01

214

The relative role of male vs. female mate choice in maintaining assortative pairing among discrete colour morphs.  

PubMed

Mate choice has important evolutionary consequences because it influences assortative mating and the level of genetic variation maintained within populations. In species with genetically determined polymorphisms, nonrandom mate choice may affect the evolutionary stability and maintenance (or loss) of alternative phenotypes. We examined the mating pattern in the colour polymorphic Gouldian finch (Erythrura gouldiae), and the role of mate choice, both female and male, in maintaining the three discrete head colours (black, red and yellow). In both large captive and wild populations, Gouldian finches paired assortatively with respect to head colour. In mate choice trials, females showed a strong preference for mates with the most elaborate sexually dimorphic traits (i.e. more chromatic UV/blue plumage and longer pin-tail feathers), but did not discriminate assortatively. Unexpectedly, however, males were particularly choosy, associating and pairing only with females of their own morph-type. Although female mate choice is generally invoked as the major selective force maintaining conspicuous male colouration in sexually dichromatic species, and is typically thought to drive nonrandom mating, these findings suggest that mutual mate choice and male mate choice in particular, are an important yet neglected component of selection. PMID:17584244

Pryke, S R; Griffith, S C

2007-07-01

215

Efficient transformation of Kalanchoe blossfeldiana and production of male-sterile plants by engineered anther ablation.  

PubMed

Engineered male sterility in ornamental plants has many applications such as facilitate hybrid seed production, eliminate pollen allergens, reduce the need for deadheading to extend the flowering period, redirect resources from seeds to vegetative growth, increase flower longevity and prevent gene flow between genetically modified and related native plants. We have developed a reliable and efficient Agrobacterium-mediated protocol for the genetic transformation of different Kalanchoe blossfeldiana commercial cultivars. Transformation efficiency for cv. 'Hillary' was 55.3% whereas that of cv. 'Tenorio' reached 75.8%. Selection was carried out with the nptII gene and increasing the kanamycin concentration from 25 to 100 mg l(-1) allowed to reduced escapes from 50 to 60% to virtually 0%. This method was used to produce male-sterile plants through engineered anther ablation. In our approach, we tested a male sterility chimaeric gene construct (PsEND1::barnase) to evaluate its effectiveness and effect on phenotype. No significant differences were found in the growth patterns between the transgenic lines and the wild-type plants. No viable pollen grains were observed in the ablated anthers of any of the lines carrying the PsEND1::barnase construct, indicating that the male sterility was complete. In addition, seed set was completely abolished in all the transgenic plants obtained. Our engineered male-sterile approach could be used, alone or in combination with a female-sterility system, to reduce the invasive potential of new ornamentals, which has become an important environmental problem in many countries. PMID:19921199

García-Sogo, Begoña; Pineda, Benito; Castelblanque, Lourdes; Antón, Teresa; Medina, Mónica; Roque, Edelín; Torresi, Claudia; Beltrán, José Pío; Moreno, Vicente; Cañas, Luis Antonio

2010-01-01

216

Cytoplasmic male sterility-regulated novel microRNAs from maize.  

PubMed

In higher plants, microRNA (miRNA) is involved in regulation of developmental processes, including sexual organ development. Seven novel miRNA families with one known miRNA were isolated by constructing a small RNA library from a mixture of anther from a cytoplasmic male sterile line and its maintainer. Two miRNAs are conserved in plant species. A total of 18 potential targets were identified for the eight miRNA families, including 15 proteins annotated with function and three unknown proteins. The known proteins include several proteins relevant to cell structure and stress response, transcription factors, and enzymes associated with metabolic and signaling pathways, playing important roles in microspore development. Quantitative real-time PCR assay revealed different expression patterns of the miRNAs between the cytoplasmic male sterile line and its maintainer. Each of the miRNAs tended to be down-regulated after the tetrad stage in a fertile line. However, most of the miRNAs in the cytoplasmic male sterile line were shown to be up-regulated from the tetrad to mononuclear stage, displaying special expression patterns differing from the ones in fertile line. We conclude that additional inactive miRNA pathways are essential during pollen development for a fertile line to ensure male fertility. Contrarily, miRNAs are up-regulated during the period from the tetrad to mononuclear stage, which contributes to pollen abortion for a cytoplasmic male sterile line. PMID:21042925

Shen, Yaou; Zhang, Zhiming; Lin, Haijian; Liu, Hailan; Chen, Jie; Peng, Hua; Cao, Moju; Rong, Tingzhao; Pan, Guangtang

2011-03-01

217

Sterile Insect Technique and F1 Sterility in the European Grapevine Moth, Lobesia botrana  

PubMed Central

Newly emerged adults of the European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis and Schiffermuller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), were irradiated with various doses of gamma radiation and crossed to unirradiated counterparts of the opposite sex. Fecundity was decreased when unirradiated females were mated with either 300- or 350-Gy-irradiated males. Adult males that were irradiated with 400 Gy and mated with unirradiated females retained a residual fertility of 2.7%. The radiation dose at which irradiated females were found to be 100% sterile when mated with unirradiated males was 150 Gy. The inherited effects in the F1 progeny of irradiated male parents were examined at 100, 150, and 200 Gy. Fecundity and fertility of the F1 progeny of males irradiated with 150 Gy and inbred or crossed with irradiated and unirradiated moths were also recorded. A significant reduction in fertility was observed when F1 males mated with either F1 or unirradiated females. According to sterility index, F1 females who mated with F1 males had greater sterility than when F1 females were crossed to 150-Gy-irradiated males. Based upon the results of this study, 150 Gy of gamma radiation would be the optimal dose to use in a sterile insect technique and F1 sterility program against L. botrana. PMID:25373155

Saour, George

2014-01-01

218

Sterile insect technique and F? sterility in the European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana.  

PubMed

Newly emerged adults of the European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis and Schiffermuller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), were irradiated with various doses of gamma radiation and crossed to unirradiated counterparts of the opposite sex. Fecundity was decreased when unirradiated females were mated with either 300-or 350-Gy-irradiated males. Adult males that were irradiated with 400 Gy and mated with unirradiated females retained a residual fertility of 2.7%. The radiation dose at which irradiated females were found to be 100% sterile when mated with unirradiated males was 150 Gy. The inherited effects in the F1 progeny of irradiated male parents were examined at 100, 150, and 200 Gy. Fecundity and fertility of the F1 progeny of males irradiated with 150 Gy and inbred or crossed with irradiated and unirradiated moths were also recorded. A significant reduction in fertility was observed when F1 males mated with either F1 or unirradiated females. According to sterility index, F1 females who mated with F1 males had greater sterility than when F1 females were crossed to 150-Gy-irradiated males. Based upon the results of this study, 150 Gy of gamma radiation would be the optimal dose to use in a sterile insect technique and F1 sterility program against L. botrana. PMID:25373155

Saour, George

2014-01-01

219

Effects of pre-irradiation conditioning of Medfly pupae (Diptera: Tephritidae): Hypoxia and quality of sterile males  

SciTech Connect

Irradiation of pupae in sterile insect technique (SIT) projects is usually undertaken in hypoxic atmospheres, which have been shown to lessen the deleterious effects of irradiation on the quality of adult sterile flies. Although this is the accepted technology in most mass-rearing and sterilization facilities, to date no information has been generated on the actual levels of oxygen (O{sub 2}) in pupae-packing containers during irradiation. The present study utilized recently-developed technology to investigate the O{sub 2} level inside bags in which pupae of Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) are packed prior to irradiation, the ability of pupae to create hypoxic environments in these bags, and the effect of O{sub 2} atmospheres on the quality of irradiated males. Pupae, 1 d before adult emergence, were shown to deplete the O{sub 2} level in sealed bags in approximately 1 h. The rate of O{sub 2} consumption was dependent upon pupal age and incubation temperature. Incubation temperature did not significantly affect the quality of pupae or mating capacity of resultant adult males if pupae were irradiated under maximal hypoxic conditions inside packing bags. In contrast, mating competitiveness drastically decreased when pupae were irradiated under ambient O{sub 2} conditions, with the packing bag open. There was no difference in the mating capacity of males when pupae were irradiated in sealed bags under either 10% or 2% O{sub 2} levels, or under maximal hypoxia. Normal doses of fluorescent dye, applied to pupae to mark sterile flies, did not affect the ability of pupae to create hypoxic conditions inside packing bags, nor the quality control parameters of either pupae or adults. Current practices in mass-rearing facilities are discussed in the light of these results. (author) [Spanish] La irradiacion de pupas en proyectos de mosca esteril usualmente se hace bajo condiciones de hipoxia. Esta condicion ha demostrado ser menos detrimente a la calidad de las moscas que la irradiacion en atmosferas con proporcion normal de oxigeno. Aunque esta ha sido por mucho tiempo parte del protocolo de irradiacion en plantas de produccion de mosca esteril, hasta ahora no se ha medido el contenido de oxigeno dentro de los recipientes de empaque de pupa durante la irradiacion. El presente estudio investigo los contenidos de O{sub 2} en los contenedores de pupas de la mosca de las frutas del Mediterraneo (Ceratitis capitata Wiedeman), la habilidad de pupas de crear hipoxia dentro de los contenedores, y los efectos del contenido de O{sub 2} durante la irradiacion del contenedor en la calidad y capacidad de apareamiento de moscas esteriles. Pupas de un dia antes de emerger como adultos crearon atmosferas de maxima hipoxia dentro del empaque en aproximadamente una hora. La proporcion de consumo de O{sub 2} en contenedores sellados es dependiente de la edad de la pupa, y de la temperatura de incubacion. La temperatura de incubacion no afecto significativamente la calidad ni la capacidad de apareamiento de machos derivados de pupas irradiadas bajo condiciones de hipoxia. Sin embargo, la capacidad de apareamiento de machos irradiados como pupas en contenedores abiertos y en condiciones oxigenadas fue drasticamente afectada. En comparacion a los resultados anteriores, atmosferas de 2% y 10% O{sub 2} durante la irradiacion no afectaron la capacidad de apareamiento de moscas esteriles. Polvo fluorescente, aplicado a pupas para marcar las moscas esteriles, no tuvo efectos sobre la capacidad de las pupas de crear hipoxia. Los resultados de este estudio se discuten en base a las practicas actuales de produccion e irradiacion. (author)

Nestel, D.; Nemny-Lavy, E. [Department of Entomology, Institute of Plant Protection, Agricultural Research Organization, Volcani Center, P.O. Box 6, 50250 Beit-Dagan (Israel); Islam, S.M.; Wornoayporn, V.; Caceres, C. [Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, International Atomic Energy Agency, Agency's Laboratories, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)

2007-03-15

220

MULTIPLE-MATING OF MALE AND FEMALE CODLING MOTH (LEPIDOPTERA: TORTRICIDAE) IN APPLE ORCHARDS TREATED WITH SEX PHEROMONE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Studies were conducted with codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), to evaluate the mating status of male and female moths in apple, Malus domestica (Borkhausen), orchards treated with and without sex pheromone dispensers. Laboratory studies first examined the effect of multiple mating of male and femal...

221

Adaptive speciation when assortative mating is based on female preference for male marker traits  

E-print Network

Adaptive speciation when assortative mating is based on female preference for male marker traits M, Vancouver, BC, Canada Introduction In recent years, it has become clear that speciation under conditions, in theory, there is whole class of speciation processes that require ecological contact. These speciation

Doebeli, Michael

222

Testosterone positively associated with both male mating effort and paternal behavior in savanna baboons (Papio cynocephalus)  

E-print Network

baboons (Papio cynocephalus) Patrick Ogola Onyango a, , Laurence R. Gesquiere a , Jeanne Altmann a 2012 Available online 30 November 2012 Keywords: Testosterone Mating effort Paternal behavior Baboons simultaneously have multiple offspring of different ages. In a 9-year data set on levels of T in male baboons

Alberts, Susan C

223

Polygynous mating impairs body condition and homeostasis in male reindeer ( Rangifer tarandus tarandus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reindeer are polygynous ruminants that breed when plant growth declines in the Arctic. We studied seven males (2 years and older) in two herds with a total of 34 females to describe the costs and consequences of mating or rut. Body mass declined between September and November and did not recover through winter even though food was available ad libitum.

P. S. Barboza; D. W. Hartbauer; W. E. Hauer; J. E. Blake

2004-01-01

224

Is mate choice in Drosophila males guided by olfactory or gustatory pheromones?  

E-print Network

1 Is mate choice in Drosophila males guided by olfactory or gustatory pheromones? Claude Everaerts.Everaerts@u-bourgogne.fr (C. Everaerts). Key words: courtship; cuticular hydrocarbon; discrimination; Drosophila melanogaster, published in "Animal Behaviour (2010) in press" #12;2 Drosophila melanogaster flies use both olfactory

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

225

Methoprene modulates the effect of diet on male melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitate, performance at mating aggregations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effect of dietary protein (P) and the topical application of juvenile hormone analogue (methoprene (M)) on mating behaviour of male melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, was assessed in the laboratory and in field cages. Age, dietary protein and methoprene application improved the sexual success and...

226

Author's personal copy Teneral matings in fruit flies: male coercion and female response  

E-print Network

: Drosophila melanogaster forced copulation fruit fly mate choice sexual conflict sexual selection Extensive on field data suggesting that male fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) force copulate with teneral females, which are recently eclosed females characterized by their folded wings and soft, light coloured

Dukas, Reuven

227

Hormonal contraceptive use and mate retention behavior in women and their male partners  

E-print Network

of physical and psychological side ef- fects. Women who use hormonal contraceptives report more intenseHormonal contraceptive use and mate retention behavior in women and their male partners Lisa L, USA b Psychology Department, University of Stirling, Stirling, FK9 4LA, UK a b s t r a c ta r t i c l

Little, Tony

228

Male mask size is correlated with mating success in the common yellowthroat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many socially monogamous species have sexually dimorphic traits. The evolution of these traits is puzzling as sexual selection is often thought to be relatively weak in monogamous species. However, sexual selection in monogamous species could be stronger than generally believed if the males possessing more dimorphic traits gain a reproductive advantage by increasing the probability of: (1) gaining a mate,

Kevin J. Thusius; Kara A. Peterson; Peter O. Dunn; Linda A. Whittingham

2001-01-01

229

MULTI-MALE MATING BY PAIRED AND UNPAIRED FEMALE PRAIRIE VOLES (MICROTUS OCHROGASTER)  

E-print Network

MULTI-MALE MATING BY PAIRED AND UNPAIRED FEMALE PRAIRIE VOLES (MICROTUS OCHROGASTER) by JERRY O is not clear. Also, whether MMM occurs in the reportedly socially monogamous prairie vole, Microtus ochrogaster of the female in MMM in the prairie vole, Microtus ochrogaster. We chose the prairie vole because of its

Dunlap, Aimee Sue

230

Disruption of Arabidopsis thaliana MYB26 results in male sterility due to non-dehiscent anthers.  

PubMed

A male sterile mutant with a defect in anther dehiscence was identified in an Arabidopsis thaliana population mutagenized with the Zea mays transposon En-1/Spm. Mutants produce viable pollen that can fertilize when released mechanically from the anthers. Mutant stamens are of normal size and shape, but lack cell wall fortifications in the endothecial cell layer of the anther, which are required for the dehiscence process. The mutant phenotype was shown to be caused by a transposon insertion in AtMYB26, disrupting the putative DNA-binding domain of this R2R3-type MYB transcription factor. RT-PCR revealed that expression of AtMYB26 is restricted to inflorescences. Sterility was shown to be stable under several environmental conditions. The high stability of the sterile phenotype, together with the fact that pollen is functional, makes AtMYB26 and its orthologs a valuable tool for manipulating male fertility in higher plants. PMID:12753590

Steiner-Lange, Sabine; Unte, Ulrike S; Eckstein, Luca; Yang, Caiyun; Wilson, Zoe A; Schmelzer, Elmon; Dekker, Koen; Saedler, Heinz

2003-05-01

231

The role of testosterone in male downy woodpeckers in winter home range use, mate interactions and female foraging behaviour  

PubMed Central

Studies of the role of testosterone (T) in birds have typically focused on sexual or aggressive behaviours of males during the breeding period, but males of nonmigratory species may invest in mate and territory long before breeding, and the influence of T in facilitating nonbreeding-season behaviours is poorly understood. We gave free-living male downy woodpeckers, Picoides pubescens, T-implants during the winter to determine whether elevated levels of T increased a male’s ability to exclusively occupy territory-based resources, and whether elevated T strengthened a male’s investment in an existing pair bond relationship. We also explored how a female’s foraging efficiency might be affected by her mate’s behaviour if he had elevated T. We found little difference between control and T-implanted males with regard to home range exclusivity. Surprisingly, male–male display rates were significantly lower in T-implanted males than in controls. Regarding male–female interactions, T-implanted males that experienced high incursion rates from other males maintained more frequent spatial association with their mate, suggesting that T facilitates male behaviours that could restrict the mate’s access to other male birds. Female mates of T-males showed reduced foraging rates, but because male–female aggression was similar between treatment groups, the cause for this reduction is unknown. The results indicate that exogenous T during winter affects a variety of behaviours in male woodpeckers, and proximate influences on pair bond maintenance in winter may be a fruitful avenue for future research. PMID:16932805

KELLAM, JAMES S.; LUCAS, JEFFREY R.; WINGFIELD, JOHN C.

2006-01-01

232

Mating success in brood-guarding male rock bass, Ambloplites rupestris : the effect of body size  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypothesis that variation in a paternal trait associated with offspring survival will result in female mate choice based on that trait was tested in rock bass,Ambloplites rupestris, a temperate fresh water fish with uniparental male care. The number of eggs acquired by 108 nesting male rock bass, in Cranberry Lake (New York State, U.S.A.), was estimated in two different

Alberto M. Sabat

1994-01-01

233

Male Genital Morphology and Its Influence on Female Mating Preferences and Paternity Success in Guppies  

PubMed Central

In internally fertilizing species male genitalia often show a higher degree of elaboration than required for simply transferring sperm to females. Among the hypotheses proposed to explain such diversity, sexual selection has received the most empirical support, with studies revealing that genital morphology can be targeted by both pre-and postcopulatory sexual selection. Until now, most studies have focused on these two episodes of selection independently. Here, we take an alternative approach by considering both components simultaneously in the livebearing fish, Poecilia reticulata. We allowed females to mate successively (and cooperatively) with two males and determined whether male genital length influenced the female's propensity to mate with a male (precopulatory selection, via female choice) and whether male genital size and shape predicted the relative paternity share of subsequent broods (postcopulatory selection, via sperm competition/cryptic female choice). We found no evidence that either episode of sexual selection targets male genital size or shape. These findings, in conjunction with our recent work exposing a role of genital morphology in mediating unsolicited (forced) matings in guppies, further supports our prior speculation that sexual conflict may be an important broker of genital evolution in this species. PMID:21799825

Gasparini, Clelia; Pilastro, Andrea; Evans, Jonathan P.

2011-01-01

234

Neuroendocrine mechanisms underlying regulation of mating flight behaviors in male honey bees (Apis mellifera L.).  

PubMed

We determined the neuroendocrine mechanisms underlying regulation of mating flight behaviors in male honey bees. Both a precursor of dopamine (3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine: DOPA) and a precursor of octopamine (tyramine) in the brain decreased in an age-dependent fashion before sexual maturation (i.e. 8days of age), whereas the levels of brain dopamine, dopamine metabolites (N-acetyldopamine and norepinephrine) and octopamine were increased. These age-dependent increases of dopamine and octopamine were also detected in the meso-metathoracic ganglia. Injection of either dopamine or octopamine into 7-8-day-old males shortened the duration for flight-initiation and increased the duration of wing vibration, indicating that both dopamine and octopamine enhance the flight-initiation and -sustaining activities in males. Applications of a juvenile hormone analog (methoprene) enhanced the levels of dopamine in the brains of 4-day-old males, but this enhancement was not detected in either brain octopamine or meso-metathoracic dopamine and octopamine. Thus, we found that both dopamine and octopamine in the brain and meso-metathoracic ganglia increase until sexual maturation and could enhance the activities of mating flight independently; in addition, the increase in levels of dopamine in the brain could be selectively regulated by juvenile hormone. The regulatory systems of dopamine and octopamine in honey bee males might be 'classical' and similar to those of primitively eusocial hymenopterans, and partly adapt to the short lifespan with a single mating system in the males. PMID:23510859

Mezawa, Ryusuke; Akasaka, Shinya; Nagao, Takashi; Sasaki, Ken

2013-06-01

235

Novel composition of mitochondrial genomes in Petunia somatic hybrids derived from cytoplasmic male sterile and fertile plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mitochondrial genomes of petunia somatic hybrid plants, which were derived from the fusion of male fertile P. hybrida protoplasts with cytoplasmic male sterile P. parodii protoplasts, were analyzed by endonuclease restriction and Southern blot hybridization analyses. We studied sterile and fertile somatic hybrids to address two main questions. First, is there any correlation between the mitochondrial DNA restriction banding

Maury L. Boeshore; Irit Lifshitz; Maureen R. Hanson; Shamay Izhar

1983-01-01

236

Inheritance of Fertility Restoration for Two Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Sources of Helianthus pauciflorus (rigidus) Nutt  

Microsoft Academic Search

to have H. tuberosus cytoplasm. This was not generally recognized until the discovery of the vigor restoration New sources of cytoplasmic male sterility (cms) and fertility restora- genes in many cultivated lines obtained by crossing them tion genes would reduce the genetic vulnerability of commercial sun- flower (Helianthus annuus L.) hybrids because of the current use of with vigor-reduced HA89

C. C. Jan; T. X. Zhang; J. F. Miller; G. N. Fick

237

Independent segregation of the plastid genome and cytoplasmic male sterility in Petunia somatic hybrids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chloroplast genomes of three sets of Petunia somatic hybrids were analyzed to examine the relationship between chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) composition and cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS). Chloroplast genomes of somatic hybrid plants were identified either by restriction and electrophoresis of purified cpDNAs or by hybridization of total DNA digests with cloned cpDNA probes that distinguish the parental genomes.

Ellen M. Clark; Shamay Izhar; Maureen R. Hanson

1985-01-01

238

ORIENTAL FRUIT FLY: MALES-ONLY STERILE FLY RELEASES IN HAWAII  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Beginning in late August, 2004, we began a program to release sterile male oriental fruit flies, Bactrocera dorsalis, in a citrus orchard in central Oahu, Hawaii. This program follows the encouraging results obtained with the melon fly genetic sexing strain on the islands of Hawaii, Maui, and Oahu. ...

239

Meiotic disturbances related to human male sterility J. M. LUCIANI, A. STAHL  

E-print Network

of each anomaly, we would like to consider in more detail three groups : males with Klinefelter's syndrome constitution. 1. Klinefelter's syndrome. - The role of certain gonosomal anomalies in relation to sterility in Klinefelter's syndrome where the atrophic and hyalinized seminiferous tubules contain practically only Sertoli

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

240

A Quantitative Genetic Analysis of Nuclear-Cytoplasmic Male Sterility in Structured Populations of Silene vulgaris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gynodioecy, the coexistence of functionally female and hermaphroditic morphs within plant popula- tions, often has a complicated genetic basis involving several cytoplasmic male-sterility factors and nuclear restorers. This complexity has made it difficult to study the genetics and evolution of gynodioecy in natural populations. We use a quantitative genetic analysis of crosses within and among populations of Silene vulgaris to

Douglas R. Taylor; Matthew S. Olson; David E. McCauley

241

All male strains and chemical stimulants: Two ways to boost sterile mailes in SIT programs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Technical abstract: Genetic and chemical means have been developed to significantly improve the effectiveness of the sterile insect technique against tephritid fruit flies in recent years. Beginning with the development of genetic sexing techniques some 25 years ago, all-male strains of several spe...

242

Expression of kenaf mitochondrial chimeric genes HM184 causes male sterility in transgenic tobacco plants.  

PubMed

Abstract Chimeric genes resulting from the rearrangement of a mitochondrial genome were generally thought to be a causal factor in the occurrence of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS). In the study, earlier we reported that identifying a 47?bp deletion at 3'- flanking of atp9 that was linked to male sterile cytoplasm in kenaf. The truncated fragment was fused with atp9, a mitochondrial transit signal (MTS) and/or GFP, comprised two chimeric genes MTS-HM184-GFP and MTS-HM184. The plant expression vector pBI121 containing chimeric genes were then introduced to tobacco plants by Agrobacterium-mediated T-DNA transformation. The result showed that certain transgenic plants were male sterility or semi-sterility, while some were not. The expression analysis further demonstrated that higher level of expression were showed in the sterility plants, while no expression or less expression in fertility plants, the levels of expression of semi-sterility were in between. And the sterile plant (containing MTS-HM184-GFP) had abnormal anther produced malformed/shriveled pollen grains stained negative that failed to germinate (0%), the corresponding fruits was shrunken, the semi-sterile plants having normal anther shape produced about 10-50% normal pollen grains, the corresponding fruits were not full, and the germination rate was 58%. Meanwhile these transgenic plants which altered on fertility were further analyzed in phenotype. As a result, the metamorphosis leaves were observed in the seedling stage, the plant height of transgenic plants was shorter than wild type. The growth duration of transgenic tobacco was delayed 30-45 days compared to the wild type. The copy numbers of target genes of transgenic tobacco were analyzed using the real-time quantitative method. The results showed that these transgenic plants targeting-expression in mitochondrial containing MTS-HM184-GFP had 1 copy and 2 copies, the other two plants containing MTS-HM184 both had 3 copies, but 0 copy in wild type. In summary, the two manual chimeric genes might be related to male sterility in kenaf. PMID:24617462

Zhao, Yanhong; Liao, Xiaofang; Huang, Zhipeng; Chen, Peng; Zhou, Bujin; Liu, Dongmei; Kong, Xiangjun; Zhou, Ruiyang

2014-03-11

243

Cytological study of a male-sterile Cryptomeria japonica that does not release microspores from tetrads  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the mechanism of male-sterility Cryptomeria japonica tree Shindai3, the process of microspore development was observed under light and fluorescence microscopy. Microspore development\\u000a in the Shindai3 was normal until the tetrad stage, but separation of the microspores from the tetrads was not observed even\\u000a after callose had been degraded. In contrast to the microspore stage in a male-fertile tree,

Hiroko Ueuma; Eri Yoshii; Yoshihiro Hosoo; Hideaki Taira

2009-01-01

244

Genic markers for wild abortive (WA) cytoplasm based male sterility and its fertility restoration in rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial exploitation of heterosis is essential for enhancing productivity of rice. The use of cytoplasmic male sterility\\u000a (CMS) and fertility restoration system greatly facilitates large scale production of hybrid seed. The wild abortive (WA) cytoplasm\\u000a is most widely used for hybrid seed production in rice. The present study was undertaken to develop molecular markers for\\u000a both WA cytoplasm based male

Umakanta Ngangkham; Swarup K. Parida; Sandip De; K. Anand Raj Kumar; Ashok K. Singh; Nagendra K. Singh; Trilochan Mohapatra

2010-01-01

245

Mating increases neuronal tyrosine hydroxylase expression and selectively gates transmission of male chemosensory information in female mice.  

PubMed

Exposure to chemosensory signals from unfamiliar males can terminate pregnancy in recently mated female mice. The number of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons in the main olfactory bulb has been found to increase following mating and has been implicated in preventing male-induced pregnancy block during the post-implantation period. In contrast, pre-implantation pregnancy block is mediated by the vomeronasal system, and is thought to be prevented by selective inhibition of the mate's pregnancy blocking chemosignals, at the level of the accessory olfactory bulb. The objectives of this study were firstly to identify the level of the vomeronasal pathway at which selective inhibition of the mate's pregnancy blocking chemosignals occurs. Secondly, to determine whether a post-mating increase in tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons is observed in the vomeronasal system, which could play a role in preventing pre-implantation pregnancy block. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that mating induced an increase in tyrosine-hydroxylase positive neurons in the arcuate hypothalamus of BALB/c females, and suppressed c-Fos expression in these neurons in response to mating male chemosignals. This selective suppression of c-Fos response to mating male chemosignals was not apparent at earlier levels of the pregnancy-blocking neural pathway in the accessory olfactory bulb or corticomedial amygdala. Immunohistochemical staining revealed an increase in the number of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons in the accessory olfactory bulb of BALB/c female mice following mating. However, increased dopamine-mediated inhibition in the accessory olfactory bulb is unlikely to account for the prevention of pregnancy block to the mating male, as tyrosine hydroxylase expression did not increase in females of the C57BL/6 strain, which show normal mate recognition. These findings reveal an association of mating with increased dopaminergic modulation in the pregnancy block pathway and support the hypothesis that mate recognition prevents pregnancy block by suppressing the activation of arcuate dopamine release. PMID:23936125

Matthews, Gillian A; Patel, Ronak; Walsh, Alison; Davies, Owain; Martínez-Ricós, Joana; Brennan, Peter A

2013-01-01

246

Male mate recognition via cuticular hydrocarbons facilitates sexual isolation between sympatric leaf beetle sister species.  

PubMed

Chemical signals in insects have been documented to play an important role in mate recognition, and divergence in chemical signals can often cause sexual isolation between closely related species or populations within species. We investigated the role of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs), short distance chemical signals, in male mate recognition between the two sympatric elm leaf beetles, Pyrrhalta maculicollis and Pyrrhaltaaenescens. Mating experiments demonstrated that strong sexual isolation between the two species was driven by CHCs divergence. Males preferred to mate with conspecific females with intact conspecific CHCs or conspecific CHCs reapplied after removal. Males also preferred heterospecific females that were treated with conspecific CHCs. Chemical analysis showed that the CHC profiles differ significantly between species. In P. maculicollis dimethyl-branched alkanes between C29 and C35 account for the majority of the saturated alkanes while the CHC profile of P. aenescens mostly consisted of monomethyl-branched alkanes between C22 and C29. Additionally, some compounds, such as 12,18-diMeC32, 12,18-diMeC34, are unique to P. maculicollis. PMID:25172230

Zhang, Bin; Xue, Huai-Jun; Song, Ke-Qing; Liu, Jie; Li, Wen-Zhu; Nie, Rui-E; Yang, Xing-Ke

2014-11-01

247

A male-sterile insertion in the mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Is(7;l)40H was found in the daughter of a male mouse given spermatozoal X-irradiation. It is a non-inverted insertion of about half of chromosome 7 into chromosome 1, generating a long somatic marker chromosome. Breakpoints are in bands IB, 7B1, and 7F1; linkage tests show that these breakpoints are about midway between fz and In on the 1, and 0.2 units

A. G. Searle; C. V. Beechey; P. de Boer; D. G. de Rooij; E. P. Evans; M. Kirk

1983-01-01

248

Genetic Variation and Covariation in Male Attractiveness and Female Mating Preferences in Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

How mating preferences evolve remains one of the major unsolved mysteries in evolutionary biology. One major impediment to the study of ornament-preference coevolution is that many aspects of the theoretical literature remain loosely connected to empirical data. Theoretical models typically streamline mating preferences by describing preference functions with a single parameter, a modeling convenience that may veil important aspects of preference evolution. Here, we use a high-throughput behavioral assay in Drosophila melanogaster to quantify attractiveness and multiple components of preferences in both males and females. Females varied genetically with respect to how they ranked males in terms of attractiveness as well as the extent to which they discriminated among different males. Conversely, males showed consistent preferences for females, suggesting that D. melanogaster males tend to rank different female phenotypes in the same order in terms of attractiveness. Moreover, we reveal a heretofore undocumented positive genetic correlation between male attractiveness and female choosiness, which is a measure of the variability in a female’s response to different male phenotypes. This genetic correlation sets the stage for female choosiness to evolve via a correlated response to selection on male traits and potentially adds a new dimension to the Fisherian sexual selection process. PMID:24212081

Ratterman, Nicholas L.; Rosenthal, Gil G.; Carney, Ginger E.; Jones, Adam G.

2013-01-01

249

Hormonal correlates of male attractiveness during mate selection in the mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos).  

PubMed

The aims of the present study were (1) to examine if feeding condition prior to mating influences male hormone levels and behavior, (2) to evaluate the effect of age on male hormone levels, (3) to examine a possible association between male social display activity and four steroid hormones (testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estrogen, and corticosterone), and (4) to examine if female behavior influences male hormone levels. Thirty male and fifteen female mallards were used in this study. Observations were made on a mixed flock of mallards for 10 consecutive days in autumn. Five weeks before the observations, males were randomly assigned to a feeding regime with either an unlimited food supply (UL group) or a limited food supply (L group). Males in the UL group showed significantly greater social display activity compared to the L group males. Females never incited (courted) males from the L group. Dihydrotestosterone levels were significantly higher in males showing social display activity as compared to males not showing these behavior patterns. Testosterone levels were significantly higher in males incited by females compared to males not incited by females. PMID:2925188

Klint, T; Edsman, L; Holmberg, K; Silverin, B

1989-03-01

250

Hybridization using cytoplasmic male sterility, cytoplasmic herbicide tolerance, and herbicide tolerance from nuclear genes  

SciTech Connect

An improved process is described for producing a substantially homogeneous population of plants of a predetermined hybrid variety of crop which is capable of undergoing self-pollination and cross-pollination. The process comprises: growing in a first planting area a substantially random population of cytoplasmic male sterile plants which exhibit cytoplasmic herbicide tolerance to at least one Type A herbicide and exhibit tolerance to at least one Type B herbicide which is attributable solely to homozygous dominant nuclear genes and male fertile plants which are homozygous recessive maintainer plants for the cytoplasmic male sterile plants and which lack the cytoplasmic herbicide tolerance to at least one Type A herbicide and exhibit tolerance to at least one Type B herbicide attributable solely to the homozygous dominant nuclear genes.

Beversdorf, W.D.; Erickson, L.R.; Grant, I.

1987-04-14

251

Reed bunting females increase fitness through extra-pair mating with genetically dissimilar males  

PubMed Central

Females of many socially monogamous species accept or even actively seek copulations outside the social pair bond. As females cannot increase the number of offspring with promiscuous behaviour, the question arises why they engage in extra-pair mating. We used microsatellite data to determine paternity, heterozygosity and genetic relatedness in the reed bunting (Emberiza schoeniclus), a species with high levels of extra-pair paternity (EPP). We found that extra-pair young (EPY) were more heterozygous than within-pair young (WPY). The high heterozygosity of the EPY resulted from a low genetic similarity between females and their extra-pair mates. EPY were heavier and larger when compared with their maternal half-siblings shortly before they left the nest. Recapture data indicated a higher fledgling survival of EPY compared with WPY. Our data suggest that reed bunting females increase the viability of their offspring and thus fitness through extra-pair mating with genetically dissimilar males. PMID:17785270

Suter, Stefan M; Keiser, Martin; Feignoux, Raoul; Meyer, Dietrich R

2007-01-01

252

Post-Mating Interactions and Their Effects on Fitness of Female and Male Echinothrips americanus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), a New Insect Pest in China  

PubMed Central

Post-mating, sexual interactions of opposite sexes differ considerably in different organisms. Post-mating interactions such as re-mating behavior and male harassment can affect the fitness of both sexes. Echinothrips americanus is a new insect pest in Mainland China, and little is known about its post-mating interactions. In this study, we observed re-mating frequency and male harassment frequency and their effects on fitness parameters and offspring sex ratios of E. americanus females. Furthermore, we tested the impact of mating and post-mating interactions on fitness parameters of males. Our results revealed that the re-mating frequency in female adults was extremely low during a 30-day period. However, post-mating interactions between females and males, consisting mainly of male harassment and female resistance, did occur and significantly reduced female longevity and fecundity. Interestingly, increased access to males did not affect the ratio of female offspring. For males, mating dramatically reduced their longevity. However, post-mating interactions with females had no effects on the longevity of mated males. These results enrich our basic knowledge about female and male mating and post-mating behaviors in this species and provide important information about factors that may influence population regulation of this important pest species. PMID:24489956

Li, Xiao-Wei; Jiang, Hong-Xue; Zhang, Xiao-Chen; Shelton, Anthony M.; Feng, Ji-Nian

2014-01-01

253

Male wing color properties predict the size of nuptial gifts given during mating in the Pipevine Swallowtail butterfly ( Battus philenor)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many animals, males bear bright ornamental color patches that may signal both the direct and indirect benefits that a female might accrue from mating with him. Here we test whether male coloration in the Pipevine Swallowtail butterfly, Battus philenor, predicts two potential direct benefits for females: brief copulation duration and the quantity of materials the male passes to the female during mating. In this species, males have a bright iridescent blue field on the dorsal hindwing surface, while females have little or no dorsal iridescence. Females preferentially mate with males who display a bright and highly chromatic blue field on their dorsal hindwing. In this study, we show that the chroma of the blue field on the male dorsal hindwing and male body size (forewing length) significantly predict the mass of material or spermatophore that a male forms within the female's copulatory sac during mating. We also found that spermatophore mass correlated negatively with copulation duration, but that color variables did not significantly predict this potential direct benefit. These results suggest that females may enhance the material benefits they receive during mating by mating with males based on the coloration of their dorsal hindwing.

Rajyaguru, Parth K.; Pegram, Kimberly V.; Kingston, Alexandra C. N.; Rutowski, Ronald L.

2013-06-01

254

Male wing color properties predict the size of nuptial gifts given during mating in the Pipevine Swallowtail butterfly (Battus philenor).  

PubMed

In many animals, males bear bright ornamental color patches that may signal both the direct and indirect benefits that a female might accrue from mating with him. Here we test whether male coloration in the Pipevine Swallowtail butterfly, Battus philenor, predicts two potential direct benefits for females: brief copulation duration and the quantity of materials the male passes to the female during mating. In this species, males have a bright iridescent blue field on the dorsal hindwing surface, while females have little or no dorsal iridescence. Females preferentially mate with males who display a bright and highly chromatic blue field on their dorsal hindwing. In this study, we show that the chroma of the blue field on the male dorsal hindwing and male body size (forewing length) significantly predict the mass of material or spermatophore that a male forms within the female's copulatory sac during mating. We also found that spermatophore mass correlated negatively with copulation duration, but that color variables did not significantly predict this potential direct benefit. These results suggest that females may enhance the material benefits they receive during mating by mating with males based on the coloration of their dorsal hindwing. PMID:23644511

Rajyaguru, Parth K; Pegram, Kimberly V; Kingston, Alexandra C N; Rutowski, Ronald L

2013-06-01

255

Male mating strategy and the introgression of a growth hormone transgene.  

PubMed

Escaped transgenic organisms (GMO's) may threaten the populations of their wild relatives if able to hybridize with each other. The introgression of a growth enhancement transgene into a wild Atlantic salmon population may be affected by the transgene's effects not only on fitness parameters, but also on mating behaviour. Large anadromous GMO males are most preferred in mating, but a transgene can also give the large sneakers a reproductive advantage over the smaller wild individuals. With a simulation model, we studied whether the increase in the proportion and mating success of sneakers in transgenic and hybrid genotypes could facilitate the introgression of a transgene into wild population after the release of GMOs. The model combines population dynamics and Mendelian inheritance of a transgenic trait. We found that the introgression of the transgene is strongly affected by the greater mating preference of large GMO males. Furthermore, the difference in reproductive success between the anadromous versus sneaker strategy defines how much GMO's have to be preferred to be able to invade. These results emphasize the importance of detailed knowledge of reproductive systems and the effect of a transgene on the phenotype and behaviour of GMOs when assessing the consequences of their release or escape to the wild. PMID:25567801

Valosaari, Kata-Riina; Aikio, Sami; Kaitala, Veijo

2008-11-01

256

Female's courtship threshold allows intruding males to mate with reduced effort  

PubMed Central

Female decision rules can influence the nature and intensity of sexual selection on males, but empirical demonstrations of rules underlying choice are rare. We hypothesized that female choice is largely based on a courtship duration threshold in the Australian redback spider (Latrodectus hasselti) because females kill males before copulation is complete (premature cannibalism) and reduce their paternity if courtship is brief. We used published data to infer that the female's threshold is approximately 100 min of courtship. We support this hypothesis by showing that premature cannibalism is common when the male's courtship duration is below this threshold, but is infrequent and unrelated to duration once courtship exceeds the threshold. We then ask whether females discriminate the source of courtship when rival males compete, as this will determine the effect of the threshold on male competitive tactics. We staged competitions where ‘resident’ males initially courted females in the absence of competition, exceeding the courtship threshold before ‘intruding’ males were introduced. Intruding males mated rapidly but were not prematurely cannibalized by females, in contrast to cases where competition starts before the threshold is surpassed. This suggests females do not distinguish which male satisfies the threshold, allowing intruders to parasitize the courtship efforts of residents. To our knowledge, such exploitation of mating efforts by rival males mediated by a female choice threshold has not been demonstrated elsewhere. Ironically, this female choice threshold and the attendant possibility of courtship parasitism may lead to selection for lower-quality males to recognize and seek out (rather than avoid) webs in which competitors are already present. PMID:19864292

Stoltz, J. A.; Andrade, M. C. B.

2010-01-01

257

Gonad morphogenesis defects drive hybrid male sterility in asymmetric hybrid breakdown of Caenorhabditis nematodes.  

PubMed

Determining the causes and evolution of reproductive barriers to gene flow between populations, speciation, is the key to understanding the origin of diversity in nature. Many species manifest hybrid breakdown when they intercross, characterized by increasingly exacerbated problems in later generations of hybrids. Recently, Caenorhabditis nematodes have emerged as a genetic model for studying speciation, and here we investigate the nature and causes of hybrid breakdown between Caenorhabditis remanei and C. latens. We quantify partial F1 hybrid inviability and extensive F2 hybrid inviability; the ~75% F2 embryonic arrest occurs primarily during gastrulation or embryonic elongation. Moreover, F1 hybrid males exhibit Haldane's rule asymmetrically for both sterility and inviability, being strongest when C. remanei serves as maternal parent. We show that the mechanism by which sterile hybrid males are incapable of transferring sperm or a copulatory plug involves defective gonad morphogenesis, which we hypothesize results from linker cell defects in migration and/or cell death during development. This first documented case of partial hybrid male sterility in Caenorhabditis follows expectations of Darwin's corollary to Haldane's rule for asymmetric male fitness, providing a powerful foundation for molecular dissection of intrinsic reproductive barriers and divergence of genetic pathways controlling organ morphogenesis. PMID:25196892

Dey, Alivia; Jin, Qi; Chen, Yen-Chu; Cutter, Asher D

2014-01-01

258

Genetics of hybrid male sterility among strains and species in the Drosophila pseudoobscura species group  

PubMed Central

Taxa in the early stages of speciation may bear intraspecific allelic variation at loci conferring barrier traits in hybrids such as hybrid sterility. Additionally, hybridization may spread alleles that confer barrier traits to other taxa. Historically, few studies examine within- and between-species variation at loci conferring reproductive isolation. Here, we test for allelic variation within Drosophila persimilis and within the Bogota subspecies of D. pseudoobscura at regions previously shown to contribute to hybrid male sterility. We also test whether D. persimilis and the USA subspecies of D. pseudoobscura share an allele conferring hybrid sterility in a D. pseudoobscura bogotana genetic background. All loci conferred similar hybrid sterility effects across all strains studied, though we detected some statistically significant quantitative effect variation among D. persimilis alleles of some hybrid incompatibility QTLs. We also detected allelism between D. persimilis and D. pseudoobscura USA at a 2nd chromosome hybrid sterility QTL. We hypothesize that either the QTL is ancestral in D. persimilis and D. pseudoobscura USA and lost in D. pseudoobscura bogotana, or gene flow transferred the QTL from D. persimilis to D. pseudoobscura USA. We discuss our findings in the context of population features that may contribute to variation in hybrid incompatibilities. PMID:21729052

McDermott, Shannon R.; Noor, Mohamed A. F.

2011-01-01

259

Cryptic forcible insemination: male snakes exploit female physiology, anatomy, and behavior to obtain coercive matings.  

PubMed

Whether males can inseminate uncooperative females is a central determinant of mating system evolution that profoundly affects the interpretation of phenomena such as multiple mating by females, mate choice, reproductive seasonality, and courtship tactics. Forcible insemination is usually inferred from direct physical battles between the sexes and has been dismissed on intuitive grounds for many kinds of animals. For example, snakes have elongate flexible bodies (making it difficult for a male to restrain a female physically), males are typically smaller than females, and copulation requires female cloacal gaping to enable intromission. Male garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis) do not display any overt aggression during courtship and simply lie over the female and exhibit rhythmic pulsating caudocephalic waves of muscular contraction; previous studies have interpreted this behavior as a mechanism for eliciting female receptivity. In contrast, we show that male garter snakes forcibly inseminate females. They do so by taking advantage of specific features of snake physiology, respiratory anatomy, and antipredator behavior. The snake lung extends along most of the body, with the large posterior section (the saccular lung) lacking any respiratory exchange surface. Rhythmic caudocephalic waves by courting male garter snakes push anoxic air from the saccular lung forward and across the respiratory surfaces such that females cannot obtain oxygen. Their stress response involves cloacal gaping, which functions in other contexts to repel predators by extruding feces and musk but in this situation permits male intromission. Thus, superficially benign courtship behaviors may involve cryptic coercion even in species for which intuition dismisses any possibility of forcible insemination. PMID:14618542

Shine, Richard; Langkilde, Tracy; Mason, Robert T

2003-11-01

260

[The discovery of a specific DNA fragment associated with maize cytoplasmic male sterility and its differential display].  

PubMed

Three pairs of PCR primers were designed according to the mitochondrial DNA sequence. PCR amplification was applied to 3 sets of isonuclear alloplasm materials and 3 sets of isoplasm allonuclear materials. Multiplex PCR and general PCR protocol were adopted with total genomic DNA. As for the primers having detected polymorphsim between male sterility and its maintainers, differential display was conducted with mRNA from different development stage of microspore. The results showed as follows: with total genomic DNA template, primer P1-P2 has amplified a specific fragment only in all the male sterile materials, primer P5-P6 has amplified a specific fragment only in maintainer Huangzaosi, primer P3-P4 has no amplification in all the experiment materials. So primer P1-P2 can be used to distinguish male sterile cytoplasm and normal cytoplasm. RT-PCR was conducted with primer P1-P2 in inbred line huangzaosi and 48-2 with male sterile cytoplasm and normal cytoplasm, mRNA was separately isolated from tetrad stage, uninucleate stage and binucleate stage of microspore development, cDNA was obtained with random hexanucleotide primers. With the cDNA template, specific amplified fragments were also detected by primer P1-P2 in the male sterile materials at different development stage of microspore, but there was no amplification by primer P1-P2 in the 2 maintainer lines. This result indicated that primer P1-P2 can be transcripted at 3 development stages of microspore in all male sterile materials, and same transcript was produced by primer P1-P2 among all male sterile materials include 3 sets of isonuclear alloplasm and 3 sets of isoplasm allonuclear. It was suggested from this experiment that the specific DNA sequence detected by primer P1-P2 in all male sterile material total genomic DNA might be related to the cytoplasmic male sterile character. PMID:16257903

Cao, Mo-Ju; Rong, Ting-Zhao; Zhu, Ying-Guo

2005-09-01

261

Male-specific (Z)-9-tricosene stimulates female mating behaviour in the spider Pholcus beijingensis  

PubMed Central

Chemical signals play an important role in spider sexual communication, yet the chemistry of spider sex pheromones remains poorly understood. Chemical identification of male-produced pheromone-mediating sexual behaviour in spiders has also, to our knowledge, not been reported before. This study aimed to examine whether chemically mediated strategies are used by males of the spider Pholcus beijingensis for increasing the probability of copulation. Based on data from gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis, electroantennography assay and a series of behavioural tests, we verified that (Z)-9-tricosene is a male-specific compound in the spider P. beijingensis. This compound acts as an aphrodisiac: it increases the likelihood that a female will mate. Mate-searching males release (Z)-9-tricosene to stimulate sexual behaviour of conspecific females. In the two-choice assay, however, sexually receptive females show no preference to the chambers containing (Z)-9-tricosene. This indicates that the male pheromone of P. beijingensis is not an attractant per se to the conspecific females. This is, to our knowledge, the first identification of a male-produced aphrodisiac pheromone in spiders. PMID:20462911

Xiao, Yong-Hong; Zhang, Jian-Xu; Li, Shu-Qiang

2010-01-01

262

Individual consistency in exploratory behaviour and mating tactics in male guppies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While behavioural plasticity is considered an adaptation to fluctuating social and environmental conditions, many animals also display a high level of individual consistency in their behaviour over time or across contexts (generally termed ‘personality’). However, studies of animal personalities that include sexual behaviour, or functionally distinct but correlated traits, are relatively scarce. In this study, we tested for individual behavioural consistency in courtship and exploratory behaviour in male guppies ( Poecilia reticulata) in two light environments (high vs. low light intensity). Based on previous work on guppies, we predicted that males would modify their behaviour from sneak mating tactics to courtship displays under low light conditions, but also that the rank orders of courtship effort would remain unchanged (i.e. highly sexually active individuals would display relatively high levels of courtship under both light regimes). We also tested for correlations between courtship and exploratory behaviour, predicting that males that had high display rates would also be more likely to approach a novel object. Although males showed significant consistency in their exploratory and mating behaviour over time (1 week), we found no evidence that these traits constituted a behavioural syndrome. Furthermore, in contrast to previous work, we found no overall effect of the light environment on any of the behaviours measured, although males responded to the treatment on an individual-level basis, as reflected by a significant individual-by-environment interaction. The future challenge is to investigate how individual consistency across different environmental contexts relates to male reproductive success.

Kelley, Jennifer L.; Phillips, Samuel C.; Evans, Jonathan P.

2013-10-01

263

Love Is Blind: Indiscriminate Female Mating Responses to Male Courtship Pheromones in Newts (Salamandridae)  

PubMed Central

Internal fertilization without copulation or prolonged physical contact is a rare reproductive mode among vertebrates. In many newts (Salamandridae), the male deposits a spermatophore on the substrate in the water, which the female subsequently takes up with her cloaca. Because such an insemination requires intense coordination of both sexes, male newts have evolved a courtship display, essentially consisting of sending pheromones under water by tail-fanning towards their potential partner. Behavioral experiments until now mostly focused on an attractant function, i.e. showing that olfactory cues are able to bring both sexes together. However, since males start their display only after an initial contact phase, courtship pheromones are expected to have an alternative function. Here we developed a series of intraspecific and interspecific two-female experiments with alpine newt (Ichthyosaura alpestris) and palmate newt (Lissotriton helveticus) females, comparing behavior in male courtship water and control water. We show that male olfactory cues emitted during tail-fanning are pheromones that can induce all typical features of natural female mating behavior. Interestingly, females exposed to male pheromones of their own species show indiscriminate mating responses to conspecific and heterospecific females, indicating that visual cues are subordinate to olfactory cues during courtship. PMID:23457580

Matthijs, Severine; Du Four, Dimitri; Janssenswillen, Sunita; Willaert, Bert; Bossuyt, Franky

2013-01-01

264

Mating increases male's interest in other females: a cognitive study in socially monogamous prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster).  

PubMed

To determine whether socio-sexual interactions with females influence the male prairie vole's cognitive processing, three groups of males were simultaneously exposed to sensory stimuli of a control and a focal female then tested for their behavioral and neuronal responsiveness to the female cues. From the control female, all males received distal cues. From the focal female, the Unmated males received distal cues, the Unmated-Contact males received all cues but did not mate with her, and the Mated-Contact males received all cues and mated with her. Males were tested for their attentiveness to enclosures holding each female and for their memory of the females' previous location. Males' brains were then examined to localize activated regions following exposure to the odor of familiar versus unfamiliar focal females. The Mated-Contact males spent more time in the cage of the control female attending to her enclosure than in the cage of the focal female. Exposure to odors of unfamiliar focal females activated the cingulate cortex of Unmated-Contact males. There was a negative correlation between the level of neuronal activation in the retrosplenial cortex of males that were exposed to the odors of a familiar focal female and their attentiveness to the enclosure of the control female. The data suggest that the effect of socio-sexual interactions with a female on males' cognition depends on the type of sensory signals males receive from females and how individual males perceive those signals. PMID:21888956

Parker, Jamie T; Rodriguez, Natalia; Lawal, Basirat; Delevan, Christine J; Bamshad, Maryam

2011-10-01

265

Defining the Genetic Architecture Underlying Female- and Male-Mediated Nonrandom Mating and Seed Yield Traits in Arabidopsis1[OA  

PubMed Central

Postpollination nonrandom mating among compatible mates is a widespread phenomenon in plants and is genetically undefined. In this study, we used the recombinant inbred line (RIL) population between Landsberg erecta and Columbia (Col) accessions of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) to define the genetic architecture underlying both female- and male-mediated nonrandom mating traits. To map the genetic loci responsible for male-mediated nonrandom mating, we performed mixed pollinations with Col and RIL pollen on Col pistils. To map the genetic loci responsible for female-mediated nonrandom mating, we performed mixed pollinations with Col and Landsberg erecta pollen on RIL pistils. With these data, we performed composite interval mapping to identify two quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that control male-mediated nonrandom mating. We detected epistatic interactions between these two loci. We also explored female- and male-mediated traits involved in seed yield in mixed pollinations. We detected three female QTLs and one male QTL involved in directing seed number per fruit. To our knowledge, the results of these experiments represent the first time the female and male components of seed yield and nonrandom mating have been separately mapped. PMID:22007025

Carlson, Ann Louise; Fitz Gerald, Jonathan Nesbit; Telligman, Megan; Roshanmanesh, Jacob; Swanson, Robert John

2011-01-01

266

Ontogenetic shifts in male mating preference and morph-specific polyandry in a female colour polymorphic insect  

PubMed Central

Background Sexual conflict over mating rates may favour the origin and maintenance of phenotypes with contrasting reproductive strategies. The damselfly Ischnura elegans is characterised by a female colour polymorphism that consists of one androchrome and two gynochrome female morphs. Previous studies have shown that the polymorphism is genetic and to a high extent maintained by negative frequency-dependent mating success that varies temporally and spatially. However, the role of learning in male mating preferences has received little attention. We used molecular markers to investigate differences in polyandry between female morphs. In addition, we experimentally investigated innate male mating preferences and experience-dependent shifts in male mating preferences for female morphs. Results Field and molecular data show that androchrome females were less polyandrous than gynochrome females. Interestingly, we found that naïve males showed significantly higher sexual preferences to androchrome than to gynochrome females in experimental trials. In contrast, experienced males showed no preference for androchrome females. Conclusions The ontogenetic change in male mate preferences occurs most likely because of learned mate recognition after experience with females, which in this case does not result in a preference for one of the morphs, but rather in the loss of an innate preference for androchrome females. PMID:23742182

2013-01-01

267

In the nick of time: males of the parasitoid wasp Pimpla disparis respond to semiochemicals from emerging mates.  

PubMed

Males of the parasitoid wasp Pimpla disparis Viereck (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) aggregate on parasitized gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, host pupae when the emergence of a prospective mate is imminent or under way. We tested the hypotheses that the developing parasitoid ("DePa") inside the host pupal case produces a pheromone that attracts and arrests mate-seeking males, and that the pheromone is most effective during the emergence of the parasitoid from the host. Results obtained in two-choice laboratory experiments, with 4-7-d-old virgin males, indicate that (1) DePa-derived semiochemicals arrest males, (2) the opening of a host pupal case strongly arrests males, and (3) the arrestment cue emanates from oral fluid secreted by both female and male parasitoids while they chew their way out of a host pupal case. This phenomenon implies that emerging females, which are haplodiploid and can reproduce without mating, do not engage in active pheromone signaling to attract males, and that mate-seeking males co-opt chemicals involved in eclosion as a mate-finding cue, taking a 50% chance that the prospective mate is a female. PMID:22392084

Hrabar, Michael; Danci, Adela; Schaefer, Paul W; Gries, Gerhard

2012-03-01

268

Xenotransplantation exposes the etiology of azoospermia factor (AZF) induced male sterility.  

PubMed

Ramathal et al. have employed an elegant xenotransplantation technique to study the fate of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) from fertile males and from males carrying Y chromosome deletions of the azoospermia factor (AZF) region. When placed in a mouse testis niche, hiPSCs from fertile males differentiate into germ cell-like cells (GCLCs). Highlighting the crucial role of cell autonomous factors in male sterility, hiPSCs derived from azoospermic males prove to be less successful under similar circumstances. Their studies argue that the agametic "Sertoli cell only" phenotype of two of the AZF deletions likely arises from a defect in the maintenance of germline stem cells (GSCs) rather than from a defect in their specification. These observations underscore the importance of the dialogue between the somatic niche and its inhabitant stem cells, and open up interesting questions concerning the functioning of the somatic niche and how it communicates to the GSCs. PMID:25524208

Barr, Justinn; Gordon, Daniel; Schedl, Paul; Deshpande, Girish

2015-03-01

269

Sperm competition games played by dimorphic male beetles: fertilization gains with equal mating access.  

PubMed Central

Alternative mating tactics can generate asymmetry in the sperm competition risk between males within species. Theory predicts that adaptations to sperm competition should arise in males facing the greater risk. This prediction is met in the dung beetle Onthophagus binodis where minor males which sneak copulations have a greater expenditure on the ejaculate. In its congener Onthophagus taurus there is a reduced asymmetry in sperm competition risk such that both tactics have equal ejaculate expenditure. We used the irradiated male technique to test whether adaptations to sperm competition in minor males result in higher paternity. We found that for both species, on average, each of two males gained equal numbers of fertilizations, confirming the assumption that sperm compete in a raffle. There were no differences in the sperm competition success of major and minor males in O. taurus as predicted from their equal expenditure on their ejaculate. Contrary to expectations, there were also no differences in fertilization success between the male tactics in O. binodis. Thus, in O. binodis minor males must expend more on their ejaculate in order to obtain the same fertilization gains as major males. PMID:11007331

Tomkins, J L; Simmons, L W

2000-01-01

270

How does competition influence mate choice decisions for males and females in the monogamous convict cichlid fish, Archocentrus nigrofasciatus ?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary It is understood that mate choice, competition, and sex differences produced by sexual selec- tion underlie behavior, but few studies focus on their interactions within a system to under- stand how they shape behavior. Here, using the monogamous convict cichlid, Archocentrus nigrofasciatus, we examined the mate choice process of males and females in the presence of intrasexual competition. We

Nick Santangelo; M. Itzkowitz

2006-01-01

271

[Molecular-genetic analysis of maize mitochondrion regions associated with cytoplasmic male sterility].  

PubMed

Molecular-genetic polymorphism of 86 world and Ukrainian breeding maize lines with S-, C- and T-types of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) and with normal wild type mitochondrion has been researched via mitochondrion regions PCR-analysis. Molecular marker system allowed to detect and identify definite type of CMS within maize lines, as well as to differentiate lines with definite CMS type either from lines with another CMS type or from normal wild type cytoplasm lines. PMID:21774398

Slishchuk, H I; Kozhukhova, N E; Syvolap, Iu M

2011-01-01

272

Sterility and Gene Expression in Hybrid Males of Xenopus laevis and X. muelleri  

PubMed Central

Background Reproductive isolation is a defining characteristic of populations that represent unique biological species, yet we know very little about the gene expression basis for reproductive isolation. The advent of powerful molecular biology tools provides the ability to identify genes involved in reproductive isolation and focuses attention on the molecular mechanisms that separate biological species. Herein we quantify the sterility pattern of hybrid males in African Clawed Frogs (Xenopus) and apply microarray analysis of the expression pattern found in testes to identify genes that are misexpressed in hybrid males relative to their two parental species (Xenopus laevis and X. muelleri). Methodology/Principal Findings Phenotypic characteristics of spermatogenesis in sterile male hybrids (X. laevis x X. muelleri) were examined using a novel sperm assay that allowed quantification of live, dead, and undifferentiated sperm cells, the number of motile vs. immotile sperm, and sperm morphology. Hybrids exhibited a dramatically lower abundance of mature sperm relative to the parental species. Hybrid spermatozoa were larger in size and accompanied by numerous undifferentiated sperm cells. Microarray analysis of gene expression in testes was combined with a correction for sequence divergence derived from genomic hybridizations to identify candidate genes involved in the sterility phenotype. Analysis of the transcriptome revealed a striking asymmetric pattern of misexpression. There were only about 140 genes misexpressed in hybrids compared to X. laevis but nearly 4,000 genes misexpressed in hybrids compared to X. muelleri. Conclusions/Significance Our results provide an important correlation between phenotypic characteristics of sperm and gene expression in sterile hybrid males. The broad pattern of gene misexpression suggests intriguing mechanisms creating the dominance pattern of the X. laevis genome in hybrids. These findings significantly contribute to growing evidence for allelic dominance in hybrids and have implications for the mechanism of species differentiation at the transcriptome level. PMID:17712429

Malone, John H.; Chrzanowski, Thomas H.; Michalak, Pawel

2007-01-01

273

The effect of male sterility on oil content and seed yield in sunflowers (Helianthus annuus L.)  

E-print Network

The effect of male sterility on oil content and seed yield in sunflowers (Helianthus annuus L stérilité mâle sur la teneur en huile et le rendement en grains chez le tournesol (Helian- thus annuus L différences entre mâle-stérile et mâle- fertile ne soient pas dues au cytoplasme mâle-stérile de Helianthus

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

274

Patterns of male sterility within and among populations of the distylous shrub Erythroxylum havanense (erythroxylaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distyly, a reproductive system characterized by the presence of long-styled (thrum). and short-styled (pin) individuals within a population, has been repeatedly used as a model for the study of the evolution of the reproductive systems in plants. Erythroxylum havanense is a distylous species in which most thrum plants fail to develop a fertile androecium, thus behaving as male-sterile or partially

Eduardo Cuevas; Francisco Molina-Freaner; Luis E. Eguiarte; César A. Domínguez

2005-01-01

275

Differential Proteomic Analysis of Anthers between Cytoplasmic Male Sterile and Maintainer Lines in Capsicum annuum L  

PubMed Central

Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), widely used in the production of hybrid seeds, is a maternally inherited trait resulting in a failure to produce functional pollen. In order to identify some specific proteins associated with CMS in pepper, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) was applied to proteomic analysis of anthers/buds between a CMS line (designated NA3) and its maintainer (designated NB3) in Capsicum annuum L. Thirty-three spots showed more than 1.5-fold in either CMS or its maintainer. Based on mass spectrometry, 27 spots representing 23 distinct proteins in these 33 spots were identified. Proteins down-regulated in CMS anthers/buds includes ATP synthase D chain, formate dehydrogenase, alpha-mannosidas, RuBisCO large subunit-binding protein subunit beta, chloroplast manganese stabilizing protein-II, glutathione S-transferase, adenosine kinase isoform 1T-like protein, putative DNA repair protein RAD23-4, putative caffeoyl-CoA 3-O-methyltransferase, glutamine synthetase (GS), annexin Cap32, glutelin, allene oxide cyclase, etc. In CMS anthers/buds, polyphenol oxidase, ATP synthase subunit beta, and actin are up-regulated. It was predicted that male sterility in NA3 might be related to energy metabolism turbulence, excessive ethylene synthesis, and suffocation of starch synthesis. The present study lays a foundation for future investigations of gene functions associated with pollen development and cytoplasmic male sterility, and explores the molecular mechanism of CMS in pepper. PMID:24264042

Wu, Zhiming; Cheng, Jiaowen; Qin, Cheng; Hu, Zhiqun; Yin, Caixia; Hu, Kailin

2013-01-01

276

Differential proteomic analysis of anthers between cytoplasmic male sterile and maintainer lines in Capsicum annuum L.  

PubMed

Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), widely used in the production of hybrid seeds, is a maternally inherited trait resulting in a failure to produce functional pollen. In order to identify some specific proteins associated with CMS in pepper, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) was applied to proteomic analysis of anthers/buds between a CMS line (designated NA3) and its maintainer (designated NB3) in Capsicum annuum L. Thirty-three spots showed more than 1.5-fold in either CMS or its maintainer. Based on mass spectrometry, 27 spots representing 23 distinct proteins in these 33 spots were identified. Proteins down-regulated in CMS anthers/buds includes ATP synthase D chain, formate dehydrogenase, alpha-mannosidas, RuBisCO large subunit-binding protein subunit beta, chloroplast manganese stabilizing protein-II, glutathione S-transferase, adenosine kinase isoform 1T-like protein, putative DNA repair protein RAD23-4, putative caffeoyl-CoA 3-O-methyltransferase, glutamine synthetase (GS), annexin Cap32, glutelin, allene oxide cyclase, etc. In CMS anthers/buds, polyphenol oxidase, ATP synthase subunit beta, and actin are up-regulated. It was predicted that male sterility in NA3 might be related to energy metabolism turbulence, excessive ethylene synthesis, and suffocation of starch synthesis. The present study lays a foundation for future investigations of gene functions associated with pollen development and cytoplasmic male sterility, and explores the molecular mechanism of CMS in pepper. PMID:24264042

Wu, Zhiming; Cheng, Jiaowen; Qin, Cheng; Hu, Zhiqun; Yin, Caixia; Hu, Kailin

2013-01-01

277

Mate-guarding constrains feeding activity but not energetic status of wild male long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis).  

PubMed

Mate-guarding is an important determinant of male reproductive success in a number of species. Little is known however about the constraints of this behaviour, e.g. the associated energetic costs. We investigated these costs in long-tailed macaques where alpha males mate guard females to a lesser extent than predicted by the priority of access model. The study was carried out during two mating periods on three wild groups living in the Gunung Leuser National Park, Indonesia. We combined behavioural observations on males' locomotion and feeding activity, GPS records of distance travelled and non-invasive measurements of urinary C-peptide (UCP), a physiological indicator of male energetic status. Mate-guarding led to a decrease in feeding time and fruit consumption suggesting a reduced intake of energy. At the same time, vertical locomotion was reduced, which potentially saved energy. These findings, together with the fact that we did not find an effect of mate-guarding on UCP levels, suggest that energy intake and expenditure was balanced during mate-guarding in our study males. Mate-guarding thus seems to not be energetically costly under all circumstances. Given that in strictly seasonal rhesus macaques, high-ranking males lose physical condition over the mating period, we hypothesise that the energetic costs of mate-guarding vary inter-specifically depending on the degree of seasonality and that males of non-strictly seasonal species might be better adapted to maintain balanced energetic condition year-round. Finally, our results illustrate the importance of combining behavioural assessments of both energy intake and expenditure with physiological measures when investigating energetic costs of behavioural strategies. PMID:24659851

Girard-Buttoz, Cédric; Heistermann, Michael; Rahmi, Erdiansyah; Marzec, Anna; Agil, Muhammad; Fauzan, Panji Ahmad; Engelhardt, Antje

2014-01-01

278

Evidence for selection by male mating success in natural populations of Drosophila pseudoobscura.  

PubMed Central

Gene arrangement frequencies were determined at two stages in the life history of Drosophila pseudoobscura taken from nature. Three populations in the central highlands of Mexico were each sampled twice during 1976. Gene arrangement frequencies were measured in adult males and in larvae that were the offspring of females collected at the same time. The adult males were in all likelihood a representative sample of those who fathered the larvae produced by the wild females. Differences in gene arrangement frequency between these two life stages should indicate the operation of natural selection. One-third of our comparisons of common gene arrangement frequencies in males and in larvae from the next generation were statistically significant, as were one-third of our comparisons of total frequency arrays in the two life stages. We consider the components of selection that could produce such frequency changes and reason that male mating success must be the major one. Gene arrangement frequencies in the Mexican populations fluctuate within wide bounds. Selection must act to retain the polymorphism in the face of this flux in gene arrangement frequencies, and we suggest that male mating success plays an important role. PMID:286338

Anderson, W W; Levine, L; Olvera, O; Powell, J R; de la Rosa, M E; Salceda, V M; Gaso, M I; Guzmán, J

1979-01-01

279

The role of testosterone in male downy woodpeckers in winter home range use, mate interactions and female foraging behaviour.  

PubMed

Studies of the role of testosterone (T) in birds have typically focused on sexual or aggressive behaviours of males during the breeding period, but males of nonmigratory species may invest in mate and territory long before breeding, and the influence of T in facilitating nonbreeding-season behaviours is poorly understood. We gave free-living male downy woodpeckers, Picoides pubescens, T-implants during the winter to determine whether elevated levels of T increased a male's ability to exclusively occupy territory-based resources, and whether elevated T strengthened a male's investment in an existing pair bond relationship. We also explored how a female's foraging efficiency might be affected by her mate's behaviour if he had elevated T. We found little difference between control and T-implanted males with regard to home range exclusivity. Surprisingly, male-male display rates were significantly lower in T-implanted males than in controls. Regarding male-female interactions, T-implanted males that experienced high incursion rates from other males maintained more frequent spatial association with their mate, suggesting that T facilitates male behaviours that could restrict the mate's access to other male birds. Female mates of T-males showed reduced foraging rates, but because male-female aggression was similar between treatment groups, the cause for this reduction is unknown. The results indicate that exogenous T during winter affects a variety of behaviours in male woodpeckers, and proximate influences on pair bond maintenance in winter may be a fruitful avenue for future research. PMID:16932805

Kellam, James S; Lucas, Jeffrey R; Wingfield, John C

2006-03-01

280

Reproductive trade-offs from mating with a successful male: the case of the tephritid fly Anastrepha obliqua  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In lekking species, females may become sperm-limited when mating with sexually successful males and this may be exacerbated by a poor male adult diet. Polygynous males may also be limited by the amount of accessory gland products (AGPs) they can transmit to females which in turn may influence the fe...

281

Energetic costs of male reproduction in a scramble competition mating system.  

PubMed

1. The assumption that the primary limitations on reproductive success differ between the sexes is inherent in traditional sexual selection theory. Although the energy that can be allocated to reproduction is assumed to be the main limitation to females, the ability to attract and defend oestrous females is assumed to be the primary limitation to males. 2. Estimates of the energetic costs of reproduction in male mammals are, however, limited and have largely been obtained from sexually dimorphic species exhibiting female defence mating systems. These studies often reveal that the energetic cost of male reproduction is similar to or even exceeds that of females, and therefore challenge long-held assumptions of inter-sexual reproductive limitations, but their generality is little known. 3. We coupled measurements of energy expenditure with detailed behavioural observations of reproductive male North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). This species displays minimal sexual dimorphism and exhibits a scramble competition mating system, under which sexual selection favours enhanced mate searching effort by males. 4. We conducted the study over 2 years characterized by a substantial variation in upcoming natural food availability and across two study populations that experienced either natural food abundance or an ad libitum food-supplementation to investigate the influence of resource availability on male reproductive energy expenditure. 5. Under natural conditions, mean energy expenditure of males across the 2 years was high, approximating that of females during lactation. Furthermore, in the anticipation of high upcoming natural food availability and resultant offspring survival, expenditure approximately doubled (from 290 +/- 7 to 579 +/- 73 kJ day(-1)). When current food availability (and consequently the density of receptive females) was experimentally elevated, males displayed the highest levels of energy expenditure we recorded (873 +/- 98 kJ day(-1)). 6. Our results provide compelling evidence that the energy available for reproductive allocation places a strong limitation on reproduction in male North American red squirrels and contribute to previous work suggesting that high and limiting energetic costs of male reproduction may be a general feature of mammalian reproduction. PMID:19674182

Lane, Jeffrey E; Boutin, Stan; Speakman, John R; Humphries, Murray M

2010-01-01

282

The effect of male coloration on female mate choice in closely related Lake Victoria cichlids ( Haplochromis nyererei complex)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the effect of male coloration on interspecific female mate choice in two closely related species of haplochromine\\u000a cichlids from Lake Victoria. The species differ primarily in male coloration. Males of one species are red, those of the other\\u000a are blue. We recorded the behavioral responses of females to males of both species in paired male trials under white

Ole Seehausen; Jacques J. M. van Alphen

1998-01-01

283

An eye for beauty: lateralized visual stimulation of courtship behavior and mate preferences in male zebra finches, Taeniopygia guttata.  

PubMed

Research on intersexual selection focuses on traits that have evolved for attracting mates and the consequences of mate choice. However, little is known about the cognitive and neural mechanisms that allow choosers to discriminate among potential mates and express an attraction to specific traits. Preferential use of the right eye during lateral displays in zebra finches, and lateralized expression of intermediate early genes in the left hemisphere during courtship led us to hypothesize that: (1) visual information from each eye differentially mediates courtship responses to potential mates; and (2) the ability to discriminate among mates and prefer certain mates over others is lateralized in the right eye/left hemisphere system of zebra finch brains. First, we exposed male zebra finches to females when using left, right or both eyes. Males courted more when the right eye was available than when only the left eye was used. Secondly, male preference for females - using beak color to indicate female quality - was tested. Right-eyed and binocular males associated with and courted orange-beaked more than gray-beaked females; whereas left-eyed males showed no preference. Lateral displays and eye use in male zebra finches increase their attractiveness and ability to assess female quality, potentially enhancing reproductive success. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: CO3 2013. PMID:24239504

Templeton, Jennifer J; McCracken, Brianna G; Sher, Melissa; Mountjoy, D James

2014-02-01

284

Costs of and Investment in Mate-Guarding in Wild Long-Tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis): Influences of Female Characteristics and Male-Female Social Bonds.  

PubMed

Male primates living in multimale groups tend to direct mate and mate-guarding choices toward females of high reproductive value, i.e., high-ranking, parous females, or females with which they share strong bonds. Little is known, however, about the constraints that may limit male mate-guarding choices (the costs of this behavior) and the influence of the females' quality on male investment in mate-guarding. We aimed to study the effects of female rank, parity status, and male-female social bond strength on the costs of and investment in mate-guarding by males. We carried out our study during two reproductive seasons on three groups of wild long-tailed macaques in Indonesia. We combined behavioral observations on male locomotion and activity with noninvasive measurements of fecal glucocorticoids (fGC). Males spent less time feeding when mate-guarding nulliparous females than when mate-guarding parous females and tended to have higher fGC levels when mate-guarding low-ranking nulliparous females than when mate-guarding high-ranking nulliparous ones. Evolution should thus favor male choice for high-ranking parous females because such a decision brings benefits at proximate (reduced costs of mate-guarding) and ultimate (higher reproductive value) levels. Further, male investment in mate-guarding was flexible and contingent on female reproductive and social value. Males were more vigilant and more aggressive toward other males when mate-guarding females to which they were strongly bonded and/or high-ranking ones than when mate-guarding other females. Our findings bring a new dimension to the study of mate choice by showing that males not only mate preferentially with high-quality females but may also aim to secure paternity with these females through optimized monopolization. PMID:25152554

Girard-Buttoz, Cédric; Heistermann, Michael; Rahmi, Erdiansyah; Agil, Muhammad; Fauzan, Panji Ahmad; Engelhardt, Antje

2014-01-01

285

Anther-specific carbohydrate supply and restoration of metabolically engineered male sterility.  

PubMed

Male-sterile plants are used in hybrid breeding as well as for gene confinement for genetically modified plants in field trials and agricultural production. Apart from naturally occurring mutations leading to male sterility, biotechnology has added new possibilities for obtaining male-sterile plants, although so far only one system is used in practical breeding due to limitations in propagating male-sterile plants without segregations in the next generation or insufficient restoration of fertility when fruits or seeds are to be harvested from the hybrid varieties. Here a novel mechanism of restoration for male sterility is presented that has been achieved by interference with extracellular invertase activity, which is normally specifically expressed in the anthers to supply the developing microspores with carbohydrates. Microspores are symplastically isolated in the locular space of the anthers, and thus an unloading pathway of assimilates via the apoplasmic space is mandatory for proper development of pollen. Antisense repression of the anther-specific cell wall invertase or interference with invertase activity by expressing a proteinacious inhibitor under the control of the anther-specific invertase promoter results in a block during early stages of pollen development, thus causing male sterility without having any pleiotropic effects. Restoration of fertility was successfully achieved by substituting the down-regulated endogenous plant invertase activity by a yeast invertase fused to the N-terminal portion of potato-derived vacuolar protein proteinase II (PiII-ScSuc2), under control of the orthologous anther-specific invertase promoter Nin88 from tobacco. The chimeric fusion PiII-ScSuc2 is known to be N-glycosylated and efficiently secreted from plant cells, leading to its apoplastic location. Furthermore, the Nin88::PiII-ScSuc2 fusion does not show effects on pollen development in the wild-type background. Thus, such plants can be used as paternal parents of a hybrid variety, thereby the introgression of Nin88::PiII-ScSuc2 to the hybrid is obtained and fertility is restored. In order to broaden the applicability of this male sterility/restoration system to other plant species, a phylogenic analysis of plant invertases(beta-fructofuranosidases) and related genes of different species was carried out. This reveals a specific clustering of the cell wall invertases with anther-specific expression for dicotyl species and another cluster for monocotyl plants. Thus, in both groups of plants, there seems to be a kind of co-evolution, but no recent common ancestor of these members of the gene family. These findings provide a helpful orientation to classify corresponding candidate genes in further plant species, in addition to the species analysed so far (Arabidopsis, tobacco, tomato, potato, carrots, rice, and wheat). PMID:20427415

Engelke, T; Hirsche, J; Roitsch, T

2010-06-01

286

Anther-specific carbohydrate supply and restoration of metabolically engineered male sterility  

PubMed Central

Male-sterile plants are used in hybrid breeding as well as for gene confinement for genetically modified plants in field trials and agricultural production. Apart from naturally occurring mutations leading to male sterility, biotechnology has added new possibilities for obtaining male-sterile plants, although so far only one system is used in practical breeding due to limitations in propagating male-sterile plants without segregations in the next generation or insufficient restoration of fertility when fruits or seeds are to be harvested from the hybrid varieties. Here a novel mechanism of restoration for male sterility is presented that has been achieved by interference with extracellular invertase activity, which is normally specifically expressed in the anthers to supply the developing microspores with carbohydrates. Microspores are symplastically isolated in the locular space of the anthers, and thus an unloading pathway of assimilates via the apoplasmic space is mandatory for proper development of pollen. Antisense repression of the anther-specific cell wall invertase or interference with invertase activity by expressing a proteinacious inhibitor under the control of the anther-specific invertase promoter results in a block during early stages of pollen development, thus causing male sterility without having any pleiotropic effects. Restoration of fertility was successfully achieved by substituting the down-regulated endogenous plant invertase activity by a yeast invertase fused to the N-terminal portion of potato-derived vacuolar protein proteinase II (PiII–ScSuc2), under control of the orthologous anther-specific invertase promoter Nin88 from tobacco. The chimeric fusion PiII–ScSuc2 is known to be N-glycosylated and efficiently secreted from plant cells, leading to its apoplastic location. Furthermore, the Nin88::PiII-ScSuc2 fusion does not show effects on pollen development in the wild-type background. Thus, such plants can be used as paternal parents of a hybrid variety, thereby the introgression of Nin88::PiII-ScSuc2 to the hybrid is obtained and fertility is restored. In order to broaden the applicability of this male sterility/restoration system to other plant species, a phylogenic analysis of plant invertases(?-fructofuranosidases) and related genes of different species was carried out. This reveals a specific clustering of the cell wall invertases with anther-specific expression for dicotyl species and another cluster for monocotyl plants. Thus, in both groups of plants, there seems to be a kind of co-evolution, but no recent common ancestor of these members of the gene family. These findings provide a helpful orientation to classify corresponding candidate genes in further plant species, in addition to the species analysed so far (Arabidopsis, tobacco, tomato, potato, carrots, rice, and wheat). PMID:20427415

Engelke, T.; Hirsche, J.; Roitsch, T.

2010-01-01

287

Remating by female Mediterranean fruit flies ( Ceratitis capitata, Diptera: Tephritidae): Temporal patterns and modulation by male condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determined the temporal pattern of female remating in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, and how mating with sterile males affects remating. In addition, we examined the hypotheses that sterile male nutrition and age affect the subsequent receptivity of their mates. Temporally, female receptivity varied significantly throughout the experimental period. Relatively high levels of remating (14%) on the days

Sagi Gavriel; Yoav Gazit; Boaz Yuval

2009-01-01

288

Characterization of the radish mitochondrial orfB locus: possible relationship with male sterility in Ogura radish  

Microsoft Academic Search

The orfB locus of the normal (fertile) and Ogura (male-sterile) radish mitochondrial genomes has been characterized in order to determine if this region, which has previously been correlated with cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in Brassica napus cybrids (Bonhomme et al. 1991; Temple et al. 1992), could also be involved in radish CMS. In normal radish, orfB is expressed as a

Subbiah Krishnasamy; Christopher A. Makaroff

1993-01-01

289

Sperm selection and genetic incompatibility: does relatedness of mates affect male success in sperm competition?  

PubMed Central

Sperm selection may be said to occur if females influence the relative success of ejaculates competing to fertilize their ova. Most evidence that female animals or their ova are capable of sperm selection relates to male genetic incompatibility, although relatively few studies focus on competition between conspecific males. Here I look for evidence of sperm selection with respect to relatedness of mates. Reduced fitness or inbreeding effects in offspring resulting from copulations between close relatives are well documented. If females are capable of sperm selection, they might therefore be expected to discriminate against the sperm of sibling males during sperm competition. I describe an experimental protocol designed to test for evidence of sperm selection while controlling for inbreeding effects. Using decorated field crickets (Gryllodes supplicans), I found that sibling males achieved lower fertilization success in competition with a male unrelated to the female than in competition with another sibling more frequently than expected by chance, although the mean paternity values did not differ significantly between treatments. The tendancy for sibling males to achieve relatively lower fertilization success in competition with males unrelated to the female could not be explained by the effects of increased ejaculate allocation, female control of sperm transfer or inbreeding. This study therefore provides some evidence in support of the idea that female insects (or their ova) may be capable of selection against sperm on the basis of genetic similarity of conspecific males.

Stockley, P.

1999-01-01

290

Anopheles gambiae males produce and transfer the vitellogenic steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone to females during mating  

PubMed Central

In female insects, the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) plays a major role in activating vitellogenesis, a process required for egg development. By contrast with vertebrates, production of large amounts of hormonal steroids has not been reported in adult male insects. In the present study, we analyzed steroidogenesis in both male and female adult of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae and we found that A. gambiae male mosquitoes produce high amounts of the steroid hormone 20E. Importantly, we found that male accessory glands, but not testes, are the source of 20E. Moreover, this steroid hormone is stored in male accessory glands and delivered to females during mating. These findings suggest that male 20E may not act as a true male sex steroid, but more likely as an allohormone. Our results give new insights into species-specific physiological processes that govern the reproductive success of the malaria mosquito. This could thus lead to the identification of new target genes for manipulating male and/or female reproductive success, a promising way to reduce or eliminate mosquito population and therefore to control malaria transmission. PMID:19060216

Pondeville, Emilie; Maria, Annick; Jacques, Jean-Claude; Bourgouin, Catherine; Dauphin-Villemant, Chantal

2008-01-01

291

Exposure to Orange (Citrus sinensis L.) Trees, Fruit, and Oil Enhances Mating Success of Male Mediterranean Fruit Flies (Ceratitis capitata [Wiedemann])  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous laboratory tests revealed that exposure to oranges (Citrus sinensis L.) increased the mating success of male Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (medfly). This advantage may have resulted from male exposure to a-copaene (a sesquiterpene hydrocarbon and known male attractant) in the peel, as pure a-copaene has been shown to increase the mating success of male medflies. Working with

Todd Shelly; Charmian Dang; Susan Kennelly

2004-01-01

292

Analysis of Cytoplasmic Effects and Fine-Mapping of a Genic Male Sterile Line in Rice  

PubMed Central

Cytoplasm has substantial genetic effects on progeny and is important for yield improvement in rice breeding. Studies on the cytoplasmic effects of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) show that most types of CMS have negative effects on yield-related traits and that these negative effects vary among CMS. Some types of genic male sterility (GMS), including photo-thermo sensitive male sterility (PTMS), have been widely used in rice breeding, but the cytoplasmic effects of GMS remain unknown. Here, we identified a GMS mutant line, h2s, which exhibited small, white anthers and failed to produce mature pollen. Unlike CMS, the h2s had significant positive cytoplasmic effects on the seed set rate, weight per panicle, yield, and general combining ability (GCA) for plant height, seed set rate, weight per panicle, and yield. These effects indicated that h2s cytoplasm may show promise for the improvement of rice yield. Genetic analysis suggested that the phenotype of h2s was controlled by a single recessive locus. We mapped h2s to a 152 kb region on chromosome 6, where 22 candidate genes were predicted. None of the 22 genes had previously been reported to be responsible for the phenotypes of h2s. Sequencing analysis showed a 12 bp deletion in the sixth exon of Loc_Os06g40550 in h2s in comparison to wild type, suggesting that Loc_Os06g40550 is the best candidate gene. These results lay a strong foundation for cloning of the H2S gene to elucidate the molecular mechanism of male reproduction. PMID:23613915

Li, Yuanyuan; Ma, Bingtian; Li, Shigui

2013-01-01

293

Differential allocation in a lekking bird: females lay larger eggs and are more likely to have male chicks when they mate with less related males  

PubMed Central

The differential allocation hypothesis predicts increased investment in offspring when females mate with high-quality males. Few studies have tested whether investment varies with mate relatedness, despite evidence that non-additive gene action influences mate and offspring genetic quality. We tested whether female lekking lance-tailed manakins (Chiroxiphia lanceolata) adjust offspring sex and egg volume in response to mate attractiveness (annual reproductive success, ARS), heterozygosity and relatedness. Across 968 offspring, the probability of being male decreased with increasing parental relatedness but not father ARS or heterozygosity. This correlation tended to diminish with increasing lay-date. Across 162 offspring, egg volume correlated negatively with parental relatedness and varied with lay-date, but was unrelated to father ARS or heterozygosity. Offspring sex and egg size were unrelated to maternal age. Comparisons of maternal half-siblings in broods with no mortality produced similar results, indicating differential allocation rather than covariation between female quality and relatedness or sex-specific inbreeding depression in survival. As males suffer greater inbreeding depression, overproducing females after mating with related males may reduce fitness costs of inbreeding in a system with no inbreeding avoidance, while biasing the sex of outbred offspring towards males may maximize fitness via increased mating success of outbred sons. PMID:24225457

Sardell, Rebecca J.; DuVal, Emily H.

2014-01-01

294

FEMALE PRAIRIE VOLE MATE-CHOICE IS AFFECTED BY THE MALES’ BIRTH LITTER COMPOSITION  

PubMed Central

Experimental testing and retrospective examination of breeding records were used to examine the influence of sex composition and/or size of males’ birth litters on female mate-choice. Sexually naïve female prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) avoided males derived from all-male litters, but showed no preference for, or aversion to, males from single-male litters or from more typical mixed-sex litters. Examination of the pregnancy status of females after two weeks of pairing with a male allowed us to estimate the probabilites of a pups’ intrauterine position relative to siblings for various litter sizes. The typical prairie vole pup derived from a mixed-sex litter comprised of 4.4 pups, and had a 13% chance of being isolated from siblings in utero and a 22% chance of being between siblings in utero. Pups from single-sex litters tended to be larger at weaning than did pups from mixed-sex litters; however, male size did not influence female choice behavior. These results suggest that some aspect of the perinatal experience of prairie vole pups from single sex litters can influence social interactions later in life. PMID:20434472

Curtis, J. Thomas

2010-01-01

295

Female prairie vole mate-choice is affected by the males' birth litter composition.  

PubMed

Experimental testing and retrospective examination of breeding records were used to examine the influence of sex composition and/or size of males' birth litters on female mate-choice. Sexually naïve female prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) avoided males derived from all-male litters, but showed no preference for, or aversion to, males from single-male litters or from more typical mixed-sex litters. Examination of the pregnancy status of females after two weeks of pairing with a male allowed us to estimate the probabilites of a pups' intrauterine position relative to siblings for various litter sizes. The typical prairie vole pup derived from a mixed-sex litter comprised of 4.4 pups, and had a 13% chance of being isolated from siblings in utero and a 22% chance of being between siblings in utero. Pups from single-sex litters tended to be larger at weaning than did pups from mixed-sex litters; however, male size did not influence female choice behavior. These results suggest that some aspect of the perinatal experience of prairie vole pups from single sex litters can influence social interactions later in life. PMID:20434472

Curtis, J Thomas

2010-08-01

296

Evidence for a receiver bias underlying female preference for a male mating pheromone in sea lamprey  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Receiver bias models suggest that a male sexual signal became exaggerated to match a pre-existing sensory, perceptual or cognitive disposition of the female. Accordingly, these models predict that females of related taxa possessing the ancestral state of signalling evolved preference for the male trait in a non-sexual context. We postulated that female preference for the male-released bile alcohol mating pheromone, 3 keto petromyzonol sulfate (3kPZS), of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) evolved as a result of a receiver bias. In particular, we propose that migratory silver lamprey (Ichthyomyzon unicuspis), a basal member of the Petromyzontidae, evolved a preference for 3kPZS released by stream-resident larvae as a means of identifying productive habitat for offspring. Larval silver lamprey released 3kPZS at rates sufficient to be detected by migratory lampreys. Females responded to 3kPZS by exhibiting upstream movement behaviours relevant in a migratory context, but did not exhibit proximate behaviours important to mate search and spawning. Male silver lamprey did not release 3kPZS at rates sufficient to be detected by females in natural high-volume stream environments. We infer that female silver lamprey cue onto 3kPZS excreted by stream-resident larvae as a mechanism to locate habitat conducive to offspring survival and that males do not signal with 3kPZS. We suggest that this female preference for a male signal in a non-sexual context represents a bias leading to the sexual signalling observed in sea lamprey.

Buchinger, Tyler J.; Wang, Huiyong; Li, Weiming; Johnson, Nicholas S.

2013-01-01

297

Dopamine enhances locomotor activity for mating in male honeybees (Apis mellifera L.).  

PubMed

Dopamine plays multiple roles in the regulation of reproduction in female honeybees where it appears to act independently of juvenile hormone (JH). In males the role of dopamine and its relationship to JH control have not been elucidated. In the present study we determined hemolymph levels of dopamine and its metabolite (N-acetyldopamine) in males at post-emergence days 0-16. The development of locomotor and flight activities were recorded over the same period. Hemolymph levels of dopamine and N-acetyldopamine were found to increase at the time of onset of mating flight activity and those of dopamine decreased thereafter. Both locomotor and flight activities increased in parallel with hemolymph dopamine levels but the increased activity levels were maintained following decline of dopamine levels. Brain and meso-metathoracic ganglia levels of dopamine showed a similar developmental profile to hemolymph dopamine levels. Locomotor activities were temporarily inhibited by injection of a dopamine-receptor antagonist (cis(Z)-flupenthixol) into the thorax, and were enhanced by injection of a dopamine-receptor agonist (6,7-ADTN). These results suggest that dopamine regulates locomotor activities for mating and plays a role downstream of JH in premature males in honeybees. PMID:20303974

Akasaka, Shinya; Sasaki, Ken; Harano, Ken-ichi; Nagao, Takashi

2010-09-01

298

Effect of increased male and female age at mating on the reproductive performance of Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Crambidae: Lepidoptera).  

PubMed

The success of mating disruption using synthetic sex pheromones depends not only on preventing mating, but also on delayed mating in the target insect. Using the rice leaffolder moth, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée), we determined the effect of increased age at mating imposed on males only (male treatment), females only (female treatment),or on both sexes simultaneously (both sexes treatment). These increased age treatments had a negative effect on the percentage of mating, the total number of eggs, and the hatchability. The female reproductive performance in C. medinalis was decreased with increased moths' age. The both sexes treatment had the most potent negative effect on reproductive performance. Longevity of mated moths and duration of the preoviposition period in C. medinalis were not significantly different among these increased age treatments. The underlying mechanisms causing a decline in female reproductive performance of C. medinalis when increased age was imposed on males versus females and the potential of using mating disruption strategies to control the populations in paddy fields are discussed. PMID:25195432

Kawazu, Kei; Shintani, Yoshinori; Tatsuki, Sadahiro

2014-08-01

299

Tomato Male sterile 1035 is essential for pollen development and meiosis in anthers.  

PubMed

Male fertility in flowering plants depends on proper cellular differentiation in anthers. Meiosis and tapetum development are particularly important processes in pollen production. In this study, we showed that the tomato male sterile (ms10 (35) ) mutant of cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) exhibited dysfunctional meiosis and an abnormal tapetum during anther development, resulting in no pollen production. We demonstrated that Ms10 (35) encodes a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that is specifically expressed in meiocyte and tapetal tissue from pre-meiotic to tetrad stages. Transgenic expression of the Ms10 (35) gene from its native promoter complemented the male sterility of the ms10 (35) mutant. In addition, RNA-sequencing-based transcriptome analysis revealed that Ms10 (35) regulates 246 genes involved in anther development processes such as meiosis, tapetum development, cell-wall degradation, pollen wall formation, transport, and lipid metabolism. Our results indicate that Ms10 (35) plays key roles in regulating both meiosis and programmed cell death of the tapetum during microsporogenesis. PMID:25262227

Jeong, Hee-Jin; Kang, Jin-Ho; Zhao, Meiai; Kwon, Jin-Kyung; Choi, Hak-Soon; Bae, Jung Hwan; Lee, Hyun-Ah; Joung, Young-Hee; Choi, Doil; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl

2014-12-01

300

Effects of egg testosterone on female mate choice and male sexual behavior in the pheasant.  

PubMed

Evidence is accumulating that sex steroids in the eggs, besides affecting progeny phenotype and behavior in the short term, also have enduring effects until adulthood, when they may translate into differences in reproductive strategies and success. Maternal steroids transfer may therefore affect both agonistic behavior and mate choice decisions, either through the promotion of body size and condition or through a priming effect on the neuroendocrine system. However, owing to the prevalence of a short-term perspective, relevance of maternal transfer of sex steroids to sexual selection processes has been seldom studied. Here we investigate the effects of an experimental increase in egg testosterone on male dominance and copulation success in the ring-necked pheasant, Phasianus colchicus, a polygynous galliform with multiple male ornamental traits, in captivity. We found that females from testosterone (T) injected eggs copulated less than control females. Males from T-injected eggs obtained more copulations than control males, specifically with control females. The effect of male 'ordinary' and secondary sexual traits on either dominance or copulation frequency did not depend on early exposure to T, nor did T treatment affect male dominance. Present results demonstrate that variation in the early hormonal environment set up by mothers affects sexual behavior of the offspring, which might translate into fitness differences. PMID:21029735

Bonisoli-Alquati, Andrea; Matteo, Angelo; Ambrosini, Roberto; Rubolini, Diego; Romano, Maria; Caprioli, Manuela; Dessì-Fulgheri, Francesco; Baratti, Mariella; Saino, Nicola

2011-01-01

301

Variation in a female sexual attractiveness pheromone controls male mate choice in garter snakes.  

PubMed

Male red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) display a courtship preference for larger females during the breeding season. Utilizing behavioral experiments and chemical analyses, we tested the hypothesis that males can discriminate among females of varying size solely by means of the sexual attractiveness pheromone, a previously characterized sex pheromone composed of a homologous series of long-chain saturated and omega-9 cis-unsaturated methyl ketones contained in the skin lipids of females. When presented with skin lipid extracts from large and small females, a greater proportion of males displayed courtship behaviors to large female extracts. This demonstrates that there is an intrinsic property of the female skin lipids that allows males to differentiate among large and small females. Analysis of the sexual attractiveness pheromone revealed that the necessary variation exists for this pheromone to function as a reliable indicator to males of female body size. Specifically, we observed a strong correlation between female snout-vent length and the relative concentration of saturated and omega-9 cis-unsaturated methyl ketones composing the pheromone; smaller females expressed pheromone profiles higher in saturated methyl ketones. while larger females expressed pheromone profiles dominated by unsaturated methyl ketones. The results of this study suggest that male red-sided garter snakes utilize compositional variation in the female sexual attractiveness pheromone to differentiate among potential mates of varying size. PMID:12184402

LeMaster, Michael P; Mason, Robert T

2002-06-01

302

The evolution of wing color: male mate choice opposes adaptive wing color divergence in Colias butterflies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Correlated evolution of mate signals and mate preference may be constrained if selection pressures acting on mate preference differ from those acting on mate signals. In particular, opposing selection pressures may act on mate preference and signals when traits have sexual as well as nonsexual functions. In the butterfly Colias philodice eriphyle, divergent selection on wing color across an elevational

Jacintha Ellers; Carol L. Boggs

2003-01-01

303

Why small males have big sperm: dimorphic squid sperm linked to alternative mating behaviours  

PubMed Central

Background Sperm cells are the target of strong sexual selection that may drive changes in sperm structure and function to maximize fertilisation success. Sperm evolution is regarded to be one of the major consequences of sperm competition in polyandrous species, however it can also be driven by adaptation to the environmental conditions at the site of fertilization. Strong stabilizing selection limits intra-specific variation, and therefore polymorphism, among fertile sperm (eusperm). Here we analyzed reproductive morphology differences among males employing characteristic alternative mating behaviours, and so potentially different conditions of sperm competition and fertilization environment, in the squid Loligo bleekeri. Results Large consort males transfer smaller (average total length = 73 ?m) sperm to a female's internal sperm storage location, inside the oviduct; whereas small sneaker males transfer larger (99 ?m) sperm to an external location around the seminal receptacle near the mouth. No significant difference in swimming speed was observed between consort and sneaker sperm. Furthermore, sperm precedence in the seminal receptacle was not biased toward longer sperm, suggesting no evidence for large sperm being favoured in competition for space in the sperm storage organ among sneaker males. Conclusions Here we report the first case, in the squid Loligo bleekeri, where distinctly dimorphic eusperm are produced by different sized males that employ alternative mating behaviours. Our results found no evidence that the distinct sperm dimorphism was driven by between- and within-tactic sperm competition. We propose that presence of alternative fertilization environments with distinct characteristics (i.e. internal or external), whether or not in combination with the effects of sperm competition, can drive the disruptive evolution of sperm size. PMID:21831296

2011-01-01

304

Better mate in the shade: enhancement of male mating behaviour in the cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae crucivora, in a UV-rich environment.  

PubMed

Ultraviolet (UV) vision is widespread in a variety of animals, playing important roles in behaviours such as foraging and reproduction. Despite accumulated information about UV vision and UV-dependent behaviours of animals, little is known about the effect of temporal changes and local variations in UV light on UV-dependent behaviour. Here we report the mating behaviour of male cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae crucivora, in environments with varying content of UV light. We first confirmed that the relative UV content is higher in shaded places than in sunny places. We furthermore arranged experimental areas with varying UV contents in the field, where we compared three aspects of male mating behaviour: visual localization of females, female-searching flight and copulation success rate. In all aspects males performed more actively in UV-rich environments: males searched females for longer, approached females preferentially in the shade and copulated there more frequently. Apparently, female-searching males detect females more easily in a UV-rich environment. The present findings should be taken into consideration when UV-dependent behaviours, visual mate choice in particular, are studied. PMID:19011209

Obara, Yoshiaki; Koshitaka, Hisaharu; Arikawa, Kentaro

2008-12-01

305

Effect of mating disruption and lure load on the number of Plodia interpunctella males captured in pheromone traps  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Using Indianmeal moth Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) males released under controlled conditions, we found that, in either the presence or absence of a commercial mating disruption dispensers, the number of males captured in traps baited with synthetic pheromone lures increased with doses of up to 30...

306

A PDF/NPF neuropeptide signaling circuitry of male Drosophila melanogaster controls rival-induced prolonged mating.  

PubMed

A primary function of males for many species involves mating with females for reproduction. Drosophila melanogaster males respond to the presence of other males by prolonging mating duration to increase the chance of passing on their genes. To understand the basis of such complex behaviors, we examine the genetic network and neural circuits that regulate rival-induced Longer-Mating-Duration (LMD). Here, we identify a small subset of clock neurons in the male brain that regulate LMD via neuropeptide signaling. LMD requires the function of pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) in four s-LNv neurons and its receptor PDFR in two LNd neurons per hemisphere, as well as the function of neuropeptide F (NPF) in two neurons within the sexually dimorphic LNd region and its receptor NPFR1 in four s-LNv neurons per hemisphere. Moreover, rival exposure modifies the neuronal activities of a subset of clock neurons involved in neuropeptide signaling for LMD. PMID:24314729

Kim, Woo Jae; Jan, Lily Yeh; Jan, Yuh Nung

2013-12-01

307

Improving mating performance of mass-reared sterile Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) through changes in adult holding conditions: demography and mating competitiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mass rearing conditions affect the mating behavior of Mediterranean fruit flies (medflies) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). We evaluated the effect of slight changes in the adult holding conditions of adult flies maintained for egg production on their mating performance. Colonization was initiated from wild flies collected as larvae from infested coffee berries (Coffea arabica L.). When pupae were close to adult

P. Liedo; S. Salgado; A. Oropeza; J. Toledo

2007-01-01

308

Nutritional correlates and mate acquisition role of multiple sexual traits in male collared flycatchers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The information content of a sexual signal may predict its importance in a multiple signal system. Many studies have correlated sexual signal expression with the absolute levels of nutrient reserves. In contrast, the changes of nutrient reserves associated with signal expression are largely unknown in the wild due to technical limitations although they are important determinants of signal information content. We compared two visual and eight acoustic sexual traits in male collared flycatchers to see whether the nutritional correlates of expression predict the role of the signal in sexual selection. We used single point assays of plasma lipid metabolites to estimate short-term changes in nutritional state in relation to sexual trait expression during courtship. As a measure of sexual selection, we estimated the relationship with pairing latency after arrival in a 4-year dataset. Males which found a mate rapidly were characterized by large wing and forehead patches, but small song strophe complexity and small figure repertoire size. Traits more strongly related to pairing latency were also more closely related to changes in nutrient reserves. This indicates a link between signal role and information content. Small wing patches and, surprisingly, complex songs seemed to indicate poor phenotypic quality and were apparently disfavoured at mate acquisition in our population. Future studies of the information content of sexual traits, especially dynamic traits such as song, may benefit from the use of plasma metabolite profiles as non-invasive indicators of short-term changes in body condition.

Hegyi, Gergely; Szöll?si, Eszter; Jenni-Eiermann, Susanne; Török, János; Eens, Marcel; Garamszegi, László Zsolt

2010-06-01

309

Female house sparrows "count on" male genes: experimental evidence for MHC-dependent mate preference in birds  

PubMed Central

Background Females can potentially assess the quality of potential mates using their secondary sexual traits, and obtain "good genes" that increase offspring fitness. Another potential indirect benefit from mating preferences is genetic compatibility, which does not require extravagant or viability indicator traits. Several studies with mammals and fish indicate that the genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) influence olfactory cues and mating preferences, and such preferences confer genetic benefits to offspring. We investigated whether individual MHC diversity (class I) influences mating preferences in house sparrows (Passer domesticus). Results Overall, we found no evidence that females preferred males with high individual MHC diversity. Yet, when we considered individual MHC allelic diversity of the females, we found that females with a low number of alleles were most attracted to males carrying a high number of MHC alleles, which might reflect a mating-up preference by allele counting. Conclusions This is the first experimental evidence for MHC-dependent mating preferences in an avian species to our knowledge. Our findings raise questions about the underlying mechanisms through which birds discriminate individual MHC diversity among conspecifics, and they suggest a novel mechanism through which mating preferences might promote the evolution of MHC polymorphisms and generate positive selection for duplicated MHC loci. PMID:21320306

2011-01-01

310

Multiple mating in the ant Cataglyphis cursor: testing the sperm limitation and the diploid male load hypotheses  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  Multiple mating (i.e., polyandry) by queens in social Hymenoptera is expected to weaken social cohesion since it lowers within-colony relatedness,\\u000a and hence, indirect fitness benefits from kin selection. Yet, there are many species where queens mate multiply. Several hypotheses\\u000a have been put forward to explain the evolution and maintenance of polyandry. Here,we investigated the ‘sperm limitation’ and\\u000a the ‘diploid male

M. Pearcy; I. Timmermans; D. Allard; S. Aron

2009-01-01

311

Mate choice for a male carotenoid-based ornament is linked to female dietary carotenoid intake and accumulation  

PubMed Central

Background The coevolution of male traits and female mate preferences has led to the elaboration and diversification of sexually selected traits; however the mechanisms that mediate trait-preference coevolution are largely unknown. Carotenoid acquisition and accumulation are key determinants of the expression of male sexually selected carotenoid-based coloration and a primary mechanism maintaining the honest information content of these signals. Carotenoids also influence female health and reproduction in ways that may alter the costs and benefits of mate choice behaviours and thus provide a potential biochemical link between the expression of male traits and female preferences. To test this hypothesis, we manipulated the dietary carotenoid levels of captive female house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus) and assessed their mate choice behavior in response to color-manipulated male finches. Results Females preferred to associate with red males, but carotenoid supplementation did not influence the direction or strength of this preference. Females receiving a low-carotenoid diet were less responsive to males in general, and discrimination among the colorful males was positively linked to female plasma carotenoid levels at the beginning of the study when the diet of all birds was carotenoid-limited. Conclusions Although female preference for red males was not influenced by carotenoid intake, changes in mating responsiveness and discrimination linked to female carotenoid status may alter how this preference is translated into choice. The reddest males, with the most carotenoid rich plumage, tend to pair early in the breeding season. If carotenoid-related variations in female choice behaviour shift the timing of pairing, then they have the potential to promote assortative mating by carotenoid status and drive the evolution of carotenoid-based male plumage coloration. PMID:22233462

2012-01-01

312

Analysis of differentially expressed genes in genic male sterility cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) using cDNA-AFLP.  

PubMed

cDNA amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) analysis was used to investigate the differentially expressed genes between sterile and fertile plants of ms5ms6 double-recessive genic male sterility (GMS) two-type line cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) at different stages, i.e., sporogenous cell stage, pollen mother cell (PMC) stage, and pollen grain stage. Seventeen differentially expressed fragments were identified. Functional analysis indicated that their corresponding genes may participate in the processes of signal transduction, transcription, energy metabolism, and plant cell wall development. Northern blot demonstrated the credibility of the result of cDNA-AFLP. A sterility restorer factor-like gene, which only expressed in fertile anther and was notably homologous to T cytoplasm male sterility restorer factor 2 of maize (Zea mays L.), was identified in this research. PMID:17601613

Ma, Xiaoding; Xing, Chaozhu; Guo, Liping; Gong, Yangcang; Wang, Hailin; Zhao, Yunlei; Wu, Jianyong

2007-06-01

313

A low molecular weight proteome comparison of fertile and male sterile 8 anthers of Zea mays.  

PubMed

During maize anther development, somatic locular cells differentiate to support meiosis in the pollen mother cells. Meiosis is an important event during anther growth and is essential for plant fertility as pollen contains the haploid sperm. A subset of maize male sterile mutants exhibit meiotic failure, including ms8 (male sterile 8) in which meiocytes arrest as dyads and the locular somatic cells exhibit multiple defects. Systematic proteomic profiles were analysed in biological triplicates plus technical triplicates comparing ms8 anthers with fertile sibling samples at both the premeiotic and meiotic stages; proteins from 3.5 to 20 kDa were fractionated by 1-D PAGE, cleaved with Lys-C and then sequenced using a LTQ Orbitrap Velos MS paradigm. Three hundred and 59 proteins were identified with two or more assigned peptides in which each of those peptides were counted at least two or more times (0.4% peptide false discovery rate (FDR) and 0.2% protein FDR); 2761 proteins were identified with one or more assigned peptides (0.4% peptide FDR and 7.6% protein FDR). Stage-specific protein expression provides candidate stage markers for early anther development, and proteins specifically expressed in fertile compared to sterile anthers provide important clues about the regulation of meiosis. 49% of the proteins detected by this study are new to an independent whole anther proteome, and many small proteins missed by automated maize genome annotation were validated; these outcomes indicate the value of focusing on low molecular weight proteins. The roles of distinctive expressed proteins and methods for mass spectrometry of low molecular weight proteins are discussed. PMID:22748129

Wang, Dongxue; Adams, Christopher M; Fernandes, John F; Egger, Rachel L; Walbot, Virginia

2012-10-01

314

Production of engineered long-life and male sterile Pelargonium plants  

PubMed Central

Background Pelargonium is one of the most popular garden plants in the world. Moreover, it has a considerable economic importance in the ornamental plant market. Conventional cross-breeding strategies have generated a range of cultivars with excellent traits. However, gene transfer via Agrobacterium tumefaciens could be a helpful tool to further improve Pelargonium by enabling the introduction of new genes/traits. We report a simple and reliable protocol for the genetic transformation of Pelargonium spp. and the production of engineered long-life and male sterile Pelargonium zonale plants, using the pSAG12::ipt and PsEND1::barnase chimaeric genes respectively. Results The pSAG12::ipt transgenic plants showed delayed leaf senescence, increased branching and reduced internodal length, as compared to control plants. Leaves and flowers of the pSAG12::ipt plants were reduced in size and displayed a more intense coloration. In the transgenic lines carrying the PsEND1::barnase construct no pollen grains were observed in the modified anther structures, which developed instead of normal anthers. The locules of sterile anthers collapsed 3–4?days prior to floral anthesis and, in most cases, the undeveloped anther tissues underwent necrosis. Conclusion The chimaeric construct pSAG12::ipt can be useful in Pelargonium spp. to delay the senescence process and to modify plant architecture. In addition, the use of engineered male sterile plants would be especially useful to produce environmentally friendly transgenic plants carrying new traits by preventing gene flow between the genetically modified ornamentals and related plant species. These characteristics could be of interest, from a commercial point of view, both for pelargonium producers and consumers. PMID:22935247

2012-01-01

315

Comparisons among two fertile and three male-sterile mitochondrial genomes of maize.  

PubMed

We have sequenced five distinct mitochondrial genomes in maize: two fertile cytotypes (NA and the previously reported NB) and three cytoplasmic-male-sterile cytotypes (CMS-C, CMS-S, and CMS-T). Their genome sizes range from 535,825 bp in CMS-T to 739,719 bp in CMS-C. Large duplications (0.5-120 kb) account for most of the size increases. Plastid DNA accounts for 2.3-4.6% of each mitochondrial genome. The genomes share a minimum set of 51 genes for 33 conserved proteins, three ribosomal RNAs, and 15 transfer RNAs. Numbers of duplicate genes and plastid-derived tRNAs vary among cytotypes. A high level of sequence conservation exists both within and outside of genes (1.65-7.04 substitutions/10 kb in pairwise comparisons). However, sequence losses and gains are common: integrated plastid and plasmid sequences, as well as noncoding "native" mitochondrial sequences, can be lost with no phenotypic consequence. The organization of the different maize mitochondrial genomes varies dramatically; even between the two fertile cytotypes, there are 16 rearrangements. Comparing the finished shotgun sequences of multiple mitochondrial genomes from the same species suggests which genes and open reading frames are potentially functional, including which chimeric ORFs are candidate genes for cytoplasmic male sterility. This method identified the known CMS-associated ORFs in CMS-S and CMS-T, but not in CMS-C. PMID:17660568

Allen, James O; Fauron, Christiane M; Minx, Patrick; Roark, Leah; Oddiraju, Swetha; Lin, Guan Ning; Meyer, Louis; Sun, Hui; Kim, Kyung; Wang, Chunyan; Du, Feiyu; Xu, Dong; Gibson, Michael; Cifrese, Jill; Clifton, Sandra W; Newton, Kathleen J

2007-10-01

316

Movement of sterile male Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in a Hawaiian agroecosystem.  

PubMed

The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett, invaded the Hawaiian Island chain in 1895. In 1999, a program sponsored by the USDA-ARS to control melon fly and other tephritid pests in Hawaii over a wide area was initiated on the islands of Hawaii, Maui, and Oahu. To control these flies in an areawide setting, understanding how flies move within the landscape is important. To explore the movement of this fly, we examined the movement of marked, male, sterile, laboratory-reared B. cucurbitae on the island of Hawaii in an agricultural setting. Two releases of dyed, sterile flies consisting of approximately 15,000 flies, were released 6 wk apart. Released flies were trapped back by using Moroccan traps baited with a male attractant. These two releases suggest that in the Hawaiian agricultural areas where the areawide control is being sought, melon flies do not move extensively when there are abundant larval host and adult roosting sites. Over the course of this study, only one fly made it the maximum distance that we could detect fly movement (approximately 2,000 m in 2 wk). From these data, it seems that the flies dispersed throughout the study area but then moved very little thereafter. This is very apparent in the second release where the recovery rate after the second week was still fairly high, suggesting that if there are plenty of host fields and roosting sites the flies are unlikely to move. PMID:16334322

Peck, Steven L; McQuate, Grant T; Vargas, Roger I; Seager, Dennis C; Revis, Hannah C; Jang, Eric B; McInnis, Don O

2005-10-01

317

Cytoplasmic male sterility in barley: Evidence for the involvement of cytokinins in fertility restoration  

PubMed Central

The hypothesis of the association between an increase in cytokinin activity and restoration of anther fertility in msm1 cytoplasm was tested. The following barley lines with Hordeum vulgare cv. Adorra nuclear gene background were studied: Adorra cytoplasm without nuclear restorer gene (fertile), Adorra cytoplasm homozygous for nuclear Rfm1a gene (fertile), msm1 cytoplasm without restorer gene (male sterile), msm1 cytoplasm homozygous for nuclear Rfm1a gene (fertile). Ethanolic extracts of root exudate were fractionated and bioassayed for cytokinins. Both the biological activity and the total quantity of cytokinins appeared lowest in the unrestored male sterile line. The total biological activities of cytokinins in the three fertile lines were similar, but the quantities in the restorer gene carriers appeared lower. On the other hand, the restorer gene carriers, independent of the cytoplasm, showed 8-9 times more of a bound cytokinin. Because the bound form is evidently underestimated by the bioassay, the increase in the bound cytokinin fraction may mean even a higher total content in the Rfm1a gene carriers than in Adorra without the gene. The bound cytokinin may be translocated more readily to distal organs (e.g., the anthers) compared with unbound cytokinins. Because cytokinins are associated with various ecophysiological processes, the rise in a particular form may explain the heterogeneous distribution of the restorer gene in wild barley populations in different regions of Israel. PMID:16593259

Ahokas, Hannu

1982-01-01

318

Mutation in CSA creates a new photoperiod-sensitive genic male sterile line applicable for hybrid rice seed production.  

PubMed

Rice is a major staple food worldwide. Making hybrid rice has proved to be an effective strategy to significantly increase grain yield. Current hybrid rice technologies rely on male sterile lines and have been used predominantly in indica cultivars. However, intrinsic problems exist in the implementation of these technologies, such as limited germplasms and unpredictable conversions from sterility to fertility in the field. Here, we describe a photoperiod-controlled male sterile line, carbon starved anther (csa), which contains a mutation in an R2R3 MYB transcription regulator of pollen development. This mutation was introduced into indica and japonica rice, and it rendered male sterility under short-day conditions and male fertility under long-day conditions in both lines. Furthermore, F(1) plants of csa and a restorer line JP69 exhibited heterosis (hybrid vigor), suggesting the feasibility of using this mutation to create hybrid rice. The csa-based photoperiod-sensitive male sterile line allows the establishment of a stable two-line hybrid system, which promises to have a significant impact on agriculture. PMID:23256151

Zhang, Hui; Xu, Chenxi; He, Yi; Zong, Jie; Yang, Xijia; Si, Huamin; Sun, Zongxiu; Hu, Jianping; Liang, Wanqi; Zhang, Dabing

2013-01-01

319

Expression of a pathogen-induced cysteine protease (AdCP) in tapetum results in male sterility in transgenic tobacco.  

PubMed

Usable male sterility systems have immense potential in developing hybrid varieties in crop plants, which can also be used as a biological safety containment to prevent horizontal transgene flow. Barnase-Barstar system developed earlier was the first approach to engineer male sterility in plants. In an analogous situation, we have evolved a system of inducing pollen abortion and male sterility in transgenic tobacco by expressing a plant gene coding for a protein with known developmental function in contrast to the Barnase-Barstar system, which deploys genes of prokaryotic origin, i.e., from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. We have used a plant pathogen-induced gene, cysteine protease for inducing male sterility. This gene was identified in the wild peanut, Arachis diogoi differentially expressed when it was challenged with the late leaf spot pathogen, Phaeoisariopsis personata. Arachis diogoi cysteine protease (AdCP) was expressed under the strong tapetum-specific promoter (TA29) and tobacco transformants were generated. Morphological and histological analysis of AdCP transgenic plants showed ablated tapetum and complete pollen abortion in three transgenic lines. Furthermore, transcript analysis displayed the expression of cysteine protease in these male sterile lines and the expression of the protein was identified in western blot analysis using its polyclonal antibody raised in the rabbit system. PMID:24615687

Shukla, Pawan; Singh, Naveen Kumar; Kumar, Dilip; Vijayan, Sambasivam; Ahmed, Israr; Kirti, Pulugurtha Bharadwaja

2014-06-01

320

Analysis of Differentially Expressed Genes in Genic Male Sterility Cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L.) Using cDNA-AFLP  

Microsoft Academic Search

cDNA amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) analysis was used to investigate the differentially expressed genes between sterile and fertile plants of ms5ms6 double-recessive genic male sterility (GMS) two-type line cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) at different stages, i.e., sporogenous cell stage, pollen mother cell (PMC) stage, and pollen grain stage. Seventeen differentially expressed fragments were identified. Functional analysis indicated that their

Xiaoding Ma; Chaozhu Xing; Liping Guo; Yangcang Gong; Hailin Wang; Yunlei Zhao; Jianyong Wu

2007-01-01

321

Photosynthetic characteristics of leaves of male-sterile and hermaphrodite sex types of Plantago lanceolata grown under conditions of contrasting nitrogen and light availabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plantago lanceolata is it gynodioecious species: In natural populations male steriles (MS) coexist with hermaphrodites (H). Since male steriles have a reproductive disadvantage, without any compensation for their loss in male function by an increase in female function, they are expected to disappear from the population. In this study we investigated the possibility that differences in ecologically important photosynthetic characteristics,

Pieter Poot; Jorn Pilon; Pens L. T

1996-01-01

322

EST analysis of male accessory glands from Heliconius butterflies with divergent mating systems  

PubMed Central

Background Heliconius butterflies possess a remarkable diversity of phenotypes, physiologies, and behaviors that has long distinguished this genus as a focal taxon in ecological and evolutionary research. Recently Heliconius has also emerged as a model system for using genomic methods to investigate the causes and consequences of biological diversity. One notable aspect of Heliconius diversity is a dichotomy in mating systems which provides an unusual opportunity to investigate the relationship between sexual selection and the evolution of reproductive proteins. As a first step in pursuing this research, we report the generation and analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from the male accessory gland of H. erato and H. melpomene, species representative of the two mating systems present in the genus Heliconius. Results We successfully sequenced 933 ESTs clustering into 371 unigenes from H. erato and 1033 ESTs clustering into 340 unigenes from H. melpomene. Results from the two species were very similar. Approximately a third of the unigenes showed no significant BLAST similarity (E-value <10-5) to sequences in GenBank's non-redundant databases, indicating that a large proportion of novel genes are expressed in Heliconius male accessory glands. In both species only a third of accessory gland unigenes were also found among genes expressed in wing tissue. About 25% of unigenes from both species encoded secreted proteins. This includes three groups of highly abundant unigenes encoding repetitive proteins considered to be candidate seminal fluid proteins; proteins encoded by one of these groups were detected in H. erato spermatophores. Conclusion This collection of ESTs will serve as the foundation for the future identification and evolutionary analysis of male reproductive proteins in Heliconius butterflies. These data also represent a significant advance in the rapidly growing collection of genomic resources available in Heliconius butterflies. As such, they substantially enhance this taxon as a model system for investigating questions of ecological, phenotypic, and genomic diversity. PMID:19063743

Walters, James R; Harrison, Richard G

2008-01-01

323

MULTI-MALE MATING BY PAIRED AND UNPAIRED FEMALE PRAIRIE VOLES (MICROTUS OCHROGASTER)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Promiscuous mating is common in female rodents; however what role the female plays in this choice of mates is not clear. Also, whether MMM occurs in the reportedly socially monogamous prairie vole, Microtus ochrogaster, and what role mate-guarding plays in deterring MMM is not known. We conducted two experiments to determine if female prairie voles that were not mate-guarded

Jerry O. Wolff; Stephen G. Mech; Aimee S. Dunlap; Karen E. Hodges

2002-01-01

324

Influence of the Male Ejaculate on Post-Mating Prezygotic Barriers in Field Crickets  

PubMed Central

Post-copulatory interactions between males and females involve highly coordinated, complex traits that are often rapidly evolving and divergent between species. Failure to produce and deposit eggs may be a common post-mating prezygotic barrier, yet little is known about what prevents the induction of egg-laying between species. The field crickets, Gryllus firmus and G. pennsylvanicus are isolated by a one-way reproductive incompatibility; G. pennsylvanicus males fail to fertilize G. firmus eggs or to induce normal egg-laying in G. firmus females. We use experimental crosses to elucidate the role of accessory gland-derived vs. testis-derived components of the G. firmus male ejaculate on egg-laying in conspecific and heterospecific crosses. Using surgical castrations to create ‘spermless’ males that transfer only seminal fluid proteins (SFPs) we test whether G. firmus male SFPs can induce egg-laying in conspecific crosses and rescue egg-laying in crosses between G. pennsylvanicus males and G. firmus females. We find G. firmus SFPs induce only a small short-term egg-laying response and that SFPs alone cannot explain the normal induction of egg-laying. Gryllus firmus SFPs also do not rescue the heterospecific cross. Testis-derived components, such as sperm or prostaglandins, most likely stimulate egg-laying or act as transporters for SFPs to targets in the female reproductive tract. These results highlight the utility of experimental approaches for investigating the phenotypes that act as barriers between species and suggest that future work on the molecular basis of the one-way incompatibility between G. firmus and G. pennsylvanicus should focus on divergent testis-derived compounds or proteins in addition to SFPs. PMID:23071547

Larson, Erica L.; Andrés, Jose A.; Harrison, Richard G.

2012-01-01

325

The male-sterility polymorphism of Silene vulgaris: analysis of genetic dat from two populations and comparison with Thymus vulgaris.  

PubMed Central

Results are given of genetic studies of male sterility using plants from two natural populations from Sussex, England. Both populations have substantial frequencies of females, approximately 0.25 in population 1 and 0.60 in population 3. As in the few other gynodioecious populations studied in detail, many genetic factors are present. In population 1, there are at least two, and more likely three, different cytoplasmic types, one of which appears to produce male sterility in progeny from any hermaphrodite pollen donor; in other words restorer alleles for this cytoplasm are rare or absent from the population. The other two populations can be carried in hermaphrodites that have the dominant restorers. In population 1, there are also probably three restorer loci with complementary recessive male-sterility alleles, as well as a locus with duplicate action, which cannot produce male sterility unless the plant is also homozygous for the recessive allele at another locus. The results from population 3 are quite similar, though there was no evidence in this population for an unrestored sterility cytoplasm. A similar joint nucleocytoplasmic model with multiple restorers fits data from Thymus vulgaris. PMID:9799278

Charlesworth, D; Laporte, V

1998-01-01

326

Genetic loss or pharmacological blockade of testes-expressed taste genes causes male sterility  

PubMed Central

TAS1R taste receptors and their associated heterotrimeric G protein gustducin are involved in sugar and amino acid sensing in taste cells and in the gastrointestinal tract. They are also strongly expressed in testis and sperm, but their functions in these tissues were previously unknown. Using mouse models, we show that the genetic absence of both TAS1R3, a component of sweet and amino acid taste receptors, and the gustducin ?-subunit GNAT3 leads to male-specific sterility. To gain further insight into this effect, we generated a mouse model that expressed a humanized form of TAS1R3 susceptible to inhibition by the antilipid medication clofibrate. Sperm formation in animals without functional TAS1R3 and GNAT3 is compromised, with malformed and immotile sperm. Furthermore, clofibrate inhibition of humanized TAS1R3 in the genetic background of Tas1r3?/?, Gnat3?/? doubly null mice led to inducible male sterility. These results indicate a crucial role for these extraoral “taste” molecules in sperm development and maturation. We previously reported that blocking of human TAS1R3, but not mouse TAS1R3, can be achieved by common medications or chemicals in the environment. We hypothesize that even low levels of these compounds can lower sperm count and negatively affect human male fertility, which common mouse toxicology assays would not reveal. Conversely, we speculate that TAS1R3 and GNAT3 activators may help infertile men, particularly those that are affected by some of the mentioned inhibitors and/or are diagnosed with idiopathic infertility involving signaling pathway of these receptors. PMID:23818598

Mosinger, Bedrich; Redding, Kevin M.; Parker, M. Rockwell; Yevshayeva, Valeriya; Yee, Karen K.; Dyomina, Katerina; Li, Yan; Margolskee, Robert F.

2013-01-01

327

A long noncoding RNA regulates photoperiod-sensitive male sterility, an essential component of hybrid rice  

PubMed Central

Hybrid rice has greatly contributed to the global increase of rice productivity. A major component that facilitated the development of hybrids was a mutant showing photoperiod-sensitive male sterility (PSMS) with its fertility regulated by day length. Transcriptome studies have shown that large portions of the eukaryotic genomic sequences are transcribed to long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). However, the potential roles for only a few lncRNAs have been brought to light at present. Thus, great efforts have to be invested to understand the biological functions of lncRNAs. Here we show that a lncRNA of 1,236 bases in length, referred to as long-day–specific male-fertility–associated RNA (LDMAR), regulates PSMS in rice. We found that sufficient amount of the LDMAR transcript is required for normal pollen development of plants grown under long-day conditions. A spontaneous mutation causing a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) between the wild-type and mutant altered the secondary structure of LDMAR. This change brought about increased methylation in the putative promoter region of LDMAR, which reduced the transcription of LDMAR specifically under long-day conditions, resulting in premature programmed cell death (PCD) in developing anthers, thus causing PSMS. Thus, a lncRNA could directly exert a major effect on a trait like a structure gene, and a SNP could alter the function of a lncRNA similar to amino acid substitution in structural genes. Molecular elucidating of PSMS has important implications for understanding molecular mechanisms of photoperiod regulation of many biological processes and also for developing male sterile germplasms for hybrid crop breeding. PMID:22308482

Ding, Jihua; Lu, Qing; Ouyang, Yidan; Mao, Hailiang; Zhang, Pingbo; Yao, Jialing; Xu, Caiguo; Li, Xianghua; Xiao, Jinghua; Zhang, Qifa

2012-01-01

328

Strikingly, Wolbachia also induce a form of male sterility, a phenomenon called  

E-print Network

+/resc- (sterilizer/non-rescuer). To date, the first three have been discovered7­9. If one envisages mitochondria the ability to rescue their own sterilizing effect, one might speculate that mitochondria possess the same function. Some cases of sterility (more precisely, cases where sterility is the result of early embryonic

Johnson, Kevin P.

329

Sexually dimorphic neurons in the ventromedial hypothalamus govern mating in both sexes and aggression in males  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Sexual dimorphisms in the brain underlie behavioral sex differences, but the function of individual sexually dimorphic neuronal populations is poorly understood. Neuronal sexual dimorphisms typically represent quantitative differences in cell number, gene expression, or other features, and it is unknown if these dimorphisms control sex-typical behavior in one sex exclusively or in both sexes. The progesterone receptor (PR) controls female sexual behavior, and we find many sex differences in number, distribution, or projections of PR-expressing neurons in the adult mouse brain. We have ablated one such PR-expressing neuronal population located in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) using a novel genetic strategy. Ablation of these neurons in females greatly diminishes sexual receptivity. Strikingly, the corresponding ablation in males reduces mating and aggression. Our findings reveal the functions of a molecularly-defined, sexually dimorphic neuronal population in the brain. Moreover we show that sexually dimorphic neurons can control distinct sex-typical behaviors in both sexes. PMID:23663785

Yang, Cindy F.; Chiang, Michael; Gray, Daniel C.; Prabhakaran, Mahalakshmi; Alvarado, Maricruz; Juntti, Scott A.; Unger, Elizabeth K.; Wells, James A.; Shah, Nirao M.

2013-01-01

330

Metabolism of reactive oxygen species in cytoplasmic male sterility of rice by marking upmost pulvinus interval.  

PubMed

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in plant cell are thought to be important inducible factors of cell apoptosis if excessively accumulated in cells. To elucidate the metabolic mechanism of MDA production and scavenging in the cytoplasmic male-sterile (CMS) rice, CMS line and maintainer were employed for studying the relationship at different developmental stages by marking upmost pulvinus interval method of experiment. The results showed that the panicles and leaves of the CMS line had a noticeable higher MDA content than those of maintainer line at all five stages that had been investigated (p?sterile panicles and leaves had inducible effects on the enzymic activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD). However, at the abortion peak stage, MDA was excessively accumulated and antioxidant enzymic activity reduced significantly, resulting in the generation and scavenging of MDA out of balance. PMID:25380642

Li, Jianxin; Dai, Ximei; Li, Linyu; Jiao, Zhen; Huang, Qunce

2015-02-01

331

Impact of body reserves on energy expenditure, water flux, and mating success in breeding male northern elephant seals.  

PubMed

In capital breeders, individual differences in body size and condition can impact mating effort and success. In addition to the collateral advantages of large body size in competition, large nutrient reserves may offer advantages in endurance rivalry and enable the high rates of energy expenditure associated with mating success. We examined the impacts of body reserves and dominance rank on energy expenditure, water flux, mating success, and breeding tenure in the adult male northern elephant seal, a polygynous, capital breeder. Adult males expended energy at a rate of 159 ± 49 MJ d (-1), which is equivalent to 3.1 times the standard metabolic rate predicted by Kleiber's equation. Despite high rates of energy expenditure and a long fasting duration, males spared lean tissue effectively, deriving a mean of 7% of their metabolism from protein catabolism. Body composition had a strong impact on the ability to spare lean tissue during breeding. When controlling for body size, energy expenditure, depletion of blubber reserves, and water efflux were significantly greater in alpha males than in subordinate males. Large body size was associated with increased reproductive effort, tenure on shore, dominance rank, and reproductive success. Terrestrial locomotion and topography appeared to strongly influence energy expenditure. Comparisons with conspecific females suggest greater total seasonal reproductive effort in male northern elephant seals when controlling for the effects of body mass. In polygynous capital breeding systems, male effort may be strongly influenced by physiological state and exceed that of females. PMID:22237285

Crocker, Daniel E; Houser, Dorian S; Webb, Paul M

2012-01-01

332

QTL involved in the partial restoration of male fertility of C-type cytoplasmic male sterility in maize.  

PubMed

Partial restoration of male fertility limits the use of C-type cytoplasmic male sterility (C-CMS) for the production of hybrid seeds in maize. Nevertheless, the genetic basis of the trait is still unknown. Therefore, the aim to this study was to identify genomic regions that govern partial restoration by means of a QTL analysis carried out in an F(2) population (n = 180). This population was derived from the Corn Belt inbred lines B37C and K55. F(2)BC(1) progenies were phenotyped at three locations in Switzerland. Male fertility was rated according to the quality and number of anthers as well as the anthesis-silking interval. A weak effect of environment on the expression of partial restoration was reflected by high heritabilities of all fertility-related traits. Partial restoration was inherited like an oligogenic trait. Three major QTL regions were found consistently across environments in the chromosomal bins 2.09, 3.06 and 7.03. Therefore, a marker-assisted counter-selection of partial restoration is promising. Minor QTL regions were found on chromosomes 3, 4, 5, 6 and 8. A combination of partial restorer alleles at different QTL can lead to full restoration of fertility. The maternal parent was clearly involved in the partial restoration, because the restorer alleles at QTL in bins 2.09, 6.04 and 7.03 originated from B37. The three major QTL regions collocated with other restorer genes of maize, a phenomenon, which seems to be typical for restorer genes. Therefore, a study of the clusters of restorer genes in maize could lead to a better understanding of their evolution and function. In this respect, the long arm of chromosome 2 is particularly interesting, because it harbors restorer genes for the three major CMS systems (C, T and S) of maize. PMID:21479555

Kohls, Susanne; Stamp, Peter; Knaak, Carsten; Messmer, Rainer

2011-07-01

333

Dominance, access to females, and mating success among coresident male mantled howlers (Alouatta palliata) at La Pacifica, Costa Rica.  

PubMed

The priority-of-access (POA) model posits that high dominance rank increases male mating success by increasing access to fertile females. However, the relationship between rank, access to females, and subsequent mating success is variable in primates, and there are few studies representing Neotropical taxa. The purpose here was to test the parameters of the POA model in an asynchronously breeding Neotropical primate, Alouatta palliata, to contribute to our understanding of the relationship between dominance and reproductive strategies in platyrrhines. I collected data on adult males within two large, multimale-multifemale groups exhibiting clear dominance hierarchies at La Pacifica, Costa Rica. Females were classified as sexually receptive (SR) or potentially cycling (PC) based on behavioral and birth data. Access to mates was measured based on total time in proximity to SR/PC females, and mating success was measured based on copulation frequency. Results did not support the predictions of the POA model in that first-ranked males maintained lower than expected time in proximity to SR females, did not consistently maintain the greatest proportion of time in proximity to PC females, obtained lower than expected copulation rates, and did not obtain the highest copulation rates compared to subordinates in either group. Deviations from the POA model were significantly affected by varying operational sex ratios only when considering the lower numbers of available SR females in one group. Alternative reproductive tactics by subordinate males such as tolerance by first-ranked males appeared to be operating, allowing subordinates to obtain mating success when they would otherwise be unable to do so. The study also highlighted how factors such as operational sex ratio may limit the willingness or ability of dominant males to monopolize access to females, and can vary both within and between groups in a population. Am. J. Primatol. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25452246

Corewyn, Lisa C

2014-12-01

334

BEHAVIORAL MECHANISMS OF MATING ACCELERATION AFTER EXPOSURE OF MALE C. CAPITATA (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE) TO GINGER AND ORANGE OIL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The behavioral mechanism of mating acceleration after exposure of male Mediterranean fruit flies to ginger root oil (GO) or to orange peel oil (OO) was studied in the laboratory. Exposure to both oils increased the frequency of sexual signaling. In a wind tunnel females were attracted at similar rat...

335

Variability of female responses to conspecific vs. heterospecific male mating calls in polygynous deer: an open door to hybridization?  

PubMed

Males of all polygynous deer species (Cervinae) give conspicuous calls during the reproductive season. The extreme interspecific diversity that characterizes these vocalizations suggests that they play a strong role in species discrimination. However, interbreeding between several species of Cervinae indicates permeable interspecific reproductive barriers. This study examines the contribution of vocal behavior to female species discrimination and mating preferences in two closely related polygynous deer species known to hybridize in the wild after introductions. Specifically, we investigate the reaction of estrous female red deer (Cervus elaphus) to playbacks of red deer vs. sika deer (Cervus nippon) male mating calls, with the prediction that females will prefer conspecific calls. While on average female red deer preferred male red deer roars, two out of twenty females spent more time in close proximity to the speaker broadcasting male sika deer moans. We suggest that this absence of strict vocal preference for species-specific mating calls may contribute to the permeability of pre-zygotic reproductive barriers observed between these species. Our results also highlight the importance of examining inter-individual variation when studying the role of female preferences in species discrimination and intraspecific mate selection. PMID:21887242

Wyman, Megan T; Charlton, Benjamin D; Locatelli, Yann; Reby, David

2011-01-01

336

Flavonoid wing pigments increase attractiveness of female common blue (Polyommatus icarus) butterflies to mate-searching males  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Common blue butterflies (Polyommatus icarus) sequester flavonoids from their larval host plants and allocate these UV-absorbing pigments to the wings. In field experiments using dummies constructed from female butterflies, mate-searching males inspected flavonoid-rich dummies more intensively than those with little or no flavonoids. Flavonoid content as signalled by UV-wing pattern may indicate ontogenetically determined female quality or enhance detectability to males.

Burghardt, Frank; Knüttel, Helge; Becker, Mechthild; Fiedler, K.

337

Enhancing mating performance after juvenile hormone treatment in Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera:Tephritidae): a differential response in males and females acts as a physiological sexing system  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Methoprene treatment can reduce the time required for sexual maturation in Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) (Wiedemann) males under laboratory conditions, supporting its use as a treatment for sterile males within the context of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). Here we evaluated sexu...

338

Sounds of male Lake Victoria cichlids vary within and between species and affect female mate preferences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sound production in fish is widespread and occurs in several contexts, such as species recognition, mate choice, and aggression. However, there is little experimental evidence for the importance of acoustic signals in social contexts and the influence of sound on mating decisions of females. Cichlid fish are known for their bright nuptial coloration, which plays an important role in mate

Machteld N. Verzijden; Jasper van Heusden; Niels Bouton; Frans Witte; Carel ten Cate; Hans Slabbekoorn

2010-01-01

339

A comparison of the vegetative growth of male-sterile and hermaphroditic lines of Plantago lanceolata in relation to N supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gynodioecy is a dimorphic breeding system in which hermaphrodites coexist with male steriles in natural populations. Theoretical models predict that without any compensation in female fitness, male steriles will quickly disappear from a population. The amount of compensation required depends upon the mode of inheritance. In this study we investigated whether performance, during early vegetative growth, could play a role

PIETER POOT; TOMMY VAN DEN BROEK; JOS M. M. VAN DAMME; HANS LAMBERS

1997-01-01

340

Morphological and Cytological Study in a New Type of Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Line CMS-GIG2 in Sunflower (Helianthus annuus)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A new cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in sunflower anthers, termed lemon CMS-GIG2, has been further confirmed by crossing with the maintenance line and restoration line of CMS-PET1, both of which maintain the male sterility of CMS-GIG2. Light microscopy observation of anther sections showed that bo...

341

Identification of RAPD markers linked to a fertility restorer gene for the Ogura radish cytoplasmic male sterility of rapeseed ( Brassica napus L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bulked segregant analysis was employed to identify random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers linked to the restorer gene (Rfo) used in theOgura radish cytoplasmic male sterility of rapeseed. A total of 138 arbitrary 10-mer oligonucleotide primers were screened on the DNA of three pairs of bulks, each bulk corresponding to homozygous restored and male sterile plants of three segregating populations.

R. Delourme; A. Bouchereau; N. Hubert; M. Renard; B. S. Landry

1994-01-01

342

Assembly and analysis of a male sterile rubber tree mitochondrial genome reveals DNA rearrangement events and a novel transcript  

PubMed Central

Background The rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis, is an important plant species that is commercially grown to produce latex rubber in many countries. The rubber tree variety BPM 24 exhibits cytoplasmic male sterility, inherited from the variety GT 1. Results We constructed the rubber tree mitochondrial genome of a cytoplasmic male sterile variety, BPM 24, using 454 sequencing, including 8 kb paired-end libraries, plus Illumina paired-end sequencing. We annotated this mitochondrial genome with the aid of Illumina RNA-seq data and performed comparative analysis. We then compared the sequence of BPM 24 to the contigs of the published rubber tree, variety RRIM 600, and identified a rearrangement that is unique to BPM 24 resulting in a novel transcript containing a portion of atp9. Conclusions The novel transcript is consistent with changes that cause cytoplasmic male sterility through a slight reduction to ATP production efficiency. The exhaustive nature of the search rules out alternative causes and supports previous findings of novel transcripts causing cytoplasmic male sterility. PMID:24512148

2014-01-01

343

The transfer of ‘Polima’ cytoplasmic male sterility from oilseed rape ( Brassica napus ) to broccoli ( B. oleracea ) by protoplast fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protoplast fusion was utilised to transfer Polima type cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) from Brassica napus, canola cv. Polima Karat (Pol-Karat) to B. oleracea, broccoli, var. “Green Comet”. Southern and RFLP analysis confirmed that four cybrids possessed nuclear genomes of broccoli with Polima mitochondria and chloroplasts. A fifth cybrid was a nuclear hybrid between broccoli and Pol-Karat, with Polima mitochondria and

Stephen A. Yarrow; Laurie A. Burnett; Richard P. Wildeman; Roger J. Kemble

1990-01-01

344

Induction of cytoplasmic male sterility and fertility reversion by mutagenesis; negative evidence from a study on sugar beet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attempts have been made to induce cytoplasmic male sterility (cms) and cytoplasmically inherited fertility reversion in sugar beet using various mutagenic agents by repeating techniques previously described. Despite the previous report of successful induction of cms and reversion at very high frequency it was not possible to repeat this success. Analysis of M2 plants at the DNA level demonstrated no

Timothy Brears; David M. Lonsdale

1990-01-01

345

Physical and gene mapping of chloroplast DNA from normal and cytoplasmic male sterile (radish cytoplasm) lines of Brassica napus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the restriction endonucleases SaII, SmaI, BgII and KpnI, physical maps of chloroplast DNA isolated from normal and cytoplasmic male sterile (radish cytoplasm) lines of B. napus were constructed and compared. In this study, a rapid and simple procedure was developed for the isolation of chloroplast DNA restriction fragments from low gelling temperature agarose gels.

Fernand Vedel; Chantal Mathieu

1983-01-01

346

Bioreplicated visual features of nanofabricated buprestid beetle decoys evoke stereotypical male mating flights.  

PubMed

Recent advances in nanoscale bioreplication processes present the potential for novel basic and applied research into organismal behavioral processes. Insect behavior potentially could be affected by physical features existing at the nanoscale level. We used nano-bioreplicated visual decoys of female emerald ash borer beetles (Agrilus planipennis) to evoke stereotypical mate-finding behavior, whereby males fly to and alight on the decoys as they would on real females. Using an industrially scalable nanomolding process, we replicated and evaluated the importance of two features of the outer cuticular surface of the beetle's wings: structural interference coloration of the elytra by multilayering of the epicuticle and fine-scale surface features consisting of spicules and spines that scatter light into intense strands. Two types of decoys that lacked one or both of these elements were fabricated, one type nano-bioreplicated and the other 3D-printed with no bioreplicated surface nanostructural elements. Both types were colored with green paint. The light-scattering properties of the nano-bioreplicated surfaces were verified by shining a white laser on the decoys in a dark room and projecting the scattering pattern onto a white surface. Regardless of the coloration mechanism, the nano-bioreplicated decoys evoked the complete attraction and landing sequence of Agrilus males. In contrast, males made brief flying approaches toward the decoys without nanostructured features, but diverted away before alighting on them. The nano-bioreplicated decoys were also electroconductive, a feature used on traps such that beetles alighting onto them were stunned, killed, and collected. PMID:25225359

Domingue, Michael J; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh; Pulsifer, Drew P; Hall, Loyal P; Badding, John V; Bischof, Jesse L; Martín-Palma, Raúl J; Imrei, Zoltán; Janik, Gergely; Mastro, Victor C; Hazen, Missy; Baker, Thomas C

2014-09-30

347

Do males bite females' antennae to coerce copulation or to continue mate guarding in Oiceoptoma subrufum (Coleoptera: Silphinae)?  

PubMed

In several species, males frequently immobilize females during copulation. In some species, female immobilization enables males to copulate with unwilling females, while in others, female immobilization prolongs postcopulatory guarding. Male carrion beetles often bite and pull hard on one of the female's antennae during copulatory mounting. Previous descriptive studies have hypothesized that antenna biting is important for postcopulatory guarding in Silphinae. Here, we observed the mating behavior of Oiceoptoma subrufum, to understand the roles of antenna-biting in the initiation and termination of copulation. We compared the success and duration of intromission and pre- and postcopulatory mounting duration between males that did and did not bite female antennae during copulatory mounting. The success and duration of intromission and precopulatory mounting duration were unaffected by antenna biting. However, antenna-biting males mounted females for longer after intromission compared to non-biting males. These results indicate that antenna biting contributes to postcopulatory guarding behavior, not coercive copulation, in O. subrufum. PMID:24882093

Sumitomo, Hiroyuki; Shiraishi, Kyosuke; Hirota, Tadao

2014-06-01

348

Discrimination of airborne pheromones by mate-searching male western black widow spiders ( Latrodectus hesperus ): species- and population-specific responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Males of many web-building spiders abandon their webs at maturity to search for a potential mate. Since wandering can be very risky, and females are often widely distributed, males should use any cues that might ensure rapid and accurate location of conspecific females. Although it has long been assumed that mate-searching male spiders locate females using species-specific airborne pheromones released

Michael M. Kasumovic; Maydianne C. B. Andrade

2004-01-01

349

Characterization of a novel thermosensitive restorer of fertility for cytoplasmic male sterility in maize.  

PubMed

S-type cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS-S) in maize is associated with high levels of a 1.6-kb RNA in mitochondria. This RNA contains two chimeric open reading frames (ORFs), orf355 and orf77. The previously described nuclear restorer-of-fertility allele Rf3 causes the processing of all transcripts that contain these chimeric ORFs. The Lancaster Surecrop-derived inbred line A619 carries a restorer that is distinct from Rf3 in that it selectively reduces only the CMS-S-specific 1.6-kb RNA. We have found that 10 additional Lancaster lines carry a single restoring allele traceable to either of two inbred lines, C103 and Oh40B. The C103 and Oh40B restorers are allelic to each other, but not to Rf3. Thus, this restoring allele, designated Rf9, represents a second naturally occurring CMS-S restorer in maize. Rf9 is a less effective restorer of fertility than is Rf3; its expression is influenced by both inbred nuclear background and temperature. Rf9 acts to reduce the amounts of orf355/orf77-containing linear mitochondrial subgenomes, which are generated by recombination of circular subgenomes with CMS-S-specific linear plasmids. The 1.6-kb RNA, which is transcribed only from linear ends, is correspondingly reduced. PMID:19255365

Gabay-Laughnan, Susan; Kuzmin, Evgeny V; Monroe, Jessica; Roark, Leah; Newton, Kathleen J

2009-05-01

350

ms17: a meiotic mutation causing partial male sterility in a corn silage hybrid.  

PubMed

Cytological analysis under light microscopy of the single hybrid P30R50 of silage corn revealed an abnormal pattern of microsporogenesis that affected the meiotic products. Meiosis progressed normally until diakinesis, but before migration to the metaphase plate, bivalents underwent total desynapsis and 20 univalent chromosomes were scattered in the cytoplasm. At this stage, meiocytes also exhibited a number of chromatin-like fragments scattered throughout the cell. Metaphase I was completely abnormal in the affected cells, and univalent chromosomes and fragments were distributed among several curved spindles. Anaphase I did not occur, and each chromosome or group of chromosomes originated a micronucleus. After this phase, an irregular cytokinesis occurred, and secondary meiocytes with several micronuclei were observed. Metaphase II and anaphase II also did not occur, and after the second cytokinesis, the genomes were fractionated into polyads, generating several unbalanced microspores, with various-sized nuclei. About 35% of the tetrads were abnormal in the hybrid. This spontaneous mutation had been previously reported in a USA maize line called ms17 and was found to cause male sterility. PMID:21948758

Pagliarini, M S; Souza, V F; Silva, N; Scapim, C A; Rodovalho, M; Faria, M V

2011-01-01

351

A quantitative genetic analysis of nuclear-cytoplasmic male sterility in structured populations of Silene vulgaris.  

PubMed

Gynodioecy, the coexistence of functionally female and hermaphroditic morphs within plant populations, often has a complicated genetic basis involving several cytoplasmic male-sterility factors and nuclear restorers. This complexity has made it difficult to study the genetics and evolution of gynodioecy in natural populations. We use a quantitative genetic analysis of crosses within and among populations of Silene vulgaris to partition genetic variance for sex expression into nuclear and cytoplasmic components. We also use mitochondrial markers to determine whether cytoplasmic effects on sex expression can be traced to mitochondrial variance. Cytoplasmic variation and epistatic interactions between nuclear and cytoplasmic loci accounted for a significant portion of the variation in sex expression among the crosses. Source population also accounted for a significant portion of the sex ratio variation. Crosses among populations greatly enhanced the dam (cytoplasmic) effect, indicating that most among-population variance was at cytoplasmic loci. This is supported by the large among-population variance in the frequency of mitochondrial haplotypes, which also accounted for a significant portion of the sex ratio variance in our data. We discuss the similarities between the population structure we observed at loci that influence sex expression and previous work on putatively neutral loci, as well as the implications this has for what mechanisms may create and maintain population structure at loci that are influenced by natural selection. PMID:11404344

Taylor, D R; Olson, M S; McCauley, D E

2001-06-01

352

Restoring pollen fertility in transgenic male-sterile eggplant by Cre/loxp-mediated site-specific recombination system  

PubMed Central

This study was designed to control plant fertility by cell lethal gene Barnase expressing at specific developmental stage and in specific tissue of male organ under the control of Cre/loxP system, for heterosis breeding, producing hybrid seed of eggplant. The Barnase-coding region was flanked by loxP recognition sites for Cre-recombinase. The eggplant inbred/pure line (‘E-38') was transformed with Cre gene and the inbred/pure line (‘E-8') was transformed with the Barnase gene situated between loxp. The experiments were done separately, by means of Agrobacterium co-culture. Four T0 -plants with the Barnase gene were obtained, all proved to be male-sterile and incapable of producing viable pollen. Flowers stamens were shorter, but the vegetative phenotype was similar to wild-type. Five T 0 -plants with the Cre gene developed well, blossomed out and set fruit normally. The crossing of male-sterile Barnase-plants with Cre expression transgenic eggplants resulted in site-specific excision with the male-sterile plants producing normal fruits. With the Barnase was excised, pollen fertility was fully restored in the hybrids. The phenotype of these restored plants was the same as that of the wild-type. Thus, the Barnase and Cre genes were capable of stable inheritance and expression in progenies of transgenic plants. PMID:21637486

2010-01-01

353

A randomized, controlled, multicenter contraceptive efficacy clinical trial of the intravas device, a nonocclusive surgical male sterilization  

PubMed Central

Because of unavoidable complications of vasectomy, this study was undertaken to assess the efficacy and safety of male sterilization with a nonobstructive intravas device (IVD) implanted into the vas lumen by a mini-surgical method compared with no-scalpel vasectomy (NSV). IVDs were categorized into two types: IVD-B has a tail used for fixing to the vas deferens (fixed wing) whereas IVD-A does not. A multicenter prospective randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in China. The study was comprised of 1459 male volunteers seeking vasectomy who were randomly assigned to the IVD-A (n = 487), IVD-B (n = 485) or NSV (n = 487) groups and underwent operation. Follow-up included visits at the 3rd–6th and 12th postoperative months. The assessments of the subjects involved regular physical examinations (including general and andrological examinations) and semen analysis. The subjects’ partners also underwent monitoring for pregnancy by monthly interviews regarding menstruation and if necessary, urine tests. There were no significant differences in pregnancy rates (0.65% for IVD-A, 0 for IVD-B and 0.21% for NSV) among the three groups (P > 0.05). The cumulative rates of complications at the 12th postoperative month were zero, 0.9% and 1.7% in the three groups, respectively. In conclusion, IVD male sterilization exhibits a low risk of long-term adverse events and was found to be effective as a male sterilization method, similar to the NSV technique. IVD male sterilization is expected to be a novel contraceptive method. PMID:24589454

Lu, Wen-Hong; Liang, Xiao-Wei; Gu, Yi-Qun; Wu, Wei-Xiong; Bo, Li-Wei; Zheng, Tian-Gui; Chen, Zhen-Wen

2014-01-01

354

Male care, mate switching, and future reproductive success in a double-brooded passerine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Little is known of the factors that cause monogamous, double-brooded birds to keep the same mates, or switch mates, between nesting attempts within one breeding season. Only one factor, success or failure of the first attempt, has been investigated, and it appears to be important in some species but unimportant in others. Kendeigh (1941) mentioned another possible factor in

J. Bart

1990-01-01

355

Male traits, mating tactics and reproductive success in the buff-breasted sandpiper, Tryngites subruficollis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Buff-breasted sandpipers use a variety of mating tactics to acquire mates, including remaining at a single lek for most of the breeding season, attending multiple leks during the season, displaying solitarily or displaying both on leks and solitarily. We found that differences in body size, body condition, fluctuating asymmetry scores, wing coloration, territory location and behaviour (attraction, solicitation and agonistic)

RICHARD B. LANCTOT; PATRICK J. WEATHERHEAD; BART KEMPENAERS; KIM T. SCRIBNER

1998-01-01

356

It takes two to tango: reproductive skew and social correlates of male mating success in a lek-breeding bird  

PubMed Central

Variance in reproductive success among individuals is a defining characteristic of many social vertebrates. Yet, our understanding of which male attributes contribute to reproductive success is still fragmentary in most cases. Male–male reproductive coalitions, where males jointly display to attract females, are of particular interest to evolutionary biologists because one male appears to forego reproduction to assist the social partner. By examining the relationship between social behaviour and reproductive success, we can elucidate the proximate function of coalitions in the context of mate choice. Here, we use data from a 4-year study of wire-tailed manakins (Pipra filicauda) to provide molecular estimates of reproductive skew and to test the hypothesis that male–male social interactions, in the context of coordinated displays, positively influence a male's reproductive success. More specifically, we quantify male–male social interactions using network metrics and predict that greater connectivity will result in higher relative reproductive success. Our data show that four out of six leks studied had significant reproductive skew, with success apportioned to very few individuals in each lek. Metrics of male social affiliations derived from our network analysis, especially male connectivity, measured as the number of males with whom the focal male has extended interactions, were strong predictors of the number of offspring sired. Thus, network connectivity is associated with male fitness in wire-tailed manakins. This pattern may be the result of shared cues used by both sexes to assess male quality, or the result of strict female choice for coordinated display behaviour. PMID:19324732

Ryder, Thomas B.; Parker, Patricia G.; Blake, John G.; Loiselle, Bette A.

2009-01-01

357

Effects of the juvenile hormone analogue methoprene and dietary protein on male melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera:Tephritidae) mating success  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effect of access to dietary protein (P) and the topical application of a juvenile hormone analogue (methoprene (M)) on mating behaviour of male melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae was assessed in the laboratory and in field cages. Age, dietary protein and methoprene application increased the mating...

358

Molecular characterization of cytoplasmic male sterility conditioned by Gossypium harknessii cytoplasm (CMS-D2) in upland cotton  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is a maternally inherited trait that fails to produce functional pollen grains. The CMS system\\u000a is widely employed to facilitate the utilization of heterosis in major crops. However, little is known about the CMS associated\\u000a genes in Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). The objective of this study was to compare CMS cotton (CMS-D2) with the cytoplasm from

Jianyong Wu; Yangcang Gong; Minghui Cui; Tingxiang Qi; Liping Guo; Jinfa Zhang; Chaozhu Xing

2011-01-01

359

Reversion of Texas male-sterile cytoplasm maize in culture to give fertile, T-toxin resistant plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants carrying Texas male-sterile (Tms) cytoplasm are normally sensitive to Drechslera maydis T-toxin. Tissue cultures were initiated from immature embryos of maize carrying Tms-cytoplasm, and plants were regenerated after selection for resistance to T-toxin. Fertile, T-toxin resistant plants were obtained from the unselected control cultures as well as from the selected material. In addition, one regenerant from an unselected culture

R. I. S. Brettell; E. Thomas; D. S. Ingram

1980-01-01

360

Construction and characterization of a bacterial artificial chromosome library of thermo-sensitive genie male-sterile rice 5460S  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to develop a detailed physical map of the thermo-sensitive genie male-sterile (TGMS) gene-encompassing region and\\u000a finally clone the TGMS gene, a high-quality rice bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library from TGMS rice 5460S was constructed.\\u000a The method of constructing BAC library was examined and optimized. The 5460S library consists of 19 584 BAC clones with an\\u000a average insert size

Fang Qiu; Demin Jin; Jianmin Fu; Chaoliang Zhang; Weiwu Xie; Rencui Yang; Hongbin Zhang; Bin Wang

1999-01-01

361

The Male-Sterility Polymorphism of Silene vulgaris: Analysis of Genetic Data From Two Populations and Comparison With Thymus vulgaris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are given of genetic studies of male sterility using plants from two natural populations from Sussex, England. Both populations have substantial frequencies of females, z0.25 in population 1 and 0.60 in population 3. As in the few other gynodioecious populations studied in detail, many genetic factors are present. In population 1, there are at least two, and more likely

D. Charlesworth; Valerie Laporte

362

Cytoplasmic Male Sterility-Associated Chimeric Open Reading Frames Identified by Mitochondrial Genome Sequencing of Four Cajanus Genotypes  

PubMed Central

The hybrid pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) breeding technology based on cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is currently unique among legumes and displays major potential for yield increase. CMS is defined as a condition in which a plant is unable to produce functional pollen grains. The novel chimeric open reading frames (ORFs) produced as a results of mitochondrial genome rearrangements are considered to be the main cause of CMS. To identify these CMS-related ORFs in pigeonpea, we sequenced the mitochondrial genomes of three C. cajan lines (the male-sterile line ICPA 2039, the maintainer line ICPB 2039, and the hybrid line ICPH 2433) and of the wild relative (Cajanus cajanifolius ICPW 29). A single, circular-mapping molecule of length 545.7 kb was assembled and annotated for the ICPA 2039 line. Sequence annotation predicted 51 genes, including 34 protein-coding and 17 RNA genes. Comparison of the mitochondrial genomes from different Cajanus genotypes identified 31 ORFs, which differ between lines within which CMS is present or absent. Among these chimeric ORFs, 13 were identified by comparison of the related male-sterile and maintainer lines. These ORFs display features that are known to trigger CMS in other plant species and to represent the most promising candidates for CMS-related mitochondrial rearrangements in pigeonpea. PMID:23792890

Tuteja, Reetu; Saxena, Rachit K.; Davila, Jaime; Shah, Trushar; Chen, Wenbin; Xiao, Yong-Li; Fan, Guangyi; Saxena, K. B.; Alverson, Andrew J.; Spillane, Charles; Town, Christopher; Varshney, Rajeev K.

2013-01-01

363

Characterization of Raphanus sativus Pentatricopeptide Repeat Proteins Encoded by the Fertility Restorer Locus for Ogura Cytoplasmic Male Sterility[W  

PubMed Central

Cytoplasmic male sterility is a maternally inherited trait in higher plants that prevents the production of functional pollen. Ogura cytoplasmic male sterility in radish (Raphanus sativus) is regulated by the orf138 mitochondrial locus. Male fertility can be restored when orf138 accumulation is suppressed by the nuclear Rfo locus, which consists of three genes putatively encoding highly similar pentatricopeptide repeat proteins (PPR-A, -B, and -C). We produced transgenic rapeseed (Brassica napus) plants separately expressing PPR-A and PPR-B and demonstrated that both encoded proteins accumulated preferentially in the anthers of young flower buds. Immunodetection of ORF138 showed that, unlike PPR-B, PPR-A had no effect on the synthesis of the sterility protein. Moreover, immunolocalization experiments indicated that complete elimination of ORF138 from the tapetum of anthers correlated with the restoration of fertility. Thus, the primary role of PPR-B in restoring fertility is to inhibit ORF138 synthesis in the tapetum of young anthers. In situ hybridization experiments confirmed, at the cellular level, that PPR-B has no effect on the accumulation of orf138 mRNA. Lastly, immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that PPR-B, but not PPR-A, is associated with the orf138 RNA in vivo, linking restoration activity with the ability to directly or indirectly interact with the orf138 RNA. Together, our data support a role for PPR-B in the translational regulation of orf138 mRNA. PMID:19098270

Uyttewaal, M.; Arnal, N.; Quadrado, M.; Martin-Canadell, A.; Vrielynck, N.; Hiard, S.; Gherbi, H.; Bendahmane, A.; Budar, F.; Mireau, H.

2008-01-01

364

Pheromonally mediated mate attraction by males of the burying beetle Nicrophorus orbicollis: alternative calling tactics conditional on both intrinsic and extrinsic factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male burying beetles attract females using a pheromonal signal and can provide parental care and a food resource, vertebrate carrion, for their developing offspring. But males attempt to attract females even when they have no carrion. We examined the factors that influence male behavior directed toward finding or attracting mates in both field-caught and laboratory-reared Nicrophorus orbicollis, a North American

Andria E. Beeler; Claudia M. Rauter; Allen J. Moore

1999-01-01

365

Behavioural response of female dark-eyed juncos to the experimental removal of their mates: implications for the evolution of male parental care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male dark-eyed juncos, Junco hyemah.s, are monogamous and normally help females leed nestlings. We removed males at hatching of their eggs and examined female parental behaviour in response to male removal. We compared parental behaviour of unaided females (experimentals) with that of (l) lemales aideci by their matcs (control females) and (2) females and their mates working together (control pairs).

LICIA WOLF; ELLEN D. KETTERSON; V NOLANJR

1990-01-01

366

Stoichiometric shifts in the common bean mitochondrial genome leading to male sterility and spontaneous reversion to fertility  

PubMed Central

The plant mitochondrial genome is characterized by a complex, multipartite structure. In cytoplasmic male-sterile (CMS) common bean, the sterility-inducing mitochondrial configuration maps as three autonomous DNA molecules, one containing the sterility-associated sequence pvs-or f 239. We constructed a physical map of the mitochondrial genome from the direct progenitors to the CMS cytoplasm and have shown that it maps as a single, circular master configuration. With long-exposure autoradiography of DNA gel blots and polymerase chain reaction analysis, we demonstrate that the three-molecule CMS-associated configuration was present at unusually low copy number within the progenitor genome and that the progenitor form was present substoichiometrically within the genome of the CMS line. Furthermore, upon spontaneous reversion to fertility, the progenitor genomic configuration as well as the molecule containing the pvs-or f 239 sterility-associated sequence were both maintained at substoichiometric levels within the revertant genome. In vitro mitochondrial incubation results demonstrated that the genomic shift of the pvs-or f 239-containing molecule to substoichiometric levels upon spontaneous reversion was a reversible phenomenon. Moreover, we demonstrate that substoichiometric forms, apparently silent with regard to gene expression, are transcriptionally and translationally active once amplified. Thus, copy number suppression may serve as an effective means of regulating gene expression in plant mitochondria. PMID:9668135

Janska, H; Sarria, R; Woloszynska, M; Arrieta-Montiel, M; Mackenzie, SA

1998-01-01

367

Post-Teneral Protein Feeding Improves Sexual Competitiveness But Reduces Longevity of Mass-Reared Sterile Male Mediterranean Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sterile insect technique is gaining an increasing role in the control of Mediter- ranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), populations. In the current study, we examine how post-teneral nutrition during the first 4—8 d after adult emergence affects performance and copu- latory success in leks of mass-reared sterile (TSL strain) males. We found that protein and sugar fed males

Roy Kaspi; Boaz Yuval

2000-01-01

368

Triploid females and diploid males: underreported phenomena in Polistes wasps?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In hymenopteran species, males are usually haploid and females diploid. However, in species that have complementary sex determination (CSD), diploid males arise when a female produces offspring that are homozygous at the sex-determining locus. Although diploid males are often sterile, in some species they have been shown to produce diploid sperm, thus producing triploid daughters if they mate successfully.

A. E. Liebert; R. N. Johnson; G. T. Switz; P. T. Starks

2004-01-01

369

Influence of methoprene and protein on survival, maturation and sexual performance of male Ceratitis capitata (Diptera:Tephritidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), like many other polifagous tephritids (Diptera: Tephritidae), adopts a lek as mating system. The sterile insect technique (SIT) requires the release of sterile males able to survive on the field, to compete with wild males, and attrac...

370

Males and Females Contribute Unequally to Offspring Genetic Diversity in the Polygynandrous Mating System of Wild Boar  

PubMed Central

The maintenance of genetic diversity across generations depends on both the number of reproducing males and females. Variance in reproductive success, multiple paternity and litter size can all affect the relative contributions of male and female parents to genetic variation of progeny. The mating system of the wild boar (Sus scrofa) has been described as polygynous, although evidence of multiple paternity in litters has been found. Using 14 microsatellite markers, we evaluated the contribution of males and females to genetic variation in the next generation in independent wild boar populations from the Iberian Peninsula and Hungary. Genetic contributions of males and females were obtained by distinguishing the paternal and maternal genetic component inherited by the progeny. We found that the paternally inherited genetic component of progeny was more diverse than the maternally inherited component. Simulations showed that this finding might be due to a sampling bias. However, after controlling for the bias by fitting both the genetic diversity in the adult population and the number of reproductive individuals in the models, paternally inherited genotypes remained more diverse than those inherited maternally. Our results suggest new insights into how promiscuous mating systems can help maintain genetic variation. PMID:25541986

Pérez-González, Javier; Costa, Vânia; Santos, Pedro; Slate, Jon; Carranza, Juan; Fernández-Llario, Pedro; Zsolnai, Attila; Monteiro, Nuno M.; Anton, István; Buzgó, József; Varga, Gyula; Beja-Pereira, Albano

2014-01-01

371

Sequencing of the chloroplast genomes of cytoplasmic male-sterile and male-fertile lines of soybean and identification of polymorphic markers.  

PubMed

The RN-type cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) system used to develop Hybsoy-1, the first commercial hybrid soybean, has been subsequently applied to generate nearly all released soybean hybrids. Although more than 3 years are needed to classify sterile (S) and normal male-fertile (F) cytoplasms by conventional crossing, such classifications can be performed rapidly using organellar DNA-based molecular markers. Except for fertility, the agronomic traits of CMS hybrid soybean sterile and maintainer lines are identical. Consequently, it is difficult to distinguish them by routine visual inspection in the mixture arising in the course of field planting and harvesting during breeding. In this study, we performed next-generation sequencing of chloroplast DNAs of F- and S-cytoplasmic soybeans, assembled and annotated the genomes, and identified polymorphisms distinguishing them. Chloroplast DNAs of F and S cytoplasms were very similar in size (152,215 and 152,222 base pairs) and GC contents (35.37%). Among 23 shared SNPs in gene coding regions, we identified four that could be used in conjunction with restriction endonucleases to distinguish S and F cytoplasms. Although CMS is likely associated with mitochondrial DNA, maternal transmission of mitochondrial and chloroplast DNAs allows polymorphisms in either genome to be used to classify soybean cytoplasms, aiding hybrid soybean cultivar development. PMID:25443847

Lin, Chunjing; Zhang, Chunbao; Zhao, Hongkun; Xing, Shaochen; Wang, Yumin; Liu, Xiaodong; Yuan, Cuiping; Zhao, Limei; Dong, Yingshan

2014-12-01

372

Underwater oviposition in a damselfly (Odonata: Coenagrionidae) favors male vigilance, and multiple mating by females  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female Enallagma hageni oviposit underwater where they are inaccessible to males. I demonstrate that males guard submerged females rather than perch sites, and are behaviorally distinct from lone males at the water. In contrast to lone males, which always attempt to copulate with females presented to them, guarding males exhibit a conditional latency to remating which corresponds closely to the

Ola M. Fincke

1986-01-01

373

Mating success of male hermit crabs in shell generalist and shell specialist species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reproductive behavior of two species of diogenid hermit crabs was studied in Hawaii. In the shell generalist, Clibanarius zebra, male reproductive success varied little with size, although the largest males were less successful in obtaining copulations than were medium-large males. Male and female size were positively correlated, in successful pairs, thus larger males had the potential to fertilize more

Brian A. Hazlett

1989-01-01

374

The implications of stress on male mating behavior and success in a sexually dimorphic polygynous mammal, the grey seal.  

PubMed

Studies on primates and other taxa have shown that the physiological response of an individual to stress reflects their social status. We combined behavioral observations with measures of stress to test the hypothesis that stress is an important physiological determinant of mating behavior and success in the male grey seal. Known-age males (N=19) were studied during the breeding seasons of 2004 and 2005 at Sable Island, Canada. The stressor was a capture and restraint period of 35 min and serial samples of cortisol and testosterone were taken as measures of stress. The mean baseline concentrations of cortisol and testosterone were 9.7+/-0.5 ug/dl and 6.2+/-0.6 ng/mL, respectively. The baseline cortisol concentration was negatively correlated with the duration of time a male spent at a site (r=-0.507, P=0.027), which was a strong correlate of mating success (r=0.659, P=0.002). All males experienced an increase in the concentration of cortisol during the restraint period (79.1+/-8.4%; CV=46.1%). The percentage rise in cortisol during restraint was correlated with the mean duration of time spent at a site (r=0.544, P=0.016) and thus success. The concentration of testosterone also increased during the restraint period (32.8+/-9.7%). This might be an adaptive response to maintaining the ability to reproduce while under stress. Our study indicates that stress is an important determinant of success in male grey seals. More successful males might exhibit an adaptive response to stress by maintaining low concentrations of cortisol during breeding. PMID:18021775

Lidgard, Damian C; Boness, Daryl J; Bowen, W Don; McMillan, Jim I

2008-01-01

375

Male killing can select for male mate choice: a novel solution to the paradox of the lek.  

PubMed Central

In lekking species, intense directional selection is applied to aspects of the male genotype by female choice. Under conventional quantitative genetics theory, the expectation is that this will lead to a rapid loss in additive genetic variance for the trait in question. However, despite female choice, male variation is maintained and hence it pays females to continue choosing. This has been termed the 'paradox of the lek'. Here we present a theoretical analysis of a putative sex-role-reversed lek in the butterfly Acraea encedon. Sex-role reversal appears to have come about because of infection with a male-killing Wolbachia. The bacterium is highly prevalent in some populations, such that there is a dearth of males. Receptive females form dense aggregations, and it has been suggested that males preferentially select females uninfected with the bacterium. As with more conventional systems, this presents a theoretical problem exactly analogous to the lek paradox, namely what maintains female variation and hence why do males continue to choose? We model the evolution of a male choice gene that allows discrimination between infected and uninfected females, and show that the stable maintenance of both female variation and male choice is likely, so long as males make mistakes when discriminating between females. Furthermore, our model allows the maintenance, in a panmictic population, of a male killer that is perfectly transmitted. This is the first model to allow this result, and may explain the long-term persistence of a male killer in Hypolimnas bolina. PMID:10853728

Randerson, J P; Jiggins, F M; Hurst, L D

2000-01-01

376

Quantitative Genetic Analyses of Male Color Pattern and Female Mate Choice in a Pair of Cichlid Fishes of Lake Malawi, East Africa  

PubMed Central

The traits involved in sexual selection, such as male secondary sexual characteristics and female mate choice, often co-evolve which can promote population differentiation. However, the genetic architecture of these phenotypes can influence their evolvability and thereby affect the divergence of species. The extraordinary diversity of East African cichlid fishes is often attributed to strong sexual selection and thus this system provides an excellent model to test predictions regarding the genetic architecture of sexually selected traits that contribute to reproductive isolation. In particular, theory predicts that rapid speciation is facilitated when male sexual traits and female mating preferences are controlled by a limited number of linked genes. However, few studies have examined the genetic basis of male secondary sexual traits and female mating preferences in cichlids and none have investigated the genetic architecture of both jointly. In this study, we artificially hybridized a pair of behaviorally isolated cichlid fishes from Lake Malawi and quantified both melanistic color pattern and female mate choice. We investigated the genetic architecture of both phenotypes using quantitative genetic analyses. Our results suggest that 1) many non-additively acting genetic factors influence melanistic color patterns, 2) female mate choice may be controlled by a minimum of 1–2 non-additive genetic factors, and 3) F2 female mate choice is not influenced by male courting effort. Furthermore, a joint analysis of color pattern and female mate choice indicates that the genes underlying these two traits are unlikely to be physically linked. These results suggest that reproductive isolation may evolve rapidly owing to the few genetic factors underlying female mate choice. Hence, female mate choice likely played an important role in the unparalleled speciation of East African cichlid fish. PMID:25494046

Ding, Baoqing; Daugherty, Daniel W.; Husemann, Martin; Chen, Ming; Howe, Aimee E.; Danley, Patrick D.

2014-01-01

377

Organization of actin cytoskeleton during meiosis I in a wheat thermo-sensitive genic male sterile line.  

PubMed

BS366 is a thermo-sensitive male sterile line of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) for two-line hybrid breeding, which exhibits aberrant meiotic cytokinesis under low temperature. Through transcriptome analysis, a possible regulatory role for plant actin cytoskeleton was suggested. However, the organization of actin cytoskeleton in meiosis has been poorly understood so far. Here, fixed microsporocytes during meiosis were labeled with tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate-phalloidin and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole. Quantities of fluorescent micrographs were captured using a confocal microscope, including the transient state from metaphase to telophase. We observed that actin filaments were abundant in typical kariokinetic spindle, central spindle (parallel microtubules or actin fibers between two separated chromosomes in anaphase), and phragmoplast. Interestingly, we identified the Chinese lantern-shaped actin phragmoplast in wheat meiosis for the first time. Under low temperature, phragmoplast actin filaments were chaotic and normal cell plate failed to form. These data provide new insights into the organization of actin filaments during male meiosis of plant and support a role of actin cytoskeleton in bringing about thermo-sensitive male sterility in wheat. PMID:22350736

Xu, Chenguang; Liu, Zetao; Zhang, Liping; Zhao, Changping; Yuan, Shaohua; Zhang, Fengting

2013-02-01

378

PROTEOMIC ANALYSES OF MALE CONTRIBUTIONS TO HONEY BEE SPERM STORAGE AND MATING.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) queens, as in most other social Hymenoptera, mate early in life and then store sperm to be used throughout their lifetimes. There has been longstanding interest in the mechanisms that allow social insect sperm to survive this long. Results from our previous studies in...

379

Multimodal signalling: structural ultraviolet reflectance predicts male mating success better than pheromones in the butterfly  

E-print Network

regarding the functional relevance of structural coloration to female mate choice in butterflies. We discuss pheromones in the butterfly Colias eurytheme L. (Pieridae) RANDI S. PAPKE, DARRELL J. KEMP & RONALD L ultraviolet (UV) reflectance and pheromones in the butterfly Colias eurytheme. Both traits are important

Rutowski, Ronald L.

380

Transgenic technologies to induce sterility  

PubMed Central

The last few years have witnessed a considerable expansion in the number of tools available to perform molecular and genetic studies on the genome of Anopheles mosquitoes, the vectors of human malaria. As a consequence, knowledge of aspects of the biology of mosquitoes, such as immunity, reproduction and behaviour, that are relevant to their ability to transmit disease is rapidly increasing, and could be translated into concrete benefits for malaria control strategies. Amongst the most important scientific advances, the development of transgenic technologies for Anopheles mosquitoes provides a crucial opportunity to improve current vector control measures or design novel ones. In particular, the use of genetic modification of the mosquito genome could provide for a more effective deployment of the sterile insect technique (SIT) against vector populations in the field. Currently, SIT relies on the release of radiation sterilized males, which compete with wild males for mating with wild females. The induction of sterility in males through the genetic manipulation of the mosquito genome, already achieved in a number of other insect species, could eliminate the need for radiation and increase the efficiency of SIT-based strategies. This paper provides an overview of the mechanisms already in use for inducing sterility by transgenesis in Drosophila and other insects, and speculates on possible ways to apply similar approaches to Anopheles mosquitoes. PMID:19917077

Catteruccia, Flaminia; Crisanti, Andrea; Wimmer, Ernst A

2009-01-01

381

The relative role of male vs. female mate choice in maintaining assortative pairing among discrete colour morphs  

E-print Network

: assortative mating; colour polymorphism; Gouldian finch; mate choice. Abstract Mate choice has important the mating pattern in the colour polymorphic Gouldian finch (Erythrura gouldiae), and the role of mate choice large captive and wild populations, Gouldian finches paired assortatively with respect to head colour

382

The Evolutionary Consequences of Disrupted Male Mating Signals: An Agent-Based Modelling Exploration of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals in the Guppy  

PubMed Central

Females may select a mate based on signalling traits that are believed to accurately correlate with heritable aspects of male quality. Anthropogenic actions, in particular chemicals released into the environment, are now disrupting the accuracy of mating signals to convey information about male quality. The long-term prediction for disrupted mating signals is most commonly loss of female preference. Yet, this prediction has rarely been tested using quantitative models. We use agent-based models to explore the effects of rapid disruption of mating signals. In our model, a gene determines survival. Males signal their level of genetic quality via a signal trait, which females use to select a mate. We allowed this system of sexual selection to become established, before introducing a disruption between the male signal trait and quality, which was similar in nature to that induced by exogenous chemicals. Finally, we assessed the capacity of the system to recover from this disruption. We found that within a relatively short time frame, disruption of mating signals led to a lasting loss of female preference. Decreases in mean viability at the population-level were also observed, because sexual-selection acting against newly arising deleterious mutations was relaxed. The ability of the population to recover from disrupted mating signals was strongly influenced by the mechanisms that promoted or maintained genetic diversity in traits under sexual selection. Our simple model demonstrates that environmental perturbations to the accuracy of male mating signals can result in a long-term loss of female preference for those signals within a few generations. What is more, the loss of this preference can have knock-on consequences for mean population fitness. PMID:25047080

Senior, Alistair McNair; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Grimm, Volker

2014-01-01

383

A disruption of pachytene DNA metabolism in male mice with chromosomally-derived sterility  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA metabolism was analyzed in spermatocytes of mice that were sterile either because of X-autosome or autosome-autosome translocations, or because of trisomy. In the strains analyzed, spermatogenic development is arrested by metaphase I or soon thereafter. In all such strains, a disruption of the normal pattern of pachytene DNA metabolism occurred. Prepachytene metabolism appeared normal. Disruption was manifest in both

Y. Hotta; A. C. Chandley; H. Stern; A. G. Searle; C. V. Beechey

1979-01-01

384

The 5' stem-loop and its role in mRNA stability in maize S cytoplasmic male sterility.  

PubMed

The co-transcribed orf355-orf77 region of the mitochondrial genome is associated with S cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS-S) in maize; the amounts of its 1.6- and 2.8-kb transcripts were previously shown to be greatly reduced in fertility-restored microspores relative to the amounts in sterile plants. To investigate the mechanism underlying this reduction, detailed analysis of the 5' and 3' termini of these transcripts was conducted. Using 3' RACE analysis, the polyadenylation sites of the 1.6- and 2.8-kb transcripts were mapped adjacent to a 3' stem-loop, which may play an important role in stabilizing their 3' ends. No difference was found between the polyadenylation sites in sterile and fertility-restored microspores that could account for the differences in orf355-orf77 transcript levels. The 5' terminus of the 1.6-kb transcript was further studied by primer extension; the result revealed that there was a deletion of nine nucleotides only in fertility-restored microspores, and that this deletion eliminated a 5' stem-loop sequence. We propose that the elimination of the 5' stem-loop in the fertility-restored microspores could be the cause of the degradation of the 1.6-kb transcript. Because the 2.8-kb transcript can be cleaved to generate the 1.6-kb transcript, the amount of the 2.8-kb transcript is also reduced in fertility-restored microspores. PMID:16961731

Xiao, Hailin; Zhang, Fangdong; Zheng, Yonglian

2006-09-01

385

Clinical Evaluation of Non-surgical Sterilization of Male Cats with Single Intra-testicular Injection of Calcium Chloride  

PubMed Central

Background Calcium chloride solution is an established injectable sterilant in dogs and other mammals. With cat populations a continuing problem, we sought to explore its first use in cats. Six cats per group were injected with 5%, 10% or 20% calcium chloride dihydrate in saline solution with lignocaine hydrochloride, a local anaesthetic. Results At the 60th day post-injection, cat testes were collected and showed complete testicular necrosis and replacement by fibrous tissue; very low sperm counts; and reduction of serum testosterone by at least 70% in 20% dose. Androgenic enzyme activities and their expressions were also reduced in all the treated groups along with intra-testicular testosterone concentration was also low. Increased testicular lipid peroxidation, with reduced antioxidants and mitochondrial membrane potential, were evident following calcium chloride treatments. However, there were no apparent changes in serum concentrations of cortisol, fasting blood sugar level, blood urea nitrogen, packed cell volume, or total serum protein following calcium chloride injection, suggesting that this method of sterilization is not associated with any general stress response. Conclusion Calcium chloride solution demonstrates potential for androgenesis-eliminating nonsurgical sterilization of male cats in addition to its proven efficacy in dogs and other mammals. PMID:21774835

2011-01-01

386

Fitness improvement of mass-reared sterile males of Ceratitis capitata (Vienna 8 strain) (Diptera: Tephritidae) after gut enrichment with probiotics.  

PubMed

Successful mass rearing is crucial for sterile insect technique programs. It has been shown that the sterilizing process using gammaradiation results in damage to midgut tissue, cellular organelles, and gut microbiota of flies. This can be responsible for the inferiority of sterile males compared with wild males. A bacteria-enhanced diet could contribute to the improvement of the fly's fitness. We investigated ways of increasing the competitiveness of mass-reared Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) sterile males. We tested the hypothesis that the addition of beneficial bacteria to the larvae's diet would lead to a significant increase in their levels in the gut of the sterile adults and consequently improve their size and fitness. As expected, enriching the diet of mass-rearing Vienna-8 strain larvae with beneficial bacteria (Klebsiella pneumonia, Enterobacter spp., and Citrobacter freundii) resulted in increase in the number of Enterobacteriacae communities inhabiting the male's gut and a subsequent significant increase in the size of males and other morphometric traits and enhanced sexual performance of males at emergence. PMID:23786049

Hamden, Heithem; Guerfali, Meriem M'Saad; Fadhl, Selma; Saidi, Mouldi; Chevrier, Claude

2013-04-01

387

Age and mating status do not affect transcript levels of odorant receptor genes in male antennae of Heliothis virescens and Heliothis subflexa.  

PubMed

In biological systems, it is expected that gene expression levels generally will correlate with temporally varying physiological and biological needs, and that gene expression levels could regulate biological capabilities. In moth species, male response to female sex pheromones often is affected by moth age and mating status. Odorant receptors (ORs) expressed in neurons within male antennae are critical for detecting the female pheromones. Therefore, we hypothesized that the expression level of these receptor proteins would be affected by age and mating status of male moths. We examined expression levels of two OR genes that are preferentially expressed in the male antennae of Heliothis virescens (HvOR13 and HvOR15) and Heliothis subflexa (HsOR13 and HsOR15). Antennae were dissected from virgin males at 2 h, 1 d, 2 d, 4 d, and 8 d. We also dissected antennae from 4-d-old mated males. We found that age had no effect on expression levels of either OR in either species, except for a small difference in HsOR15 expression between 2 h and 8-d-old virgin males. Furthermore, we found no effect of mating status on expression level of these ORs in either species. We discuss these findings in relationship to studies of age and mating status effects on male electrophysiological and behavioral response to female pheromones, and contrast our results to studies on the effects of age and mating status on gene expression of pheromone receptor proteins and pheromone binding proteins in other moths. PMID:20890796

Soques, Stephanie; Vásquez, Gissella M; Grozinger, Christina M; Gould, Fred

2010-11-01

388

The effects of male mating behaviour and food provisioning on breeding success in snow buntings Plectrophenax nivalis in the high Arctic  

Microsoft Academic Search

For passerine birds breeding in the Arctic, paternal effort in parental care is necessary for successful breeding. Behavioural\\u000a strategies, such as mate guarding, to ensure paternity should therefore also be common in this environment. In order to investigate\\u000a the relation between such behaviour and breeding success, when controlling for the effect of environmental factors, we recorded\\u000a male mate-guarding behaviour, parental

Katrine S. Hoset; Yngve Espmark; Marie Lier; Tommy Haugan; Morten I. Wedege; Arne Moksnes

2009-01-01

389

Cytological characterization and allelism testing of anther developmental mutants identified in a screen of maize male sterile lines.  

PubMed

Proper regulation of anther differentiation is crucial for producing functional pollen, and defects in or absence of any anther cell type result in male sterility. To deepen understanding of processes required to establish premeiotic cell fate and differentiation of somatic support cell layers a cytological screen of maize male-sterile mutants has been conducted which yielded 42 new mutants including 22 mutants with premeiotic cytological defects (increasing this class fivefold), 7 mutants with postmeiotic defects, and 13 mutants with irregular meiosis. Allelism tests with known and new mutants confirmed new alleles of four premeiotic developmental mutants, including two novel alleles of msca1 and single new alleles of ms32, ms8, and ocl4, and two alleles of the postmeiotic ms45. An allelic pair of newly described mutants was found. Premeiotic mutants are now classified into four categories: anther identity defects, abnormal anther structure, locular wall defects and premature degradation of cell layers, and/or microsporocyte collapse. The range of mutant phenotypic classes is discussed in comparison with developmental genetic investigation of anther development in rice and Arabidopsis to highlight similarities and differences between grasses and eudicots and within the grasses. PMID:23390600

Timofejeva, Ljudmilla; Skibbe, David S; Lee, Sidae; Golubovskaya, Inna; Wang, Rachel; Harper, Lisa; Walbot, Virginia; Cande, William Zacheus

2013-02-01

390

T-URF 13 Protein from Mitochondria of Texas Male-Sterile Maize (Zea mays L.) 1  

PubMed Central

The protein T-URF13 (URF13) is specific to mitochondria of maize (Zea mays L.) with Texas (T) male-sterile cytoplasm and has been implicated in causing male sterility and susceptibility to T-cytoplasm-specific fungal diseases. T-URF13 was purified from isolated mitochondria from maize (line B73) with T cytoplasm by gel filtration and a quasi two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis system. Antibodies to the purified and denatured protein were produced in rabbits. Anti-T-URF13 antiserum was used to show that T-URF13 is in the inner membrane of mitochondria and behaves as an integral membrane protein when mitochondria are fractionated with sodium carbonate or Triton X-114. The antiserum and protein A tagged with 20-nanometer-gold particles were used to localize T-URF13 in T mitochondria by electron microscopy of sections of isolated mitochondria from etiolated shoots and sections of roots and of tapetal cells at pre-and post-degeneration stages of microsporogenesis. The microscopic study confirms that T-URF13 is specifically localized in the mitochondrial membranes of all of the T mitochondria tested, notably those in the tapetum from the meiocyte stage to the late-microspore stage. No change in the amount of labeled T-URF13 protein in the mitochondria of aging tapetal cells was detected. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:16668065

Hack, Ethan; Lin, Chentao; Yang, Hongyun; Horner, Harry T.

1991-01-01

391

The Arabidopsis male-sterile mutant, opr3, lacks the 12-oxophytodienoic acid reductase required for jasmonate synthesis  

PubMed Central

Jasmonic acid (JA) and its precursor 12-oxophytodienoic acid (OPDA) act as plant growth regulators and mediate responses to environmental cues. To investigate the role of these oxylipins in anther and pollen development, we characterized a T-DNA-tagged, male-sterile mutant of Arabidopsis, opr3. The opr3 mutant plants are sterile but can be rendered fertile by exogenous JA but not by OPDA. Cloning of the mutant locus indicates that it encodes an isozyme of 12-oxophytodienoate reductase, designated OPR3. All of the defects in opr3 are alleviated by transformation of the mutant with an OPR3 cDNA. Our results indicate that JA and not OPDA is the signaling molecule that induces and coordinates the elongation of the anther filament, the opening of the stomium at anthesis, and the production of viable pollen. Just as importantly, our data demonstrate that OPR3 is the only isoform of OPR capable of reducing the correct stereoisomer of OPDA to produce JA required for male gametophyte development. PMID:10973494

Stintzi, Annick; Browse, John

2000-01-01

392

Nestmateship and body size do not influence mate choice in males and females: a laboratory study of a primitively eusocial wasp Ropalidia marginata.  

PubMed

We investigated the effect of nestmateship and body size on mate selection through a choice based assay in the primitively eusocial wasp Ropalidia marginata. A recent study has shown that male and female R. marginata mate with their nestmates and non-nestmates with equal probability if no choice is available. That study could also not detect any influence of body size on mating probability in the absence of choice. To confirm that the same results can be obtained even when the wasps have a choice, we offered a choice of two virgin partners either to a virgin test male or to a virgin test female and measured the probability that the test individual would mate with any particular partner based on nestmateship or body size. We show here that even when a choice is available, neither male nor female test wasps base their mate choice on the nestmateship or body size of the partner. We therefore suggest that the natural mating habit of these wasps is sufficiently promiscuous and not constrained by such factors as nestmateship and body size. PMID:20542096

Shilpa, M C; Sen, Ruchira; Gadagkar, Raghavendra

2010-09-01

393

Genetic consequences of polygyny and social structure in an Indian fruit bat, Cynopterus sphinx. II. Variance in male mating success and effective population size.  

PubMed

Variance in reproductive success is a primary determinant of genetically effective population size (Ne), and thus has important implications for the role of genetic drift in the evolutionary dynamics of animal taxa characterized by polygynous mating systems. Here we report the results of a study designed to test the hypothesis that polygynous mating results in significantly reduced Ne in an age-structured population. This hypothesis was tested in a natural population of a harem-forming fruit bat, Cynopterus sphinx (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae), in western India. The influence of the mating system on the ratio of variance Ne to adult census number (N) was assessed using a mathematical model designed for age-structured populations that incorporated demographic and genetic data. Male mating success was assessed by means of direct and indirect paternity analysis using 10-locus microsatellite genotypes of adults and progeny from two consecutive breeding periods (n = 431 individually marked bats). Combined results from both analyses were used to infer the effective number of male parents in each breeding period. The relative proportion of successfully reproducing males and the size distribution of paternal sibships comprising each offspring cohort revealed an extremely high within-season variance in male mating success (up to 9.2 times higher than Poisson expectation). The resultant estimate of Ne/N for the C. sphinx study population was 0.42. As a result of polygynous mating, the predicted rate of drift (1/2Ne per generation) was 17.6% higher than expected from a Poisson distribution of male mating success. However, the estimated Ne/N was well within the 0.25-0.75 range expected for age-structured populations under normal demographic conditions. The life-history schedule of C. sphinx is characterized by a disproportionately short sexual maturation period scaled to adult life span. Consequently, the influence of polygynous mating on Ne/N is mitigated by the extensive overlap of generations. In C. sphinx, turnover of breeding males between seasons ensures a broader sampling of the adult male gamete pool than expected from the variance in mating success within a single breeding period. PMID:11475058

Storz, J F; Bhat, H R; Kunz, T H

2001-06-01

394

The effects of diet, mating duration , female to male ratios and temperature on ovary activation, mating success and fecundity of Aethina tumida  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effects of natural diet, mating and temperature on the ovary activation and fecundity of small hive beetles (SHB) Aethina tumida Murray were studied. The natural diets evaluated were brood, pollen, honey and their various combinations. Duration of mating (1 day versus 2 days), ratio of female (F...

395

Methoprene application and diet protein supplementation to male melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, modifies female remating behavior.  

PubMed

Methoprene (an analogue of juvenile hormone) application and feeding on a protein diet is known to enhance male melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae), mating success. In this study, we investigated the effect of these treatments on male B. cucurbitae's ability to inhibit female remating. While 14-d-old females were fed on protein diet, 6-d-old males were exposed to one of the following treatments: (i) topical application of methoprene and fed on a protein diet; (ii) no methoprene but fed on a protein diet; (iii) methoprene and sugar-fed only; and (iv) sugar-fed, 14-d-old males acted as controls. Treatments had no effect on a male's ability to depress the female remating receptivity in comparison to the control. Females mated with protein-deprived males showed higher remating receptivity than females first mated with protein-fed males. Methoprene and protein diet interaction had a positive effect on male mating success during the first and second mating of females. Significantly more females first mated with sugar-fed males remated with protein-fed males and females first mated with methoprene treated and protein-fed males were more likely to remate with similarly treated males. Females mating latency (time to start mating) was significantly shorter with protein-fed males, and mating duration was significantly longer with protein-fed males compared with protein-deprived males. These results are discussed in the context of methoprene and/or dietary protein as prerelease treatment of sterile males in area-wide control of melon fly integrating the sterile insect technique (SIT). PMID:24376160

Ul Haq, Ihsan; Vreysen, Marc J B; Teal, P E A; Hendrichs, Jorge

2014-10-01

396

Functional Dissection of the Sensory Rays in Caenorhabditis elegans Male Mating Behavior  

E-print Network

complex of these behaviors and males utilize a number of sensory organs in its execution. Among these are the rays, which are nine pairs of sensory organs that are arranged laterally along the male tail. Each ray is composed of two ultra...

Koo, Pamela Kristine

2012-02-14

397

Female ornamentation and male mate choice in dark-eyed juncos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traits that enhance attractiveness in one sex may or may not influence attractiveness in the other. In the dark-eyed junco, Junco hyemalis, outer tail feathers of males and females are all or partly white and form a sharp contrast with the bird's mostly grey plumage. The amount of white in these feathers (‘tail white’) is greater in males than in

WENDY L. WOLF; Joseph M Casto; Val Nolan; Ellen D Ketterson

2004-01-01

398

[Cloning and expression of atp6 and atp9 genes from ramie (Boehmeria nivea (L.) Gaud.) and their relationship with cytoplasmic male sterility].  

PubMed

The atp6 and apt9 gene fragments associated with cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) were cloned from the mitochondrial DNA of a ramie (Boehmeria nivea (L.) Gaud.) cytoplasmic male sterile line and its maintainer and restorer lines using PCR and degenerated primer strategy. The primers were designed according to the reserved sequences in the encoding region of mitochondrial genes atp6 and atp9 of some dicotyledons from GenBank. These fragments did not have complete encoding region but showed the homology of 94% and 85% with atp6 and atp9 genes from the referred dicotyledons in GenBank. The complete atp6 and atp9 genes including the complete open reading frames were cloned by means of amplifying the 3' and 5'end unknown sequences of these gene fragments using DNA Walking method. The atp6 gene showed no difference among ramie male sterile line, maintainer and restorer lines at mtDNA sequence, transcription and translation control and protein level. However, compared to the maintainer and restorer lines, the atp9 gene of the male sterile line was different and deletion in several bases at the 3' end of the encoding region. An abnormally high expression of atp9 gene in the male sterile line at the budding stage and full-bloom stage was analyzed by RT-PCR analysis. These results indicated that the variation in DNA sequence and/or abnormality in expression of atp9 gene in the male sterile line maybe closely related to ramie CMS. PMID:19073559

Duan, Ji-Qiang; DU, Guang-Hui; Li, Jian-Yong; Liang, Xue-Ni; Liu, Fei-Hu

2008-11-01

399

Influences of mating group composition on the behavioral time-budget of male and female Alpine Ibex (Capra ibex) during the rut.  

PubMed

During the rut, polygynous ungulates gather in mixed groups of individuals of different sex and age. Group social composition, which may vary on a daily basis, is likely to have strong influences on individual's time-budget, with emerging properties at the group-level. To date, few studies have considered the influence of group composition on male and female behavioral time budget in mating groups. Focusing on a wild population of Alpine ibex, we investigated the influence of group composition (adult sex ratio, the proportion of dominant to subordinate males, and group size) on three behavioral axes obtained by Principal Components Analysis, describing male and female group time-budget. For both sexes, the first behavioral axis discerned a trade-off between grazing and standing/vigilance behavior. In females, group vigilance behavior increased with increasingly male-biased sex ratio, whereas in males, the effect of adult sex ratio on standing/vigilance behavior depended on the relative proportion of dominant males in the mating group. The second axis characterized courtship and male-male agonistic behavior in males, and moving and male-directed agonistic behavior in females. Mating group composition did not substantially influence this axis in males. However, moving and male-directed agonistic behavior increased at highly biased sex ratios (quadratic effect) in females. Finally, the third axis highlighted a trade-off between moving and lying behavior in males, and distinguished moving and female-female agonistic behavior from lying behavior in females. For males, those behaviors were influenced by a complex interaction between group size and adult sex ratio, whereas in females, moving and female-female agonistic behaviors increased in a quadratic fashion at highly biased sex ratios, and also increased with increasing group size. Our results reveal complex behavioral trade-offs depending on group composition in the Alpine ibex, and emphasize the importance of social factors in influencing behavioral time-budgets of wild ungulates during the rut. PMID:24416453

Tettamanti, Federico; Viblanc, Vincent A

2014-01-01

400

Influences of Mating Group Composition on the Behavioral Time-Budget of Male and Female Alpine Ibex (Capra ibex) during the Rut  

PubMed Central

During the rut, polygynous ungulates gather in mixed groups of individuals of different sex and age. Group social composition, which may vary on a daily basis, is likely to have strong influences on individual’s time-budget, with emerging properties at the group-level. To date, few studies have considered the influence of group composition on male and female behavioral time budget in mating groups. Focusing on a wild population of Alpine ibex, we investigated the influence of group composition (adult sex ratio, the proportion of dominant to subordinate males, and group size) on three behavioral axes obtained by Principal Components Analysis, describing male and female group time-budget. For both sexes, the first behavioral axis discerned a trade-off between grazing and standing/vigilance behavior. In females, group vigilance behavior increased with increasingly male-biased sex ratio, whereas in males, the effect of adult sex ratio on standing/vigilance behavior depended on the relative proportion of dominant males in the mating group. The second axis characterized courtship and male-male agonistic behavior in males, and moving and male-directed agonistic behavior in females. Mating group composition did not substantially influence this axis in males. However, moving and male-directed agonistic behavior increased at highly biased sex ratios (quadratic effect) in females. Finally, the third axis highlighted a trade-off between moving and lying behavior in males, and distinguished moving and female-female agonistic behavior from lying behavior in females. For males, those behaviors were influenced by a complex interaction between group size and adult sex ratio, whereas in females, moving and female-female agonistic behaviors increased in a quadratic fashion at highly biased sex ratios, and also increased with increasing group size. Our results reveal complex behavioral trade-offs depending on group composition in the Alpine ibex, and emphasize the importance of social factors in influencing behavioral time-budgets of wild ungulates during the rut. PMID:24416453

Tettamanti, Federico; Viblanc, Vincent A.

2014-01-01

401

Haploid, Diploid, and Triploid-Discrimination Ability Against Polyploid Mating Partner in the Parasitic Wasp, Bracon brevicornis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).  

PubMed

Because the quality of mating partners varies, females of several taxa have evolved the ability to discriminate against low-quality mates. Although males in the Hymenoptera are usually haploid, diploid males may occur in species with complementary sex determination. Diploid males are almost always sterile in most of the species studied so far. They are thus of very low quality as mating partners, especially when females mate only once in life. We hypothesize that hymenopteran females might have evolved the ability to discriminate against infertile diploid males and avoid mating with them. To test this hypothesis, we studied diploid male fitness in the parasitoid wasp Bracon brevicornis Wesmael (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) by measuring survival rate and fertility and then estimated their chances of actually mating with a female. Flow cytometry was used to determine the ploidy level of wasps. The fitness costs of mating a diploid male are indeed high in this species: only 15% were able to sire daughters, of which 97% were triploid and hardly able to produce viable offspring. In contrast to the hypothesis of unsuitable mate discrimination though, no evidence was found for increased rejection of diploid males by females. Male discrimination against an unsuitable partner did also not occur: triploid females elicited the same intensity of courtship behavior in males than did diploid ones. PMID:25527596

Thiel, Andra; Weeda, Anne C

2014-01-01

402

PLASTICITY IN ADULT DEVELOPMENT: EXPERIENCE WITH YOUNG MALES ENHANCES MATING COMPETENCE IN  

E-print Network

MALE COWBIRDS, MOLOTHRUS ATER by DAVID J. WHITE1) , ANDREW P. KING and MEREDITH J. WEST2) (Department-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) because the species experiences large variation in social ecology. In the wild

White, David J.

403

Dopamine enhances locomotor activity for mating in male honeybees ( Apis mellifera L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dopamine plays multiple roles in the regulation of reproduction in female honeybees where it appears to act independently of juvenile hormone (JH). In males the role of dopamine and its relationship to JH control have not been elucidated. In the present study we determined hemolymph levels of dopamine and its metabolite (N-acetyldopamine) in males at post-emergence days 0–16. The development

Shinya Akasaka; Ken Sasaki; Ken-ichi Harano; Takashi Nagao

2010-01-01

404

Why does size matter? A test of the benefits of female mate choice in a teleost fish based on morphological and physiological indicators of male quality.  

PubMed

In female mate choice, a female chooses a reproductive partner based on direct or indirect benefits to the female. While sexual selection theory regarding female mate choice is well developed, there are few mechanistic studies of the process by which females evaluate reproductive partners. Using paternal-care-providing smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) as a model, the purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between female mate choice and the morphological and physiological status of chosen males. This was accomplished by locating nests within 1 d of spawning and categorizing brood size (indicator of female mate choice). This was followed by capture of parental males, which were blood sampled (for nutritional analyses), digitally photographed (for morphometric analyses), and released. Principal components analysis (PCA) of morphometric measurements described 72.7% of the variance associated with body morphology and generated three principal components (PCs) indicative of fusiform body shape, increased posterior size, and body stoutness. PCA of nutritional indicators described 75.4% of the variance associated with physiological metrics and generated two PCs indicative of plasma mineral content (Ca(++) and Mg(+)) and energetic condition (total protein, triglyceride, and cholesterol). Male total length and body stoutness were the only significant predictors of female mate choice. Interestingly, no nutritional indicators were predictive of female mate choice, and there were no direct relationships between morphological variables and nutritional physiology indicators. Further research is needed to elucidate the mechanistic relationships between morphology and nutritional physiology (especially in relation to the parental-care period) of individual fish to determine the basis of female mate preference. PMID:19769537

Hanson, Kyle C; Cooke, Steven J

2009-01-01

405

[Using single primer PCR to amplify the orf25 gene fragment related to plant male-sterility in Salicornia europaea].  

PubMed

The gene orf25 encodes functional protein that may play an important role in plant fertility control in nature. To clone the orf25 from Salicornia europaea Xinjiang into a T-vector, a single designed primer was used to amplify 1.7kb cDNA fragment with RT-PCR. Sequence analysis reveals that the cloned fragment contains entire orf25 coding region with 98%, 95%, 92% and 88% identity to that of orf25 from Beta vulgaris, Nicotiana, wheat and maize mitochondrion, respectively. This analysis suggests that orf25 gene is highly conserved in terms of evolution in plant; and it also suggests that wild plant Salicornia europaea contain a male-sterility gene similar to crops that is of great importance in improvement of the breed of crop. PMID:15969049

Li, Jin-Yao; Zhang, Fu-Chun; Ma, Ji; Shan, Wen-Juan; Wang, Bin

2003-01-01

406

PART OF A SPECIAL ISSUE ON PLANT MATING SYSTEMS Effects of floral display size on male and female reproductive success in  

E-print Network

PART OF A SPECIAL ISSUE ON PLANT MATING SYSTEMS Effects of floral display size on male and female-flower, within-plant) self-pollination may lower fitness due to inbreeding depression (Snow et al., 1996; Eckert: 31 August 2011 Background and Aims The number of flowers blooming simultaneously on a plant may have

Karron, Jeffrey D.

407

Genetic and phenotypic correlations of quantitative traits in two long-term randomly mated soybean populations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The genetic effects of long term random mating and natural selection aided by genetic male sterility (gms) were evaluated in two soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] populations designated: RSII and RSIII. These populations were evaluated in the field at three locations each with two replications. Genot...

408

Analysis of Quantitative Traits in Two Long-Term Randomly Mated Soybean Populations I. Genetic Variances  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The genetic effects of long term random mating and natural selection aided by genetic male sterility were evaluated in two soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] populations: RSII and RSIII. Population means, variances, and heritabilities were estimated to determine the effects of 26 generations of random...

409

Targeted sequence capture provides insight into genome structure and genetics of male sterility in a gynodioecious diploid strawberry, Fragaria vesca ssp. bracteata (Rosaceae).  

PubMed

Gynodioecy is a sexual system wherein females coexist with hermaphrodites. It is of interest not only because male-sterile plants are advantageous in plant breeding but also because it can be a crucial step in the evolutionary transition to entirely separate sexes (dioecy) from a hermaphroditic ancestor. The gynodioecious diploid wild strawberry, Fragaria vesca ssp. bracteata (Rosaceae), is a member of a clade with both dioecious and cultivated species, making it an ideal model in which to study the genetics of male sterility. To create a genetic map of F. v. ssp. bracteata, we identified informative polymorphisms from genomic sequencing (3-5x coverage) of two outbred plants from the same population. Using targeted enrichment, we sequenced 200 bp surrounding each of 6575 polymorphisms in 48 F1 offspring, yielding genotypes at 98% of targeted sites with mean coverage >100x, plus more than 600-kb high-coverage nontargeted sequence. With the resulting linkage map of 7802 stringently filtered markers (5417 targeted), we assessed recombination rates and genomic incongruities. Consistent with past work in strawberries, male sterility is dominant, segregates 1:1, and maps to a single location in the female. Further mapping an additional 55 offspring places male sterility in a gene-dense, 338-kb region of chromosome 4. The region is not syntenic with the sex-determining regions in the closely related octoploids, F. chiloensis and F. virginiana, suggesting either independent origins or translocation. The 57 genes in this region do not include protein families known to control male sterility and thus suggest alternate mechanisms for the suppression of male function. PMID:23749450

Tennessen, Jacob A; Govindarajulu, Rajanikanth; Liston, Aaron; Ashman, Tia-Lynn

2013-08-01

410

Male emergence schedule and dispersal behaviour are modified by mate availability in heterogeneous landscapes: evidence from the orange-tip butterfly  

PubMed Central

Protandry (prior emergence of males) in insect populations is usually considered to be the result of natural selection acting directly on eclosion timing. When females are monandrous (mate once), males in high density populations benefit from early emergence in the intense scramble competition for mates. In low density populations, however, scramble competition is reduced or absent, and theoretical models predict that protandry will be less favoured. This raises the question of how males behave in heterogeneous landscapes characterized by high density core populations in a low density continuum. We hypothesized that disadvantaged late emerging males in a core population would disperse to the continuum to find mates. We tested this idea using the protandrous, monandrous, pierid butterfly Anthocharis cardamines (the orange-tip) in a core population in Cheshire, northwest England. Over a six-year period, predicted male fitness (the number of matings a male can expect during his residence time, determined by the daily ratio of virgin females to competing males) consistently declined to <1 in late season. This decline affected a large proportion (?44%) of males in the population and was strongly associated with decreased male recapture-rates, which we attribute to dispersal to the surrounding continuum. In contrast, reanalysis of mark-release-recapture data from an isolated population in Durham, northeast England, showed that in the absence of a continuum very few males (?3%) emerged when fitness declined to <1 in late season. Hence the existence of a low density continuum may lead to the evolution of plastic dispersal behaviour in high density core populations, maintaining late emerging males which would otherwise be eliminated by selection. This has important theoretical consequences, since a truncated male emergence curve is a key prediction in game theoretic models of emergence timing which has so far received limited support. Our results have implications for conservation, since plastic dispersal behaviour in response to imperfect emergence timing in core (source) populations could help to maintain sink populations in heterogeneous landscapes which would otherwise be driven to extinction by low mate encounter-rates (Allee effects). PMID:25648908

Saccheri, Ilik J.

2015-01-01

411

Extra-pair paternity in tree swallows: why do females mate with more than one male?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies of monogamous tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) suggest that females may receive some type of genetic benefit from extra-pair fertilizations. In this study we attempted to determine what type of genetic benefits might be gained by females. We compared numerous morphological and behavioral traits (Table 1) of every male nesting on one grid of nest-boxes (n = 23) to

Peter O. Dunn; Raleigh J. Robertson; Denise Michaud-Freeman; Peter T. Boag

1994-01-01

412

Costs of mating competition limit male lifetime breeding success in polygynous mammals  

E-print Network

., Bentsen, C. L., & Bussiere, L. F. 2004 High- quality male field crickets invest heavily in sexual display but die young. Nature 432(7020), 1024- 1027. 16. Wiley, R. H. (1974). Evolution of social organization and life-history patterns among grouse. Page 14...

Lukas, Dieter; Clutton-Brock, Tim

2014-05-14