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Sample records for mato grosso 1890-1945

  1. Socioeconomic development and agricultural intensification in Mato Grosso

    PubMed Central

    VanWey, Leah K.; Spera, Stephanie; de Sa, Rebecca; Mahr, Dan; Mustard, John F.

    2013-01-01

    The Brazilian agro-industrial frontier in Mato Grosso rapidly expanded in total area of mechanized production and in total value of production in the last decade. This article shows the spatial pattern of that expansion from 2000 to 2010, based on novel analyses of satellite imagery. It then explores quantitatively and qualitatively the antecedents and correlates of intensification, the expansion of the area under two crops per year. Double cropping is most likely in areas with access to transportation networks, previous profitable agricultural production, and strong existing ties to national and international commodity markets. The article concludes with an exploration of the relationship between double cropping and socioeconomic development, showing that double cropping is strongly correlated with incomes of all residents of a community and with investments in education. We conclude that double cropping in Mato Grosso is very closely tied to multiple indicators of socioeconomic development. PMID:23610174

  2. Export-oriented deforestation in Mato Grosso: harbinger or exception for other tropical forests?

    PubMed Central

    DeFries, Ruth; Herold, Martin; Verchot, Louis; Macedo, Marcia N.; Shimabukuro, Yosio

    2013-01-01

    The Brazilian state of Mato Grosso was a global deforestation hotspot in the early 2000s. Deforested land is used predominantly to produce meat for distal consumption either through cattle ranching or soya bean for livestock feed. Deforestation declined dramatically in the latter part of the decade through a combination of market forces, policies, enforcement and improved monitoring. This study assesses how representative the national-level drivers underlying Mato Grosso's export-oriented deforestation are in other tropical forest countries based on agricultural exports, commercial agriculture and urbanization. We also assess how pervasive the governance and technical monitoring capacity that enabled Mato Grosso's decline in deforestation is in other countries. We find that between 41 and 54 per cent of 2000–2005 deforestation in tropical forest countries (other than Brazil) occurred in countries with drivers similar to Brazil. Very few countries had national-level governance and capacity similar to Brazil. Results suggest that the ecological, hydrological and social consequences of land-use change for export-oriented agriculture as discussed in this Theme Issue were applicable in about one-third of all tropical forest countries in 2000–2005. However, the feasibility of replicating Mato Grosso's success with controlling deforestation is more limited. Production landscapes to support distal consumption similar to Mato Grosso are likely to become more prevalent and are unlikely to follow a land-use transition model with increasing forest cover. PMID:23610176

  3. DENGUE OUTBREAK IN MATO GROSSO STATE, MIDWESTERN BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    HEINEN, Letícia Borges da Silva; ZUCHI, Nayara; CARDOSO, Belgath Fernandes; dos SANTOS, Marcelo Adriano Mendes; NOGUEIRA, Mauricio Lacerda; DEZENGRINI-SLHESSARENKO, Renata

    2015-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is the most frequent arbovirus worldwide. In this study, we report a large outbreak in Mato Grosso State (MT). Serum samples from 604 patients with acute febrile illness for less than five days were inoculated in C6/36 cells, then infected cells were subjected to an indirect immunofluorescence test for DENV serotypes and yellow fever virus. Serum samples were submitted to a multiplex-semi-nested-RT-PCR for 11 flaviviruses. DENV-4 was isolated in 150/604 (24.8%) and DENV-1 in 19/604 (3.1%) specimens. By RT-PCR, 331 (54.8%) samples tested positive for DENV; 321 had single infections (DENV-4 n = 305; DENV-1 n = 15; DENV-3 n = 1), nine had co-infections of DENV-1/DENV-4, and one of DENV-2/DENV-4. DENV-4 was detected in 315/331 (95.2%) positive patients from 17 municipalities, and DENV-1 in 24/331 (7.2%) patients from five cities in north-central MT and the city of Cuiaba. The incidence of infection was higher in patients aged 20-39 (142/331; 42.9%). The NS5 partial nucleotide sequence of DENV-1 was most similar to that of genotype V, DENV-2 to Southeast Asian/American, DENV-3 to genotype III, and DENV-4 to genotype II strains, considered the most frequent strains in Brazil. This outbreak coincided with the introduction of DENV-4 in the state. Cuiaba was hyperendemic for the four DENV serotypes, highlighting the necessity for arbovirus surveillance in MT. PMID:27049702

  4. DENGUE OUTBREAK IN MATO GROSSO STATE, MIDWESTERN BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Heinen, Letícia Borges da Silva; Zuchi, Nayara; Cardoso, Belgath Fernandes; Santos, Marcelo Adriano Mendes Dos; Nogueira, Mauricio Lacerda; Dezengrini-Slhessarenko, Renata

    2015-12-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is the most frequent arbovirus worldwide. In this study, we report a large outbreak in Mato Grosso State (MT). Serum samples from 604 patients with acute febrile illness for less than five days were inoculated in C6/36 cells, then infected cells were subjected to an indirect immunofluorescence test for DENV serotypes and yellow fever virus. Serum samples were submitted to a multiplex-semi-nested-RT-PCR for 11 flaviviruses. DENV-4 was isolated in 150/604 (24.8%) and DENV-1 in 19/604 (3.1%) specimens. By RT-PCR, 331 (54.8%) samples tested positive for DENV; 321 had single infections (DENV-4 n = 305; DENV-1 n = 15; DENV-3 n = 1), nine had co-infections of DENV-1/DENV-4, and one of DENV-2/DENV-4. DENV-4 was detected in 315/331 (95.2%) positive patients from 17 municipalities, and DENV-1 in 24/331 (7.2%) patients from five cities in north-central MT and the city of Cuiaba. The incidence of infection was higher in patients aged 20-39 (142/331; 42.9%). The NS5 partial nucleotide sequence of DENV-1 was most similar to that of genotype V, DENV-2 to Southeast Asian/American, DENV-3 to genotype III, and DENV-4 to genotype II strains, considered the most frequent strains in Brazil. This outbreak coincided with the introduction of DENV-4 in the state. Cuiaba was hyperendemic for the four DENV serotypes, highlighting the necessity for arbovirus surveillance in MT. PMID:27049702

  5. Acaricide resistance of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was performed to obtain an emerging view of the epidemiology of acaricide resistance in populations of R. microplus from Mato Grosso do Sul state in Brazil. Twenty four tick samples were collected from cities in the state where farmers reported concerns about resistance or failure of tick...

  6. First record of Leishmania braziliensis presence detected in bats, Mato Grosso do Sul, southwest Brazil.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Julie Teresa; da Costa Lima Junior, Manoel Sebastião; Dorval, Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros; de Oliveira França, Adriana; Cepa Matos, Maria de Fatima; Bordignon, Marcelo Oscar

    2013-10-01

    Leishmaniasis, a zoonotic disease caused by parasites of the genus Leishmania, has expanded beyond its natural range and is becoming increasingly urban. Using PCR and PCR-RFLP, we detected Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis in two bats (Chiroptera) in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, an endemic area. This is the first record of L. (V.) braziliensis in bats. It is also the first record of any Leishmania sp. in bats in the state. The animals testing positive were found in both a rural site and an urban site. These results indicate the need for further research into the viability of Leishmania in bats and could potentially have implications for public health in Mato Grosso do Sul, given the large populations of urban bats, their mobility, and their ability to roost at close proximity to humans within residences and other buildings. PMID:23886850

  7. Cryptococcus gattii VGII in a Plathymenia reticulata hollow in Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Anzai, Mariana Caselli; Lazéra, Márcia Dos Santos; Wanke, Bodo; Trilles, Luciana; Dutra, Valéria; de Paula, Daphine Ariadne Jesus; Nakazato, Luciano; Takahara, Doracilde Terumi; Simi, Walquirya Borges; Hahn, Rosane Christine

    2014-07-01

    Little is known about the ecology of agents of cryptococcosis in Mato Grosso, without any data regarding to the sources of both agents in the environment. This study aimed to investigate Cryptococcus gattii and Cryptococcus neoformans associated with decay in tree hollows within the urban area of three different cities of Mato Grosso. Seventy-two environmental samples collected from 72 living trees in the cities of Cuiabá, Várzea Grande and Chapada dos Guimarães were sampled and analysed. One tree (Plathymenia reticulata, Leguminosae) in the city of Cuiabá yielded 19 colonies identified as C. gattii molecular type VGII. The isolation of C. gattii VGII in the downtown city of Cuiabá is important because it fits in the Northern Macroregion, suggesting expanding and urbanisation of this genotype in different Brazilian cities. PMID:24612138

  8. [Snakes from the urban area of Cuiabá, Mato Grosso: ecological aspects and associated snakebites].

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, M A; Nogueira, F N

    1998-01-01

    This study presents data on snakes recorded in the urban area of Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Sources of information included specimens captured by local residents (1986-1993) and turned over to the Mato Grosso Regional Ophiological Center (Normat), and data from the Anti-Venom Information Center (Ciave), regarding urban snake bites (1988-1993). Thirty-seven species of snakes from 25 genera and three families were recorded. Diurnal and terrestrial habits predominated, as well as a diet based on amphibians and/or lizards. From a total of 307 snake bites recorded, some 56% were of no clinical importance, caused by non-venomous snakes, whereas 44% were clinically relevant. Approximately 99% of the latter were attributed to vipers of the genus Bothrops, and especially the Bothrops moojeni and Bothrops neuwiedi species The colubrids Philodryas olfersii and Waglerophis merremii were probably responsible for most of the non-venomous snake bites. PMID:9878908

  9. First Record of Edessa meditabunda (F.) on Lettuce in Mato Grosso State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Krinski, D; Favetti, B M; Butnariu, A R

    2012-02-01

    We report the first record of the stink bug Edessa meditabunda (F.) on lettuce Lactuca sativa in the organic vegetable garden "Cheiro Verde" in Tangará da Serra, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil (14°37'13″ S, 57°28'46″ W). During September, October, and November 2009, we collected 1,099 adults, 43 nymphs, and 29 egg masses. Feeding by this stink bug possibly caused early bolting. PMID:23950014

  10. Ranching modernization in tropical Brazil: foreign investment and environment in Mato Grosso, 1900-1950.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Robert W

    2008-01-01

    Accompanying the expansion of modern beef production in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries were technologies and methods that proponents assumed were applicable to all ecosystems. successes in Europe, the United States, and Argentina convinced ranchers, investors, and animal scientists that these could be applied in the tropical Americas with ease. This assumption contributed to a wave of foreign ranching investment in semi-tropical Mato Grosso, Brazil, beginning in the early twentieth century. However, such a view failed to consider the specific characteristics of such environments and led to difficulties for several ventures and a re-evaluation of the relationship between ecosystems and the type of ranching appropriate to them. Ultimately, local Brazilian practice and experimentation proved more successful in tropical and semi-tropical Brazil, forcing foreign ranching concerns to adapt their techniques. Following the logic of earlier decades, more recently cattle-raising practices developed in Mato Grosso and similar regions have been applied in the tropical Amazon, resulting in widespread ecological devastation. The uneven experiences of foreign entrepreneurs in Mato Grosso offer valuable lessons for understanding the application of modernization technologies to diverse ecosystems; such knowledge can lead to a more sustainable approach to meat production. PMID:19260161

  11. Land use effects on green water fluxes from agricultural production in Mato Grosso, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lathuilliere, M. J.; Johnson, M. S.; Donner, S. D.

    2010-12-01

    The blue water/green water paradigm is increasingly used to differentiate between subsequent routing of precipitation once it reaches the soil. “Blue” water is that which infiltrates deep in the soil to become streams and aquifers, while “green” water is that which remains in the soil and is either evaporated (non-productive green water) or transpired by plants (productive green water). This differentiation in the fate of precipitation has provided a new way of thinking about water resources, especially in agriculture for which better use of productive green water may help to relieve stresses from irrigation (blue water). The state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, presents a unique case for the study of green water fluxes due to an expanding agricultural land base planted primarily to soybean, maize, sugar cane, and cotton. These products are highly dependent on green water resources in Mato Grosso where crops are almost entirely rain-fed. We estimate the change in green water fluxes from agricultural expansion for the 2000-2008 period in the state of Mato Grosso based on agricultural production data from the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatísticas and a modified Penman-Monteith equation. Initial results for seven municipalities suggest an increase in agricultural green water fluxes, ranging from 1-10% per year, due primarily to increases in cropped areas. Further research is underway to elucidate the role of green water flux variations from land use practices on the regional water cycle.

  12. Virtual and Embedded Nutrient Flows from Soybean Production in Mato Grosso, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lathuilliere, M. J.; Couto, E. G.; Johnson, M. S.

    2012-12-01

    The increase in international trade of agricultural products has enabled consumers to take advantage of distant resources to secure their provision of food. However, such a relationship has also distanced consumers from producers, resulting in environmental footprints often externalized to distant countries. For example, half of all soybeans grown in the state of Mato Grosso, the largest Brazilian soybean producer this past decade, were exported to China and Europe in 2009. This study looks at nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P) and potassium (K) use related to Mato Grosso soybean production and exports to China and Europe in the 2000-2009 period. More specifically we look at 'virtual' and 'embedded' NPK flows to China and Europe, where 'virtual' represents NPK inputs associated with soybean production but not actually embedded in the exported soybeans, and 'embedded' represents the NPK contained within the soybeans. Both virtual and embedded NPK export flows more than doubled between 2000 and 2009, with embedded NPK flows up to 18 times larger than virtual flows on an annual basis. We also quantify nutrient balances resulting from the soybean trade including imported and domestically produced fertilizer. Initial results suggest that the majority of embedded N may cause an issue for importing countries, while virtual P is mostly externalized to Mato Grosso which must rely on limited national production and fertilizer imports to meet P needs. This study contributes towards a more comprehensive understanding of the use of nutrients in soybean production as a component of a more complete environmental impact assessment of this agricultural product.

  13. Gerromorpha (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) of eastern Mato Grosso State, Brazil: checklist, new records, and species distribution modeling.

    PubMed

    Dias-Silva, Karina; Moreira, Felipe Ferraz Figueiredo; Giehl, Nubia França Da Silva; Nóbrega, Caroline Correa; Cabette, Helena Soares Ramos

    2013-01-01

    The infraorder Gerromorpha comprises semiaquatic bugs, most of which spend much of their lifetime on the water surface, between floating plants, or on the margins of water bodies. Based on literature and collections made on streams and lakes on municipalities of eastern Mato Grosso, Brazil, a list has been elaborated with 52 species, including several new records. Out of the recorded species, 26 belong to the family Veliidae, 20 to Gerridae, three to Hydrometridae, two to Mesoveliidae, and one to Hebridae. The modeling of the potential geographical distribution is also presented for the 20 species that have been recorded for the first time from the state. PMID:25112624

  14. Genetic diversity of locally adapted sheep from Pantanal region of Mato Grosso do Sul.

    PubMed

    Crispim, B A; Grisolia, A B; Seno, L O; Egito, A A; Vargas Junior, F M; Souza, M R

    2013-01-01

    Sheep of the Pantaneiro breed and seven other breeds, raised in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, were genotyped using eight microsatellite loci. The aim of the present study was to determine the genetic variability, phylogenetic relationship, and patterns of gene introgression and miscegenation among the animals surveyed, to obtain information about the genetic structure of locally adapted sheep in Mato Grosso do Sul. A total of 195 animals were used for genetic analysis. The Pantaneiro breed had the largest average number of alleles/locus (9.25), and higher allelic richness (6.95), while the Dorper population had the lowest values for these parameters (4.88 and 3.86, respectively). Analysis of genetic distance values and genetic structure between populations made it possible to characterize these animals with regard to distinct genetic groups. Average expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.72 (Pantaneiro) to 0.55 (Dorper), while average observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.63 (White Dorper) to 0.54 (Dorper). On the basis of the statistical parameters evaluated, it was possible to demonstrate that when compared to other populations, the Pantaneiro breed represented a reservoir of genetic diversity with rare and useful alleles for genetic improvement, emphasizing the importance of preserving the breed. PMID:24301918

  15. [Demographic characteristics and mortality among indigenous peoples in Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Maria Evanir Vicente; Matsuo, Tiemi; Souza, Regina Kazue Tanno de

    2011-12-01

    The present study aimed to assess mortality rates and related demographic factors among indigenous peoples in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Central-West Brazil, compared to the State's general population. Mortality rates were estimated based on data obtained from the Health Care Database for Indigenous Peoples and monthly patient care records as well as demographic data from the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS) and mortality data from the SUS Mortality Database. Compared to the overall population, among indigenous peoples there were proportionally more individuals under 15 years of age and fewer elderly, besides higher mortality rates at early ages and from infectious and parasitic diseases. Indigenous men showed significantly higher mortality rates from external causes and respiratory and infectious diseases, while among women the mortality rates from external causes and infectious diseases were higher. Suicide rates among young indigenous individuals were also particularly alarming. Indigenous people's health conditions are worse than those of the general population in Mato Grosso do Sul. PMID:22218576

  16. Identification of fungi on diseased soybean seeds harvested during a high rainfall period in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the incidence of several genera of fungi on soybean seeds harvested during a period of high rainfall in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. These plants had received four fungicide applications between the R1 and R6 developmental stages, but disease symptom were neverthe...

  17. Environmental influence on coprophagous Scarabaeidae (Insecta, Coleoptera) assemblages in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso.

    PubMed

    Tissiani, A S O; Sousa, W O; Santos, G B; Ide, S; Battirola, L; Marques, M I

    2015-11-01

    Here we examine assemblage structure of coprophagous Scarabaeidae (dung beetles) in the Pantanal of the state of Mato Grosso with respect to flooding regimes, soil texture, leaf litter volume and tree dominance in native and exotic pastures. Samples were collected along 30 transects of 250 m in length in a 5×5 km grid (25 km2). Five pitfalls baited with human feces were placed in each transect. A total of 1692 individuals in 19 species were captured, the majority in the subfamily Scarabaeinae and Aphodiinae. Assemblages were influenced by the duration of flooding and leaf litter volume. None of the other habitat variables was correlated with species richness. Cultivated pastures with exotic grasses were unimportant for composition of the assemblages of beetles. These results indicate that duration of flooding is the most important regulating force in this community. PMID:26602349

  18. Use of LANDSAT images to study cerrado vegetation. [Mato Grosso Sul, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Filho, P. H.

    1982-01-01

    Channel 5 and 7 LANDSAT imagery at the scale of 1:250,000 made during passes in the dry and rainy seasons were used to select the optimal season for cerrado characterization in Mato Grosso do Sul State. The study area is located around the cities of Campo Grande and Tres Lagoas, a region being used for reforestation and rangeland activities. Imagery acquired during the dry season permitted a good discrimination between "cerrado" (woodsy pasture) vegetation and reforestation. In relation to the altered areas, only the recently modified area presented good discrimination of cerrado vegetation. Imagery of the rainy season did not provide a reasonable separation between cerrado and reforestation areas but the altered area could be easily discriminated.

  19. Observational descriptive study of cutaneous manifestations in patients from Mato Grosso with viral chronic hepatitis*

    PubMed Central

    Rostey, Renato Roberto Liberato; Souto, Francisco José Dutra

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Extrahepatic manifestations are seen in association with chronic infection by hepatitis B or C virus including cutaneous disorders. The frequency of these findings seems to vary among different places and reports. There is a lack of information about this issue in Brazil. OBJECTIVES To estimate the prevalence of cutaneous findings affecting HBV or HCV carriers from a reference outpatient unit in Mato Grosso. METHODS A cross-sectional observational study. RESULTS 108 patients were studied. 88.9% presented some cutaneous findings but must of them were nonrelated to chronic viral infection. Four patients had cutaneous or autoimmune syndromes that may be HBV or HCV related. CONCLUSION In our study we found no statistical association between viral hepatitis and skin diseases. PMID:26734863

  20. Farm-scale distribution of deforestation and remaining forest cover in Mato Grosso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Peter D.; Vanwey, Leah

    2016-04-01

    An analysis of data on property size and type as well as land use reveals the distribution of deforestation, remaining forest cover and carbon stocks in Mato Grosso, Brazil's third largest state. Nearly two-thirds of remaining forests and carbon reserves, equating to between 2 and 3 Pg of carbon, are located on private properties. Around 80% of forests and carbon reserves are on properties larger than 1,000 ha, with smallholder farms and public land reform settlements controlling only a tiny fraction of the state's remaining forest and carbon reserves. Efforts to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation must target owners controlling most of the remaining forest and land types with the highest deforestation rates. We thus suggest that policymakers seeking to protect the remaining forest should focus both incentives and enforcement of anti-deforestation laws in the larger properties where most of these forests are located.

  1. Historic emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in Mato Grosso, Brazil: 1) source data uncertainties

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Historic carbon emissions are an important foundation for proposed efforts to Reduce Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation and enhance forest carbon stocks through conservation and sustainable forest management (REDD+). The level of uncertainty in historic carbon emissions estimates is also critical for REDD+, since high uncertainties could limit climate benefits from credited mitigation actions. Here, we analyzed source data uncertainties based on the range of available deforestation, forest degradation, and forest carbon stock estimates for the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso during 1990-2008. Results Deforestation estimates showed good agreement for multi-year periods of increasing and decreasing deforestation during the study period. However, annual deforestation rates differed by > 20% in more than half of the years between 1997-2008, even for products based on similar input data. Tier 2 estimates of average forest carbon stocks varied between 99-192 Mg C ha-1, with greatest differences in northwest Mato Grosso. Carbon stocks in deforested areas increased over the study period, yet this increasing trend in deforested biomass was smaller than the difference among carbon stock datasets for these areas. Conclusions Estimates of source data uncertainties are essential for REDD+. Patterns of spatial and temporal disagreement among available data products provide a roadmap for future efforts to reduce source data uncertainties for estimates of historic forest carbon emissions. Specifically, regions with large discrepancies in available estimates of both deforestation and forest carbon stocks are priority areas for evaluating and improving existing estimates. Full carbon accounting for REDD+ will also require filling data gaps, including forest degradation and secondary forest, with annual data on all forest transitions. PMID:22208947

  2. Historic Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Mato Grosso, Brazil: 1. Source Data Uncertainties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morton, Douglas C.; Sales, Marcio H.; Souza, Carlos M., Jr.; Griscom, Bronson

    2011-01-01

    Historic carbon emissions are an important foundation for proposed efforts to Reduce Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation and enhance forest carbon stocks through conservation and sustainable forest management (REDD+). The level of uncertainty in historic carbon emissions estimates is also critical for REDD+, since high uncertainties could limit climate benefits from mitigation actions. Here, we analyzed source data uncertainties based on the range of available deforestation, forest degradation, and forest carbon stock estimates for the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso during 1990-2008. Results: Deforestation estimates showed good agreement for multi-year trends of increasing and decreasing deforestation during the study period. However, annual deforestation rates differed by >20% in more than half of the years between 1997-2008, even for products based on similar input data. Tier 2 estimates of average forest carbon stocks varied between 99-192 Mg C/ha, with greatest differences in northwest Mato Grosso. Carbon stocks in deforested areas increased over the study period, yet this increasing trend in deforested biomass was smaller than the difference among carbon stock datasets for these areas. Conclusions: Patterns of spatial and temporal disagreement among available data products provide a roadmap for future efforts to reduce source data uncertainties for estimates of historic forest carbon emissions. Specifically, regions with large discrepancies in available estimates of both deforestation and forest carbon stocks are priority areas for evaluating and improving existing estimates. Full carbon accounting for REDD+ will also require filling data gaps, including forest degradation and secondary forest, with annual data on all forest transitions.

  3. Leishmania infantum AS A CAUSATIVE AGENT OF CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS IN THE STATE OF MATO GROSSO DO SUL, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    CASTRO, Ludiele Souza; FRANÇA, Adriana de Oliveira; FERREIRA, Eduardo de Castro; HANS, Günther; HIGA, Minoru German; GONTIJO, Célia Maria Ferreira; PEREIRA, Agnes Antônia Sampaio; DORVAL, Maria Elizabeth Moraes C.

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is caused by different species of theLeishmania genus. Leishmania(Leishmania) infantum, causing cutaneous leishmaniasis, has been described in patients living in areas where visceral leishmaniasis is endemic. In this study, it was possible to characterize this species in seven slides from cutaneous tissue imprints from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. PMID:27007566

  4. Environmental footprints show China and Europe’s evolving resource appropriation for soybean production in Mato Grosso, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lathuillière, Michael J.; Johnson, Mark S.; Galford, Gillian L.; Couto, Eduardo G.

    2014-07-01

    Mato Grosso has become the center of Brazil’s soybean industry, with production located across an agricultural frontier expanding into savanna and rainforest biomes. We present environmental footprints of soybean production in Mato Grosso and resource flows accompanying exports to China and Europe for the 2000s using five indicators: deforestation, land footprint (LF), carbon footprint (CF), water footprint (WF), and nutrient footprints. Soybean production was associated with 65% of the state’s deforestation, and 14-17% of total Brazilian land use change carbon emissions. The decade showed two distinct production systems illustrated by resources used in the first and second half of the decade. Deforestation and carbon footprint declined 70% while land, water, and nutrient footprints increased almost 30% between the two periods. These differences coincided with a shift in Mato Grosso’s export destination. Between 2006 and 2010, China surpassed Europe in soybean imports when production was associated with 97 m2 deforestation yr-1 ton-1 of soybean, a LF of 0.34 ha yr-1 ton-1, a carbon footprint of 4.6 ton CO2-eq yr-1 ton-1, a WF of 1908 m3 yr-1 ton-1, and virtual phosphorous and potassium of 5.0 kg P yr-1 ton-1 and 0.0042 g K yr-1 ton-1. Mato Grosso constructs soil fertility via phosphorous and potassium fertilizer sourced from third party countries and imported into the region. Through the soybean produced, Mato Grosso then exports both water derived from its abundant, seasonal precipitation and nutrients obtained from fertilizer. In 2010, virtual water flows were 10.3 km3 yr-1 to China and 4.1 km3 yr-1 to Europe. The total embedded nutrient flows to China were 2.12 Mtons yr-1 and 2.85 Mtons yr-1 to Europe. As soybean production grows with global demand, the role of Mato Grosso’s resource use and production vulnerabilities highlight the challenges with meeting future international food security needs.

  5. Genetic structure of natural populations of Theobroma in the Juruena National Park, Mato Grosso State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, B M; Rossi, A A B; Dardengo, J F E; Silva, C R; Silva, I V; Silva, M L; Silva, C J

    2015-01-01

    Several species within the genus Theobroma have particularly high economic value, including T. cacao and T. grandiflorum. Other species in this genus, such as T. speciosum and T. subincanum, have potential value for use in the conservation of genetic diversity in breeding programs. These latter species could also be domesticated or improved to produce commercial products. Using 13 simple sequence repeat loci, the population structure and genetic diversity of T. speciosum and T. subincanum natural populations in the Juruena National Park, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, was studied. We sampled all individuals of each species (N = 25) present inside a designated research area established by the Program for Research on Biodiversity. The average number of alleles per locus was 5 for T. speciosum and 6.69 for T. subincanum, with average PIC values above 0.5 in both species. All evaluated individuals varied genetically. Seeds from the individuals analyzed will be useful for the development of germplasm banks and for establishment of breeding programs. PMID:26345977

  6. Characterization of the fishes and of subsistence fishing in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, R D; de B Nogueira, F M

    2000-08-01

    Fishing is one of the oldest human activities in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso in Central Brazil. In the of Bento Gomes River Basin (Pantanal of Poconé) the presence of fishermen is very common. The objective of this study is to describe the fishing activity in the basin in view of the elaboration of proposals for the sustainable use of this natural resource. Of the 256 fishermen that were registered most are fishing for their subsistence (92%) and the rest (8%) are occasional fishermen (locally called "de lufada" fishermen). "Traíra" (Hoplias malabaricus) and "piranhas" (Serrasalmus marginatus, Serrasalmus spilopleura and Pygocentrus nattereri) were the species most frequently captured for human consumption. The fishing is more intensive during the ebb season and at the beginning of the drought season, when the waters begin to recede for the river channel, as the catch is facilitated by the concentration of fishes at the river margin. The fishermen and their families consume fish three to four times a week, twice a day. Fish meat is one of the only means of obtaining animal protein for dozens of poor families in the area. The number of fishermen, as well as the actual number of catches do not appear to compromise the natural fish stocks, although no specific capture criteria is obeyed by the fishing activity. PMID:11188869

  7. Zoonotic Bartonella species in wild rodents in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Favacho, Alexsandra Rodrigues de Mendonça; Andrade, Marcelle Novaes; de Oliveira, Renata Carvalho; Bonvicino, Cibele Rodrigues; D'Andrea, Paulo Sergio; de Lemos, Elba Regina Sampaio

    2015-01-01

    Several rodent-associated Bartonella species cause disease in humans but little is known about their epidemiology in Brazil. The presence of Bartonella spp. in wild rodents captured in two municipalities of the Mato Grosso do Sul state was assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Fragments of heart tissue from 42 wild rodents were tested using primers targeting the Bartonella 16S-23S intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS) region and citrate synthase gltA gene. The wild rodents were identified based on external and cranial morphology and confirmed at species level by mitochondrial DNA (cytochrome B) sequencing and karyotype. Overall, 42.9% (18/42) of the wild rodents were PCR positive for Bartonella spp.: Callomys callosus (04), Cerradomys maracajuensis (04), Hylaeamus megacephalus (01), Necromys lasiurus (06), Nectomys squamipes (01), Oecomys catherinae (01) and Oxymycterus delator (01). Bartonella vinsonii subsp. arupensis was detected in N. lasiurus (46%) and C. callosus (21%) captured in the two study sites. We reported the first molecular detection of B. vinsonii subsp. arupensis in different species of wild rodents collected in the Brazilian territory. Further studies are needed to examine the role of these mammals in the eco-epidemiology of bartonellosis in Brazil. PMID:26344604

  8. Prevalence and geospatial distribution of bovine cysticercosis in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Gabriel Augusto Marques; de Simoni, Heloisa Adélia Stefanoni; Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Almeida, Henrique Meiroz de Souza; Soares, Vando Edésio; Vidal, Ana Maria Centola; Ferraudo, Antonio Sergio; Mathias, Luis Antonio

    2016-08-01

    This study focused on estimating the prevalence and evaluating the geospatial distribution of bovine cysticercosis in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. To this, we used data of 6,200,497 animals slaughtered during the years of 2013 and 2014, and from 141 municipalities of the state. The prevalence observed for this period was 0.0873% (95% CI 0.0851-0.0897). Regarding the cysticerci detected, the calcified ones were the most frequent (74.43%). The high odds ratios were observed in animals reared in the Administrative Regions of Sinop, Barra do Garças, Água Boa, Cáceres, Barra do Bugres, Cuiabá, Pontes Lacerda, Rondonópolis, Matupa, São Félix do Araguaia and Lucas do Rio Verde, respectively. Furthermore, the results indicate the existence of a relation between the areas with high cysticercosis prevalence and human population density. We highlight the need of the development of a risk model based on the origin to improve cysticercosis detection in endemic areas. PMID:27435651

  9. Isolation and phylogenetic relationships of bat trypanosomes from different biomes in Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marcili, Arlei; da Costa, Andrea P; Soares, Herbert S; Acosta, Igor da C L; de Lima, Julia T R; Minervino, Antonio H H; Melo, Andréia T L; Aguiar, Daniel M; Pacheco, Richard C; Gennari, Solange M

    2013-12-01

    In the order Chiroptera, more than 30 trypanosome species belonging to the subgenera Herpetosoma, Schizotrypanum, Megatrypanum, and Trypanozoon have been described. The species Trypanosoma cruzi , Trypanosoma cruzi marinkellei, and Trypanosoma dionisii are the most common in bats and belong to the Schizotrypanum subgenus. Bats from 2 different biomes, Pantanal and Amazonia/Cerrado in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, were evaluated according to the presence of trypanosome parasites by means of hemoculture and PCR in primary samples (blood samples). A total of 211 bats from 20 different species were caught and the trypanosome prevalence, evaluated through hemoculture, was 9.0% (19), 15.5% (13), and 4.8% (6) in the municipalities of Confresa (Amazonia/Cerrado biome) and Poconé (Pantanal biome). Among the 123 primary samples obtained from the bats, only 3 (2.4%) were positive. Phylogenetic analysis using trypanosomatid barcoding (V7V8 region of SSU rDNA) identified all the isolates and primary samples as T. c. marinkellei. The sequences of the isolates were segregated according to the bat host genus or species and suggest that co-evolutionary patterns exist between hosts and parasites. Further studies in different Brazilian regions and biomes need to be conducted in order to gain real understanding of the diversity of trypanosomes in bats. PMID:23859496

  10. Population dynamics of caterpillars on three cover crops before sowing cotton in Mato Grosso (Brazil).

    PubMed

    Silvie, P J; Menzel, C A; Mello, A; Coelho, A G

    2010-01-01

    Direct seeding mulch-based cropping systems under a preliminary cover crop such as millet are common in some areas of Brazil. Lepidopteran pests that damage cotton, soybean and maize crops can proliferate on cover crops, so preventive chemical treatments are necessary. Very little data is available on these pests on cover crops. This paper presents the dynamics of Spodoptera frugiperda, S. eridania, Mocis latipes and Diatraea saccharalis caterpillars monitored at Primavera do Leste, Mato Grosso state (Brazil) during the of 2005/2006 and 2006/2007 cropping seasons on four cover crops, i.e. finger millet (Eleusine coracana), pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and ruzigrass (Brachiaria ruziziensis). The pests were visually counted on plants within a 1 m2 transect (wooden frame). Caterpillars were reared to facilitate identification of collected species and parasitoids. Many S. frugiperda caterpillars were observed on millet in 2005, with a maximum of 37 caterpillars/m2. On sorghum, we found 30 caterpillars/m2, or 0.83 caterpillars/plant. The Diatraea borer attacked sorghum later than the other pests. M. latipes was also observed on millet. The millet cover crop had to be dried for at least 1 month before direct drilling the main cotton crop in order to impede S. frugiperda infestations on cotton plantlets, thus avoiding the need for substantial resowing. The comparative methodological aspects are discussed. PMID:21539250

  11. Ethnopharmacology of Medicinal Plants of the Pantanal Region (Mato Grosso, Brazil)

    PubMed Central

    Bieski, Isanete Geraldini Costa; Rios Santos, Fabrício; de Oliveira, Rafael Melo; Espinosa, Mariano Martinez; Macedo, Miramy; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino; de Oliveira Martins, Domingos Tabajara

    2012-01-01

    Traditional knowledge is an important source of obtaining new phytotherapeutic agents. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants was conducted in Nossa Senhora Aparecida do Chumbo District (NSACD), located in Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brazil using semi-structured questionnaires and interviews. 376 species of medicinal plants belonging to 285 genera and 102 families were cited. Fabaceae (10.2%), Asteraceae (7.82%) and Lamaceae (4.89%) families are of greater importance. Species with the greater relative importance were Himatanthus obovatus (1.87), Hibiscus sabdariffa (1.87), Solidago microglossa (1.80), Strychnos pseudoquina (1.73) and Dorstenia brasiliensis, Scoparia dulcis L., and Luehea divaricata (1.50). The informant consensus factor (ICF) ranged from 0.13 to 0.78 encompassing 18 disease categories,of which 15 had ICF greater than 0.50, with a predominance of disease categories related to injuries, poisoning and certain other consequences of external causes (ICF  =  0.78) having 65 species cited while 20 species were cited for mental and behavioral disorders (ICF  =  0.77). The results show that knowledge about medicinal plants is evenly distributed among the population of NSACD. This population possesses medicinal plants for most disease categories, with the highest concordance for prenatal, mental/behavioral and respiratory problems. PMID:22474496

  12. Ethnopharmacology of medicinal plants of the pantanal region (mato grosso, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Bieski, Isanete Geraldini Costa; Rios Santos, Fabrício; de Oliveira, Rafael Melo; Espinosa, Mariano Martinez; Macedo, Miramy; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino; de Oliveira Martins, Domingos Tabajara

    2012-01-01

    Traditional knowledge is an important source of obtaining new phytotherapeutic agents. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants was conducted in Nossa Senhora Aparecida do Chumbo District (NSACD), located in Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brazil using semi-structured questionnaires and interviews. 376 species of medicinal plants belonging to 285 genera and 102 families were cited. Fabaceae (10.2%), Asteraceae (7.82%) and Lamaceae (4.89%) families are of greater importance. Species with the greater relative importance were Himatanthus obovatus (1.87), Hibiscus sabdariffa (1.87), Solidago microglossa (1.80), Strychnos pseudoquina (1.73) and Dorstenia brasiliensis, Scoparia dulcis L., and Luehea divaricata (1.50). The informant consensus factor (ICF) ranged from 0.13 to 0.78 encompassing 18 disease categories,of which 15 had ICF greater than 0.50, with a predominance of disease categories related to injuries, poisoning and certain other consequences of external causes (ICF  =  0.78) having 65 species cited while 20 species were cited for mental and behavioral disorders (ICF  =  0.77). The results show that knowledge about medicinal plants is evenly distributed among the population of NSACD. This population possesses medicinal plants for most disease categories, with the highest concordance for prenatal, mental/behavioral and respiratory problems. PMID:22474496

  13. Morphoagronomic and molecular profiling of Capsicum spp from southwest Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Campos, A L; Marostega, T N; Cabral, N S S; Araújo, K L; Serafim, M E; Seabra-Júnior, S; Sudré, C P; Rodrigues, R; Neves, L G

    2016-01-01

    The genus Capsicum ranks as the second most exported vegetable in Brazil, which is also considered to be a center of diversity for this genus. The aim of this study was to rescue genetic variability in the genus Capsicum in the southwest region of Mato Grosso, and to characterize and estimate the genetic diversity of accessions based on morphoagronomic descriptors and inter-simple sequence repeat molecular markers. Data were obtained following the criteria of the International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, renamed Bioversity International for Capsicum. Data were analyzed using different multivariate statistical techniques. An array of binary data was used to analyze molecular data, and the arithmetic complement of the Jaccard index was used to estimate the genetic dissimilarity among accessions. Six well-defined groups were formed based on the morphological characterization. The most divergent accessions were 142 and 126, with 125 and 126 being the most similar. The groups formed following agronomic characterization differed from those formed by morphological characterization, and there was a need to subdivide the groups for better distinction of accessions. Based on molecular analysis, accessions were divided into two groups, and there was also a need to subdivide the groups. Based on joint analysis (morphological + agronomic + molecular), six groups were formed with no duplicates. For all groups, the cophenetic correlation coefficient was higher than 0.8. These results provide useful information for the better management of the work collection. All correlations between the combined distance matrix were significant by the Mantel test. PMID:27525842

  14. Determining the rate of forest conversion in Mato Grosso, Brazil, using Landsat MSS and AVHRR data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Ross; Horning, Ned; Stone, Thomas A.

    1987-01-01

    AVHRR-LAC thermal data and Landsat MSS and TM spectral data were used to estimate the rate of forest clearing in Mato Grosso, Brazil, between 1981 and 1984. The Brazilian state was stratified into forest and nonforest. A list sampling procedure was used in the forest stratum to select Landsat MSS scenes for processing based on estimates of fire activity in the scenes. Fire activity in 1984 was estimated using AVHRR-LAC thermal data. State-wide estimates of forest conversion indicate that between 1981 and 1984, 353,966 ha + or - 77,000 ha (0.4 percent of the state area) were converted per year. No evidence of reforestation was found in this digital sample. The relationship between forest clearing rate (based on MSS-TM analysis) and fire activity (estimated using AVHRR data) was noisy (R-squared = 0.41). The results suggest that AVHRR data may be put to better use as a stratification tool than as a subsidiary variable in list sampling.

  15. Verification and completion of a soil data base for process based erosion model applications in Mato Grosso/Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindewolf, Marcus; Schultze, Nico; Schönke, Daniela; Amorim, Ricardo S. S.; Schmidt, Jürgen

    2014-05-01

    The study area of central Mato Grosso is subjected to severe soil erosion. Continuous erosion leads to massive losses of top soil and related organic carbon. Consequently agricultural soil soils suffer a drop in soil fertility which only can be balanced by mineral fertilization. In order to control soil degradation and organic carbon losses of Mato Grosso cropland soils a process based soil loss and deposition model is used. Applying the model it will be possible to: - identify the main areas affected by soil erosion or deposition in different scales under present and future climate and socio-economic conditions - estimate the related nutrient and organic carbon losses/yields - figure out site-related causes of soil mobilization/deposition - locate sediment and sediment related nutrient and organic matter pass over points into surface water bodies - estimate the impacts of climate and land use changes on the losses of top soil, sediment bound nutrients and organic carbon. Model input parameters include digital elevation data, precipitation characteristics and standard soil properties as particle size distribution, total organic carbon (TOC) and bulk density. The effects of different types of land use and agricultural management practices are accounted for by varying site-specific parameters predominantly related to soil surface properties such as erosional resistance, hydraulic roughness and percentage ground cover. In this context the existing EROSION 3D soil parameter data base deducted from large scale rainfall simulations in Germany is verified for application in the study area, using small scale disc type rainfall simulator with an additional runoff reflux approach. Thus it's possible to enlarge virtual plot length up to at least 10 m. Experimental plots are located in Cuiabá region of central Mato Grosso in order to cover the most relevant land use variants and tillage practices in the region. Results show that derived model parameters are highly influenced

  16. Dissipation of DDT in a heavily contaminated soil in Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dalla Villa, Ricardo; de Carvalho Dores, Eliana Freire Gaspar; Carbo, Leandro; Cunha, Marcelo Luiz Ferreira

    2006-07-01

    After the prohibition of organochlorine-pesticide use in Brazil for controlling insect vector diseases, Mato Grosso State gathered the exceeding DDT and stored it irregularly in an open air area that belongs to the National Health Foundation, causing soil contamination. This study aimed to evaluate the contamination level and dissipation of p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE in this area. For that, surface soil samples were collected on 19 September 2000, 15 December 2000, 4 April 2001 and soil samples 30-40 cm; 60-70 cm and 90-100 cm deep were taken from five points in the studied area on 17 July 2001. The contaminants were determined by a small scale method which consists on extraction and clean-up steps combined into one step by transferring soil samples mixed with neutral alumina to a chromatographic column prepacked with neutral alumina and elution with hexane:dichloromethane (7:3 v:v). The eluate was concentrated and the analytes were quantified by gas chromatography with an electron-capture detector. p,p'-DDT at surface soil ranged from 3,800 to 7,300 mg kg(-1). 30-40 cm deep soil sample concentrations varied from 0.036 to 440 mg kg(-1) while 90-100 cm deep samples varied from 0.069 to 180 mg kg(-1). Volatilization is probably the main dissipation process. The p,p'-DDT is moving slowly downward in the soil profile, however, the levels of this contaminant are high enough to present risk to underground waters. PMID:16442143

  17. Spatial patterns of malaria in a land reform colonization project, Juruena municipality, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In Brazil, 99% of malaria cases are concentrated in the Amazon, and malaria's spatial distribution is commonly associated with socio-environmental conditions on a fine landscape scale. In this study, the spatial patterns of malaria and its determinants in a rural settlement of the Brazilian agricultural reform programme called "Vale do Amanhecer" in the northern Mato Grosso state were analysed. Methods In a fine-scaled, exploratory ecological study, geocoded notification forms corresponding to malaria cases from 2005 were compared with spectral indices, such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the third component of the Tasseled Cap Transformation (TC_3) and thematic layers, derived from the visual interpretation of multispectral TM-Landsat 5 imagery and the application of GIS distance operators. Results Of a total of 336 malaria cases, 102 (30.36%) were caused by Plasmodium falciparum and 174 (51.79%) by Plasmodium vivax. Of all the cases, 37.6% (133 cases) were from residents of a unique road. In total, 276 cases were reported for the southern part of the settlement, where the population density is higher, with notification rates higher than 10 cases per household. The local landscape mostly consists of open areas (38.79 km²). Training forest occupied 27.34 km² and midsize vegetation 7.01 km². Most domiciles with more than five notified malaria cases were located near areas with high NDVI values. Most domiciles (41.78%) and malaria cases (44.94%) were concentrated in areas with intermediate values of the TC_3, a spectral index representing surface and vegetation humidity. Conclusions Environmental factors and their alteration are associated with the occurrence and spatial distribution of malaria cases in rural settlements. PMID:21703018

  18. SAINT LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS IN MATO GROSSO, CENTRAL-WESTERN BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    HEINEN, Letícia Borges da Silva; ZUCHI, Nayara; SERRA, Otacília Pereira; CARDOSO, Belgath Fernandes; GONDIM, Breno Herman Ferreira; dos SANTOS, Marcelo Adriano Mendes; SOUTO, Francisco José Dutra; de PAULA, Daphine Ariadne Jesus; DUTRA, Valéria; DEZENGRINI-SLHESSARENKO, Renata

    2015-01-01

    The dengue virus (DENV), which is frequently involved in large epidemics, and the yellow fever virus (YFV), which is responsible for sporadic sylvatic outbreaks, are considered the most important flaviviruses circulating in Brazil. Because of that, laboratorial diagnosis of acute undifferentiated febrile illness during epidemic periods is frequently directed towards these viruses, which may eventually hinder the detection of other circulating flaviviruses, including the Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV), which is widely dispersed across the Americas. The aim of this study was to conduct a molecular investigation of 11 flaviviruses using 604 serum samples obtained from patients during a large dengue fever outbreak in the state of Mato Grosso (MT) between 2011 and 2012. Simultaneously, 3,433 female Culex spp. collected with Nasci aspirators in the city of Cuiabá, MT, in 2013, and allocated to 409 pools containing 1-10 mosquitoes, were also tested by multiplex semi-nested reverse transcription PCR for the same flaviviruses. SLEV was detected in three patients co-infected with DENV-4 from the cities of Cuiabá and Várzea Grande. One of them was a triple co-infection with DENV-1. None of them mentioned recent travel or access to sylvatic/rural regions, indicating that transmission might have occurred within the metropolitan area. Regarding mosquito samples, one pool containing one Culex quinquefasciatus female was positive for SLEV, with a minimum infection rate (MIR) of 0.29 per 1000 specimens of this species. Phylogenetic analysis indicates both human and mosquito SLEV cluster, with isolates from genotype V-A obtained from animals in the Amazon region, in the state of Pará. This is the first report of SLEV molecular identification in MT. PMID:26200961

  19. Assessing the MODIS Crop Detection Algorithm for Soybean Crop Area Mapping and Expansion in the Mato Grosso State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ricardo Ducati, Jorge; da Silveira, Luiz Gonzaga

    2014-01-01

    Estimations of crop area were made based on the temporal profiles of the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) obtained from moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) images. Evaluation of the ability of the MODIS crop detection algorithm (MCDA) to estimate soybean crop areas was performed for fields in the Mato Grosso state, Brazil. Using the MCDA approach, soybean crop area estimations can be provided for December (first forecast) using images from the sowing period and for February (second forecast) using images from the sowing period and the maximum crop development period. The area estimates were compared to official agricultural statistics from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) and from the National Company of Food Supply (CONAB) at different crop levels from 2000/2001 to 2010/2011. At the municipality level, the estimates were highly correlated, with R2 = 0.97 and RMSD = 13,142 ha. The MCDA was validated using field campaign data from the 2006/2007 crop year. The overall map accuracy was 88.25%, and the Kappa Index of Agreement was 0.765. By using pre-defined parameters, MCDA is able to provide the evolution of annual soybean maps, forecast of soybean cropping areas, and the crop area expansion in the Mato Grosso state. PMID:24983007

  20. Soybean development: the impact of a decade of agricultural change on urban and economic growth in Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Richards, Peter; Pellegrina, Heitor; VanWey, Leah; Spera, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    In this research we consider the impact of export-driven, soybean agriculture in Mato Grosso on regional economic growth. Here we argue that the soybean sector has served as a motor to the state's economy by increasing the demand for services, housing, and goods, and by providing a source of investment capital to the non-agricultural sector. Specifically, we show that each square kilometer of soybean production supports 2.5 formal sector jobs outside of agriculture, and the equivalent of approximately 150,000US in annual, non-agricultural GDP. We also show that annual gains in non-agricultural employment and GDP are closely tied to soybean profitability, and thus vary from year to year. However, while this article highlights the potential of the agricultural sector as a driver of regional economic growth, it also acknowledges that this growth has been sustained by profits determined by externally set prices and the rate of exchange, and that future growth trajectories will be susceptible to potential currency of market shocks. We also show that while Mato Grosso's economic growth has come at a significant cost to the environment, value added by the agriculture sector, directly and indirectly, has surpassed the value of the CO2-e emitted through land clearings. PMID:25919305

  1. Assessing the MODIS crop detection algorithm for soybean crop area mapping and expansion in the Mato Grosso state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gusso, Anibal; Arvor, Damien; Ducati, Jorge Ricardo; Veronez, Mauricio Roberto; da Silveira, Luiz Gonzaga

    2014-01-01

    Estimations of crop area were made based on the temporal profiles of the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) obtained from moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) images. Evaluation of the ability of the MODIS crop detection algorithm (MCDA) to estimate soybean crop areas was performed for fields in the Mato Grosso state, Brazil. Using the MCDA approach, soybean crop area estimations can be provided for December (first forecast) using images from the sowing period and for February (second forecast) using images from the sowing period and the maximum crop development period. The area estimates were compared to official agricultural statistics from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) and from the National Company of Food Supply (CONAB) at different crop levels from 2000/2001 to 2010/2011. At the municipality level, the estimates were highly correlated, with R (2) = 0.97 and RMSD = 13,142 ha. The MCDA was validated using field campaign data from the 2006/2007 crop year. The overall map accuracy was 88.25%, and the Kappa Index of Agreement was 0.765. By using pre-defined parameters, MCDA is able to provide the evolution of annual soybean maps, forecast of soybean cropping areas, and the crop area expansion in the Mato Grosso state. PMID:24983007

  2. Epidemiological aspects of field intoxication by Amorimia pubiflora (Malpighiaceae) in cattle in Mato Grosso and experimental reproduction of intoxication in cattle and sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the county of Colniza, Mato Grosso, the main limitation for livestock production is the occurrence of "sudden death" in cattle, which affects in some farms up to 50% of the herd. In visits to some of the farms where the problem occurred, in 2004, 2011 and 2012, the presence of Amorimia pubiflora ...

  3. Land-use and environmental changes in the Cerrados of South-Eastern Mato Grosso -- Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grecchi, Rosana Cristina

    The human-induced changes of the Earth's land surfaces have been unprecedented, with outcomes often indicating degradation and loss of environmental quality. Mato Grosso State in Brazil, location of the study area, underwent extensive land-use and land-cover changes in recent decades with the rates, patterns and consequences poorly documented until now. In this context, the aim of the present research is to propose a multidisciplinary approach for quantifying historical land-use and environmental changes in the southeast part of this State, where the Cerrado biome (Brazilian savannas) has been intensively converted into agricultural lands. The methodology includes three parts: remote sensing change detection, land vulnerability mapping, and identification of key environmental indicators. Land-use/cover information was extracted from a temporal remote sensing dataset using an object-oriented classification approach, and the changes quantified employing a post-classification method. In addition, the study area was assessed for its vulnerabilities, focusing mainly on erosion risks, wetlands, and areas with limited or no suitability for crops. Finally, key environmental indicators were identified from the preceding steps and analyzed within the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Pressure-State-Response (PSR) framework. The results provided an improved mapping of the Cerrados natural vegetation conversion into crops and pastures, and indicate that the Cerrado vegetation was intensively converted and also became more fragmented in the time frame studied. Between 1985 and 2005 the area lost approximately 6491 km 2 of Cerrados (42 %). Modeling based on the Universal Soil Loss Equation indicated significant increase in erosion risk from 1985 to 2005 mainly related to the increase in crop areas and the crops' encroachment into more fragile lands. The identification of environmental indicators rendered complex environmental information more

  4. [Prevalence of diabetes mellitus and associated factors in indigenous women in Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Freitas, Glênio Alves de; Souza, Maria Cristina Corrêa de; Lima, Rosangela da Costa

    2016-01-01

    This study's objective was to estimate the prevalence of abnormal casual capillary blood glucose, suggestive of diabetes mellitus, and the associations with socioeconomic, demographic, anthropometric, and clinical factors in indigenous women in Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. This was a cross-sectional study with a probabilistic sample of women 18 to 59 years of age in the Bororó and Jaguapiru villages. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect data, and statistical analysis used the Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, and generalized linear model tests. Of the 385 women, 7% showed abnormal casual capillary blood glucose, suggestive of diabetes mellitus. In the final generalized linear model, the following remained associated with the outcome: age (p < 0.001), systolic blood pressure (p = 0.002), and ethnicity (p = 0.022). The study shows the need for behavior changes, using educational interventions as a strategy for the prevention and control of diabetes mellitus. PMID:27626648

  5. Comparison of Sampling Designs for Estimating Deforestation from Landsat TM and MODIS Imagery: A Case Study in Mato Grosso, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Shanyou; Zhang, Hailong; Liu, Ronggao; Cao, Yun; Zhang, Guixin

    2014-01-01

    Sampling designs are commonly used to estimate deforestation over large areas, but comparisons between different sampling strategies are required. Using PRODES deforestation data as a reference, deforestation in the state of Mato Grosso in Brazil from 2005 to 2006 is evaluated using Landsat imagery and a nearly synchronous MODIS dataset. The MODIS-derived deforestation is used to assist in sampling and extrapolation. Three sampling designs are compared according to the estimated deforestation of the entire study area based on simple extrapolation and linear regression models. The results show that stratified sampling for strata construction and sample allocation using the MODIS-derived deforestation hotspots provided more precise estimations than simple random and systematic sampling. Moreover, the relationship between the MODIS-derived and TM-derived deforestation provides a precise estimate of the total deforestation area as well as the distribution of deforestation in each block. PMID:25258742

  6. Comparison of sampling designs for estimating deforestation from landsat TM and MODIS imagery: a case study in Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shanyou; Zhang, Hailong; Liu, Ronggao; Cao, Yun; Zhang, Guixin

    2014-01-01

    Sampling designs are commonly used to estimate deforestation over large areas, but comparisons between different sampling strategies are required. Using PRODES deforestation data as a reference, deforestation in the state of Mato Grosso in Brazil from 2005 to 2006 is evaluated using Landsat imagery and a nearly synchronous MODIS dataset. The MODIS-derived deforestation is used to assist in sampling and extrapolation. Three sampling designs are compared according to the estimated deforestation of the entire study area based on simple extrapolation and linear regression models. The results show that stratified sampling for strata construction and sample allocation using the MODIS-derived deforestation hotspots provided more precise estimations than simple random and systematic sampling. Moreover, the relationship between the MODIS-derived and TM-derived deforestation provides a precise estimate of the total deforestation area as well as the distribution of deforestation in each block. PMID:25258742

  7. Spotted fever group Rickettsia in Amblyomma dubitatum tick from the urban area of Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Matias, Jaqueline; Garcia, Marcos Valério; Cunha, Rodrigo Casquero; Aguirre, André de Abreu Rangel; Barros, Jacqueline Cavalvante; Csordas, Bárbara Guimarães; Andreotti, Renato

    2015-03-01

    Rickettsia infection of each tick was evaluated by the hemolymph test and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting gltA and ompA genes. All hemolymph tests were negative and PCR of one A. dubitatum detected both Rickettsia genes. Sequence of ompA exhibited a 99% identity with Rickettsia parkeri and R. africae and a 98% identity with R. sibirica. Rickettsia of the spotted fever group in A. dubitatum is described for the first time in an urban area within the municipality of Campo Grande in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul (MS), Brazil. This finding reinforces the importance of more detailed studies to determine the role of A. dubitatum in the transmission of spotted fever agents. PMID:25454606

  8. Soybean Development: The Impact of a Decade of Agricultural Change on Urban and Economic Growth in Mato Grosso, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Peter; Pellegrina, Heitor; VanWey, Leah; Spera, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    In this research we consider the impact of export-driven, soybean agriculture in Mato Grosso on regional economic growth. Here we argue that the soybean sector has served as a motor to the state’s economy by increasing the demand for services, housing, and goods, and by providing a source of investment capital to the non-agricultural sector. Specifically, we show that each square kilometer of soybean production supports 2.5 formal sector jobs outside of agriculture, and the equivalent of approximately 150,000US in annual, non-agricultural GDP. We also show that annual gains in non-agricultural employment and GDP are closely tied to soybean profitability, and thus vary from year to year. However, while this article highlights the potential of the agricultural sector as a driver of regional economic growth, it also acknowledges that this growth has been sustained by profits determined by externally set prices and the rate of exchange, and that future growth trajectories will be susceptible to potential currency of market shocks. We also show that while Mato Grosso’s economic growth has come at a significant cost to the environment, value added by the agriculture sector, directly and indirectly, has surpassed the value of the CO2-e emitted through land clearings. PMID:25919305

  9. Assessment of the current state of biodiversity data for butterflies and skippers in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea).

    PubMed

    Queiroz-Santos, Luziany; Dias, Fernando Maia Silva; Dell'Erba, Rafael; Casagrande, Mirna Martins; Mielke, Olaf Hermann Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    Lepidoptera is one of the four megadiverse insect orders, comprising butterflies and moths. In Brazil, the bulk of knowledge about the butterfly fauna is restricted to some areas in the southeast of the country, with large gaps of knowledge in other areas. The state of Mato Grosso is one of the largest states in Brazil, and holds three of the main Brazilian biomes: Amazon rain forest, Cerrado and Pantanal. However, knowledge about Mato Grosso butterflies is fragmented and restricted to a few localities, and information is scattered in various sources. The aim of this study is to assemble the biodiversity information of the butterfly fauna of the state of Mato Grosso based on historical and recent literature data and collections carried out in the southwest of the state from 2007-2009. Records without precise locality data or taxonomic information were not included. Species identification was based on literature and comparison with specimens in collections; higher and species-level taxonomy were updated based on the Neotropical Checklist of Hesperioidea and Papilionoidea and recent phylogenetic and revisionary taxonomic works. In total, 901 species were recorded in 2,820 occurrence records. This represents 148 species of Hesperiidae, 29 Papilionidae, 28 Pieridae, 77 Lycaenidae, 238 Riodinidae, and 381 Nymphalidae. Of these, 207 species records are from the type specimens of species described in the state. Based on the results and literature records for other Brazilian states and biomes, probably the figures for Mato Grosso are underestimated, particularly in the families Hesperiidae, Lycaenidae and Riodinidae, in that order. Future collecting efforts should be directed towards certain areas of the state, especially in less sampled areas and biomes, as the north of the state and Pantanal. PMID:27408571

  10. Assessment of the current state of biodiversity data for butterflies and skippers in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea)

    PubMed Central

    Queiroz-Santos, Luziany; Dias, Fernando Maia Silva; Dell’Erba, Rafael; Casagrande, Mirna Martins; Mielke, Olaf Hermann Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Lepidoptera is one of the four megadiverse insect orders, comprising butterflies and moths. In Brazil, the bulk of knowledge about the butterfly fauna is restricted to some areas in the southeast of the country, with large gaps of knowledge in other areas. The state of Mato Grosso is one of the largest states in Brazil, and holds three of the main Brazilian biomes: Amazon rain forest, Cerrado and Pantanal. However, knowledge about Mato Grosso butterflies is fragmented and restricted to a few localities, and information is scattered in various sources. The aim of this study is to assemble the biodiversity information of the butterfly fauna of the state of Mato Grosso based on historical and recent literature data and collections carried out in the southwest of the state from 2007–2009. Records without precise locality data or taxonomic information were not included. Species identification was based on literature and comparison with specimens in collections; higher and species-level taxonomy were updated based on the Neotropical Checklist of Hesperioidea and Papilionoidea and recent phylogenetic and revisionary taxonomic works. In total, 901 species were recorded in 2,820 occurrence records. This represents 148 species of Hesperiidae, 29 Papilionidae, 28 Pieridae, 77 Lycaenidae, 238 Riodinidae, and 381 Nymphalidae. Of these, 207 species records are from the type specimens of species described in the state. Based on the results and literature records for other Brazilian states and biomes, probably the figures for Mato Grosso are underestimated, particularly in the families Hesperiidae, Lycaenidae and Riodinidae, in that order. Future collecting efforts should be directed towards certain areas of the state, especially in less sampled areas and biomes, as the north of the state and Pantanal. PMID:27408571

  11. Coupling MODIS images and agrometeorological data for agricultural water productivity analyses in the Mato Grosso State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de C. Teixeira, Antônio H.; Victoria, Daniel C.; Andrade, Ricardo G.; Leivas, Janice F.; Bolfe, Edson L.; Cruz, Caroline R.

    2014-10-01

    Mato Grosso state, Central West Brazil, has been highlighted by the grain production, mainly soybean and corn, as first (November-March) and second (April-August) harvest crops, respectively. For water productivity (WP) analyses, MODIS products together with a net of weather stations were used. Evapotranspiration (ET) and biomass production (BIO) were acquired during the year 2012 and WP was considered as the ratio of BIO to ET. The SAFER (Simple Algorithm For Evapotranspiration Retrieving) for ET and the Monteith's radiation model for BIO were applied together, considering a mask which separated the crops from other surface types. In relation to the first harvest crop ET, BIO and WP values above of those for other surface types, happened only from November to January with incremental values reaching to 1.2 mm day-1; 67 kg ha-1 day-1; and 0.7 kg m-3, respectively; and between March and May for the second harvest crops, with incremental values attaining 0.5 mm day-1; 27 kg ha-1 day-1; and 0.3 kg m-3, respectively. In both cases, during the growing seasons, the highest WP parameters in cropped areas corresponded, in general, to the blooming to grain filling transition. Considering corn crop, which nowadays is increasing in terms of cultivated areas in the Brazilian Central West region, and crop water productivity (CWP) the ratio of yield to the amount of water consumed, the main growing regions North, Southeast and Northeast were analyzed. Southeast presented the highest annual pixel averages for ET, BIO and CWP (1.7 mm day-1, 78 kg ha-1 day-1 and 2.2 kg m-3, respectively); while for Northeast they were the lowest ones (1.2 mm day-1, 52 kg ha-1 dia-1 and 1.9 kg m-3). Throughout a soil moisture indicator, the ratio of precipitation (P) to ET, it was indeed noted that rainfall was enough for a good grain yield, with P/ET lower than 1.00 only outside the crop growing seasons. The combination of MODIS images and weather stations proved to be useful for monitoring

  12. Defending public interests in private lands: compliance, costs and potential environmental consequences of the Brazilian Forest Code in Mato Grosso.

    PubMed

    Stickler, Claudia M; Nepstad, Daniel C; Azevedo, Andrea A; McGrath, David G

    2013-06-01

    Land-use regulations are a critical component of forest governance and conservation strategies, but their effectiveness in shaping landholder behaviour is poorly understood. We conducted a spatial and temporal analysis of the Brazilian Forest Code (BFC) to understand the patterns of regulatory compliance over time and across changes in the policy, and the implications of these compliance patterns for the perceived costs to landholders and environmental performance of agricultural landscapes in the southern Amazon state of Mato Grosso. Landholdings tended to remain in compliance or not according to their status at the beginning of the study period. The perceived economic burden of BFC compliance on soya bean and beef producers (US$3-5.6 billion in net present value of the land) may in part explain the massive, successful campaign launched by the farm lobby to change the BFC. The ecological benefits of compliance (e.g. greater connectivity and carbon) with the BFC are diffuse and do not compete effectively with the economic benefits of non-compliance that are perceived by landholders. Volatile regulation of land-use decisions that affect billions in economic rent that could be captured is an inadequate forest governance instrument; effectiveness of such regulations may increase when implemented in tandem with positive incentives for forest conservation. PMID:23610168

  13. Variations in ecosystem structure, carbon, and nutrient storage along a fertility gradient in tropical savanna of southern Mato Grosso, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vourlitis, G. L.; Lobo, F. D.; Lawrence, S.; Holt, K.; Pinto Junior, O. B.; Dalmagro, H. J.; Nogueira, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    Brazilian savanna (cerrado) is composed of vegetation and soil types that are spatially variable, and links between cerrado physiognomy and soil properties are poorly understood. To reduce this uncertainty, we measured the plant community structure and carbon (C) and nutrient (N, P, K, and Ca) stocks in aboveground wood, foliage, and litter, and soil (0-50 cm) pools in a variety of cerrado vegetation types located in the Cuiaba Basin and the Pantanal, Mato Grosso, Brazil. We hypothesized that aboveground and surface soil C and nutrient stocks would be correlated with soil fertility and vegetation structure (including tree species composition, density and tree species diversity). Our results indicate that aboveground woody (AGW), foliage, and soil C stocks were significantly (p < 0.05) correlated with indices of soil fertility but not texture. Since AGWC was the largest C pool, total ecosystem C stocks increase significantly as a function of soil fertility. Similarly, AGWC and foliage C stocks were significantly correlated with tree species diversity (H'), but not soil texture. These data suggest that small-scale (m2-ha) variations in soil fertility are important controls on ecosystem C storage in Brazilian cerrado, and that ecosystem C and nutrient storage is positively related to tree species diversity. These results are qualitatively similar to those reported for tropical forests across regional fertility gradients in the Amazon Basin. These results have implications for the maintenance of soil C storage and fertility and tree species diversity in cerrado.

  14. Detection of Oropouche virus segment S in patients and inCulex quinquefasciatus in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Belgath Fernandes; Serra, Otacília Pereira; Heinen, Letícia Borges da Silva; Zuchi, Nayara; de Souza, Victor Costa; Naveca, Felipe Gomes; dos Santos, Marcelo Adriano Mendes; Slhessarenko, Renata Dezengrini

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the circulation of Orthobunyavirus species in the state of Mato Grosso (MT) Brazil. During a dengue outbreak in 2011/2012, 529 serum samples were collected from patients with acute febrile illness with symptoms for up to five days and 387 pools of female Culex quinquefasciatus captured in 2013 were subjected to nested-reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for segment S of the Simbu serogroup followed by nucleotide sequencing and virus isolation in Vero cells. Patients (5/529; 0.9%) from Cuiabá (n = 3), Várzea Grande (n = 1) and Nova Mutum (n = 1) municipalities were positive for the S segment of Oropouche virus (OROV). Additionally, eight/387 Cx. quinquefasciatus pools were positive for the segment, with a minimum infection rate of 2.3. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that all the samples belong to the subgenotype Ia, presenting high homology with OROV strains obtained from humans and animals in the Brazilian Amazon. The present paper reports the first detection of an Orthobunyavirus, possibly OROV, in patients and in Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes in MT. This finding reinforces the notion that arboviruses frequently reported in the Amazon Region circulate sporadically in MT during dengue outbreaks. PMID:26517653

  15. Defending public interests in private lands: compliance, costs and potential environmental consequences of the Brazilian Forest Code in Mato Grosso

    PubMed Central

    Stickler, Claudia M.; Nepstad, Daniel C.; Azevedo, Andrea A.; McGrath, David G.

    2013-01-01

    Land-use regulations are a critical component of forest governance and conservation strategies, but their effectiveness in shaping landholder behaviour is poorly understood. We conducted a spatial and temporal analysis of the Brazilian Forest Code (BFC) to understand the patterns of regulatory compliance over time and across changes in the policy, and the implications of these compliance patterns for the perceived costs to landholders and environmental performance of agricultural landscapes in the southern Amazon state of Mato Grosso. Landholdings tended to remain in compliance or not according to their status at the beginning of the study period. The perceived economic burden of BFC compliance on soya bean and beef producers (US$3–5.6 billion in net present value of the land) may in part explain the massive, successful campaign launched by the farm lobby to change the BFC. The ecological benefits of compliance (e.g. greater connectivity and carbon) with the BFC are diffuse and do not compete effectively with the economic benefits of non-compliance that are perceived by landholders. Volatile regulation of land-use decisions that affect billions in economic rent that could be captured is an inadequate forest governance instrument; effectiveness of such regulations may increase when implemented in tandem with positive incentives for forest conservation. PMID:23610168

  16. Leishmania amazonensis DNA in wild females of Lutzomyia cruzi (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Everton Falcão; Casaril, Aline Etelvina; Mateus, Nathália Lopes Fontoura; Murat, Paula Guerra; Fernandes, Wagner Souza; Oshiro, Elisa Teruya; de Oliveira, Alessandra Gutierrez; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi

    2015-01-01

    Studies on natural infection by Leishmania spp of sandflies collected in endemic and nonendemic areas can provide important information on the distribution and intensity of the transmission of these parasites. This study sought to investigate the natural infection by Leishmaniain wild female sandflies. The specimens were caught in the city of Corumbá, state of Mato Grosso do Sul (Brazil) between October 2012-March 2014, and dissected to investigate flagellates and/or submitted to molecular analysis to detect Leishmania DNA. A total of 1,164 females (77.56% of which were Lutzomyia cruzi) representing 11 species were investigated using molecular analysis; 126 specimens of Lu. cruziwere dissected and also submitted to molecular analysis. The infection rate based on the presence of Leishmania DNA considering all the sandfly species analysed was 0.69%; only Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis was identified in Lu. cruzi by the molecular analysis. The dissections were negative for flagellates. This is the first record of the presence of L. (L.) amazonensis DNA in Lu. cruzi, and the first record of this parasite in this area. These findings point to the need for further investigation into the possible role of this sandfly as vector of this parasite. PMID:26602870

  17. Soil Oxidation-Reduction Potential and Plant Photosynthetic Capacity in the Northern Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lathuilliere, M. J.; Johnson, M. S.; Dalmagro, H. J.; Pinto Junior, O. B.; Couto, E. G.

    2013-12-01

    Plant communities of the Pantanal wetland are able to survive long periods of climatic and physiological stress in the dry and wet seasons. During inundation, soil oxygen demand increases dramatically as reducing soil conditions create stress in the root system with possible impacts on photosynthetic capacity of plants. We look at inundation cycles of a tree island (locally known as a cordilheira) in the Northern Pantanal near Poconé, Mato Grosso, and relate soil oxidation-reduction potential and soil oxygen depletion to the photosynthetic capacity of two plant communities of flooded scrub forest (Vochysia divergens and Curatela americana). Results show a drop in soil oxidation-reduction potential of over 400 mV, to levels below the absolute value of -200 mV, following inundation around the tree island. Both plant species showed increased carbon assimilation at highest soil oxygen demand despite a change in stomatal conductance, suggesting adaptation to the inundated environment. Absolute values of soil oxidation-reduction potential also allow for the determination of specific soil chemical reactions characteristic of the tree island environment, namely the reduction of iron(III), or carbon dioxide which in turn produces methane. Our combined analysis of soil chemistry with plant ecophysiology allows for a better understanding of soil-plant interactions in the Pantanal, specifically the drivers of biogeochemical processes between inundation periods.

  18. Phlebotomine fauna, natural infection rate and feeding habits of Lutzomyia cruzi in Jaciara, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Brito, Veruska Nogueira; de Almeida, Arleana do Bom Parto Ferreira; Nakazato, Luciano; Duarte, Rosemere; Souza, Cladson de Oliveira; Sousa, Valéria Régia Franco

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil is transmitted by the phlebotomine Lutzomyia longipalpis and in some midwestern regions by Lutzomyia cruzi. Studies of the phlebotomine fauna, feeding habits and natural infection rate by Leishmania contribute to increased understanding of the epidemiological chain of leishmaniases and their vectorial capacity. Collections were performed in Jaciara, state of Mato Grosso from 2010-2013, during which time 2,011 phlebotomines (23 species) were captured (68.70% Lu. cruzi and 20.52% Lutzomyia whitmani). Lu. cruzi females were identified by observing the shapes of the cibarium (a portion of the mouthpart) and spermatheca, from which samples were obtained for polymerase chain reaction to determine the rates of natural infection. Engorged phlebotomines were assessed to identify the blood-meal host by ELISA. A moderate correlation was discovered between the number of Lu. cruzi and the temperature and the minimum rate of infection was 6.10%. Twenty-two females were reactive to the antisera of bird (28%), dog (3.30%) and skunk (1.60%). We conclude that Lu. cruzi and Lu. whitmani have adapted to the urban environment in this region and that Lu. cruzi is the most likely vector of VL in Jaciara. Moreover, maintenance of Leishmania in the environment is likely aided by the presence of birds and domestic and synanthropic animals. PMID:25410993

  19. Phlebotomine fauna, natural infection rate and feeding habits of Lutzomyia cruzi in Jaciara, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Brito, Veruska Nogueira de; Almeida, Arleana do Bom Parto Ferreira de; Nakazato, Luciano; Duarte, Rosemere; Souza, Cladson de Oliveira; Sousa, Valéria Régia Franco

    2014-10-14

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil is transmitted by the phlebotomine Lutzomyia longipalpis and in some midwestern regions by Lutzomyia cruzi. Studies of the phlebotomine fauna, feeding habits and natural infection rate by Leishmania contribute to increased understanding of the epidemiological chain of leishmaniases and their vectorial capacity. Collections were performed in Jaciara, state of Mato Grosso from 2010-2013, during which time 2,011 phlebotomines (23 species) were captured (68.70% Lu. cruzi and 20.52% Lutzomyia whitmani). Lu. cruzi females were identified by observing the shapes of the cibarium (a portion of the mouthpart) and spermatheca, from which samples were obtained for polymerase chain reaction to determine the rates of natural infection. Engorged phlebotomines were assessed to identify the blood-meal host by ELISA. A moderate correlation was discovered between the number of Lu. cruzi and the temperature and the minimum rate of infection was 6.10%. Twenty-two females were reactive to the antisera of bird (28%), dog (3.30%) and skunk (1.60%). We conclude that Lu. cruzi and Lu. whitmani have adapted to the urban environment in this region and that Lu. cruzi is the most likely vector of VL in Jaciara. Moreover, maintenance of Leishmania in the environment is likely aided by the presence of birds and domestic and synanthropic animals. PMID:25338156

  20. Phlebotomine fauna, natural infection rate and feeding habits of Lutzomyia cruzi in Jaciara, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Brito, Veruska Nogueira de; Almeida, Arleana do Bom Parto Ferreira de; Nakazato, Luciano; Duarte, Rosemere; Souza, Cladson de Oliveira; Sousa, Valéria Régia Franco

    2014-11-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil is transmitted by the phlebotomine Lutzomyia longipalpis and in some midwestern regions by Lutzomyia cruzi. Studies of the phlebotomine fauna, feeding habits and natural infection rate by Leishmania contribute to increased understanding of the epidemiological chain of leishmaniases and their vectorial capacity. Collections were performed in Jaciara, state of Mato Grosso from 2010-2013, during which time 2,011 phlebotomines (23 species) were captured (68.70% Lu. cruzi and 20.52% Lutzomyia whitmani). Lu. cruzi females were identified by observing the shapes of the cibarium (a portion of the mouthpart) and spermatheca, from which samples were obtained for polymerase chain reaction to determine the rates of natural infection. Engorged phlebotomines were assessed to identify the blood-meal host by ELISA. A moderate correlation was discovered between the number of Lu. cruzi and the temperature and the minimum rate of infection was 6.10%. Twenty-two females were reactive to the antisera of bird (28%), dog (3.30%) and skunk (1.60%). We conclude that Lu. cruzi and Lu. whitmani have adapted to the urban environment in this region and that Lu. cruzi is the most likely vector of VL in Jaciara. Moreover, maintenance of Leishmania in the environment is likely aided by the presence of birds and domestic and synanthropic animals. PMID:25410993

  1. Validation of the EROSION 3D model on micro-catchment scale in Mato Grosso/Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultze, Nico; Schindewolf, Marcus; Lamparter, Gabriele; Nóbrega, Rodolfo; Amorim, Ricardo S. S.; Schmidt, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    Accelerated land use changes in Mato Grosso caused soil degradation and contamination of water resources. Soil erosion models are increasingly being used, in order to simulate the involved physical processes and to predict the effects of soil erosion control measures. In this regard the process based EROSION 3D soil loss simulation model could be applied in the region. A comprehensive application on regional scale demands proofed model qualities on smaller scales. The paper aims on calibration and validation of surface runoff and related sediment losses by water erosion for a gauged cropland micro-catchment, which is representative for study area. Model parameterization was performed by own soil analysis, artificial rainfall simulations and observations. Temporal discrete soil parameter sets were interpolated continuously on the yearly course by applying planting dates, harvesting dates and phenological plant cover changes as fundamentals. Discharge hydrographs were calibrated successfully and verified for several rainfall events. Calculated sediment losses exceed observed results by two orders of magnitude. Since the model was validated on plot scale and erosion-deposition pattern were tested on plausibility, the only acceptable conclusion are insufficiently measured sediment concentrations. Further investigation should focus on water sampling and calibration of turbidity probes under local conditions. However, we assume that our results are sufficient to increase the scale of model application in order to describe status quo scenarios and effects of land use and climate change in the region.

  2. [Characterization of tuberculosis among HIV/AIDS patients at a referral center in Mato Grosso do Sul].

    PubMed

    Cheade, Maria de Fátima Meinberg; Ivo, Maria Lúcia; Siqueira, Pedro Henrique Guimarães da Silva; Sá, Robson Gomes de; Honer, Michael Robin

    2009-01-01

    Tuberculosis was investigated regarding its clinical presentation, treatment outcome and sociodemographic profile among HIV patients attended at a referral center in Mato Grosso do Sul, in 2003-2005. Sixty-six medical files on patients over 14 years of age and data from the Brazilian National Information System for Notifiable Diseases relating to tuberculosis and from the Mortality Information System were analyzed. Most of the patients were male, white, of low schooling level and from urban areas. Increased extrapulmonary clinical presentation was found and it correlated with the degree of immunological competence. The main reasons for ceasing treatment were cure (reached after longer-than-expected follow-up) and death (of six patients at the beginning of the tuberculosis treatment). Information gaps were found in the tuberculosis notification records and medical files. The study revealed the need for early diagnosis of tuberculosis among HIV-positive patients, improvements in medical records and follow-up beyond the recommended duration, because of changes to the clinical evolution of tuberculosis in cases of comorbidity with HIV. PMID:19448926

  3. Economic analysis of vaccination to control bovine brucellosis in the States of Sao Paulo and Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alves, A J S; Rocha, F; Amaku, M; Ferreira, F; Telles, E O; Grisi Filho, J H H; Ferreira Neto, J S; Zylbersztajn, D; Dias, R A

    2015-03-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease that causes important economic losses in Brazil, and the country has therefore established a national program for its control and eradication. Using data generated in the last national brucellosis survey, we conducted an economic analysis in two Brazilian States with different brucellosis status, Mato Grosso (with high prevalence) and Sao Paulo (with low prevalence). The economic analysis was based on the calculation of the additional benefits and costs of controlling bovine brucellosis through the vaccination of heifers aged between 3 and 8 months with S19 vaccine, considering maximal and minimal impacts of the disease. The analysis showed that vaccinating 90% of the replacement heifers aged 3-8 months of age offers the best economic performance in a vaccination program against bovine brucellosis if compared to vaccination rates of 70% and 80%. Moreover, regions with higher prevalences of bovine brucellosis would experience significant economic advantages when implementing a vaccination strategy to control the disease. This economic analysis will allow decision makers to plan more economically effective vaccination programs. PMID:25548080

  4. Tick-borne agents in domesticated and stray cats from the city of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, midwestern Brazil.

    PubMed

    André, Marcos Rogério; Herrera, Heitor Miraglia; Fernandes, Simone de Jesus; de Sousa, Keyla Cartens Marques; Gonçalves, Luiz Ricardo; Domingos, Iara Helena; de Macedo, Gabriel Carvalho; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias

    2015-09-01

    Anaplasmataceae agents, piroplasmids and Hepatozoon spp. have emerged as important pathogens among domestic and wild felines. The present work aimed to detect the presence of species belonging to the Anaplasmataceae family, piroplasmas and Hepatozoon spp. DNA in blood samples of domesticated and stray cats in the city of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, midwestern Brazil. Between January and April 2013, whole blood samples were collected from 151 cats (54 males, 95 females and two without gender registration) in the city of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. DNA extracted from cat blood samples was submitted to conventional PCR assays for Theileria/Babesia/Cytauxzoon spp. (18S rRNA, ITS-1), Ehrlichia spp. (16S rRNA, dsb, groESL), Anaplasma spp. (16S rRNA, groESL) and Hepatozoon spp. (18S rRNA) followed by phylogenetic reconstructions. Out of 151 sampled cats, 13 (8.5%) were positive for Ehrlichia spp. closely related to Ehrlichia canis, 1 (0.66%) for Hepatozoon spp. closely related to Hepatozoon americanum and Hepatozoon spp. isolate from a wild felid, 1 (0.66%) for Cytauxzoon sp. closely related do Cytauxzoon felis, and 18 (11.9%) for Babesia/Theileria (one sequence was closely related to Babesia bigemina, eight for Babesia vogeli, five to Theileria spp. from ruminants [Theileria ovis, Theileria lestoquardi] and four to Theileria sp. recently detected in a cat). The present study showed that Ehrlichia spp., piroplasmids (B. vogeli, Theileria spp. and Cytauxzoon spp.) and, more rarely, Hepatozoon spp. circulate among stray and domesticated cats in the city of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, midwestern Brazil. PMID:26187416

  5. Characterizing a Dynamic Land Cover Change Frontier Using MODIS Phenology Metrics: Cropland Expansion in Mato Grosso, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, D. C.; Defries, R. S.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Morisette, J.

    2005-12-01

    The state of Mato Grosso, Brazil experienced the most rapid agricultural expansion of any region in the Amazon Basin during the existing MODIS data record. Rapid conversion of Amazon forest, transitional tropical forest, and cerrado woodland-savanna for cattle ranching and grain production continues to fragment large tracts of these biomes. Tropical forest loss is estimated annually, yet the fate of cleared lands and losses of transitional forest or cerrado have not been well characterized in this region. Using phenological information from time series of MODIS 16-day composite data, it is possible to capture the temporal dynamism of land cover change and accurately separate primary and secondary land use transitions. We use time series of cloud-cleaned MODIS NDVI and EVI at 250 m resolution to characterize land cover based on metrics of wet-season, dry-season, and annual phenology from 2000-2004. Distinct phenological signatures for forest, pasture and natural grasslands, cerrado, and cropland enable accurate classification of land cover types when compared to field validation data (overall accuracy = 85%). We estimate that more than 1.6 million hectares were converted to cropland between 2000 and 2004. The majority of new cropland resulted from the direct conversion of cerrado (35%) or forest (29%); conversion of natural grassland areas or planted pasture accounted for 36% of new cropland areas. While secondary transitions from existing cattle pasture to cropland are an important source of new agricultural production, our findings contradict recent statements that cropland agriculture is not directly associated with new deforestation activities. Separation of more seasonal cerrado vegetation from transitional tropical forest based on vegetation phenology highlights land cover dynamics in regions with no previous deforestation monitoring. Phenological information from MODIS is extremely important to monitor land cover dynamics, separate forest types, and estimate

  6. [Seasonal evaluation of mammal species richness and abundance in the "Mário Viana" municipal reserve, Mato Grosso, Brasil].

    PubMed

    Rocha, Ednaldo Cândido; Silva, Elias; Martins, Sebastião Venâncio; Barreto, Francisco Cândido Cardoso

    2006-09-01

    We evaluated seasonal species presence and richness, and abundance of medium and large sized mammalian terrestrial fauna in the "Mário Viana" Municipal Biological Reserve, Nova Xavantina, Mato Grosso, Brazil. During 2001, two monthly visits were made to an established transect, 2,820 m in length. Records of 22 mammal species were obtained and individual footprint sequences quantified for seasonal calculation of species richness and relative abundance index (x footprints/km traveled). All 22 species occurred during the rainy season, but only 18 during the dry season. Pseudalopex vetulus (Lund, 1842) (hoary fox), Eira barbara (Linnaeus, 1758) (tayra), Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771) (cougar) and Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766) (capybara) were only registered during the rainy season. The species diversity estimated using the Jackknife procedure in the dry season (19.83, CI = 2.73) was smaller than in the rainy season (25.67, CI = 3.43). Among the 18 species common in the two seasons, only four presented significantly different abundance indexes: Dasypus novemcinctus Linnaeus, 1758 (nine-banded armadillo), Euphractus sexcinctus (Linnaeus, 1758) (six-banded armadillo), Dasyprocta azarae Lichtenstein, 1823 (Azara's Agouti) and Tapirus terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758) (tapir). On the other hand, Priodontes maximus (Kerr, 1792) (giant armadillo) and Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758) (ocelot) had identical abundance index over the two seasons. Distribution of species abundance in the sampled area followed the expected pattern for communities in equilibrium, especially in the rainy season, suggesting that the environment still maintains good characteristics for mammal conservation. The present study shows that the reserve, although only 470 ha in size, plays an important role for conservation of mastofauna of the area as a refuge in an environment full of anthropic influence (mainly cattle breeding in exotic pasture). PMID:18491629

  7. Habitat suitability mapping of Anopheles darlingi in the surroundings of the Manso hydropower plant reservoir, Mato Grosso, Central Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Zeilhofer, Peter; Santos, Emerson Soares dos; Ribeiro, Ana LM; Miyazaki, Rosina D; Santos, Marina Atanaka dos

    2007-01-01

    Background Hydropower plants provide more than 78 % of Brazil's electricity generation, but the country's reservoirs are potential new habitats for main vectors of malaria. In a case study in the surroundings of the Manso hydropower plant in Mato Grosso state, Central Brazil, habitat suitability of Anopheles darlingi was studied. Habitat profile was characterized by collecting environmental data. Remote sensing and GIS techniques were applied to extract additional spatial layers of land use, distance maps, and relief characteristics for spatial model building. Results Logistic regression analysis and ROC curves indicate significant relationships between the environment and presence of An. darlingi. Probabilities of presence strongly vary as a function of land cover and distance from the lake shoreline. Vector presence was associated with spatial proximity to reservoir and semi-deciduous forests followed by Cerrado woodland. Vector absence was associated with open vegetation formations such as grasslands and agricultural areas. We suppose that non-significant differences of vector incidences between rainy and dry seasons are associated with the availability of anthropogenic breeding habitat of the reservoir throughout the year. Conclusion Satellite image classification and multitemporal shoreline simulations through DEM-based GIS-analyses consist in a valuable tool for spatial modeling of A. darlingi habitats in the studied hydropower reservoir area. Vector presence is significantly increased in forested areas near reservoirs in bays protected from wind and wave action. Construction of new reservoirs under the tropical, sub-humid climatic conditions should therefore be accompanied by entomologic studies to predict the risk of malaria epidemics. PMID:17343728

  8. Patterns of Woody Growth for Brazilian Savanna (Cerrado) Trees in the Cuiaba Basin and Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zappia, A. J.; Vourlitis, G. L.; Pinto-Jr, O. B.

    2015-12-01

    The Brazilian savanna, locally known as cerrado, is a major ecosystem that covers a vast majority of central Brazil. Little is known about how woody growth within the cerrado is affected by soil properties such as texture and/or nutrient availability. Thus, in this study we assessed the relationship between woody growth and soil properties in the Cuiaba Basin and Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil. We sampled 4-5 vegetation stands in each site that varied in hydrology, soil type, and vegetation composition and structure, and measured diameter at breast height, wood density, and soil nutrient concentration and physical properties every 5-10 m along a 100 m long transect. We hypothesized that as tree diameter at breast height increases, annual tree growth rate will decrease and that woody carbon (C) storage will increase as a function of soil nutrient availability. Our preliminary data support our hypotheses. Tree growth rates declined with tree size in both the Cuiaba Basin and the Pantanal. Rates of woody C storage, both on a per tree basis (kgC tree-1 year-1) and on a per unit ground area basis (kgC m-2 year-1) were significantly positively correlated with soil extractable phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca), and clay content, while only woody C storage on a per tree basis was positively correlated with potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), and cation exchange capacity (CEC). These data suggest that rates of woody C storage in cerrado are nutrient limited, while correspondence between C storage and soil physical properties could indicate both nutrient and water limitations to C storage.

  9. Cluster analysis applied to the spatial and temporal variability of monthly rainfall in Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodoro, Paulo Eduardo; de Oliveira-Júnior, José Francisco; da Cunha, Elias Rodrigues; Correa, Caio Cezar Guedes; Torres, Francisco Eduardo; Bacani, Vitor Matheus; Gois, Givanildo; Ribeiro, Larissa Pereira

    2016-04-01

    The State of Mato Grosso do Sul (MS) located in Brazil Midwest is devoid of climatological studies, mainly in the characterization of rainfall regime and producers' meteorological systems and rain inhibitors. This state has different soil and climatic characteristics distributed among three biomes: Cerrado, Atlantic Forest and Pantanal. This study aimed to apply the cluster analysis using Ward's algorithm and identify those meteorological systems that affect the rainfall regime in the biomes. The rainfall data of 32 stations (sites) of the MS State were obtained from the Agência Nacional de Águas (ANA) database, collected from 1954 to 2013. In each of the 384 monthly rainfall temporal series was calculated the average and applied the Ward's algorithm to identify spatial and temporal variability of rainfall. Bartlett's test revealed only in January homogeneous variance at all sites. Run test showed that there was no increase or decrease in trend of monthly rainfall. Cluster analysis identified five rainfall homogeneous regions in the MS State, followed by three seasons (rainy, transitional and dry). The rainy season occurs during the months of November, December, January, February and March. The transitional season ranges between the months of April and May, September and October. The dry season occurs in June, July and August. The groups G1, G4 and G5 are influenced by South Atlantic Subtropical Anticyclone (SASA), Chaco's Low (CL), Bolivia's High (BH), Low Levels Jet (LLJ) and South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ) and Maden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). Group G2 is influenced by Upper Tropospheric Cyclonic Vortex (UTCV) and Front Systems (FS). The group G3 is affected by UTCV, FS and SACZ. The meteorological systems' interaction that operates in each biome and the altitude causes the rainfall spatial and temporal diversity in MS State.

  10. Spatial distribution and environmental factors associated to phlebotomine fauna in a border area of transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mato Grosso do Sul has been undergoing a process of urbanization which results in loss of native vegetation. This withdrawal makes vectors of man and domestic animals closer, causing changes in the epidemiology of diseases such as American Visceral Leishmaniasis. The aim of the study was to evaluate the phlebotomine fauna and environmental issues related to the transmission of AVL in Ponta Porã, Mato Grosso do Sul, between 2009 and 2010. Methods Vegetation of the urban area was evaluated by Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI). Results The results showed that the phlebotomine fauna of the city consists of five species, especially Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva, 1912), the vector of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum. Predominance of males was observed. The insects were captured in greater quantity in the intradomicile. Lu. longipalpis was the most frequent and abundant species, present throughout the year, with a peak population after the rainy season. Vectors can be found in high amounts in forest and disturbed environments. Conclusions The finding of Lu. longipalpis in regions with little vegetation and humidity suggests that the species is adapted to different sorts of environmental conditions, demonstrating its close association with man and the environment it inhabits. The tourist feature of Ponta Porã reinforces its epidemiological importance as a vulnerable city. The geographical location, bordering Paraguay through dry border, makes possible the existence of a corridor of vectors and infected dogs between the two countries. PMID:24898032

  11. Impact of land-cover change in the southern Amazonia climate: a case study for the region of Alta Floresta, Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dubreuil, Vincent; Debortoli, Nathan; Funatsu, Beatriz; Nédélec, Vincent; Durieux, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    The transformation of forest into pastures in the Brazilian Amazon leads to significant consequences to climate at local scale. In the region of Alta Floresta (Mato Grosso, Brazil), deforestation has been intense with over half the forests being cut since 1970. This article first examines the evolution of precipitation observed in this region and shows a significant trend in the decrease in total precipitation especially at the end of the dry season and at the beginning of the rainy season. The study then compares the temperatures measured in cleared and forested sectors within a reserve in the area of Alta Floresta (Mato Grosso, Brazil) between 2006 and 2007. The cleared sector was always hotter and drier (from 5% to 10%) than the forested area. This difference was not only especially marked during the day when it reached on average 2°C but also seemed to increase during the night with the onset of the dry season (+0.5°C). The Urban Heat Island effect is also evident especially during the night and in the dry season. PMID:21479561

  12. Soil water and carbon management for agricultural resilience in a key node in the global virtual water trade network: Mato Grosso, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, M. S.; Speratti, A. B.; Lathuilliere, M. J.; Dalmagro, H. J.; Couto, E. G.

    2015-12-01

    The Amazon region is globally connected through agricultural exports, with the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso in particular emerging as a key node in the global virtual water trade network in recent years, based largely on rainfed agriculture. The anticipated growth in the world's population suggests that virtual water trade will only become more important to global food security. In this presentation we will evaluate strategies for improving the resilience of rainfed agriculture in the region, particularly for the nearly 12 million hectares of sandy soil with low water holding capacity within Mato Grosso that has largely been converted to agricultural use. We will review land use change trajectories and present results from soil water balance modeling and carbon fluxes for a range of future scenarios, including continued agricultural extensification, potential strategies for agricultural intensification, and novel water and carbon management strategies including biochar use in sandy soils to improve soil water holding capacities and soil carbon sequestration. We will also consider the role that irrigation might play in the future in the Amazon for improving agricultural resilience to climate change and feedbacks between irrigation and land use change pressures, noting that groundwater resources in the region are presently among the least exploited on the planet.

  13. Karyotypic description of the stingless bee Oxytrigona cf. flaveola (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponina) of a colony from Tangará da Serra, Mato Grosso State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to broaden knowledge on the cytogenetics of the subtribe Meliponina, by furnishing cytogenetic data as a contribution to the characterization of bees from the genus Oxytrigona. Individuals of the species Oxytrigona cf. flaveola, members of a colony from Tangará da Serra, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, were studied. The chromosome number was 2n = 34, distributed among four chromosomal morphologies, with the karyotype formula 8m+8sm+16st+2t. Size heteromorphism in the first metacentric pair, subsequently confirmed by sequential staining with fluorochrome (DA/DAPI/CMA3 ), was apparent in all the examined individuals The nucleolar organizing regions (NORs) are possibly located in this metacentric chromosome pair. These data will contribute towards a better understanding of the genus Oxytrigona. Given that species in this group are threatened, the importance of their preservation and conservation can be shown in a sensible, concise fashion through studies such as this. PMID:21637423

  14. Karyotypic description of the stingless bee Oxytrigona cf. flaveola (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponina) of a colony from Tangará da Serra, Mato Grosso State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Krinski, Diones; Fernandes, Anderson; Rocha, Marla Piumbini; Pompolo, Silvia das Graças

    2010-07-01

    The aim was to broaden knowledge on the cytogenetics of the subtribe Meliponina, by furnishing cytogenetic data as a contribution to the characterization of bees from the genus Oxytrigona. Individuals of the species Oxytrigona cf. flaveola, members of a colony from Tangará da Serra, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, were studied. The chromosome number was 2n = 34, distributed among four chromosomal morphologies, with the karyotype formula 8m+8sm+16st+2t. Size heteromorphism in the first metacentric pair, subsequently confirmed by sequential staining with fluorochrome (DA/DAPI/CMA(3) ), was apparent in all the examined individuals The nucleolar organizing regions (NORs) are possibly located in this metacentric chromosome pair. These data will contribute towards a better understanding of the genus Oxytrigona. Given that species in this group are threatened, the importance of their preservation and conservation can be shown in a sensible, concise fashion through studies such as this. PMID:21637423

  15. Land Transformation and Occupation Impacts of Farming Practices for the Production of Soybean in Mato Grosso, Brazil, Using Life Cycle Impact Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lathuilliere, M. J.; Miranda, E. J.; Couto, E. G.; Johnson, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    The state of Mato Grosso is the largest producer of soybean in Brazil with production continuously increasing since 2000 through a near tripling of cropland area under soybean cultivation. This increase in production has occurred by land cover transformation (extensification into natural ecosystems, e.g. forest to crop) and land use intensification (increase in area by conversion of already cleared land, e.g. pasture to crop), largely to satisfy international demand. In this study, we assess cradle-to-farm gate impacts of soybean production in Mato Grosso using life cycle impact assessment applied to data collected from 110 farms. We combine 21 impact indicators of land transformation and occupation (i.e. land use and land cover change) to show impacts of life cycle stages of production to land, air, water, resource use, biodiversity and ecosystem services. The greatest damage to human health and ecosystem quality came from land transformation which primarily takes place in the tropical forest (Amazon) and savanna (Cerrado/Cerradão) biomes. Soybean production in tropical forest landscapes has greater impacts on climate regulation, biotic production and groundwater recharge compared to production in native savanna areas, while impacts on biodiversity, erosion and soil water purification are roughly equivalent for tropical forest vs. savanna transformation and occupation. Soybean production practices showed hot spots of damage to environmental quality and resources from phosphorous fertilizer application and diesel consumption in machinery through impact pathways such as terrestrial and aquatic acidification and the use of non-renewable energy. Life cycle impact assessment modeling can provide further information into the production process to enlighten decision making with respect to impacts occurring along the soybean product supply chain.

  16. Natural infection of gastrointestinal nematodes in long-nosed armadillos Dasypus novemcinctus Linnaeus, 1758 from Pantanal wetlands, Aquidauana sub-region, Mato Grosso do Sul State, with the description of Hadrostrongylus speciosum n. gen. et n. sp. (Molineidae: Anoplostrongylinae).

    PubMed

    Lux Hoppe, Estevam G; do Nascimento, Adjair Antonio

    2007-03-15

    This study evaluated the gastrointestinal helminth fauna of long-nosed armadillos, Dasypus novemcinctus, from the Pantanal wetlands, Aquidauana sub-region, Aquidauana County, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. Thirteen species of nematodes, comprising seven genera and four families, were recovered from their gastrointestinal tracts. The following descriptors of infection were determined: prevalence, variation of intensity, average intensity and abundance. Hadrostrongylus speciosum n. gen. et n. sp. is first described here. PMID:17071001

  17. Epidemiological study on leishmaniasis in an area of environmental tourism and ecotourism, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, 2006-2007.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Ana Rachel Oliveira de; Nunes, Vânia Lúcia Brandão; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi; de Arruda, Carla Cardozo Pinto; Santos, Mirella Ferreira da Cunha; Rocca, Maria Elizabeth Gizi; Aquino, Ricardo Braga

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this study were to carry out a serological survey of canine leishmaniasis and identify the phlebotomine fauna in the urban area of Bonito, Mato Grosso do Sul. The serological survey was conducted on a sample of 303 dogs, by means of the indirect immunofluorescence test. Phlebotomines were captured using automated light traps. The serological survey found that 30% of the dogs were seropositive, both from the center and from all districts of the town. A total of 2,772 specimens of phlebotomines were caught and the species most found was Lutzomyia longipalpis (90.4%), which corroborated its role as the vector of for canine visceral leishmaniasis in the region. Phlebotomines of the species Bichromomyia flaviscutellata (the main vector for Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis) and Nyssomyia whitmani (the vector for Leishmania (Viannia) brasiliensis) were also caught. The findings indicate the need for continuous epidemiological surveillance, with attention towards diminishing the vector breeding sites and the transmission of these diseases in that region. PMID:19967228

  18. First report on Cryptococcus neoformans in pigeon excreta from public and residential locations in the metropolitan area of Cuiabá, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Takahara, Doracilde Terumi; Lazéra, Márcia dos Santos; Wanke, Bodo; Trilles, Luciana; Dutra, Valéria; Paula, Daphine Ariadne Jesus de; Nakazato, Luciano; Anzai, Mariana Caselli; Leite Júnior, Diniz Pereira; Paula, Claudete Rodrigues; Hahn, Rosane Christine

    2013-01-01

    Cryptococcosis is a severe systemic mycosis caused by two species of Cryptococcus that affect humans and animals: C. neoformans and C. gattii. Cosmopolitan and emergent, the mycosis results from the interaction between a susceptible host and the environment. The occurrence of C. neoformans was evaluated in 122 samples of dried pigeon excreta collected in 49 locations in the City of Cuiabá, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil, including public squares (n = 5), churches (n = 4), educational institutions (n = 3), health units (n = 8), open areas covered with asbestos (n = 4), residences (n = 23), factory (n = 1) and a prison (n = 1). Samples collected from July to December of 2010 were seeded on Niger seed agar (NSA). Dark brown colonies were identified by urease test, carbon source assimilation tests and canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue medium. Polymerase chain reaction primer pairs specific for C. neoformans were also used for identification. Cryptococcus neoformans associated to pigeon excreta was isolated from eight (6.6%) samples corresponding to six (12.2%) locations. Cryptococcus neoformans was isolated from urban areas, predominantly in residences, constituting a risk of acquiring the disease by immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals. PMID:24213188

  19. Asymptomatic infection in family contacts of patients with human visceral leishmaniasis in Três Lagoas, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ana Lúcia Lyrio de; Paniago, Anamaria Mello Miranda; Sanches, Marcos Antônio; Dorval, Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros; Oshiro, Elisa Teruya; Leal, Cássia Rejane Brito; Paula, Fernando Henrique de; Pereira, Luís Gustavo; Cunha, Rivaldo Venâncio da; Bóia, Márcio Neves

    2008-12-01

    The Brazilian city of Três Lagoas, Mato Grosso do Sul State, has experienced an urban outbreak of visceral leishmaniasis since 2000. In 2002, due to the increase in the number of cases, 46 families with cases of visceral leishmaniasis were studied to verify the prevalence of asymptomatic infection in household contacts. Indirect immunofluorescence and ELISA showed a 36.4% positive infection rate. There were no cases of symptomatic disease among these contacts. There was no statistically significant difference in gender or age. Median age was 21 years, and the 10-19-year age bracket was the most heavily affected (23%). As for family characteristics, no differences were observed in schooling or family income; most families (58.7%) owned their homes, which were built of masonry (97.8%) and had adequate infrastructure. All the families reported what were probably phlebotomine sand flies in the peridomicile. In conclusion, asymptomatic visceral leishmaniasis infection is frequent and occurs in both males and females, regardless of age. PMID:19082273

  20. Modeling the reflection of Photosynthetically active radiation in a monodominant floodable forest in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso State using multivariate statistics and neural networks.

    PubMed

    Curado, Leone F A; Musis, Carlo R DE; Cunha, Cristiano R DA; Rodrigues, Thiago R; Pereira, Vinicius M R; Nogueira, José S; Sanches, Luciana

    2016-09-01

    The study of radiation entrance and exit dynamics and energy consumption in a system is important for understanding the environmental processes that rule the biosphere-atmosphere interactions of all ecosystems. This study provides an analysis of the interaction of energy in the form of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) in the Pantanal, a Brazilian wetland forest, by studying the variation of PAR reflectance and its interaction with local rainfall. The study site is located in Private Reserve of Natural Heritage, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, where the vegetation is a monodominant forest of Vochysia divergens Phol. The results showed a high correlation between the reflection of visible radiation and rainfall; however, the behavior was not the same at the three heights studied. An analysis of the hourly variation of the reflected waves also showed the seasonality of these phenomena in relation to the dry and rainy seasons. A predictive model for PAR was developed with a neural network that has a hidden layer, and it showed a determination coefficient of 0.938. This model showed that the Julian day and time of measurements had an inverse association with the wind profile and a direct association with the relative humidity profile. PMID:27556220

  1. Relation of the activities of the IPDF/INPE project (reforestation subproject) during the year 1979. [Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Filho, P. H.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Demedeiros, J. S.; Desantana, C. C.; Alves, E. C. M.

    1981-01-01

    The state of Mato Grosso do Sul was selected as the study area to define the recognizable classes of Eucalyptus spp. and Pinus spp. by visual and automatic analyses. For visual analysis, a preliminary interpretation key and a legend of 6 groups were derived. Based on these six groups, three final classes were defined for analysis: (1) area prepared for reforestation; (2) area reforested with Eucalyptus spp.; and (3) area reforested with Pinus spp. For automatic interpretation the area along the highway from Ribas do Rio Pardo to Agua Clara was classified into the following classes: eucalytus, bare soil, plowed soil, pine and "cerrado". The results of visual analysis show that 67% of the reforested farms have relative differences in area estimate below 5%, 22%, between 5% and 10%; and 11% between 10% and 20%. The reforested eucalyptus area is 17 times greater than the area of reforested pine. Automatic classification of eucalyptus ranged from 73.03% to 92.30% in the training areas.

  2. [Epidemiological trends for malaria in the cities of the upper Paraguay River basin, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil 1990-1996].

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, W K; Vicente, M G; Silva, M A; de Castro, L L

    1998-01-01

    Through the Regional Office of the Brazilian National Health Foundation in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, we obtained numerical data on malaria for the upper Paraguay basin (UPB): 159 cases in 1990, 126 in 1991, 135 in 1992, 61 in 1993, 143 in 1994, 41 in 1995, and 20 in 1996, the majority of which were imported cases. There were no autochthonous cases in 1990, and since 1991 the rates of over 15% dropped to around 1.60%. Imported cases, corresponding to 0. 63% in 1990, increased in 1991 and 1992 to some 1.50%, and to 3.28% in 1993. Induced cases were recorded only in 1991 and 1992 (less than 1%). Most cases were between 16 and 45 years of age. There was a predominance of Plasmodium vivax in the thick blood smears. Although autochthonous cases of malaria are not the majority, the disease is still an important public health problem in the UPB in the presence of the Anopheles (N.) darlingi vector and human migration into the region. PMID:9878912

  3. Chlamydophila psittaci in free-living Blue-fronted Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva) and Hyacinth macaws (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Freitas Raso, Tânia; Seixas, Gláucia Helena Fernandes; Guedes, Neiva Maria Robaldo; Pinto, Aramis Augusto

    2006-10-31

    Chlamydophila psittaci (C. psittaci) infection was evaluated in 77 free-living nestlings of Blue-fronted Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva) and Hyacinth macaws (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Tracheal and cloacal swab samples from 32 wild parrot and 45 macaw nestlings were submitted to semi-nested PCR, while serum samples were submitted to complement fixation test (CFT). Although all 32 Amazon parrot serum samples were negative by CFT, cloacal swabs from two birds were positive for Chlamydophila DNA by semi-nested PCR (6.3%); these positive birds were 32 and 45 days old. In macaws, tracheal and cloacal swabs were positive in 8.9% and 26.7% of the samples, respectively. Complement-fixing antibodies were detected in 4.8% of the macaw nestlings; macaw nestlings with positive findings were between 33 and 88 days old. These results indicate widespread dissemination of this pathogen in the two evaluated psittacine populations. No birds had clinical signs suggestive of chlamydiosis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on C. psittaci in free-living Blue-fronted Amazon parrots and Hyacinth macaws in Brazil. PMID:16893616

  4. The influence of industrial and agricultural waste on water quality in the Água Boa stream (Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil).

    PubMed

    da Rocha, Monyque Palagano; Dourado, Priscila Leocadia Rosa; de Souza Rodrigues, Mayara; Raposo, Jorge Luiz; Grisolia, Alexeia Barufatti; de Oliveira, Kelly Mari Pires

    2015-07-01

    Water quality monitoring is used to determine the impact of human activities on the environment. We evaluated water quality in the Água Boa stream, located within the municipality of Dourados, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, by analyzing physico-chemical, chemical, and microbiological parameters, as well as chlorophyll concentrations. Five sets of water samples were collected between December 2012 and November 2013 from three locations within the stream. The results showed the presence of Escherichia coli and antibiotic-resistant Pseudomonas spp. strains and high concentrations of organic matter (total dissolved solids), inorganic species (Mg, Ca, and Fe), and agrochemical residues (thiamethoxam). The main stream water contaminants are derived from urban, industrial, and agricultural activities within the watershed. Given the presence of contaminants, it is important that such findings are disseminated in order to highlight the risks that contact with this water may pose to human health. To preserve the environment and improve site conditions, people would need to participate by demanding that normative national and international standards be respected and that the situation be supervised by the competent governmental agencies; this would make it possible to reverse or minimize contamination problems within the Água Boa stream. PMID:26088756

  5. Mayaro virus and dengue virus 1 and 4 natural infection in culicids from Cuiabá, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Serra, Otacília Pereira; Cardoso, Belgath Fernandes; Ribeiro, Ana Lúcia Maria; dos Santos, Fábio Alexandre Leal; Slhessarenko, Renata Dezengrini

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to verify the diversity of Culicidae species and their frequency of infection with flaviviruses and alphaviruses in Cuiabá, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Mosquitoes were captured with Nasci aspirators and hand net in 200 census tracts, identified alive at species level and pooled in one-20 (11,090 mosquitoes, 14 species). Female pools (n = 610) were subjected to multiplex seminested-reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for 11 flavivirus and five alphavirus. Positive pools were tested by single RT-PCR followed by nucleotide sequencing, by RT-PCR for E1 gene [Mayaro virus (MAYV)] and by inoculation in Vero cells (MAYV) or C6/36 cells (flaviviruses). One/171 Aedes aegypti was positive for dengue virus (DENV)-1, 12/403 Culex quinquefasciatus, and four/171Ae. aegypti for MAYV, which was isolated from two pools containing two nonengorged females of Ae. aegypti and two ofCx. quinquefasciatus. DENV-4 was detected in 58/171 pools of Ae. aegytpi, 105/403 Cx. quinquefasciatus, two/five Psorophora sp., two/11 Psorophora varipes/Psorophora albigenu, one/one Sabethes chloropterus, two/five Culex bidens/Culex interfor, and one/one Aedes sp. DENV-4 was isolated from two pools containing three and 16 nonengorged Cx. quinquefasciatus females. Phylogenetic analysis revealed MAYV belongs to genotype L, clustering with human samples of the virus previously identified in the city. Cuiabá has biodiversity and ecosystem favourable for vector proliferation, representing a risk for arbovirus outbreaks. PMID:26784852

  6. Temporal Variation in Water Quality Parameters under Different Vegetative Communities in Two Flooded Forests of the Northern Pantanal, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couto, E. G.; Dalmagro, H. J.; Lathuilliere, M. J.; Pinto Junior, O. B.; Johnson, M. S.

    2013-12-01

    The Pantanal is one of the largest flood plains in the world, and is characterized by large variability in vegetative communities and flooding dynamics. Some woody plant species have been observed to colonize large areas forming monospecific stands. We measured chemical parameters of flood waters including dissolved organic carbon (DOC), nitrate (NO3), dissolved oxygen (DO), and carbon dioxide (CO2) as well as physical parameters such as photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), temperature (Tw), turbidity (Turb) and water levels (WL). These chemical and physical measurements were conducted with the intent to characterize spatial and temporal differences of monospecific stands in order to understand if these different formations alter the biogeochemistry of the Pantanal waters. Water sample campaigns were conducted during the inundation period of January to May 2013 in two areas located in the Private Reserve of the Brazilian Social Service of Commerce (RPPN-SESC) near Poconé, Mato Grosso. Research sites included: (1) a flooded tall-stature forest (known as Cambarazal) dominated by the Vochysia divergens species; and (2) in a flooded scrub forest (known as Baia das Pedras) dominated by the Combretum lanceolatum species. Results showed three principal factors which explained 80% of variance in aquatic physical and chemical parameters. The first factor (PCA-1) explained 38% of variance (DO, PAR and WL), PCA-2 explained 23% (NO3, Tw, DOC), while PCA-3 explained only 19% of variance (CO2 and Turb). During the entire study period, the major concentration of variables were observed in the flooded forest. Physical variables presented small alterations, with the exception of water levels, that were greater in the flooded forest. With respect to temporal variables, all chemical parameters were greater at the beginning of the inundation and gradually dropped with the water level. With this work, we observed that the different monospecific formations influenced water

  7. Scoring system for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in indigenous children and adolescents under 15 years of age in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil *

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Sandra Christo; Marques, Ana Maria Campos; de Oliveira, Roselene Lopes; da Cunha, Rivaldo Venâncio

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the process of diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis in smear-negative indigenous children and adolescents under 15 years of age with the modified Brazilian National Ministry of Health Scoring System (mBNMH-SS). METHODS: This was a retrospective descriptive study involving 49 indigenous patients under 15 years of age with tuberculosis, treated between 2007 and 2010 in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. RESULTS: Of the 49 patients, 27 (56%) were under 5 years of age, 33 (67%) had symptoms suggestive of tuberculosis, 24 (49%) were underweight, and 36 (73.5%) had been BCG vaccinated. The tuberculin skin test was positive in 28 patients (57%), 18 (64%) of whom had an induration ≥ 10 mm. Chest X-rays were performed in 37 (76%) of the patients, 31 (84%) of whom had only one chest X-ray taken. Among those 37 patients, the radiological findings were suggestive of tuberculosis in 16 (43%), infiltration/condensation in 10 (27%), and normal in 4 (11%). The Indigenous Health Care Teams made the diagnosis in 31 (63%) of the cases, using the original BNMH-SS in only 14 (45%). We calculated the mBNMH-SS scores for 30 (61%) of the 49 patients. Among the 30 cases scored, a diagnosis of tuberculosis was found to be highly likely, possible, and unlikely in 16 (53%), 11 (37%), and 3 (10%), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of highly likely and possible diagnoses was consistent with the standard proportion of cases diagnosed by the teams (90%), demonstrating the epidemiological applicability of the mBNMH-SS for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in the indigenous population, within the scenario of the health care provided. PMID:23503490

  8. Slash and burn versus "agronegócio". Tales of forest degradation in the maroon area of Vila Bela da SantíssimaTrindade, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leite, José C.; Ferreira, António A. J.

    2014-05-01

    Over the last four decades, deforestation in Brazil occurred systematically in the area known as the "arcof deforestation", an extensive geographical area located in the interface of the Cerrado and the Amazon biomes. The deforestation process replaces the forest and the slash and burn agriculture systems by modern intensive agriculture systems targeted at the production of cash crops like cotton, maize or soybeans, and to graze cattle.The so called "agronegócio" system. The reduction of pristine forest areas where traditional (indigenous, maroons and riverside) population conduct slash and burn agriculture, reduces the recovery time of the abandoned fields after exhaustion by agriculture crops, reason why the return to the same spots for another cycle of slash and burn occurs before the forest recovers completely from the previous cycle. In fact, the frequency of the cycles is increasing with the expansion of farm land and the reduction of available forest. This work encompasses the reasons, causes and/or motivations of the deforestation trends in the Vila Bela da SantíssimaTrindade, near the Bolivian border of Mato Grosso in Brazil, over a time span of four decades. The arc of deforestation has passed the region in the 1980's, leaving yet a large area of pristine forest where the traditional communities kept practicing a slash and burn agriculture system. Nevertheless, due to the reduction of available area, and specially due to the exposure of traditional communities to the "western civilization culture", there is an increasing abandonment of the traditional systems and associated culture and knowledge. In this context, the traditional communities may become a deforestation/degradation factor. To prevent this situation, the GUYAGROFOR project was implemented, to value traditional knowledge, identify bottlenecks in the increase of added value to the local traditional products, and to test methodologies to maintain and if possible improve soil fertility near the

  9. Prevalence and clinical characteristics of wheezing in children in the first year of life, living in Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil☆

    PubMed Central

    Moraes, Lillian Sanchez Lacerda; Takano, Olga Akiko; Mallol, Javier; Solé, Dirceu

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence and the clinical characteristics of wheezing in infants aged 12 to 15 months in the city of Cuiabá, Mato Grosso State, Midwest Brazil. METHODS: Parents and/or guardians of infants were interviewed and completed a written standardized questionnaire of the Estudio Internacional de Sibilancia en Lactantes (EISL) - phase 3 at primary healthcare clinics at the same day of children vaccination or at home, from August of 2009 to November of 2010. RESULTS: 1,060 parents and/or guardians completed the questionnaire, and 514 (48.5%) infants were male. Among the studied infants, 294 (27.7%) had at least one episode of wheezing during the first year of life, beggining at 5.8±3.0 months of age, with a predominance of male patients. The prevalence of occasional wheezing (<3 episodes of wheezing) was 15.0% and recurrent wheezing (≥3 episodes) was 12.7%. Among the infants with recurrent wheezing, the use of inhaled β2-agonist, oral corticosteroid, leukotriene receptor antagonist, as well as night symptoms, respiratory distress, and hospitalization due to severe episodes were significantly more frequent. Physician-diagnosed asthma was observed in 28 (9.5%) of the wheezing infants. Among the wheezing infants, 80 (27.7%) were diagnosed with pneumonia, of whom 33 (11.2%) required hospitalization; neverthless, no differences between occasional and recurrent wheezing infants were found. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of recurrent wheezing and physician-diagnosed asthma in infants were lower compared with those observed in other Brazilian studies. Recurrent wheezing had early onset and high morbity. PMID:25510994

  10. Mayaro virus and dengue virus 1 and 4 natural infection in culicids from Cuiabá, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Serra, Otacília Pereira; Cardoso, Belgath Fernandes; Ribeiro, Ana Lúcia Maria; Santos, Fábio Alexandre Leal dos; Slhessarenko, Renata Dezengrini

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to verify the diversity of Culicidae species and their frequency of infection with flaviviruses and alphaviruses in Cuiabá, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Mosquitoes were captured with Nasci aspirators and hand net in 200 census tracts, identified alive at species level and pooled in one-20 (11,090 mosquitoes, 14 species). Female pools (n = 610) were subjected to multiplex seminested-reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for 11 flavivirus and five alphavirus. Positive pools were tested by single RT-PCR followed by nucleotide sequencing, by RT-PCR for E1 gene [Mayaro virus (MAYV)] and by inoculation in Vero cells (MAYV) or C6/36 cells (flaviviruses). One/171 Aedes aegypti was positive for dengue virus (DENV)-1, 12/403 Culex quinquefasciatus, and four/171Ae. aegypti for MAYV, which was isolated from two pools containing two nonengorged females of Ae. aegypti and two of Cx. quinquefasciatus. DENV-4 was detected in 58/171 pools of Ae. aegytpi, 105/403 Cx. quinquefasciatus, two/five Psorophora sp., two/11 Psorophora varipes/Psorophora albigenu, one/one Sabethes chloropterus, two/five Culex bidens/Culex interfor, and one/one Aedes sp. DENV-4 was isolated from two pools containing three and 16 nonengorged Cx. quinquefasciatus females. Phylogenetic analysis revealed MAYV belongs to genotype L, clustering with human samples of the virus previously identified in the city. Cuiabá has biodiversity and ecosystem favourable for vector proliferation, representing a risk for arbovirus outbreaks. PMID:26784852

  11. Hepatitis B Virus infection in HIV-positive population in Brazil: results of a survey in the state of Mato Grosso and a comparative analysis with other regions of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida Pereira, Rui Alberto Roldão; Hg Mussi, Aparecida Duarte; de Azevedo e Silva, Vergínia Correa; Souto, Francisco José Dutra

    2006-01-01

    Background End-stage liver disease is currently a major concern among HIV-positive individuals due to co-infection with hepatotropic virus. Hepatitis C has been pointed out as a remarkable factor for that. More recently, hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has also been found to play a role on liver disease in this population. HIV-HBV co-infection prevalence remains largely unknown in vast areas of Brazil. The objective of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of HBV and HDV infection in HIV-infected subjects living in the state of Mato Grosso, in the Central region of Brazil, and compare it to other Brazilian studies. We also assess epidemiologic data regarding risk factors and vaccinal status. Methods HIV-positive individuals followed at the Central Laboratory of the Department of Public Health of Mato Grosso in the city of Cuiabá composed the sample. Participants answered a specific questionnaire and had a blood sample taken and tested for serologic markers. Results A thousand individuals were interviewed and tested for HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HBs and anti-HDV if positive for HBsAg. Measurements of CD4 and viral load for HIV-1 were also performed. Overall prevalence of HBV exposure (anti-HBc +ve) was 40.0%, and 3.7% for HBsAg. This prevalence data was similar or slightly lower than for other Brazilian regions, which ranged from 40% and 3% to 71% and 24%, respectively. Testing for anti-HDV in the 37 HBsAg positive patients was positive in only one subject. Factors that showed independent association with HBV exposure, after adjustment, were: male gender, older age groups, tattooing, and reporting more than ten sexual partners throughout life (p < 0.01). Eighty-one (27.5%) out of 291 HBV-unexposed individuals who reported vaccination were anti-HBs positive. Anti-HBs prevalence was higher among those who had higher levels of CD4 by multivariate analysis. Conclusion Our data showed HBV infection prevalence similar or slightly lower than that reported in

  12. Fungal microbiota in air-conditioning installed in both adult and neonatal intensive treatment units and their impact in two university hospitals of the central western region, Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Simões, Sara de Almeida Alves; Leite Júnior, Diniz Pereira; Hahn, Rosane Christine

    2011-08-01

    To evaluate fungal microbiota in air-conditioning units installed in intensive care units in two university hospitals in Cuiaba city, Mato Grosso, central western region of Brazil, 525 solid environmental samples were collected, 285 from Hospital A and 240 from Hospital B. Collections were performed using sterile swabs on air-conditioning unit components: cooling coils, ventilators, and filters. Mycelial fungi identification was achieved by observation of the macroscopic and micromorphological characteristics in different culture mediums (maize meal, oatmeal and potato dextrose agars and malt extract) using the Ridell technique. Eleven genera and 27 distinct species belonging to the hyphomycetes and ascomycetes classes were isolated and identified. The most frequently detected genera in both hospitals were Aspergillus spp, Penicillium spp, and Cladosporium spp. Values for colony-forming units per gram were 64 and 75%, well above the limits recommended by Health Ministry resolution 176/00 at the locations selected for analysis in Hospitals A and B, respectively. In conclusion, evaluation of fungal microbiota in the air-conditioning units indirectly determined that the air quality was compromised in both university hospitals analyzed, which constitutes a risk factor for the acquisition of infection in the intensive care units. PMID:21424438

  13. Evaluation of the efficiency of nested q-PCR in the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex directly from tuberculosis-suspected lesions in post-mortem macroscopic inspections of bovine carcasses slaughtered in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Ricardo César Tavares; Furlanetto, Leone Vinícius; Maruyama, Fernanda Harumy; Araújo, Cristina Pires de; Barros, Sílvia Letícia Bomfim; Ramos, Carlos Alberto do Nascimento; Dutra, Valéria; Araújo, Flábio Ribeiro de; Paschoalin, Vânia Margaret Flosi; Nakazato, Luciano; Figueiredo, Eduardo Eustáquio de Souza

    2015-08-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is a zoonotic disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis, a member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC). The quick and specific detection of this species is of extreme importance, since BTB may cause economic impacts, in addition to presenting imminent risks to human health. In the present study a nested real-time PCR test (nested q-PCR) was used in post-mortem evaluations to assess cattle carcasses with BTB-suspected lesions. A total of 41,193 cattle slaughtered in slaughterhouses located in the state of Mato Grosso, were examined. Of the examined animals, 198 (0.48%) showed BTB-suspected lesions. M. bovis was isolated in 1.5% (3/198) of the samples. Multiplex-PCR detected MTC in 7% (14/198) of the samples. The nested q-PCR test detected MTC in 28% (56/198) of the BTB-suspected lesions, demonstrating higher efficiency when compared to the multiplex-PCR and conventional microbiology. Nested q-PCR can therefore be used as a complementary test in the national program for control and eradication of bovine tuberculosis. PMID:25863190

  14. G8P[6] rotaviruses isolated from Amerindian children in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, during 2009: close relationship of the G and P genes with those of bovine and bat strains.

    PubMed

    Luchs, Adriana; Timenetsky, Maria do Carmo Sampaio Tavares

    2014-03-01

    During the 2009 national group A rotavirus (RVA) surveillance, five unusual strains of the human G8P[6] genotype were detected in Brazilian indian children with acute gastroenteritis. The aim of this study was to carry out sequence analysis of the two outer capsid proteins (VP4 and VP7) and the inner capsid protein (VP6) of the G8P[6] strains detected in order to provide further information on the genetic relationship between human and animal RVA. A total of 68 stool samples, collected in Mato Grosso do Sul during 2009, were tested for RVA using ELISA, following by reverse transcriptase-PCR and sequencing. RVA infection was detected in 7.3% of samples (5/68). The IAL-RN376 G8 sequence shares a clade with bovine and human strains, displaying highest nucleotide identity to African human strains DRC86 and DRC88, followed by African bovine strain NGRBg8. IAL-RN376 and IAL-RN377 P[6] sequences showed highest identity to human strain R330 from Ireland, and a close genetic relationship to African fruit bat RVA strain KE4852/07. Strains IAL-RN376 and IAL-RN377 display genogroup I VP6 specificity and the I2 genotype, and share high nucleotide identities with human strains B1711, 272-BF and 06-242, and moderate identities with bovine (RUBV81, 86 and KJ9-1) and porcine (HP140) strains. This study suggested that a reassortment between bovine and bat RVA strains could have occurred in animal host(s) preceding the transmission to humans. In the indigenous population, zoonotic transmission is probably fairly frequent as the inhabitants live in close contact with animals under conditions of poor hygiene. PMID:24259191

  15. Eastern Borderlands in German Schoolbooks, 1890-1945

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Katharine

    2007-01-01

    Continuities and changes in stories, poems and historical texts over several generations of German textbooks, from the final decades of the Kaiserreich through the Weimar Republic to the Third Reich, show how schools encouraged children to imagine Germany's eastern borderlands and to incorporate them into their sense of national belonging. The…

  16. Super-deep diamonds from kimberlites in the Juina area, Mato Grosso State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminsky, Felix V.; Khachatryan, Galina K.; Andreazza, Paulo; Araujo, Debora; Griffin, William L.

    2009-11-01

    One thousand three hundred sixty-five diamonds from seven newly discovered kimberlitic pipes in the Juina area were comprehensively studied. These diamonds, like the ones from previously studied Juina placer deposits, are very homogeneous in their morphology and optical properties. Two diamond populations exist in the Pandrea pipes: the major population with a highly aggregated nitrogen impurity (% N B = 75-100%), and a secondary population with a moderately aggregated nitrogen impurity (% N B = 20-65%), while only one major population is present in the diamonds from placers. The diamonds from the pipes have a permanent, relatively high hydrogen impurity concentration. Among the mineral inclusions in diamonds from the Juina pipes, ferropericlase is predominant; chrome spinel, picroilmenite, Mn-ilmenite, MgCaSi-'perovskite' phase, rutile, sulphide, native iron, and iron-oxides were also identified. Most of the inclusions belong to the lower-mantle paragenesis; some (rutile and sulphide) are of eclogitic paragenesis. Mineral inclusions in diamonds from kimberlitic pipes are different in composition from the same minerals in placer diamonds. Both kimberlitic and placer diamonds belong to the same carbon isotopic population, but have differences in the δ13C distribution and were probably formed from different local carbon sources. These data indicate that diamonds from both groups, kimberlites and placer deposits, in the Juina area, belong to the same genetic population with most of the stones originating within the super-deep conditions. However, there are differences between these two groups, which indicate that besides the known Pandrea pipes which may have partly supplied diamonds to the placer deposits, there may be other, still unknown primary sources of diamonds in the Juina area.

  17. Kimberlitic sources of super-deep diamonds in the Juina area, Mato Grosso State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminsky, Felix V.; Sablukov, Sergei M.; Belousova, Elena A.; Andreazza, Paulo; Tremblay, Mousseau; Griffin, William L.

    2010-01-01

    The Juina diamond field, in the 1970-80s, was producing up to 5-6 million carats per year from rich placer deposits, but no economic primary deposits had been found in the area. In 2006-2007, Diagem Inc. discovered a group of diamondiferous kimberlitic pipes within the Chapadão Plateau (Chapadão, or Pandrea cluster), at the head of a drainage system which has produced most of the alluvial diamonds mined in the Juina area. Diamonds from placer deposits and newly discovered kimberlites are identical; they have super-deep origins from the upper-mantle and transition zone. Field observations and petrographic studies have identified crater-facies kimberlitic material at seven separate localities. Kimberlitic material is represented by tuffs, tuffisites and various epiclastic sediments containing chrome spinel, picroilmenite, manganoan ilmenite, zircon and diamond. The diamond grade varies from 0.2-1.8 ct/m 3. Chrome spinel has 30-61 wt.% Cr 2O 3. Picroilmenite contains 6-14 wt.% MgO and 0.2-4 wt.% Cr 2O 3. Manganoan ilmenite has less than 3 wt.% MgO and 0.38-1.41 wt.% MnO. The 176Hf/ 177Hf ratio in kimberlitic zircons is 0.028288-0.28295 with ɛHf = 5.9-8.3, and lies on the average kimberlite trend between depleted mantle and CHUR. The previously known barren and weakly diamondiferous kimberlites in the Juina area have ages of 79-80 Ma. In contrast, zircons from the newly discovered Chapadão kimberlites have a mean 206Pb/ 238U age of 93.6 ± 0.4 Ma, corresponding to a time of magmatic activity related to the opening of the southern part of the Atlantic Ocean. The most likely mechanism of the origin of kimberlitic magma is super-deep subduction process that initiated partial melting of zones in lower mantle with subsequent ascent of proto-kimberlitic magma.

  18. Petrology of potassic alkaline ultramafic and carbonatitic rocks from Planalto da Serra (Mato Grosso State), Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comin-Chiaramonti, Piero; Gomes, Celso B.; De Min, Angelo; Ruberti, Excelso; Girardi, Vicente A. V.; Slejko, Francesca; Neder, Renato D.; Pinho, Francisco E. C.

    2014-12-01

    The Planalto da Serra igneous rocks form plugs, necks and dykes of carbonate-rich ultramafic lamprophyres (aillikites and glimmerites with kamafugitic affinity) and carbonatites (alvikites and beforsites). Phlogopite and/or tetraphlogopite, diopside and melanitic garnet are restricted to aillikitic rock-types, whereas pyroclore occurs only in carbonatites. Aillikites and carbonatites are altered to hydrotermalites, having chlorite and serpentine as dominant minerals. Planalto da Serra igneous rock association has kamafugitic affinity (i.e. effusive, ultrapotassic. High LREE/HREE fractionation, incompatible elements data and Sr-Nd isotopes, suggest that the K-ultramafic alkaline and carbonatite rocks originated from a variably metasomatized mantle source enriched in radiogenic Sr. Crustal contamination is negligible or absent. Age values of 600 Ma rule out the geochronological relationship between the investigated intrusions and the Mesozoic alkaline bodies from the Azimuth 125° lineament. The TDM model ages allow to conclude that Planalto da Serra magma is derived from the partial melting of a mantle source metasomatised by K-rich carbonatated melt during the Early to Late Neoproterozoic. On the basis of alkaline magmatism repetitions at 600 Ma and 90-80 Ma we question the subsistence of a stationary mantle plume for so long time.

  19. Monitoring of reforested areas using LANDSAT data. [Ribas do Rio Pardo, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Filho, P. H.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.

    1981-01-01

    Imagery obtained with channels 5 and 7 was visually interpreted in an effort to determine the spatial, spectral, and temporal characteristics of a 105,000 hectare area of Fazenda Mutum which was reforested with various species of pine and eucalyptus. It was possible to map a reforested area as small as 6 hectare in its initial implantation using contrast with the surrounding targets. Five classes were mapped: nondeforested areas, partially deforested areas, deforested areas, partially reforested areas, and fully reforested areas. In 1979, 12,000 hectare were deforested, 4,330.83 hectare were partially reforested, and 42,744.71 hectare were reforested.

  20. Geologic survey in the south-central region of Mato Grosso

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Balieiro, M. G.

    1983-01-01

    The field observations made in the Cuiaba Project area are described. Many geologic cross-sections were done in which the stratigraphic units and the geologic structures defined in the literature and observed in the LANDSAT MSS imagery were recognized.

  1. Together and apart: twin beds, domestic hygiene and modern marriage, 1890-1945.

    PubMed

    Hinds, Hilary

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the advent of twin beds as a common sleeping arrangement for English couples. Through an analysis of a range of sources from the late nineteenth to mid twentieth centuries - marketing materials, advertisements, domestic, decorative and marital advice books and novels and films - it argues that while twin beds were initially recommended by proponents of the domestic sanitation movement as part of a raft of hygiene measures, by the 1920s they had become a fashionable item of bedroom furniture for modern couples in "companionate" marriages. It was in this context that Marie Stopes, in her popular marital advice books, railed against them as an "invention of the devil", symptomatic of the evils of modernity, and endangering the happiness of the modern married couple. The article concludes that, despite these changing contexts of consumption, the significance of the history of twin beds needs to be understood through the intersecting discourses of domesticity, health and sexuality. PMID:20827840

  2. Antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Pseudomonas spp. isolated from a swine slaughterhouse in Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Kelly M P; dos S Júlio, Péricles D; Grisolia, Alexéia B

    2013-01-01

    The present work sought to detect the presence of Pseudomonas spp. at different stages of an effluent treatment plant using the Australian system of stabilization ponds, and to determine the susceptibility of those isolates to different antimicrobials. Thirty-four isolates of Pseudomonas spp. derived from effluent treatment station water samples were collected near the transfer ducts between the ponds in November/2008 and december/2009. Among the Pseudomonas spp. isolates, 47.05 % showed susceptibility to all antimicrobials tested, 20.58 % were resistant to cefepime, and 24 % showed intermediate resistance to streptomycin. No Pseudomonas spp. isolates were found in the final pond, or in post-treatment effluents. The Pseudomonas spp. isolates did not exhibit multiresistance to the antimicrobials tested. PMID:23560791

  3. Floristic analysis and dispersal syndromes of woody species of the Serra de Maracaju, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ramos, W M; Sartori, A L B

    2013-02-01

    This paper presents a floristic survey of the wood component of cerrado s.s. (eastern face) and gallery forest (western face) areas carried out in the southern part of the Serra de Maracaju. The dispersal syndromes and floristic relations of this portion of the Serra were compared to those of other formations from different regions of Brazil. Between October 2007 and September 2008, monthly collections identified 144 species. As for dispersal syndromes, zoochory prevails, followed by autochory and anemochory. The gallery forest is a heterogeneous formation that shelters floristic elements shared with the Atlantic rain forest, the Amazonian forest, semi-deciduous seasonal forests and dry forests of the Pantanal. Low similarity between the two areas analyzed makes this region unique and suggests that the Serra de Maracaju is greatly influenced by the semi-deciduous seasonal forests of the southeastern region. PMID:23644790

  4. Surveying the area of deforestation of the Amazon by LANDSAT satellite imagery. [Mato grosso, Goias and Para, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Tardin, A. T.; Dossantos, A. P.; Lee, D. C. L.; Soaresmaia, F. C.; Mendonca, F. J.; Assuncao, G. V.; Rodrigues, J. E.; Demouraabdon, M.; Novaes, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    LANDSAT imagery was used to determine the amount of deforestation in a study area comprising 55 million hectares of the Amazon region. Results show that more than 4 million hectares were deforested. Maps and pictures of the deforested area in relation to the total area of the Amazon are included.

  5. Indirect estimation of the tectonic evolution of magnetic structures along the Indiavaí-Lucialva Shear Zone, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louro, V. H.; Ribeiro, V. B.; Mantovani, M. S.; Geolit Team

    2013-05-01

    The Indiavaí-Lucialva Shear Zone (ILSZ) has a notorious cinematic standard, moving from SW to NE, juxtaposing the Santa Helena Granitic Batholith to the metavolcanosedimentary sets and orthogneisses from the Jauru Domain basement. Along the ILSZ, a sequence of magnetic anomalies of high interference, with each other, and varied polarities occurs, what suggests the presence of different lithologies or times of (re)crystallization of the ferromagnetic minerals from these magnetic structures. In its southernmost portion, the sequence of magnetic anomalies splits in two directions, SW and SE, with the first invading the limits of the Santa Helena batholith and, the latest, accompanying the ILSZ. This study aimed for the comprehension of complex tectonic setting of this region. It analyzed the set of anomalies estimating their lateral limits, depths and directions of total magnetization, with the Enhanced Horizontal Derivatives (EHD), its extrapolation for depth estimative (EHD-Depth), and through an iterative reduction to the magnetic pole, respectively. This procedure allowed the composition of initial models for further inversions of magnetic data which, results, indicate contrasts of magnetic susceptibility in sub-surface. Once known the approximated 3-D shape of the magnetic structures along the ILSZ, the total magnetization intensity of each anomaly was recovered, what consequently allowed, by vector subtraction, to estimate their individual remnant magnetization. The remnant magnetization's inclinations and declinations of the anomalies sources and their latitudes and longitudes permitted the calculus of their respective virtual magnetic paleopoles. When confronted with the South American paleopole wander path and the datings linked to this path, available in the literature, it was possible to have an indirect approximation of the age of (re)crystallization of each magnetic structure near the ILSZ. This procedure indicated an increasing of the ages of the structures from SE (1298 Ma) to NW (1439 Ma). The southwestern anomalies invading the Santa Helena batholith showed ages of approximately 1419 Ma, what allows to infer their allocation with the rest of the intrusion of the batholith.; Total magnetic field map of the region of the ILSZ, locating the studied anomalies, mineral occurences and tectonic limits.

  6. Habitats and trophic relationships of Chironomidae insect larvae from the Sepotuba River basin, Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Butakka, C M M; Grzybkowska, M; Pinha, G D; Takeda, A M

    2014-05-01

    Benthic habitats are linked by physical processes and are essential elements in assessing of the distribution dynamics of Chironomidae dipteran insects and their role in aquatic ecosystems. This work presents results of distribution patterns of chironomids larvae in 38 sites that are abundant in the study site, inhabiting the substrate of the main river channel, rapids, tributary brook, floodplain lakes and reservoir along the Sepotuba River from its mouth at the Paraguay River to the headwater region. A total of 1,247 larvae was registered. The most abundant taxa were Polypedilum (Tripodura) sp. (25.2%), Cricotopus sp.3 (23.0%) and Tanytarsus sp. (15.0%). Fissimentum desiccatum were found only in the reservoir; Fissimentum sp.2 and Tanytarsus cf. T. obiriciae sp.2 in floodplain lakes, and Goeldichironomus sp. in the main channel. The low diversity of the sites S06 and S35 is caused by the near-exclusive presence of the species Cricotopus sp.3, alone or together with one or another taxon (Tanytarsus sp., Djalmabatista sp.3). Collectors-filterers represent 16%, collectors-gatherers 15%, predators 11% and scrapers only 1%. The predators dominated in the secondary channel (±88 ind/m2), corresponding to 40% of the total of this group. Cryptochironomus sp.2 (34%) and Ablasbemyia gr. annulata (26%) were the most abundant among the predators. The differences along the river course are decisive for the formation of distinct or discontinuous communities and the limits become obvious though the interrelations between the populations in the community, as for instance, competition for food and habitats. PMID:25166324

  7. An ecological economics approach to estimate the value of a fragmented wetland in Brazil (Mato Grosso do Sul state).

    PubMed

    Carvalho, A R

    2007-11-01

    The Upper Paraná River floodplain is the last lotic stretch of an ecosystem seriously threatened given that circa 50% of the original ecosystem has been converted into reservoirs. To assess the recreational value of the Upper Paraná River floodplain, 174 tourists were interviewed using the Willingness to Pay--WTP and Travel Cost--TC methods. The annual aggregated WTP attributed by tourists was US$ 122.50 million and the variables which determine the decision in willingness to pay for the Floodplain are: 'consider oneself as a Floodplain natural resources consumer' and 'marital state'. If the single person considers her/himself as a consumer of floodplain natural resources, the WTP increases by a multiplicative factor of 38.8. The value aggregated by the TC method was US$ 234 millions and decreased by zone as the distance increases. Higher income and traveling farther increases the travel cost, which is inversely related to annual trip frequency. The total recreational value (356.5 millions per year) is high and representative since it refers to an environment fragmented by dams and with many anthropogenic effects. Therefore, the progressive changes on the landscape are a threat to local tourism, since half of the visitors are attracted solely by the scenic beauty, thereby overtaking those factors considered more important by public decision makers and managers, such as recreational fishery or boating. PMID:18278318

  8. Flooded native pastures of the northern region of the Pantanal of Mato Grosso: biomass and primary productivity variations.

    PubMed

    Pozer, C G; Nogueira, F

    2004-11-01

    The Pantanal comprises a number of landscape units, submitted to a flood pulse with variable intensity or regularity. One of these units, the flooded plains, is important in cattle raising. This study was carried out in the northern portion of the Pantanal and presents data related to the productive dynamics of the flooded native pastures both protected from and exposed to cattle. The greatest total biomass values were for the protected pasture due to accumulated dead biomass. Net primary production presented smaller values at the flood-season start and increasing gradually beginning in the subsequent rainy season. However, consumption by cattle was also more intense during the months of greater precipitation. The effect of cattle in pastures is of fundamental importance to management since it prevents the dead biomass excess that increases fire risks. PMID:15744427

  9. Epidemiological profile of exogenous poisoning in children and adolescents from a municipality in the state of Mato Grosso☆

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Felipe Ferreira S.; Suchara, Eliane Aparecida

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the epidemiology of exogenous intoxications in children and adolescents of Barra Garças, Mato Grosso, from January 2008 to September 2013. METHOD: This was a cross-sectional, retrospective, and descriptive epidemiological study. Data were collected from the Disease Notification System (Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação [SINAN]) of the municipality, processed using Microsoft Excel, and evaluated through BIOESTAT statistical software. The variables included were: sex; age; toxic agent; time and place of service; route of administration; circumstance; and classification of intoxication. The age range was established according to the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, comprising children aged from 0 to 9 years old and adolescents aged from 10 to 19 years old. RESULTS: A total of 125 cases of accidental exogenous poisoning was registered, including 77 children and 48 adolescents. Food and beverages (38.4%) and drugs (24.0%) were the most common groups of toxic agents responsible for the poisoning. The largest age group affected by intoxication was composed of children aged from 0 to 4 years old (43.2%) and adolescents aged from 10 to 14 years old (19.7%). Regarding the circumstances, intoxication occurred due to suicide attempts (16.8%) and accidental events (23.2%) in adolescents and children, respectively. The study revealed a higher frequency of poisoning in girls. CONCLUSION: Exogenous intoxications occurred predominantly in children up to 4 years old, through the accidental consumption of food or drinks. Thus, the adoption of educational prevention programs for children's family members and caregivers is necessary. PMID:25510992

  10. Molecular and serological detection of tick-borne pathogens in dogs from an area endemic for Leishmania infantum in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Keyla Carstens Marques; André, Marcos Rogério; Herrera, Heitor Miraglia; de Andrade, Gisele Braziliano; Jusi, Marcia Mariza Gomes; dos Santos, Luciana Ladislau; Barreto, Wanessa Teixeira Gomes; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; de Oliveira, Gilson Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Tick-borne pathogens affect a wide range of vertebrate hosts. To identify tick-borne pathogens among dogs from Campo Grande, MS, Brazil testing seropositive for Leishmania infantum (syn. L. chagasi), a serological and molecular study was conducted to detect Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma platys and Babesia vogeli in 60 serum and spleen samples. A confirmatory diagnosis of L. infantum based on serological and molecular assays was also performed, as was sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis to assess the identity of the parasite species infecting these animals. IgG antibodies to Ehrlichia spp., B. vogeli and L. infantum were found, respectively, in 39 (65%), 49 (81.6%) and 60 (100%) of the sampled dogs. Twenty-seven (45%), fifty-four (90%), fifty-three (88.3%), two (3.3%) and one (1.6%) dog were positive, respectively, for E. canis, Leishmania spp., Leishmania donovani complex, Babesia sp. and Anaplasma sp. in PCR assays. After sequencing, the amplicons showed 99% of identity with E. canis, B. vogeli, A. platys and Leishmania chagasi isolates. The findings of this study indicate that L. infantum-seropositive dogs from Campo Grande are exposed to multiple tick-borne pathogens, which should therefore be included in the differential diagnosis of dogs with clinical suspicion of leishmaniasis. PMID:24473877

  11. Uranium and thorium series disequilibrium in quaternary carbonate deposits from the Serra da Bodoquena and Pantanal do Miranda, Mato Grosso do Sul State, central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, F B; Roque, A; Boggiani, P C; Flexor, J M

    2001-01-01

    Activities of gamma-ray emitting members of the uranium (238U) and thorium (232Th) series were measured in a quaternary limestone deposit that outcrops in the southeastern Pantanal Matogrossense Basin and in quaternary tufas deposited at the drainage of the Serra da Bodoquena. It is a first step in a study of the mobilization of uranium and thorium series and its relation to surface hydrology, in a region where carbonate deposits are being continuously dissolved and reprecipitated. The obtained results show that all these deposits are characterized by very low concentrations of uranium and thorium. The 238U/226Ra and 228Th/228Ra activity ratios are significantly different than 1.0, indicating that both series are in radioactive disequilibrium. Although the Serra da Bodoquena deposits seem to be very recent, their very fine granulation and high porosity suggest that they behave as open systems for geochemical exchanges of uranium and thorium series members. The Pantanal do Miranda limestone has a radiocarbon age of 3900 yr BP. Since the thorium series is in disequilibrium it is also concluded that this deposit behaves as an open system for geochemical exchanges. PMID:11144246

  12. [The demographic revolution among Brazilian indigenous peoples: the case of the Kayabí in the Xingu Indian Reservation, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, 1970-2007].

    PubMed

    Pagliaro, Heloisa

    2010-03-01

    This paper analyzes the demographic dynamics of the Kayabí, a Tupi people in the Xingu Indian Reservation in Central Brazil, from 1970 to 2007. Data were gathered from vital statistics for the Xingu Indian Reservation at the Federal University in São Paulo. Contact with Brazilian national society from 1920 to 1950 in the Upper Teles Pires River Valley led to a population decrease due to clashes and epidemics. In 1952, part of the Kayabí group gradually began migrating to the Xingu, where they still live. In 1970 there were 204 Kayabí in Xingu villages, and by 2007 there were 1,162, representing a 4.8% annual growth rate. For 2000-2007 the crude birth rate was 51 per thousand inhabitants; total fertility rate 7.8 children per women; crude death crude 3.5 per thousand inhabitants; and infant mortality rate 17.5 per thousand live births. The majority of the population is under 15 years of age (55.9%). The results show a population recovery process, similar to that of some other indigenous group in Brazil. PMID:20464076

  13. Serological markers of viral, syphilitic and toxoplasmic infection in children and teenagers with nephrotic syndrome: case series from Mato Grosso State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Soares, Silvania França da Silva; Donatti, Teresinha Lermen; Souto, Francisco José Dutra

    2014-01-01

    Some infections can be the cause of secondary nephrotic syndrome. The aim of this study was to describe the experience of a Renal Disease Reference Clinic from Central Brazil, in which serological markers of some infectious agents are systematically screened in children with nephrotic syndrome. Data were obtained from the assessment of medical files of all children under fifteen years of age, who matched nephrotic syndrome criteria. Subjects were tested for IgG and IgM antibodies against T. gondii and cytomegalovirus; antibodies against Herpes simplex, hepatitis C virus and HIV; and surface antigen (HBsAg) of hepatitis B virus. The VDRL test was also performed. 169 cases were studied. The median age on the first visit was 44 months and 103 (60.9%) patients were male. Anti-CMV IgG and IgM were found in 70.4% and 4.1%, respectively. IgG and IgM against Toxoplasma gondii were present in 32.5% and 5.3%, respectively. Two patients were positive for HBsAg, but none showed markers for HIV, hepatitis C, or Treponema pallidum. IgG and IgM against herpes simplex virus were performed on 54 patients, of which 48.1% and 22.2% were positive. IgM antibodies in some children with clinical signs of recent infection suggest that these diseases may play a role in the genesis of nephrotic syndrome. PMID:25351544

  14. SEROLOGICAL MARKERS OF VIRAL, SYPHILITIC AND TOXOPLASMIC INFECTION IN CHILDREN AND TEENAGERS WITH NEPHROTIC SYNDROME: CASE SERIES FROM MATO GROSSO STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Silvania França da Silva; Donatti, Teresinha Lermen; Souto, Francisco José Dutra

    2014-01-01

    Some infections can be the cause of secondary nephrotic syndrome. The aim of this study was to describe the experience of a Renal Disease Reference Clinic from Central Brazil, in which serological markers of some infectious agents are systematically screened in children with nephrotic syndrome. Data were obtained from the assessment of medical files of all children under fifteen years of age, who matched nephrotic syndrome criteria. Subjects were tested for IgG and IgM antibodies against T. gondii and cytomegalovirus; antibodies against Herpes simplex, hepatitis C virus and HIV; and surface antigen (HBsAg) of hepatitis B virus. The VDRL test was also performed. 169 cases were studied. The median age on the first visit was 44 months and 103 (60.9%) patients were male. Anti-CMV IgG and IgM were found in 70.4% and 4.1%, respectively. IgG and IgM against Toxoplasma gondii were present in 32.5% and 5.3%, respectively. Two patients were positive for HBsAg, but none showed markers for HIV, hepatitis C, or Treponema pallidum. IgG and IgM against herpes simplex virus were performed on 54 patients, of which 48.1% and 22.2% were positive. IgM antibodies in some children with clinical signs of recent infection suggest that these diseases may play a role in the genesis of nephrotic syndrome. PMID:25351544

  15. [Financial and economic sustainability of public spending on health care by local governments: an analysis of data from municipalities in Mato Grosso State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Scatena, João Henrique Gurtler; Viana, Ana Luiza d'Avila; Tanaka, Oswaldo Yoshimi

    2009-11-01

    Brazil's Unified National Health System is financed according to a model known as fiscal federalism, the fund-sharing rules of the Social Security Budget, Ministry of Health norms, and Constitutional Amendment 29 (EC-29), which links Federal, State, and municipal resources to health. This article discusses the sustainability of public spending on health at the municipal level. Twenty-one municipalities were studied, using municipal budget data. From 1996 to 2006, total current per capita revenues increased by 280% above the accumulated inflation and Gross Domestic Product, varying by size of municipality, which also defined the composition of the municipal budgets. Meanwhile, the budget comprising the basis for EC-29 increased less (178%), thus placing limits on the municipal share of health spending. The results observed in these municipalities are believed to reflect the reality in thousands of other Brazilian municipalities, thus jeopardizing the capacity for municipal investment in health, especially beginning in 2008. The situation may become even worse, considering the repeal of the so-called Bank Transaction Tax (CPMF), Bills of Law 306/08 and 233/08 (currently under review in the National Congress), and the world recession stemming from the U.S. financial crisis. PMID:19936481

  16. Xingu Project - Integrating Land Use Planning and Water Governance in Amazonia: Towards Improved Freshwater Security in the Agricultural Frontier of Mato Grosso.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krusche, A. V.; Ballester, M. V.; Neill, C.; Elsenbeer, H.; Johnson, M. S.; Coe, M. T.; Garavello, M.; Molina, S. G.; Empinotti, V.; Reichardt, F.; Deegan, L.; Harris, L.

    2014-12-01

    The main goal of this project is to identify how impacts from land conversion, cropland expansion and intensification of both crop and animal production interact to affect regional evapotranspiration, rainfall generation, river flooding, and water quality and stream habitats, allowing us to identify thresholds of change that will endanger agricultural production, livelihoods of non-agricultural settlers and the region's new urban population and infrastructure. We will survey the effects of this on (1) soybean farmers, (2) cattle ranchers, (3) small-scale farm families, (4) rural non-agriculturists, including fishers, and (5) urban residents and map their roles as stakeholders. We will also conduct current water use surveys among the different stakeholder groups, accompanied by questions on desired aspects for future freshwater security to identify targets for desirable outcomes of water governance strategies. These targets, together with the information on land use drivers, water quantity and quality and predicted scenarios for global changes will be incorporated into a fully integrated and interactive geospatially oriented socio-ecological model that can serve as framework for future water governance that enhances Freshwater Security in such systems. This is an international cooperation initiative lead by Brazil and with the participation of Canada, Germany and United States of America.

  17. 78 FR 6173 - Diana Del Grosso, Ray Smith, Joseph Hatch, Cheryl Hatch, Kathleen Kelley, Andrew Wilklund, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Diana Del Grosso, Ray Smith, Joseph Hatch, Cheryl Hatch, Kathleen... Smith, Joseph Hatch, Cheryl Hatch, Kathleen Kelley, Andrew Wilklund, and Richard Kosiba...

  18. Host-Parasite Relationship of Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae and Argasidae) and Feral Pigs (Sus scrofa) in the Nhecolândia Region of the Pantanal Wetlands in Mato Grosso do Sul

    PubMed Central

    Cançado, P. H. D.; Faccini, J. L. H.; Herrera, H. M.; Tavares, L. E. R.; Mourão, G. M.; Piranda, E. M.; Paes, R. C. S.; Ribeiro, C. C. D. U.; Borghesan, T. C.; Piacenti, A. K.; Kinas, M. A.; Santos, C. C.; Ono, T. M.; Paiva, F.

    2013-01-01

    Feral pigs (S. scrofa) were introduced to the Pantanal region around 200 years ago and the population appears to be in expansion. Its eradication is considered to be impossible. The population of feral pigs in the Pantanal wetlands is currently estimated at one million. Two scientific excursions were organized. The first was conducted during the dry season, when 21 feral pigs were captured and the second was during the wet season, when 23 feral pigs were captured. Ticks were collected and the oviposition and hatching process were studied to confirm the biological success of each tick species. Three tick species were found to be feeding on feral pigs: Amblyomma cajennense, A. parvum, and Ornithodoros rostratus. During the dry season, 178 adult A. cajennense were collected, contrasting with 127 A. cajennense specimens in the wet season. This suggests that the seasonality of these ticks in the Brazilian Pantanal wetlands could be different from other regions. The results indicate that A. parvum and A. cajennense are biologically successful parasites in relation to feral pigs. A. cajennense appears to have adapted to this tick-host relationship, as well as the areas where feral pigs are abundant, and could play a role in the amplification of this tick population. PMID:27335855

  19. Between the Remnants of Colonialism and the Insurgence of Self-Narrative in Constructing Participatory Social Maps: Towards a Land Education Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Michèle; Silva, Regina; Jaber, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    This article summarizes a social mapping project conducted by the Environmental Education, Communication and Arts Research Group from the Federal University of Mato Grosso. The primary goals of the project were to map the vulnerable social groups of Mato Grosso, and identify the social and environmental conflicts that put them in situations of…

  20. On the taxonomy of the Brazilian flea beetle genus Miritius Bechyné & Bechyné (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini: Monoplatina)
    with description of two new species.

    PubMed

    Morais, Ana Carla C; Ribeiro-Costa, Cibele S; Linzmeier, Adelita M

    2016-01-01

    A taxonomic study was performed on the Brazilian genus Miritius Bechyné & Bechyné of Monoplatina, Alticini. Here Miritius and two of its species are redescribed and descriptions for another two new species were provided: Miritius abdominalis Morais & Linzmeier sp. nov. (Mato Grosso, Brazil) and Miritius claudius Morais & Linzmeier sp. nov. (Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil). For the first time characters of the male and female genitalia, illustrations and a key to the Miritius species are presented. PMID:27395878

  1. Brazil: Xingu River

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-18

    ... title:  Fire and Deforestation near the Xingu River     View Larger Image Numerous fires occurred near the headwaters of the Xingu River and the Xingu Indigenous Peoples' Reserve in Mato Grosso, Brazil, during ...

  2. New species and records of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three new species of Anastrepha from Brazil are described and illustrated: A. matogrossensis (Mato Grosso), A. oiapoquensis (Amapá), and A. siculigera (Amapá). Anastrepha rafaeli Norrbom & Korytkowski also is reported from the state of Tocantins....

  3. Evaluation of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) resistance to different acaricide formulations using samples from Brazilian properties.

    PubMed

    Higa, Leandro de Oliveira Souza; Garcia, Marcos Valério; Barros, Jacqueline Cavalcante; Koller, Wilson Werner; Andreotti, Renato

    2016-06-01

    The Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick is responsible for considerable economic losses in Brazil, causing leather damage, weight loss and reduced milk production in cattle and results in the transmission of pathogens. Currently, the main method for controlling this tick is using acaricides, but their indiscriminate use is one of the major causes of resistance dissemination. In this study, the adult immersion test (AIT) was used to evaluate resistance in ticks from 28 properties located in five different states (Mato Grosso do Sul, Mato Grosso, Ceará, São Paulo, e Minas Gerais) and the Distrito Federal (DF) of Brazil. The resistance was found in 47.64% of the repetitions demonstrating an efficacy of less than 90% in various locations throughout the country. The larvae packet test was used to evaluate samples from ten properties in four states (Mato Grosso do Sul, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo). Spray products belonging to the main classes of acaricides, including combination formulations, were used in both types of test. New cases of resistance were found on properties within the states of Ceará, Espírito Santo and Mato Grosso, where such resistance was not previously reported. PMID:27334816

  4. Evaluation of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) resistance to different acaricide formulations using samples from Brazilian properties.

    PubMed

    Higa, Leandro de Oliveira Souza; Garcia, Marcos Valério; Barros, Jacqueline Cavalcante; Koller, Wilson Werner; Andreotti, Renato

    2016-06-01

    The Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick is responsible for considerable economic losses in Brazil, causing leather damage, weight loss and reduced milk production in cattle and results in the transmission of pathogens. Currently, the main method for controlling this tick is using acaricides, but their indiscriminate use is one of the major causes of resistance dissemination. In this study, the adult immersion test (AIT) was used to evaluate resistance in ticks from 28 properties located in five different states (Mato Grosso do Sul, Mato Grosso, Ceará, São Paulo, e Minas Gerais) and the Distrito Federal (DF) of Brazil. The resistance was found in 47.64% of the repetitions demonstrating an efficacy of less than 90% in various locations throughout the country. The larvae packet test was used to evaluate samples from ten properties in four states (Mato Grosso do Sul, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo). Spray products belonging to the main classes of acaricides, including combination formulations, were used in both types of test. New cases of resistance were found on properties within the states of Ceará, Espírito Santo and Mato Grosso, where such resistance was not previously reported. PMID:27276667

  5. On Brazilian Helobata Bergroth, 1888 (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae): description of two new species, new records, and key to species.

    PubMed

    Clarkson, Bruno; Santos, André Dias Dos; Ferreira-Jr, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of Helobata Bergroth, 1888 (Hydrophilidae: Acidocerinae) from Brazil are described and illustrated. Helobata amazonensis sp. nov. is described based on an adult male specimen from the Amazon River floodplains, Amazonas State. Helobata pantaneira sp. nov. is described based on an adult male specimen collected from swamps in the Pantanal biome, in Mato Grosso State. Helobata corumbaensis Fernández & Bachmann, 1987, H. larvalis (Horn, 1873) and H. quatipuru Fernández & Bachmann, 1987 are recorded for the first time from Mato Grosso; Amazonas, Ceará and Mato Grosso; and Rio de Janeiro States respectively. Diagnosis, illustrations, a checklist and a key to Brazilian species of Helobata are provided. PMID:27395605

  6. Genetic characterization of cassava (Manihot esculenta) landraces in Brazil assessed with simple sequence repeats

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Based on nine microsatellite loci, the aim of this study was to appraise the genetic diversity of 42 cassava (Manihot esculenta) landraces from selected regions in Brazil, and examine how this variety is distributed according to origin in several municipalities in the states of Minas Gerais, São Paulo, Mato Grosso do Sul, Amazonas and Mato Grosso. High diversity values were found among the five above-mentioned regions, with 3.3 alleles per locus on an average, a high percentage of polymorphic loci varying from 88.8% to 100%, an average of 0.265 for observed heterozygosity and 0.570 for gene diversity. Most genetic diversity was concentrated within the regions themselves (HS = 0.52). Cluster analysis and principal component based scatter plotting showed greater similarity among landraces from São Paulo, Mato Grosso do Sul and Amazonas, whereas those from Minas Gerais were clustered into a sub-group within this group. The plants from Mato Grosso, mostly collected in the municipality of General Carneiro, provided the highest differentiation. The migration of human populations is one among the possible reasons for this closer resemblance or greater disparity among plants from the various regions. PMID:21637653

  7. Peanut Seed Development: Molecular Mechanisms of Storage Reserve Mobilization and Effect of Water Deficit Stress on Seed Metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) confer disease resistance in many agricultural crops. In the case of Bacillus subtilis (UFLA285) isolated from the cotton producing state of Mato Grosso (Brazil), in addition to inducing foliar and root growth, disease resistance against damping-off cause...

  8. Induction and transfer of resistance to poisoning by Amorimia pubiflora in sheep with non-toxic doses of the plant and ruminal content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Amorimia pubiflora (Malpighiaceae), which contains sodium monofluoroacetate (MFA) is the main cause of “sudden death” in cattle in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso. This research investigated the induction of resistance to the poisoning in sheep by the continuous administration of non-toxic doses ...

  9. Seasonal and clonal variations in technological and thermal properties of raw Hevea natural rubber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was undertaken over a ten-month period, under the environmental conditions within the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, to evaluate the causes of variation in technological and thermal properties of raw natural rubber from different clones of Hevea brasiliensis (GT 1, PR 255, FX 3864 and RRIM...

  10. Transcriptional Profiling in Cotton Associated with Bacillus Subtilis (UFLA285) Induced Biotic-stress Tolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) confer disease resistance in many agricultural crops. In the case of Bacillus subtilis (UFLA285) isolated from the cotton producing state of Mato Grosso (Brazil), in addition to inducing foliar and root growth, disease resistance against damping-off cause...

  11. First record of Sinoxylon conigerum Gerstäcker (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Filho, Otávio Peres; Teixeira, Edson P; Bezerra, Márcio L M; Dorval, Alberto; Filho, Evoneo Berti

    2006-01-01

    This is the first register of Sinoxylon conigerum attacking timber of teak (Tectona grandis L.f.), mango tree (Mangifera indica L.) and (Astronium fraxinifolium Schott) in the municipalities of Cuiabá and Várzea Grande, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. PMID:17144148

  12. Energy content of tropical grasses and legumes grown for bioenergy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biomass samples of the tropical grasses Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Staph, Brachiaria humidicola (Rendle) Schweick, Brachiaria decumbens Staph, Panicum maximum Jacq., Pennistetum alopecuroides (L.) Spreng and three species of the tropical legume Stylosanthes grown in Mato Grosso do Su...

  13. Agro-pastoral expansion and land use/land cover (LU/LC) change dynamics in Central-western Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanga-Ngoie, K.; Yoshikawa, S.; Kanae, S.

    2011-12-01

    In Brazil, large-scale land cover changes following extensive deforestations are expected to generate big impacts onto the climate and the environment over this area, with eventually many negative feedbacks on the global scale. Mato Grosso State, located in the central western Brazil, is known to be the Brazilian state with the highest deforestation rate. Land use/land cover (LU/LC) changes have been reported to occur over large areas in this state due to the introduction of large-scale mechanized agriculture, extensive cattle ranching and uncontrolled slash-and-burn cultivation since the 1980s. In this study, we specifically aim at doing more detailed analysis for the causes of deforestation and savannization in this area, with special attention to agriculture and cattle ranching industry at the municipal district level in this state. Using GIS techniques and remotely-sensed NOAA/AVHRR data, we created 5-year Digital Vegetation Model Maps characterizing LU/LC features for every five years during the 1981-2001 periods using the PCA first components of the NOAA/AVHRR multi-spectral data. Our results make it clear that: (1) LU/LC changes among the phases are of the following 3 major types: degradation, recovery or transition; (2) The changes in LU/LC features are concomitant with the advance of cattle ranching and corn production activities toward the northern parts of the state, and with the expansion of soybean production in the central and western Mato Grosso; (3) Most of the agro-pastoral business are found in the southern Mato Grosso where about 46% of the state's deforestation during the 1981-2001 period occurred; (4) Rates of vegetation change are larger over non-inhabited areas (56%), especially in the north, than over the populated zones in the south (42%). Moreover, this work sheds some new light on the patterns of the changes in LU/LC features (deforestation and savannization) for each municipal district of Mato Grosso. In general, the following activities

  14. Functional Literacy in Romania: Between Myth & Reality. Chapter 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anghel, Florentina

    This chapter reviews the history of literacy training in Romania through the pretotalitarian period (1890-1945), the totalitarian period (1945-1989), and the posttotalitarian period (1989-present). Current literacy development efforts face many challenges including the facts that 592 classrooms do not have indoor plumbing, that more than 1,700…

  15. Susceptibility to diazinon in populations of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Diptera: Muscidae), in Central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barros, Antonio Thadeu M; Gomes, Alberto; Ismael, Ana Paula K; Koller, Wilson W

    2002-09-01

    From October 2000 to April 2001, insecticide bioassays were conducted in 18 ranches from 10 counties in the states of Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul, in Central Brazil. Horn flies from wild populations were exposed to diazinon-impregnated filter papers immediately after collection on cattle, and mortality was recorded after 2 h. A high susceptibility to diazinon was observed in all tested populations. The LC50s ranged from 0.15 to 0.64 micro g/cm2, and resistance ratios were always lower than one (ranging 0.1-0.6). Pyrethroid products, most applied by backpack sprayers, have been used since the horn fly entered the region, about 10 years ago. The high susceptibility observed to diazinon indicates that this insecticide (as probably other organophosphate insecticides) represents an useful tool for horn fly control and resistance management, particularly in pyrethroid-resistant populations. PMID:12386720

  16. New records of mites (Acari: Spinturnicidae) associated with bats (Mammalia, Chiroptera) in two Brazilian biomes: Pantanal and Caatinga.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Juliana Cardoso; Martins, Mayara Almeida; Guedes, Patrícia Gonçalves; Peracchi, Adriano Lucio; Serra-Freire, Nicolau Maues

    2016-01-01

    A first survey of mite species that ectoparasitize bats in the states of Ceará and Mato Grosso was conducted. The specimens of bats and their mites were collected in areas of the Caatinga and Pantanal biomes. A total of 450 spinturnicids representing two genera and ten species was collected from 15 bat species in the Private Reserve of the Natural Patrimony Serra das Almas, Ceará State, Northeast Brazil and 138 spinturnicids represented by two genera and four species were found in seven bats species collected in Private Reserve of the Natural Patrimony Sesc Pantanal, Mato Grosso State, Central-Western Brazil. The occurrence of Cameronieta genus and the species Mesoperiglischrus natali as well as four new associations (Periglischrus iheringi - Chiroderma vizottoi; P. micronycteridis - Micronycteris sanborni; P. paracutisternus - Trachops cirrhosus; Spinturnix americanus - Myotis riparius) are registered for the first time in Brazil. PMID:26982558

  17. Selection of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes using a genotype plus genotype x environment interaction biplot.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, A M; Teodoro, P E; Gonçalves, M C; Santos, A; Torres, F E

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the genotype plus genotype x environment interaction (GGE) biplot methodology has been used to investigate genotype x environment interactions in several crop species, but has not been applied to the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) crop in Brazil. The aim of this study was to identify common bean genotypes that exhibit high grain yield and stability in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. We conducted 12 trials from 2000 to 2006 in the municipalities of Aquidauana and Dourados, and evaluated 13 genotypes in a randomized block design with three replications. Grain yield data were subjected to individual and joint analyses of variance. After analyzing the GE interaction, the adaptability and phenotypic stability of the common bean genotypes were analyzed using GGE biplot methodology. The genotypes EMGOPA-201, Xamego, and Aporé are recommended for growing in Mato Grosso do Sul, because they exhibited high grain yield and phenotypic stability. PMID:27525915

  18. Mapping Large-Scale Mechanized Agriculture Across the Brazilian Cerrado Between 2001-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spera, S. A.; Mustard, J. F.; VanWey, L.

    2014-12-01

    Brazil is a global commodities powerhouse. Over the last decade, dynamic changes in agricultural development and land transformations occurred within Brazil's tropical savanna region, the cerrado. This interdisciplinary study uses remote sensing tools to map land cover across more than 3.6 million km2 of cerrado and statistical methods to characterize drivers of this land-cover change. We use the MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index 16-day data product and a decision-tree algorithm, proven highly accurate in Mato Grosso (Spera et al. 2014) and here modified for the broader cerrado region, to characterize crop type, cropping frequency, expansion, and abandonment of large-scale mechanized agriculture during the 2001-2013 period. The algorithm exploits phenological differences between forest, pasture and cerrado, and mechanized agriculture. It is parameterized to distinguish between crop rotations in Mato Grosso, Goias, and the new agricultural frontier spanning Maranhao, Tocantins, Piaui, and Bahia (MaToPiBa). Training and validation data were collected using Google's Earth Engine. We map single-cropped soy, corn, and cotton; double-cropped soy/corn and soy/cotton rotations; and irrigated agriculture across these six Brazilian cerrado states. We find that while double cropping dominates in Mato Grosso and Goias, single cropping is still the dominant form of mechanized agriculture in the burgeoning MaToPiBa region. In western Bahia alone, preliminary results show agriculture has expanded by almost 350,000 ha and double cropping has increased by almost 40,000 ha. With MaToPiBa touted as Brazil's latest and last agricultural frontier, we predict that the region will experience a transition similar to that of Mato Grosso during the 2000s—an expansion and intensification of agriculture—which may beget unprecedented ramifications on regional climate processes that can then affect ecosystem health and the economic feasibility of cultivating rain-fed export crops.

  19. New records of three species of nematodes in Cerdocyon thous from the Brazilian Pantanal wetlands.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Ana Paula Nascimento; Olifiers, Natalie; Santos, Michele Maria Dos; Simões, Raquel de Oliveira; Maldonado Júnior, Arnaldo

    2015-01-01

    We report the occurrence of nematodes collected from the gut of roadkilled crab-eating foxes (two adult males and one juvenile female), Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766), found on the BR 262 highway in Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil in 2011. Three helminth species were identified: Ancylostoma buckleyi, Pterygodermatites (Multipectines) pluripectinata, and Ascaridia galli. These nematodes are reported for the first time to infect C. thous from the Brazilian Pantanal wetlands, thereby expanding their geographical distribution. PMID:26444063

  20. [Successes and failures of the Polonoroeste Integrated Development Program in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Frelastre, G

    1985-01-01

    Despite the fact that by 1980 Brazil's external debt approached US$100 billion and the effects of economic crisis were strongly felt, the government attempted to continue with previously launched integrated regional development projects including the "Polonoroeste" program. 3 phases were foreseen for the project, in Rondonia, Mato Grosso, and in new colonization zones. The goals of the Rondonia and Mato Grosso phases were to establish agriculture in the Amazon basin zone covered by the Polonoroeste, where the soils were reported to be of good or average quality although extremely heterogeneous over small areas. To avoid danger of rapid and complete deforestation, each colonist was to receive 100 hectares, 5 of which would be cleared and planted each year, allowing the forest to regenerate over 20 years. Colonists were expected to preserve 50 hectares of forest in their 100 hectare lots, but with increasing numbers of colonists the tendency has been to cut back the forest. Colonists were to receive credits and low interest loans repayable beginning 5 years after settlement over a period of 15 years. Since loans were not indexed, the amounts due would be a very small proportion of their initial worth in Brazil's inflationary economy. Boundary disputes sometimes resulting in armed conflict or murder have occurred in both Rondonia and especially in Mato Grosso between legal settlers and squatters, and between different categories of settlers. More serious has been the settlers' resentment and contesting of the large reserves set aside for the indigenous population, which has declined precipitously in recent years, probably as the result of massacres. In Mato Grosso, inequality in land holdings is demonstrated by the control over 55% of the land exercised by 1% of landholders. The demographic response to the colonization schemes was overwhelming. The populations of Rondonia and Mato Grosso respectively were estimated at 36,935 and 522,044 in 1950, 69,792 and 889,539 in

  1. Changes in size of deforested patches in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Isabel M D; Souza, Carlos; Ewers, Robert M

    2012-10-01

    Different deforestation agents, such as small farmers and large agricultural businesses, create different spatial patterns of deforestation. We analyzed the proportion of deforestation associated with different-sized clearings in the Brazilian Amazon from 2002 through 2009. We used annual deforestation maps to determine total area deforested and the size distribution of deforested patches per year. The size distribution of deforested areas changed over time in a consistent, directional manner. Large clearings (>1000 ha) comprised progressively smaller amounts of total annual deforestation. The number of smaller clearings (6.25-50.00 ha) remained unchanged over time. Small clearings accounted for 73% of all deforestation in 2009, up from 30% in 2002, whereas the proportion of deforestation attributable to large clearings decreased from 13% to 3% between 2002 and 2009. Large clearings were concentrated in Mato Grosso, but also occurred in eastern Pará and in Rondônia. In 2002 large clearings accounted for 17%, 15%, and 10% of all deforestation in Mato Grosso, Pará, and Rondônia, respectively. Even in these states, where there is a highly developed agricultural business dominated by soybean production and cattle ranching, the proportional contribution of large clearings to total deforestation declined. By 2009 large clearings accounted for 2.5%, 3.5%, and 1% of all deforestation in Mato Grosso, Pará, and Rondônia, respectively. These changes in deforestation patch size are coincident with the implementation of new conservation policies by the Brazilian government, which suggests that these policies are not effectively reducing the number of small clearings in primary forest, whether these are caused by large landholders or smallholders, but have been more effective at reducing the frequency of larger clearings. PMID:22827325

  2. Climate Variability is Influencing Agricultural Expansion and Output in a Key Agricultural Region of Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spera, S. A.; Cohn, A.; VanWey, L.; Mustard, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    Over the last decade, the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso has both expanded and intensified its agricultural production to become the country's leading producer of soy, corn, and cotton. Yet this increase in agricultural production may be threatened due to changes in the region's climate stemming from deforestation caused by the agricultural expansion itself. The sensitivity of Mato Grosso's agriculture to climate variability has important implications for both climate change mitigation and climate adaptation. The vast bulk of research on the drivers of land use change in the region has examined economic and institutional drivers. Leveraging a novel remote sensing-derived dataset classifying shifts between single (cultivating one commercial crop per growing season) and double cropping (cultivating two commercial crops per growing season), we investigated the influence of climate variability on land use change during the period 2000 to 2011. Over the past decade, over half of Mato Grosso's farm area transitioned from single cropping to double cropping. We used regression analysis (controlling for space and time fixed effects) to show monthly rainfall, monthly temperature, agricultural commodity prices, and agricultural revenue to be the main drivers of adoption of double cropping and reversion to single cropping in the region. The influence of climate varies as much as five orders of magnitude across these outcomes, with both temperature and precipitation exhibiting the largest climatic influence on the transition from single to double cropping. Temperature consistently proves to be more important, explaining three times more of the variance than precipitation for each outcome. Months at the beginning of a given first crop season, the end of that first crop season, and middle of the subsequent second crop season are particularly important for planting decisions in the subsequent growing year. Fitting our land transition models using remote-sensing derived

  3. The incorporation of activities to control dengue by community health agents

    PubMed Central

    Cazola, Luiza Helena de Oliveira; Tamaki, Edson Mamoru; Pontes, Elenir Rose Jardim Cury; de Andrade, Sonia Maria Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the performance of Community Health Agents when dengue control activities were added to their tasks. METHODS Performance was measured comparing the evolution of selected indicators from the Brazilian National Dengue Control Program and the Family Health Strategy for 2002 to 2008 in the municipality of Sao Gabriel do Oeste, MS, Central Western Brazil, with those of Rio Verde de Mato Grosso, neighboring municipality with demographic, socioeconomic and health services similarities. Data were collected from municipal databases of the Information System for Yellow Fever and Dengue and the Information System for Primary Healthcare of the Mato Grosso do Sul State Health Office. The variables selected for the family health strategy activities were: monthly home visits, pregnant women whose antenatal care began in the first trimester, children under one with up-to-date vaccinations and hypertensive patients. Those selected for the Brazilian National Dengue Control Program were: properties inspected with Aedes aegypti and properties not inspected. RESULTS The two municipalities maintained a similar trend in dengue control indicators in the period studied. With regard to the Family Health Strategy, in 2002 Sao Gabriel do Oeste was better off in three of the four indicators studied, however, this situation was reversed at the end of the period when the county was overtaken by Rio Verde de Mato Grosso in three of the four indicators analyzed, including, the monthly average community health worker visits per registered family, the main activity of a Family Health Strategy agent. CONCLUSIONS: Incorporating the National Dengue Control Program into the Family Health Strategy is viable and developed without prejudice to dengue control activities, however, the same did not occur with the activities of family health in Sao Gabriel do Oeste. The additional workload of the community health workers is the most likely hypothesis for the declining performance of these

  4. Shifting Patterns of Pasturelands and Stocking Rates of Cattle in Brazil: 1940 to 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, L. C. P.; Santos, A.; Pimenta, F. M.; Costa, M. H.

    2015-12-01

    In this work, we investigate the shifting in historical patterns of pastureland (natural and planted) in Brazil using a new high-resolution (approximately 1 km x 1 km) spatially explicit reconstruction of land use from 1940 to 2012 and stocking rate of cattle maps from 1990 to 2012. We also identified the top 5% (highest yields) pixels in the 2010 stocking rate map and we assessed the historical trends in intensification and extensification practices in Brazil. We focus our analyzes in Amazonia and Cerrado biomes, in Mato Grosso and Pará states, and in the new agricultural frontier called MATOPIBA - which is formed by Maranhão, Tocantins, Piauí, and Bahia states. Natural pastureland expanded until the 1970s and, after that, most areas with natural pasture were replaced by planted pasture, which is more profitable. In 2012, natural pastures were still predominant in the Pampas (located in southern Rio Grande do Sul) and the Pantanal (located in western Mato Grosso do Sul). On the other hand, planted pastureland expanded in area between 1975 and 2012, especially in the Cerrado biome. Brazilian stocking rate of cattle increased, but remains close to 1.0 head/ha between 1990 and 2010 and the top 5% were about twice as high as the average in all regions analyzed. The yield gap (difference between average and the top 5% pixels) was largest in Pará state, where the stocking rate of cattle was below 50% of the potential given 2010 practices. The increase in cattle production in Amazonia biome and in the states of Mato Grosso and Pará came from both intensification and expansion of pasturelands. In contrast, pasturelands in Cerrado and MATOPIBA decreased in area while stocking rates of cattle increased gradually. Our results provide new insights about land use change and productivity in Brazilian territory that could guide future agricultural and conservation discussions, decisions, and policies.

  5. Successful Feeding of Amblyomma coelebs (Acari: Ixodidae) Nymphs on Humans in Brazil: Skin Reactions to Parasitism.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Marcos V; Matias, Jaqueline; Aguirre, AndrÉ De A R; Csordas, Barbara G; SzabÓ, Matias P J; Andreotti, Renato

    2015-03-01

    Identifying the tick species that successfully feed on humans would increase knowledge of the epidemiology of several tick-borne diseases. These species salivate into the host, increasing the risk of pathogen transmission. However, there is a lack of data in the literature regarding the ticks that prefer to feed on humans. Herein, we describe the successful feeding of Amblyomma coelebs Neumann nymphs on two of the authors after accidental tick bites occurred during field surveys in two preserved areas of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. One of the host-parasite interactions was closely monitored, and the tick development, gross host skin alterations, and related sensations are presented. PMID:26336294

  6. Successful Feeding of Amblyomma coelebs (Acari: Ixodidae) Nymphs on Humans in Brazil: Skin Reactions to Parasitism

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Marcos V.; Matias, Jaqueline; Aguirre, André De A. R.; Csordas, Barbara G.; Szabó, Matias P. J.

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the tick species that successfully feed on humans would increase knowledge of the epidemiology of several tick-borne diseases. These species salivate into the host, increasing the risk of pathogen transmission. However, there is a lack of data in the literature regarding the ticks that prefer to feed on humans. Herein, we describe the successful feeding of Amblyomma coelebs Neumann nymphs on two of the authors after accidental tick bites occurred during field surveys in two preserved areas of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. One of the host–parasite interactions was closely monitored, and the tick development, gross host skin alterations, and related sensations are presented. PMID:26336294

  7. Brazilian gemstones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, Rui Ribeiro

    1981-04-01

    Brazil counts as a gemmological province because of the variety of gem minerals present in the country. Most Brazilian states and territories produce gemstones, the State of Minas Gerais being the most important producer both in volume and in number of species. Diamonds are chiefly derived by panning from alluvial deposits in Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso and Goiás. Among other gemstones, the most important are aquamarines, beryls, chrysoberyls, topazes, amethysts, tourmalines, emeralds and agates, and their respective varieties. The occurrences of these gemstones, as well as of a great number of others, are described for each state in which they are found.

  8. Leishmania(Leishmania) chagasi in captive wild felids in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dahroug, Magyda A A; Almeida, Arleana B P F; Sousa, Valéria R F; Dutra, Valéria; Turbino, Nívea C M R; Nakazato, Luciano; de Souza, Roberto L

    2010-01-01

    This study used a PCR-RFLP test to determine the presence of Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi in 16 captive wild felids [seven Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771); five Panthera onca (Linnaeus, 1758) and four Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758)] at the zoological park of the Federal University of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Amplification of Leishmania spp. DNA was seen in samples from five pumas and one jaguar, and the species was characterized as L. chagasi using restriction enzymes. It is already known that domestic felids can act as a reservoir of L. chagasi in endemic areas, and further studies are necessary to investigate their participation in the epidemiological chain of leishmaniasis. PMID:19740501

  9. Two new species of Acrocephalomyia Ibáñez-Bernal & Hernández-Ortiz, 2012 from Brazil (Diptera: Ropalomeridae) and a key to known species.

    PubMed

    Alvim, Edgar; Ale-Rocha, Rosaly

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of Acrocephalomyia Ibáñez-Bernal & Hernández-Ortiz (Diptera, Ropalomeridae) are described. The genus currently includes three species, the type species from Costa Rica, Acrocephalomyia zumbadoi Ibáñez-Bernal & Hernández-Ortiz, and two new species from Brazil herein described, A. torulosa sp. nov., (State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Midwest) and A. pulchra sp. nov. (State of Amazonas, North). A key for the known species of Acrocephalomyia is given and characters of the male terminalia are described and discussed for the first time, with special attention to the "epiphallus". PMID:27395862

  10. Intensification of tropical agriculture as seen by satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galford, G. L.; Michelson, H. C.; Spera, S. A.; Hadnott, B.

    2013-12-01

    We present case studies from Latin America and Africa on intensification of tropical agriculture. The Brazilian Amazon of the early 2000s experienced intensification and extensification. We use time series analysis of MODIS vegetation indices to track changes in cropping intensity and crop types over time. The state of Mato Grosso is Brazil's leading producer of soy, corn and cotton. Using 250 m MODIS EVI data and a new decision-tree algorithm tuned to phenological patterns characteristic of Mato Grosso's major natural vegetation and crop rotations, we mapped land-cover across the state over 11 growing seasons (2001-2011). Between 2000 and 2011, a majority of the cultivated land in Mato Grosso transitioned from the cultivation of one commercial crop per growing season (soy or cotton) to two commercial crops (a soy crop followed by a corn or cotton crop). Over our study period, the cultivated area of double cropped land in Mato Grosso steadily increased over 6-fold from .46 million hectares to 2.9 million hectares, 92% of which was in a soy-corn double cropping rotation. In the sub-Saharan country of Malawi, 70% of the land is dedicated to food production yet yields of the primary staple crop, maize, have stagnated around 1 ton ha-1 (developed nations' maize yields are 12-16 tons ha-1). Due to the limited land area, improving yields through intensification is a necessary objective of development. Poverty and food insecurity were widespread and persistent for smallholder farmers cultivating less than 1 hectare of land until the implementation of a government intervention, funded through foreign aid, subsidized allocations of fertilizer and improved seed to small farmers. Since implementation of the policy, the number of food insecure, or people in need of food aid, has decreased from 5 million to half a million people. We present indicators that levels of poverty have decreased since the subsidy. National yields have doubled. Applying modified methods from Brazil, we

  11. Fasciola hepatica IN BOVINES IN BRAZIL: DATA AVAILABILITY AND SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION

    PubMed Central

    Bennema, Sita C.; Scholte, Ronaldo Guilherme Carvalho; Molento, Marcelo Beltrão; Medeiros, Camilla; Carvalho, Omar dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Fasciolosis is a disease of importance for both veterinary and public health. For the first time, georeferenced prevalence data of Fasciola hepatica in bovines were collected and mapped for the Brazilian territory and data availability was discussed. Bovine fasciolosis in Brazil is monitored on a Federal, State and Municipal level, and to improve monitoring it is essential to combine the data collected on these three levels into one dataset. Data were collected for 1032 municipalities where livers were condemned by the Federal Inspection Service (MAPA/SIF) because of the presence of F. hepatica. The information was distributed over 11 states: Espírito Santo, Goiás, Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso do Sul, Mato Grosso, Pará, Paraná, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina and São Paulo. The highest prevalence of fasciolosis was observed in the southern states, with disease clusters along the coast of Paraná and Santa Catarina and in Rio Grande do Sul. Also, temporal variation of the prevalence was observed. The observed prevalence and the kriged prevalence maps presented in this paper can assist both animal and human health workers in estimating the risk of infection in their state or municipality. PMID:24553606

  12. Ecology, economy and management of an agroindustrial frontier landscape in the southeast Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Brando, Paulo M.; Coe, Michael T.; DeFries, Ruth; Azevedo, Andrea A.

    2013-01-01

    The papers in this special issue address a major challenge facing our society: feeding a population that is simultaneously growing and increasing its per capita food consumption, while preventing widespread ecological and social impoverishment in the tropics. By focusing mostly on the Amazon's most dynamic agricultural frontier, Mato Grosso, they collectively clarify some key elements of achieving more sustainable agriculture. First, stakeholders in commodity-driven agricultural Amazonian frontiers respond rapidly to multiple forces, including global markets, international pressures for sustainably produced commodities and national-, state- and municipality-level policies. These forces can encourage or discourage deforestation rate changes within a short time-period. Second, agricultural frontiers are linked systems, land-use change is linked with regional climate, forest fires, water quality and stream discharge, which in turn are linked with the well-being of human populations. Thus, land-use practices at the farm level have ecological and social repercussions far removed from it. Third, policies need to consider the full socio-economic system to identify the efficacy and consequences of possible land management strategies. Monitoring to devise suitable management approaches depends not only on tracking land-use change, but also on monitoring the regional ecological and social consequences. Mato Grosso's achievements in reducing deforestation are impressive, yet they are also fragile. The ecological and social consequences and the successes and failures of management in this region can serve as an example of possible trajectories for other commodity-driven tropical agricultural frontiers. PMID:23610163

  13. [Surveillance on pesticides: quantification of use and prediction of impact on health, work and the environment for Brazilian municipalities].

    PubMed

    Pignati, Wanderlei; Oliveira, Noemi Pereira; da Silva, Ageo Mário Cândido

    2014-12-01

    This paper analyzes the quantity, type and toxicity of pesticides used per hectare in the State of Mato Grosso as a surveillance strategy for the health of workers, the population in general and the environment, and to serve as a surveillance indicator for Brazilian cities. Brazil cultivated 95 million hectares in 2012, and Mato Grosso was the major consumer of pesticides. In this research, the database of the Agriculture and Livestock Defense Institute was consulted, as it records the prescribed agronomic data and place of use in sales invoices. The results reveal the average consumption of pesticides per hectare per crop: 12 liters for soy; 6 liters for corn; 4.8 liters for sugarcane; and 24 liters for cotton. The toxicological types and classes of pesticides used per hectare per crop were also monitored. Using a matrix of agricultural production and pesticide consumption, it was also found that certain health problems are correlated with the major producing regions. Based on pesticide consumption, agricultural production and pesticide toxicity it is possible to ascertain health problems in Brazilian cities and establish prevention and surveillance strategies for the workers, the environment and the populations exposed to pesticides. PMID:25388175

  14. Understorey fire frequency and the fate of burned forests in southern Amazonia

    PubMed Central

    Morton, D. C.; Le Page, Y.; DeFries, R.; Collatz, G. J.; Hurtt, G. C.

    2013-01-01

    Recent drought events underscore the vulnerability of Amazon forests to understorey fires. The long-term impact of fires on biodiversity and forest carbon stocks depends on the frequency of fire damages and deforestation rates of burned forests. Here, we characterized the spatial and temporal dynamics of understorey fires (1999–2010) and deforestation (2001–2010) in southern Amazonia using new satellite-based estimates of annual fire activity (greater than 50 ha) and deforestation (greater than 10 ha). Understorey forest fires burned more than 85 500 km2 between 1999 and 2010 (2.8% of all forests). Forests that burned more than once accounted for 16 per cent of all understorey fires. Repeated fire activity was concentrated in Mato Grosso and eastern Pará, whereas single fires were widespread across the arc of deforestation. Routine fire activity in Mato Grosso coincided with annual periods of low night-time relative humidity, suggesting a strong climate control on both single and repeated fires. Understorey fires occurred in regions with active deforestation, yet the interannual variability of fire and deforestation were uncorrelated, and only 2.6 per cent of forests that burned between 1999 and 2008 were deforested for agricultural use by 2010. Evidence from the past decade suggests that future projections of frontier landscapes in Amazonia should separately consider economic drivers to project future deforestation and climate to project fire risk. PMID:23610169

  15. Remote sensing of fire and deforestation in the tropics from the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, James W.; Riggan, Philip J.; Brass, James A.

    2000-01-01

    In August of 1999 over 30,000 fire counts were registered by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer aboard NOAA satellites over central Brazil, and an extensive smoke pall produced a health hazard and hindered commercial aviation across large portions of the states of Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul. Clearly fire was an important part of the Brazilian environment, but limitations in satellite and airborne remote sensing prevented a clear picture of what was burning, how much biomass was consumed, where the most critical resources were threatened, or exactly what was the global environmental impact. Another important problem that must be addressed is the deforestation of the rain forest by unauthorized logging operations. To detect these illegal clear cutting activities, continuous, high resolution monitoring must be initiated. The low altitude Space Station offers an ideal platform from which to monitor the tropical regions for both fires and deforestation from an equatorial orbit. A new micro-bolometer-based thermal imager, the FireMapper, has been designed to provide a solution for these problems in fire and resource monitoring. In this paper we describe potential applications of the FireMapper aboard the International Space Station for demonstration of space-borne fire detection and measurement. .

  16. Rickettsial infection in ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) of wild animals in midwestern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Witter, Rute; Martins, Thiago F; Campos, Artur K; Melo, Andréia L T; Corrêa, Sandra H R; Morgado, Thaís O; Wolf, Rafael W; May-Júnior, Joares A; Sinkoc, Afonso L; Strüssmann, Christine; Aguiar, Daniel M; Rossi, Rogério V; Semedo, Thiago B F; Campos, Zilca; Desbiez, Arnaud L J; Labruna, Marcelo B; Pacheco, Richard C

    2016-04-01

    Ticks collected in the last two decades from free-living and captive wild animals from 28 municipalities of the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso were identified and tested using molecular methods for the presence of rickettsial agents. A total of 4467 ticks (229 larvae, 1676 nymphs, 1565 males, 997 females) representing 27 ixodid species were collected from 235 species of amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals from three different ecoregions (Pantanal, Cerrado, and Amazonia). The species Amblyomma parkeri, Amblyomma romitii, Amblyomma varium and Ixodes luciae are reported for the first time in the state of Mato Grosso. Amongst 538 ticks tested by molecular methods for rickettsial infection, we detected 'Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii' infecting Amblyomma cajennense sensu stricto and Amblyomma coelebs, Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest infecting Amblyomma ovale, Rickettsia sp. strain NOD infecting Amblyomma nodosum, and 'Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae' infecting Amblyomma sculptum. Our results represent an impressive expansion of knowledge on tick fauna and rickettsiae and are essential for understanding the ecology of ticks and tick-borne diseases in the Neotropical region, particularly in midwestern Brazil. PMID:26775021

  17. Upper mantle material in the Brazilian shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berbert, C. O.; Svisero, D. P.; Sial, A. N.; Meyer, H. O. A.

    1981-04-01

    Information on the nature of the upper mantle can be obtained from nodules in kimberlites and basalt and from mantle-derived magmas, mineral inclusions in diamonds, as well as from the fields of geodesy, seismology, geothermy, geomagnetism and petrological models for the upper mantle. In Brazil studies of these kinds are still in the stage of data gathering. This article intends to present some of this data related to the alpine peridotites, nodules in basalts, mineral inclusions in diamonds, and kimberlites, without any pretension of deeper-going interpretation. Alpine peridotites are found all over Brazil and are grouped in three main classes: the serpentinized dunites-peridotites of small and medium size; the gabbro-pyroxenite-peridotite association in large complexes, the latter described only in the central part of Brazil; and the pyroxenite-gabbroic gneisses of the Goianira-Trindade type. Kimberlites have been described in Minas Gerais and Piaui states, but they also exist in Mato Grosso and possibly in Rondonia, Goiás, Roraima and Bahia. Inclusions in diamonds studied from Minas Gerais, Piauí, Mato Grosso, Paraná, Sa˜o Paulo and Goiás include olivine, pyroxene, garnet, chromite, sulphides, ilmenite, zircon and rutile. Ultramafic nodules in basalts and basanites from Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Paraíba states and Fernando de Noronha Island are essentially Iherzolites, like the ones described from Paraguay.

  18. Understorey fire frequency and the fate of burned forests in southern Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Morton, D C; Le Page, Y; DeFries, R; Collatz, G J; Hurtt, G C

    2013-06-01

    Recent drought events underscore the vulnerability of Amazon forests to understorey fires. The long-term impact of fires on biodiversity and forest carbon stocks depends on the frequency of fire damages and deforestation rates of burned forests. Here, we characterized the spatial and temporal dynamics of understorey fires (1999-2010) and deforestation (2001-2010) in southern Amazonia using new satellite-based estimates of annual fire activity (greater than 50 ha) and deforestation (greater than 10 ha). Understorey forest fires burned more than 85 500 km(2) between 1999 and 2010 (2.8% of all forests). Forests that burned more than once accounted for 16 per cent of all understorey fires. Repeated fire activity was concentrated in Mato Grosso and eastern Pará, whereas single fires were widespread across the arc of deforestation. Routine fire activity in Mato Grosso coincided with annual periods of low night-time relative humidity, suggesting a strong climate control on both single and repeated fires. Understorey fires occurred in regions with active deforestation, yet the interannual variability of fire and deforestation were uncorrelated, and only 2.6 per cent of forests that burned between 1999 and 2008 were deforested for agricultural use by 2010. Evidence from the past decade suggests that future projections of frontier landscapes in Amazonia should separately consider economic drivers to project future deforestation and climate to project fire risk. PMID:23610169

  19. Ecology, economy and management of an agroindustrial frontier landscape in the southeast Amazon.

    PubMed

    Brando, Paulo M; Coe, Michael T; DeFries, Ruth; Azevedo, Andrea A

    2013-06-01

    The papers in this special issue address a major challenge facing our society: feeding a population that is simultaneously growing and increasing its per capita food consumption, while preventing widespread ecological and social impoverishment in the tropics. By focusing mostly on the Amazon's most dynamic agricultural frontier, Mato Grosso, they collectively clarify some key elements of achieving more sustainable agriculture. First, stakeholders in commodity-driven agricultural Amazonian frontiers respond rapidly to multiple forces, including global markets, international pressures for sustainably produced commodities and national-, state- and municipality-level policies. These forces can encourage or discourage deforestation rate changes within a short time-period. Second, agricultural frontiers are linked systems, land-use change is linked with regional climate, forest fires, water quality and stream discharge, which in turn are linked with the well-being of human populations. Thus, land-use practices at the farm level have ecological and social repercussions far removed from it. Third, policies need to consider the full socio-economic system to identify the efficacy and consequences of possible land management strategies. Monitoring to devise suitable management approaches depends not only on tracking land-use change, but also on monitoring the regional ecological and social consequences. Mato Grosso's achievements in reducing deforestation are impressive, yet they are also fragile. The ecological and social consequences and the successes and failures of management in this region can serve as an example of possible trajectories for other commodity-driven tropical agricultural frontiers. PMID:23610163

  20. Modeling Fire Emissions from Multiple Land Use Transitions in Southern Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, D. C.; van der Werf, G. R.; Defries, R. S.; Giglio, L.; Randerson, J. T.; Collatz, G. J.; Kasibhatla, P. S.

    2008-12-01

    Fires for deforestation and other land cover changes in southern Amazonia are an uncertain but significant source of carbon emissions to the atmosphere. Recent expansion of mechanized cropland in the region has increased the rates, clearing sizes, and combustion completeness of forest and Cerrado conversion compared to previous deforestation for cattle ranching. To more accurately quantify the influence of agricultural intensification on carbon emissions, we developed a high-resolution (250 m) model of DEforestation CArbon Fluxes (DECAF). DECAF estimates variations in forest and Cerrado biomass based on time series of MODIS NDVI and explicitly tracks the duration and combustion completeness of new deforestation as a function of post-clearing vegetation phenology and MODIS-based fire frequency. In our model runs for the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso, we quantified the contribution of fires for deforestation, conversion of pasture and Cerrado to mechanized cropland, and pasture maintenance to total fire emissions under low, middle, and high emissions scenarios. During 2001-2005, carbon losses from all types of deforestation were 48-82 Tg per year (mean = 67 Tg C), representing approximately 74% of annual fire emissions in the study region. Cropland expansion in non-forest areas contributed 19% of estimated fire emissions, while maintenance fires in pasture and Cerrado land cover types averaged 7% of all fire emissions during 2001-2005. Conversion of forest to other land uses often takes more than one year, and part of the biomass that was not burned in the dry season following deforestation burned in consecutive years. This led to a partial decoupling of annual deforestation rates and fire emissions, and lowered interannual variability in fire emissions. In total, DECAF-based emissions for Mato Grosso represent 1/3 of estimated fire emissions for all of southern hemisphere South America during this period. Our results demonstrate how DECAF can be used to model

  1. Revealing Invisible Water: Moisture Recycling as an Ecosystem Service

    PubMed Central

    Keys, Patrick W.; Wang-Erlandsson, Lan; Gordon, Line J.

    2016-01-01

    An ecosystem service is a benefit derived by humanity that can be traced back to an ecological process. Although ecosystem services related to surface water have been thoroughly described, the relationship between atmospheric water and ecosystem services has been mostly neglected, and perhaps misunderstood. Recent advances in land-atmosphere modeling have revealed the importance of terrestrial ecosystems for moisture recycling. In this paper, we analyze the extent to which vegetation sustains the supply of atmospheric moisture and precipitation for downwind beneficiaries, globally. We simulate land-surface evaporation with a global hydrology model and track changes to moisture recycling using an atmospheric moisture budget model, and we define vegetation-regulated moisture recycling as the difference in moisture recycling between current vegetation and a hypothetical desert world. Our results show that nearly a fifth of annual average precipitation falling on land is from vegetation-regulated moisture recycling, but the global variability is large, with many places receiving nearly half their precipitation from this ecosystem service. The largest potential impacts for changes to this ecosystem service are land-use changes across temperate regions in North America and Russia. Likewise, in semi-arid regions reliant on rainfed agricultural production, land-use change that even modestly reduces evaporation and subsequent precipitation, could significantly affect human well-being. We also present a regional case study in the Mato Grosso region of Brazil, where we identify the specific moisture recycling ecosystem services associated with the vegetation in Mato Grosso. We find that Mato Grosso vegetation regulates some internal precipitation, with a diffuse region of benefit downwind, primarily to the south and east, including the La Plata River basin and the megacities of Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. We synthesize our global and regional results into a generalized

  2. Revealing Invisible Water: Moisture Recycling as an Ecosystem Service.

    PubMed

    Keys, Patrick W; Wang-Erlandsson, Lan; Gordon, Line J

    2016-01-01

    An ecosystem service is a benefit derived by humanity that can be traced back to an ecological process. Although ecosystem services related to surface water have been thoroughly described, the relationship between atmospheric water and ecosystem services has been mostly neglected, and perhaps misunderstood. Recent advances in land-atmosphere modeling have revealed the importance of terrestrial ecosystems for moisture recycling. In this paper, we analyze the extent to which vegetation sustains the supply of atmospheric moisture and precipitation for downwind beneficiaries, globally. We simulate land-surface evaporation with a global hydrology model and track changes to moisture recycling using an atmospheric moisture budget model, and we define vegetation-regulated moisture recycling as the difference in moisture recycling between current vegetation and a hypothetical desert world. Our results show that nearly a fifth of annual average precipitation falling on land is from vegetation-regulated moisture recycling, but the global variability is large, with many places receiving nearly half their precipitation from this ecosystem service. The largest potential impacts for changes to this ecosystem service are land-use changes across temperate regions in North America and Russia. Likewise, in semi-arid regions reliant on rainfed agricultural production, land-use change that even modestly reduces evaporation and subsequent precipitation, could significantly affect human well-being. We also present a regional case study in the Mato Grosso region of Brazil, where we identify the specific moisture recycling ecosystem services associated with the vegetation in Mato Grosso. We find that Mato Grosso vegetation regulates some internal precipitation, with a diffuse region of benefit downwind, primarily to the south and east, including the La Plata River basin and the megacities of Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. We synthesize our global and regional results into a generalized

  3. Introduction.

    PubMed

    Adams, K; Price, D

    1994-03-01

    This is a summary of 7 papers given at a South American Indian Conference. The papers varied by the training and interests of the authors, but the unifying characteristics were their attention to the quality of data, the concern with placing the Lowland South American Indian societies in historical time, and the focus on the individual in a social context. The trend for tribal societies to abandon traditional practices of birth limitation is worrisome at a time when the balance between population growth and economic resources has deteriorated. Survival risks are high. The traditional societies range over a region stretching from Guyana to Mato Grosso, and have varying degrees of economic and political autonomy. All have been exposed to Western influences. A four-generation account of Barama River Caribs family in Guyana illustrates how marriage choices that appear anomalous were responses to changing demographic pressures. The problems of the definition of a population were revealed in the paper on the Wanano of the Rio Vaupes in Northwest Amazon; the aim was to examine Boas' ideas about the links between language, race, and culture in a region of culturally mixed marriages. High-quality reproductive history data was collected and examined on the Xavante in Pimentel Barbosa in eastern Mato Grosso. The study of household and settlement composition, marriage, fertility, and mortality data among the Bakairi, located west of Shavante, in Mat Grosso, suggests that population increases were kept small due to fertility-inhibiting cultural practices. The combination of detailed examination of cultural practices and statistical analysis provided insights into the demographic behavior of the Canela in central Maranhao, who have had longstanding contact with the West and maintained traditional practices. The difficulties of collecting birth and death records between 1976-86 among the Nambiquara in western Maso Grosso were expressed, and the anomalies of female mortality

  4. What Drives Indirect Land Use Change? How Brazil's Agriculture Sector Influences Frontier Deforestation

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Peter

    2015-01-01

    From 2000-2005 high returns to soybeans set off an unprecedented expansion of agricultural production across Brazil. The expansion occurred concurrently to a sharp rise in deforestation, leading academics and policy makers to question the extent and means by which the growing agricultural sector was driving regional forest loss. In this article we consider and question the underlying drivers of indirect land use change, namely the potential impact of soybean expansion on beef prices and of land use displacement, via migration. We then present field level results documenting the displacement process in northern Mato Grosso and western Pará States of the Amazon. Our results question the extent to which tropical Amazon deforestation is attributable to land use displacement; however, we argue that the agricultural sector may drive deforestation through other channels, namely through regional land markets. PMID:26985080

  5. DETECTION OF Leptospira spp. AND Brucella abortus ANTIBODIES IN FREE-LIVING JAGUARS (Panthera onca) IN TWO PROTECTED AREAS OF NORTHERN PANTANAL, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    ONUMA, Selma Samiko Miyazaki; KANTEK, Daniel Luis Zanella; CRAWSHAW, Peter Gransden; MORATO, Ronaldo Gonçalves; MAY-JÚNIOR, Joares Adenilson; de MORAIS, Zenaide Maria; FERREIRA, José Soares; de AGUIAR, Daniel Moura

    2015-01-01

     This study aimed to assess the exposure of free-living jaguars (Panthera onca) to Leptospira spp. and Brucella abortus in two conservation units in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The presence of antibodies in blood samples of eleven jaguars was investigated using autochthonous antigens isolated in Brazil added to reference antigen collection applied to diagnosis of leptospirosis by Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT). The Rose Bengal test was applied for B. abortus antibodies. Two (18.2%) jaguars were seroreactive for the Leptospira spp. antigen and the serovar considered as most infective in both animals was a Brazilian isolate of serovar Canicola (L01). All jaguars were seronegative for B. abortus. These data indicate that the inclusion of autochthonous antigens in serological studies can significantly increase the number of reactive animals, as well as modify the epidemiological profile of Leptospira spp. infection. PMID:25923900

  6. Economic aspects of production of Caiman crocodilus yacare.

    PubMed

    Carreira, Laura B T; Sabbag, Omar J

    2015-03-01

    The breeding of crocodilians is still a recent activity in Brazil. Its peak was in the 1990's, but it has gaps in its production, as there are no norms for the commercial breeding of these animals in captivity. However, its economic potential is great, and the search for ecological balance and viability of commercial production has become a challenge among farmers of this activity. Therefor, the objective of the study was to economically analyze the production of Caiman crocodilus yacare on a farm located in Caceres, state of Mato Grosso, identifying relevant items of costs in the activity, as well as the parameters related to the profitability and viability of the activity. The economic results for the breeding of this animal were positive, with profitability ratios higher than 70%. PMID:25806993

  7. Plasticity in the diet of Astyanax taeniatus in a coastal stream from south-east Brazil.

    PubMed

    Manna, L R; Rezende, C F; Mazzoni, R

    2012-11-01

    In this work we aimed to characterise the diet of Astyanax taeniatus (Jenyns 1842) (Characiformes, Characidae) along the Mato Grosso stream and we hypothesised that the diet of this species would vary according to spatial, seasonal and ontogenetic differences. Specimens were collected every second month at three sites with different physical attributes. The feeding habits of 651 specimens were analysed using the Alimentary Index (IA(i)). Analysis of the diet showed an effect of spatial, temporal and ontogenetic factors. Vegetal allochthonous items were more important in the diet of Astyanax taeniatus in upstream sites while animal autochthonous items were more important downstream. Ontogenetic differences in the diet were significant only in upstream sites, where adults consumed a greater amount of vegetal matter than juveniles. These results reinforce the idea that Astyanax species are opportunistic and show trophic plasticity. PMID:23295523

  8. Isotopic fractionation of oxygen and carbon in decomposed lower-mantle inclusions in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminsky, Felix; Matzel, Jennifer; Jacobsen, Ben; Hutcheon, Ian; Wirth, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Two carbonatitic mineral assemblages, calcite + wollastonite and calcite + monticellite, which are encapsulated in two diamond grains from the Rio Soriso basin in the Juina area, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, were studied utilizing the NanoSIMS technique. The assemblages were formed as the result of the decomposition of the lower-mantle assemblage calcite + CaSi-perovskite + volatile during the course of the diamond ascent under pressure conditions from 15 to less than 0.8 GPa. The oxygen and carbon isotopic compositions of the studied minerals are inhomogeneous. They fractionated during the process of the decomposition of primary minerals to very varying values: δ18O from -3.3 to +15.4 ‰ SMOW and δ13C from -2.8 to +9.3 ‰ VPDB. These values significantly extend the mantle values for these elements in both isotopically-light and isotopically-heavy areas.

  9. Coptotermes gestroi (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) in Brazil: possible origins inferred by mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase II gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Martins, C; Fontes, L R; Bueno, O C; Martins, V G

    2010-09-01

    The Asian subterranean termite, Coptotermes gestroi, originally from northeast India through Burma, Thailand, Malaysia, and the Indonesian archipelago, is a major termite pest introduced in several countries around the world, including Brazil. We sequenced the mitochondrial COII gene from individuals representing 23 populations. Phylogenetic analysis of COII gene sequences from this and other studies resulted in two main groups: (1) populations of Cleveland (USA) and four populations of Malaysia and (2) populations of Brazil, four populations of Malaysia, and one population from each of Thailand, Puerto Rico, and Key West (USA). Three new localities are reported here, considerably enlarging the distribution of C. gestroi in Brazil: Campo Grande (state of Mato Grosso do Sul), Itajaí (state of Santa Catarina), and Porto Alegre (state of Rio Grande do Sul). PMID:20924414

  10. Land Cover Classification in a Complex Urban-Rural Landscape with Quickbird Imagery

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Emilio Federico.

    2010-01-01

    High spatial resolution images have been increasingly used for urban land use/cover classification, but the high spectral variation within the same land cover, the spectral confusion among different land covers, and the shadow problem often lead to poor classification performance based on the traditional per-pixel spectral-based classification methods. This paper explores approaches to improve urban land cover classification with Quickbird imagery. Traditional per-pixel spectral-based supervised classification, incorporation of textural images and multispectral images, spectral-spatial classifier, and segmentation-based classification are examined in a relatively new developing urban landscape, Lucas do Rio Verde in Mato Grosso State, Brazil. This research shows that use of spatial information during the image classification procedure, either through the integrated use of textural and spectral images or through the use of segmentation-based classification method, can significantly improve land cover classification performance. PMID:21643433

  11. Plant food resources exploited by Blue-and-Yellow Macaws (Ara ararauna, Linnaeus 1758) at an urban area in Central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, A A; Ragusa-Netto, J

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we described the food plants available to Blue-and-Yellow Macaws (Ara ararauna), its feeding habits and the relationship between these parameters with feeding niche breadth. We established four transects, each one 12 km long, to sample fruiting plants and the feeding habits of this macaw (monthly 40 h, of observations), at the urban areas of Três Lagoas (Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil). During all studied months, macaws foraged for palm fruits, mainly Syagrus oleracea and Acrocomia aculeata fruit pulp, both available all year, as well as Caryocar brasiliense and Anacardium occidentale seeds, in the wet season. The year-round feeding activity of macaws suggests Três Lagoas city as an adequate feeding area. The permanent availability of plant food resources, potentially, resulted from the diverse fruiting patterns of exotic and, mainly, native plant species, which provided a variety of suitable fruit patches. PMID:25166327

  12. Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae, a spotted fever group agent infecting Amblyomma parvum ticks in two Brazilian biomes

    PubMed Central

    Nieri-Bastos, Fernanda Aparecida; Lopes, Marcos Gomes; Cançado, Paulo Henrique Duarte; Rossa, Giselle Ayres Razera; Faccini, João Luiz Horácio; Gennari, Solange Maria; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia

    2014-01-01

    Adult ticks of the species Amblyomma parvum were collected from the vegetation in the Pantanal biome (state of Mato Grosso do Sul) and from horses in the Cerrado biome (state of Piauí) in Brazil. The ticks were individually tested for rickettsial infection via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting three rickettsial genes, gltA, ompA and ompB. Overall, 63.5% (40/63) and 66.7% (2/3) of A. parvum ticks from Pantanal and Cerrado, respectively, contained rickettsial DNA, which were all confirmed by DNA sequencing to be 100% identical to the corresponding fragments of the gltA, ompA and ompB genes of Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae. This report is the first to describe Ca. R. andeanae in Brazil. PMID:24714968

  13. On the type locality of Sorubim trigonocephalus Miranda-Ribeiro, 1920 (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae).

    PubMed

    Ohara, Willian Massaharu; Neuhaus, Emanuel Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Sorubim trigonocephalus was described in 1920 by Alípio de Miranda Ribeiro, based on a single specimen collected in a locality identified as "Porto Velho", during the "Comissão das Linhas Telegráficas Estratégicas de Mato Grosso ao Amazonas" (more commonly known as Rondon Commission). Given that the type locality is Porto Velho, the species has been referred to the Madeira River basin (Lundberg & Littmann, 2003; Littmann, 2007; Eschmeyer et al., 2016). Nevertheless, after its description, no additional specimens were collected in the Madeira basin despite several ichthyological expeditions undertaken to the area (Santos, 1996; Camargo & Giarrizzo, 2007; Rapp Py-Daniel et al., 2007; Perin et al., 2007; Pedroza et al., 2012; Casatti et al., 2013; Queiroz et al., 2013a), some of them including region of Porto Velho (Fowler, 1913; Araújo et al., 2009; Torrente-Vilara et al., 2011; Queiroz et al., 2013b). PMID:27470724

  14. More on the spider genus Xeropigo O.P.-Cambridge (Araneae, Corinnidae, Corinninae): seven new species and new records from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Leonardo S; Shimano, Yulie; Candiani, David F; Bonaldo, Alexandre B

    2016-01-01

    Seven new species of the spider genus Xeropigo O. P.-Cambridge are described from Brazil, increasing the genus member list up to 16 species. X. piripiri n. sp., X. aitatu n. sp., and X. cajuina n. sp. are described from the state of Piauí. X. crispim n. sp. is described from the states of Ceará, Piauí, and Maranhão. X. oxente n. sp. is described from the state of Rio Grande do Norte. X. canga n. sp. is described from the state of Minas Gerais. X. ufo n. sp. is described from the state of Mato Grosso. The geographical distribution of X. tridentiger, X. camilae, X. pachitea, and X. perene is updated. A key to all species of Xeropigo is presented and possible relationships among all species of the genus are discussed. PMID:27395095

  15. Climatic factors influencing triatomine occurrence in Central-West Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Joyce Mendes; de Almeida, Paulo Silva; de Sousa, Adair Vieira; de Paula, Aécio Moraes; Machado, Ricardo Bomfim; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    We estimated the geographic distributions of triatomine species in Central-West Region of Brazil (CW) and analysed the climatic factors influencing their occurrence. A total of 3,396 records of 27 triatomine species were analysed. Using the maximum entropy method, ecological niche models were produced for eight species occurring in at least 20 municipalities based on 13 climatic variables and elevation. Triatoma sordida and Rhodnius neglectus were the species with the broadest geographic distributions in CW Brazil. The Cerrado areas in the state of Goiás were found to be more suitable for the occurrence of synanthropic triatomines than the Amazon forest areas in the northern part of the state of Mato Grosso. The variable that best explains the evaluated models is temperature seasonality. The results indicate that almost the entire region presents climatic conditions that are appropriate for at least one triatomine species. Therefore, it is recommended that entomological surveillance be reinforced in CW Brazil. PMID:23778666

  16. SEROLOGICAL DETECTION OF HEPATITIS A VIRUS IN FREE-RANGING NEOTROPICAL PRIMATES (Sapajus spp., Alouatta caraya) FROM THE PARANÁ RIVER BASIN, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    SVOBODA, Walfrido Kühl; SOARES, Manoel do Carmo Pereira; ALVES, Max Moreira; ROCHA, Tatiana Carneiro; GOMES, Eliane Carneiro; MENONCIN, Fabiana; BATISTA, Paulo Mira; da SILVA, Lineu Roberto; HEADLEY, Selwyn Arlington; HILST, Carmen Lúcia Scortecci; AGUIAR, Lucas M.; LUDWIG, Gabriela; PASSOS, Fernando de Camargo; de SOUZA, Júlio Cesar; NAVARRO, Italmar Teodorico

    2016-01-01

    Nonhuman primates are considered as the natural hosts of Hepatitis A virus (HAV), as well as other pathogens, and can serve as natural sentinels to investigate epizootics and endemic diseases that are of public health importance. During this study, blood samples were collected from 112 Neotropical primates (NTPs) (Sapajus nigritus and S. cay, n = 75; Alouatta caraya, n = 37) trap-captured at the Paraná River basin, Brazil, located between the States of Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul. Anti-HAV IgG antibodies were detected in 4.5% (5/112) of NTPs, specifically in 6.7% (5/75) of Sapajus spp. and 0% (0/37) of A. caraya. In addition, all samples were negative for the presence of IgM anti-HAV antibodies. These results suggest that free-ranging NTPs were exposed to HAV within the geographical regions evaluated. PMID:26910453

  17. Prevalence of Hyposalivation in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in a Brazilian Subpopulation

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Cristhiane Almeida; Galera, Marcial Francis; Espinosa, Mariano Martínez; de Lima, Paulo Ricardo Teles; Fernandes, Vander; Borges, Álvaro Henrique; Dias, Eliane Pedra

    2015-01-01

    Background. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic inflammatory, multisystem, and autoimmune disease. Objective. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of hyposalivation in SLE patients and evaluate factors associated. Methods. This is a cross-sectional study developed at the Cuiaba University General Hospital (UNIC-HGU), Mato Grosso, Brazil. The study population consisted of female SLE patients treated at this hospital from 06/2010 to 12/2012. Unstimulated salivary flow rates (SFRs) were measured. Descriptive and inferential analyses were performed in all cases using a significance level P < 0.05. Results. The results showed that 79% of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus suffered from hyposalivation and that the disease activity and age in years were the factors that resulted in statistically significant differences. Conclusion. The activity of the disease, age >27 years, and the drugs used were factors associated with hyposalivation, resulting in a statistically significant decrease in saliva production. PMID:25649631

  18. Amazon dams and waterways: Brazil's Tapajós Basin plans.

    PubMed

    Fearnside, Philip M

    2015-09-01

    Brazil plans to build 43 "large" dams (>30 MW) in the Tapajós Basin, ten of which are priorities for completion by 2022. Impacts include flooding indigenous lands and conservation units. The Tapajós River and two tributaries (the Juruena and Teles Pires Rivers) are also the focus of plans for waterways to transport soybeans from Mato Grosso to ports on the Amazon River. Dams would allow barges to pass rapids and waterfalls. The waterway plans require dams in a continuous chain, including the Chacorão Dam that would flood 18,700 ha of the Munduruku Indigenous Land. Protections in Brazil's constitution and legislation and in international conventions are easily neutralized through application of "security suspensions," as has already occurred during licensing of several dams currently under construction in the Tapajós Basin. Few are aware of "security suspensions," resulting in little impetus to change these laws. PMID:25794814

  19. Exposure of free-living jaguars to Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Sarcocystis neurona in the Brazilian Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Onuma, Selma Samiko Miyazaki; Melo, Andréia Lima Tomé; Kantek, Daniel Luis Zanella; Crawshaw-Junior, Peter Gransden; Morato, Ronaldo Gonçalves; May-Júnior, Joares Adenílson; Pacheco, Thábata dos Anjos; Aguiar, Daniel Moura de

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Sarcocystis neurona are related apicomplexan parasites that cause reproductive and neurological disorders in a wide range of domestic and wild animals. In the present study, the immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) was used to investigate the presence of antibodies against T. gondii, N. caninum and S. neurona in the sera of 11 free-living jaguars (Panthera onca) in two protected areas in the Pantanal region of Mato Grosso state, Brazil. Ten jaguars (90.9%) showed seropositivity for T. gondii, eight (72.7%) for S. neurona, and seven (63.6%) for N. caninum antigens. Our findings reveal exposure of jaguars to these related coccidian parasites and circulation of these pathogens in this wild ecosystem. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first serological detection of N. caninum and S. neurona in free-living jaguars. PMID:25517539

  20. New species of Triplocania Roesler (Psocodea, ‘Psocoptera’, Ptiloneuridae), from Brazil and Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Da Silva Neto, Alberto Moreira; Rafael, José Albertino; Aldrete, Alfonso N. García

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Four species of Triplocania, three with M3 simple, based on male specimens and one with forewing M3 forked, based on male and female specimens, are here described and illustrated, namely: Triplocania bravoi sp. n. (Napo: Ecuador), Triplocania erwini sp. n. (Napo: Ecuador), Triplocania trifida sp. n. (Mato Grosso and Rondônia: Brazil) and Triplocania lamasoides sp. n. (Rondônia: Brazil). They differ from all the other species in the genus, in which the males are known, by the hypandrium and phallosome structures. The female is first described for the M3 forked group. The identification key for males of the M3 forked group is updated. PMID:26052241

  1. First Report of Trypanosoma sp. in Spectacled Caiman (Caiman crocodilus): Morphological and Phylogenetic Relationships

    PubMed Central

    da Costa, Andrea P.; Acosta, Igor C. L.; de Lima, Julia T. R.; Minervino, Antonio H. H.; Gennari, Solange M.

    2013-01-01

    In Crocodylidae family three trypanosomes species were described, T. grayi in African crocodilian and T. cecili and Trypanosoma sp. in Caimans species from Brazil. T. grayi was transmitted by tsetse flies and the vector of Brazilian caimans trypanosomes is unknown. We characterized first Brazilian trypanosome isolated in spectacled caiman (Caiman crocodilus) from Mato Grosso State in Brazil. Morphological findings in epimastigotes forms from axenic culture showed high similarity with Trypanosoma sp. described in Caiman yacare from Brazilian Pantanal. Phylogenetic studies performed with SSU rDNA and gGAPDH (glyceraldehydes-3-phosphato dehydrogenase glycosomal) clustering in T. grayi Clade and together to genotype Cay 01 from Trypanosoma unnamed species isolated in C. yacare. This is the first isolate of Trypanosoma sp. from C. crocodilus and the phylogenetic position with isolates in C. yacare from Pantanal region and demonstrates the low host specificity of cayman trypanosomes in Brazil. PMID:27335853

  2. Evaluating the presence of porosity in Brazilian archaeological pottery associating x-radiography and PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curado, J. F.; Added, N.; Rizzutto, M. A.

    2013-05-01

    X-Radiography technique has been used effectively for decades to evaluate and identify differences in homogeneities in samples. It is a simple, fast and non-destructive technique that provides a view of internal structure helping investigating manufacturing details of archaeological ceramics. Characteristics of the paste used in the matrix composition can be derived using PIXE technique through the determination of the major elemental composition allowing the calculation of its expected density. Combining this information with x-ray images is possible to check for differences in the average density of material indicating the presence of homogeneously distributed porosity or temper. The present work evaluates the porosity in a set of native Brazilian pottery sherds that were collected in the Aldeia Lalima archaeological site, located at Mato Grosso do Sul State.

  3. Erythrodiplax ana sp. nov. (Odonata: Libellulidae) from Brazilian palm swamps.

    PubMed

    Guillermo-Ferreira, Rhainer; Vilela, Diogo S; Del-Claro, Kleber; Bispo, Pitágoras C

    2016-01-01

    Erythrodiplax ana sp. nov. (male holotype, six male and three female paratypes), collected in Vereda wetlands (a unique Neotropical savanna environment) in Uberlândia (Minas Gerais) and Chapada dos Guimarães (Mato Grosso), Brazil, is described and illustrated. The new species fits in Borror's Basalis Group, and can be distinguished from other species by the combination of the following traits: blue pruinosity dorsally on thorax and third to eighth abdominal segments; sides of the thorax olive-green; face ivory or olive-green; wings hyaline with a small apical brown spot on all four wings, well defined in females; male genitalia with sclerotized erectile posterior lobe and inflatable sac-like median process. Last instar larvae were reared in the laboratory, resulting in the description of the larva. We also followed this population for 13 months and present resulting biological notes and comments on ontogenetic color change in males, as well as longevity. PMID:27615887

  4. Eco-certification and greening the Brazilian soy and corn supply chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VanWey, Leah K.; Richards, Peter D.

    2014-03-01

    Garrett et al’s recent letter (2013 Environ. Res. Lett. 8 044055) shows the trade value of Brazil’s production of non-genetically modified (GM) crops, and argues that production for this niche market laid the foundation for the expansion of a variety of non-GM and eco-certification systems. We argue that the conditions underlying the development and perpetuation of the non-GM certification systems are transient. The expansion of soy production has dampened the conditions that promoted the dominance of non-GM soy in the region. The state at the heart of the production of conventional soy, Mato Grosso, already has transitioned to almost 90% GM soy in the most recent agricultural season. The continued viability of eco-certification systems depends on strengthening institutions on the demand side, and ensuring farm-level costs on the supply side match price premiums reaching the farm level.

  5. [Ant diversity (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from capões in Brazilian Pantanal: relationship between species richness and structural complexity].

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Michele M; Fernandes, Wedson D; Leal, Inara R

    2006-01-01

    Species richness of epigeic ants was surveyed in forest islands named capões of Brazilian Pantanal and related with their structural complexity. The ants were collected using pitfall traps in 28 capões from Rio Negro Farm, in Aquidauana municipality, Mato-Grosso do Sul state, Brazil. The structural complexity of capões was evaluated by measuring vegetation density and litter quantity near the pit-fall traps. Seventy-one species, distributed in 26 genera and seven sub-families were found. Ectatomma edentatum Roger (Formicidae: Ectatomminae) and one species of Pheidole were the most frequent species. Species richness was positively correlated only with herbaceous vegetation density of capões, supporting the idea that the increase in environmental heterogeneity diminishes species competition, allowing species co-occurrence. PMID:17273701

  6. [Mobilization of scientific knowledge by graduates of a nursing master's degree].

    PubMed

    Depes, Valéria Binato Santili; Pereira, Wilza Rocha

    2013-12-01

    Study that aimed to understand how the process of training in the Masters of Nursing helped mobilizing scientific knowledge in terms of formal and political aspects, by graduates working in health services. Exploratory qualitative research, conducted at the state capital city of Mato Grosso, in 2012. The subjects were nine graduates, Masters in Nursing. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews, analyzed by using the technique of thematic content analysis, and discussed through the theoretical framework of Institutional Analysis. It was showed that the Masters was a device of the Institution knowledge, strongly instituting, by mobilizing in the educational process, the political quality of knowledge. It was concluded that the master's degree in nursing students who worked in health services,feel more prepared and ready to interfere and qualify their workspaces for the management of scientific, political and ethical knowledge; refined and deepened throughout the process of training in the Masters. PMID:25080704

  7. A name for the 'blueberry tetra', an aquarium trade popular species of Hyphessobrycon Durbin (Characiformes, Characidae), with comments on fish species descriptions lacking accurate type locality.

    PubMed

    Marinho, M M F; Dagosta, F C P; Camelier, P; Oyakawa, O T

    2016-07-01

    A new species of Hyphessobrycon is described from a tributary of the upper Rio Tapajós, Amazon basin, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Its exuberant colour in life, with blue to purple body and red fins, is appreciated in the aquarium trade. Characters to diagnose the new species from all congeners are the presence of a single humeral blotch, absence of a distinct caudal-peduncle blotch, absence of a well-defined dark mid-lateral stripe on body, the presence of 16-18 branched anal-fin rays, nine branched dorsal-fin rays and six branched pelvic-fin rays. A brief comment on fish species descriptions solely based on aquarium material and its consequence for conservation policies is provided. PMID:27245763

  8. Hydrological Flowpaths and Their Controls at LBA Biogeochemistry Study Sites - Communalities, Contrasts and Representativeness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsenbeer, H.; Johnson, M.; Neill, C.

    2006-12-01

    Several LBA projects have focused on nutrient fluxes within and nutrient export from forested terra firme headwater catchments. Their physiographic settings encompass the most common soil types of Amazonia, i.e., Oxisols and Ultisols, and share the topography typical of recently dissected landscapes. We will explore to which degree pedological and geomorphological similarities among sites in Amazonas, Mato Grosso and Rondonia extend to near-surface hydrological behavior. We will then interpret differences in nutrient dynamics in terms of contrasting hydrological flowpaths and soil chemistry. Special attention will be given to the usefulness, or lack thereof, of soil taxonomic information as a predictor of near-surface hydrological and hydrochemical behavior in Amazonia, and to the role of riparian zones in masking terra firme processes. Against this background, we will evaluate the representativeness of these LBA sites in the Amazonian context.

  9. Mapping of land use and geomorphology in the APAPORE project area by LANDSAT satellite data, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Dossantos, A. P.; Kux, H. J.; Sausen, T. M.; Bueno, A. M. T. R.; Desouza, L. F.; Nunes, J. S. D.

    1982-01-01

    The results of a land use and geomorphological mapping of the so-called Projeto APAPORE area, at Mato Grosso do Sul State are presented. The study was carried out using multispectral scanner (MSS) and return beam vidicon LANDSAT images (channels 5 and 7 for the MSS) at the scale of 1:250,000 from 1980 through visual interpretation. The results indicate that pastureland is the most widespead class and that the agricultural areas re concentrated in the north of the area under study. The area covered with cerradao (arboreous savanna type) has a great areal extention, thus permitting the advance of the agricultural frontier. The geomorphological mapping can be useful to regional planning of future land use within the studied area.

  10. Blood chemistry of wild Brazilian Coscoroba Swans during molt.

    PubMed

    Calabuig, Cecilia Pérez; Ferrer, Miguel; Muriel, Roberto

    2010-04-01

    The Coscoroba Swan (Coscoroba coscoroba) is an unusual member of the Anatidae found in South America, from the Falkland Islands and Tierra del Fuego through Chile and Argentina, Uruguay, and Paraguay as far north as Mato Grosso do Sul in Brazil. The species is not threatened globally, but some local populations have declined and the status of others is unknown. The objective of this study was to quantify the plasma chemistry of a wild population of Coscoroba Swans in southern Brazil during their molting period. We captured 12 chicks, 14 juveniles, and 31 mature birds. The following blood parameters were measured: glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, uric acid, creatine-kinase, aspartate amino transferase, alanine-aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, amylase, and pancreatic amylase. Significant differences between males and females were not observed for any of the parameters, and only the levels of alkaline phosphatase differed significantly among age groups. PMID:20688656

  11. Environmental resource management on the Munduruku savanna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheffler, E. Margaret; Southwick, Edward E.

    1984-05-01

    For 13 years, the Munduruku were observed living in the savanna region located in South America in the Brazilian state of Pará. The area is near the point where the states of Pará, Amazonas, and Mato Grosso join their borders, and is utilized by about 200 300 Munduruku Amerindians. Their subsistence staple is manioc (a cassava), with fruits and meat included in the diet. Gold mining by Brazilians is a disruptive element in the resource management of the savanna habitat on the rim of the Amazon Basin. Direct and indirect results of mining interference are described. A study of the manner in which the Munduruku on the Cururu River (a tributary of the Tapajós) have handled the potentially disruptive rubber tapping suggests possible ways of reversing the interference. Several courses of action are discussed.

  12. Environmental resource management of the Munduruku savanna

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffler, E.M.; Southwick, E.E.

    1984-05-01

    For 13 years, the Munduruku were observed living in the savanna region located in South America in the Brazilian state of Para. The area is near the point where the states of Para, Amazonas, and Mato Grosso join their borders, and is utilized by about 200-300 Munduruku Amerindians. Their subsistence staple is manioc (a cassava), with fruits and meat included in the diet. Gold mining by Brazilians is a disruptive element in the resource management of the savanna habitat on the rim of the Amazon Basin. Direct and indirect results of mining interference are described. A study of the manner in which the Munduruku on the Cururu River (a tributary of the Tapajos) have handled the potentially disruptive rubber tapping suggests possible ways of reversing the interference. Several courses of action are discussed. 14 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  13. Diel vertical migration and spatial overlap between fish larvae and zooplankton in two tropical lakes, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Picapedra, P H S; Lansac-Tôha, F A; Bialetzki, A

    2015-05-01

    The effect of fish larvae on the diel vertical migration of the zooplankton community was investigated in two tropical lakes, Finado Raimundo and Pintado lakes, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. Nocturnal and diurnal samplings were conducted in the limnetic region of each lake for 10 consecutive months from April 2008 to January 2009. The zooplankton community presented a wide range of responses to the predation pressure exerted by fish larvae in both environments, while fish larvae showed a typical pattern of normal diel vertical migration. Our results also demonstrated that the diel vertical migration is an important behaviour to avoid predation, since it reduces the spatial overlap between prey and potential predator, thus supporting the hypothesis that vertical migration is a defence mechanism against predation. PMID:26132018

  14. Cropland expansion changes deforestation dynamics in the southern Brazilian Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, Douglas C.; Defries, Ruth S.; Shimabukuro, Yosio E.; Anderson, Liana O.; Arai, Egidio; Del Bon Espirito-Santo, Fernando; Freitas, Ramon; Morisette, Jeff

    2006-09-01

    Intensive mechanized agriculture in the Brazilian Amazon grew by >3.6 million hectares (ha) during 2001-2004. Whether this cropland expansion resulted from intensified use of land previously cleared for cattle ranching or new deforestation has not been quantified and has major implications for future deforestation dynamics, carbon fluxes, forest fragmentation, and other ecosystem services. We combine deforestation maps, field surveys, and satellite-based information on vegetation phenology to characterize the fate of large (>25-ha) clearings as cropland, cattle pasture, or regrowing forest in the years after initial clearing in Mato Grosso, the Brazilian state with the highest deforestation rate and soybean production since 2001. Statewide, direct conversion of forest to cropland totaled >540,000 ha during 2001-2004, peaking at 23% of 2003 annual deforestation. Cropland deforestation averaged twice the size of clearings for pasture (mean sizes, 333 and 143 ha, respectively), and conversion occurred rapidly; >90% of clearings for cropland were planted in the first year after deforestation. Area deforested for cropland and mean annual soybean price in the year of forest clearing were directly correlated (R2 = 0.72), suggesting that deforestation rates could return to higher levels seen in 2003-2004 with a rebound of crop prices in international markets. Pasture remains the dominant land use after forest clearing in Mato Grosso, but the growing importance of larger and faster conversion of forest to cropland defines a new paradigm of forest loss in Amazonia and refutes the claim that agricultural intensification does not lead to new deforestation. agriculture | carbon | land use change | soybean

  15. Cropland expansion changes deforestation dynamics in the southern Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Morton, Douglas C; DeFries, Ruth S; Shimabukuro, Yosio E; Anderson, Liana O; Arai, Egidio; del Bon Espirito-Santo, Fernando; Freitas, Ramon; Morisette, Jeff

    2006-09-26

    Intensive mechanized agriculture in the Brazilian Amazon grew by >3.6 million hectares (ha) during 2001-2004. Whether this cropland expansion resulted from intensified use of land previously cleared for cattle ranching or new deforestation has not been quantified and has major implications for future deforestation dynamics, carbon fluxes, forest fragmentation, and other ecosystem services. We combine deforestation maps, field surveys, and satellite-based information on vegetation phenology to characterize the fate of large (>25-ha) clearings as cropland, cattle pasture, or regrowing forest in the years after initial clearing in Mato Grosso, the Brazilian state with the highest deforestation rate and soybean production since 2001. Statewide, direct conversion of forest to cropland totaled >540,000 ha during 2001-2004, peaking at 23% of 2003 annual deforestation. Cropland deforestation averaged twice the size of clearings for pasture (mean sizes, 333 and 143 ha, respectively), and conversion occurred rapidly; >90% of clearings for cropland were planted in the first year after deforestation. Area deforested for cropland and mean annual soybean price in the year of forest clearing were directly correlated (R(2) = 0.72), suggesting that deforestation rates could return to higher levels seen in 2003-2004 with a rebound of crop prices in international markets. Pasture remains the dominant land use after forest clearing in Mato Grosso, but the growing importance of larger and faster conversion of forest to cropland defines a new paradigm of forest loss in Amazonia and refutes the claim that agricultural intensification does not lead to new deforestation. PMID:16973742

  16. The fate of nitrogen fertilizer added to soy-maize agriculture in the Amazon basin: Quantifying N2O flux and losses to groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jankowski, K. J.; Neill, C.; Davidson, E. A.; Macedo, M.; Costa, C., Jr.; Galford, G. L.; Coe, M. T.; O'Connell, C.; Brando, P. M.; Lefebvre, P.; Maracahipes, L.; Nunes, D.; McHorney, R.

    2015-12-01

    Deforestation and agricultural intensification are rapidly changing the landscape of southeastern Amazonia. With international pressure to reduce deforestation, many Brazilian farms have opted to intensify agriculture to a system of soybean-maize double cropping, and it has expanded rapidly in the last 10 years. Maize agriculture requires additional nitrogen (N) fertilizers, whose downstream fate is currently unknown. Typical fertilizer application rates range from 30-120 kg N ha-1, and have the potential to introduce large amounts of N to ecosystems of the Amazon basin, which can alter greenhouse gas flux and nutrient transport to groundwater and streams. Little data on the fate of added fertilizers are available in the tropics in general, especially in this critical region of agricultural expansion. Therefore, we established a field-scale experiment to evaluate the fate of N fertilizer on Tanguro Ranch in Mato Grosso, Brazil, a region of rapidly expanding soy-maize double cropping. We measured greenhouse gas fluxes (N2O, CO2, and CH4), soil N content, losses to groundwater, and corn productivity across five levels of fertilizer addition (0-200 kg N ha-1) throughout an entire growing season. We found that N2O flux increased with fertilizer addition, but was only significantly higher at 200 kg N ha-1. Surface soil N content increased after fertilizer addition, but decreased within weeks, and was quickly observed in subsurface soil water. Modeling results that scale these findings to the state of Mato Grosso suggest that this land use transition could create a substantial new source of N2O and CO2 to the atmosphere and has the potential to leach N fertilizer into groundwater and downstream. It is important to maintain forest code policies that minimize these impacts.

  17. Population structure of the malaria vector Anopheles darlingi in a malaria-endemic region of eastern Amazonian Brazil.

    PubMed

    Conn, Jan E; Vineis, Joseph H; Bollback, Jonathan P; Onyabe, David Y; Wilkerson, Richard C; Póvoa, Marinete M

    2006-05-01

    Anopheles darlingi is the primary malaria vector in Latin America, and is especially important in Amazonian Brazil. Historically, control efforts have been focused on indoor house spraying using a variety of insecticides, but since the mid-1990s there has been a shift to patient treatment and focal insecticide fogging. Anopheles darlingi was believed to have been significantly reduced in a gold-mining community, Peixoto de Azevedo (in Mato Grosso State), in the early 1990s by insecticide use during a severe malaria epidemic. In contrast, although An. darlingi was eradicated from some districts of the city of Belem (the capital of Para State) in 1968 to reduce malaria, populations around the water protection area in the eastern district were treated only briefly. To investigate the population structure of An. darlingi including evidence for a population bottleneck in Peixoto, we analyzed eight microsatellite loci of 256 individuals from seven locations in Brazil: three in Amapa State, three in Para State, and one in Mato Grosso State. Allelic diversity and mean expected heterozygosity were high for all populations (mean number alleles/locus and H(E) were 13.5 and 0.834, respectively) and did not differ significantly between locations. Significant heterozygote deficits were associated with linkage disequilibrium, most likely due to either the Wahlund effect or selection. We found no evidence for a population bottleneck in Peixoto, possibly because the reduction was not extreme enough to be detected. Overall estimates of long-term N(e) varied from 92.4 individuals under the linkage disequilibrium model to infinity under the heterozygote excess model. Fixation indices and analysis of molecular variance demonstrated significant differentiation between locations north and south of the Amazon River, suggesting a degree of genetic isolation between them, attributed to isolation by distance. PMID:16687683

  18. Reduction of phosphorus concentration in mineral supplement on fertility rate, maternal ability and costs of beef cows reared in pastures of Urochloa decumbens.

    PubMed

    Costa, Rogério Magnoli; Ponsano, Elisa Helena Giglio; de Souza, Vinícius Carneiro; Malafaia, Pedro

    2016-02-01

    Manufacturing and marketing of mineral mixtures with less than 40 g kg(-1) phosphorus (P) is prohibited under Brazilian regulations, although scientific evidence rejects this recommendation. Considering the hypothesis that P levels in commercial mineral supplements can be reduced without affecting animal performance and health, the objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of reducing the concentration of P in the mineral supplement (from 40 to 18 g kg(-1)) of a herd of beef cows grazing tropical pastures of signal grass (Urochloa decumbens). The experiment was carried out in the savanna region of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, during the years 2011 to 2013. Variables analyzed included pregnancy rate, calving interval, weight of calves at weaning, and cost of mineral supplementation. There were no changes in the reproductive parameters of the herd and the weight at weaning of the calves. However, the cost of mineral supplementation was significantly lower when the herd was supplemented with the mineral mix containing only 18 g kg(-1) P. Phosphorus concentration of the forage was analyzed monthly during 1 year and averaged 1.9 ± 0.45 g kg(-1) DM. Thus, it appears possible to reduce P content and cost of mineral supplementation without any adverse effects on the health and productivity of beef cattle herds in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul. However, the final decision should be made based on the clinical-nutritional examination and by constant technical assistance to the farm. PMID:26685846

  19. Ecological Adaptation of Wild Peach Palm, Its In Situ Conservation and Deforestation-Mediated Extinction in Southern Brazilian Amazonia

    PubMed Central

    Clement, Charles R.; Santos, Ronaldo P.; Desmouliere, Sylvain J. M.; Ferreira, Evandro J. L.; Neto, João Tomé Farias

    2009-01-01

    Background The Arc of Fire across southern Amazonia seasonally attracts worldwide attention as forests are cut and burned for agricultural expansion. These forests contain numerous wild relatives of native South American crops, such as peach palm. Methodology/Principal Findings Our prospecting expeditions examined critical areas for wild peach palm in the Arc of Fire in Mato Grosso, Pará, Maranhão and Tocantins, as well as areas not previously examined in Amazonas and Amapá states. Recent digitization of the RADAM Brasil project permitted comparison among RADAM's parataxonomists' observations, previous botanical collections and our prospecting. Mapping on soils and vegetation types enabled us to hypothesize a set of ecological preferences. Wild peach palm is best adapted to Ultisols (Acrisols) in open forests across the Arc of Fire and westward into the more humid western Amazonia. Populations are generally small (fewer than 10 plants) on slopes above watercourses. In northern Mato Grosso and southern Pará soybean fields and pastures now occupy numerous areas where RADAM identified wild peach palm. The controversial BR-163 Highway is already eroding wild peach palm as deforestation expands. Conclusions/Significance Many of these populations are now isolated by increasing forest fragmentation, which will lead to decreased reproduction via inbreeding depression and eventual extinction even without complete deforestation. Federal conservation areas are less numerous in the Arc of Fire than in other parts of Brazilian Amazonia, although there are indigenous lands; these conservation areas contain viable populations of wild peach palm and require better protection than they are currently receiving. Ex situ conservation of these populations is not viable given the relative lack of importance of domesticated peach palm and the difficulty of maintaining even economically interesting genetic resources. PMID:19238213

  20. Landscape and Seasonal Variability in CO2 Efflux from Soil and Water Surfaces in the Northern Pantanal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couto, E. G.; Pinto-Jr, O. B.; Lathuilliere, M. J.; Dalmagro, H. J.; Johnson, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    The Pantanal is one of the largest wetlands in the world, with an area of 150,000 km2. It extends over three countries (Brazil, Paraguay and Bolivia) with 80% located in the Brazilian states of Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul. Ecosystems in the Northern Pantanal rely on a seasonal flood pulse in phase with the wet season, which inundates grasslands and forests between January and May. This pulse results in an important change in local biogeochemistry. Inundation saturates the Pantanal's soils with changes in the balance of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. This study summarize the main CO2 effluxes measured from a variety of landscape in the Northern Pantanal during dry and wet seasons, fully or partially inundated soils, as part of Project 2.01 of the Brazilian Institute for Science and Technology in Wetlands (Monitoring aquatic carbon fluxes and water quality). Using a network of dataloggers installed in 4 environments, we have been modeling soil CO2 efflux on a half hourly basis through a combination of infrared gas analyzers measurements and laboratory soil physical parameter estimates. The selected environments presented unique biogeochemical behavior as they relate to inundation and soil type. So far, we have estimated average CO2 efflux in 3 environments with mean values of 3.53 µmol m-2 s-1 (soil CO2 efflux for the "Carrapatal" tree island), 3.41 µmol m-2 s-1 (soil CO2 efflux for the "Baia das Pedras" tree island), and 1.79 µmol m-2 s-1 (aquatic CO2 evasion from the water surface of the "Cambarazal" flooded forest). More measurements are currently underway to complete the landscape variability in CO2 effluxes in the Northern Pantanal.

  1. Decoupling of deforestation and soy production in the southern Amazon during the late 2000s.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Marcia N; DeFries, Ruth S; Morton, Douglas C; Stickler, Claudia M; Galford, Gillian L; Shimabukuro, Yosio E

    2012-01-24

    From 2006 to 2010, deforestation in the Amazon frontier state of Mato Grosso decreased to 30% of its historical average (1996-2005) whereas agricultural production reached an all-time high. This study combines satellite data with government deforestation and production statistics to assess land-use transitions and potential market and policy drivers associated with these trends. In the forested region of the state, increased soy production from 2001 to 2005 was entirely due to cropland expansion into previously cleared pasture areas (74%) or forests (26%). From 2006 to 2010, 78% of production increases were due to expansion (22% to yield increases), with 91% on previously cleared land. Cropland expansion fell from 10 to 2% of deforestation between the two periods, with pasture expansion accounting for most remaining deforestation. Declining deforestation coincided with a collapse of commodity markets and implementation of policy measures to reduce deforestation. Soybean profitability has since increased to pre-2006 levels whereas deforestation continued to decline, suggesting that antideforestation measures may have influenced the agricultural sector. We found little evidence of direct leakage of soy expansion into cerrado in Mato Grosso during the late 2000s, although indirect land-use changes and leakage to more distant regions are possible. This study provides evidence that reduced deforestation and increased agricultural production can occur simultaneously in tropical forest frontiers, provided that land is available and policies promote the efficient use of already-cleared lands (intensification) while restricting deforestation. It remains uncertain whether government- and industry-led policies can contain deforestation if future market conditions favor another boom in agricultural expansion. PMID:22232692

  2. Decoupling of Deforestation and Soy Production in the Southern Amazon During the Late 2000s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macedo, Marcia N.; DeFries, Ruth S.; Morton, Douglas C.; Stickler, Claudia M.; Galford, Gillian L.; Shimabukuro, Yosio E.

    2011-01-01

    From 2006-2010 deforestation in the Amazon frontier state of Mato Grosso decreased to 30% of its historical average (1996-2005) while agricultural production reached an all time high, achieving the oft-cited objective of increasing production while maintaining forest cover. This study combines satellite data with government deforestation and production statistics to assess land-use transitions and potential market and policy drivers associated with these trends. In the forested region of the state, increased soy production from 2001-2005 was entirely due to cropland expansion into previously cleared areas (74%) or forests (26%). From 2006-2010, 78% of production increases were due to expansion (22% to yield increases), with 91% on previously cleared land. Cropland expansion fell from 10% to 2% of deforestation between the two periods, with pasture expansion accounting for most remaining deforestation. Declining deforestation coincided with a collapse of commodity markets and implementation of policy measures to reduce deforestation. Soybean profitability has since increased to pre-2006 levels while deforestation continued to decline, suggesting that anti-deforestation measures may have influenced the agricultural sector. We found little evidence of leakage of soy expansion into cerrado in Mato Grosso or forests in neighboring Amazon states during the late 2000s, although leakage to more distant regions is possible. This study provides empirical evidence that reduced deforestation and increased agricultural production can occur simultaneously in tropical forest frontiers through productive use of already cleared lands. It remains uncertain whether government and industry-led policies can contain deforestation when market conditions again favor a boom in agricultural expansion.

  3. Decoupling of deforestation and soy production in the southern Amazon during the late 2000s

    PubMed Central

    Macedo, Marcia N.; DeFries, Ruth S.; Morton, Douglas C.; Stickler, Claudia M.; Galford, Gillian L.; Shimabukuro, Yosio E.

    2012-01-01

    From 2006 to 2010, deforestation in the Amazon frontier state of Mato Grosso decreased to 30% of its historical average (1996–2005) whereas agricultural production reached an all-time high. This study combines satellite data with government deforestation and production statistics to assess land-use transitions and potential market and policy drivers associated with these trends. In the forested region of the state, increased soy production from 2001 to 2005 was entirely due to cropland expansion into previously cleared pasture areas (74%) or forests (26%). From 2006 to 2010, 78% of production increases were due to expansion (22% to yield increases), with 91% on previously cleared land. Cropland expansion fell from 10 to 2% of deforestation between the two periods, with pasture expansion accounting for most remaining deforestation. Declining deforestation coincided with a collapse of commodity markets and implementation of policy measures to reduce deforestation. Soybean profitability has since increased to pre-2006 levels whereas deforestation continued to decline, suggesting that antideforestation measures may have influenced the agricultural sector. We found little evidence of direct leakage of soy expansion into cerrado in Mato Grosso during the late 2000s, although indirect land-use changes and leakage to more distant regions are possible. This study provides evidence that reduced deforestation and increased agricultural production can occur simultaneously in tropical forest frontiers, provided that land is available and policies promote the efficient use of already-cleared lands (intensification) while restricting deforestation. It remains uncertain whether government- and industry-led policies can contain deforestation if future market conditions favor another boom in agricultural expansion. PMID:22232692

  4. Remote Sensing for Mapping Soybean Crop in the Brazilian Cerrado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trabaquini, K.; Bernardes, T.; Mello, M. P.; Formaggio, A.; Rosa, V. G.

    2011-12-01

    The soybean expansion in the Brazilian Cerrado has been strongly affected by internal and external markets. The main factors driving that expansion are the climatic conditions, the development of technologies and genetic improvement. Recent studies have shown that the soybean expansion has become a major cause of reduction of native vegetation in Mato Grosso State - Brazil, responding for 17% of deforestation from 2000 to 2004. This work aims to map soybean areas in the Brazilian Cerrado in Mato Grosso State, using MODIS data. Thirteen MODIS images (MOD13 - 16 days composition), acquired from September, 2005 to March, 2006, were used to run principal component analysis (PCA) in order to reduce the dimensionality of the data. The first three components (PC1, PC2 and PC3), which contained about 90% of data variability were segmented and utilized as input for an unsupervised classification using the ISOSEG classifier, implemented in the SPRING software. Eighty field work points were randomly selected for the accuracy assessment. An intersection between the soybean map and a map generated by the "Project Monitoring Deforestation of Brazilian Biomes Satellite - PMDBBS", which aimed at identifying anthropic areas, was conducted in order to evaluate the distribution of soybeans within those areas. Moreover a soil map was used in order to evaluate the soybean distribution over the classes of soil. The classification result presented overall index of 83% and the kappa coefficient of 0.64 for the soybean map, which presented a total soybean area of about 42,317 square kilometers. Furthermore, it was verified that 27% of anthropic area was covered by soybean. In relation to the soil analysis, 87% of the total soybean area was planted in Oxisoils. Despite the economic gain related to the soybean production, an adequate management is needed to avoid soil acidification, soil erosion and pollution, aiming at providing a sustainable environment.

  5. Protecting Sacred Sites on Public Land: Religion and Alliances in the Mato Tipila-Devils Tower Litigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Eric

    2007-01-01

    This article traces the Devils Tower litigation in the context of the "Bear Lodge" alliance's theoretical underpinnings, particularly the interrelationship among culture, geographic place, and religion, as well as the institutional mechanisms that regulate litigation alliances in the U.S. judicial system. It discusses principal factors in…

  6. TRMM Observations of Convective Regimes in the Amazon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, W. A.; Nesbitt, S. W.; Blakeslee, Robert J.; Hein, P.; Cifelli, R.; Rutledge, S. A.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This study utilizes TRMM satellite precipitation radar, lightning imaging sensor, and passive microwave imager data together with ground-based lightning data to investigate the vertical structure, lightning, and rainfall characteristics of Amazonian and central South American convection for three separate wet-seasons. These characteristics are partitioned as a function of 850 mb zonal wind direction, motivated by observations collected during the six-week TRMM-LBA field campaign. The TRMM-LBA field campaign observations suggest that systematic variations in Amazonian convective vertical structure, lightning, and rainfall are all linked to bimodal variations in the low-level zonal wind (e.g., easterly and westerly regimes). The more spatially and temporally comprehensive TRMM dataset used in this study extends the TRMM-LBA observations by examining regime variability in Amazonian and South American convective structure over a continental scale domain. On a continental-scale, patterns of east and west regime 850 mb winds combined with LIS lightning flash densities suggest the presence of synoptic-scale controls (e.g., intrusion of extratropical frontal systems and interaction with the SACZ) on regional-scale variability in convective vertical structure. TRMM PR, TMI and ground-based lightning data suggest that regional variability in wet-season convective structure is most evident over the southern Amazon, Mato Grosso, Altiplano, southern Brazil, and eastern coastal regions of central and southern South America. Convective vertical structure, rain fall rates, and lightning activity are all more pronounced during easterly (westerly) regimes over the southern Amazon and Mato Grosso (Altiplano, and southern Brazil). Importantly, when considered with case-study results from TRMM-LBA, the systematic differences in convective structure that occur as a function of regime suggest that associated regime-differences may exist in the vertical distribution of diabatic heating

  7. Erosion risk assessment in the southern Amazon - Data Preprocessing, data base application and process based modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindewolf, Marcus; Herrmann, Marie-Kristin; Herrmann, Anne-Katrin; Schultze, Nico; Amorim, Ricardo S. S.; Schmidt, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    The study region along the BR 16 highway belongs to the "Deforestation Arc" at the southern border of the Amazon rainforest. At the same time, it incorporates a land use gradient as colonization started in the 1975-1990 in Central Mato Grosso in 1990 in northern Mato Grosso and most recently in 2004-2005 in southern Pará. Based on present knowledge soil erosion is one of the key driver of soil degradation. Hence, there is a strong need to implement soil erosion control measures in eroding landscapes. Planning and dimensioning of such measures require reliable and detailed information on the temporal and spatial distribution of soil loss, sediment transport and deposition. Soil erosion models are increasingly used, in order to simulate the physical processes involved and to predict the effects of soil erosion control measures. The process based EROSION 3D simulation model is used for surveying soil erosion and deposition on regional catchments. Although EROSION 3D is a widespread, extensively validated model, the application of the model on regional scale remains challenging due to the enormous data requirements and complex data processing operations. In this context the study includes the compilation, validation and generalisation of existing land use and soil data in order to generate a consistent EROSION 3D input datasets. As a part of this process a GIS-linked data base application allows to transfer the original soil and land use data into model specific parameter files. This combined methodology provides different risk assessment maps for certain demands on regional scale. Besides soil loss and sediment transport, sediment pass over points into surface water bodies and particle enrichment can be simulated using the EROSION 3D model. Thus the estimation of particle bound nutrient and pollutant inputs into surface water bodies becomes possible. The study ended up in a user-friendly, timesaving and improved software package for the simulation of soil loss and

  8. Biomass burning emissions of reactive gases estimated from satellite data analysis and ecosystem modeling for the Brazilian Amazon region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, Christopher; Brooks-Genovese, Vanessa; Klooster, Steven; Torregrosa, Alicia

    2002-10-01

    To produce a new daily record of trace gas emissions from biomass burning events for the Brazilian Legal Amazon, we have combined satellite advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) data on fire counts together for the first time with vegetation greenness imagery as inputs to an ecosystem biomass model at 8 km spatial resolution. This analysis goes beyond previous estimates for reactive gas emissions from Amazon fires, owing to a more detailed geographic distribution estimate of vegetation biomass, coupled with daily fire activity for the region (original 1 km resolution), and inclusion of fire effects in extensive areas of the Legal Amazon (defined as the Brazilian states of Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Pará, Rondônia, Roraima, and Tocantins) covered by open woodland, secondary forests, savanna, and pasture vegetation. Results from our emissions model indicate that annual emissions from Amazon deforestation and biomass burning in the early 1990s total to 102 Tg yr-1 carbon monoxide (CO) and 3.5 Tg yr-1 nitrogen oxides (NOx). Peak daily burning emissions, which occurred in early September 1992, were estimated at slightly more than 3 Tg d-1for CO and 0.1 Tg d-1for NOx flux to the atmosphere. Other burning source fluxes of gases with relatively high emission factors are reported, including methane (CH4), nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC), and sulfur dioxide (SO2), in addition to total particulate matter (TPM). We estimate the Brazilian Amazon region to be a source of between one fifth and one third for each of these global emission fluxes to the atmosphere. The regional distribution of burning emissions appears to be highest in the Brazilian states of Maranhao and Tocantins, mainly from burning outside of moist forest areas, and in Pará and Mato Grosso, where we identify important contributions from primary forest cutting and burning. These new daily emission estimates of reactive gases from biomass burning fluxes are designed to be used as

  9. Nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes from soils under different land use in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meurer, Katharina H. E.; Madari, Beata E.; Franko, Uwe; Spott, Oliver; Stange, Claus F.; Jungkunst, Hermann F.

    2015-04-01

    Cropland area has been expanded in Brazil and by now the agricultural sector has been calculated as the major emitter of nitrous oxide (N2O). This state was preceded by the conversion of natural ecosystems, which inevitably causes changes in the carbon and nitrogen cycle of the soil. However, detailed model and measurement approaches are lacking for sound national estimates. Here we present data from model driven measurement campaigns from different ecosystems and the results of a review of available data on annual N2O fluxes. Contrary to expectations, emissions from agricultural land (1.13 kg N ha-1 yr-1) tended to be even lower than from rainforest (2.29 kg N ha-1 yr-1). At the same time, N-fertilization did not lead to a relevant increase in annual N2O emissions. Moreover, pastures showed an age-related decrease in emissions; median annual emissions from young pastures (≤ 10 years) were 2.52 kg N ha-1, whereas old pastures (> 10 years) emitted 0.90 kg N ha-1 yr-1. Since N2O is known to react very sensitive to changes (for example dry-wet changes, our measurement campaigns concentrated on the transitional period from dry to wet season, as predicted by our model simulations. For spatial explanation, model simulations were made for selected locations in the Brazilian state Mato Grosso, where agriculture is practiced since more than two decades. In accordance with the measurement and literature results, modelled emissions maize-soybean and cotton-soybean rotations were lower than from areas fallow areas. At the same time, the location and soil type, respectively, turned out to be an important factor when trying to quantify extensive emission budgets. Although existing models perform quite well based on monthly measurements, better adaptation is inevitable with regard to the possibility of more precise predictions. This requires spatial and temporal higher resolved monitoring, in order to involve soil types, which have so far not been considered sufficiently, and

  10. Karyotypic variation in Rhinophylla pumilio Peters, 1865 and comparative analysis with representatives of two subfamilies of Phyllostomidae (Chiroptera)

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Anderson José Baia; Nagamachi, Cleusa Yoshiko; Rodrigues, Luís Reginaldo Ribeiro; Farias, Solange Gomes; Rissino, Jorge Dores; Pieczarka, Julio Cesar

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The family Phyllostomidae belongs to the most abundant and diverse group of bats in the Neotropics with more morphological traits variation at the family level than any other group within mammals. In this work, we present data of chromosome banding (G, C and Ag-NOR) and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) for representatives of Rhinophylla pumilio Peters, 1865 collected in four states of Brazil (Amazonas, Bahia, Mato Grosso and Pará). Two karyomorphs were found in this species: 2n=34, FN=64 in populations from western Pará and Mato Grosso states and 2n=34, FN=62 from Amazonas, Bahia, and northeastern Pará and Marajó Island (northern). Difference in the Fundamental Number is determined by variation in the size of the Nucleolar Organizer Region (NOR) accompanied with heterochromatin on chromosomes of pair 16 or, alternatively, a pericentric inversion. The C-banding technique detected constitutive heterochromatin in the centromeric regions of all chromosomes and on the distal part of the long arm of pair 15 of specimens from all localities. FISH with a DNA telomeric probe did not show any interstitial sequence, and an 18S rDNA probe and silver staining revealed the presence of NOR in the long arm of the pair 15, associated with heterochromatin, and in the short arm of the pair 16 for all specimens. The intra-specific analysis using chromosome banding did not show any significant difference between the samples. The comparative analyses using G-banding have shown that nearly all chromosomes of Rhinophylla pumilio were conserved in the chromosome complements of Glossophaga soricina Pallas, 1766, Phyllostomus hastatus Pallas, 1767, Phyllostomus discolor Wagner, 1843 and Mimon crenulatum Geoffroy, 1801, with a single chromosomal pair unique to Rhinophylla pumilio (pair 15). However, two chromosomes of Mimon crenulatum are polymorphic for two independent pericentric inversions. The karyotype with 2n=34, NF=62 is probably the ancestral one for the other

  11. 75 FR 5779 - Proposed Emergency Agency Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-04

    ... comments may be sent to: Matthew Grosso, U.S. Department of Energy, OE/Forrestal Building, 1000 Independence Ave., SW., Washington, DC 20585 or by fax at 202-586-5860, or by e-mail at matthew.grosso@hq.doe... instrument and instructions should be directed to Matthew Grosso at matthew.grosso@hq.doe.gov ....

  12. Brazil’s Market for Trading Forest Certificates

    PubMed Central

    Soares-Filho, Britaldo; Rajão, Raoni; Merry, Frank; Rodrigues, Hermann; Davis, Juliana; Lima, Letícia; Macedo, Marcia; Coe, Michael; Carneiro, Arnaldo; Santiago, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Brazil faces an enormous challenge to implement its revised Forest Code. Despite big losses for the environment, the law introduces new mechanisms to facilitate compliance and foster payment for ecosystem services (PES). The most promising of these is a market for trading forest certificates (CRAs) that allows landowners to offset their restoration obligations by paying for maintaining native vegetation elsewhere. We analyzed the economic potential for the emerging CRA market in Brazil and its implications for PES programs. Results indicate a potential market for trading 4.2 Mha of CRAs with a gross value of US$ 9.2±2.4 billion, with main regional markets forming in the states of Mato Grosso and São Paulo. This would be the largest market for trading forests in the world. Overall, the potential supply of CRAs in Brazilian states exceeds demand, creating an opportunity for additional PES programs to use the CRA market. This expanded market could provide not only monetary incentives to conserve native vegetation, but also environmental co-benefits by fostering PES programs focused on biodiversity, water conservation, and climate regulation. Effective implementation of the Forest Code will be vital to the success of this market and this hurdle brings uncertainty into the market. Long-term commitment, both within Brazil and abroad, will be essential to overcome the many challenges ahead. PMID:27050309

  13. Comparing how land use change impacts soil microbial catabolic respiration in Southwestern Amazon.

    PubMed

    Mazzetto, Andre Mancebo; Feigl, Brigitte Josefine; Cerri, Carlos Eduardo Pellegrino; Cerri, Carlos Clemente

    2016-01-01

    Land use changes strongly impact soil functions, particularly microbial biomass diversity and activity. We hypothesized that the catabolic respiration response of the microbial biomass would differ depending on land use and that these differences would be consistent at the landscape scale. In the present study, we analyzed the catabolic response profile of the soil microbial biomass through substrate-induced respiration in different land uses over a wide geographical range in Mato Grosso and Rondônia state (Southwest Amazon region). We analyzed the differences among native areas, pastures and crop areas and within each land use and examined only native areas (Forest, Dense Cerrado and Cerrado), pastures (Nominal, Degraded and Improved) and crop areas (Perennial, No-Tillage, Conventional Tillage). The metabolic profile of the microbial biomass was accessed using substrate-induced respiration. Pasture soils showed significant responses to amino acids and carboxylic acids, whereas native areas showed higher responses to malonic acid, malic acid and succinic acid. Within each land use category, the catabolic responses showed similar patterns in both large general comparisons (native area, pasture and crop areas) and more specific comparisons (biomes, pastures and crop types). The results showed that the catabolic responses of the microbial biomass are highly correlated with land use, independent of soil type or climate. The substrate induced respiration approach is useful to discriminate microbial communities, even on a large scale. PMID:26887228

  14. Spatial and temporal vegetation change in Southern Brazilian Amazon using GIS and NOAA /AVHRR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazadi, S.; Yoshikawa, S.

    2007-05-01

    Over the past two decades, environmental alteration in the Amazon Basin due to land development, population increase, and the consequent deforestation, has become a serious ecological problem in this region known to be, both climatologically and biogenetically, one of the most important regions in the world. In Mato Grosso, the Brazilian state with the highest deforestation rate, vegetation cover change has been reported to occur over large areas due to the introduction of large-scale mechanized agriculture, extensive cattle ranching and slash-and-burn cultivation. Spatial and temporal land cover (vegetation) change is noted to potentially set up temperature increase and rainfall decrease. We stress on the importance of vegetation change information as crucial inputs for eco-climatic analysis of these spatial patterns of change and their temporal trend at local scale, as well as for real-time monitoring or detection of the deforestation events for appropriate action by the Brazilian government. In this study, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is performed onto NOAA AVHRR remote-sensed and multi- spectral data covering the 1981-2003 period, using GIS. Our investigation focuses on developing a vegetation quantification algorithm for change detection in the vegetation cover over every few years, using the PCA first component, which is shown to characterize the overall vegetation cover types. Land cover features and their spatio-temporal change over the Southern Brazilian Amazon are analyzed and discussed, and their relationships with global and regional eco-climatic phenomena is highlighted.

  15. The role of pasture and soybean in deforestation of the Brazilian Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barona, Elizabeth; Ramankutty, Navin; Hyman, Glenn; Coomes, Oliver T.

    2010-04-01

    The dynamics of deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon are complex. A growing debate considers the extent to which deforestation is a result of the expansion of the Brazilian soy industry. Most recent analyses suggest that deforestation is driven by the expansion of cattle ranching, rather than soy. Soy seems to be replacing previously deforested land and/or land previously under pasture. In this study, we use municipality-level statistics on agricultural and deforested areas across the Legal Amazon from 2000 to 2006 to examine the spatial patterns and statistical relationships between deforestation and changes in pasture and soybean areas. Our results support previous studies that showed that deforestation is predominantly a result of pasture expansion. However, we also find support for the hypothesis that an increase of soy in Mato Grosso has displaced pasture further north, leading to deforestation elsewhere. Although not conclusive, our findings suggest that the debate surrounding the drivers of Amazon deforestation is not over, and that indirect causal links between soy and deforestation may exist that need further exploration. Future research should examine more closely how interlinkages between land area, prices, and policies influence the relationship between soy and deforestation, in order to make a conclusive case for 'displacement deforestation'.

  16. Fire-related carbon emissions from land use transitions in southern Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeFries, R. S.; Morton, D. C.; van der Werf, G. R.; Giglio, L.; Collatz, G. J.; Randerson, J. T.; Houghton, R. A.; Kasibhatla, P. K.; Shimabukuro, Y.

    2008-11-01

    Various land-use transitions in the tropics contribute to atmospheric carbon emissions, including forest conversion for small-scale farming, cattle ranching, and production of commodities such as soya and palm oil. These transitions involve fire as an effective and inexpensive means for clearing. We applied the DECAF (DEforestation CArbon Fluxes) model to Mato Grosso, Brazil to estimate fire emissions from various land-use transitions during 2001-2005. Fires associated with deforestation contributed 67 Tg C/yr (17 and 50 Tg C/yr from conversion to cropland and pasture, respectively), while conversion of savannas and existing cattle pasture to cropland contributed 17 Tg C/yr and pasture maintenance fires 6 Tg C/yr. Large clearings (>100 ha/yr) contributed 67% of emissions but comprised only 10% of deforestation events. From a policy perspective, results imply that intensification of agricultural production on already-cleared land and policies to discourage large clearings would reduce the major sources of emissions from fires in this region.

  17. The expansion of intensive agriculture and ranching in Brazilian Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Robert; DeFries, Ruth; del Carmen Vera-Diaz, Maria; Shimabukuro, Yosio; Venturieri, Adriano

    Agriculture in Amazonia has often provoked controversy, given the tremendous ecological value of the region's environment. First with ranching, and now with the soybean boom, tractors and cattle have marched across lands that for millennia supported only closed moist forest, resident ecosystems, and dispersed indigenous peoples. The present chapter considers this expansion, focusing on the Brazilian portion of the basin. Its premise is that effective Amazonian policy must be grounded on an understanding of the region's agriculture. The chapter pursues its objectives by first addressing the development initiatives that created the preconditions for Amazonia's current agricultural economy. The region is remote and has therefore required sustained government intervention to release its potential. The policy discussion is followed by descriptions of cattle ranching and soy farming. For each, market settings and trajectories of expansion are presented. Although these sectoral descriptions are data rich, they do not provide a conceptual framework for analyzing the environmental impacts of evolving market conditions. To accomplish this, the chapter invokes the classical land use model of von Thünen to explain Amazonian land cover dynamics in relation to soy-cattle linkages. It addresses these dynamics with remote sensing data from Mato Grosso, Pará, and Rondônia, and then discusses scenarios of agricultural advances on the forest. Conclusions follow, considering possible policy responses to deforestation, and the social context of agricultural intensification, with special attention to the issues of land tenure security and distributional equity.

  18. Spontaneous and experimental intoxication of cattle by Simarouba versicolor A. St.-Hill (Simaroubaceae).

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Nilton M; Bacha, Flavia B; Santos, Ariany C; Carvalho, Amanda Q; Faccin, Tatiane C; Pott, Arnildo; Lemos, Ricardo A A

    2013-03-15

    This study describes an outbreak of Simarouba versicolor intoxication in cattle from Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, and reproduces it experimentally. Clinical signs of the affected animals were weakness, tremors, hind limbs incoordination, reluctance to move, sternal and lateral recumbency and death. The main necropsy findings, observed in the abomasum and in segments of the small and large intestines, were diffuse redness and mucosal and serosal swelling. Histological examination revealed necrosis of lymphoid tissues and necrotizing enterocolitis. One experiment was carried out using 3 male calves to test the toxicity of a single dose of S. versicolor leaves at 15 g/kg, 5 g/kg and 2.5 g/kg. Clinical signs, necropsy findings and histological examination of calves receiving 15 g/kg and 5 g/kg leaves were similar to those of cattle from the intoxication outbreak. The calf fed 2.5 g/kg leaves developed clinical symptoms of poisoning and recovered naturally. In a second experiment, two male calves received daily administration of S. versicolor leaves at 1.5 g/kg and 2.5 g/kg for 10 days. They developed clinical signs of intoxication within 24 h and recovered eight to nine days after the leaves were administered. These findings suggest that S. versicolor was responsible for the outbreak studied, although this plant does not have cumulative intoxication effects on cattle. PMID:23319076

  19. Brazil's Market for Trading Forest Certificates.

    PubMed

    Soares-Filho, Britaldo; Rajão, Raoni; Merry, Frank; Rodrigues, Hermann; Davis, Juliana; Lima, Letícia; Macedo, Marcia; Coe, Michael; Carneiro, Arnaldo; Santiago, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Brazil faces an enormous challenge to implement its revised Forest Code. Despite big losses for the environment, the law introduces new mechanisms to facilitate compliance and foster payment for ecosystem services (PES). The most promising of these is a market for trading forest certificates (CRAs) that allows landowners to offset their restoration obligations by paying for maintaining native vegetation elsewhere. We analyzed the economic potential for the emerging CRA market in Brazil and its implications for PES programs. Results indicate a potential market for trading 4.2 Mha of CRAs with a gross value of US$ 9.2±2.4 billion, with main regional markets forming in the states of Mato Grosso and São Paulo. This would be the largest market for trading forests in the world. Overall, the potential supply of CRAs in Brazilian states exceeds demand, creating an opportunity for additional PES programs to use the CRA market. This expanded market could provide not only monetary incentives to conserve native vegetation, but also environmental co-benefits by fostering PES programs focused on biodiversity, water conservation, and climate regulation. Effective implementation of the Forest Code will be vital to the success of this market and this hurdle brings uncertainty into the market. Long-term commitment, both within Brazil and abroad, will be essential to overcome the many challenges ahead. PMID:27050309

  20. Quantifying the effect of fire disturbance on free-living nitrogen fixation in tropical ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Oliveira Bomfim, B.; Silva, L. C. R.; Marimon-Junior, B. H.; Marimon, B.; Horwath, W. R.; Neves, L.

    2015-12-01

    Tropical forests and savannas are among the most important biomes on Earth, supporting more than half of all plant and animal species on the planet. Despite growing interest in biogeochemical processes that affect tropical forest dynamics, many, including biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), are still poorly understood. Free-living N-fixers are thought to play a key role in tropical ecosystems, alleviating N and P limitation, supporting above and below ground biomass production, as well as carbon storage in plants and soil, but this influence has yet to be quantified. Of particular interest, the spatial distribution and identity of free-living BNF under disturbance regimes that commonly lead to the conversion of forests to savannas is currently unknown. To address this critical gap in knowledge, we measured free-living BNF quantifying rates of N fixation under contrasting fire regimes in the Amazon-Cerrado transition of central Brazil. Samples were collected in 4 ha of floodable forests affected by fire and 1 ha of unburned (seasonally flooded) forest located at the Araguaia State Park, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Free-living N-fixation rates were measured by both 15N2 (98 atom% 15N) and acethylene reduction assay (ARA). Samples were incubated in the field and left in the dark at room temperature for 12 hours. In the next few weeks we will quantify N fixation rates that will be presented in the upcoming AGU meeting.

  1. Carbon isotopes in charcoal and soils in studies of paleovegetation and climate changes during the late Pleistocene and the Holocene in the southeast and centerwest regions of Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouveia, S. E. M.; Pessenda, L. C. R.; Aravena, R.; Boulet, R.; Scheel-Ybert, R.; Bendassoli, J. A.; Ribeiro, A. S.; Freitas, H. A.

    2002-06-01

    This paper attempts to reconstruct vegetation changes and to infer climate changes during the late Pleistocene and the Holocene in the southeast (Botucatu, Anhembi and Jaguariúna, São Paulo State) and centerwest of Brazil (Pontes e Lacerda, Mato Grosso State). The research approach included the use of carbon isotopes ( 13C and 14C) in soil organic matter (SOM) and the evaluation of charcoal distribution and its identification at the species level. Soils sampled in this study were located under natural vegetation, along the slopes of small hills. Charcoal was found predominantly between 150 and 50-cm depth, indicating a period of greater frequency of fires in the study areas, between 6000 and 3000 years BP. For the Botucatu, Anhembi and Pontes e Lacerda sites, the δ13C profiles suggest the predominance of C 3 plants during the entire Holocene. The 13C patterns obtained at the Jaguariúna site that show a more significant presence of C 4 plants compared to the other regions, suggest that this region has been drier than the others during the Holocene. These patterns also indicate the presence of a drier climate compared with present-day conditions at the Jaguariúna region during late Pleistocene until the middle Holocene. This study shows the complexity of vegetation dynamics in the southeast of Brazil during the Holocene. It also shows that the analyses of multiple soil cores representative of the main vegetation communities are necessary for paleovegetation studies.

  2. KPC-2-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in a hospital in the Midwest region of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Biberg, Camila Arguelo; Rodrigues, Ana Claudia Souza; do Carmo, Sidiane Ferreira; Chaves, Claudia Elizabeth Volpe; Gales, Ana Cristina; Chang, Marilene Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in the last few decades has become major challenge faced by hospitals. In this study, isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-2 (KPC-2)-producing K. pneumoniae from a tertiary hospital in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, were characterized. Bacterial identification was performed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF; Bruker Daltonics, Germany) mass spectrometry. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of carbapenems were determined using the agar dilution method as recommended by the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Carbapenemase production was detected using the modified Hodge test (MHT) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), followed by DNA sequencing. Of 360 (12.2%) K. pneumoniae isolates obtained between May 2009 and May 2010, 44 (12.2%) were carbapenem nonsusceptible. Of these 44 isolates, thirty-six K. pneumoniae isolates that were positive by MHT and PCR carried the bla KPC-2 gene. Thus, KPC-2producing Klebsiella pneumoniae has been present in a Brazilian hospital located in the Midwest region since at least 2009. PMID:26273265

  3. Evaluation of canine and feline leishmaniasis by the association of blood culture, immunofluorescent antibody test and polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of Leishmania spp. in dogs and cats from Botucatu, São Paulo state, and Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil, by the association of three diagnostic tests: blood culture in liver infusion tryptose medium, immunofluorescent antibody test and polymerase chain reaction. Fifty blood samples of dogs and cats from the Center for Zoonosis Control in Campo Grande, an area endemic for canine visceral leishmaniasis, were collected randomly, as well as canine and feline blood samples from the Municipal Kennel and Animal Protection Association in Botucatu, currently considered a transmission-free, non-endemic area. Results Of the 50 dog blood cultures from Botucatu, three (6%) were positive and of the 50 cats, two (4%) were positive. In Campo Grande, 29 dog blood cultures (58%) were positive and all (100%) cats negative by this test. Polymerase chain reaction detected Leishmania spp. in 100% of dog and cat samples from Botucatu but found all the cats from Campo Grande to be negative. On the other hand, 36 dogs from Campo Grande were positive (72%) by the same technique. Immunofluorescent antibody test in Botucatu found 100% of dogs and cats non-reactive, while in Campo Grande, it detected positivity in 32 dogs (64%) and 15 cats (30%). Conclusions The results show the importance of not only continuous epidemiological surveillance in areas not endemic for leishmaniasis, but also research for accurate diagnosis of this zoonosis. PMID:24565284

  4. A primary natrocarbonatitic association in the Deep Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminsky, Felix V.; Ryabchikov, Igor D.; Wirth, Richard

    2016-04-01

    In addition to ultramafic and mafic associations, a primary natrocarbonatitic association occurs in the lower mantle. To date, it was identified as inclusions in diamonds from the Juina area, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. It comprises almost 50 mineral species: carbonates, halides, fluorides, phosphates, sulfates, oxides, silicates, sulfides and native elements. In addition, volatiles are present in this association. Among oxides, coexisting periclase and wüstite were identified, pointing to the formation of the natrocarbonatitic association at a depth greater than 2000 km. Some iron-rich (Mg,Fe)O inclusions in diamond are attributed to the lowermost mantle. The initial lower-mantle carbonatitic melt formed as a result of low-fraction partial melting of carbon-containing lower-mantle material, rich in P, F, Cl and other volatile elements, at the core-mantle boundary. During ascent to the surface, the initial carbonatitic melt dissociated into two immiscible parts, a carbonate-silicate and a chloride-carbonate melt. The latter melt is parental to the natrocarbonatitic lower-mantle association. Diamonds with carbonatitic inclusions were formed in carbonatitic melts or high-density fluids.

  5. Three-dimensional Fe speciation of an inclusion cloud within an ultradeep diamond by confocal μ-X-ray absorption near edge structure: evidence for late stage overprint.

    PubMed

    Silversmit, Geert; Vekemans, Bart; Appel, Karen; Schmitz, Sylvia; Schoonjans, Tom; Brenker, Frank E; Kaminsky, Felix; Vincze, Laszlo

    2011-08-15

    A stream of 1-20 μm sized mineral inclusions having the negative crystal shape of its host within an "ultra-deep" diamond from Rio Soriso (Juina area, Mato Grosso State, Brazil) has been studied with confocal μ-X-ray absorption near edge structure (μXANES) at the Fe K and Mn K edges. This technique allows the three-dimensional nondestructive speciation of the Fe and Mn containing minerals within the inclusion cloud. The observed Fe-rich inclusions were identified to be ferropericlase (Fe,Mg)O, hematite and a mixture of these two minerals. Confocal μ-X-ray fluorescence (μXRF) further showed that Ca-rich inclusions were present as well, which are spatially separated from or in close contact with the Fe-rich inclusions. The inclusions are aligned along a plane, which most likely represents a primary growth zone. In the close vicinity of the inclusions, carbon coated planar features are visible. The three-dimensional distribution indicates a likely fluid overprint along an open crack. Our results imply that an imposed negative diamond shape of an inclusion alone does not exclude epigenetic formation or intense late stage overprint. PMID:21707095

  6. Cloning and expression of an antigenic domain of a major surface protein (Nc-p43) of Neospora caninum.

    PubMed

    Lima, Manoel S da C; Andreotti, Renato; Caetano, Alexandre R; Paiva, Fernando; Matos, Maria de Fátima C

    2007-01-01

    Neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular protozoan that can infect domestic and wild canids, as well as ruminants and equines. It was described in 1988 as causing neuromuscular alterations and death in dogs. Recently, N. caninum has been the focus of considerable attention for its large impact on the dairy industry, given the economic losses related to breeding failures and to a decrease in productivity. ELISA diagnosis of neosporosis has not been widely used in Brazil, mostly because of the assay's cost, and thus the distribution of the disease in the country is not well known. In order to evaluate its ability to react with sera from infected animals from the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, an antigenic determinant domain of a major surface protein (Nc-p43) was produced. The antigenic domain, located in the distal 2/3 region of the C-terminus, was amplified by polymerase chain reaction. The DNA fragments were cloned into pet100/D-TOPO vectors. The recombinant plasmids were transformed into Escherichia coli of the BL21 Star (DE3) strain and induced to express the fused fragment of Nc-p43 as a 29-kDa protein that, when assayed with bovine Neospora-positive serum from a regional sample, was sensitive for identification by immunoblotting. This Nc-p43 fragment may be of use in additional studies targeted at diagnosing N. caninum infection and at evaluating the immunoprotection conferred by the protein fragment to animal hosts. PMID:17706005

  7. Setting boundaries: environmental and spatial effects on Odonata larvae distribution (Insecta).

    PubMed

    Mendes, Thiago P; Cabette, Helena S R; Juen, Leandro

    2015-03-01

    Environmental characteristics and spatial distances between sites have been used to explain species distribution in the environment, through Neutral (space) and Niche theory (environment) predictions. We evaluated the effects of spatial and environmental factors on Odonata larvae distribution along the Suiá-Missú River Basin, state of Mato Grosso. We tested the hypotheses that (1) the environment is the main factor structuring the community due to its ecophysiological requirements; and (2) the pattern, if present, is clearer for Zygoptera. Samples were made in 12 sites on the Suiá-Missú River Basin in three seasons (2007/2008), with a total of 1.382 Odonata larvae, comprising 10 families, 51 genera and 100 morphospecies. The Anisoptera were more abundant than Zygoptera, comprising 81% of all specimens. The environment affected Zygoptera (R=0.291; p=0.007) and was the main factor structuring the assembly. Thus, Niche theory was confirmed. The absence of this effect on Anisoptera may be due to the ecophysiological adaptations that enable it to occupy different habitats. Zygoptera larvae are indicators of changes in habitat structure. The effects of environmental variables on larvae ecology emphasize the strong relationship between these organisms and environmental integrity. PMID:25806986

  8. Reconstructing the micrometeorological dynamics of the southern Amazonian transitional forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Paulo, Sergio Roberto; de Paulo, Iramaia Jorge Cabral; De Decker, Yannick

    2015-12-01

    In this work, we reconstruct and analyze the micrometeorological dynamics of the transitional forest located south of the Amazon basin. For this, we use time series of micrometeorological variables collected over five years in the transitional forest of Mato Grosso (Brazil). We employ local feature analysis, a recently proposed extension of principal component analysis, to extract the most relevant physical variables from this set. We show in this way that temperature records contain most of the dynamical information in all seasons. Based on this result, the dimensionality of the space spanned by the system's dynamics and the properties of the so defined attractors are obtained. In the dry season, the system presents a robust oscillatory character described by a well-defined limit cycle. In the wet season, the dynamics becomes more irregular but can still be seen as a periodic behavior affected by external noise. These results can help to develop accurate models for the meteorology of the Amazonian transitional forest and can thus lead to a better understanding of this important ecosystem.

  9. Molecular detection of tick-borne bacterial agents in Brazilian and exotic captive carnivores.

    PubMed

    André, M R; Dumler, J S; Scorpio, D G; Teixeira, R H F; Allegretti, S M; Machado, R Z

    2012-09-01

    The present study aims to detect and characterize by molecular techniques, the presence of tick-borne pathogens in wild captive carnivore blood samples from Brazil. Blood was collected from 76 Brazilian felids, 23 exotic felids, 3 European wolves (Canis lupus), and 97 Brazilian canids maintained in captivity in zoos located in São Paulo and Mato Grosso states, Brazil. DNA of each sample was used in PCR reactions for Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, and Rickettsia identification. The blood from 10/100 (10%) of canids (1 European wolf, 3 bush dogs, and 6 crab-eating foxes) and from 21/99 (21%) felids (4 pumas, 6 little spotted cats, 4 ocelots, 3 jaguarundis, 1 tiger, and 3 lions) contained fragments of 16S rRNA gene of Ehrlichia spp. Fragments of Anaplasma spp. groESL and 16S rRNA genes were detected in the blood of 1/100 (1%) canids (1 bush dog) and in 4/99 (3%) felids (4 little spotted cats), respectively. Rickettsia species infections were not identified. The present work showed that new strains of Ehrlichia and Anaplasma spp. circulate among wild carnivores in Brazil. PMID:22749737

  10. A prevalent alpha-proteobacterium Paracoccus sp. in a population of the Cayenne ticks (Amblyomma cajennense) from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Machado-Ferreira, Erik; Piesman, Joseph; Zeidner, Nordin S.; Soares, Carlos A.G.

    2012-01-01

    As Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever is the most common tick-borne disease in South America, the presence of Rickettsia sp. in Amblyomma ticks is a possible indication of its endemicity in certain geographic regions. In the present work, bacterial DNA sequences related to Rickettsia amblyommii genes in A. dubitatum ticks, collected in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso, were discovered. Simultaneously, Paracoccus sp. was detected in aproximately 77% of A. cajennense specimens collected in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This is the first report of Paracoccus sp. infection in a specific tick population, and raises the possibility of these bacteria being maintained and/or transmitted by ticks. Whether Paracoccus sp. represents another group of pathogenic Rhodobacteraceae or simply plays a role in A. cajennense physiology, is unknown. The data also demonstrate that the rickettsial 16S rRNA specific primers used forRickettsia spp. screening can also detect Paracoccus alpha-proteobacteria infection in biological samples. Hence, a PCR-RFLP strategy is presented to distinguish between these two groups of bacteria. PMID:23271948

  11. Bovine immunoprotection against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus with recombinant Bm86-Campo Grande antigen.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Rodrigo Casquero; Pérez de León, Adalberto Angel; Leite, Fábio Pereira Leivas; Pinto, Luciano da Silva; Dos Santos Júnior, Alceu Gonçalves; Andreotti, Renato

    2012-01-01

    The southern cattle fever tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, is no doubt the most economically important ectoparasite of cattle globally. The inappropriate use of chemical acaricides has driven the evolution of resistance in populations of R. (B.) microplus. Anti-tick vaccines represent a technology that can be combined with acaricides in integrated control programs to mitigate the impact of R. (B.) microplus. The recombinant form of Bm86 antigen from the Campo Grande (rBm86-CG) strain of R. (B.) microplus was produced using the Pichiapastoris expression system to test its ability to immunoprotect cattle against tick infestation. Secretion of rBm86-CG by P. pastoris through the bioprocess reported here simplified purification of the antigen. A specific humoral immune response was detected by ELISA in vaccinated cattle. Immunoblot results revealed that polyclonal antibodies from vaccinated cattle recognized a protein in larval extracts with a molecular weight corresponding to Bm86. The rBm86-CG antigen showed 31% efficacy against the Campo Grande strain of R. (B.) microplus infesting vaccinated cattle. The rBm86-CG is an antigen that could be used in a polyvalent vaccine as part of an integrated program for the control of R. (B.) microplus in the region that includes Mato Grosso do Sul. PMID:23070436

  12. Clustering of soybean genotypes via Ward-MLM and ANNs associated with mixed models.

    PubMed

    Teodoro, P E; Torres, F E; Corrêa, A M

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to use mixed models to confirm the presence of genetic variability in 16 soybean genotypes, to compare clusters generated by artificial neural networks (ANNs) with those created by the Ward modified location model (MLM) technique, and to indicate parental combinations that hold promise for obtaining superior segregating populations of soybean. A field trial was conducted between November 2014 and February 2015 at Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul, Aquidauana, MS. The experimental design consisted of four replications of randomized blocks, each containing 16 treatments. We assessed the following agronomic traits: plant height, first pod height, number of branches per plant, number of pods per plant, number of grains per pod, hundred-grain weight, and grain yield. Mixed models were used to estimate variance components and genetic parameters, and obtain genotypic values for each trait. After verifying the presence of genetic variability for all traits, genotypic values were submitted to both a Ward-MLM procedure and ANNs to estimate genetic divergence among genotypes. The number of groups formed by both methods was the same, but there were differences in group constitutions. ANN analysis improved soybean genotypes clustering patterns compared to Ward-MLM procedure. Based on these methods, divergent crosses may be made between genotype 97R73 with genotypes AS3797 and SYN9070, whereas convergent crosses may be made between genotypes AS3797 and SYN9070. PMID:27525912

  13. Effects of land cover change on evapotranspiration and streamflow of small catchments in the Upper Xingu River Basin, Central Brazi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, M. H.; Dias, L. C. P.; Macedo, M.; Coe, M. T.; Neill, C.

    2015-12-01

    This study assess the influence of land cover changes on evapotranspiration and streamflow in small catchments in the Upper Xingu River Basin (Mato Grosso state, Brazil). Streamflow was measured in catchments with uniform land use for September 1, 2008 to August 31, 2010. We used models to simulate evapotranspiration and streamflow for the four most common land cover types found in the Upper Xingu: tropical forest, cerrado (savanna), pasture, and soybean croplands. We used INLAND to perform single point simulations considering tropical rainforest, cerrado and pasturelands, and AgroIBIS for croplands. Converting natural vegetation to agriculture substantially modifies evapotranspiration and streamflow in small catchments. Measured mean streamflow in soy catchments was about three times greater than that of forest catchments, while the mean annual amplitude of flow in soy catchments was more than twice that of forest catchments. Simulated mean annual evapotranspiration was 39% lower in agricultural ecosystems (pasture and soybean cropland) than in natural ecosystems (tropical rainforest and cerrado). Observed and simulated mean annual streamflows in agricultural ecosystems were more than 100% higher than in natural ecosystems. The accuracy of the simulations is improved by using field-measured soil hydraulic properties. The inclusion of local measurements of key soil parameters is likely to improve hydrological simulations in other tropical regions.

  14. Parasitological assessment in the hybrid surubim (Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum x P. corruscans), with uncommon occurrence of Monogenea parasites.

    PubMed

    Jerônimo, Gabriela Tomas; Pádua, Santiago Benites de; Ventura, Arlene Sobrinho; Gonçalves, Eduardo Luis Tavares; Ishikawa, Márcia Mayumi; Martins, Maurício Laterça

    2016-06-14

    This study evaluated the parasite fauna of farmed hybrid surubim (Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum x P. corruscans) and the host-parasite-environment relationship in two fish farms located in Mato Grosso do Sul, Central Brazil, South America. A total of 120 hybrids from two different farms, 60 in each season (30 in the hot and 30 in cold season) were examined during a year. Water quality was weekly measured to evaluate the interaction among environmental conditions and parasitism. Histopathology was used to observe the effects of the parasites and environment on the fish gills. The ciliate protozoan Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and the monogeneans (Ameloblastella sp., Amphocleithrium paraguayensis, Vancleaveus ciccinus, V. fungulus and V. janacauensis) were the most prevalent parasites detected in both seasons in both farms, with prevalence above 80%. It was stated that parasites did not cause important damage in the health status of the hybrid surubim. These results might be related to general good management practices and environmental quality implemented by the fish farmers. The presence of uncommon monogenean parasites to this hybrid compared to their parents causing an environmental and ecological concern is here discussed. PMID:27334818

  15. Parasitological assessment in the hybrid surubim (Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum x P. corruscans), with uncommon occurrence of Monogenea parasites.

    PubMed

    Jerônimo, Gabriela Tomas; Pádua, Santiago Benites de; Ventura, Arlene Sobrinho; Gonçalves, Eduardo Luis Tavares; Ishikawa, Márcia Mayumi; Martins, Maurício Laterça

    2016-06-14

    This study evaluated the parasite fauna of farmed hybrid surubim (Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum x P. corruscans) and the host-parasite-environment relationship in two fish farms located in Mato Grosso do Sul, Central Brazil, South America. A total of 120 hybrids from two different farms, 60 in each season (30 in the hot and 30 in cold season) were examined during a year. Water quality was weekly measured to evaluate the interaction among environmental conditions and parasitism. Histopathology was used to observe the effects of the parasites and environment on the fish gills. The ciliate protozoan Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and the monogeneans (Ameloblastella sp., Amphocleithrium paraguayensis, Vancleaveus ciccinus, V. fungulus and V. janacauensis) were the most prevalent parasites detected in both seasons in both farms, with prevalence above 80%. It was stated that parasites did not cause important damage in the health status of the hybrid surubim. These results might be related to general good management practices and environmental quality implemented by the fish farmers. The presence of uncommon monogenean parasites to this hybrid compared to their parents causing an environmental and ecological concern is here discussed. PMID:27304519

  16. Occurrence of B chromosomes in Tetragonisca Latreille, 1811 (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini): A new contribution to the cytotaxonomy of the genus

    PubMed Central

    Barth, Adriane; Fernandes, Anderson; Pompolo, Silvia das Graças; Costa, Marco Antônio

    2011-01-01

    Tetragonisca angustula and Tetragonisca fiebrigi have recently been listed as valid species. This study aimed to cytogenetically investigate both species, emphasizing the new registry of B chromosomes in the tribe Meliponini. We analyzed colonies of T. angustula and T. fiebrigi collected at Tangará da Serra, Mato Grosso, Brazil, through conventional Giemsa staining, C-banding, and base-specific fluorochrome staining (CMA3/DAPI). T. angustula showed 2n = 34 chromosomes in females and n = 17 in males, with karyotype formula 2K = 34AM. T. fiebrigi showed numeric variation, with chromosome number varying from 2n = 34 to 2n = 36 in females and from n = 17 to n = 18 in males, with karyotype formula 2K = 32AM+2AMc and 2K = 32AM+2AMc + 1 or 2 B-chromosomes. The B chromosomes are heterochromatic. In T. fiebrigi, the CMA3/DAPI staining revealed four chromosomes with a CMA3 positive band. All individuals from the same colony showed the same number of B chromosomes. T. angustula and T. fiebrigi showed karyotype divergence, principally due to the presence of B chromosomes, which are found only in T. fiebrigi. Our data corroborate the status of valid species for both T. angustula and T. fiebrigi, as recently proposed. PMID:21637547

  17. Impact of Southern Amazonian land use change on spatiotemporal climate variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilian, Markus; Böhner, Jürgen; Lunkeit, Frank; Lucarini, Valerio; Schaldach, Rüdiger; Göpel, Jan; Schüngel, Jan

    2015-04-01

    The Amazonia river basin is affected by deforestation and increasing land use changes due to an intensified agricultural and industrial land use. These anthropogenic influences may cause major impacts on the regional climate on various spatial and temporal scales. In order to investigate the local impacts on temperature and precipitation we use dynamical downscaling of ECHAM5 data employing the Weather and Research Forecasting Model (WRF) on a 60km and 30km scale. Since previous studies have used simplified assumptions for land use changes or used purely random variations of deforestation, we aim for a realistic representation on the considered spatial scales. We fill this gap with results of the LandSHIFT model provided by the Center for Environmental System Research which accounts for socio-economic and agricultural developments. In this study we focus on the region of Mato Grosso and Pará between 2001 and 2006. The transformation from tropical rain forest to agricultural areas changes the mean and the variability of temperature and precipitation.

  18. Natural infection by endoparasites among free-living wild animals.

    PubMed

    Holsback, Luciane; Cardoso, Mauro José Lahm; Fagnani, Rafael; Patelli, Thaís Helena Constantino

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the frequency of occurrence and variety of intestinal parasites among free-living wild animals. Fecal samples from wild mammals and birds at rehabilitation centers in the states of Mato Grosso do Sul and São Paulo were analyzed by sedimentation and flotation-centrifugation methods. Parasite eggs, oocysts, cysts and/or trophozoites were found in 71% of the samples. Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts were detected in fecal samples from oncillas (Leopardus tigrinus) and scaly-headed parrots (Pionus maximiliani). Giardia cysts were identified in the feces of a gray brocket (Mazama gouazoubira). Among the most common parasites found, there were eggs from Toxocara cati, Toxascaris leonina and Ancylostoma tubaeforme, and from Cestoda. Several Enterobius sp. eggs were found in the feces of red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus). It can be concluded from this study that despite the small number of samples, the diversity of parasites found was noteworthy. Additional information about parasite endofauna in wild animals is needed, since their presence might suggest that there could be proximity to and interactions with domestic animals and/or humans. In addition, further studies on parasites from free-living wild animals are of prime importance for understanding the intensity of anthropic changes in wild environments. PMID:23778826

  19. Molecular characterization and population structure of the macaw palm, Acrocomia aculeata (Arecaceae), ex situ germplasm collection using microsatellites markers.

    PubMed

    Lanes, Éder C M; Motoike, Sérgio Y; Kuki, Kacilda N; Nick, Carlos; Freitas, Renata D

    2015-01-01

    The Acrocomia aculeata is one of the most promising plants for sustainable production of renewable energy. In order to understand patterns of the distribution of the allelic diversity of A. aculeata ex situ germplasm collection, the present study investigated the hypothesis that the genetic variability of the accessions may match their geographical origin. A genotypic analysis of 77 A. aculeata accessions was conducted with 6 simple sequence repeat markers. A high degree of molecular diversity among the accessions was found, with an average of 9 alleles per locus and a polymorphic information content with a mean of 0.76. A total of 4 clusters was identified by the Bayesian analysis of population structure. The highest subpopulation diversity was identified in Pop1, mainly formed by accessions from State of Mato Grosso do Sul. The populations Pop2A, Pop2B, and Pop2C, all from the State of Minas Gerais, showed high genetic variability as determined by a higher F st, and a wide genetic variance, which were identified within and among the population by analysis of molecular variance. Based on our results and on Vavilov's theory on crop origins, one possible diversity center for A. aculeata is proposed to be in a region in southeast Brazil. PMID:25425677

  20. The role of microorganisms in a planktonic food web of a floodplain lake.

    PubMed

    Segovia, Bianca Trevizan; Pereira, Danielle Goeldner; Bini, Luis Mauricio; de Meira, Bianca Ramos; Nishida, Verônica Sayuri; Lansac-Tôha, Fabio Amodêo; Velho, Luiz Felipe Machado

    2015-02-01

    Food webs include complex ecological interactions that define the flow of matter and energy, and are fundamental in understanding the functioning of an ecosystem. Temporal variations in the densities of communities belonging to the planktonic food web (i.e., microbial: bacteria, flagellate, and ciliate; and grazing: zooplankton and phytoplankton) were investigated, aiming to clarify the interactions between these organisms and the dynamics of the planktonic food web in a floodplain lake. We hypothesized that hydrological pulse determines the path of matter and energy flow through the planktonic food web of this floodplain lake. Data were collected monthly from March 2007 to February 2008 at three different sites in Guaraná Lake (Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil). The path analysis provided evidence that the dynamics of the planktonic food web was strongly influenced by the hydrological pulse. The high-water period favored interactions among the organisms of the microbial loop, rather than their relationships with zooplankton and phytoplankton. Therefore, in this period, the strong interaction among the organisms of the grazing food chain suggests that the microbial loop functions as a sink of matter and energy. In turn, in the low-water period, higher primary productivity appeared to favor different interactions between the components of the grazing food chain and microorganisms, which would function as a link to the higher trophic levels. PMID:25213653

  1. Watershed Metabolism Expression in Rivers of the Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krusche, A. V.; Ballester, M. V.; Victoria, R. L.; Montebelo, A.; da Cunha, H. B.; Neu, V.; Richey, J. E.

    2011-12-01

    The Amazon basin holds a wide variety of river waters with characteristic chemical signatures imprinted by basin geomorphology, rock types and weathering environments. Extremely contrasting cases are rivers such as the Solimoes, which drains Andean terrain with resulting high ionic content and suspended sediments and the ionic-poor blackish waters of the Negro, which drains highly weathered flat terrain. Such differences in landscape and water types translate into distinct seasonal patterns in their chemical composition. However, when biogenic species are concerned (such as dissolved gases O2 and CO2) rivers of all types and scales we have studied at Amazon present the same seasonal pattern. From the larger tributaries Solimoes and Negro to headwater streams of first order in Mato Grosso and Rondonia, DOC and CO2 increase with discharge, whereas O2 and pH decrease. Our results from smaller scale headwater streams show that seasonality in stream water follows precisely respiration in forest soils, indicating a tight land-water connection at this scale that probably propagates in the riverine network to express the functioning of the watershed as an integrated unit of the landscape.

  2. Genetic evidence of population structuring in the neotropical freshwater fish Brycon hilarii (Valenciennes, 1850).

    PubMed

    Sanches, A; Galetti Jr, P M

    2007-12-01

    Brycon hilarii is a migratory fish widely distributed throughout the Paraguay River Basin. It is appreciated in sport fishing and for its superior meat quality. It is also the main species for tourist attraction in the Bonito region (State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil). Considering the lack of information on the genetic structure of the fish of this species, the aim of the present study was to detect the genetic variability of Brycon hilarii through RAPD markers. A total of eighty specimens collected in different seasons at four sites of the Miranda River sub-basin (Paraguay River Basin, Brazil) were used for analysis. The results of genetic similarity, Shannon diversity, and AMOVA revealed differences between the sampling sites. Through AMOVA, differences between populations were more evident among the animals collected during the non-reproductive season, corresponding to a time of less movement of these fish. A population structuring model in which B. hilarii appears organized into genetically differentiated reproductive units that coexist and co-migrate through the studied system was suggested, contrasting the currently accepted idea that freshwater migratory fish form large panmictic populations in a determined hydrographic system. Despite the lack of a complete picture regarding the distribution of B. hilarii in the studied region, this initial idea on its population genetic structure could be an important contribution to providing aid for management and conservation programs of these fish. PMID:18278356

  3. A randomised double-blind clinical trial of two yellow fever vaccines prepared with substrains 17DD and 17D-213/77 in children nine-23 months old.

    PubMed

    2015-09-01

    This randomised, double-blind, multicentre study with children nine-23 months old evaluated the immunogenicity of yellow fever (YF) vaccines prepared with substrains 17DD and 17D-213/77. YF antibodies were titered before and 30 or more days after vaccination. Seropositivity and seroconversion were analysed according to the maternal serological status and the collaborating centre. A total of 1,966 children were randomised in the municipalities of the states of Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais and São Paulo and blood samples were collected from 1,714 mothers. Seropositivity was observed in 78.6% of mothers and 8.9% of children before vaccination. After vaccination, seropositivity rates of 81.9% and 83.2%, seroconversion rates of 84.8% and 85.8% and rates of a four-fold increase over the pre-vaccination titre of 77.6% and 81.8% were observed in the 17D-213/77 and 17DD subgroups, respectively. There was no association with maternal immunity. Among children aged 12 months or older, the seroconversion rates of 69% were associated with concomitant vaccination against measles, mumps and rubella. The data were not conclusive regarding the interference of maternal immunity in the immune response to the YF vaccine, but they suggest interference from other vaccines. The failures in seroconversion after vaccination support the recommendation of a booster dose in children within 10 years of the first dose. PMID:26517656

  4. Sexual dimorphism and mating behavior in Anomala testaceipennis.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Sérgio Roberto; Gomes, Elias Soares; Bento, José Maurício Simões

    2014-01-01

    The beetle, Anomala testaceipennis Blanchard (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), occurs in central-western Brazil where larvae feed on the roots of plants causing damage. This research aimed to study sexual dimorphism and mating behavior of A. testaceipennis. Adults of A. testaceipennis were collected with light traps in the experimental area of the State University of Mato Grosso do Sul, in Aquidauana. Laboratory experiments were performed to describe copulation behavior and adult morphology of males and females. In males the last abdominal segment has a pronounced constriction, which is absent in females, and the male's last segment of the first pair of legs has a ventral projection, which is poorly developed in females. The mating activities of adults begin soon after sunset, when adults leave the soil and fly. When the male encounters a female, he touches her with antennae and tarsi. If accepted, the male climbs on the female and remains on her back, and soon after the copulation begins. When the female does not accept the male for mating, she moves rapidly and can roll on the ground, and by so removing the male. In the field, adults feed and mate on bloomed trees of Oiti, Licania tomentosa Benth (Malpighiales: Chrysobalanaceae) and Louro, Cordia glabrata Martius (Boraginaceae). In trees without inflorescences no adults of this species were found. PMID:25502043

  5. Cytogenetic and morphometric analysis in the species Astyanax altiparanae Garutti & Britski, 2000 (Teleostei, Characidae) from the Iguatemi River Basin, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Carlos Alexandre; Da Rocha, Rafael Henrique; Bailly, Dayani; Guterres, Zaira Da Rosa; Alves, Diandra Soares; Martins-Santos, Isabel Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The genus Astyanax is relatively common and encompasses various similar taxa forming a highly complex group that is difficult to precisely delimit. The present study aims to analyze cytogenetically and morphologically specimens of A. altiparanae belonging to distinct populations of the Iguatemi River Basin, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, for a better understanding of the evolutionary processes in this fish group. This study analysed 32 specimens of Astyanax altiparanae from Iguatemi River basin, MS, Brazil: 24 from the Agua Boa stream and 8 from the Santa Maria stream. All specimens showed a diploid number equal to 50 chromosomes with differences in the karyotypic formula and types of chromosomes bearing the NOR between the two localities. The constitutive heterochromatin showed interstitial markings evident in the region of some chromosomes in both populations. In the morphometric analysis, the first three axes were retained for interpretation which together explained 81% of variance, showing morphometric distinction between populations. Chromosomal and morphometric data obtained may be useful for taxonomic and phylogenetic studies in this group of fish. PMID:25403073

  6. [Cervical cancer screening among indigenous women in the Xingu Indian Reservation, central Brazil].

    PubMed

    Taborda, W C; Ferreira, S C; Rodrigues, D; Stávale, J N; Baruzzi, R G

    2000-02-01

    Although the literature presents worrisome data regarding the incidence of cervical cancer among indigenous populations, in Brazil there is very little information regarding the occurrence of this type of cancer among indigenous peoples. Therefore, the objective of the present descriptive study was to assess the prevalence of cervical cancer and of cervical and vaginal infections among 423 indigenous women living in the Xingu Indian Reservation, in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. These women were or had been sexually active. Data were collected between 1989 and 1996. Clinical and gynecological examinations were carried out prior to the collection of cervical specimens and to the performance of cytologic analyses. Upon detection of abnormalities, a colposcopy and a biopsy were also performed. Our results show that 1% of the women studied presented invasive carcinoma and that 3% presented premalignant lesions. In addition, 84% presented inflammatory atypia, resulting from sexually transmitted genital infections. The present findings are in accordance with the results of other international reports regarding the high prevalence of cervical conditions among indigenous populations, and they underscore the need to extend to the indigenous peoples of Brazil programs aiming at the control of sexually transmitted diseases and at the early detection and treatment of cervical cancer. PMID:10748659

  7. An active focus of high prevalence of fogo selvagem on an Amerindian reservation in Brazil. Cooperative Group on Fogo Selvagem Research.

    PubMed

    Hans-Filho, G; dos Santos, V; Katayama, J H; Aoki, V; Rivitti, E A; Sampaio, S A; Friedman, H; Moraes, J R; Moraes, M E; Eaton, D P; Lopez, A L; Hoffman, R G; Fairley, J A; Giudice, G J; Diaz, L A

    1996-07-01

    Fogo Selvagem (FS) is an autoimmune disease characterized by subcorneal vesicles and antidesmoglein-1 autoantibodies. Previous epidemiologic data have linked the onset of FS to exposure to an environmental antigen(s). This investigation describes a unique human settlement with an extraordinarily high prevalence of FS. This community is made up of Amerindians belonging to the Terena tribe, which has settled on the Limao Verde reservation in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul in Brazil. Twenty-six well-characterized FS cases have been identified within a total population of 998, yielding a prevalence of 2.6%. Seventeen of the patients (65 %) were males, and over 50% were older than 30 y of age. The incidence of the disease shows temporal periodicity, i.e., years with several cases of FS alternating with years with no cases. Over one-half of the cases occurred in genetically related family members. Another Terena reservation, the Ipegue/Taunay, located 90 km west of the Limao Verde reservation, was also evaluated as a control group. This reservation, with a population of 2203, had no recorded cases of FS. Thus, the Limao Verde reservation represents a new focus of FS in which the disease exhibits temporal, geographic, and familial clustering. These results suggest that the environmental antigen or antigens precipitating FS are endemic to the Limao Verde reservation. This reservation appears to be an ideal population for carrying out sero-epidemiologic, genetic, and environmental studies aimed at disclosing the etiology of FS. PMID:8752842

  8. The fate of phosphorus fertilizer in Amazon soya bean fields

    PubMed Central

    Riskin, Shelby H.; Porder, Stephen; Neill, Christopher; Figueira, Adelaine Michela e Silva; Tubbesing, Carmen; Mahowald, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    Fertilizer-intensive soya bean agriculture has recently expanded in southeastern Amazonia, and whereas intensive fertilizer use in the temperate zone has led to widespread eutrophication of freshwater ecosystems, the effects in tropical systems are less well understood. We examined the fate of fertilizer phosphorus (P) by comparing P forms and budgets across a chronosequence of soya bean fields (converted to soya beans between 2003 and 2008) and forests on an 800 km2 soya bean farm in Mato Grosso, Brazil. Soya bean fields were fertilized with 50 kg P ha−1 yr−1 (30 kg P ha−1 yr−1 above what is removed in crops). We used modified Hedley fractionation to quantify soil P pools and found increases in less-plant-available inorganic pools and decreases in organic pools in agricultural soils compared with forest. Fertilizer P did not move below 20 cm. Measurements of P sorption capacity suggest that while fertilizer inputs quench close to half of the sorption capacity of fast-reacting pools, most added P is bound in more slowly reacting pools. Our data suggest that this agricultural system currently has a low risk of P losses to waterways and that long time-scales are required to reach critical soil thresholds that would allow continued high yields with reduced fertilizer inputs. PMID:23610165

  9. A morphological and molecular study of two species of Raphidascaroides Yamaguti, 1941 (Nematoda: Anisakidae), parasites of doradid catfish (Siluriformes) in South America, with a description of R. moraveci n. sp.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Felipe B; Tavares, Luiz E R; Scholz, Tomáš; Luque, José L

    2015-05-01

    Nematodes of the genus Raphidascaroides Yamaguti, 1941 parasitising doradid catfishes (Siluriformes: Doradidae) in Brazil were studied based on morphological and molecular evaluation of newly collected material. A new species, Raphidascaroides moraveci n. sp., is described from the intestine of Platydoras armatulus (Valenciennes) from River Miranda, River Paraguay basin, Pantanal, Mato Grosso do Sul. The new species differs from all of the congeners in having short spicules (163-217 μm in length) representing less than 1% of the total body length and in the posterior region of cloacal opening covered by small rudimentary spines. In addition, it differs from the other congeneric species in the number and arrangement of the caudal papillae and the structure of lips and tail. Raphidascaroides moraveci n. sp. is the third species described from freshwater fishes and the second one in the Neotropical Region. New morphological data on R. brasiliensis Moravec & Thatcher, 1997 from Megalodoras uranoscopus (Eigenmann & Eigenmann) and Platydoras costatus (Linnaeus) (both new host records) from River Xingu, River Amazon basin, Pará, are provided including scanning electron micrographs of taxonomically important structures. The differentiation of the new species is supported by molecular data (partial sequences of the small and large subunits of the rRNA gene). PMID:25862032

  10. Seeing the forest for the streams: a multiscale analysis of land use change and the integrity of freshwater ecosystems in the southeastern Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macedo, M. N.; Coe, M. T.; DeFries, R. S.; Uriarte, M.; Brando, P. M.; Neill, C.

    2012-12-01

    Large-scale cattle ranching and soybean production are the primary drivers of deforestation in the Amazon's agricultural frontier. These land use changes can degrade stream ecosystems by reducing hydrologic connectivity, changing the amount of light and nutrient inputs, and altering the quality and quantity of water flowing within streams. This study integrates government deforestation statistics, field data, and satellite-derived information to examine the land use transitions associated with agricultural expansion in the southeastern Amazon state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. We monitored stream temperature in 12 soybean, pasture, and forest watersheds and modeled its relationship with land management (riparian forest buffers, watershed forest cover, and impoundments) and environmental variables (precipitation, air temperature). Streams in pasture and soybean watersheds were significantly warmer than those in forested watersheds, with average daily maxima more than 4°C (16.5%) higher in pasture and 3°C (12.1%) higher in soy. Scaling up to the Xingu River Basin revealed a stream network that was increasingly dominated by agricultural land uses and highly fragmented, with nearly 10,000 impoundments in the headwaters alone. These impacts could be substantially mitigated through improved land use practices, such as the preservation and restoration of riparian areas and management of impoundments in emerging agricultural landscapes.

  11. Effects of land cover change on evapotranspiration and streamflow of small catchments in the Upper Xingu River Basin, Central Brazi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, M. H.; Dias, L. C. P.; Macedo, M.; Coe, M. T.; Neill, C.

    2014-12-01

    This study assess the influence of land cover changes on evapotranspiration and streamflow in small catchments in the Upper Xingu River Basin (Mato Grosso state, Brazil). Streamflow was measured in catchments with uniform land use for September 1, 2008 to August 31, 2010. We used models to simulate evapotranspiration and streamflow for the four most common land cover types found in the Upper Xingu: tropical forest, cerrado (savanna), pasture, and soybean croplands. We used INLAND to perform single point simulations considering tropical rainforest, cerrado and pasturelands, and AgroIBIS for croplands. Converting natural vegetation to agriculture substantially modifies evapotranspiration and streamflow in small catchments. Measured mean streamflow in soy catchments was about three times greater than that of forest catchments, while the mean annual amplitude of flow in soy catchments was more than twice that of forest catchments. Simulated mean annual evapotranspiration was 39% lower in agricultural ecosystems (pasture and soybean cropland) than in natural ecosystems (tropical rainforest and cerrado). Observed and simulated mean annual streamflows in agricultural ecosystems were more than 100% higher than in natural ecosystems. The accuracy of the simulations is improved by using field-measured soil hydraulic properties. The inclusion of local measurements of key soil parameters is likely to improve hydrological simulations in other tropical regions.

  12. Land-use-driven stream warming in southeastern Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Marcia N; Coe, Michael T; DeFries, Ruth; Uriarte, Maria; Brando, Paulo M; Neill, Christopher; Walker, Wayne S

    2013-06-01

    Large-scale cattle and crop production are the primary drivers of deforestation in the Amazon today. Such land-use changes can degrade stream ecosystems by reducing connectivity, changing light and nutrient inputs, and altering the quantity and quality of streamwater. This study integrates field data from 12 catchments with satellite-derived information for the 176,000 km(2) upper Xingu watershed (Mato Grosso, Brazil). We quantify recent land-use transitions and evaluate the influence of land management on streamwater temperature, an important determinant of habitat quality in small streams. By 2010, over 40 per cent of catchments outside protected areas were dominated (greater than 60% of area) by agriculture, with an estimated 10,000 impoundments in the upper Xingu. Streams in pasture and soya bean watersheds were significantly warmer than those in forested watersheds, with average daily maxima over 4°C higher in pasture and 3°C higher in soya bean. The upstream density of impoundments and riparian forest cover accounted for 43 per cent of the variation in temperature. Scaling up, our model suggests that management practices associated with recent agricultural expansion may have already increased headwater stream temperatures across the Xingu. Although increased temperatures could negatively impact stream biota, conserving or restoring riparian buffers could reduce predicted warming by as much as fivefold. PMID:23610164

  13. Watershed responses to Amazon soya bean cropland expansion and intensification

    PubMed Central

    Neill, Christopher; Coe, Michael T.; Riskin, Shelby H.; Krusche, Alex V.; Elsenbeer, Helmut; Macedo, Marcia N.; McHorney, Richard; Lefebvre, Paul; Davidson, Eric A.; Scheffler, Raphael; Figueira, Adelaine Michela e Silva; Porder, Stephen; Deegan, Linda A.

    2013-01-01

    The expansion and intensification of soya bean agriculture in southeastern Amazonia can alter watershed hydrology and biogeochemistry by changing the land cover, water balance and nutrient inputs. Several new insights on the responses of watershed hydrology and biogeochemistry to deforestation in Mato Grosso have emerged from recent intensive field campaigns in this region. Because of reduced evapotranspiration, total water export increases threefold to fourfold in soya bean watersheds compared with forest. However, the deep and highly permeable soils on the broad plateaus on which much of the soya bean cultivation has expanded buffer small soya bean watersheds against increased stormflows. Concentrations of nitrate and phosphate do not differ between forest or soya bean watersheds because fixation of phosphorus fertilizer by iron and aluminium oxides and anion exchange of nitrate in deep soils restrict nutrient movement. Despite resistance to biogeochemical change, streams in soya bean watersheds have higher temperatures caused by impoundments and reduction of bordering riparian forest. In larger rivers, increased water flow, current velocities and sediment flux following deforestation can reshape stream morphology, suggesting that cumulative impacts of deforestation in small watersheds will occur at larger scales. PMID:23610178

  14. Land-use-driven stream warming in southeastern Amazonia

    PubMed Central

    Macedo, Marcia N.; Coe, Michael T.; DeFries, Ruth; Uriarte, Maria; Brando, Paulo M.; Neill, Christopher; Walker, Wayne S.

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale cattle and crop production are the primary drivers of deforestation in the Amazon today. Such land-use changes can degrade stream ecosystems by reducing connectivity, changing light and nutrient inputs, and altering the quantity and quality of streamwater. This study integrates field data from 12 catchments with satellite-derived information for the 176 000 km2 upper Xingu watershed (Mato Grosso, Brazil). We quantify recent land-use transitions and evaluate the influence of land management on streamwater temperature, an important determinant of habitat quality in small streams. By 2010, over 40 per cent of catchments outside protected areas were dominated (greater than 60% of area) by agriculture, with an estimated 10 000 impoundments in the upper Xingu. Streams in pasture and soya bean watersheds were significantly warmer than those in forested watersheds, with average daily maxima over 4°C higher in pasture and 3°C higher in soya bean. The upstream density of impoundments and riparian forest cover accounted for 43 per cent of the variation in temperature. Scaling up, our model suggests that management practices associated with recent agricultural expansion may have already increased headwater stream temperatures across the Xingu. Although increased temperatures could negatively impact stream biota, conserving or restoring riparian buffers could reduce predicted warming by as much as fivefold. PMID:23610164

  15. Comparative Study of Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Yellow, Green, Brown, and Red Brazilian Propolis

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Christiane Schineider; Mokochinski, João Benhur; de Lira, Tatiana Onofre; de Oliveira, Fátima de Cassia Evangelista; Cardoso, Magda Vieira; Ferreira, Roseane Guimarães; Sawaya, Alexandra Christine Helena Frankland; Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto; Pessoa, Cláudia; Cuesta-Rubio, Osmany; Monteiro, Marta Chagas; de Campos, Mônica Soares

    2016-01-01

    The chemical composition and biological activity of a sample of yellow propolis from Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil (EEP-Y MS), were investigated for the first time and compared with green, brown, and red types of Brazilian propolis and with a sample of yellow propolis from Cuba. Overall, EEP-Y MS had different qualitative chemical profiles, as well as different cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities when compared to the other types of propolis assessed in this study and it is a different chemotype of Brazilian propolis. Absence of phenolic compounds and the presence of mixtures of aliphatic compounds in yellow propolis were determined by analysing 1H-NMR spectra and fifteen terpenes were identified by GC-MS. EEP-Y MS showed cytotoxic activity against human tumour strain OVCAR-8 but was not active against Gram-negative or Gram-positive bacteria. Our results confirm the difficulty of establishing a uniform quality standard for propolis from diverse geographical origins. The most appropriate pharmacological applications of yellow types of propolis must be further investigated. PMID:27525023

  16. Comparative Study of Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Yellow, Green, Brown, and Red Brazilian Propolis.

    PubMed

    Machado, Christiane Schineider; Mokochinski, João Benhur; de Lira, Tatiana Onofre; de Oliveira, Fátima de Cassia Evangelista; Cardoso, Magda Vieira; Ferreira, Roseane Guimarães; Sawaya, Alexandra Christine Helena Frankland; Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto; Pessoa, Cláudia; Cuesta-Rubio, Osmany; Monteiro, Marta Chagas; de Campos, Mônica Soares; Torres, Yohandra Reyes

    2016-01-01

    The chemical composition and biological activity of a sample of yellow propolis from Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil (EEP-Y MS), were investigated for the first time and compared with green, brown, and red types of Brazilian propolis and with a sample of yellow propolis from Cuba. Overall, EEP-Y MS had different qualitative chemical profiles, as well as different cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities when compared to the other types of propolis assessed in this study and it is a different chemotype of Brazilian propolis. Absence of phenolic compounds and the presence of mixtures of aliphatic compounds in yellow propolis were determined by analysing (1)H-NMR spectra and fifteen terpenes were identified by GC-MS. EEP-Y MS showed cytotoxic activity against human tumour strain OVCAR-8 but was not active against Gram-negative or Gram-positive bacteria. Our results confirm the difficulty of establishing a uniform quality standard for propolis from diverse geographical origins. The most appropriate pharmacological applications of yellow types of propolis must be further investigated. PMID:27525023

  17. Leprosy incidence, characterization of cases and correlation with household and cases variables of the Brazilian states in 2010*

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, Shamyr Sulyvan; Santos, Juliana Pereira Pontes; Abreu, Graziela Basílio; Oliveira, Vanessa Rossato; Fernandes, Luciane Fernanda Rodrigues Martinho

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Leprosy is millenary disease and still persists in several countries. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the incidence of leprosy in the Brazilian states and for the country in the year 2010; to describe the cases reported according to the studied variables; to verify the correlation between the overall incidence and the studied variables. METHODS: Ecological descriptive study, with population data from the 27 states, 2010. Information about reported cases were collected: gender, race, percentage of patients younger than 15 years old and living conditions. The analysis was performed using percentages, means, incidence rates and the Spearman correlation test. RESULTS: The states of Mato Grosso and Tocantins recorded the highest incidence rates; Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina, the lowest; there was a higher incidence of leprosy among men; the incidence of leprosy increases proportionally with the nonwhites among the inhabitants; patients younger than 15 years; the average number of residents per household; and a decrease in coverage of water supply and presence of bathrooms. CONCLUSION: The incidence of leprosy is related to factors as gender, race and house conditions (p<0,05 for all). PMID:26982775

  18. Risk Factors for Death from Visceral Leishmaniasis in an Urban Area of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Druzian, Angelita F.; de Souza, Albert S.; de Campos, Diogo N.; Croda, Julio; Higa, Minoru G.; Dorval, Maria Elizabeth C.; Pompilio, Mauricio A.; de Oliveira, Polliana A.; Paniago, Anamaria M. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Over the last three decades, the epidemiological profile of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has changed with epidemics occurring in large urban centers of Brazil, an increase in HIV/AIDS co-infection, and a significant increase in mortality. The objective of this study was to identify the risk factors associated with death among adult patients with VL from an urban endemic area of Brazil. Methodology A prospective cohort study included 134 adult patients with VL admitted to the University Hospital of the Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul between August 2011 and August 2013. Principal Findings Patients ranged from 18 to 93 years old, with a mean age of 43.6 (±15.7%). Of these patients, 36.6% were co-infected with HIV/AIDS, and the mortality rate was 21.6%. In a multivariate analysis, the risk factors associated with death were secondary bacterial infection (42.86, 5.05–363.85), relapse (12.17, 2.06–71.99), edema (7.74, 1.33–45.05) and HIV/AIDS co-infection (7.33, 1.22–43.98). Conclusions/Significance VL has a high mortality rate in adults from endemic urban areas, especially when coinciding with high rates of HIV/AIDS co-infection. PMID:26274916

  19. Incidence and transmission patterns of tuberculosis among indigenous populations in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Eunice Atsuko; Ferrazoli, Lucilaine; Riley, Lee W; Basta, Paulo Cesar; Honer, Michael Robert; Maia, Rosalia; da Costa, Izaias Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 10% of the Brazilian indigenous population lives in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul (MS), where a large number of new cases of tuberculosis (TB) are reported. This study was conducted to assess TB occurrence, transmission and the utility of TB diagnosis based on the Ogawa-Kudoh (O-K) culture method in this remote population. The incidence of TB was estimated by a retrospective review of the surveillance data maintained by the Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System for the study region. The TB transmission pattern among indigenous people was assessed by genotyping Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates using the IS 6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) technique. Of the 3,093 cases identified from 1999-2001, 610 (~20%) were indigenous patients (average incidence: 377/100,000/year). The use of the O-K culture method increased the number of diagnosed cases by 34.1%. Of the genotyped isolates from 52 indigenous patients, 33 (63.5%) belonged to cluster RFLP patterns, indicating recently transmitted TB. These results demonstrate high, on-going TB transmission rates among the indigenous people of MS and indicate that new efforts are needed to disrupt these current transmissions. PMID:24270999

  20. Variation in prey selection of a piscivorous fish after the impoundment of a neotropical reservoir: prey size and type.

    PubMed

    Cantanhêde, G; Fugi, R; Hahn, N S

    2009-07-01

    The relative abundance and size of prey fish in the stomachs of the predator Acestrorhynchus pantaneiro were compared with those recorded in the field to estimate prey selection. Fish samples were taken monthly in the Manso Reservoir (State of Mato Grosso, Brazil) immediately after the impoundment, from March 2000 to February 2001 (period I) and from March 2003 to February 2004 (period II). In period I, the small relative dominance of the prey in the environment seemed to have lead to random foraging. In period II, however, when the forage fish Moenkhausia dichroura was dominant in the environment, the predator shifted its diet, foraging mainly on this prey. Species with short relative body depth were positively selected. The prey size classes between 30 and 49 mm, and 50 and 69 mm standard length (L(S)) were the most abundant in the environment. Small prey were predominantly selected by A. pantaneiro. Even when a given prey or prey size was predominant in the environment, A. pantaneiro was a selective predator and maintained its preferences associated to prey type and L(S), although it consumed the most abundant resource. PMID:20738483

  1. Cropping frequency and area response to climate variability can exceed yield response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohn, Avery S.; Vanwey, Leah K.; Spera, Stephanie A.; Mustard, John F.

    2016-06-01

    The sensitivity of agricultural output to climate change has often been estimated by modelling crop yields under climate change scenarios or with statistical analysis of the impacts of year-to-year climatic variability on crop yields. However, the area of cropland and the number of crops harvested per growing season (cropping frequency) both also affect agricultural output and both also show sensitivity to climate variability and change. We model the change in agricultural output associated with the response of crop yield, crop frequency and crop area to year-to-year climate variability in Mato Grosso (MT), Brazil, a key agricultural region. Roughly 70% of the change in agricultural output caused by climate was determined by changes in frequency and/or changes in area. Hot and wet conditions were associated with the largest losses and cool and dry conditions with the largest gains. All frequency and area effects had the same sign as total effects, but this was not always the case for yield effects. A focus on yields alone may therefore bias assessments of the vulnerability of agriculture to climate change. Efforts to reduce climate impacts to agriculture should seek to limit production losses not only from crop yield, but also from changes in cropland area and cropping frequency.

  2. Pitfall Traps and Mini-Winkler Extractor as Complementary Methods to Sample Soil Coleoptera.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, A C; Batistella, D A; Battirola, L D; Marques, M I

    2016-02-01

    We compared abundance, species richness, and capture efficiency with pitfall traps and mini-Winkler extractors to examine their use as complementary methods for sampling soil Coleoptera during dry (2010) and high water seasons (2011) in three areas, including inundated and non-inundated regions, in the Pantanal of Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brazil. We paired treatments with two 10 × 10 m plots in inundated and non-inundated locations that were repeated three times in each location for a total of 18 plots. In each plot, we used nine pitfall traps and collected 2 m(2) of leaf litter and surface soil samples with mini-Winkler extractors. We collected a total of 4260 adult beetles comprising 36 families, 113 genera, and 505 species. Most were caught in pitfalls (69%) and the remainder in the mini-Winkler extractors (31%). Each method provided distinct information about the beetle community: 252 species were captured only in pitfall traps, 147 using only the mini-Winkler extractors, and these methods shared another 106 species. Pitfall and mini-Winkler contribute in different ways for the sampling of the soil beetle community, and so they should be considered complementary for a more thorough assessment of community diversity. PMID:26493175

  3. Anisotropy of Magnetic Suscetibility of the Aquidauana Formation (PARANÁ Basin): Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raposo, M. B.; Paranhos, A.

    2013-12-01

    The magnetic studies were performed on sites of reddish-brown sandstones, siltites, and mudstones, which crop out mainly in Mato Grosso do Sul State. Magnetic fabrics were determined on oriented cylindrical specimens (2.54 cm x 2.2 cm) using anisotropy of low-field magnetic susceptibility (AMS). Considering the eingenvector orientations, the sites usually gave good results. The analysis at the individual-site scale defines two AMS fabric types. The first type shows Kmin perpendicular to the bedding plane, while Kmax and Kint are scattered within the bedding plane itself. This fabric is usually interpreted as primary (sedimentary-compactional), typical of undeformed sediments and is dominant among the sites. The second type shows good clustering of the AMS principal axes with Kmin still either perpendicular or sub-perpendicular to the bedding plane. This fabric type could be interpreted as a combination of sedimentary-compactional and tectonic contributions if some strain markers or evidence for tectonic deformation had been found in the studied area. However, the tight Kmax grouping in this fabric type could be explained by the action of currents since they cause Kmax to be aligned sub-parallel to the paleocurrent direction.

  4. A brave new world for an old world pest: Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Tay, Wee Tek; Soria, Miguel F; Walsh, Thomas; Thomazoni, Danielle; Silvie, Pierre; Behere, Gajanan T; Anderson, Craig; Downes, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    The highly polyphagous Old World cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera is a quarantine agricultural pest for the American continents. Historically H. armigera is thought to have colonised the American continents around 1.5 to 2 million years ago, leading to the current H. zea populations on the American continents. The relatively recent species divergence history is evident in mating compatibility between H. zea and H. armigera under laboratory conditions. Despite periodic interceptions of H. armigera into North America, this pest species is not believed to have successfully established significant populations on either continent. In this study, we provide molecular evidence via mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and cytochrome b (Cyt b) partial gene sequences for the successful recent incursion of H. armigera into the New World, with individuals being detected at two sites (Primavera do Leste, Pedra Preta) within the State of Mato Grosso in Brazil. The mtDNA COI and Cyt b haplotypes detected in the Brazilian H. armigera individuals are common throughout the Old World, thus precluding identification of the founder populations. Combining the two partial mtDNA gene sequences showed that at least two matrilines are present in Brazil, while the inclusion of three nuclear DNA Exon-Primed Intron-Crossing (EPIC) markers identified a further two possible matrilines in our samples. The economic, biosecurity, resistance management, ecological and evolutionary implications of this incursion are discussed in relation to the current agricultural practices in the Americas. PMID:24260345

  5. A Brave New World for an Old World Pest: Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Thomas; Thomazoni, Danielle; Silvie, Pierre; Behere, Gajanan T.; Anderson, Craig; Downes, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    The highly polyphagous Old World cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera is a quarantine agricultural pest for the American continents. Historically H. armigera is thought to have colonised the American continents around 1.5 to 2 million years ago, leading to the current H. zea populations on the American continents. The relatively recent species divergence history is evident in mating compatibility between H. zea and H. armigera under laboratory conditions. Despite periodic interceptions of H. armigera into North America, this pest species is not believed to have successfully established significant populations on either continent. In this study, we provide molecular evidence via mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and cytochrome b (Cyt b) partial gene sequences for the successful recent incursion of H. armigera into the New World, with individuals being detected at two sites (Primavera do Leste, Pedra Preta) within the State of Mato Grosso in Brazil. The mtDNA COI and Cyt b haplotypes detected in the Brazilian H. armigera individuals are common throughout the Old World, thus precluding identification of the founder populations. Combining the two partial mtDNA gene sequences showed that at least two matrilines are present in Brazil, while the inclusion of three nuclear DNA Exon-Primed Intron-Crossing (EPIC) markers identified a further two possible matrilines in our samples. The economic, biosecurity, resistance management, ecological and evolutionary implications of this incursion are discussed in relation to the current agricultural practices in the Americas. PMID:24260345

  6. The spectral changes of deforestation in the Brazilian tropical savanna.

    PubMed

    Trancoso, Ralph; Sano, Edson E; Meneses, Paulo R

    2015-01-01

    The Cerrado is a biome in Brazil that is experiencing the most rapid loss in natural vegetation. The objective of this study was to analyze the changes in the spectral response in the red, near infrared (NIR), middle infrared (MIR), and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) when native vegetation in the Cerrado is deforested. The test sites were regions of the Cerrado located in the states of Bahia, Minas Gerais, and Mato Grosso. For each region, a pair of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) scenes from 2008 (before deforestation) and 2009 (after deforestation) was compared. A set of 1,380 samples of deforested polygons and an equal number of samples of native vegetation have their spectral properties statistically analyzed. The accuracy of deforestation detections was also evaluated using high spatial resolution imagery. Results showed that the spectral data of deforested areas and their corresponding native vegetation were statistically different. The red band showed the highest difference between the reflectance data from deforested areas and native vegetation, while the NIR band showed the lowest difference. A consistent pattern of spectral change when native vegetation in the Cerrado is deforested was identified regardless of the location in the biome. The overall accuracy of deforestation detections was 97.75%. Considering both the marked pattern of spectral changes and the high deforestation detection accuracy, this study suggests that deforestation in Cerrado can be accurately monitored, but a strong seasonal and spatial variability of spectral changes might be expected. PMID:25471621

  7. A randomised double-blind clinical trial of two yellow fever vaccines prepared with substrains 17DD and 17D-213/77 in children nine-23 months old

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This randomised, double-blind, multicentre study with children nine-23 months old evaluated the immunogenicity of yellow fever (YF) vaccines prepared with substrains 17DD and 17D-213/77. YF antibodies were tittered before and 30 or more days after vaccination. Seropositivity and seroconversion were analysed according to the maternal serological status and the collaborating centre. A total of 1,966 children were randomised in the municipalities of the states of Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais and São Paulo and blood samples were collected from 1,714 mothers. Seropositivity was observed in 78.6% of mothers and 8.9% of children before vaccination. After vaccination, seropositivity rates of 81.9% and 83.2%, seroconversion rates of 84.8% and 85.8% and rates of a four-fold increase over the pre-vaccination titre of 77.6% and 81.8% were observed in the 17D-213/77 and 17DD subgroups, respectively. There was no association with maternal immunity. Among children aged 12 months or older, the seroconversion rates of 69% were associated with concomitant vaccination against measles, mumps and rubella. The data were not conclusive regarding the interference of maternal immunity in the immune response to the YF vaccine, but they suggest interference from other vaccines. The failures in seroconversion after vaccination support the recommendation of a booster dose in children within 10 years of the first dose. PMID:26517656

  8. [Motherhood behind bars: the struggle for citizens' rights and health for women inmates and their children in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Ventura, Miriam; Simas, Luciana; Larouzé, Bernard

    2015-03-01

    This study analyzes the links between health, rights, legislation, and public policies based on document research on legal safeguards for women and their children residing in prison. The research was conducted at the Federal level and in four States of Brazil: Rio Grande do Sul, Mato Grosso, Paraná, and São Paulo. The study aims to back measures by public agencies to guarantee such rights and to raise awareness of the problem, given the extreme vulnerability of women inmates and their children and the issue's legal and administrative invisibility. The authors identified 33 different legal provisions as points of tension, such as the possibility of house arrest and disparities in the terms and conditions for children to remain inside the prison system. Various provisions cite the Constitutional guarantee of women inmates' right to breastfeed in prison. Meanwhile, the study found gaps in other issues pertaining to motherhood in prison, expressed as dual incarceration (imprisonment arbitrarily extended to their children). It is necessary to expand and enforce the existing legislation to prevent such violations of rights. PMID:25859727

  9. The fate of phosphorus fertilizer in Amazon soya bean fields.

    PubMed

    Riskin, Shelby H; Porder, Stephen; Neill, Christopher; Figueira, Adelaine Michela e Silva; Tubbesing, Carmen; Mahowald, Natalie

    2013-06-01

    Fertilizer-intensive soya bean agriculture has recently expanded in southeastern Amazonia, and whereas intensive fertilizer use in the temperate zone has led to widespread eutrophication of freshwater ecosystems, the effects in tropical systems are less well understood. We examined the fate of fertilizer phosphorus (P) by comparing P forms and budgets across a chronosequence of soya bean fields (converted to soya beans between 2003 and 2008) and forests on an 800 km(2) soya bean farm in Mato Grosso, Brazil. Soya bean fields were fertilized with 50 kg P ha(-1) yr(-1) (30 kg P ha(-1) yr(-1) above what is removed in crops). We used modified Hedley fractionation to quantify soil P pools and found increases in less-plant-available inorganic pools and decreases in organic pools in agricultural soils compared with forest. Fertilizer P did not move below 20 cm. Measurements of P sorption capacity suggest that while fertilizer inputs quench close to half of the sorption capacity of fast-reacting pools, most added P is bound in more slowly reacting pools. Our data suggest that this agricultural system currently has a low risk of P losses to waterways and that long time-scales are required to reach critical soil thresholds that would allow continued high yields with reduced fertilizer inputs. PMID:23610165

  10. Watershed responses to Amazon soya bean cropland expansion and intensification.

    PubMed

    Neill, Christopher; Coe, Michael T; Riskin, Shelby H; Krusche, Alex V; Elsenbeer, Helmut; Macedo, Marcia N; McHorney, Richard; Lefebvre, Paul; Davidson, Eric A; Scheffler, Raphael; Figueira, Adelaine Michela e Silva; Porder, Stephen; Deegan, Linda A

    2013-06-01

    The expansion and intensification of soya bean agriculture in southeastern Amazonia can alter watershed hydrology and biogeochemistry by changing the land cover, water balance and nutrient inputs. Several new insights on the responses of watershed hydrology and biogeochemistry to deforestation in Mato Grosso have emerged from recent intensive field campaigns in this region. Because of reduced evapotranspiration, total water export increases threefold to fourfold in soya bean watersheds compared with forest. However, the deep and highly permeable soils on the broad plateaus on which much of the soya bean cultivation has expanded buffer small soya bean watersheds against increased stormflows. Concentrations of nitrate and phosphate do not differ between forest or soya bean watersheds because fixation of phosphorus fertilizer by iron and aluminium oxides and anion exchange of nitrate in deep soils restrict nutrient movement. Despite resistance to biogeochemical change, streams in soya bean watersheds have higher temperatures caused by impoundments and reduction of bordering riparian forest. In larger rivers, increased water flow, current velocities and sediment flux following deforestation can reshape stream morphology, suggesting that cumulative impacts of deforestation in small watersheds will occur at larger scales. PMID:23610178

  11. Population structure and genetic diversity in natural populations of Theobroma speciosum Willd. Ex Spreng (Malvaceae).

    PubMed

    Giustina, L D; Luz, L N; Vieira, F S; Rossi, F S; Soares-Lopes, C R A; Pereira, T N S; Rossi, A A B

    2014-01-01

    The genus Theobroma found in the Amazon region is composed of 22 species, including Theobroma speciosum, better known as cacauí. These species are constantly threatened by forest fragmentation caused by human activities and require conservation strategies and management aimed at preserving them in their natural environments. The main objective of this study was to analyze the population structure and genetic diversity within and between natural populations of T. speciosum by using ISSR molecular markers to understand the population structure of the species. Four natural populations belonging to the Amazon rainforest (BAC, CRO, FLA, and PNA), located in the State of Mato Grosso, were selected. Amplification reactions were performed using 15 ISSR primers. A total of 101 loci were found, of which 54.46% were polymorphic at the species level. The BAC population showed higher genetic diversity (H=0.095 and I=0.144) and higher percentage of polymorphism (28.71%). The populations showed an FST value of 0.604, indicating marked genetic differentiation. The highest genetic variation was found between populations. Gene flow was low between populations, indicating genetic isolation between populations. PMID:24615108

  12. Biofuel Expansion and Water Resources in the Ivinhema Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libra, J. M.; King, C.; Xavier, A.; Scanlon, B. R.

    2014-12-01

    Brazil produces approximately a quarter the world's yearly ethanol demand, making it a global leader in biofuel production. The repercussions for local water resources in areas of intensive biofuel expansion, however, remain uncertain. To assess the effects of various land-use change scenarios on water sustainability in Brazil, this study models a small catchment currently experiencing soybean and sugarcane expansion using the Stockholm Environment Institute's Water Evaluation and Planning software (WEAP). The catchment, the Ivinhema basin in Southern Mato Grosso do Sul, has experienced extensive sugarcane expansion since the mid-1990s - a trend that is expected to continue. The model uses climatic data, soil characteristics, and agricultural production trends in the region from 1990 - 2012 to simulate known streamflows, using the WEAP-MABIA method. The model predicts flow impacts under a number of different future climatic and land-use scenarios. The results will be used to inform the ICONE's Brazil Land Use Model (BLUM), which models the economics of land use.

  13. Correlations and path analysis among agronomic and technological traits of upland cotton.

    PubMed

    Farias, F J C; Carvalho, L P; Silva Filho, J L; Teodoro, P E

    2016-01-01

    To date, path analysis has been used with the aim of breeding different cultures. However, for cotton, there have been few studies using this analysis, and all of these have used fiber productivity as the primary dependent variable. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to identify agronomic and technological properties that can be used as criteria for direct and indirect phenotypes in selecting cotton genotypes with better fibers. We evaluated 16 upland cotton genotypes in eight trials conducted during the harvest 2008/2009 in the State of Mato Grosso, using a randomized block design with four replicates. The evaluated traits were: plant height, average boll weight, percentage of fiber, cotton seed yield, fiber length, uniformity of fiber, short fiber index, fiber strength, elongation, maturity of the fibers, micronaire, reflectance, and the degree of yellowing. Phenotypic correlations between the traits and cotton fiber yield (main dependent variable) were unfolded in direct and indirect effects through path analysis. Fiber strength, uniformity of fiber, and reflectance were found to influence fiber length, and therefore, these traits are recommended for both direct and indirect selection of cotton genotypes. PMID:27525939

  14. Biostratigraphy and paleoecology of an unusual palynological record from the Aquidauana Formation, Late Pennsylvanian of Paraná Basin.

    PubMed

    Souza, Paulo A; Perinotto, José A J; Félix, Cristina M; Araújo, Bruno C

    2015-01-01

    The Aquidauana Formation is a Permo-Carboniferous sedimentary unit, widely stratigraphicaly distributed in the northwestern and northern portions of the Paraná Basin. However, little paleontological data is available from this formation, preventing accurate biostratigraphic and paleoecological interpretations. An abundant, diversified and well preserved assemblage of palynomorphs was recognized from sampling conducted in an outcrop section in Cipolândia District of Aquidauana Municipality, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. A total of 35 indigenous palynomorph taxa was recognized, comprising 6 species of spores (related to 5 genera), 28 species of pollen grains (14 genera) and 1 species of chlorophycean algae. Monosaccate pollen grains are exceptionally dominant, representing 90.38% of the association, particularly constituted by species of the genera Cannanoropollis (30.41% of the total assemblage), Potonieisporites (28.14%) and Plicatipollenites (19.52%). This quantitative overrepresentation is not usual from Gondwana deposits, revealing a particular plant dominance of Cordaitales in the terrestrial flora. These results are interpreted as an upland ecology characterized by plants with a moisture-independent reproduction strategy, under a glacial climate influence. Certain species of pollen allow assignment of this assemblage to the Crucisaccites monoletus Zone (Late Pennsylvanian), which had been recognized only in the middle portion of the Itararé Group at the northeastern margin of the basin. PMID:26062116

  15. Performance of Azolla caroliniana Willd. and Salvinia auriculata Aubl. on fish farming effluent.

    PubMed

    Toledo, J J; Penha, J

    2011-02-01

    The increasing release of untreated fish farming effluents into water courses that flow to the Pantanal wetlands in Mato Grosso (Brazil) may drive this ecosystem to eutrophication. Therefore, the growth of Azolla caroliniana Willd. and Salvinia auriculata Aubl. in fish farming effluent and their effect on its quality were evaluated for 48 days in a greenhouse. The results were compared to those obtained in a nutrient rich solution (Hoagland ½ medium). Azolla caroliniana showed lower relative growth rate in fish farming effluent (0.020 d-1) than in Hoagland ½ medium (0.029 d-1). However, S. auriculata grew slightly better in fish farming effluent (0.030 d-1) than in Hoagland ½ medium (0.025 d-1). The species apparently contributed to reduce nitrate and phosphate concentration in Hoagland ½ medium. However, in fish farming effluent, only electrical conductivity and pH were reduced by plants compared to the control without plants. Thus, A. caroliniana and S. auriculata show low potential for improving effluent quality. PMID:21437397

  16. Detection of multiple viral infections in cattle and buffalo with suspected vesicular disease in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Laguardia-Nascimento, Mateus; Sales, Érica Bravo; Gasparini, Marcela Ribeiro; de Souza, Natália Mendes; da Silva, Josiane Aparecida Gonçalina; Souza, Giovana Gonçalves; Carani, Fernanda Rezek; Dos Santos, Alyane Figueiredo; Rivetti Júnior, Anselmo Vasconcelos; Camargos, Marcelo Fernandes; Fonseca Júnior, Antônio Augusto

    2016-07-01

    Vesicular diseases are of high importance for livestock, primarily because of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), which is a high-morbidity disease that generates direct losses caused by low milk production, weight loss, and indirect losses because of the need for sanitary barriers. Other vesicular diseases are also of importance for livestock because of direct impacts or because their clinical signs may be confused with those of FMD. We report herein the detection of multiple infections in cattle with suspected vesicular disease in the Brazilian states of Amazonas (AM), Mato Grosso (MT), and Roraima. Thirty-seven epithelial samples from cattle and 1 sample from a buffalo were sent to the laboratory for testing for FMDV and similar disease agents. All samples from MT were positive for parapoxvirus (Pseudocowpox virus and Bovine papular stomatitis virus). In addition, 3 samples were positive for Bluetongue virus, and 5 samples were positive for Bovine herpesvirus 1 Among these samples, 1 was positive for all of these 3 agents. Only 2 samples from AM were negative for parapoxvirus. The molecular tests conducted in this study detected multiple infections, with a high prevalence of parapoxvirus. PMID:27154321

  17. [Social support networks for elderly patients attended by Family Health teams].

    PubMed

    Alvarenga, Márcia Regina Martins; Oliveira, Maria Amélia de Campos; Domingues, Marisa Accioly Rodrigues; Amendola, Fernanda; Faccenda, Odival

    2011-05-01

    The aging process has specific aspects marked by the class of individuals and social groups as well as cultural, political, socio-economic and sanitary conditions of the collective groups. Social support systems are essential for meeting the specific needs of the elderly. The aim of this paper is to describe the socio-demographic profile and the social support networks of elderly patients served by the Family Health Strategy. It's a cross-sectional study with elderly patients living in Dourados, in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul (Brazil). Data were collected using a socio-demographic questionnaire and a Minimum Relationships Map for the Elderly (MMRI). Of the 503 elderly patients interviewed, 69% were female, 53.1% were illiterate, 58.3% earned less than one minimum salary and 82.9% lived with others. The MMRI showed that the family was the most important provider of care in all the dimensions assessed, but the elderly have their own small social networks. Elderly patients attended by the Family Health teams have low incomes and little formal education, and social support networks that are too small to meet their needs. PMID:21655734

  18. Introducing GFWED: The Global Fire Weather Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Field, R. D.; Spessa, A. C.; Aziz, N. A.; Camia, A.; Cantin, A.; Carr, R.; de Groot, W. J.; Dowdy, A. J.; Flannigan, M. D.; Manomaiphiboon, K.; Pappenberger, F.; Tanpipat, V.; Wang, X.

    2015-01-01

    The Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index (FWI) System is the mostly widely used fire danger rating system in the world. We have developed a global database of daily FWI System calculations, beginning in 1980, called the Global Fire WEather Database (GFWED) gridded to a spatial resolution of 0.5 latitude by 2-3 longitude. Input weather data were obtained from the NASA Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), and two different estimates of daily precipitation from rain gauges over land. FWI System Drought Code calculations from the gridded data sets were compared to calculations from individual weather station data for a representative set of 48 stations in North, Central and South America, Europe, Russia,Southeast Asia and Australia. Agreement between gridded calculations and the station-based calculations tended to be most different at low latitudes for strictly MERRA based calculations. Strong biases could be seen in either direction: MERRA DC over the Mato Grosso in Brazil reached unrealistically high values exceeding DCD1500 during the dry season but was too low over Southeast Asia during the dry season. These biases are consistent with those previously identified in MERRAs precipitation, and they reinforce the need to consider alternative sources of precipitation data. GFWED can be used for analyzing historical relationships between fire weather and fire activity at continental and global scales, in identifying large-scale atmosphereocean controls on fire weather, and calibration of FWI-based fire prediction models.

  19. Distribution, management and diversity of the endangered Amerindian yam (Dioscorea trifida L.).

    PubMed

    Nascimento, W F; Siqueira, M V B M; Ferreira, A B; Ming, L C; Peroni, N; Veasey, E A

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to verify the occurrence of Dioscorea trifida in Brazil and to obtain information concerning its distribution, management and diversity. Farmers from 21 communities were interviewed in the states of São Paulo, Santa Catarina and Mato Grosso. During the visits, semi-structured interviews were conducted to collect socio-economic, management and diversity data for this crop. Fifty-one collected accessions, plus two accessions obtained at local markets of Amazonas, were characterized using 12 morphological traits. Most the interviewed farmers were men (75%) with a mean age of 59.5 years. Just a few young people and labor force were available for agricultural activities, with an average of only three individuals per farm. Most farmers (56%) grew only one variety of D. trifida, although 44% had more than one variety in their fields, which aims to provide greater assurance at harvest. Many popular names were observed for D. trifida, and cará roxo (purple yam) was the name most used by farmers (43.4%). Characters referring to the tuber, such as skin and flesh color, were most relevant for the distinction of the accessions. The results of this study may collaborate to develop strategies for conservation, both ex situ and in situ, within the view of on farm conservation. PMID:25945627

  20. Post-Crackdown Effectiveness of Field-Based Forest Law Enforcement in the Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Börner, Jan; Kis-Katos, Krisztina; Hargrave, Jorge; König, Konstantin

    2015-01-01

    Regulatory enforcement of forest conservation laws is often dismissed as an ineffective approach to reducing tropical forest loss. Yet, effective enforcement is often a precondition for alternative conservation measures, such as payments for environmental services, to achieve desired outcomes. Fair and efficient policies to reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) will thus crucially depend on understanding the determinants and requirements of enforcement effectiveness. Among potential REDD candidate countries, Brazil is considered to possess the most advanced deforestation monitoring and enforcement infrastructure. This study explores a unique dataset of over 15 thousand point coordinates of enforcement missions in the Brazilian Amazon during 2009 and 2010, after major reductions of deforestation in the region. We study whether local deforestation patterns have been affected by field-based enforcement and to what extent these effects vary across administrative boundaries. Spatial matching and regression techniques are applied at different spatial resolutions. We find that field-based enforcement operations have not been universally effective in deterring deforestation during our observation period. Inspections have been most effective in reducing large-scale deforestation in the states of Mato Grosso and Pará, where average conservation effects were 4.0 and 9.9 hectares per inspection, respectively. Despite regional and actor-specific heterogeneity in inspection effectiveness, field-based law enforcement is highly cost-effective on average and might be enhanced by closer collaboration between national and state-level authorities. PMID:25875656

  1. A Morphological and Molecular Study of Spectatus spectatus (Kathlaniidae), Including Redescription of the Species and Amendment of Genus Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Felipe B; Tavares, Luiz E R; Paiva, Fernando; Scholz, Tomáš; Luque, José L

    2015-08-01

    Spectatus spectatus Travassos, 1923 (Nematoda: Kathlaniidae) found in the intestine of Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887) (Characiformes: Serrasalmidae) from the River Miranda, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil is redescribed based on morphological evaluation of newly collected material and examination of type and voucher specimens from the Coleção Helmintológica do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz. The following characteristics previously unreported or insufficiently described were observed: morphology of lips, presence of lamellae-like supplementary lips, presence of pharynx and cuticular ring surrounding the oral opening associated with a complex cuticular apparatus anterior to the pharynx, the number and arrangement of caudal papillae (13 pairs plus 1 unpaired), and the position of nerve ring. Since S. spectatus is the type species of Spectatus, the diagnosis of this Neotropical genus is amended. Synonymy of Chabaudinema Díaz-Ungría, 1968 with Spectatus, first proposed in 1980 by Baker, is supported by the present data. Molecular data that include the first sequence of the SSU rDNA for any species of Spectatus indicate a basal position of S. spectatus within Cosmocercoidea, forming a distant lineage from that comprising 2 species of Falcaustra Lane, 1915. This separate position of S. spectatus supports validity of the genus. PMID:25919694

  2. Prevalence of Hypertension and Associated Factors in an Indigenous Community of Central Brazil: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Geraldo F.; Oliveira, Teresinha R. R.; Ikejiri, Adauto T.; Andraus, Mariela P.; Galvao, Tais F.; Silva, Marcus T.; Pereira, Maurício G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of hypertension and cardiovascular risk factors among the native indigenous of Jaguapiru village in Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Method A cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted with adult indigenous aged 18 years or more. The subjects' blood pressure was measured twice, and the mean of the two measurements was calculated. Body weight, height, capillary blood glucose and waist circumference were measured. Pregnant women, individuals using glucocorticoids, and non-indigenous villagers and their offspring were excluded. Multivariate regression analyses were conducted on the socio-demographic and clinical independent variables. Interactions between independent variables were also tested. Results We included 1,608 native indigenous eligible to the research. The prevalence of hypertension was 29.5% (95% CI: 27–31.5), with no significant difference between the genders. For both men and women, diastolic hypertension was more common than systolic hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension was higher among obese, diabetic, and older participants, as well as those who consumed alcohol, had a lower educational level, or had a family history of hypertension. There was no association between hypertension and tobacco smoking or family income. Conclusion Hypertension among the indigenous from Jaguapiru village was similar to the prevalence in the Brazilians, but may have a more negative effect in such disadvantaged population. The associated factors we found can help drawing prevention policies. PMID:24489710

  3. Landscape configuration is the primary driver of impacts on water quality associated with agricultural expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca; Hamel, Perrine; Sharp, Richard; Kowal, Virgina; Wolny, Stacie; Sim, Sarah; Mueller, Carina

    2016-07-01

    Corporations and other multinational institutions are increasingly looking to evaluate their innovation and procurement decisions over a range of environmental criteria, including impacts on ecosystem services according to the spatial configuration of activities on the landscape. We have developed a spatially explicit approach and modeled a hypothetical corporate supply chain decision representing contrasting patterns of land-use change in four regions of the globe. This illustrates the effect of introducing spatial considerations in the analysis of ecosystem services, specifically sediment retention. We explored a wide variety of contexts (Iowa, USA; Mato Grosso, Brazil; and Jiangxi and Heilongjiang in China) and these show that per-area representation of impacts based on the physical characterization of a region can be misleading. We found two- to five-fold differences in sediment export for the same amount of habitat conversion within regions characterized by similar physical traits. These differences were mainly determined by the distance between land use changes and streams. The influence of landscape configuration is so dramatic that it can override wide variation in erosion potential driven by physical factors like soil type, slope, and climate. To minimize damage to spatially-dependent ecosystem services like water purification, sustainable sourcing strategies should not assume a direct correlation between impact and area but rather allow for possible nonlinearity in impacts, especially in regions with little remaining habitat and highly variable hydrological connectivity.

  4. Vulnerability to AIDS among the elderly in an urban center in central Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Driemeier, Marta; Maria Oliveira de Andrade, Sônia; Pontes, Elenir Rose Jardim Cury; Mello Miranda Paniago, Anamaria; Venâncio da Cunha, Rivaldo

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: As the world population ages with an improved quality of life and sexual longevity, the prevalence of AIDS is rising among the elderly. The purpose of this study was to estimate the vulnerability to AIDS among individuals attending senior community centers in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. METHOD: This descriptive, exploratory investigation included 329 subjects selected in a probabilistic manner. Individuals with scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination indicating cognitive impairment were excluded from the analyses. Barthel's and Lawton's functional assessment scales were applied. Interviews were conducted to evaluate the presence of cognitive and behavioral factors associated with HIV transmission. RESULTS: Most subjects were non-dependent, fell within the 60- to 69-year age bracket and were female. A majority of individuals reported having knowledge about AIDS and were aware that the elderly are vulnerable to the disease. More than a quarter (26.9%) of the sample reported previous HIV testing. No participants reported drug use, homosexual orientation, or alcohol abuse. A minority of participants reported using medication for erectile dysfunction. Casual and multiple partners accounted for 12% and 34% of reported intercourse experiences, respectively. Condom use was reported by 14% of respondents. CONCLUSION: Unprotected sex was the primary factor accounting for vulnerability to AIDS among the elderly. PMID:22249476

  5. [Vulnerability during adolescence: the experience and the expression of the adolescent].

    PubMed

    de Jesus, Flávia Barbosa; Lima, Fernanda Cristina Aguiar; Martins, Christine Baccarat de Godoy; de Matos, Karla Fonseca; de Souza, Solange Pires Salomé

    2011-06-01

    This cross-sectional quantitative study aims to identify situations of vulnerability experienced by adolescents of public secondary schools in Cuiabá, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, during the second semester of 2009. A closed questionnaire was used in the research. The results show that 10.5% of the boys and 5.8% of the girls had already used illegal drugs at the age of 15--cocaine (28.9%) and marijuana (15.7%) were the most reported; and that 45.2% of the boys and 52.4% of the girls drink alcoholic beverages, beer being the most common. Among self-declared smokers (16.0%), the majority began smoking at the age of 15. Sexual violence was reported, but only 33.3% of the boys and 25.0% of the girls sought help. Fear and shame were the reported reasons for not seeking help. The need for specific prevention and treatment services for adolescents in vulnerable situations stands out, in view of the occurrence and the consequences of this kind of harm. PMID:21987999

  6. Nursing diagnoses in patients with immune-bullous dermatosis 1

    PubMed Central

    Brandão, Euzeli da Silva; dos Santos, Iraci; Lanzillotti, Regina Serrão; Ferreira, Adriano Menis; Gamba, Mônica Antar; Azulay-Abulafia, Luna

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: identify nursing diagnoses in patients with immune-bullous dermatosis. Method: a quantitative and descriptive research, carried out in three institutions located in Rio de Janeiro and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, using the Client Assessment Protocol in Dermatology during a nursing consultation. Simple descriptive statistics was used for data analysis. Results: 14 subjects participated in the study, nine with a diagnosis of pemphigus vulgaris, pemphigus two and three of bullous pemphigoid. The age ranged between 27 and 82 years, predominantly females (11). 14 nursing diagnoses were discussed and identified from a clinical rationale in all study participants, representing the most common human responses in this sample. The application of the Assessment Protocol in Dermatology facilitated the comprehensive assessment, in addition to providing the identification of diagnostics according to the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association International. Conclusion: the nursing diagnoses presented confirm the necessity of interdisciplinary work during the care for this clientele. For better description of the phenomena related to the client in question, it is suggested the inclusion of two risk factors related in three diagnoses of this taxonomy. It is worth noting the contribution of the findings for the care, education and research in nursing in dermatology. PMID:27533274

  7. Detection of urban expansion in an urban-rural landscape with multitemporal QuickBird images

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Dengsheng; Hetrick, Scott; Moran, Emilio; Li, Guiying

    2011-01-01

    Accurately detecting urban expansion with remote sensing techniques is a challenge due to the complexity of urban landscapes. This paper explored methods for detecting urban expansion with multitemporal QuickBird images in Lucas do Rio Verde, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Different techniques, including image differencing, principal component analysis (PCA), and comparison of classified impervious surface images with the matched filtering method, were used to examine urbanization detection. An impervious surface image classified with the hybrid method was used to modify the urbanization detection results. As a comparison, the original multispectral image and segmentation-based mean-spectral images were used during the detection of urbanization. This research indicates that the comparison of classified impervious surface images with matched filtering method provides the best change detection performance, followed by the image differencing method based on segmentation-based mean spectral images. The PCA is not a good method for urban change detection in this study. Shadows and high spectral variation within the impervious surfaces represent major challenges to the detection of urban expansion when high spatial resolution images are used. PMID:21799706

  8. Seroprevalence of Tick-Borne Pathogens and Tick Infestation in Dogs from Tapirapé and Karajá Indigenous Communities, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Minervino, Antonio Humberto Hamad; Lima, Julia Teresa Ribeiro; Soares, Herbert Sousa; Malheiros, Antonio Francisco; Marcili, Arlei; Krawczak, Felipe da Silva; Lopes, Marcos Gomes; Martins, Thiago Fernandes; Moreira, Thiago Rocha; Ribeiro, Múcio Flávio Barbosa; Labruna, Marcelo B; Gennari, Solange Maria

    2015-07-01

    With the aim of studying some tick-borne diseases, a total of 327 dogs (114 from Tapirapé and 213 from Karajá indigenous ethnicity, Mato Grosso, MT, Brazil) were sampled. Serum samples were submitted to the indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT) to detect antibodies against Babesia vogeli, Ehrlichia canis, and Rickettsia spp. Possible associations of risk factors and the occurrence of seroreativity to tick-borne agents and tick infestations were analyzed through chi-squared tests. Among 327 dogs, 46 (13.15%) were seropositive for B. vogeli and 47 (14.37%) for E. canis. The B. vogeli seroprevalence was higher for Karajá and for adult dogs (p>0.05). No association was found for E. canis seroprevalence. From 103 serum samples tested with rickettsial antigens, 90 (87%) dogs were seropositive to Rickettsia spp., with highest reactivity to Rickettsia amblyommii. Canine seropositivity to Rickettsia spp. was associated (p<0.05) with ethnicity (higher seroprevalence in Tapirapé dogs), age (higher in adults), and hunting (higher among hunting dogs). From the 327 dogs, 39 (11.9%) were infested by ticks (Amblyomma cajennense sensu stricto, Amblyomma ovale, Amblyomma oblongoguttatum, Amblyomma tigrinum, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus). Infestations by Amblyomma spp. ticks were higher in dogs from Tapirapé community and in hunting dogs (p<0.05). Regarding R. sanguineus, infestations were higher (p<0.05) among young dogs. PMID:26186512

  9. Occurrence of B chromosomes in Tetragonisca Latreille, 1811 (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini): A new contribution to the cytotaxonomy of the genus.

    PubMed

    Barth, Adriane; Fernandes, Anderson; Pompolo, Silvia das Graças; Costa, Marco Antônio

    2011-01-01

    Tetragonisca angustula and Tetragonisca fiebrigi have recently been listed as valid species. This study aimed to cytogenetically investigate both species, emphasizing the new registry of B chromosomes in the tribe Meliponini. We analyzed colonies of T. angustula and T. fiebrigi collected at Tangará da Serra, Mato Grosso, Brazil, through conventional Giemsa staining, C-banding, and base-specific fluorochrome staining (CMA(3)/DAPI). T. angustula showed 2n = 34 chromosomes in females and n = 17 in males, with karyotype formula 2K = 34A(M). T. fiebrigi showed numeric variation, with chromosome number varying from 2n = 34 to 2n = 36 in females and from n = 17 to n = 18 in males, with karyotype formula 2K = 32A(M)+2A(Mc) and 2K = 32A(M)+2A(Mc) + 1 or 2 B-chromosomes. The B chromosomes are heterochromatic. In T. fiebrigi, the CMA(3)/DAPI staining revealed four chromosomes with a CMA(3) positive band. All individuals from the same colony showed the same number of B chromosomes. T. angustula and T. fiebrigi showed karyotype divergence, principally due to the presence of B chromosomes, which are found only in T. fiebrigi. Our data corroborate the status of valid species for both T. angustula and T. fiebrigi, as recently proposed. PMID:21637547

  10. Application of Time Series Landsat Images to Examining Land-use/Land-cover Dynamic Change.

    PubMed

    Lu, Dengsheng; Hetrick, Scott; Moran, Emilio; Li, Guiying

    2012-07-01

    A hierarchical-based classification method was designed to develop time series land-use/land-cover datasets from Landsat images between 1977 and 2008 in Lucas do Rio Verde, Mato Grosso, Brazil. A post-classification comparison approach was used to examine land-use/land-cover change trajectories, which emphasis is on the conversions from vegetation or agropasture to impervious surface area, from vegetation to agropasture, and from agropasture to regenerating vegetation. Results of this research indicated that increase in impervious surface area mainly resulted from the loss of cerrado in the initial decade of the study period and from loss of agricultural lands in the last two decades. Increase in agropasture was mainly at the expense of losing cerrado in the first two decades and relatively evenly from the loss of primary forest and cerrado in the last decade. When impervious surface area was less than approximately 40 km(2) before 1999, impervious surface area was negatively related to cerrado and forest, and positively related to agropasture areas, but after impervious surface area reached 40 km(2) in 1999, no obvious relationship exists between them. PMID:25328256

  11. Redescription of Spirura guianensis (Nematoda: Spiruridae) from a rare South American Gracile Opossum.

    PubMed

    Torres, E J Lopes; Maldonado, A; Anjos, D H da Silva; de Souza, W; Miranda, K

    2015-10-01

    Spirura genus Blanchard, 1849 comprise of nematode parasites that infect primate and marsupial species. Although several taxonomical studies have shown that the infection by this species occurs primarily in the esophagus of primates, evidence for the occurrence of these parasites in other hosts (marsupials, rodents and bats) has become the subject of investigation by several groups. In this work, we describe the presence of Spirura guianensis Ortlepp, 1924 in the marsupial Gracilinanus agilis (Marsupialia: Didelphidae) found in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul state of Brazil. Structural characteristics of this nematode were identified using light microscopy (bright field and fluorescence stereomicroscopy) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) approaches. Details of the surface topography such as cephalic projections, ventral boss, details of the caudal papillae and cuticular ornamentations were shown, providing taxonomic characteristics that may help in the establishment of diagnostic protocols. In addition, the presence of this species in a new host and new geographical area of Brazil provide grounds for a revision on the distribution of S. guianensis in South America. PMID:26187357

  12. Development of a Global Fire Weather Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, R. D.; Spessa, A. C.; Aziz, N. A.; Camia, A.; Cantin, A.; Carr, R.; de Groot, W. J.; Dowdy, A. J.; Flannigan, M. D.; Manomaiphiboon, K.; Pappenberger, F.; Tanpipat, V.; Wang, X.

    2015-06-01

    The Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index (FWI) System is the mostly widely used fire danger rating system in the world. We have developed a global database of daily FWI System calculations, beginning in 1980, called the Global Fire WEather Database (GFWED) gridded to a spatial resolution of 0.5° latitude by 2/3° longitude. Input weather data were obtained from the NASA Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), and two different estimates of daily precipitation from rain gauges over land. FWI System Drought Code calculations from the gridded data sets were compared to calculations from individual weather station data for a representative set of 48 stations in North, Central and South America, Europe, Russia, Southeast Asia and Australia. Agreement between gridded calculations and the station-based calculations tended to be most different at low latitudes for strictly MERRA-based calculations. Strong biases could be seen in either direction: MERRA DC over the Mato Grosso in Brazil reached unrealistically high values exceeding DC = 1500 during the dry season but was too low over Southeast Asia during the dry season. These biases are consistent with those previously identified in MERRA's precipitation, and they reinforce the need to consider alternative sources of precipitation data. GFWED can be used for analyzing historical relationships between fire weather and fire activity at continental and global scales, in identifying large-scale atmosphere-ocean controls on fire weather, and calibration of FWI-based fire prediction models.

  13. [Mental health and the Family Health Program: pathways and obstacles in a necessary approach].

    PubMed

    Lucchese, Roselma; Oliveira, Alice Guimarães Bottaro de; Conciani, Marta Ester; Marcon, Samira Reschetti

    2009-09-01

    The focus of this study is mental health care in the Brazilian Family Health Program (FHP), with the complexity of such care as the main premise. The objectives were to analyze the actual conditions of mental health care in FHP services in Cuiabá, Mato Grosso State, describing the dynamics of such care and identifying situations and instruments used by different health professionals in dealing with problems of mental distress in the community. By means of a descriptive exploratory methodology, the discourses of eight health teams were studied, using content analysis. The study concluded that the demand for care for individuals with mental distress was not recorded on the patient charts, nor was it part of a proposal for individual or family interventions; some measures were taken according to a lay concept of 'mental illness' and treatment, while referral to the specialized mental health care network was frequently used, despite its precariousness, thus reflecting the need for continuing training in mental health. PMID:19750390

  14. Post-crackdown effectiveness of field-based forest law enforcement in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Börner, Jan; Kis-Katos, Krisztina; Hargrave, Jorge; König, Konstantin

    2015-01-01

    Regulatory enforcement of forest conservation laws is often dismissed as an ineffective approach to reducing tropical forest loss. Yet, effective enforcement is often a precondition for alternative conservation measures, such as payments for environmental services, to achieve desired outcomes. Fair and efficient policies to reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) will thus crucially depend on understanding the determinants and requirements of enforcement effectiveness. Among potential REDD candidate countries, Brazil is considered to possess the most advanced deforestation monitoring and enforcement infrastructure. This study explores a unique dataset of over 15 thousand point coordinates of enforcement missions in the Brazilian Amazon during 2009 and 2010, after major reductions of deforestation in the region. We study whether local deforestation patterns have been affected by field-based enforcement and to what extent these effects vary across administrative boundaries. Spatial matching and regression techniques are applied at different spatial resolutions. We find that field-based enforcement operations have not been universally effective in deterring deforestation during our observation period. Inspections have been most effective in reducing large-scale deforestation in the states of Mato Grosso and Pará, where average conservation effects were 4.0 and 9.9 hectares per inspection, respectively. Despite regional and actor-specific heterogeneity in inspection effectiveness, field-based law enforcement is highly cost-effective on average and might be enhanced by closer collaboration between national and state-level authorities. PMID:25875656

  15. Tungiasis in a free-ranging jaguar (Panthera onca) population in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Widmer, Cynthia E; Azevedo, Fernando C C

    2012-03-01

    Tungiasis is an ectoparasitic disease caused by fleas of the genus Tunga. The disease is reported to occur mostly in human populations. In wildlife, however, the occurrence and impact of this disease remains uncertain. We captured and examined 12 free-ranging jaguars for the presence of Tunga penetrans in the Pantanal region of Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil. Tungiasis prevalence was 100% in the population; lesions were confined to the jaguar's paws. T. penetrans was identified based on the characteristics of the embedded fleas and the morphological identification of a collected free-living flea. The intensity and stage of infestation varied between individual animals. However, in general, all captured jaguars were in good health. The 100% prevalence of tungiasis may be related to the fact that all captures were performed during the dry season. Their high ecological requirements for space make jaguars potential disseminators of T. penetrans in the Pantanal region. Because cattle ranching and ecotourism are the main economic activities in the Pantanal, further studies should evaluate the risks of tungiasis to human and animal health. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of tungiasis in jaguars. PMID:21863398

  16. Cleft lip and palate in a Brazilian subpopulation

    PubMed Central

    Cuozzo, Fernanda Dornelles Martins; Espinosa, Mariano Martínez; da Silva, Katia Tavares Serafim; de Barros, Yolanda Benedita Abadia Martins; Bandeca, Matheus Coelho; Aranha, Andreza Maria Fabio; Borges, Alvaro Henrique; Volpato, Luiz Evaristo Ricci

    2013-01-01

    Background: This work aimed to access the profile of cleft lip and palate patients of a sub-population in Mid-West Brazil. Materials & Methods: Research was carried out through a cross-sectional study at the Craniofacial Rehabilitation Center of the University General Hospital of the University of Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Variables related to oral cleft type, gender, race, age and presence or absence of associated congenital anomalies or syndromes were analyzed. Results: 313 patients treated at the institution from 2004 to 2007 were recruited. There were 54% male and 46% female patients with the mean age of 11.4 years. Cleft lip and palate was the most prevalent alteration in 49.6% of cases. Caucasians were the most affected in 54.6% of cases. 6.4% of patients had other anomalies or syndromes associated with cleft. Conclusion: More comprehensive surveys should be conducted in order to supply the lack of data on the occurrence and determinants of oral clefts in this region. How to cite this article:Cuozzo FD, Espinosa MM, Serafim da Silva KT, Martins de Barros YB, Bandeca MC, Aranha AM, Borges AH, Volpato LE. Cleft lip and palate in a Brazilian subpopulation. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(4):15-20. PMID:24155614

  17. Hemoplasmas in wild canids and felids in Brazil.

    PubMed

    André, Marcos Rogerio; Adania, Cristina Harumi; Allegretti, Silmara Marques; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias

    2011-06-01

    Hemotropic mycoplasmas, epicellular erythrocytic bacterial parasites lacking a cell wall, are the causative agents of infectious anemia in numerous mammalian species. The presence of hemotropic mycoplasmas in blood samples of neotropical and exotic wild canids and felids from Brazilian zoos were recorded using molecular techniques. Blood samples were collected from 146 Brazilian wild felids, 19 exotic felids, 3 European wolves (Canis lupus), and from 97 Brazilian wild canids from zoos in the Brazilian states of São Paulo and Mato Grosso and the Federal District. Using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), this work found 22 (13%) wild felids positive to Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum [4 jaguars (Panthera onca); 3 pumas (Puma concolor); 10 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis); 2 jaguarondis (Puma yagouaroundi); and 3 little spotted cats (Leopardus tigrinus)]. Only one little spotted cat (Leopardus tigrinus) was positive to Mycoplasma haemofelis, and none was positive to Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis. Two bush dogs (Speothos venaticus) were positive for a Mycoplasma sp. closely related to Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum, and two European wolves were positive for a Mycoplasma sp. closely related to Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum. This is the first study regarding the molecular detection of hemotropic mycoplasmas in wild canids. PMID:22946419

  18. Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in an ocelot (Leopardus pardalis).

    PubMed

    Silva, Rodrigo Otávio Silveira; D'elia, Mirella Lauria; de Magalhães Soares, Danielle Ferreira; Cavalcanti, Álvaro Roberto; Leal, Rodrigo Costa; Cavalcanti, Guilherme; Pereira, Pedro Lúcio Lithg; Lobato, Francisco Carlos Faria

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study is to report a case of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in an ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The animal, a 24-month-old male, was referred to the Centro de Reabilitação de Animais Silvestres (CRAS) with a history of having been run over and tibia and fibula fractures. After a surgery to repair the fractures, the ocelot underwent antibiotic therapy with two doses of sodium cefovecin, during which he presented with diarrhea. A stool sample was positive for A/B toxins by a cytotoxicity assay, and a toxigenic strain of C. difficile was isolated. No other enteropathogens were detected. The association between the history, clinical signs and laboratory exams confirmed the diagnosis of C. difficile-associated diarrhea. The present report confirms C. difficile as a potential pathogen for wild felids and suggests that the C. difficile-associated diarrhea should be considered in diarrhea cases, especially when the clinical signs began after antimicrobial use. PMID:23467074

  19. Atmospheric Attenuation Of Total Solar Flux By Clouds At Six Amazonian Sites: 1999-2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schafer, J.; Holben, B.; Eck, T.; Artaxo, P.; Yamasoe, M.; Procopio, A.

    2002-12-01

    In Brazil, we now have a data set of pyranometer measurements at several sites distributed across the Amazon basin, with a record spanning more than 3 years at some locations. This network represents one of the few such long-term flux data bases available for this region, and provides an opportunity to characterize the nature of atmospheric effects on surface, broadband irradiance. Sufficient data are now available to assess trends in cloud attenuation on a range of timescales (diurnally, seasonally, and interannually). Cloud-induced fractional and absolute total flux reductions at the surface were evaluated for all years and sites. The fractional reduction, fB was computed as the ratio of received irradiance to the modeled clear-sky irradiance for background (low) aerosol conditions. A distinct difference was found between cloud attenuation in the wet and dry seasons, particularly in the southern Amazon. Histograms of fB for typical wet season months reveal a bi-modal distribution with a reduction peak (when the solar beam is obstructed) and an enhancement peak (produced by edge reflections from broken cloud cover). This phenomenon has been noted previously at the Abracos Hill sites during a 2 month study in 1999 (Gu et al., 2001). Our multi-year, multi-site data now suggest this is a fairly consistent feature of wet season months in the southern sites in Rondonia and northern Mato Grosso, and of most or all months at the equatorial sites (Balbina, Belterra) in Para and Amazonas.

  20. Comparing how land use change impacts soil microbial catabolic respiration in Southwestern Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Mazzetto, Andre Mancebo; Feigl, Brigitte Josefine; Cerri, Carlos Eduardo Pellegrino; Cerri, Carlos Clemente

    2016-01-01

    Land use changes strongly impact soil functions, particularly microbial biomass diversity and activity. We hypothesized that the catabolic respiration response of the microbial biomass would differ depending on land use and that these differences would be consistent at the landscape scale. In the present study, we analyzed the catabolic response profile of the soil microbial biomass through substrate-induced respiration in different land uses over a wide geographical range in Mato Grosso and Rondônia state (Southwest Amazon region). We analyzed the differences among native areas, pastures and crop areas and within each land use and examined only native areas (Forest, Dense Cerrado and Cerrado), pastures (Nominal, Degraded and Improved) and crop areas (Perennial, No-Tillage, Conventional Tillage). The metabolic profile of the microbial biomass was accessed using substrate-induced respiration. Pasture soils showed significant responses to amino acids and carboxylic acids, whereas native areas showed higher responses to malonic acid, malic acid and succinic acid. Within each land use category, the catabolic responses showed similar patterns in both large general comparisons (native area, pasture and crop areas) and more specific comparisons (biomes, pastures and crop types). The results showed that the catabolic responses of the microbial biomass are highly correlated with land use, independent of soil type or climate. The substrate induced respiration approach is useful to discriminate microbial communities, even on a large scale. PMID:26887228

  1. Responding to climate change and the global land crisis: REDD+, market transformation and low-emissions rural development.

    PubMed

    Nepstad, Daniel C; Boyd, William; Stickler, Claudia M; Bezerra, Tathiana; Azevedo, Andrea A

    2013-06-01

    Climate change and rapidly escalating global demand for food, fuel, fibre and feed present seemingly contradictory challenges to humanity. Can greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from land-use, more than one-fourth of the global total, decline as growth in land-based production accelerates? This review examines the status of two major international initiatives that are designed to address different aspects of this challenge. REDD+ is an emerging policy framework for providing incentives to tropical nations and states that reduce their GHG emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. Market transformation, best represented by agricultural commodity roundtables, seeks to exclude unsustainable farmers from commodity markets through international social and environmental standards for farmers and processors. These global initiatives could potentially become synergistically integrated through (i) a shared approach for measuring and favouring high environmental and social performance of land use across entire jurisdictions and (ii) stronger links with the domestic policies, finance and laws in the jurisdictions where agricultural expansion is moving into forests. To achieve scale, the principles of REDD+ and sustainable farming systems must be embedded in domestic low-emission rural development models capable of garnering support across multiple constituencies. We illustrate this potential with the case of Mato Grosso State in the Brazilian Amazon. PMID:23610173

  2. Effect of energetic cost to maintain the trap for Myrmeleon brasiliensis (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae) in its development and adult size.

    PubMed

    Lima, T N; Silva, D C R

    2016-07-25

    Antlion larvae Myrmeleon brasiliensis Návas, 1914 (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae) are sit-and-wait predators who build traps to catch their prey. The aim of this study was to observe under laboratory conditions, how the energy cost spent on maintenance of their traps affects: the larval developmental time, time spent as a pupa, mortality rate of larvae and adult size. M. brasiliensis larvae were collected in the municipality of Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil and were individually maintained in plastic containers and subjected to two treatments. In the control treatment larvae did not have their traps disturbed while in the manipulated treatment, larvae had their traps disturbed three times a week. The experiments were followed until adult emergence. When the adults emerged, their body size (head-abdomen), anterior and posterior wing span and width were measured. Furthermore, the number of larvae that died during the experiment was recorded. The results showed that the larvae whose traps were manipulated had longer larval development time, smaller pupal development time and were smaller adults. It can be concluded that the energy expenditure spent on maintenance of the trap constructed by M. brasiliensis larvae can affect the development of negative ways, represented by a longer larval development and reduced adult size. PMID:27463831

  3. Risk of hepatitis C among Brazilian ex-soccer players.

    PubMed

    Souto, Francisco José Dutra; da Silva, Alessandro Gonçalves; Yonamine, Fábio

    2003-12-01

    In order to evaluate the significance of injecting vitamins complexes and stimulants minutes before soccer games and its role in spread of hepatitis C virus (HCV) we interviewed and tested 40 ex-soccer players, who played professionally in Mato Grosso, Brazil, between 1970 and 1989. Five players were found anti-HCV positive with enzyme-immunoassay. When re-tested by immunoblot (RIBA), three of these five were confirmed to be positive reacting. The anti-HCV positivity (7.5%) was higher than usually found among blood donors (0.9%) in this region (p < 0.01). None of the players had had prior history of any risk factor that might indicate HCV exposure. We suggest that the common practice of soccer players in the inner part of Brazil in the 70's and 80's, to receive fortifying injections, often with shared syringes, may place ex-soccer players in a potential risk group for HCV infection and warrants further investigation and attention by public health workers. PMID:15049084

  4. Sandflies in an urban area of transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in midwest Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dorval, Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros; Oshiro, Elisa Teruya; Brilhante, Andreia Fernandes; Nunes, Vânia Lúcia Brandão; Cristaldo, Geucira; Lima Júnior, Manoel Sebastião Costa; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi

    2016-01-01

    The phlebotomine fauna of Campo Grande city, capital of Mato Grosso do Sul state in Brazil, an endemic area for visceral leishmaniasis, has been thoroughly investigated, but all the insect collections were undertaken with automatic light traps. The present study sought to investigate the fauna in this city using Shannon and Disney traps, having human beings and hamsters, respectively, as bait. Both types of traps were installed in forest fragment and peridomiciliary areas in the period from 2007 to 2009. The phlebotomine females were analyzed by PCR for Leishmania identification. Lutzomyia longipalpis was the only species collected in the peridomiciles and rendered a total of 574 specimens with a 5.2:1 male:female ratio. A total of eight species were attracted to the two traps (one of each type) installed in the forest fragment, including: Bichromomyia flaviscutellata, Evandromyia bourrouli, Evandromyia lenti, Lutzomyia longipalpis, Nyssomyia whitmani, Pintomyia christenseni, Psathyromyia bigeniculata, and Sciopemyia sordellii. A total of 143 specimens were collected, Bi. flaviscutellata accounting for 81% and Lu. longipalpis for 1.4% of them. In one female of Lu. longipalpis collected in a Disney trap installed in a peridomicile, Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum DNA was found, thus strengthening the hypothesis that the transmission of leishmaniasis is in fact occurring in the anthropic environment. PMID:27593433

  5. Responding to climate change and the global land crisis: REDD+, market transformation and low-emissions rural development

    PubMed Central

    Nepstad, Daniel C.; Boyd, William; Stickler, Claudia M.; Bezerra, Tathiana; Azevedo, Andrea A.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change and rapidly escalating global demand for food, fuel, fibre and feed present seemingly contradictory challenges to humanity. Can greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from land-use, more than one-fourth of the global total, decline as growth in land-based production accelerates? This review examines the status of two major international initiatives that are designed to address different aspects of this challenge. REDD+ is an emerging policy framework for providing incentives to tropical nations and states that reduce their GHG emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. Market transformation, best represented by agricultural commodity roundtables, seeks to exclude unsustainable farmers from commodity markets through international social and environmental standards for farmers and processors. These global initiatives could potentially become synergistically integrated through (i) a shared approach for measuring and favouring high environmental and social performance of land use across entire jurisdictions and (ii) stronger links with the domestic policies, finance and laws in the jurisdictions where agricultural expansion is moving into forests. To achieve scale, the principles of REDD+ and sustainable farming systems must be embedded in domestic low-emission rural development models capable of garnering support across multiple constituencies. We illustrate this potential with the case of Mato Grosso State in the Brazilian Amazon. PMID:23610173

  6. Modeling potential freshwater ecotoxicity impacts due to pesticide use in biofuel feedstock production: the cases of maize, rapeseed, salix, soybean, sugar cane, and wheat.

    PubMed

    Nordborg, Maria; Cederberg, Christel; Berndes, Göran

    2014-10-01

    The inclusion of ecotoxicity impacts of pesticides in environmental assessments of biobased products has long been hampered by methodological challenges. We expanded the pesticide database and the regional coverage of the pesticide emission model PestLCI v.2.0, combined it with the impact assessment model USEtox, and assessed potential freshwater ecotoxicity impacts (PFEIs) of pesticide use in selected biofuel feedstock production cases, namely: maize (Iowa, US, two cases), rapeseed (Schleswig-Holstein, Germany), Salix (South Central Sweden), soybean (Mato Grosso, Brazil, two cases), sugar cane (São Paulo, Brazil), and wheat (Schleswig-Holstein, Germany). We found that PFEIs caused by pesticide use in feedstock production varied greatly, up to 3 orders of magnitude. Salix has the lowest PFEI per unit of energy output and per unit of cultivated area. Impacts per biofuel unit were 30, 750, and 1000 times greater, respectively, for the sugar cane, wheat and rapeseed cases than for Salix. For maize genetically engineered (GE) to resist glyphosate herbicides and to produce its own insecticidal toxin, maize GE to resist glyphosate, soybeans GE to resist glyphosate and conventional soybeans, the impacts were 110, 270, 305, and 310 times greater than for Salix, respectively. The significance of field and site-specific conditions are discussed, as well as options for reducing negative impacts in biofuel feedstock production. PMID:25207789

  7. Environmental factors related to the occurrence of oral clefts in a Brazilian subpopulation

    PubMed Central

    Campos Neves, Ana Thereza de Saboia; Volpato, Luiz Evaristo Ricci; Espinosa, Mariano Martinez; Aranha, Andreza Maria Fabio; Borges, Alvaro Henrique

    2016-01-01

    Background: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Craniofacial Rehabilitation Center in the General Hospital of the University of Cuiabá, Cuiabá city, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Materials and Methods: Poisson regression model was used to analyze the relationship between antenatal factors and the occurrence of oral clefts in 116 patients. Results: Oral clefts were more common in males (64.66%) and White race (46.02%). The mean age of the children was 21.91 months. The most common type of cleft was cleft lip and palate (CLP, 55.17%). Maternal and paternal smoking in the first trimester of pregnancy and parity were significantly associated with the occurrence of CLP. Parent's age, educational level, and occupation did not interfere in the occurrence of oral clefts. There was also no significant association between maternal illness, medication use, alcohol consumption, and maternal exposure to chemicals in the first trimester of pregnancy and the occurrence of clefts in this population. Conclusion: The analysis of the environmental factors present during the pregnancy of children with oral clefts revealed a significant association between parity (second onward), maternal smoking, and paternal smoking and the occurrence of CL and/or palate in this population. PMID:27397957

  8. Recovery of energy, water and carbon exchange in degraded forests in eastern Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trumbore, Susan; Brando, Paulo; Oliveira dos Santos, Claudinei; Silvério, Divino; Coe, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Large regions in the state of Mato Grosso in Brazil have been deforested and converted to pasture and soy agriculture. In addition to deforestation, remnant forests in the region are degraded by repeated fire and edge related effects. We are combining eddy covariance with other measures to study the impact of these changes in land cover on energy, water and carbon balance, in a region that sits at the ecotone between continuous forest and savanna. The degraded forest plot is part of a multi-year experimental fire treatment and had experienced large-scale mortality in the years prior to tower installation. Leaf area was strongly reduced in degraded forest, but surprisingly latent energy fluxes nearly equaled those in the intact forest. Carbon uptake rates in the intact forest exceeded those in the degraded forest, though not when expressed on a leaf-area basis. Overall, these results corroborate those found in experimentally logged tropical forest showing rapid recovery of fluxes, despite losses of biomass. Compared to both forests, the soy field reflected more incoming energy, and lost a greater proportion of absorbed radiation as sensible rather than latent heat.

  9. Analysis of forest and forest clearings in Amazonia with Landsat and Shuttle Imaging Radar-A data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Thomas A.; Woodwell, George M.

    1987-01-01

    Landsat and Shuttle Imaging Radar-A L band (23.5 cm wavelength) data from 1981 were used to analyze areas of intact tropical forest and areas recently cleared from forest for agriculture and pasture in Mato Grosso, Brazil. Portions of SIR-A Data Takes #24C and #31 film were digitized using a microdensitometer. Landsat MSS data of July 1981 were also examined. The digital values from SIR-A DT 31 were compared with the normalized difference vegetation index values (NDVI) from the Landsat data for the same sites. Contrary to expectations some cleared areas had brighter radar responses than surrounding forest. The explanation seems to be that a recently cleared forest (cut and burned during the dry season) is texturally very rough as the exposed standing and fallen boles and woody litter may function as effective corner or dihedral reflectors. Combining radar data with NDVI data may help to assess the relative age of forest clearings and determine differences in both woody and green leaf biomass of primary and secondary tropical forests.

  10. Simultaneous selection for cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) genotypes with adaptability and yield stability using mixed models.

    PubMed

    Torres, F E; Teodoro, P E; Rodrigues, E V; Santos, A; Corrêa, A M; Ceccon, G

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to select erect cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) genotypes simultaneously for high adaptability, stability, and yield grain in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil using mixed models. We conducted six trials of different cowpea genotypes in 2005 and 2006 in Aquidauana, Chapadão do Sul, Dourados, and Primavera do Leste. The experimental design was randomized complete blocks with four replications and 20 genotypes. Genetic parameters were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood/best linear unbiased prediction, and selection was based on the harmonic mean of the relative performance of genetic values method using three strategies: selection based on the predicted breeding value, having considered the performance mean of the genotypes in all environments (no interaction effect); the performance in each environment (with an interaction effect); and the simultaneous selection for grain yield, stability, and adaptability. The MNC99542F-5 and MNC99-537F-4 genotypes could be grown in various environments, as they exhibited high grain yield, adaptability, and stability. The average heritability of the genotypes was moderate to high and the selective accuracy was 82%, indicating an excellent potential for selection. PMID:27173301

  11. Remote sensing applied to forest resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hernandezfilho, P. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    The development of methodologies to classify reforested areas using remotely sensed data is discussed. A preliminary study was carried out in northeast of the Sao Paulo State in 1978. The reforested areas of Pinus spp and Eucalyptus spp were based on the spectral, spatial and temporal characteristics fo LANDSAT imagery. Afterwards, a more detailed study was carried out in the Mato Grosso do Sul State. The reforested areas were mapped in functions of the age (from: 0 to 1 year, 1 to 2 years, 2 to 3 years, 3 to 4 years, 4 to 5 years and 5 to 6 years) and of the heterogeneity stand (from: 0 to 20%, 20 to 40%, 40 to 60%, 60 to 80% and 80 to 100%). The relative differences between the artificial forest areas, estimated from LANDSAT data and ground information, varied from -8.72 to +9.49%. The estimation of forest volume through a multistage sampling technique, with probability proportional to size, is also discussed.

  12. Life cycle of Ornithodoros rostratus (Acari: Argasidae) under experimental conditions and comments on the host-parasite relationship in the Pantanal wetland region, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Carla Carolina Dias Uzedo; Faccini, João Luiz Horácio; Cançado, Paulo Henrique Duarte; Piranda, Eliane Mattos; Barros-Battesti, Darci Moraes; Leite, Romário Cerqueira

    2013-09-01

    The genus Ornithodoros is represented by 15 species in Brazil, on which no detailed life cycle studies have been published, except for O. talaje and O. mimon. The aim of the present study was to evaluate life cycle parameters of O. rostratus based on ticks collected in the Pantanal wetland region of the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, using domestic rabbits as experimental hosts. The periods of pre-attachment and feeding of the larvae lasted an average of 39 min (range 15-76 min). Five or six nymphal instars were found. The emergence of adults started with N3 in the following sequence: N3-two males; N4-13 males; N5-three males and 16 females; and N6-two females. Mean weight of N4 that molted to males was 31.7 ± 13.6 mg, whereas mean weight of N5 that molted to females was 100.1 ± 36.2 mg. The overall sex ratio was 1:1. Oviposition lasted 14 days, with a sharp decline beginning with the 7th day. The overall duration of the life cycle of O. rostratus ranged from approximately 66 to 136 days. Comments on the tick-host relationship in the Pantanal region are offered. PMID:23456605

  13. New distributional data on aquatic and semiaquatic bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Gerromorpha & Nepomorpha) from South America

    PubMed Central

    Cordeiro, Isabelle R S

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Water bugs in general play an important role in freshwater ecosystems, and knowledge about them is essential for the study of water biology and the proper management of aquatic habitats. The Neotropical fauna is relatively well known, but the existence of large under-collected areas makes taxonomic and faunistic studies concerning the aquatic and semiaquatic bugs from tropical America urgent. New information Distributional information is presented for thirty-eight species of Gerromorpha and five Nepomorpha, including first records from the Brazilian states of Bahia (Mesovelia amoena), Ceará (Limnogonus profugus and Rhagovelia whitei), Espírito Santo (R. lucida), Goiás (Halobatopsis platensis and R. zela), Mato Grosso (Rheumatobates bonariensis), Pará (Nerthra terrestris), Paraná (H. spiniventris, Hydrometra fruhstorferi and R. janeira), Piauí (Microvelia ayacuchana, M. pulchella, Neogerris lubricus and Platyvelia brachialis), Rio de Janeiro (Martarega bentoi) and São Paulo (Rheumatobates minutus flavidus); and the Peruvian region of Madre de Dios (Rhagovelia fontanalis). PMID:25892925

  14. Circulation of hantaviruses in the influence area of the Cuiabá-Santarém Highway.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Daniele B A; da Rosa, Elizabeth S Travassos; Marques, Aparecido A R; Simith, Darlene B; Carneiro, Adriana R; Chiang, Jannifer O; Prazeres, Ivy T E; Vasconcelos, Pedro F C; Nunes, Márcio R T

    2010-08-01

    We describe evidence of circulation of hantaviruses in the influence area of the Santarém-Cuiabá Highway (BR-163) in the Brazilian Amazon through the prevalence of specific antibodies against hantaviruses in inhabitants living in four municipalities of this area: Novo Progresso (2.16%) and Trairão (4.37%), in state of Pará (PA), and Gua-rantã do Norte (4.74%) and Marcelândia (9.43%), in state of Mato Grosso. We also demonstrate the ongoing association between Castelo dos Sonhos virus (CASV) and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) cases in the Castelo dos Sonhos district (municipality of Altamira, PA) and the first report of CASV in the municipalities of Novo Progresso and Guarantã do Norte. The results of this work highlight the risk for a possible increase in the number of HPS cases and the emergence of new hantavirus lineages associated with deforestation in this Amazonian area after the conclusion of paving works on BR-163 Highway. PMID:20835614

  15. Hydrological consequences of deforestation and forest degradation in the Amazon agricultural frontier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coe, M. T.; Macedo, M.; Riskin, S.

    2012-12-01

    Increasing demand for agricultural commodities has driven high rates of deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon over the last two decades. The resulting changes in land cover and use fundamentally alter the energy and water balance at the land surface. This study presents results from a series of intensive field campaigns and satellite remote sensing analyses quantifying the hydrological consequences of recent land cover and land use changes (LCLUC) that have occurred on a large ranch in the Amazon's agricultural frontier in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The results show that deforestation and conversion to crops significantly decrease evapotranspiration and increase sensible heat flux. These changes occur because the crops that have replaced native forests have significantly lower leaf area index, root biomass, and growing season length, resulting in an overall decrease in water demand. This reduction in water demand leads to significantly increased soil moisture down to greater than 10m depth and a significant increase in water yield and stream discharge from all cropped watersheds measured, when compared to intact forest watersheds. This suite of changes occurred in all seasons and the differences in the water cycle between forested and non-forested areas on the ranch were particularly pronounced in the dry season. The results show that the evaporative flux from the evergreen forests remains high during the dry season due to extraction of stored soil moisture but becomes very low in the fallow fields where there are no photosynthetically active plants to evapotranspire.

  16. Environmental variables and levels of exhaled carbon monoxide and carboxyhemoglobin in elderly people taking exercise.

    PubMed

    Salicio, Marcos Adriano; Mana, Viviane Aparecida Martins; Fett, Waléria Christiane Rezende; Gomes, Luciano Teixeira; Botelho, Clovis

    2016-04-01

    This article aims to analyze levels of exhaled carbon monoxide, carboxyhemoglobinand cardiopulmonary variables in old people practicing exercise in external environments, and correlate them with climate and pollution factors. Temporal ecological study with118 active elderly people in the city of Cuiabá, in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Data were obtained on use of medication, smoking, anthropometric measurements, spirometry, peak flow, oxygen saturation, heart rate, exhaled carbon monoxide, carboxyhemoglobin, climate, number of farm fires and pollution. Correlations were found between on the one hand environmental temperature, relative humidity of the air and number of farmers' fires, and on the other hand levels of carbon monoxide exhaled and carboxyhemoglobin (p < 0.05).There was a correlation between heart rate and changes in environmental temperature, time of exposure to the sun and relative humidity (p < 0.05). In elderly people, environmental factors influence levels of exhaled carbon monoxide, carboxyhemoglobin and heart rate. There is thus a need for these to be monitored during exercise. The use of a carbon monoxide monitor to evaluate exposure to pollutants is suggested. PMID:27076001

  17. Démarche pour la mise à niveau d’un secteur de soins pharmaceutiques : le cas de l’hémato-oncologie pédiatrique

    PubMed Central

    Bussières, Jean-François; Robelet, Antoine; Therrien, Roxane; Touzin, Karine

    2010-01-01

    Contexte : Bien que le concept de pharmacie clinique ait été développé dans les années soixante, il existe une grande variété de programmes et une grande disparité entre les programmes en clinique externe et en hospitalisation, bénéficiant de la présence d’un pharmacien dans un secteur de soins. Objectif: Éprouver une méthode de mise à niveau des secteurs de soins pharmaceutiques en établissement de santé. Méthode : Il s’agit d’une étude descriptive se déroulant au Centre hospitalier universitaire Sainte-Justine, un établissement mère-enfant de 500 lits. Le secteur de soins pharmaceutiques ciblé pour illustrer la méthode de mise à niveau est l’hématologie-oncologie pédiatrique. La méthode comporte trois étapes, soit une revue de la documentation scientifique, un profil du secteur et une mise à jour du niveau de pratique selon un profil des activités pharmaceutiques dans le secteur avant et après la mise à niveau. Résultats : Au total, 108 articles ont été recensés et 22 ont été retenus à partir d’une recherche dans PubMed. Après une recherche manuelle complémentaire, 36 articles ont finalement été évalués. Parmi les articles retenus, on compte trois lignes directrices, 11 études de développement, une revue de la littérature scientifique, six études pré- et post-interventions et 15 études quasi expérimentales. Bien que les patients de ce secteur ne comptent que pour 5 % des admissions de l’hôpital, la complexité des cas est élevée tant sur le plan de la codification de l’épisode de soins que du potentiel d’intervention pharmaceutique par admission. Conclusion : Il existe peu de données illustrant une démarche de mise à niveau de la pratique dans un secteur de soins pharmaceutiques. Cette étude a éprouvé une méthode de mise à niveau dans un service d’hématologie-oncologie pédiatrique et comporte une revue de la documentation scientifique, un profil du secteur et une description des tâches des pharmaciens de ce secteur avant et après la mise à niveau. PMID:22478967

  18. Smartphone Blood-Pressure App Often Wrong, Study Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... misuse of the app is "realistic," said Dr. Michael Grosso, medical director and chief medical officer of ... cardiology, Northwestern University's Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago; Michael Grosso, M.D., medical director and chief medical ...

  19. Thesis Abstract Morphological and phylogeographic analysis of Brazilian tortoises (Testudinidae).

    PubMed

    Silva, T L; Venancio, L P R; Bonini-Domingos, C R

    2015-01-01

    The discriminative potentials of biogeography, vocalization, morphology, cytogenetics, hemoglobin, and molecular profiling of cytochrome b as taxonomic techniques for differentiating Brazilian tortoises were evaluated in this study. In Brazil, two species of tortoises are described, Chelonoidis carbonarius and Chelonoidis denticulatus. However, in the present study, some animals that were initially recognized based on morphological characters and coloring did not correspond to the typical pattern of C. carbonarius; these animals were classified as morphotypes 1 and 2. It was proposed that these morphotypes are differentiated species, and they should not be considered as a single taxonomic unit with C. carbonarius. Tortoises analyzed were provided by the National Institute for Amazonian Research (INPA); the Emilio Goeldi Museum, PA; municipal zoos in São José do Rio Preto, SP, and Araçatuba, SP; and the Reginaldo Uvo Leone breeding farm for Wild and Exotic Animals, Tabapuã, SP. Based on the data obtained using biogeographic evaluation of specimens in the literature, it was found that C. carbonarius is distributed in the Northeast Region of Brazil, and no animal of this pattern was observed in the investigated collections. On the other hand, C. denticulatus is found in all the states of the Legal Amazonia. In addition, isolated individual records of this species exist in the Atlantic Forest in Espírito Santo and Rio de Janeiro and in the Midwest Region composed of the states of Goiás, Mato Grosso, and Mato Grosso do Sul. In the Northeast Region, C. denticulatus occurs in the State of Bahia. Morphotype 1 has a wider geographical distribution than C. carbonarius, possibly because of several distribution reports associated with C. carbonarius, indicating erroneous association of morphotype 1 as a single taxonomic unit with C. carbonarius. Morphotype 2 is found only in the states of Pará, Maranhão, and Piauí. These biogeographic data indicate that the

  20. Molecular data reveal spatial and temporal patterns of diversification and a cryptic new species of lowland Stenocercus Duméril & Bibron, 1837 (Squamata: Tropiduridae).

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Mauro; Prates, Ivan; Nisa, Carolina; Silva-Martins, Nathalia Suzan Camarão; Strüssmann, Christine; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut

    2016-01-01

    taxon S. sinesaccus, and further evaluation of morphological data corroborates the existence of a distinct, new species of Stenocercus, here described. The new taxon occurs in the Chapada dos Parecis massif in the Brazilian states of Mato Grosso and Rondônia. PMID:26432394

  1. Oxidation potential in the Earth's lower mantle as recorded by ferropericlase inclusions in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminsky, Felix V.; Ryabchikov, Igor D.; McCammon, Catherine A.; Longo, Micaela; Abakumov, Artem M.; Turner, Stuart; Heidari, Hamed

    2015-05-01

    Ferropericlase (fPer) inclusions from kimberlitic lower-mantle diamonds recovered in the Juina area, Mato Grosso State, Brazil were analyzed with transmission electron microscopy, electron energy-loss spectroscopy and the flank method. The presence of exsolved non-stoichiometric Fe3+-enriched clusters, varying in size from 1-2 nm to 10-15 nm and comprising ∼3.64 vol.% of fPer was established. The oxidation conditions necessary for fPer formation within the uppermost lower mantle (P = 25 GPa, T = 1960 K) vary over a wide range: Δlog ⁡fO2 (IW) from 1.58 to 7.76 (Δ = 6.2), reaching the fayalite-magnetite-quartz (FMQ) oxygen buffer position. This agrees with the identification of carbonates and free silica among inclusions within lower-mantle Juina diamonds. On the other hand, at the base of the lower mantle Δlog ⁡fO2 values may lie at and below the iron-wüstite (IW) oxygen buffer. Hence, the variations of Δlog ⁡fO2 values within the entire sequence of the lower mantle may reach ten logarithmic units, varying from the IW buffer to the FMQ buffer values. The similarity between lower- and upper-mantle redox conditions supports whole mantle convection, as already suggested on the basis of nitrogen and carbon isotopic compositions in lower- and upper-mantle diamonds. The mechanisms responsible for redox differentiation in the lower mantle may include subduction of oxidized crustal material, mechanical separation of metallic phase(s) and silicate-oxide mineral assemblages enriched in ferric iron, as well as transfer of fused silicate-oxide material presumably also enriched in ferric iron through the mantle.

  2. The importance of remnant native vegetation of Amazonian submontane forest for the conservation of lizards.

    PubMed

    Silva, D J; Santos-Filho, M; Canale, G R

    2014-08-01

    Forest fragmentation affects animal population dynamics mainly by loss of habitat and disruption of animal movement. Lizard assemblages are affected by environmental changes, but, depending on their ecological needs, some species might be more vulnerable than others. The southern Amazon suffers accelerated anthropic actions replacing natural environments by farmland (crops and pasture). This region is considerably drier than most of the northern Amazon, with stational semi-deciduous forests fragmented and isolated by pasture, and crops to a lesser extent. Here we report data on lizard assemblages using semi-deciduous forests, forest edge and the surrounding pasture in the southern Amazon in Mato Grosso, Brazil. Lizards were collected in 21 forest fragments (41 to 7,035 ha) surrounded by pasture; using pitfall traps placed on a degradation gradient - from pasture inwards forest fragment (up to 200 m). We collected 242 individuals (14 species, seven families) in 6,300 trap-days. The pattern of species occurrence was largely nested and this nesting was associated with three habitat guilds (generalist, edge-tolerant, and forest species). Although there was no obvious fragmentation effect on lizards diversity community-wise, Hoplocercus spinosus, Bachia dorbignyi, Micrablepharus maximiliani and Kentropyx calcarta were more vulnerable to such effects than all other ten species collected. We verified that assemblages inhabiting pasture and forest edge are a nested subset of assemblages from the forest core. The remnant native vegetation is not distributed homogeneously and lizards species can persist in different parts of the landscape, therefore we recommend the protection of forest remnants as an important conservation action for lizards of the southern Amazon. PMID:25296198

  3. Relationships Between Fire and Land Use Change in the Brazilian Amazon Based on Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanin, T.; van der Werf, G.

    2014-12-01

    Fires are used as a tool in the process of deforestation. The relationship between fire and deforestation varies temporally and spatially according to the type of deforestation and climatic conditions. This study evaluates spatiotemporal variability between fire and deforestation over the 2002-2012 period in the Brazilian Legal Amazon (BLA). We based our study on four datasets: deforestation estimates from PRODES (Amazon Deforestation Monitoring Project) and forest cover loss from the Global Forest Change (GFC) project based on Landsat data, and burned area and land cover based on Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. While GFC and PRODES supported similar findings on spatial and temporal dynamics, the Landsat-scale comparison also highlighted a number of differences. Both datasets show a decrease after 2004 in forest loss or deforestation extent mainly from decreasing clearing rates in evergreen broadleaf forest, mostly in the states of Mato Grosso and Rondonia. However, the drop is larger and more gradual in PRODES than in GFC, with the former having less than half the forest loss of the latter. GFC indicates anomalous high forest loss in the years 2007 and 2010 not seen in PRODES. Rescaling these forest dynamics datasets to 500-meter resolution, allowed for a comparison against the MODIS datasets. The burned area data indicates that the mismatch between PRODES and GFC is largely related to increased fire occurrence during these dry years, mainly in Para. In addition it indicates that the time interval between deforestation and fire differs according to land cover, which is important when estimating the atmospheric impact of forest loss. We found that evergreen broadleaf forests are burned shortly after deforestation due to slash and burn techniques, while croplands have longer intervals depending on the crop variety. As a final step, we used these insights to better quantify carbon emissions from this region.

  4. Geomagnetic Secular Variation record from a mid-latitude Brazilian speleothem: Preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaqueto, P.; Trindade, R. I.; Hartmann, G. A.; Novello, V.; Cruz, F. W.; Feinberg, J. M.

    2013-05-01

    The magnetic study of speleothems is a new way to investigate the continuous record of the geomagnetic field. Recent improvements in magnetic instrumentation and analytical techniques provide the means to accurately measure the magnetic signal of the weakly magnetic speleothems and better characterize their magnetic mineralogy. At the same time, this material is suitable for high-precision U-Th dating and can also be easily correlated through stable isotopes. Continuous geomagnetic records in South America are rare, and the systematic paleomagnetic study of stalagmites could contribute significantly to improve the continent's database. As part of this effort, here we report preliminary magnetic results from a stalagmite located at 14.8°S, 56.4°W, in Mato Grosso State, (Brazil) with ages varying from 500 AD to 1900 AD. Magnetic properties, obtained with Magnetic Property Measurement System (MPMS) and Alternating Gradient Magnetometer (AGM), are very homogeneous throughout the stalagmite comprising partly oxidized PSD magnetite. Magnetic inclinations were obtained after stepwise alternating field (AF) demagnetization with a resolution of 0.5 cm (temporal resolution of ~30 yrs). Our preliminary results agree within error with models CALS3k.3 and SED3K for the well-defined 1700-1900 AD period. For older periods, when models are much less constrained, our data does not match CALS3k.3 and SED3K inclinations. The agreement between our data and the well-constrained recent sector of the model suggests the speleothem is likely recording the geomagnetic field throughout its whole extension. From these preliminary tests we expect the continental record from stalagmites to provide a more refined picture of the spatial and temporal variations of the magnetic field over South America. We are currently working in order to improve the age model of the speleothem through the comparison of its δ180 record with well-dated "sister" speleothems from the same cave.

  5. Death of pastures syndrome: tissue changes in Urochloa hybrida cv. Mulato II and Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro-Júnior, N G; Ariano, A P R; Silva, I V

    2016-07-11

    The quality of forage production is a prerequisite to raising livestock. Therefore, income losses in this activity, primarily cattle raising, can result in the impossibility of economic activity. Through the qualitative and quantitative anatomical study of Urochloa hybrida cv. Mulato II and U. brizantha cv. Marandu, we searched for descriptions and compared changes in the individual vegetative body from populations with death syndrome pastures (DPS). Specimens were collected at different physiological stages from farms in northern Mato Grosso. After collection, the individuals were fixed in FAA50 and stored in 70% alcohol. Histological slides were prepared from the middle third of the sections of roots, rhizomes, and leaves, and the proportions and characteristics of tissues were evaluated in healthy, intermediate, and advanced stages of DPS. Changes were compared between cultivars. With the advancement of the syndrome, the following changes were observed: a more marked decrease in the length of roots in U. hybrida; disorganization of the cortical region of the roots and rhizome cultivars; fungal hyphae in roots and aerenchyma formation in U. hybrida; a decrease in sclerenchyma fiber proportions in roots and leaves; sclerification of the epidermis of U. brizantha rhizomes; and an increase in pericyclic fibers in U. hybrida. Furthermore, there was a decrease in the volume of epidermal cells of the abaxial face of the leaves of both cultivars, with a greater reduction in U. hybrida; a gradual decrease in thickness in the midrib of leaves similar to leaf mesophyll; conduction system obstructions; partial or total cell lysis in roots and rhizomes affected by the syndrome. Obstructions in sieve tube element and companion cells, and sometimes obstruction in xylem vessel elements. The evolution of DPS in cultivars was similar, but there were variations, arising probably from the physiological response to stress, such as aerenchyma formation in the root and increased

  6. Ultrastructural features of spermatogenesis in Melanorivulus punctatus (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae).

    PubMed

    Cassel, Mônica; Ferreira, Adelina; Mehanna, Mahmoud

    2014-07-01

    Fish belonging to the family Rivulidae possess one of the most complex reproductive systems. Rivulus, a genus of freshwater fish in the Rivulidae family, was recently reclassified into five genera, including Melanorivulus. Its type species, M. punctatus, is widely distributed and probably represents a species complex. The ultrastructure of sperm has been broadly used in systematics, and we hereby describe the ultrastructural features of spermatogenesis in M. punctatus. Ten M. punctatus males were collected from the reservoir of Parque Estadual da Quineira, municipality of Chapada dos Guimarães, Mato Grosso, Brazil, and prepared for analysis by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. M. punctatus undergoes cystic spermatogenesis. Its cysts consist of groups of germ cells that are in synchronous development and are surrounded by cytoplasmic projections of Sertoli cells. With the breakdown of the cysts, the spermatozoa are released and their maturation is completed in the duct, where part of the cytoplasmic material is discarded through the vesicles. The mature spermatozoon is characterized by a spherical head with homogeneously condensed chromatin, a symmetric midpiece consisting of a pair of perpendicular centrioles, a ring of mitochondria, several vesicles, and one flagellum medial to the nucleus. Early stages of spermatogenesis show no peculiarities; however, in spermiogenesis, we observed that the spermatids remain interconnected by cytoplasmic bridges and have pockets of residual cytoplasm. The sperm is of the aquasperm type and is similar to that observed in the members of the family Rivulidae. The spermatozoa have a single flagellum that consists of a classic axoneme (9+2), as found in most groups of fish, despite the lateral extensions. PMID:24811986

  7. Prevalence of Leptospira interrogans antibodies in free-ranging Tayassu pecari of the Southern Pantanal, Brazil, an ecosystem where wildlife and cattle interact.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Tatiana P Tavares; Keuroghlian, Alexine; Eaton, Donald P; de Freitas, Emanuel Barbosa; Figueiredo, Aline; Nakazato, Luciano; de Oliveira, Jacqueline M; Miranda, Flávia; Paes, Rita Cassia S; Monteiro, Leticia A R Carneiro; Lima, José Vergílio B; da C Neto, Aparecida A; Dutra, Valéria; de Freitas, Julio Cesar

    2010-12-01

    We surveyed a wild population of white-lipped peccaries (Tayassu pecari) in the Brazilian Pantanal for evidence of Leptospira interrogans. Serum samples from 71 free-ranging T. pecari were obtained between 2003 and 2005 in the southern Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul state. We used microscopic microagglutination to test for antibodies against 14 L. interrogans serovars (antibody titers ≥ 1:100 were considered seropositive). Seventy percent of captured animals tested positive for leptospirosis antibodies. Antibodies against icterohaemorrhagiae and autumnalis serovars were the most prevalent. We used log-linear analyses to test for associations among seropositivity, age class, and sex of captured animals. Seropositivity was strongly associated with animal age class, but independent of sex. Forty-six percent of animals less than 2 years old, 63% of adults during peak reproductive years, and 100% of the oldest age class were seropositive. A nonparametric multivariate procedure (MRPP) showed that the composition of serovar antibody types changed with age, and ANOVA models demonstrated that antibody titers increased with age, suggesting long-term exposure to a greater number and variety (i.e., serovar types) of L. interrogans infections. This study presents the first quantitative survey of antibodies against L. interrogans serovars in a T. pecari population of the Pantanal. The high prevalence of leptospirosis antibodies in free-ranging white-lipped peccaries and the potential impacts on reproduction and population dynamics emphasize the need for further studies investigating the roles of Pantanal wildlife and livestock in the transmission and maintenance of L. interrogans in the environment. PMID:20596776

  8. Sugar cane management with humic extract and organic and mineral fertilizer: impacts on Oxisol some physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, M. C.; Campos, F. S.; Souza, Z. M.

    2012-04-01

    The present investigation has as objective to study the impact of cultive systems, humic extract and organic and mineral fertilizers on Oxisol some physical properties cultivated of sugar cane. It was developed in Aparecida do Taboado, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, in Manufactores Alcoolvale. The study was in sugar cane culture implanted on 3th and 4th cycle. The experimental design was at randomized blocks following scheme in zone with eight treatments and four replications. The two treatments in main zone were represented by cultivation systems (with and without chisel) and the subzone fertilization (T1-mineral, T2-mineral+sugar cane residue, T3-mineral+humic and fulvic acids and T4-mix of mineral, sugar cane residue and humic and fulvic acids). In three soil layers: 0.00-0.05; 0.10-0.20 and 0.20-0.40 m were studied the physical soil properties: macroporosity, microporosity, total porosity and soil bulk density. Also evaluate the technological quality of sugar cane. The conclusions are: the application of mineral fertilizer+sugar cane residue+humic extract (Humitec ®) and cropping system with chisel were more effective in improving soil physical; the system of crop of sugar cane ratton implanted in the 2th and 3th cycle, without the use of chisel was better in the recovery of soil physical properties; the crop system without the chisel and the combination of mineral fertilizer+sugar cane residue was promising to increase of Brix, Pol juice, Pol sugar cane and total recoverable sugars Pol.

  9. Agricultural trade and the global phosphorus cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schipanski, M.; Bennett, E.; Riskin, S.; Porder, S.

    2012-12-01

    Trends of increasing agricultural trade, increased concentration of livestock production systems, and increased human consumption of livestock products influence the distribution of nutrients across the global landscape. Phosphorus (P) represents a unique management challenge as we are rapidly depleting mineable reserves of this essential and non-renewable resource. At the same time, its overuse can lead to pollution of aquatic ecosystems. We analyzed the relative contributions of food crop, feed crop, and livestock product trade to P flows through agricultural soils for twelve countries from 1961 to 2007. We then used case studies of P fertilizer use in the world's three major soybean export regions: Iowa (USA), Mato Grosso (Brazil), and Buenos Aires (Argentina) to examine the influence of historical P management and soil types on agriculture's environmental consequences. Due to the intensification of agricultural production, average soil surface P balances more than tripled from 6 to 21 kg P per ha between 1961 and 2007 for the twelve study countries. Consequently, countries that are primarily agricultural exporters carried increased risks for water pollution or, for Argentina, reduced soil fertility due to soil P mining to support exports. In 2007, nations imported food and feed from regions with higher apparent P fertilizer use efficiencies than if those crops were produced domestically. However, this was largely because imports were sourced from regions depleting soil P resources to support export crop production. In addition, the pattern of regional specialization and intensification of production systems also reduced the potential to recycle P resources, with greater implications for livestock production than crop production. In a globalizing world, it will be increasingly important to integrate biophysical constraints of our natural resources and environmental impacts of agricultural systems into trade policy and agreements and to develop mechanisms that

  10. Genetic Diversity Strategy for the Management and Use of Rubber Genetic Resources: More than 1,000 Wild and Cultivated Accessions in a 100-Genotype Core Collection.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Livia Moura; Le Guen, Vincent; Cerqueira-Silva, Carlos Bernardo Moreno; Silva, Carla Cristina; Mantello, Camila Campos; Conson, Andre Ricardo Oliveira; Vianna, João Paulo Gomes; Zucchi, Maria Imaculada; Scaloppi Junior, Erivaldo José; Fialho, Josefino de Freitas; de Moraes, Mario Luis Teixeira; Gonçalves, Paulo de Souza; Souza, Anete Pereira de

    2015-01-01

    The rubber tree [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss.) Muell. Arg.] is the only plant species worldwide that is cultivated for the commercial production of natural rubber. This study describes the genetic diversity of the Hevea spp. complex that is available in the main ex situ collections of South America, including Amazonian populations that have never been previously described. Genetic data were analyzed to determine the genetic structure of the wild populations, quantify the allelic diversity and suggest the composition of a core collection to capture the maximum genetic diversity within a minimal sample size. A total of 1,117 accessions were genotyped with 13 microsatellite markers. We identified a total of 408 alleles, 319 of which were shared between groups and 89 that were private in different groups of accessions. In a population structure and principal component analysis, the level of clustering reflected a primary division into the following two subgroups: cluster 1, which consisted of varieties from the advanced breeding germplasm that originated from the Wickham and Mato Grosso accessions; and cluster 2, which consisted of the wild germplasm from the Acre, Amazonas, Pará and Rondônia populations and Hevea spp. The analyses revealed a high frequency of gene flow between the groups, with the genetic differentiation coefficient (GST) estimated to be 0.018. Additionally, no distinct separation among the H. brasiliensis accessions and the other species from Amazonas was observed. A core collection of 99 accessions was identified that captured the maximum genetic diversity. Rubber tree breeders can effectively utilize this core collection for cultivar improvement. Furthermore, such a core collection could provide resources for forming an association panel to evaluate traits with agronomic and commercial importance. Our study generated a molecular database that should facilitate the management of the Hevea germplasm and its use for subsequent genetic

  11. Total and Abdominal Adiposity and Hypertension in Indigenous Women in Midwest Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Rosangela Costa; de Souza, Maria Cristina Corrêa

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity is a major risk factor for hypertension, and abdominal fat in particular has been more strongly associated with cardiovascular diseases and its prevalence has increased in Brazilian indigenous populations. Objective The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of hypertension among indigenous women and its association with total and abdominal obesity after adjustment for confounding factors. Methods This cross-sectional study evaluated indigenous non-pregnant women aged 20–59 years living in two villages of the indigenous reserve of Dourados, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Data were collected by trained interviewers. Households were visited and were selected by simple random sampling using SPSS software version 21. The casting of lots was performed from a list of households located on a map of villages. To locate the selected households, a Global Positioning System device was used. A questionnaire was used to obtain data on socio-demographic, lifestyle and health-related variables and to obtain anthropometric data on weight, height, and waist circumference (WC). Blood pressure was measured twice during home visits. Results Data were collected between June and October 2013 with 362 women. Most of them were aged <40 years (66.3%) and had low educational level (≤4 years of schooling, 82.0%), had overweight/obesity (74.0%), WC ≥80 cm (83.7%), and family history of hypertension (60.5%). The prevalence of hypertension was 42.0% (CI 95%: 37.0–47.2). In the multivariable analysis, respondents with WC 80–87 cm and ≥88 cm showed approximately 2 times higher prevalence rates of hypertension compared with those with WC <80 cm after adjusting for confounding factors. There was no association between body mass index (BMI) and hypertension in this study. Conclusions The overall prevalence of hypertension was high and associated only with abdominal adiposity but not with BMI. PMID:27294870

  12. Checklist of aquatic and marshy Monocotyledons from the Araguaia River basin, Brazilian Cerrado

    PubMed Central

    Bove, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The Araguaia River basin runs through the states of Goiás, Mato Grosso, Tocantins, and Pará, covering 373,000 Km2, mostly within the Brazilian Cerrado. The region has a wide variety of wetlands. The climate is characterized by high temperatures and strongly seasonal precipitation. There are two well defined seasons: the dry season (winter-spring) and the rainy season (summer- fall). The Araguaia River basin is dominated by plinthosoils that are found in low flat areas, poorly drained and prone to flooding, yielding wetland habitats of high plant diversity. Since the 1970s, human activities have led to reduction in both the diversity and area of wetlands. The construction of the Belém-Brasília highway and hydroelectric dams, as well as the expansion of agricultural and mining activities, have had major impacts on the region. New information The flora diversity data of the Araguaia River basin was developed through field work, herbarium research, and use of a database (Species Link). The resulting checklist of 162 aquatic and marshy monocotyledons from the Araguaia River basin represents 20 families and 50 genera. Cyperaceae (51 spp.), Poaceae (39 spp.), and Eriocaulaceae (16 spp.) are the most representative families. Life form analysis indicates that helophytes predominate (98 spp.; 60.5%). One hundred one species are native to tropical and/or subtropical America and twenty one are endemic to Brazil. Ninety-three species are new occurrences for the Araguaia River basin. Among them, three species are reported in the Brazilian Cerrado for the first time. This work contributes to the understanding of aquatic plant diversity in the Cerrado and other savanna-like vegetation physiognomies; environments and habitats poorly understood taxonomically and undercollected generally. PMID:27099550

  13. Petrographic and geochemical characterization of the granitic rocks of the Araguainha impact crater, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Dailto; Lana, Cristiano; Souza Filho, Carlos Roberto

    2016-03-01

    Petrographic and geochemical data obtained on the Araguainha impact crater (Goiás/Mato Grosso States, Brazil) indicate the existence of several molten products that originated during impact-induced congruent melting of an alkali-granite exposed in the inner part of the central uplift of the structure. Although previous studies have described these melts to some extent, there is no detailed discussion on the petrographic and geochemical variability in the granite and its impactogenic derivatives, and therefore, little is known about the geochemical behavior and mobility of trace elements during its fusion in the central part of the Araguainha crater. This paper demonstrates that the preserved granitoid exposed in the core of the structure is a magnesium-rich granite, similar to postcollisional, A-type granites, also found in terrains outside the Araguainha crater, in the Brasília orogenic belt. The molten products are texturally distinct and different from the original rock, but have very similar geochemical composition, making it difficult to separate these lithotypes based on concentrations of major and minor elements. This also applies for trace and rare earth elements (REE), thus indicating a high degree of homogenization during impact-induced congruent melting under high pressure and postshock temperature conditions. Petrographic observations, along with geochemical data, indicate that melting occurs selectively, where some of the elements are transported with the melt. Simultaneously, there is an effective dissolution of the rock (granite), which leads to entrainment of the most resistant solid phases (intact or partially molten minerals) into the melt. Minerals more resistant to melting, such as quartz and oxides, contribute substantially to a chemical balance between the preserved granite and the fusion products generated during the meteoritic impact.

  14. The influence of trees on the thermal environment and behaviour of grazing heifers in Brazilian Midwest.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Luciano Bastos; Eckstein, Camila; Pina, Douglas Santos; Carnevalli, Roberta Aparecida

    2016-04-01

    The intensification of the livestock production system has gained prominence over the last decades. In addition to the reduction of grazing areas and increased productivity per hectare, the intercropping involving forest tree species and ruminants has been established as a sustainable production model, generating income and valuation of natural capital. Besides the social, economic, and environmental aspects, the animal welfare is a noteworthy factor. The objective of this study was to evaluate the microclimatic conditions in an open-pasture and in silvopastoral systems, considering the Temperature Humidity Index (THI) and alterations in animal behavior. Three different pasture arrangements were analyzed in this study: total absence of trees in an open-pasture (ArrA), presence of peripheral trees (Eucalyptus spp.) along the border fences (ArrB), and an intensive wooded area aggregated with pasture (ArrC). A herd of 24 crossbreed heifers (3/4 and 7/8 Holstein-Girolando breed) was evaluated. Behavior data were collected every 15 min starting at 08 h00 with readings ending at 16 h00. THI was used to evaluate the environmental comfort. The THI found in the system with open-pasture and in the two systems with silvopastoral arrangement reached critical levels. The two arrangements with eucalyptus rows were not capable of eliminating heat stress in the conditions found in the north region of Mato Grosso State although better conditions were obtained under the tree canopy. The differences between the microclimatic variables for the three arrangements modified the behavior of the animals regarding their location and activity, except for water consumption. PMID:26894499

  15. Evaluation of the traditional and revised world health organization classifications of dengue cases in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Fábio Rocha; Croda, Mariana Garcia; Muniz, Daniella Araujo; Gomes, Isabella Trausula; de Moraes Soares, Karla Roberta; Cardoso, Monique Rodrigues; Tauro, Raquel Luciana Angela Marques; Croda, Julio

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Dengue is a worldwide public health problem with approximately 50 million cases reported annually. The World Health Organization proposed a revised classification system in 2008 to more effectively identify the patients who are at increased risk of complications from dengue. Few studies have validated this new classification system in clinical practice. We conducted a cross-sectional study of patients hospitalized for dengue in Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, to evaluate the capacity of the two classification systems for detecting severe cases of dengue. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of survey data from the medical records of patients admitted to the University Hospital of the Federal University of Grande Dourados under clinical suspicion of dengue during an epidemic from September 2009 to April 2010. RESULTS: The distribution of patients according to the traditional classification system was as follows: dengue fever, 150/181 (82.9%); dengue hemorrhagic fever, 27/181 (14.9%); and dengue hemorrhagic shock, 4/181 (2.2%). Using the revised classification system, the distribution was as follows: dengue without warning signs, 45/181 (24.3%); dengue with warning signs, 107/181 (59.1%); and severe dengue, 29/181 (15.6%). Of the 150 patients classified as having dengue fever, 105 (70%) were reclassified as having dengue with warning signs or severe dengue. CONCLUSION: These data demonstrate that the revised classification system has greater discriminatory power for detecting patients at risk of progression to severe disease and those needing hospitalization. PMID:24212835

  16. Direct Costs of Dengue Hospitalization in Brazil: Public and Private Health Care Systems and Use of WHO Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Vieira Machado, Alessandra A.; Estevan, Anderson Oliveira; Sales, Antonio; Brabes, Kelly Cristina da Silva; Croda, Júlio; Negrão, Fábio Juliano

    2014-01-01

    Background Dengue, an arboviral disease, is a public health problem in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. In Brazil, epidemics have become increasingly important, with increases in the number of hospitalizations and the costs associated with the disease. This study aimed to describe the direct costs of hospitalized dengue cases, the financial impact of admissions and the use of blood products where current protocols for disease management were not followed. Methods and Results To analyze the direct costs of dengue illness and platelet transfusion in Brazil based on the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, we conducted a retrospective cross-sectional census study on hospitalized dengue patients in the public and private Brazilian health systems in Dourados City, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. The analysis involved cases that occurred from January through December during the 2010 outbreak. In total, we examined 8,226 mandatorily reported suspected dengue cases involving 507 hospitalized patients. The final sample comprised 288 laboratory-confirmed dengue patients, who accounted for 56.8% of all hospitalized cases. The overall cost of the hospitalized dengue cases was US $210,084.30, in 2010, which corresponded to 2.5% of the gross domestic product per capita in Dourados that year. In 35.2% of cases, blood products were used in patients who did not meet the blood transfusion criteria. The overall median hospitalization cost was higher (p = 0.002) in the group that received blood products (US $1,622.40) compared with the group that did not receive blood products (US $550.20). Conclusion The comparative costs between the public and the private health systems show that both the hospitalization of and platelet transfusion in patients who do not meet the WHO and Brazilian dengue guidelines increase the direct costs, but not the quality, of health care. PMID:25188295

  17. Parasite Load Induces Progressive Spleen Architecture Breakage and Impairs Cytokine mRNA Expression in Leishmania infantum-Naturally Infected Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Cavalcanti, Amanda S.; Ribeiro-Alves, Marcelo; Pereira, Luiza de O. R.; Mestre, Gustavo Leandro; Ferreira, Anna Beatriz Robottom; Morgado, Fernanda N.; Boité, Mariana C.; Cupolillo, Elisa; Moraes, Milton O.; Porrozzi, Renato

    2015-01-01

    Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis (CVL) shares many aspects with the human disease and dogs are considered the main urban reservoir of L. infantum in zoonotic VL. Infected dogs develop progressive disease with a large clinical spectrum. A complex balance between the parasite and the genetic/immunological background of the host are decisive for infection evolution and clinical outcome. This study comprised 92 Leishmania infected mongrel dogs of various ages from Mato Grosso, Brazil. Spleen samples were collected for determining parasite load, humoral response, cytokine mRNA expression and histopathology alterations. By real-time PCR for the ssrRNA Leishmania gene, two groups were defined; a low (lowP, n = 46) and a high parasite load groups (highP, n = 42). When comparing these groups, results show variable individual humoral immune response with higher specific IgG production in infected animals but with a notable difference in CVL rapid test optical densities (DPP) between highP and lowP groups. Splenic architecture disruption was characterized by disorganization of white pulp, more evident in animals with high parasitism. All cytokine transcripts in spleen were less expressed in highP than lowP groups with a large heterogeneous variation in response. Individual correlation analysis between cytokine expression and parasite load revealed a negative correlation for both pro-inflammatory cytokines: IFNγ, IL-12, IL-6; and anti-inflammatory cytokines: IL-10 and TGFβ. TNF showed the best negative correlation (r2 = 0.231; p<0.001). Herein we describe impairment on mRNA cytokine expression in leishmania infected dogs with high parasite load associated with a structural modification in the splenic lymphoid micro-architecture. We also discuss the possible mechanism responsible for the uncontrolled parasite growth and clinical outcome. PMID:25875101

  18. Integrative taxonomy of Metrichia Ross (Trichoptera: Hydroptilidae: Ochrotrichiinae) microcaddisflies from Brazil: descriptions of twenty new species

    PubMed Central

    Takiya, Daniela M.; Nessimian, Jorge L.

    2016-01-01

    Metrichia is assigned to the Ochrotrichiinae, a group of almost exclusively Neotropical microcaddisflies. Metrichia comprises over 100 described species and, despite its diversity, only one species has been described from Brazil so far. In this paper, we provide descriptions for 20 new species from 8 Brazilian states: M. acuminata sp. nov., M. azul sp. nov., M. bonita sp. nov., M. bracui sp. nov., M. caraca sp. nov., M. circuliforme sp. nov., M. curta sp. nov., M. farofa sp. nov., M. forceps sp. nov., M. formosinha sp. nov., M. goiana sp. nov., M. itabaiana sp. nov., M. longissima sp. nov., M. peluda sp. nov., M. rafaeli sp. nov., M. simples sp. nov., M. talhada sp. nov., M. tere sp. nov., M. ubajara sp. nov., and M. vulgaris sp. nov. DNA barcode sequences (577 bp of the mitochondrial gene COI) were generated for 13 of the new species and two previously known species of Metrichia resulting in 64 sequences. In addition, COI sequences were obtained for other genera of Ochrotrichiinae (Angrisanoia, Nothotrichia, Ochrotrichia, Ragatrichia, and Rhyacopsyche). DNA sequences and morphological data were integrated to evaluate species delimitations. K2P pairwise distances were calculated to generate a neighbor-joining tree. COI sequences also were submitted to ABGD and GMYC methods to assess ‘potential species’ delimitation. Analyses showed a conspicuous barcoding gap among Metrichia sequences (highest intraspecific divergence: 4.8%; lowest interspecific divergence: 12.6%). Molecular analyses also allowed the association of larvae and adults of Metrichia bonita sp. nov. from Mato Grosso do Sul, representing the first record of microcaddisfly larvae occurring in calcareous tufa (or travertine). ABGD results agreed with the morphological delimitation of Metrichia species, while GMYC estimated a slightly higher number of species, suggesting the division of two morphological species, each one into two potential species. Because this could be due to unbalanced sampling and

  19. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus in Brazil’s inmate population: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Magri, Mariana Cavalheiro; Ibrahim, Karim Yaqub; Pinto, Walkyria Pereira; França, Francisco Oscar de Siqueira; Bernardo, Wanderley Marques; Tengan, Fátima Mitiko

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in Brazil’s inmate population. METHODS Systematic review on hepatitis C virus infection in the inmate population. Brazilian studies published from January 1, 1989 to February 20, 2014 were evaluated. The methodological quality of the studies was assessed using a scale of 0 to 8 points. RESULTS Eleven eligible studies were analyzed and provided data on hepatitis C virus infection among 4,375 inmates from seven states of Brazil, with a mean quality classification of 7.4. The overall hepatitis C virus prevalence among Brazilian inmates was 13.6% (ranging from 1.0% to 41.0%, depending on the study). The chances of inmates being seropositive for hepatitis C virus in the states of Minas Gerais (MG), Sergipe (SE), Mato Grosso do Sul (MS), Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Goiás (GO) and Espirito Santo (ES) were 84.0% (95%CI 0.06;0.45), 92.0% (95%CI 0.04;0.13), 88.0% (95%CI 0.09;0.18), 74.0% (95%CI 0.16;0.42), 84.0% (95%CI 0.08;0.31) and 89.0% (95%CI 0.01;0.05) respectively, lower than that observed in the Sao Paulo state (seroprevalence of 29.3%). The four studies conducted in the city of Sao Paulo revealed a lower prevalence in more recent studies compared to older ones. CONCLUSIONS The highest prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in Brazil’s inmate population was found in Sao Paulo, which may reflect the urban diversity of the country. Despite Brazilian studies having good methodological quality to evaluate the prevalence of the hepatitis C virus, they are scarce and lack data on risk factors associated with this infection, which could support decisions on prevention and implementation of public health policies for Brazilian prisons. PMID:26247383

  20. Soil erosion and associated organic carbon transfer along the southern Amazon land use frontier - status quo and future scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindewolf, Marcus; Herrmann, Anne-Kathrin; Herrmann, Marie-Kristin; Amorim, Ricardo S. S.; Schmidt, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    The Southern Amazon deforestation arc is one of the world's most dynamically changing landscapes mainly caused by global demands on animal products. Already more than 50 % of the savanna vegetation in Mato Grosso is converted to agricultural land. Following the BR-163 highway to the north deforestation is continuing, where former tropical rainforest is converted to pastures. Consequences are expected to be negative and highly relevant concerning soil functions. Soil losses and related carbon transfer by water erosion are likely to occur on a larger scale. Within the Carbiocial project, the impact of land use changes on soil loss was measured by applying artificial rainfall simulations. Experimental results were used to parameterize the physical based EROSION 3D simulation model in two meso-scale watersheds. The impact of future land use and climate scenarios on soil erosion and particle bound organic carbon transfer were simulated in addition to present day effects. Our results allow different predictions: Land use changes from natural vegetation to pasture lead to increased surface runoffs and soil losses. Due to the predominant no-tillage management, croplands do not reveal a similar behaviour; runoff and sediment yields are close to the initial level. Particle bound organic carbon losses are negligible compared to the removal of biomass during deforestation. Compared to the land use change effect more significant differences appear concerning the predominant soil types of the study region. Deterioration of soil functions are less pronounced for Ferralsols with a stable microstructure than for Acrisols. Additionally, our data suggest, that the main soil losses are related to the narrow time windows of land use conversion. Consequently, intensifying production on existing agricultural land rather than creating new production area (deforestation) might be the most practical way of preserving soils of the Southern Amazon.

  1. Variations in evapotranspiration and climate for an Amazonian semi-deciduous forest over seasonal, annual, and El Niño cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vourlitis, George L.; de Souza Nogueira, José; de Almeida Lobo, Francisco; Pinto, Osvaldo Borges

    2015-02-01

    Tropical forests exchange large amounts of water and energy with the atmosphere and are important in controlling regional and global climate; however, climate and evaportranspiration ( E) vary significantly across multiple time scales. To better understand temporal patterns in E and climate, we measured the energy balance and meteorology of a semi-deciduous forest in the rainforest-savanna ecotone of northern Mato Grosso, Brazil, over a 7-year period and analyzed regional climate patterns over a 16-year period. Spectral analysis revealed that E and local climate exhibited consistent cycles over annual, seasonal, and weekly time scales. Annual and seasonal cycles were also apparent in the regional monthly rainfall and humidity time series, and a cycle on the order of 3-5.5 years was also apparent in the regional air temperature time series, which is coincident with the average return interval of El Niño. Annual rates of E were significantly affected by the 2002 El Niño. Prior to this event, annual E was on average 1,011 mm/year and accounted for 52 % of the annual rainfall, while after, annual E was 931 mm/year and accounted for 42 % of the annual rainfall. Our data also suggest that E declined significantly over the 7-year study period while air temperature significantly increased, which was coincident with a long-term, regional warming and drying trend. These results suggest that drought and warming induced by El Niño and/or climate change cause declines in E for semi-deciduous forests of the southeast Amazon Basin.

  2. An experiment to determine atmospheric CO concentrations of tropical South Atlantic air samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchhoff, V. W. J. H.; Aires, C. B.; Alvala, P. C.

    2003-04-01

    New observations of atmospheric carbon monoxide, CO, are described, from tropical South Atlantic air samples. A new observational site, Maxaranguape, was set up in a clean remote environment right next to the ocean on the north-east coast of Brazil, to obtain CO mixing ratios and auxiliary data (meteorological parameters, ozone (O3), carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4)) during three sequential seasonal cycles. The seasonal variations of temperature, humidity and precipitation are shown for the new site. Chromatographic separation followed by mercury oxide detection is used to measure CO. The seasonality of the CO data was clearly established. Minima are seen during April, May and June showing wet-period averages of 56.1 parts per billion by volume (ppbv), with standard deviation 8.7 ppbv; during dry-period months, August to November, the average was 77.7 ± 16.5 ppbv. For comparison, CO concentrations were also measured over continental areas in Brazil. Much larger values have been found in moderate 'burning' regions, such as the south of the state of Mato Grosso and the north-western part of the state of Parana, where 200 ppbv in the dry season has been observed. Since normally the air masses have travelled for several days over the ocean, the air masses over the site present low chemical activity. Daily variations of CO2 are very small, of the order of a few percent relative to the diurnal mean. Only on rare occasions, when the wind direction changes, is the sampled air contaminated from flowing over the inhabited shoreline to the south, and then CO2 varies inversely with O3. The monthly mean CH4 data does not show a clear seasonal variation, possibly because the amplitude of the CH4 variation is only of the order of 1%, which is close to the precision of the measuring instrument.

  3. Genetic characterisation of Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) strains from feral pigs in the Brazilian Pantanal: An opportunity to reconstruct the history of PCV2 evolution.

    PubMed

    Franzo, Giovanni; Cortey, Martí; de Castro, Alessandra Marnie Martins Gomes; Piovezan, Ubiratan; Szabo, Matias Pablo Juan; Drigo, Michele; Segalés, Joaquim; Richtzenhain, Leonardo José

    2015-07-01

    Since its discovery, Porcine circovirus type 2 has emerged as one of the most relevant swine infectious diseases, causing relevant economic losses for the pig industry. While four genotypes were identified, only three (PCV2a, PCV2b and PCV2d) are currently circulating and display a worldwide distribution. Another genotype, PCV2c, has been described only once in Danish archive samples collected between 1980 and 1990. In addition to commercial pigs, PCV2 has been demonstrated to infect wild boars and other wild species, which can potentially serve as a reservoir for domestic populations. In this study, eight sequences obtained from feral pigs in the Pantanal region (Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil) were compared with reference sequences and other Brazilian sequences, and the results revealed remarkable genetic diversity, with all four genotypes currently recognised being detected (PCV2a, PCV2b, PCV2c and PCV2d). This finding represents a remarkable discovery, as it is the first detection of PCV2c since 1990 and the first-ever detection of PCV2c in live animals. The peculiar population history and ecological scenario of feral pigs in the Pantanal coupled with the complex, and still only partially known relationship of feral pigs with other PCV2 susceptible species (i.e., domestic pigs, wild boars and peccaries), open exciting questions concerning PCV2 origin and evolution. Overall, the results of the present study led us to form the following hypothesis: the PCV2 strains found in feral pigs may be the last descent of the strains that circulated among European pigs in the past, or they may have infected these feral pigs more recently through a bridge species. PMID:25975522

  4. Leaf area index of a tropical semi-deciduous forest of the southern Amazon Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto-Júnior, Osvaldo Borges; Sanches, Luciana; de Almeida Lobo, Francisco; Brandão, Adilson Amorim; de Souza Nogueira, José

    2011-03-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is an important ecophysiological variable because leaves are the organs responsible for gas exchange between plants and the atmosphere. This variable can be calculated from primary values of leaf area assessed by destructive or non-destructive methods, which is relatively easy when crop species are investigated, but is not the case when the focus is on natural wood plants communities. In this paper, we analyze the seasonality of LAI estimated by three different methods in the Amazonia-savannah transitional forest, located 50 km north-east of Sinop city, Mato Grosso, Brazil. In the first method, we combine Monsi and Saekis' original method [Monsi M, Saeki T (1953) Jpn J Bot 14:22-52], which measures LAI using the Beer-Lambert extinction law, and the proposition of Goudriaan [Goudriaan J (1988) Agric For Meteorol 43:155-169] to estimate the extinction coefficient from solar height. The second method differed from the first only in the way in which the daily fraction of intercepted photosynthetic active radiation (FPAR) was calculated, as proposed by Charles-Edwards and Lawn (Charles-Edwards DA, Lawn RJ (1984) Plant Cell Environ 7:247-251]. In the third method, we used a remote sensing technique [MOD15_BU-collection 4, produced and distributed by EROS Data Center Distributed Active Archive Center (EDC DAAC)]. We found that the first and the second methods revealed the expected LAI dynamics, which increased during the dry-wet transition and wet season, and decreased during the wet-dry transition and dry season. From 20 randomly distributed sets in a 1.0 ha area, only 3 showed significant differences in LAI estimated from the first two methods; conversely, LAI was overestimated by the third method.

  5. The traditional knowledge on stingless bees (Apidae: Meliponina) used by the Enawene-Nawe tribe in western Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Gilton Mendes dos; Antonini, Yasmine

    2008-01-01

    Background This paper presents the Enawene-Nawe Society's traditional knowledge about stingless bees. The Enawene-Nawe are an Aruak speaking people, indigenous to the Meridian Amazon. Specifically, they live in the Jurema River hydrological basin, located in the northwestern region of the Mato Grosso state. Methods The stingless bees were sampled from two ecologically similar regions in the interior of Enawene-Nawe Land. The first sampling took place around the village, i.e., adjacent to houses, by the edge of the Iquê River, next to food leftovers, around human excrement, and simply when the insects were found flying or reposing on a human body. The second round of sampling happened from 29/10 to 02/11/94, during an expedition for honey collection that took place throughout the ciliar bushes of the Papagaio River, an important tributary of Juruena River. We sampled bees adjacent to their nests following the beehive inspection or during the honey extraction. In this work, the main bee species of the sub tribe Meliponina, which were handled by the Enawene-Nawe, was identified, and a brief ethnographic description of the honey collection expeditions and its social-cosmologic meaning for the group was done. Results and Discussion Similar to other indigenous people in Brazil, the Enawene-Nawe recognized 48 stingless bee species. They identified each bee species by name and specified each one's ecological niche. A brief ethnographic description of the honey collection expeditions and bees' social-cosmologic meaning for the group is included. Conclusion We concluded that, as an example of other indigenous people, the Enawene-Nawe classify and identify the bees based not only on their structure and morphological aspects but also on the ecological, etiological, and social characteristics of the species. PMID:18793393

  6. Genetic Diversity Strategy for the Management and Use of Rubber Genetic Resources: More than 1,000 Wild and Cultivated Accessions in a 100-Genotype Core Collection

    PubMed Central

    Cerqueira-Silva, Carlos Bernardo Moreno; Silva, Carla Cristina; Mantello, Camila Campos; Conson, Andre Ricardo Oliveira; Vianna, João Paulo Gomes; Zucchi, Maria Imaculada; Scaloppi Junior, Erivaldo José; Fialho, Josefino de Freitas; de Moraes, Mario Luis Teixeira; Gonçalves, Paulo de Souza; de Souza, Anete Pereira

    2015-01-01

    The rubber tree [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss.) Muell. Arg.] is the only plant species worldwide that is cultivated for the commercial production of natural rubber. This study describes the genetic diversity of the Hevea spp. complex that is available in the main ex situ collections of South America, including Amazonian populations that have never been previously described. Genetic data were analyzed to determine the genetic structure of the wild populations, quantify the allelic diversity and suggest the composition of a core collection to capture the maximum genetic diversity within a minimal sample size. A total of 1,117 accessions were genotyped with 13 microsatellite markers. We identified a total of 408 alleles, 319 of which were shared between groups and 89 that were private in different groups of accessions. In a population structure and principal component analysis, the level of clustering reflected a primary division into the following two subgroups: cluster 1, which consisted of varieties from the advanced breeding germplasm that originated from the Wickham and Mato Grosso accessions; and cluster 2, which consisted of the wild germplasm from the Acre, Amazonas, Pará and Rondônia populations and Hevea spp. The analyses revealed a high frequency of gene flow between the groups, with the genetic differentiation coefficient (GST) estimated to be 0.018. Additionally, no distinct separation among the H. brasiliensis accessions and the other species from Amazonas was observed. A core collection of 99 accessions was identified that captured the maximum genetic diversity. Rubber tree breeders can effectively utilize this core collection for cultivar improvement. Furthermore, such a core collection could provide resources for forming an association panel to evaluate traits with agronomic and commercial importance. Our study generated a molecular database that should facilitate the management of the Hevea germplasm and its use for subsequent genetic

  7. Is Ongoing Sulfluramid Use in South America a Significant Source of Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS)? Production Inventories, Environmental Fate, and Local Occurrence.

    PubMed

    Löfstedt Gilljam, John; Leonel, Juliana; Cousins, Ian T; Benskin, Jonathan P

    2016-01-19

    Despite international phase-out initiatives, production and use of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and related substances continues in some countries. In Brazil, the PFOS-precursor N-ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamide (EtFOSA) is used in Sulfluramid, a pesticide for controlling leaf-cutting ants. New data on production, environmental fate, and occurrence of Brazilian Sulfluramid are reported herein. From 2003 to 2013, Brazilian Sulfluramid manufacturing increased from 30 to 60 tonnes yr(-1) EtFOSA. During this time <1.3 tonnes yr(-1) were imported, while exports increased from ∼0.3 to 2 tonnes yr(-1). From 2004 to 2015, most EtFOSA was exported to Argentina (7.2 tonnes), Colombia (2.07 tonnes), Costa Rica (1.13 tonnes), Equador (2.16 tonnes), and Venezuela (2.4 tonnes). Within Brazil, sales occurred primarily in the states of Minas Gerais, São Paulo, Mato Grosso do Sul, Espírito Santo, and Bahia. Model simulations predict EtFOSA will partition to soils, while transformation products perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA) and PFOS are sufficiently mobile to leach into surface waters. In support of these predictions, up to 3400 pg L(-1) of FOSA and up to 1100 pg L(-1) of PFOS were measured in Brazilian surface water, while EtFOSA was not detected. The high FOSA/PFOS ratio observed here (up to 14:1) is unprecedented in the scientific literature to our knowledge. Depending on the extent of conversion of EtFOSA, cumulative Brazilian Sulfluramid production and import from 2004 to 2015 may contribute between 167 and 487 tonnes of PFOS/FOSA to the environment. These levels are clearly nontrivial and of concern since production is continuing unabated. PMID:26653085

  8. Genetic variability within and among populations of an invasive, exotic orchid

    PubMed Central

    Ueno, Sueme; Rodrigues, Jucelene Fernandes; Alves-Pereira, Alessandro; Pansarin, Emerson Ricardo; Veasey, Elizabeth Ann

    2015-01-01

    Despite the fact that invasive species are of great evolutionary interest because of their success in colonizing and spreading into new areas, the factors underlying this success often remain obscure. In this sense, studies on population genetics and phylogenetic relationships of invasive species could offer insights into mechanisms of invasions. Originally from Africa, the terrestrial orchid Oeceoclades maculata, considered an invasive plant, is the only species of the genus throughout the Americas. Considering the lack of information on population genetics of this species, the aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic diversity and structure of Brazilian populations of O. maculata. We used 13 inter-simple sequence repeat primers to assess the genetic diversity of 152 individuals of O. maculata distributed in five sampled sites from three Brazilian states (São Paulo, Mato Grosso and Paraná). Low diversity was found within samples, with estimates of the Shannon index (H) ranging from 0.0094 to 0.1054 and estimates of Nei's gene diversity (He) ranging from 0.0054 to 0.0668. However, when evaluated together, the sampling locations showed substantially higher diversity estimates (H = 0.3869, He = 0.2556), and most of the genetic diversity was found among populations (ΦST = 0.933). Both clustering and principal coordinate analysis indicate the existence of five distinct groups, corresponding to the sampled localities, and which were also recovered in the Bayesian analysis. A substructure was observed in one of the localities, suggesting a lack of gene flow even between very small distances. The patterns of genetic structure found in this study may be understood considering the interaction of several probable reproductive strategies with its history of colonization involving possible genetic drift, selective pressures and multiple introductions. PMID:26162896

  9. Inorganic profile of some Brazilian medicinal plants obtained from ethanolic extract and ''in natura'' samples

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, M.O.M.; de Sousa, P.T.; Salvador, V.L.R.; Sato, I.M.

    2004-10-03

    The Anadenathera macrocarpa, Schinus molle, Hymenaea courbaril, Cariniana legalis, Solidago microglossa and Stryphnodendron barbatiman, were collected ''in natura'' samples (leaves, flowers, barks and seeds) from different commercial suppliers. The pharmaco-active compounds in ethanolic extracts had been made by the Mato Grosso Federal University (UFMT). The energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) spectrometry was used for the elemental analysis in different parts of the plants and respective ethanolic extracts. The Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Rb, S, Sr and Zn concentrations were determined by the fundamental parameters method. Some specimens showed a similar inorganic profile for ''in natura'' and ethanolic extract samples and some ones showed a distinct inorganic profile. For example, the Anadenathera macrocarpa showed a similar concentration in Mg, P, Cu, Zn and Rb elements in ''in natura'' and ethanolic extract samples; however very different concentration in Na, S, Cl, K , Ca, Mn, Fe and Sr was observed in distinctive samples. The Solidago microglossa showed the K, Ca, Cl, S, Mg, P and Fe elements as major constituents in both samples, suggesting that the extraction process did not affect in a considerable way the ''in natura'' inorganic composition. The elemental composition of the different parts of the plants (leaves, flowers, barks and seeds) has been also determined. For example, the Schinus molle specimen showed P, K, Cl and Ca elements as major constituents in the seeds, Mg, K and Sr in the barks and Mg, S, Cl and Mn in the leaves, demonstrating a differentiated elementary distribution. These inorganic profiles will contribute to evaluate the quality control of the Brazilian herbaceous trade and also will assist to identify which parts of the medicinal plants has greater therapeutic effect.

  10. The DURAMAZ indicator system: a cross-disciplinary comparative tool for assessing ecological and social changes in the Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Le Tourneau, François-Michel; Marchand, Guillaume; Greissing, Anna; Nasuti, Stéphanie; Droulers, Martine; Bursztyn, Marcel; Léna, Philippe; Dubreuil, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    During the last 20 years, the Amazon region has been at the same time a place of massive ecological and social change and a laboratory of experiments aimed at promoting sustainable development. Policies and project initiatives involving diverse social groups and environmental contexts have been implemented across the region. They have resulted in mixed outcomes and trade-offs between social and environmental dimensions, making their impact at the local level difficult to assess and their successes difficult to generalize. The objective of the DURAMAZ research project was to provide a better understanding of these impacts. It produced a multi-dimensional indicator system designed to allow a holistic view of sustainable development at local and subregional levels and a comparative perspective across 12 research sites, from an isolated indigenous village to smallholders and agribusiness areas in Mato Grosso. The results of the first observation campaign (2007–2009) show that despite the claim of promoting sustainable development, no project was able to untie the ‘Gordian knot’ of development in the Amazon. Communities continue to face the old dilemma of either enjoying a preserved ecosystem but enduring adverse life conditions, or enjoying better living at the expense of forest cover. Another finding is that the subregional context is very important in shaping the impacts of regional policies. Thus, the same policy will not always have the same effect, depending on in which context it is applied. Finally, we found that cultural factors and a sense of place play a more important role than economic factors when it comes to the way people evaluate their own situation. This research provides the basis for a second phase of the project (2012–2016) in which we will continue to expand our sample and to refine our methodologies with the goal of transforming the initiative into a network of observatories of sustainable development in the Amazon. PMID:23610180

  11. Genetic parameters and investigation of genotype × environment interactions in Nellore × Hereford crossbred for resistance to cattle ticks in different regions of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ayres, D R; Pereira, R J; Boligon, A A; Baldi, F; Roso, V M; Albuquerque, L G

    2015-02-01

    Data from 6,156 Nellore × Hereford crossbred cattle, distributed in 18 herds located in the Brazilian states of Mato Grosso do Sul (MS), São Paulo (SP), Paraná (PR) and Rio Grande do Sul (RS), were analysed in order to investigate genetic variation for resistance to the cattle tick through the estimation of variance components and genetic parameters for counting ticks (Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus) in natural infestation, and also a possible genotype × environment interaction. The tick count data (CC) were transformed to log10(CC + 1) and grouped into two regions, defined by cluster analysis and analysed using the method of restricted maximum likelihood. The statistical model included the additive genetic effect as random and fixed effects of the contemporary group (CG) and genetic group (GG) as classificatory and the age of the animal at the time of counting (linear effect) and individual heterozygosity (linear effect, ranging from 0 to 1) as covariates. In the studied regions, the effect of heterosis found was inversely proportional; in other words, the count of ticks decreased with the increase of heterozygosity. The observed heritability estimation for resistance to tick infestation were 0.12 ± 0.04 and 0.11 ± 0.04 for groups A (RS and south PR) and B (MS, SP and north PR), respectively. The results of this study suggest that selection for animals resistant to ticks would be possible using the tick count to estimate the genetic value of animals, but with a slow genetic progress. The genetic correlation for tick count between the two groups (A and B) was 0.84 ± 0.27 and genotype × environment interaction for this trait was not observed in the studied population. PMID:25108748

  12. Reference values for heavy metals in soils of the Brazilian agricultural frontier in Southwestern Amazônia.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Sabrina Novaes; Alleoni, Luís Reynaldo Ferracciú

    2013-07-01

    Guideline values are used to identify polluted or contaminated areas based on background values. Brazilian law establishes three guideline values for pollutants: a quality reference value (QRV), a prevention value, and an intervention value. Reference values refer to the natural concentration of an element or a substance in soils that have not been modified by anthropogenic impacts. These values inform assessments of soil quality and are used to establish maximum permissible limits. The objective of this study was to determine the natural levels and reference values for Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in samples from the surface layer (0-20 cm) of 19 representative soils of the states of Mato Grosso and Rondônia, on Brazil's agricultural frontier. Pseudo-total metal concentrations were obtained following microwave-assisted digestion using the aqua regia and EPA3051 methods. QRVs were calculated for each element as the 75th and 90th percentiles of the frequency distribution of the data. Natural levels of heavy metals in the soil samples followed the order: Cr > Zn > Cu > Co > Pb > Ni > and Cd (aqua regia) and Cr > Co > Cu > Pb > Zn > Ni > Cd (EPA3051). These values are generally lower than those reported in the Brazilian and international literature, which highlights the importance of establishing reference values for each state or for each soil type, taking into account the geomorphological, pedological, and geological diversity of the region under study. PMID:23138418

  13. Integrative taxonomy of Metrichia Ross (Trichoptera: Hydroptilidae: Ochrotrichiinae) microcaddisflies from Brazil: descriptions of twenty new species.

    PubMed

    Santos, Allan P M; Takiya, Daniela M; Nessimian, Jorge L

    2016-01-01

    Metrichia is assigned to the Ochrotrichiinae, a group of almost exclusively Neotropical microcaddisflies. Metrichia comprises over 100 described species and, despite its diversity, only one species has been described from Brazil so far. In this paper, we provide descriptions for 20 new species from 8 Brazilian states: M. acuminata sp. nov., M. azul sp. nov., M. bonita sp. nov., M. bracui sp. nov., M. caraca sp. nov., M. circuliforme sp. nov., M. curta sp. nov., M. farofa sp. nov., M. forceps sp. nov., M. formosinha sp. nov., M. goiana sp. nov., M. itabaiana sp. nov., M. longissima sp. nov., M. peluda sp. nov., M. rafaeli sp. nov., M. simples sp. nov., M. talhada sp. nov., M. tere sp. nov., M. ubajara sp. nov., and M. vulgaris sp. nov. DNA barcode sequences (577 bp of the mitochondrial gene COI) were generated for 13 of the new species and two previously known species of Metrichia resulting in 64 sequences. In addition, COI sequences were obtained for other genera of Ochrotrichiinae (Angrisanoia, Nothotrichia, Ochrotrichia, Ragatrichia, and Rhyacopsyche). DNA sequences and morphological data were integrated to evaluate species delimitations. K2P pairwise distances were calculated to generate a neighbor-joining tree. COI sequences also were submitted to ABGD and GMYC methods to assess 'potential species' delimitation. Analyses showed a conspicuous barcoding gap among Metrichia sequences (highest intraspecific divergence: 4.8%; lowest interspecific divergence: 12.6%). Molecular analyses also allowed the association of larvae and adults of Metrichia bonita sp. nov. from Mato Grosso do Sul, representing the first record of microcaddisfly larvae occurring in calcareous tufa (or travertine). ABGD results agreed with the morphological delimitation of Metrichia species, while GMYC estimated a slightly higher number of species, suggesting the division of two morphological species, each one into two potential species. Because this could be due to unbalanced sampling and the

  14. Cryptococcus spp isolated from dust microhabitat in Brazilian libraries

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Cryptococcus spp is currently composed of encapsulated yeasts of cosmopolitan distribution, including the etiological agents of cryptococcosis. The fungus are found mainly in substrates of animal and plant origin. Human infection occurs through inhalation of spores present in the environment. Methods Eighty-four swab collections were performed on dust found on books in three libraries in the city of Cuiabá, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The material was seeded in Sabouraud agar and then observed for characteristics compatible with colonies with a creamy to mucous aspect; the material was then isolated in birdseed (Niger) agar and cultivated at a temperature of 37°C for 5 to 7 days. Identification of isolated colonies was performed by microscopic observation in fresh preparations dyed with India ink, additional tests performed on CGB (L-canavanine glycine bromothymol blue), urea broth, and carbohydrate assimilation tests (auxanogram). Results Of the 84 samples collected from book dust, 18 (21.4%) were positive for Cryptococcus spp totalizing 41 UFC’s. The most frequently isolated species was C. gattii 15 (36.6%); followed by C. terreus, 12 (29.3%); C. luteolus 4 (9.8%); C. neoformans, and C. uniguttulatus 3 (7.3%), and C. albidus and C. humiculus with 2 (4.6%) of the isolates. Conclusion The high biodiversity of the yeasts of the Cryptococcus genus, isolated from different environmental sources in urban areas of Brazil suggests the possibility of individuals whose immune systems have been compromised or even healthy individuals coming into sources of fungal propagules on a daily bases throughout their lives. This study demonstrates the acquisition possible of cryptococcosis infection from dust in libraries. PMID:22682392

  15. Variations in evapotranspiration and climate for an Amazonian semi-deciduous forest over seasonal, annual, and El Niño cycles.

    PubMed

    Vourlitis, George L; de Souza Nogueira, José; de Almeida Lobo, Francisco; Pinto, Osvaldo Borges

    2015-02-01

    Tropical forests exchange large amounts of water and energy with the atmosphere and are important in controlling regional and global climate; however, climate and evaportranspiration (E) vary significantly across multiple time scales. To better understand temporal patterns in E and climate, we measured the energy balance and meteorology of a semi-deciduous forest in the rainforest-savanna ecotone of northern Mato Grosso, Brazil, over a 7-year period and analyzed regional climate patterns over a 16-year period. Spectral analysis revealed that E and local climate exhibited consistent cycles over annual, seasonal, and weekly time scales. Annual and seasonal cycles were also apparent in the regional monthly rainfall and humidity time series, and a cycle on the order of 3-5.5 years was also apparent in the regional air temperature time series, which is coincident with the average return interval of El Niño. Annual rates of E were significantly affected by the 2002 El Niño. Prior to this event, annual E was on average 1,011 mm/year and accounted for 52% of the annual rainfall, while after, annual E was 931 mm/year and accounted for 42% of the annual rainfall. Our data also suggest that E declined significantly over the 7-year study period while air temperature significantly increased, which was coincident with a long-term, regional warming and drying trend. These results suggest that drought and warming induced by El Niño and/or climate change cause declines in E for semi-deciduous forests of the southeast Amazon Basin. PMID:24830756

  16. Atmospheric effects on insolation in the Brazilian Amazon: Observed modification of solar radiation by clouds and smoke and derived single scattering albedo of fire aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schafer, J. S.; Holben, B. N.; Eck, T. F.; Yamasoe, M. A.; Artaxo, P.

    2002-10-01

    Five aerosol and solar flux monitoring sites were established in Brazil for the Large Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazônia (LBA) project. The first two sites were developed in the states of Rondonia and Mato Grosso in January 1999, while the others were initiated in September 1999 in Amazonas, Para, and near Brasilia (later relocated to Acre). Daily insolation [photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and total solar] for 1999 and 9 months of 2000 was determined from flux measurements, and the daily fraction of theoretical cloud-free, background-aerosol insolation, fB(day), was evaluated for each site. Observed daily shortfall (MJ m-2 d-1) of PAR insolation due to clouds and aerosols (relative to modeled values for background aerosol), and the instantaneous reductions of PAR irradiance due to high aerosol optical thickness (AOT) smoke events are presented for 1999 at Alta Floresta. The ratio of PAR flux to total solar flux (PAR fraction) was examined for all atmospheric conditions during 1999, and the observed dependence of this parameter on column water vapor and smoke AOT was quantified. No significant relationship with cloud amount (as quantified) was found. Instantaneous PAR irradiance measurements and concurrent, cloud-cleared aerosol data from collocated CIMEL sunphotometers were used with a radiative transfer model to investigate the optical properties of smoke aerosols during the burning season. In particular, the single scattering albedo (SSA) was evaluated in the PAR spectral range for AOT440 nm values ranging from 0.8 to 3.0. These estimates were compared with the operational retrievals of the same parameter from algorithms developed by AERONET for CIMEL sunphotometer radiance measurements.

  17. Forest edge burning in the Brazilian Amazon promoted by escaping fires from managed pastures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cano-Crespo, Ana; Oliveira, Paulo J. C.; Boit, Alice; Cardoso, Manoel; Thonicke, Kirsten

    2015-10-01

    Understanding to what extent different land uses influence fire occurrence in the Amazonian forest is particularly relevant for its conservation. We evaluate the relationship between forest fires and different anthropogenic activities linked to a variety of land uses in the Brazilian states of Mato Grosso, Pará, and Rondônia. We combine the new high-resolution (30 m) TerraClass land use database with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer burned area data for 2008 and the extreme dry year of 2010. Excluding the non-forest class, most of the burned area was found in pastures, primary and secondary forests, and agricultural lands across all three states, while only around 1% of the total was located in deforested areas. The trend in burned area did not follow the declining deforestation rates from 2001 to 2010, and the spatial overlap between deforested and burned areas was only 8% on average. This supports the claim of deforestation being disconnected from burning since 2005. Forest degradation showed an even lower correlation with burned area. We found that fires used in managing pastoral and agricultural lands that escape into the neighboring forests largely contribute to forest fires. Such escaping fires are responsible for up to 52% of the burned forest edges adjacent to burned pastures and up to 22% of the burned forest edges adjacent to burned agricultural fields, respectively. Our findings call for the development of control and monitoring plans to prevent fires from escaping from managed lands into forests to support effective land use and ecosystem management.

  18. A Conceptual model of Ecophysiological Function across the Amazon Basin using a Synthesis of Observed and Model Data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, I. T.; Denning, A. S.; Harper, A. B.

    2008-12-01

    Observations of the seasonal cycle of Net Ecosystem Exchange of Carbon (NEE) are variable across the Amazon Basin. NEE has been observed to be nearly uniform through the year at sites such as Cueiras Reserve in Amazonas. A pattern of efflux during the wet season and uptake during seasonal drought has been observed at multiple sites in the Tapajos River National Forest, while the opposite pattern (uptake during wet season, efflux during seasonal drought) has been observed at several sites in Mato Grosso . Using a synthesis of eddy covariance flux observations from multiple sites across vegetation and moisture gradients in the Amazon basin and a biophysical model (Simple Biosphere Model, SiB), we construct a conceptual model of the patterns of ecophysiological function that determine annual cycles and interannual variability in observed NEE across tropical Amazonia. We identify several factors that determine the behavior of Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and respiration fluxes, while NEE is determined by their sum. We evaluate our conceptual model across a pseudo-latitudinal gradient from extremely wet (more than 2000 mm annual precipitation) in the north to drier cerrado (savanna) regions in the south. In the extremely wet regions near the equator we find little or no stress on photosynthesis and, subsequently, little or no variability in annual cycles of energy or carbon flux. In these regions NEE is determined by vegetation response to high-frequency meteorological events. As precipitation decreases, the flux seasonality increases and phase relationships between GPP and respiration determine annual NEE cycles. As GPP/respiration cycles transition from an out-of-phase relationship in wetter regions to an in-phase pattern in the cerrado, NEE changes from dry to wet season carbon uptake.

  19. Effects of high-frequency understorey fires on woody plant regeneration in southeastern Amazonian forests

    PubMed Central

    Balch, Jennifer K.; Massad, Tara J.; Brando, Paulo M.; Nepstad, Daniel C.; Curran, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Anthropogenic understorey fires affect large areas of tropical forest, yet their effects on woody plant regeneration post-fire remain poorly understood. We examined the effects of repeated experimental fires on woody stem (less than 1 cm at base) mortality, recruitment, species diversity, community similarity and regeneration mode (seed versus sprout) in Mato Grosso, Brazil. From 2004 to 2010, forest plots (50 ha) were burned twice (B2) or five times (B5), and compared with an unburned control (B0). Stem density recovered within a year after the first burn (initial density: 12.4–13.2 stems m−2), but after 6 years, increased mortality and decreased regeneration—primarily of seedlings—led to a 63 per cent and 85 per cent reduction in stem density in B2 and B5, respectively. Seedlings and sprouts across plots in 2010 displayed remarkable community similarity owing to shared abundant species. Although the dominant surviving species were similar across plots, a major increase in sprouting occurred—almost three- and fourfold greater in B2 and B5 than in B0. In B5, 29 species disappeared and were replaced by 11 new species often present along fragmented forest edges. By 2010, the annual burn regime created substantial divergence between the seedling community and the initial adult tree community (greater than or equal to 20 cm dbh). Increased droughts and continued anthropogenic ignitions associated with frontier land uses may promote high-frequency fire regimes that may substantially alter regeneration and therefore successional processes. PMID:23610167

  20. Land use patterns and related carbon losses following deforestation in South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Sy, V.; Herold, M.; Achard, F.; Beuchle, R.; Clevers, J. G. P. W.; Lindquist, E.; Verchot, L.

    2015-12-01

    Land use change in South America, mainly deforestation, is a large source of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Identifying and addressing the causes or drivers of anthropogenic forest change is considered crucial for global climate change mitigation. Few countries however, monitor deforestation drivers in a systematic manner. National-level quantitative spatially explicit information on drivers is often lacking. This study quantifies proximate drivers of deforestation and related carbon losses in South America based on remote sensing time series in a systematic, spatially explicit manner. Deforestation areas were derived from the 2010 global remote sensing survey of the Food and Agricultural Organisation Forest Resource Assessment. To assess proximate drivers, land use following deforestation was assigned by visual interpretation of high-resolution satellite imagery. To estimate gross carbon losses from deforestation, default Tier 1 biomass levels per country and eco-zone were used. Pasture was the dominant driver of forest area (71.2%) and related carbon loss (71.6%) in South America, followed by commercial cropland (14% and 12.1% respectively). Hotspots of deforestation due to pasture occurred in Northern Argentina, Western Paraguay, and along the arc of deforestation in Brazil where they gradually moved into higher biomass forests causing additional carbon losses. Deforestation driven by commercial cropland increased in time, with hotspots occurring in Brazil (Mato Grosso State), Northern Argentina, Eastern Paraguay and Central Bolivia. Infrastructure, such as urban expansion and roads, contributed little as proximate drivers of forest area loss (1.7%). Our findings contribute to the understanding of drivers of deforestation and related carbon losses in South America, and are comparable at the national, regional and continental level. In addition, they support the development of national REDD+ interventions and forest monitoring systems, and provide valuable input

  1. N2O Emissions in Southeastern Amazonia: The Effect of Agricultural Intensification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connell, C.; Brando, P. M.; Cerri, C. E.; Coe, M. T.; Davidson, E. A.; Galford, G. L.; Macedo, M.; Neill, C.; Venterea, R. T.

    2014-12-01

    The Amazon is not only an exceptionally biodiverse and carbon-rich tract of tropical forest, it is also a case study in land use change. Over the last 30 years, Amazonia has been home to extraordinary growth in agricultural production, in part from agricultural expansion, but also due to more intense management on Amazonia's existing croplands. We use a year-long campaign and approximately 500 field chamber measurements to estimate how cropland intensification in Mato Grosso, Brazil affects the emission of nitrous oxide (N2O) and soil N dynamics. In this system, soybean cropland intensification occurs when double cropping is introduced, in which maize is planted directly after soybean harvest and fertilized twice with inorganic N. We find that dry season N2O emissions in single-cropped (soybean only) fields, double-cropped (soybean/maize) fields and reference tropical forest are uniformly near zero, or ~0-0.5 ngN/cm^2/hr. Surprisingly, wet season emissions rates remain low as well, between 1-4 ngN/cm^2/hr, for both cropland types and reference forest. By contrast, isolated post-fertilization spikes in N2O emissions are large, with a maximum increase of ~800% and a mean increase of ~400%, though these flux increases resolve rapidly and rates return to their low baseline within days. Finally, we explore the role that soil moisture, soil N availability, and soil C availability play in regulating N2O fluxes in reference forest, soybean fields and intensified soybean-maize fields. Open questions surround how the Amazon's land resources can be leveraged to increase agricultural production at the least harm to the environment. Here, we quantify the consequences of land use change on N2O, a powerful greenhouse gas, in a critical ecosystem undergoing novel agricultural intensification. These results may inform both greenhouse gas accounting and our understanding of the effects of Amazonia's changing agricultural landscape on the nitrogen cycle.

  2. Detection of impervious surface change with multitemporal Landsat images in an urban-rural frontier

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Dengsheng; Moran, Emilio; Hetrick, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Mapping and monitoring impervious surface dynamic change in a complex urban-rural frontier with medium or coarse spatial resolution images is a challenge due to the mixed pixel problem and the spectral confusion between impervious surfaces and other non-vegetation land covers. This research selected Lucas do Rio Verde County in Mato Grosso State, Brazil as a case study to improve impervious surface estimation performance by the integrated use of Landsat and QuickBird images and to monitor impervious surface change by analyzing the normalized multitemporal Landsat-derived fractional impervious surfaces. This research demonstrates the importance of two step calibrations. The first step is to calibrate the Landsat-derived fraction impervious surface values through the established regression model based on the QuickBird-derived impervious surface image in 2008. The second step is to conduct the normalization between the calibrated 2008 impervious surface image with other dates of impervious surface images. This research indicates that the per-pixel based method overestimates the impervious surface area in the urban-rural frontier by 50-60%. In order to accurately estimate impervious surface area, it is necessary to map the fractional impervious surface image and further calibrate the estimates with high spatial resolution images. Also normalization of the multitemporal fractional impervious surface images is needed to reduce the impacts from different environmental conditions, in order to effectively detect the impervious surface dynamic change in a complex urban-rural frontier. The procedure developed in this paper for mapping and monitoring impervious surface area is especially valuable in urban-rural frontiers where multitemporal Landsat images are difficult to be used for accurately extracting impervious surface features based on traditional per-pixel based classification methods as they cannot effectively handle the mixed pixel problem. PMID:21552379

  3. Geographic distribution of hepatitis C virus genotypes in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Campiotto, S; Pinho, J R R; Carrilho, F J; Da Silva, L C; Souto, F J D; Spinelli, V; Pereira, L M M B; Coelho, H S M; Silva, A O; Fonseca, J C; Rosa, H; Lacet, C M C; Bernardini, A P

    2005-01-01

    Brazil is a country of continental dimension with a population of different ethnic backgrounds. Thus, a wide variation in the frequencies of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes is expected to occur. To address this point, 1,688 sequential samples from chronic HCV patients were analyzed. HCV-RNA was amplified by the RT-PCR from blood samples collected from 1995 to 2000 at different laboratories located in different cities from all Brazilian States. Samples were collected in tubes containing a gel separator, centrifuged in the site of collection and sent by express mail in a refrigerated container to Laboratório Bioquímico Jardim Paulista, São Paulo, SP, Brazil. HCV-RNA was extracted from serum and submitted to RT and nested PCR using standard procedures. Nested PCR products were submitted to cycle sequencing reactions without prior purification. Sequences were analyzed for genotype determination and the following frequencies were found: 64.9% (1,095) for genotype 1, 4.6% (78) for genotype 2, 30.2% (510) for genotype 3, 0.2% (3) for genotype 4, and 0.1% (2) for genotype 5. The frequencies of HCV genotypes were statistically different among Brazilian regions (P = 0.00017). In all regions, genotype 1 was the most frequent (51.7 to 74.1%), reaching the highest value in the North; genotype 2 was more prevalent in the Center-West region (11.4%), especially in Mato Grosso State (25.8%), while genotype 3 was more common in the South (43.2%). Genotypes 4 and 5 were rarely found and only in the Southeast, in São Paulo State. The present data indicate the need for careful epidemiological surveys throughout Brazil since knowing the frequency and distribution of the genotypes would provide key information for understanding the spread of HCV. PMID:15665987

  4. Disentangling the contribution of multiple land covers to fire-mediated carbon emissions in Amazonia during the 2010 drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Liana Oighenstein; Aragão, Luiz E. O. C.; Gloor, Manuel; Arai, Egídio; Adami, Marcos; Saatchi, Sassan S.; Malhi, Yadvinder; Shimabukuro, Yosio E.; Barlow, Jos; Berenguer, Erika; Duarte, Valdete

    2015-10-01

    In less than 15 years, the Amazon region experienced three major droughts. Links between droughts and fires have been demonstrated for the 1997/1998, 2005, and 2010 droughts. In 2010, emissions of 510 ± 120 Tg C were associated to fire alone in Amazonia. Existing approaches have, however, not yet disentangled the proportional contribution of multiple land cover sources to this total. We develop a novel integration of multisensor and multitemporal satellite-derived data on land cover, active fires, and burned area and an empirical model of fire-induced biomass loss to quantify the extent of burned areas and resulting biomass loss for multiple land covers in Mato Grosso (MT) state, southern Amazonia—the 2010 drought most impacted region. We show that 10.77% (96,855 km2) of MT burned. We estimated a gross carbon emission of 56.21 ± 22.5 Tg C from direct combustion of biomass, with an additional 29.4 ± 10 Tg C committed to be emitted in the following years due to dead wood decay. It is estimated that old-growth forest fires in the whole Brazilian Legal Amazon (BLA) have contributed to 14.81 Tg of C (11.75 Tg C to 17.87 Tg C) emissions to the atmosphere during the 2010 fire season, with an affected area of 27,555 km2. Total C loss from the 2010 fires in MT state and old-growth forest fires in the BLA represent, respectively, 77% (47% to 107%) and 86% (68.2% to 103%) of Brazil's National Plan on Climate Change annual target for Amazonia C emission reductions from deforestation.

  5. Shading effect on microclimate and thermal comfort indexes in integrated crop-livestock-forest systems in the Brazilian Midwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karvatte, Nivaldo; Klosowski, Elcio Silvério; de Almeida, Roberto Giolo; Mesquita, Eduardo Eustáquio; de Oliveira, Caroline Carvalho; Alves, Fabiana Villa

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this paper was to perform a microclimate evaluation and determine the indexes of thermal comfort indexes, in sun and shade, in integrated crop-livestock-forest systems with different arrangements of eucalyptus and native trees, in the Brazilian Midwest. The experiment was conducted at Embrapa Beef Cattle in Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, from July to September 2013. The evaluations were conducted on four consecutive days, from 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m., local time (GMT -4:00), with 1 hour intervals, recording the microclimate parameters: air temperature (°C), black globe temperature (°C), wet bulb temperature (°C), relative humidity (%), and wind speed (m.s-1), for the subsequent calculation of the Temperature and Humidity Index, the Black Globe Temperature and Humidity Index, and the Radiant Thermal Load. The largest changes in microclimate parameters were found in the full sun, between 12:00 p.m. and 1:00 p.m., in less dense eucalyptus system, followed by the scattered native trees system, resulting in a maximum Temperature and Humidity Index of 81, Black Globe Temperature and Humidity Index of 88 and Radiant Thermal Load of 794 W m-2. Therefore, it is observed that with the presence of trees in pastures were possible reductions of up to 3.7 % in Temperature and Humidity Index, 10.2 % in the Black Globe Temperature and Humidity Index, and 28.3 % of the Radiant Thermal Load in the shade. Thus, one can conclude that the presence of trees and their arrangement in the systems provide better microclimate conditions and animal thermal comfort in pastures.

  6. Effects of high-frequency understorey fires on woody plant regeneration in southeastern Amazonian forests.

    PubMed

    Balch, Jennifer K; Massad, Tara J; Brando, Paulo M; Nepstad, Daniel C; Curran, Lisa M

    2013-06-01

    Anthropogenic understorey fires affect large areas of tropical forest, yet their effects on woody plant regeneration post-fire remain poorly understood. We examined the effects of repeated experimental fires on woody stem (less than 1 cm at base) mortality, recruitment, species diversity, community similarity and regeneration mode (seed versus sprout) in Mato Grosso, Brazil. From 2004 to 2010, forest plots (50 ha) were burned twice (B2) or five times (B5), and compared with an unburned control (B0). Stem density recovered within a year after the first burn (initial density: 12.4-13.2 stems m(-2)), but after 6 years, increased mortality and decreased regeneration--primarily of seedlings--led to a 63 per cent and 85 per cent reduction in stem density in B2 and B5, respectively. Seedlings and sprouts across plots in 2010 displayed remarkable community similarity owing to shared abundant species. Although the dominant surviving species were similar across plots, a major increase in sprouting occurred--almost three- and fourfold greater in B2 and B5 than in B0. In B5, 29 species disappeared and were replaced by 11 new species often present along fragmented forest edges. By 2010, the annual burn regime created substantial divergence between the seedling community and the initial adult tree community (greater than or equal to 20 cm dbh). Increased droughts and continued anthropogenic ignitions associated with frontier land uses may promote high-frequency fire regimes that may substantially alter regeneration and therefore successional processes. PMID:23610167

  7. Genetic variability within and among populations of an invasive, exotic orchid.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Sueme; Rodrigues, Jucelene Fernandes; Alves-Pereira, Alessandro; Pansarin, Emerson Ricardo; Veasey, Elizabeth Ann

    2015-01-01

    Despite the fact that invasive species are of great evolutionary interest because of their success in colonizing and spreading into new areas, the factors underlying this success often remain obscure. In this sense, studies on population genetics and phylogenetic relationships of invasive species could offer insights into mechanisms of invasions. Originally from Africa, the terrestrial orchid Oeceoclades maculata, considered an invasive plant, is the only species of the genus throughout the Americas. Considering the lack of information on population genetics of this species, the aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic diversity and structure of Brazilian populations of O. maculata. We used 13 inter-simple sequence repeat primers to assess the genetic diversity of 152 individuals of O. maculata distributed in five sampled sites from three Brazilian states (São Paulo, Mato Grosso and Paraná). Low diversity was found within samples, with estimates of the Shannon index (H) ranging from 0.0094 to 0.1054 and estimates of Nei's gene diversity (He) ranging from 0.0054 to 0.0668. However, when evaluated together, the sampling locations showed substantially higher diversity estimates (H = 0.3869, He = 0.2556), and most of the genetic diversity was found among populations (ΦST = 0.933). Both clustering and principal coordinate analysis indicate the existence of five distinct groups, corresponding to the sampled localities, and which were also recovered in the Bayesian analysis. A substructure was observed in one of the localities, suggesting a lack of gene flow even between very small distances. The patterns of genetic structure found in this study may be understood considering the interaction of several probable reproductive strategies with its history of colonization involving possible genetic drift, selective pressures and multiple introductions. PMID:26162896

  8. Identification of kimberlite bodies in Brazil from a 3D audio-magnetotelluric survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lugao, P. P.; Eric, C. D. O.; Loureiro, F. O.; Arantes, P. R.; Pastana, A. F.

    2015-12-01

    We report on a succesfull identification of kimberlite bodies in Brazil through the use of the electromagnetic technique audio-magnetotelluric (AMT). Macnae (1979) writes that "In one large survey in South Africa, electromagnetic (EM) techniques have proven to be remarkably effective in detecting the presence of weathered clays or epiclastic kimberlite contained within the pipes." Full tensor AMT data were acquired at 65 points (stations) in a 3D configuration with frequencies ranging from 10kHz to 1Hz. The survey was located in the NW portion of the Mato Grosso state, Brazil, in na area of thick jungle coverage. During the AMT survey, few outcrops were seen because of the dense forest cover. Usually, the occurrences found were of sand deposits, indicating the occurence of Fazenda Casa Branca and Utiariti Formations and gravel from Salto das Nuvens Formation, widely used in paving trails n this region. In the area of the survey, three main targets were confirmed/identified: Kimberlite Area 1 - a classic kimberlite in the region, with the crater facies with different clasts and distinct size. We noted the occurrence of a red-brown soil and an unusual vegetation in this area. The resistivity model provided confirmed the presence of Kimberlite Area 1 and was used to identify other two areas. Area of Interest 1 - area with atypical vegetation along a trail. There is an excavation that displays soil of white color with several blocks present, there are small quartz crystal agglomerates in these blocks. The resistivity model cleary shows a conductive body here, indicative of the presence of a kimberlite. Area of Interest 2 - the presence of a kimberlite was confirmed, not exactly where the targeted Area 2 was, but the southwest of it. Close to this area, there was a very fine rock and a few blocks of pure silica, probably indicating a kimberlitic intrusion. In summary, the 3D resistivity model in depth obtained from inversion of the AMT data confirmed and identified

  9. Temporal patterns of net CO2 exchange for a tropical semideciduous forest of the southern Amazon Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vourlitis, George L.; de Almeida Lobo, Francisco; Zeilhofer, Peter; de Souza Nogueira, José

    2011-09-01

    The carbon cycling of tropical ecosystems has received considerable attention over the last 1-2 decades; however, interactions between climate variation and tropical forest net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) are still uncertain. To reduce this uncertainty, and assess the biophysical controls on NEE, we used the eddy covariance method over a 3 year period (2005-2008) to measure the CO2 flux and energy balance for a 25-28 m tall, mature tropical semideciduous forest located near Sinop Mato Grosso, Brazil. The study period encompassed warm-dry, cool-wet, and cool-dry climate conditions, and based on previous research, we hypothesized that the net CO2 accumulation of the semideciduous forest would be lower during periods of drought. Using time series of the enhanced vegetation index (EVI), a NEE-light-use model, and path analysis, we found that the estimated quantum yield (a', μmol CO2μmol photons-1) was directly affected by temporal variations in the EVI, precipitation, and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), while the optimal rate of gross primary production (FGPP,opt, μmol m-2 s-1) was directly affected by the EVI and PAR. However, indirect effects of precipitation on the a' and FGPP,opt were stronger than direct effects because variations in precipitation also lead to variations in the EVI and the atmospheric vapor pressure deficit (VPD). Daytime ecosystem respiration (FRE,day, μmol m-2 s-1) was directly affected by temporal variations in temperature and VPD and indirect effects of other variables were of lesser importance. Net ecosystem CO2 uptake was often higher in the dry season than the wet season, not because of a dry season "green-up" but because rates of ecosystem respiration declined relatively more than rates of canopy photosynthesis. Over interannual timescales, average daily NEE increased over the 3 year study period and was highest in 2007-2008, which was also the driest year in terms of rainfall. However, 2007-2008 was also the coolest year

  10. Evaluation of the genetic polymorphism of Plasmodium falciparum P126 protein (SERA or SERP) and its influence on naturally acquired specific antibody responses in malaria-infected individuals living in the Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Pratt-Riccio, Lilian Rose; Sallenave-Sales, Selma; de Oliveira-Ferreira, Joseli; da Silva, Bruno T; Guimarães, Monick Lindenmeyer; Santos, Fátima; de Simone, Thatiane S; Morgado, Mariza G; de Simone, Salvatore G; Ferreira-Da-Cruz, Maria de Fátima; Daniel-Ribeiro, Cláudio T; Zalis, Mariano G; Camus, Daniel; Banic, Dalma M

    2008-01-01

    Background The Plasmodium falciparum P126 protein is an asexual blood-stage malaria vaccine candidate antigen. Antibodies against P126 are able to inhibit parasite growth in vitro, and a major parasite-inhibitory epitope has been recently mapped to its 47 kDa N-terminal extremity (octamer repeat domain – OR domain). The OR domain basically consists of six octamer units, but variation in the sequence and number of repeat units may appear in different alleles. The aim of the present study was to investigate the polymorphism of P126 N-terminal region OR domain in P. falciparum isolates from two Brazilian malaria endemic areas and its impact on anti-OR naturally acquired antibodies. Methods The study was carried out in two villages, Candeias do Jamari (Rondonia state) and Peixoto de Azevedo (Mato Grosso state), both located in the south-western part of the Amazon region. The repetitive region of the gene encoding the P126 antigen was PCR amplified and sequenced with the di-deoxy chain termination procedure. The antibody response was evaluated by ELISA with the Nt47 synthetic peptide corresponding to the P126 OR-II domain. Results Only two types of OR fragments were identified in the studied areas, one of 175 bp (OR-I) and other of 199 bp (OR-II). A predominance of the OR-II fragment was observed in Candeias do Jamari whereas in Peixoto de Azevedo both fragments OR-I and OR-II were frequent as well as mixed infection (both fragments simultaneously) reported here for the first time. Comparing the DNA sequencing of OR-I and OR-II fragments, there was a high conservation among predicted amino acid sequences of the P126 N-terminal extremity. Data of immune response demonstrated that the OR domain is highly immunogenic in natural conditions of exposure and that the polymorphism of the OR domain does not apparently influence the specific immune response. Conclusion These findings confirm a limited genetic polymorphism of the P126 OR domain in P. falciparum isolates and that

  11. Could the STARS detect deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mello, M. P.; Trabaquini, K.; Rudorff, B. F.; Oliveira, J. C.

    2013-05-01

    The Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE) has been monitoring the Brazilian Legal Amazon deforestation through the PRODES project since 1988, providing yearly deforestation maps based on about 60 m spatial resolution. Additionally, INPE's Real Time Deforestation Detection System (DETER) has monthly indicating, based on high temporal resolution satellite data, where and when the forest is being felled. However, those monitoring processes are mainly based on visual interpretation, which is accurate but a hard and time consuming task. The Spectral-Temporal Analysis by Response Surface (STARS), which synthesizes the full information content of a multitemporal-multispectral remote sensing image dataset to represent the spectral variation over time of features on the Earth's surface, comes as an alternative for applications in land cover change detection, such as deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. Thus, since deforestation process presents particular spectral changes over time, spectral-temporal response surfaces could be fitted to describe its change patterns, allowing to detect deforested areas. In this context, this work aims to apply the STARS to detect deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, using Landsat-5 multitemporal-multispectral images. Four georeferenced images covering about 3.400 square kilometres within the Mato Grosso State, Brazil (13°17'S; 55°50'W to 14°20'S; 55°10'W) were used: one Multispectral Scanner (MSS) image from 1980 (bands 4, 5, 6 and 7 - 60 m spatial resolution); and three Thematic Mapper (TM) images from 1990, 2000 and 2010 (bands 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 7 - 30 m spatial resolution). The MSS image was resampled to 30 m to match the TM spatial resolution. All images were then used as input for STARS resulting in a Multi-Coefficient Image (MCI) with 10 synthetic bands formed by the 10 fitted coefficients of a Polynomial Trend Surface (PTS) model with degree equal to three. The MCI was used as input for a decision tree (DT

  12. A GEP-ISFG collaborative study on the optimization of an X-STR decaplex: data on 15 Iberian and Latin American populations.

    PubMed

    Gusmão, Leonor; Sánchez-Diz, Paula; Alves, Cíntia; Gomes, Iva; Zarrabeitia, María Teresa; Abovich, Mariel; Atmetlla, Ivannia; Bobillo, Cecilia; Bravo, Luisa; Builes, Juan; Cainé, Laura; Calvo, Raquel; Carvalho, Elizeu; Carvalho, Mónica; Cicarelli, Regina; Catelli, Laura; Corach, Daniel; Espinoza, Marta; García, Oscar; Malaghini, Marcelo; Martins, Joyce; Pinheiro, Fátima; João Porto, Maria; Raimondi, Eduardo; Riancho, Jose Antonio; Rodríguez, Amelia; Rodríguez, Anayanci; Rodríguez Cardozo, Belén; Schneider, Vicente; Silva, Sandra; Tavares, Celso; Toscanini, Ulises; Vullo, Carlos; Whittle, Martin; Yurrebaso, Iñaki; Carracedo, Angel; Amorim, António

    2009-05-01

    In a collaborative work carried out by the Spanish and Portuguese ISFG Working Group (GEP-ISFG), a polymerase chain reaction multiplex was optimized in order to type ten X-chromosome short tandem repeats (STRs) in a single reaction, including: DXS8378, DXS9902, DXS7132, DXS9898, DXS6809, DXS6789, DXS7133, GATA172D05, GATA31E08, and DXS7423. Using this X-decaplex, each 17 of the participating laboratories typed a population sample of approximately 200 unrelated individuals (100 males and 100 females). In this work, we report the allele frequencies for the ten X-STRs in 15 samples from Argentina (Buenos Aires, Córdoba, Río Negro, Entre Ríos, and Misiones), Brazil (São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Paraná, and Mato Grosso do Sul), Colombia (Antioquia), Costa Rica, Portugal (Northern and Central regions), and Spain (Galicia and Cantabria). Gene diversities were calculated for the ten markers in each population and all values were above 56%. The average diversity per locus varied between 66%, for DXS7133, and 82%, for DXS6809. For this set of STRs, a high discrimination power was obtained in all populations, both in males (> or =1 in 5 x 10(5)) and females (> or =1 in 3 x 10(9)), as well as high mean exclusion chance in father/daughter duos (> or =99.953%) and in father/mother/daughter trios (> or =99.999%). Genetic distance analysis showed no significant differences between northern and central Portugal or between the two Spanish samples from Galicia and Cantabria. Inside Brazil, significant differences were found between Rio de Janeiro and the other three populations, as well as between São Paulo and Paraná. For the five Argentinean samples, significant distances were only observed when comparing Misiones with Entre Ríos and with Río Negro, the only two samples that do not differ significantly from Costa Rica. Antioquia differed from all other samples, except the one from Río Negro. PMID:19082839

  13. Hydrological cycle.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, H C; Mercante, M A; Santos, E T

    2011-04-01

    The Pantanal hydrological cycle holds an important meaning in the Alto Paraguay Basin, comprising two areas with considerably diverse conditions regarding natural and water resources: the Plateau and the Plains. From the perspective of the ecosystem function, the hydrological flow in the relationship between plateau and plains is important for the creation of reproductive and feeding niches for the regional biodiversity. In general, river declivity in the plateau is 0.6 m/km while declivity on the plains varies from 0.1 to 0.3 m/km. The environment in the plains is characteristically seasonal and is home to an exuberant and abundant diversity of species, including some animals threatened with extinction. When the flat surface meets the plains there is a diminished water flow on the riverbeds and, during the rainy season the rivers overflow their banks, flooding the lowlands. Average annual precipitation in the Basin is 1,396 mm, ranging from 800 mm to 1,600 mm, and the heaviest rainfall occurs in the plateau region. The low drainage capacity of the rivers and lakes that shape the Pantanal, coupled with the climate in the region, produce very high evaporation: approximately 60% of all the waters coming from the plateau are lost through evaporation. The Alto Paraguay Basin, including the Pantanal, while boasting an abundant availability of water resources, also has some spots with water scarcity in some sub-basins, at different times of the year. Climate conditions alone are not enough to explain the differences observed in the Paraguay River regime and some of its tributaries. The complexity of the hydrologic regime of the Paraguay River is due to the low declivity of the lands that comprise the Mato Grosso plains and plateau (50 to 30 cm/km from east to west and 3 to 1.5 cm/km from north to south) as well as the area's dimension, which remains periodically flooded with a large volume of water. PMID:21537597

  14. Epigeal fauna of a degraded soil treated with mineral fertilizer and compound cellulose cultivated of tree species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giácomo, R. G.; de Arruda, O. G.; Souto Filho, S. N.; Alves, M. C.; Pereira, M. G.; Frigério, G. C.

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the behavior of the epigeal fauna in a degraded soil in the recovery process after one year of cultivated with tree species. The experiment was established in February 2010 in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks in split plots with five treatments and four replications. In the main plots, pure cultivation of Eucalyptus urograndis (exotic species - hybrids) and Mabea fistulifera Mart. (native species) and the subplot treatments: Control; D0 - without fertilization; DM - mineral fertilizer according to crop need; DC - with compost manure according to crop need (10 t ha-1); D15 - 15 t ha-1 and D20 - 20 t ha-1 of the compound. In February of the years 2010 and 2011 were installed in the central region of each treatment two traps "pitt fall" which remained for seven days in the field. We calculated Shannon diversity and Pielou evenness indices, and richness of wildlife activity groups. The results were analyzed by ANOVA and Scott Knott test at 5% significance level. In 2010, the area with M. fistulifera, was captured a total of 2697 organisms distributed mainly in: Hymenoptera with 45.83% of the total collected, Collembola (36.93%), Hemiptera Heteroptera (6.56%). In the area with E. urograndis, 1938 organisms were captured, being 50.67% of the order Hymenoptera, Collembola 26.83%, 7.59% Hemiptera Heteroptera. It was found that there was no significant difference between treatments and between species for all variables. Collected in 2011 were 4970 organisms in 56.22% of the order Hymenoptera, Collembola 18.49% and 7.12% beetle in the area of M. fistulifera. In the area of E. urograndis were 4200 organisms, 55.29% (Hymenoptera), 23.79% (Collembola) and 5.86% (Coleoptera). It appears that the activity values and richness of the fauna groups were significantly higher in treatments with organic fertilization in both cultive. It is concluded that after one year there was a variation of the dominant

  15. Relationships between burned area, forest cover loss and land use change in the Brazilian Amazon based on satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanin, T.; van der Werf, G. R.

    2015-06-01

    Fires are used as a tool in the deforestation process. Yet, the relationship between fire and deforestation may vary temporally and spatially depending on the type of deforestation and climatic conditions. This study evaluates spatiotemporal dynamics of deforestation and fire represented by burned area over the 2002-2012 period in the Brazilian Legal Amazon. As a first step, we compared newly available Landsat-based maps of gross forest cover loss from the Global Forest Change (GFC) project with maps of deforestation extent from the Amazon Deforestation Monitoring Project (PRODES) produced by the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE). As a second step, we rescaled the Landsat-based data to the 500 m resolution of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) burned area data (MCD64A1) and stratified this using MODIS land cover data to study the role of burned area in forest cover loss and deforestation. We found that while GFC forest cover loss and PRODES deforestation generally agreed on spatial and temporal dynamics, there were several key differences between the datasets. Both showed a decrease in the extent of forest cover loss or deforestation after 2004, but the drop was larger and more continuous in PRODES than in GFC. The observed decrease in forest cover loss or deforestation rates over our study period was mainly due to lower clearing rates in the evergreen broadleaf forests in the states of Mato Grosso, Pará and Rondônia. GFC indicated anomalous high forest cover loss in the years 2007 and 2010 not reported by PRODES. The burned area data showed that this was predominantly related to increased fire activity occurring outside of the tropical forest area during these dry years, mainly in Pará. This indicates that fire and forest loss dynamics in woodlands or secondary forests may be equally important as deforestation in regulating atmospheric CO2 concentrations. In addition to the decrease in forest cover loss rates, we also

  16. Relationships between burned area, forest cover loss, and land cover change in the Brazilian Amazon based on satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanin, T.; van der Werf, G. R.

    2015-10-01

    Fires are used as a tool in the deforestation process. Yet, the relationship between fire and deforestation may vary temporally and spatially depending on the type of deforestation and climatic conditions. This study evaluates spatiotemporal dynamics of deforestation and fire represented by burned area over the 2002-2012 period in the Brazilian Legal Amazon. As a first step, we compared newly available Landsat-based maps of gross forest cover loss from the Global Forest Change (GFC) project with maps of deforestation extent from the Amazon Deforestation Monitoring Project (PRODES) produced by the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE). As a second step, we rescaled the Landsat-based data to the 500 m resolution of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) burned area data (MCD64A1) and stratified this using MODIS land cover data to study the role of burned area in forest cover loss and deforestation. We found that while GFC forest cover loss and PRODES deforestation generally agreed on spatial and temporal dynamics, there were several key differences between the data sets. Both showed a decrease in the extent of forest cover loss or deforestation after 2004, but the drop was larger and more continuous in PRODES than in GFC. The observed decrease in forest cover loss or deforestation rates over our study period was mainly due to lower clearing rates in the evergreen broadleaf forests in the states of Mato Grosso, Pará, and Rondônia. GFC indicated anomalously high forest cover loss in the years 2007 and 2010, which was not reported by PRODES. The burned area data indicated that this was predominantly related to increased burned area occurring outside of the tropical forest area during these dry years, mainly in Pará. This indicated that fire and forest loss dynamics in woodlands or secondary forests may be equally important as deforestation in regulating atmospheric CO2 concentrations. In addition to the decrease in forest cover

  17. Nutritional status and growth of indigenous Xavante children, Central Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to characterize the nutritional status of Xavante Indian children less than 10 years of age in Central Brazil and to evaluate the hypothesis of an association between child nutrition and socioeconomic differentiation in this population. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in July 2006 that included all children under the age of 10 from the Xavante village Pimentel Barbosa in Mato Grosso, Brazil. The data collected included weight, height, and sociodemographic information. Sociodemographic data were used to generate two indices ("income" and "wealth") and to determine the proportion of adults in each household. Descriptive analyses were performed for weight-for-age (W/A), height-for-age (H/A), and weight-for-height (W/H) using the NCHS and the WHO growth references. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted using H/A and W/A as a response variables. Results Of a total of 246 children under the age of ten residing in the village, 232 (94.3%) were evaluated. Following the NCHS reference, 5.6% of children under the age of ten presented low W/A and 14.7% presented low H/A. Among children under the age of five, deficit percentages for weight and height were 4.5% and 29.9%, respectively, following the WHO curves. Among children < 2 years of age, H/A index variability was found to be directly related to child's age and inversely related to the proportion of adults in the household. Maternal BMI was positively associated with growth for children from 2 to 4 years of age, explaining 11.5% of the z-score variability for the H/A index. For children 5 years of age and older, the wealth index and maternal height were positively associated with H/A. No significant associations were found using W/A as the dependent variable. Conclusion This study demonstrated that undernutrition, in particular linear growth deficit, is a notable health issue for Xavante children. These findings contrast with the nutritional profile observed

  18. Amazon Paleofires Records: Comparison Between Land Use Change and Palaeoclimatic Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordeiro, R. C.; Turcq, B.; Moreira, L. S.; Rodrigues, R. D. A.; Simões Filho, F. L.; Martins, G. S.; Santos, A. B.; Barbosa, M.; da Conceição, M. C. G.; Rodrigues, R. D. C.; Evangelista, H.; Moreira-Turcq, P. F.; Penido, Y. P.; Sifeddine, A.; Seoane, J.

    2014-12-01

    Interpreting the geological record of Amazon biomass combustion requires comparing charcoal accumulation rates in various biomes at different time scales. Charcoal accumulation rates, a proxy for palaeofire records, were obtained in sediment cores from Amazon lakes surrounded by several vegetation types and from a reservoir in an intense land use change region. The records presented in this study were obtained in the following areas i) a reservoir in Alta Floresta region (northern Mato Grosso State); ii) Lago do Saci (southern Pará State), a lake close to Alta Floresta and located at the southern border of Pará State; iii) a bog in an ecotone area in the Humaitá region (southern Amazonas State); iv) lakes in lateritic iron crust of the Carajás Hills (southeastern Pará State); v) Lago Comprido, a floodplain lake close to the Amazon River and surrounded by tropical rain forest (Monte Alegre, Pará State; vi) Lagoa da Pata in the Morro dos Seis Lagos alkaline complex (São Gabriel da Cachoeira, Amazonas State) and vii) Lago Caracaranã, a secluded lake in the northern Amazon cerrado (Roraima State). The highest charcoal accumulation rates were observed for modern records related to an intense change in land use at Alta Floresta, which had no precedent during the Holocene history of the Amazon. High charcoal accumulation rates that were observed in the Carajás region during low lake level phases in the Amazon in the mid-Holocene were comparable to those at the onset of the human settlement in Alta Floresta region. An increase in charcoal accumulation rate was observed in the late Holocene when the lake level was high, suggesting an interaction between climates and human presence. Low charcoal accumulation rates are typical of modern high rainfall environments, as observed in Lagoa da Pata where the environment is not susceptible to occurrences of wildfires even during relatively drier climatic phases. Low charcoal accumulation rates also exist in the relatively

  19. Chemical, green and organic manure effects on chemical properties on a savannah oxisol and on corn under conventional tillage and no-tillage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannigel, Anny R.; Alves, Marlene C.; Valério Filho, Walter V.

    2015-04-01

    Modern agriculture, in general, has always been based on the concept that natural resources are endless; however, this concept is changing. Concern for the environment is increasingly becoming part of farming practices, either by the awareness of society, or because the high cost of fertilizers or even the exhaustion of soils. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of the green manure and mineral fertilizer and/or organic manure and, on the chemical properties of an Oxisol, on "Savannah" (cerrado) area in Mato Grosso do Sul-Brazil, cultivated with corn (Zea mays L.) on the following management conditions: no-tillage and conventional tillage, on area previously under pasture (Brachiaria decumbens). The experimental design was a randomized blocks and the tested treatments were: control (without organic manure or chemical fertilizer); chemical fertilizer, as recommended for the culture and based on the chemical soil analysis; organic manure (cow manure); organic manure + half of the mineral fertilizer recommended rate; and the green manure Crotalaria juncea and Pennisetum americanum. The chemical analyses were the soil chemical analysis to the intent of soil fertility. Corn yield was evaluated. The collect of soil samples were realized in depths of 0.00-0.05 m and 0.05-0.10 m and 0.10-0.20 m. The organic manure and the organic manure + half of the mineral recommended rate increased P, Ca, Mg, K and Organic Matter in the first depth (0.00 - 0.05 m). These treatments also increased K and Mg at the second depth analyzed (0.05 - 0.10 m) and K in the depth from 0.10 - 0.20 m. Under conventional tillage management presents better crop results with an average grain yield of 3649 kg ha-1 versus 2374 kg ha-1 obtained under no-tillage. The use of chemical fertilizer, organic manure + half of the mineral recommended rate, Crotalaria juncea, organic manure and Pennisetum americanum increased corn yield by 84, 79, 58, 44 and 41 %, respectively.

  20. Pore size distribution of a deeply excavated Oxisol after 19 years reclamation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos Batista Bonini, Carolina; de Cássia Marchini, Débora; Alves, Marlene Cristina; García de Arruda, Otton; Paz-Ferreiro, Jorge

    2013-04-01

    Digging of the local soil and using it as a raw material for construction purposes has been identified as a non-negligible source of land degradation. Techniques aimed at soil profile reconstruction and ecological restoration of soils truncated by mechanical excavation using heavy machinery have been investigated Both, total soil porosity and pore size distribution are important properties for soil management as well as for assessing the recovery of soil function after land degradation. In this way, macropores are responsible for aeration, whereas water storage depends on soil meso- and micropores in the soil and the optimal pore-size distribution is also an indicator of soil quality. We investigated the changes in the pore size distribution of a soil that was beheaded to extract raw materials after a 19 year period of reclamation, which involved the use of green manures, gypsum and pasture for the purpose of profile recovery. The studied area is located in Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brzil. A field trial was performed following a completely randomized experimental design with seven treatments and four replications. Starting 1992, the initial treatments were: 1) control (tilled bare soil), 2)Stizolobium aterrium, 3)Cajanus cajan, 4)lime+S. aterrimum, 5) lime+C. cajan, 6) lime + gypsum + S. aterrimum, 7) lime + gypsum+C. cajan. In 1994, all treatments with C. cajan were replaced by Canavalia ensiformis and in 1999, Brachiaria decumbens was implanted in all the experimental plots. Data from vegetated treatments were compared with bare soil (control) and native vegetation (Savannah). Soil samples were collected in 2011 at the 0.00-0.10, 0.10-0.20, and 0.20-0.40 m depths. Treatment differences were assessed by analysis of variance, following the Scott-Knott test (5%) of probability to compare averages. Macroporosity of the 0.00-0.10 m top layer was above the 0.10 m3m-3 threshold considered as critical for plant growth. On the 0.10-0.20 m layer only treatments with C

  1. Multiple relationships between fire and land-use types in the Brazilian Amazon - rethinking the fire-deforestation paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cano Crespo, Ana; Thonicke, Kirsten; Cardoso, Manoel; Oliveira, Paulo

    2014-05-01

    Anthropogenic activities alter the spatial extent of wildfires. Land conversions outweigh climatic drivers of wildfire burned area in South America. In the Amazon, fire is widely used for the initial conversion of extensive areas of natural vegetation into agricultural fields and pasture areas, and for the subsequent maintenance of deforested areas. Natural fire occurrences are extremely rare, with the vast majority of burning events resulting from deliberate fire use. So how does fire occurrence and extent relate to land-use type in the Brazilian Amazon? Our study area comprised the states of Mato Grosso, Pará and Rondônia, with similar hot-humid climate. Temporal and spatial distribution of rainfall and burned area was analysed in 2008 and 2010, and processes taking place in the forest that can induce burning incidents were also examined. Predictably, the peak of burned area coincided with the months of lowest rainfall at the end of the dry season (August-September), showing a marked annual periodicity. In 2010, the fire season was longer and a larger amount of burned area was detected, as a consequence of the drought that struck the Amazon basin in that year. However, the satellite-derived standardized anomalies for dry-season rainfall showed that there were spatial disparities in the influence of the 2010's extreme drought. Moreover, we observed that the areas with the largest rainfall anomaly did not match the burned area distribution, which is a sign of fire connection to anthropogenic factors in the study area. The proportion of burned area in the different land-use types is presented, indicating large variation depending on the state under evaluation. We found that the largest proportion of burning was not happening in deforested areas, but in pasture and forest or secondary vegetation (excluding savannah-like ecosystems). While land-use distribution in the states remained similar in 2010, significant differences were noted in the burned area location

  2. Distance metric-based forest cover change detection using MODIS time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiaoman; Friedl, Mark A.

    2014-06-01

    More than 12 years of global observations are now available from NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). As this time series grows, the MODIS archive provides new opportunities for identification and characterization of land cover at regional to global spatial scales and interannual to decadal temporal scales. In particular, the high temporal frequency of MODIS provides a rich basis for monitoring land cover dynamics. At the same time, the relatively coarse spatial resolution of MODIS (250-500 m) presents significant challenges for land cover change studies. In this paper, we present a distance metric-based change detection method for identifying changed pixels at annual time steps using 500 m MODIS time series data. The approach we describe uses distance metrics to measure (1) the similarity between a pixel's annual time series to annual time series for pixels of the same land cover class and (2) the similarity between annual time series from different years at the same pixel. Pre-processing, including gap-filling, smoothing and temporal subsetting of MODIS 500 m Nadir BRDF-adjusted Reflectance (NBAR) time series is essential to the success of our method. We evaluated our approach using three case studies. We first explored the ability of our method to detect change in temperate and boreal forest training sites in North America and Eurasia. We applied our method to map regional forest change in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States, and in tropical forests of the Xingu River Basin in Mato Grosso, Brazil. Results from these case studies show that the method successfully identified pixels affected by logging and fire disturbance in temperate and boreal forest sites. Change detection results in the Pacific Northwest compared well with a Landsat-based disturbance map, yielding a producer's accuracy of 85%. Assessment of change detection results for the Xingu River Basin demonstrated that detection accuracy improves as the fraction of

  3. Seven new species of Selaginella subg. Stachygynandrum (Selaginellaceae) from Brazil and new synonyms for the genus

    PubMed Central

    Valdespino, Iván A.; Heringer, Gustavo; Salino, Alexandre; Góes-Neto, Luiz A. de Araújo; Ceballos, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We describe seven new species of Selaginella subg. Stachygynandrum (Selaginella alstonii, Selaginella blepharodella, Selaginella crinita, Selaginella mucronata, Selaginella mucugensis, Selaginella saltuicola, and Selaginella sematophylla) from Brazil and discuss their possible affinities and conservation status. Scanning electron micrographs of stem sections, leaves, and spores are provided to illustrate the new taxa. In Selaginella alstonii and Selaginella saltuicola vegetative growth from strobilus tips is reported and discussed. Four of the new species are from the Espinhaço Mountain Range associated with Campos Rupestres (montane savannah/rocky fields) vegetation. Three of these (i.e., Selaginella blepharodella, Selaginella crinita, and Selaginella mucugensis) were collected in the northern part of the range in Chapada Diamantina, state of Bahia, while Selaginella alstonii is from the southern part of the range in the state of Minas Gerais. Selaginella mucronata is found in Atlantic Rainforest vegetation in the state of Espírito Santo, whereas Selaginella saltuicola inhabits Cerrado (tropical savannah) vegetation in the state of Mato Grosso. Selaginella sematophylla is the most widely distributed of the new species and was collected in Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais, and Rio de Janeiro states in Campos Rupestres and Atlantic Rainforest vegetation. Selaginella alstonii occurs in rocky caves, Selaginella blepharodella, Selaginella crinita, Selaginella mucugensis, and Selaginella sematophylla seem adapted to seasonally dry places, living on sandy or humid soils, Selaginella mucronata occupies humid, forest understory, and Selaginella saltuicola is adapted to wet places associated with rocks or logs in waterfalls. Of the seven new species, six are considered local endemics (except for Selaginella sematophylla) because of their restricted currently known distributions to one or two localities within a single state in Brazil. Additionally, we propose new

  4. Contrasting Patterns of Damage and Recovery in Logged Amazon Forests From Small Footprint LiDAR Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morton, D. C.; Keller, M.; Cook, B. D.; Hunter, Maria; Sales, Marcio; Spinelli, L.; Victoria, D.; Andersen, H.-E.; Saleska, S.

    2012-01-01

    Tropical forests ecosystems respond dynamically to climate variability and disturbances on time scales of minutes to millennia. To date, our knowledge of disturbance and recovery processes in tropical forests is derived almost exclusively from networks of forest inventory plots. These plots typically sample small areas (less than or equal to 1 ha) in conservation units that are protected from logging and fire. Amazon forests with frequent disturbances from human activity remain under-studied. Ongoing negotiations on REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation plus enhancing forest carbon stocks) have placed additional emphasis on identifying degraded forests and quantifying changing carbon stocks in both degraded and intact tropical forests. We evaluated patterns of forest disturbance and recovery at four -1000 ha sites in the Brazilian Amazon using small footprint LiDAR data and coincident field measurements. Large area coverage with airborne LiDAR data in 2011-2012 included logged and unmanaged areas in Cotriguacu (Mato Grosso), Fiona do Jamari (Rondonia), and Floresta Estadual do Antimary (Acre), and unmanaged forest within Reserva Ducke (Amazonas). Logging infrastructure (skid trails, log decks, and roads) was identified using LiDAR returns from understory vegetation and validated based on field data. At each logged site, canopy gaps from logging activity and LiDAR metrics of canopy heights were used to quantify differences in forest structure between logged and unlogged areas. Contrasting patterns of harvesting operations and canopy damages at the three logged sites reflect different levels of pre-harvest planning (i.e., informal logging compared to state or national logging concessions), harvest intensity, and site conditions. Finally, we used multi-temporal LiDAR data from two sites, Reserva Ducke (2009, 2012) and Antimary (2010, 2011), to evaluate gap phase dynamics in unmanaged forest areas. The rates and patterns of canopy gap

  5. Eucalyptus development in degraded soil fertilized with sewage sludge and mineral fertilizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, R. A. F.; Santos, E. B.; Alves, M. C.; Arruda, O. G.

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the development of eucalyptus in a degraded Oxisol with mineral fertilizer and sewage sludge. The study was conducted in Selviria, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. The culture of eucalyptus was planted in 2003 at 2.0 m x 1.5 m spacing, with application of 60 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge (dry basis) and mineral fertilizer. After five years (2008) the area received biosolids and mineral fertilizer, and after five months, were evaluated for height and diameter at breast height of Eucalyptus. The experimental design was randomized blocks with four treatments: T1 - control (without addition of inputs), T2 - Mineral fertilization (30 kg ha-1 N, 90 kg ha-1 of P2O5 and 60 kg ha-1 K2O), T3 - Reapplication of 4.64 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge, dry basis, T4 - Reapplication of 9.28 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge, dry basis. Before reapplication the biosolids plant height was higher in the eucalyptus with treatment 9.28 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge (8.03 m) compared to control (5.75 m) and mineral fertilizer (5.91 m) and that treatment 4.64 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge (6.34 m) did not differ from the previous three. For the diameter at breast height was the highest value for treatment with 9.28 Mg ha-1 (7.78 cm) compared to control (5.23 cm) and 4.64 Mg ha-1 (5.03 cm), and that of mineral fertilizer (5.96 cm) did not differ from all treatments. After reapplication of sludge plant height was higher in the eucalyptus treatment with 9.28 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge (11.21 m) compared with control (7.51 m), mineral fertilizer (7.77 m) and 4 64 Mg ha-1 (8.07 m), which did not differ. The diameter at breast height had the same behavior before the application of biosolids in the highest value observed being 9.28 Mg ha-1 (8.46 cm) compared with control (5.75 cm) and 4.64 Mg ha-1 (5.03 cm) and that of mineral fertilizer (6.34 cm) did not differ from the others. Reapplication of the dose of 9.28 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge in degraded Oxisol provided greater height and diameter at

  6. Seven new species of Selaginellasubg.Stachygynandrum (Selaginellaceae) from Brazil and new synonyms for the genus.

    PubMed

    Valdespino, Iván A; Heringer, Gustavo; Salino, Alexandre; Góes-Neto, Luiz A de Araújo; Ceballos, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    We describe seven new species of Selaginellasubg.Stachygynandrum (Selaginellaalstonii, Selaginellablepharodella, Selaginellacrinita, Selaginellamucronata, Selaginellamucugensis, Selaginellasaltuicola, and Selaginellasematophylla) from Brazil and discuss their possible affinities and conservation status. Scanning electron micrographs of stem sections, leaves, and spores are provided to illustrate the new taxa. In Selaginellaalstonii and Selaginellasaltuicola vegetative growth from strobilus tips is reported and discussed. Four of the new species are from the Espinhaço Mountain Range associated with Campos Rupestres (montane savannah/rocky fields) vegetation. Three of these (i.e., Selaginellablepharodella, Selaginellacrinita, and Selaginellamucugensis) were collected in the northern part of the range in Chapada Diamantina, state of Bahia, while Selaginellaalstonii is from the southern part of the range in the state of Minas Gerais. Selaginellamucronata is found in Atlantic Rainforest vegetation in the state of Espírito Santo, whereas Selaginellasaltuicola inhabits Cerrado (tropical savannah) vegetation in the state of Mato Grosso. Selaginellasematophylla is the most widely distributed of the new species and was collected in Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais, and Rio de Janeiro states in Campos Rupestres and Atlantic Rainforest vegetation. Selaginellaalstonii occurs in rocky caves, Selaginellablepharodella, Selaginellacrinita, Selaginellamucugensis, and Selaginellasematophylla seem adapted to seasonally dry places, living on sandy or humid soils, Selaginellamucronata occupies humid, forest understory, and Selaginellasaltuicola is adapted to wet places associated with rocks or logs in waterfalls. Of the seven new species, six are considered local endemics (except for Selaginellasematophylla) because of their restricted currently known distributions to one or two localities within a single state in Brazil. Additionally, we propose new synonymy for Selaginellapalmiformis

  7. The phosphorus cost of agricultural intensification in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Roy, Eric D; Richards, Peter D; Martinelli, Luiz A; Coletta, Luciana Della; Lins, Silvia Rafaela Machado; Vazquez, Felipe Ferraz; Willig, Edwin; Spera, Stephanie A; VanWey, Leah K; Porder, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural intensification in the tropics is one way to meet rising global food demand in coming decades(1,2). Although this strategy can potentially spare land from conversion to agriculture(3), it relies on large material inputs. Here we quantify one such material cost, the phosphorus fertilizer required to intensify global crop production atop phosphorus-fixing soils and achieve yields similar to productive temperate agriculture. Phosphorus-fixing soils occur mainly in the tropics, and render added phosphorus less available to crops(4,5). We estimate that intensification of the 8-12% of global croplands overlying phosphorus-fixing soils in 2005 would require 1-4 Tg P yr(-1) to overcome phosphorus fixation, equivalent to 8-25% of global inorganic phosphorus fertilizer consumption that year. This imposed phosphorus 'tax' is in addition to phosphorus added to soils and subsequently harvested in crops, and doubles (2-7 Tg P yr(-1)) for scenarios of cropland extent in 2050(6). Our estimates are informed by local-, state- and national-scale investigations in Brazil, where, more than any other tropical country, low-yielding agriculture has been replaced by intensive production. In the 11 major Brazilian agricultural states, the surplus of added inorganic fertilizer phosphorus retained by soils post harvest is strongly correlated with the fraction of cropland overlying phosphorus-fixing soils (r(2) = 0.84, p < 0.001). Our interviews with 49 farmers in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso, which produces 8% of the world's soybeans mostly on phosphorus-fixing soils, suggest this phosphorus surplus is required even after three decades of high phosphorus inputs. Our findings in Brazil highlight the need for better understanding of long-term soil phosphorus fixation elsewhere in the tropics. Strategies beyond liming, which is currently widespread in Brazil, are needed to reduce phosphorus retention by phosphorus-fixing soils to better manage the Earth

  8. Inter-annual Variability of Biomass Burning Aerosol Optical Depth in Southern Amazonia, and the Impact of These Aerosols on the Diurnal Cycle of Solar Flux Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eck, T. F.; Holben, B. N.; Schafer, J. S.; Artaxo, P.; Yamasoe, M. A.; Procopio, A. S.; Prins, E. M.; Feltz, J. M.; Smirnov, A.; Dubovik, O.; Reid, J. S.

    2002-12-01

    The inter-annual variability of the magnitude of biomass burning in southern Amazonia has been relatively large over the last decade. The extent of the burning in the latter half of a given dry season (July-October) depends largely on the rainfall amount and timing, with drought years exhibiting many more fires and smoke than average. Additionally, new regulations aimed at controlling burning may also affect inter-annual variability. We present measurements of aerosol optical depth (AOD) from biomass burning smoke as measured by AERONET sites in Rondonia and Mato Grosso from 1993-2002. These AOD measurements are shown to follow similar inter-annual variability as the fire counts determined by the multi-spectral radiance measurements obtained with GOES-8. However, the AOD at these sites exhibit relatively little diurnal variation despite a very large diurnal cycle in satellite detected fire counts. In order to quantify the changes in the diurnal cycle of solar flux reduction as a result of aerosol attenuation at the peak of the burning season, we model the diurnal cycle of total shortwave (SW; 300-4000 nm), photosynthetically active radiation (PAR; 400-700 nm), and Ultraviolet- A (UVA; 320-400 nm) fluxes in mid-September using the AERONET monthly average AOD measurements (AOD(550 nm) = 1.11). These average diurnal cycle flux reductions show significant temporal delays in the morning for equivalent flux levels in all three spectral bands, of ~50 min to 2 hr 15 min at mid-morning (midpoint between sunrise and solar noon). The largest time delays in flux occur in the UVA band and the smallest in the total SW broadband due to a rapid decrease in AOD as wavelength increases for the accumulation mode smoke aerosols. The time delays in solar flux have implications for possible delay of the onset of cumulus convection, the shortening of the photo-period when plants photosynthesize, and reduced time interval for UVA fluxes which may have implications for photochemical

  9. Detecting Land Cover Change by Trend and Seasonality of Remote Sensing Time Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, J. C.; Epiphanio, J. N.; Mello, M. P.

    2013-05-01

    Natural resource managers demand knowledge of information on the spatiotemporal dynamics of land use and land cover change, and detection and characteristics change over time is an initial step for the understanding of the mechanism of change. The propose of this research is the use the approach BFAST (Breaks For Additive Seasonal and Trend) for detects trend and seasonal changes within Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series. BFAST integrates the decomposition of time series into trend, seasonal, and noise components with methods for detecting change within time series without the need to select a reference period, set a threshold, or define a change trajectory. BFAST iteratively estimates the time and number of changes, and characterizes change by its magnitude and direction. The general model is of the form Yt = Tt + St + et (t= 1,2,3,…, n) where Yt is the observed data at time t, Tt is the trend component, St is the seasonal component, and et is the remainder component. In this study was used MODIS NDVI time series datasets (MOD13Q1) over 11 years (2000 - 2010) on an intensive agricultural area in Mato Grosso - Brazil. At first it was applied a filter for noise reduction (4253H twice) over spectral curve of each MODIS pixel, and subsequently each time series was decomposed into seasonal, trend, and remainder components by BFAST. Were detected one abrupt change from a single pixel of forest and two abrupt changes on trend component to a pixel of the agricultural area. Figure 1 shows the number of phonological change with base in seasonal component for study area. This paper demonstrated the ability of the BFAST to detect long-term phenological change by analyzing time series while accounting for abrupt and gradual changes. The algorithm iteratively estimates the dates and number of changes occurring within seasonal and trend components, and characterizes changes by extracting the magnitude and direction of change. Changes occurring in the

  10. Tiny Bird, Huge Mystery-The Possibly Extinct Hooded Seedeater (Sporophila melanops) Is a Capuchino with a Melanistic Cap.

    PubMed

    Areta, Juan Ignacio; Piacentini, Vítor de Q; Haring, Elisabeth; Gamauf, Anita; Silveira, Luís Fábio; Machado, Erika; Kirwan, Guy M

    2016-01-01

    Known with certainty solely from a unique male specimen collected in central Brazil in the first quarter of the 19th century, the Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct) Hooded Seedeater Sporophila melanops has been one of the great enigmas of Neotropical ornithology, arguably the only one of a host of long-lost species from Brazil to remain obstinately undiscovered. We reanalysed the morphology of the type specimen, as well as a female specimen postulated to represent the same taxon, and sequenced mitochondrial DNA (COI and Cyt-b) from both individuals. Furthermore, we visited the type locality, at the border between Goiás and Mato Grosso, and its environs on multiple occasions at different seasons, searching for birds with similar morphology to the type, without success. Novel genetic and morphological evidence clearly demonstrates that the type of S. melanops is not closely related to Yellow-bellied Seedeater S. nigricollis, as has been frequently postulated in the literature, but is in fact a representative of one of the so-called capuchinos, a clade of attractively plumaged seedeaters that breed mostly in the Southern Cone of South America. Our morphological analysis indicates that S. melanops has a hitherto unreported dark-coffee throat and that it is probably a Dark-throated Seedeater S. ruficollis collected within its wintering range, acquiring breeding plumage and showing melanism on the cap feathers. Alternatively, it may be a melanistic-capped individual of a local population of seedeaters known to breed in the Esteros del Iberá, Corrientes, Argentina, to which the name S. ruficollis might be applicable, whilst the name S. plumbeiceps might be available for what is currently known as S. ruficollis. A hybrid origin for S. melanops cannot be ruled out from the available data, but seems unlikely. The purported female specimen of S. melanops pertains either to S. nigricollis or to Double-collared Seedeater S. caerulescens based on genetic and

  11. Tiny Bird, Huge Mystery—The Possibly Extinct Hooded Seedeater (Sporophila melanops) Is a Capuchino with a Melanistic Cap

    PubMed Central

    Areta, Juan Ignacio; Piacentini, Vítor de Q.; Haring, Elisabeth; Gamauf, Anita; Silveira, Luís Fábio; Machado, Erika; Kirwan, Guy M.

    2016-01-01

    Known with certainty solely from a unique male specimen collected in central Brazil in the first quarter of the 19th century, the Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct) Hooded Seedeater Sporophila melanops has been one of the great enigmas of Neotropical ornithology, arguably the only one of a host of long-lost species from Brazil to remain obstinately undiscovered. We reanalysed the morphology of the type specimen, as well as a female specimen postulated to represent the same taxon, and sequenced mitochondrial DNA (COI and Cyt-b) from both individuals. Furthermore, we visited the type locality, at the border between Goiás and Mato Grosso, and its environs on multiple occasions at different seasons, searching for birds with similar morphology to the type, without success. Novel genetic and morphological evidence clearly demonstrates that the type of S. melanops is not closely related to Yellow-bellied Seedeater S. nigricollis, as has been frequently postulated in the literature, but is in fact a representative of one of the so-called capuchinos, a clade of attractively plumaged seedeaters that breed mostly in the Southern Cone of South America. Our morphological analysis indicates that S. melanops has a hitherto unreported dark-coffee throat and that it is probably a Dark-throated Seedeater S. ruficollis collected within its wintering range, acquiring breeding plumage and showing melanism on the cap feathers. Alternatively, it may be a melanistic-capped individual of a local population of seedeaters known to breed in the Esteros del Iberá, Corrientes, Argentina, to which the name S. ruficollis might be applicable, whilst the name S. plumbeiceps might be available for what is currently known as S. ruficollis. A hybrid origin for S. melanops cannot be ruled out from the available data, but seems unlikely. The purported female specimen of S. melanops pertains either to S. nigricollis or to Double-collared Seedeater S. caerulescens based on genetic and

  12. Visceral leishmaniasis in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil: spatial and space-time analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cardim, Marisa Furtado Mozini; Guirado, Marluci Monteiro; Dibo, Margareth Regina; Chiaravalloti, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To perform both space and space-time evaluations of visceral leishmaniasis in humans in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. METHODS The population considered in the study comprised autochthonous cases of visceral leishmaniasis and deaths resulting from it in Sao Paulo, between 1999 and 2013. The analysis considered the western region of the state as its studied area. Thematic maps were created to show visceral leishmaniasis dissemination in humans in the municipality. Spatial analysis tools Kernel and Kernel ratio were used to respectively obtain the distribution of cases and deaths and the distribution of incidence and mortality. Scan statistics were used in order to identify spatial and space-time clusters of cases and deaths. RESULTS The visceral leishmaniasis cases in humans, during the studied period, were observed to occur in the western portion of Sao Paulo, and their territorial extension mainly followed the eastbound course of the Marechal Rondon highway. The incidences were characterized as two sequences of concentric ellipses of decreasing intensities. The first and more intense one was found to have its epicenter in the municipality of Castilho (where the Marechal Rondon highway crosses the border of the state of Mato Grosso do Sul) and the second one in Bauru. Mortality was found to have a similar behavior to incidence. The spatial and space-time clusters of cases were observed to coincide with the two areas of highest incidence. Both the space-time clusters identified, even without coinciding in time, were started three years after the human cases were detected and had the same duration, that is, six years. CONCLUSIONS The expansion of visceral leishmaniasis in Sao Paulo has been taking place in an eastbound direction, focusing on the role of highways, especially Marechal Rondon, in this process. The space-time analysis detected the disease occurred in cycles, in different spaces and time periods. These meetings, if considered, may

  13. Deforestation in Brazil: motivations, journeys and tendencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leite, J. C.; Ferreira, A. J. D.; Esteves, T. C. J.; Bento, C. P. M.

    2012-04-01

    José Carlos Leite1; António José Dinis Ferreira2; Tanya Cristina de Jesus Esteves2; Célia Patrícia Martins Bento2 1Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Brazil; 2IPC - Escola Superior Agrária de Coimbra, Portugal Over the last three decades, deforestation in Brazil occurred systematically in the area known as the "arc of deforestation", an extensive geographical area located in the interface of the Cerrado and the Amazon biomes. This work encompasses the reasons, causes and/or motivations of that recent deforestation, focusing on the Central-West and Northern regions. A number of reasons will be presented, seeking to build an approach able to identify the deepest roots of deforestation of those regions. Our actions over the environment are framed by our cultural matrix that stream from a western philosophic attitude. This way, to understand the framework where the deforestation actions are justified requires a multidisciplinary approach to understand the deforestation of the Cerrado and Amazon biomes, since the motivations for forest destruction in Brazil are complex and not entirely understood within the domains of a single disciplinary area. To search for an isolated cause to understand the recent deforestation can only be plausible if we ignore information on what actually happens. The methodology used in this work is based on a bibliographical revision, analysis of georeferrenced information, participative processes implementation and observation of stakeholder behavior, and field research. It departs from a general vision on deforestation that initially occurred at the littoral region, by the Atlantic Rainforest, right after the arrival of the Europeans, and throughout the centuries penetrates towards the interior, hitting the Cerrado and Amazon biomes. In this last case, we focused on the Vale do Alto Guaporé region, near Bolivia, where the intensity of the deforestation was verified from 1970 to 1990. Ultimately, the final result is a mosaic of reasons

  14. Taxonomic and numerical resolutions of nepomorpha (insecta: heteroptera) in cerrado streams.

    PubMed

    Giehl, Nubia França da Silva; Dias-Silva, Karina; Juen, Leandro; Batista, Joana Darc; Cabette, Helena Soares Ramos

    2014-01-01

    Transformations of natural landscapes and their biodiversity have become increasingly dramatic and intense, creating a demand for rapid and inexpensive methods to assess and monitor ecosystems, especially the most vulnerable ones, such as aquatic systems. The speed with which surveys can collect, identify, and describe ecological patterns is much slower than that of the loss of biodiversity. Thus, there is a tendency for higher-level taxonomic identification to be used, a practice that is justified by factors such as the cost-benefit ratio, and the lack of taxonomists and reliable information on species distributions and diversity. However, most of these studies do not evaluate the degree of representativeness obtained by different taxonomic resolutions. Given this demand, the present study aims to investigate the congruence between species-level and genus-level data for the infraorder Nepomorpha, based on taxonomic and numerical resolutions. We collected specimens of aquatic Nepomorpha from five streams of first to fourth order of magnitude in the Pindaíba River Basin in the Cerrado of the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, totaling 20 sites. A principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) applied to the data indicated that species-level and genus-level abundances were relatively similar (>80% similarity), although this similarity was reduced when compared with the presence/absence of genera (R = 0.77). The presence/absence ordinations of species and genera were similar to those recorded for their abundances (R = 0.95 and R = 0.74, respectively). The results indicate that analyses at the genus level may be used instead of species, given a loss of information of 11 to 19%, although congruence is higher when using abundance data instead of presence/absence. This analysis confirms that the use of the genus level data is a safe shortcut for environmental monitoring studies, although this approach must be treated with caution when the objectives include conservation

  15. Bovine cysticercosis in slaughtered cattle as an indicator of Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) and epidemiological risk factors.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Gabriel Augusto Marques; Hoppe, Estevam Guilherme Lux; Mathias, Luis Antonio; Martins, Ana Maria Centola Vidal; Mussi, Leila Aparecida; Prata, Luiz Francisco

    2015-03-01

    This study focused on estimating the economic losses resulting from cysticercosis at beef cattle farms that supply an export slaughterhouse located in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, and to identify the epidemiological risks factors involved in the disease to ascertain if these farms adopt Good Agricultural Practices (GAP). To this, we used data recorded in 2012 by Brazil's Federal Inspection Service (SIF) on the daily occurrence of the disease, according to the farm from which the animals originated. In addition, the associated risk factors were determined based on a case-control study at 48 farms. Cysticercosis was detected in 2.26% (95% CI 2.2-2.33) of the 190,903 bovines supplied by 556 farms in the following four states: 2.92% (95% CI 2.83-3.03) in São Paulo, 1.81% (95% CI 1.71-1.93) in Minas Gerais, 0.71% (95% CI 0.6-0.82) in Goiás and 1.11% (95% CI 0.79-1.57) in Mato Grosso do Sul, with significant differences in the epidemiological indices of these states. Cysticercosis was detected at 58.45% (95% CI 54.36-62.55) of the farms of this study, representing estimated economic losses of US$312,194.52 for the farmers. Lower prevalence of this disease were found at the farms qualified for exports to the European Union, indicating a statistically significant difference from those not qualified to export to Europe. The access of cattle to non-controlled water sources, as well as sport fishing activities near the farms, was identified as risk factors. Cysticercosis causes considerable losses in Brazil's beef supply chain, with lower prevalence appearing only at farms qualified to export to the European Union. As for the access of cattle to non-controlled water sources, this is an indication that GAP are not implemented by some farms, demonstrating the violation of international agreements by the industry and the farms. PMID:25631403

  16. Early development in the mouth-brooding cichlid fish Satanoperca pappaterra (Perciformes: Cichlidae).

    PubMed

    Miranda Lopes, Taise; Garcia de Oliveira, Fernando; Bialetzki, Andréa; Antonio Agostinho, Angelo

    2015-03-01

    The Neotropical region exhibits the largest diversity of fish worldwide; however, little is known about the early development of fish species from this region. Therefore, to contribute to this knowledge, this study aimed to morphologically describe the early stages of development (eggs, larvae and juveniles) of S. pappaterra using morphometric and meristic traits, and to assess changes in growth rates throughout larval and juvenile development by analyzing the relationships between various morphometric traits using analytical regression models. Both juvenile and adult individuals with mouth-brooded offspring were collected along the basins of the Cuiaba and Manso Rivers in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil between March 2000 and March 2004. After the adults were identified, the offspring were classified according to its stage (embryonic, larval or juvenile period), and various morphometric and meristic variables were individually measured (when possible). The eggs of this species are yellow in color, oval shaped, show dendritic pigmentation within their yolk, have small to moderately sized perivitelline spaces and lack a mucous membrane and oil droplets. The horizontal and vertical diameters of the sample yolks ranged from 1.43mm to 2.70mm and 1.05mm to 1.68 mm, respectively. The standard length of the larval period varied from 4.30mm to 7.16mm, and the standard length of the juvenile period varied from 10.29mm to 24.57mm. Larvae exhibit yolk sacs with internal dendritic pigmentation and dark punctate pigmentation in the dorsal and ventral body regions, whereas irregular transverse spots along the flanks are observed during the juvenile period. Adhesive organs are only present during the yolk-sac stage and at the beginning of the flexion stage. The mouth is terminal during all stages of development. The myomere number varied from 22 to 29 (9 to 16 pre-anal and 10 to 16 post-anal), and the maximal numbers of fin rays and spines were as follows: dorsal, XVI+10; anal

  17. Taxonomic and Numerical Resolutions of Nepomorpha (Insecta: Heteroptera) in Cerrado Streams

    PubMed Central

    Giehl, Nubia França da Silva; Dias-Silva, Karina; Juen, Leandro; Batista, Joana Darc; Cabette, Helena Soares Ramos

    2014-01-01

    Transformations of natural landscapes and their biodiversity have become increasingly dramatic and intense, creating a demand for rapid and inexpensive methods to assess and monitor ecosystems, especially the most vulnerable ones, such as aquatic systems. The speed with which surveys can collect, identify, and describe ecological patterns is much slower than that of the loss of biodiversity. Thus, there is a tendency for higher-level taxonomic identification to be used, a practice that is justified by factors such as the cost-benefit ratio, and the lack of taxonomists and reliable information on species distributions and diversity. However, most of these studies do not evaluate the degree of representativeness obtained by different taxonomic resolutions. Given this demand, the present study aims to investigate the congruence between species-level and genus-level data for the infraorder Nepomorpha, based on taxonomic and numerical resolutions. We collected specimens of aquatic Nepomorpha from five streams of first to fourth order of magnitude in the Pindaíba River Basin in the Cerrado of the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, totaling 20 sites. A principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) applied to the data indicated that species-level and genus-level abundances were relatively similar (>80% similarity), although this similarity was reduced when compared with the presence/absence of genera (R = 0.77). The presence/absence ordinations of species and genera were similar to those recorded for their abundances (R = 0.95 and R = 0.74, respectively). The results indicate that analyses at the genus level may be used instead of species, given a loss of information of 11 to 19%, although congruence is higher when using abundance data instead of presence/absence. This analysis confirms that the use of the genus level data is a safe shortcut for environmental monitoring studies, although this approach must be treated with caution when the objectives include conservation

  18. Highways and outposts: economic development and health threats in the central Brazilian Amazon region

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Economic development is often evoked as a driving force that has the capacity to improve the social and health conditions of remote areas. However, development projects produce uneven impacts on local communities, according to their different positions within society. This study examines the spatial distribution of three major health threats in the Brazilian Amazon region that may undergo changes through highway construction. Homicide mortality, AIDS incidence and malaria prevalence rates were calculated for 70 municipalities located within the areas of influence of the Cuiabá-Santarém highway (BR-163), i.e. in the western part of the state of Pará state and the northern part of Mato Grosso. Results The municipalities were characterized using social and economic indicators such as gross domestic product (GDP), urban and indigenous populations, and recent migration. The municipalities' connections to the region's main transportation routes (BR-163 and Trans-Amazonian highways, along with the Amazon and Tapajós rivers) were identified by tagging the municipalities that have boundaries crossing these routes, using GIS overlay operations. Multiple regression was used to identify the major driving forces and constraints relating to the distribution of health threats. The main explanatory variables for higher malaria prevalence were: proximity to the Trans-Amazonian highway, high proportion of indigenous population and low proportion of migrants. High homicide rates were associated with high proportions of migrants, while connection to the Amazon River played a protective role. AIDS incidence was higher in municipalities with recent increases in GDP and high proportions of urban population. Conclusions Highways induce social and environmental changes and play different roles in spreading and maintaining diseases and health threats. The most remote areas are still protected against violence but are vulnerable to malaria. Rapid economic and demographic

  19. Mapping and spatiotemporal characterization of degraded forests in the Brazilian Amazon through remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, Carlos Moreira, Jr.

    Large forested areas have recently been impoverished by degradation caused by selective logging, forest fires and fragmentation in the Amazon region, causing partial change of the original forest structure and composition. As opposed to deforestation that has been monitored with Landsat images since the late 70's, degraded forests have not been monitored in the Amazon region. In this dissertation, remote sensing techniques for identifying and mapping unambiguously degraded forests with Landsat images are proposed. The test area was the region of Sinop, located in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. This region was selected because a gradient of degraded forest environments exist and a robust time-series of Landsat images and forest transect data were available. First, statistical analyses were applied to identify the best set of spectral information extracted from Landsat images to detect several types of degraded forest environments. Fraction images derived from Spectral Mixture Analysis (SMA) were the best type of information for that purpose. A new spectral index based on fraction images---Normalized Difference Fraction Index (NDFI)---was proposed to enhance the detection of canopy damaged areas in degraded forests. Second, a contextual classification algorithm was implemented to separate unambiguously forest degradation caused by anthropogenic activities from natural forest disturbances. These techniques were validated using forest transects and high resolution aerial videography images and proved to be highly accurate. Next, these techniques were applied to a time-series data set of Landsat images, encompassing 20 years, to evaluate the relationship between forest degradation and deforestation. The most important finding of the forest change detection analysis was that forest degradation and deforestation are independent events in the study area, making worse the current forest impacts in the Amazon region. Finally, the techniques developed and tested in the

  20. Time-series analysis of multi-resolution optical imagery for quantifying forest cover loss in Sumatra and Kalimantan, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broich, Mark; Hansen, Matthew C.; Potapov, Peter; Adusei, Bernard; Lindquist, Erik; Stehman, Stephen V.

    2011-04-01

    Monitoring loss of humid tropical forests via remotely sensed imagery is critical for a number of environmental monitoring objectives, including carbon accounting, biodiversity, and climate modeling science applications. Landsat imagery, provided free of charge by the U.S. Geological Survey Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (USGS/EROS), enables consistent and timely forest cover loss updates from regional to biome scales. The Indonesian islands of Sumatra and Kalimantan are a center of significant forest cover change within the humid tropics with implications for carbon dynamics, biodiversity maintenance and local livelihoods. Sumatra and Kalimantan feature poor observational coverage compared to other centers of humid tropical forest change, such as Mato Grosso, Brazil, due to the lack of ongoing acquisitions from nearby ground stations and the persistence of cloud cover obscuring the land surface. At the same time, forest change in Indonesia is transient and does not always result in deforestation, as cleared forests are rapidly replaced by timber plantations and oil palm estates. Epochal composites, where single best observations are selected over a given time interval and used to quantify change, are one option for monitoring forest change in cloudy regions. However, the frequency of forest cover change in Indonesia confounds the ability of image composite pairs to quantify all change. Transient change occurring between composite periods is often missed and the length of time required for creating a cloud-free composite often obscures change occurring within the composite period itself. In this paper, we analyzed all Landsat 7 imagery with <50% cloud cover and data and products from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to quantify forest cover loss for Sumatra and Kalimantan from 2000 to 2005. We demonstrated that time-series approaches examining all good land observations are more accurate in mapping forest cover change in

  1. Palaeoproterozoic tectonic evolution of the Alto Tererê Group, southernmost Amazonian Craton, based on field mapping, zircon dating and rock geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacerda Filho, J. V.; Fuck, R. A.; Ruiz, A. S.; Dantas, E. L.; Scandolara, J. E.; Rodrigues, J. B.; Nascimento, N. D. C.

    2016-01-01

    New geochemical and geochronological U-Pb and Sm-Nd data from amphibolites of the Alto Tererê Group, which are of Palaeoproterozoic age, are presented. The amphibolites are exposed in the central-eastern portion of the Rio Apa Block, southern Amazonian Craton, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, and are composed of hornblende, plagioclase, quartz, biotite, cummingtonite and epidote. The amphibolites are subdivided into three lithofacies: (i) thinly banded amphibolites (metabasalts), (ii) coarse- and medium-grained amphibolites with relic subophitic texture (metagabbros), and (iii) amphibolites with relic cumulate texture (metapyroxenites). Chemical data also suggest the subdivision of the amphibolites into three different types. These rocks yield a U-Pb zircon age of 1768 ± 6 Ma and are therefore older than rocks of part of the Rio Apa Complex. Their Sm-Nd model ages range between 2.89 and 1.88 Ga, and their ɛNd (T) values range between -3.40 and + 3.74. Chemical analyses of these rocks indicate SiO2 concentrations between 45.23 and 50.65 wt.%, MgO concentrations between 4.34 and 8.01 wt.%, TiO2 concentrations between 0.91 and 1.74 wt.%, weakly fractionated rare-earth element (REE) patterns with mild depletion in heavy REEs, enrichment in large-ion lithophile elements (LILEs) and high-field-strength element (HFSEs), negative Nb, Ta and Co anomalies, positive Ba and Pb anomalies, low Ce concentrations, high Rb/Y ratios and low Th/La and Hf/Sm ratios. These features reflect metasomatism of the mantle wedge produced by sediments from the subducted plate. Various degrees of melting mark the evolution of the parent basic magmas, although subordinate crustal contamination may also have occurred. The geochemical signature of the amphibolites corresponds to that of tholeiitic basalts generated in an extensional back-arc-basin environment. The deposition in the basin apparently ceased during the first episode of compression and deformation at approximately 1.68 Ga, and the main

  2. Reconstructing Rodinia: the view from Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tohver, E.; van der Pluijm, B.; Van der Voo, R.; Scandolara, J.; Rizzotto, G.

    2001-05-01

    Neoproterozoic rift stratigraphy between Namibia and Mato Grosso.

  3. Farmyard Manure and Fertilizer Effects on Seed Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Yield in Green House Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László, M.

    2009-04-01

    fertilizer (18.0 g pot-1) with a hard effect (57%). Our results are shown that it was possible developing of the seed potato production under tropical greenhouse conditions by optimalised soil-organic matter-fertilizer system. This datas should be as indicators to sustainable field potato advisory systems. Keywords: potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), greenhouse, latossolo vermelho soil, farmyard manure, burnt rice straw, 4N:14P:8K fertilizer, sustainability, yield Introducáo: Importância e situação actual em produção da batata no Brazíl A batata é atualmente uma das hortaliças de maior importância no Brasíl (Márton 2000a., 2000b.) com um cultivo annual médio de 173.000 ha e uma produção de 2600000 t. A produtividade médio nacional é de 15 t ha-1, muito baixa se considerar que é possivel a obtenção de rendimentos acima de 40 t ha-1. Observa- se também, que existe variação no produtividade entre regiões e estados. E importante como fonte de alimento pelo seu alto valor nutricional a quantidade produzida muito superior por unidade de área a tempo, se comparada com diversas outras culturas (László 2000b., 2000c.). Os estados que tradicionalmente produzem batata em maior ou menor escala são indicados em seguente: Pernambuco, Ceará, Sergipe, Goiás, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Rondonia e Acre. Os plantios predominantes são o das águas e das secas, sendo o de inverno bem menos expressivo, pois poucas áreas permitem o seu cultivo, na maioria dos casos necessitando- se de irrigação. Considerando as três épocas de plantio e diferentes condições climaticas brasileiras, podemos definir de um modo geral o plantio de batata no Brasíl da seguinte maneira: Nordeste e Centro- Oeste- plantio de inverno, Sudeste- plantio das águas, secas e inverno, Sul- plantio das aguas, secas e inverno. Sendo este último em áreas muito limitadas. Dentre as hortaliças a batata é uma das culturas mais estudadas actualmente. Os principais problemas que afetam a

  4. A Historian Will Lead a Community College in the Bronx

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    In July 2009, Felix V. Matos Rodriguez will take over as president of Hostos Community College of the City University of New York, which in 1970 opened in a converted tire factory in the South Bronx to educate members of a primarily Puerto Rican community. Like Mr. Matos Rodriguez, who moved to the mainland United States at age 18, many of those…

  5. Soil carbon accretion along an age chronosequence formed by the retreat of the Skaftafellsjökull glacier, SE-Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilmundardóttir, O. K.; Gísladóttir, G.; Lal, R.

    2015-01-01

    Climate warming has led to glacial retreat worldwide, where surfaces exposed to the atmosphere are subjected to weathering, vegetation colonization and new soil formation. On young soils developing along the recessional path left by the Skaftafellsjökull glacier, SE-Iceland, we investigated the accretion of soil organic carbon (SOC) and nitrogen (N), representing an age chronosequence of 120 years. In total, 54 sampling sites were distributed along three moraines deposited in 1890, 1945, and 2003. For comparison, soil samples were collected from nearby birch woodlands (Betula pubescens Ehrh.), representing soils in a mature ecosystem likely to establish on the moraines in the future. Results show that the average SOC and N concentrations increase with time and at faster rates over the latter part of the chronosequence period investigated (1945-1890). After 120 yrs, the soil contains 1.1 kg C m- 2 in the surface layer (0-10 cm), which is still about one third of the 3.2 kg C m- 2 in soil under the birch woodlands. The N stock estimated at 0.06 kg N m- 2 after 120 yrs is almost one fourth of that under the woodlands. The data suggest that landscape affects vegetation establishment and in turn, both landscape and vegetation affect soil development. Thus, concentrations of SOC, N and noncrystalline oxalate extractable Al and Fe are higher within depressions in the proglacial landscape. The comparison of SOC stock in the moraine soils with that under the birch forest shows that the young proglacial soils still have a large potential to accrete SOC within the developing pedosphere. With the observed accrual rate of 9.1 g C m- 2 yr- 1 in the top at 10 cm, it may take the moraine soils an additional period of 220 yrs to accrue SOC stocks comparable with those under the birch forest. Given the fact that all Icelandic glaciers are receding, assessing SOC accretion in new soil formation may be important to off-setting the greenhouse gas emissions.

  6. CaSiO3-walstromite inclusions in super-deep diamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anzolini, Chiara; Nestola, Fabrizio; Milani, Sula; Brenker, Frank E.

    2015-04-01

    Diamonds are considered the unique way to trap and convey real fragments of deep material to the surface of our planet. Over the last thirty years, great strides have been made in understanding of Earth's lower mantle, mainly thanks to technological and instrumental advances; nevertheless, it is only in the last two decades that a whole range of inclusion parageneses derived from the lower mantle was discovered in diamonds from São Luiz (Brazil) (Kaminsky, 2008 and references therein), thereby establishing a 'window' into the lower mantle. These so-called super-deep diamonds form at depths greater than lithospheric diamonds, more precisely between 300 and 800 km depth, and contain mostly ferropericlase, enstatite (believed to be derived from MgSi-perovskite) and CaSiO3-walstromite (believed to be derived from CaSiO3-perovskite). Even though CaSiO3 not only adopts the perovskite structure with increased pressure and temperature, but also it is considered the dominant Ca-bearing phase in the Earth's lower mantle (Tamai and Yagi, 1989), at the present day there are no reliable literature data on the pressure at which CaSiO3 crystallizes within diamonds. In order to obtain for the first time a pressure of formation value for CaSiO3-walstromite, several inclusions still trapped in a diamond coming from Juina (Mato Grosso, Brazil) were investigated both by in-situ microRaman spectroscopy and in-situ single-crystal X-ray diffraction. First, we applied 'single-inclusion elastic barometry' as improved by Angel et al. (2014) to determine the pressure of formation of the diamond-inclusion pairs. Starting from the maximum remnant pressure value ever reported (Joswig et al., 2003) and adopting the thermoelastic parameters already present in literature (Swamy and Dubrovinsky, 1997; Liu et al., 2012), we obtained an apparent entrapment pressure of ~7.1 GPa, corresponding to ~250 km, at 1500 K. The presence of fractures around the inclusions indicates this is a minimum estimate

  7. Global mantle convection: Evidence from carbon and nitrogen isotopes in super-deep diamonds (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palot, M.; Cartigny, P.; Harris, J.; Kaminsky, F. V.; Stachel, T.

    2009-12-01

    in 13C with δ13C from -4.2‰ down to -12.8‰. Three zoned TZ and LM diamonds demonstrate more than 3.5‰ δ13C variations, two from Kankan with δ13C up to +0.1‰ and +1.4‰ and one from Juina with δ13C down to -9.8‰. These diamonds may have initiated their growth in the LM and following slow uplift in a convective mantle have equilibrated in the TZ, and in doing so show an evolution in carbon isotopic composition. Therefore the C- and N- independent isotopic tracers suggest that significant amounts of material are exchanged across the 660km discontinuity. Subsequent preservation of a large range of δ13C and δ15N compositions may be compatible with the model of global thermochemical convection with a small amplitude of density heterogeneities inferred from seismology and mineral physics. Kaminsky, F. V. et al., 2001. Superdeep diamonds from Juina area, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Contrib Mineral Petrol 140: 734-753. Stachel, T. et al., 2001. Kankan diamonds (Guinea) III: δ13C and nitrogen characteristics of deep diamonds. Contrib Mineral Petrol 142: 465-475.

  8. Distance metric-based forest cover change detection using MODIS time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, X.; Friedl, M. A.; Sulla-menashe, D. J.

    2012-12-01

    More than a decade of global observations are now available from NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The MODIS archive provides new opportunities for identification and characterization of land cover change processes at regional to global scales. In particular, the high temporal frequency of MODIS data provides new opportunities for remotely sensed land cover change detection. At the same time, the relatively coarse spatial resolution of MODIS (250-500m) presents significant challenges for land cover change studies. In this paper we present a simple yet effective distance metric-based change detection method for identifying changed pixels at annual time steps from MODIS time series data. The approach we have developed uses statistical metrics that measure the within-year distance of a pixel to pixels of the same land cover class, and the between-year distance between measurements acquired at two points in time. Both metrics make explicit use of annual MODIS time series at each pixel. The former metric measures the similarity of a pixel's temporal profile to the average multi-year baseline time series, and the latter measures the similarity of the pixel's temporal profile before and after the year of interest. We evaluate our approach using two case studies for data from 2003-2010. In the first case study we apply our method to detect sites that have experienced land cover change in the training site database used to create the MODIS land cover product, focusing on forested land cover sites. In the second case study we examine forest conversion in the Xingu River Basin in Mato Grosso, Brazil. We also describe the pre-processing steps necessary to apply our method, including gap-filling, smoothing and temporal sub-setting of MODIS Nadir BRDF-adjusted Reflectance (NBAR) time series. These steps are crucial for baseline characterization of forest classes in both case studies, but require refinements specific to each dataset. Results show that

  9. Physiochemical Properties of the Pulp and Almonds of TUCUMÃ (Astrocaryum vulgare Mart) for Oil Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longo, R. M.; Ribeiro, A. I.; Melo, W. J.; Queiroz, M. R.; Russo, A. C.; Amaral, J. B.

    2009-04-01

    Tucumã (Astrocaryum vulgare Mart) it is a palm tree commonly found at the Amazonian forest of firm earth, it produces nutritious fruits, quite appreciated by the local population. The seeds are for the obtaining of eatable olive oil and soap, the endocarp is employee for the local population in the making of earrings, rings, bracelets, necklaces and other workmanships. This species has occurrence also in Acre, Rondônia, Pará, Mato Grosso, Roraima, Trindad, Guyana and Bolivia. The objective of this work was to accomplish mechanical tests on the fruits with the purpose of studying the rupture of the shell and the whole income almonds and to obtain the impact loads in tucumã fruits. It was also characterized biochemical compositions of the pulp and the almond seeking the use for the other ends. The physiochemical parameters analyzed were: moisture content, fats gray, total protein, fiber, carbohydrate, calorie, fats acids and vitamins, just in the pulp: vitamin E, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin B5, vitamin B3, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, vitamin C, vitamin D3 and vitamin E. The obtained results revealed that the maximum force of rupture was of approximately 6200 N for the direction apex-insert and 7200 N for the perpendicular direction; then this the tucumã fruit with high shell hardness when compared to the other types of chestnuts, being necessary studies to design machines capable to promote mechanical breaking and thus facilitating, its commercial exploration. The pulp of the tucumã fruits, presented a significant amount of fats (32%), following by carbohydrates (19,7%) and fibers (18,4). The caloric value was of 380 Kcal/g. Also the pulp presented good amount of vitamin B3 (niacin - 76,7%) and C (acid ascorbic - 23,6%). In relation to the fat acids the pulp presents contents of acid oleic (C18.1) about 72,8% following for linoléico (C18.2), being a good product for the human and animal feeding,. In the almond 24,2% of fiber, 10,7% of fats, 17,0% of

  10. Evolution of biomass burning aerosol over the Amazon: airborne measurements of aerosol chemical composition, microphysical properties, mixing state and optical properties during SAMBBA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, W.; Allan, J. D.; Flynn, M.; Darbyshire, E.; Hodgson, A.; Liu, D.; O'Shea, S.; Bauguitte, S.; Szpek, K.; Johnson, B.; Haywood, J.; Longo, K.; Artaxo, P.; Coe, H.

    2013-12-01

    Biomass burning represents one of the largest sources of particulate matter to the atmosphere, resulting in a significant perturbation to the Earth's radiative balance coupled with serious impacts on public health. On regional scales, the impacts are substantial, particularly in areas such as the Amazon Basin where large, intense and frequent burning occurs on an annual basis for several months. Absorption by atmospheric aerosols is underestimated by models over South America, which points to significant uncertainties relating to Black Carbon (BC) aerosol properties. Initial results from the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field experiment, which took place during September and October 2012 over Brazil on-board the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft, are presented here. Aerosol chemical composition was measured by an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) and a DMT Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2). The physical, chemical and optical properties of the aerosols across the region will be characterized in order to establish the impact of biomass burning on regional air quality, weather and climate. The aircraft sampled a range of conditions including sampling of pristine Rainforest, fresh biomass burning plumes, regional haze and elevated biomass burning layers within the free troposphere. The aircraft sampled biomass burning aerosol across the southern Amazon in the states of Rondonia and Mato Grosso, as well as in a Cerrado (Savannah-like) region in Tocantins state. This presented a range of fire conditions, in terms of their number, intensity, vegetation-type and their combustion efficiencies. Near-source sampling of fires in Rainforest environments suggested that smouldering combustion dominated, while flaming combustion dominated in the Cerrado. This led to significant differences in aerosol chemical composition, particularly in terms of the BC content, with BC being enhanced in the Cerrado

  11. Biomass burning aerosol over the Amazon during SAMBBA: impact of chemical composition on radiative properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, William; Allan, James; Flynn, Michael; Darbyshire, Eoghan; Hodgson, Amy; Liu, Dantong; O'shea, Sebastian; Bauguitte, Stephane; Szpek, Kate; Langridge, Justin; Johnson, Ben; Haywood, Jim; Longo, Karla; Artaxo, Paulo; Coe, Hugh

    2014-05-01

    Biomass burning represents one of the largest sources of particulate matter to the atmosphere, resulting in a significant perturbation to the Earth's radiative balance coupled with serious impacts on public health. Globally, biomass burning aerosols are thought to exert a small warming effect but with the uncertainty being 4 times greater than the central estimate. On regional scales, the impact is substantially greater, particularly in areas such as the Amazon Basin where large, intense and frequent burning occurs on an annual basis for several months. Absorption by atmospheric aerosols is underestimated by models over South America, which points to significant uncertainties relating to Black Carbon (BC) aerosol properties. Initial results from the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field experiment, which took place during September and October 2012 over Brazil on-board the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft, are presented here. Aerosol chemical composition was measured by an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) and a DMT Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2). The physical, chemical and optical properties of the aerosols across the region will be characterized in order to establish the impact of biomass burning on regional air quality, weather and climate. The aircraft sampled a range of conditions including sampling of pristine Rainforest, fresh biomass burning plumes, regional haze and elevated biomass burning layers within the free troposphere. The aircraft sampled biomass burning aerosol across the southern Amazon in the states of Rondonia and Mato Grosso, as well as in a Cerrado (Savannah-like) region in Tocantins state. This presented a range of fire conditions, both in terms of their number, intensity, vegetation-type and their combustion efficiencies. Near-source sampling of fires in Rainforest environments suggested that smouldering combustion dominated, while flaming combustion dominated

  12. Profiles of Trace Gas Concentrations in Undisturbed Forest in the Brazilian Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmo, J.; Crill, P.; Dias, J.; Camargo, P.; Keller, M.

    2004-12-01

    Globally, upland tropical forests are the largest natural source of nitrous oxide (N2O). Soils of upland tropical forests generally consume methane (CH4) although this process has only a minor effect on the atmospheric CH4 budget. In this study, we investigate the concentrations of N2O, CH4, and carbon dioxide (CO2) measured in profiles on towers in undisturbed forest at three Amazon forest sites located in the municipalities of Manaus, Amazonas, Melgaço, Para (Caxiuana), and Sinop, Mato Grosso. We measured gas concentration profiles at six heights above the ground on during both wet and dry seasons in 2003 and 2004. Nylon tubes (0.95 cm OD) were installed on towers used for meteorological and flux measurements in LBA. Gas samples were drawn through teflon filters (1μ m pore size) to a manifold and directed either to an infra-red gas analyzer (LiCor IRGA Model 6262), to sampling canisters, or to exhaust. During sampling periods, we maintained a continuous flow of at least 1 L min-1 through all sampling tubes. CO2 concentration data from the IRGA were recorded continuously using a Datastick analog to digital converter and a palm top computer. We removed air samples in electro-polished stainless steel canisters for off-site analysis of N2O and CH4 by ECD and FID gas chromatography respectively. Sampling times were selected based upon real-time measurements of CO2 concentration. Relatively stable meteorological conditions at night led to consistent increases in CO2 concentrations. At times we also observed increases in the concentrations of CH4 and N2O concentrations correlated with increasing CO2. The source of the increasing CO2 is most likely respiration by soil and above-ground organisms. Correlated increases in CH4 and N2O concentrations also likely result from biological activity in the soil and the canopy layer of the studied forests. Concentrations of these gases increase at night because the rate of gas emission in the canopy layer exceeds the rates of

  13. Reproductive and morphometric traits of Macrobrachium amazonicum (Decapoda: Palaemonidae) from the Pantanal, Brazil, suggests initial speciation.

    PubMed

    Hayd, Liliam; Anger, Klaus

    2013-03-01

    The palaemonid shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum shows an unusually large geographic range (ca. 4000km across) living in coastal, estuarine, and limnic inland habitats of the upper Amazon, Orinoco, and La Plata basins. This raises doubts whether allopatric, ecologically diverse populations belong to the same species. While shrimps from estuarine and Amazonian habitats have been studied in great detail, very little is known about hololimnetic inland populations. In the present study, biological traits related to growth (maximum body size, fresh weight, morphometric relationships) and reproduction (sex ratio; occurrence of male morphotypes; minimum sexable size; minimum size of ovigerous females; fecundity; egg size), were studied in M amazonicum collected from a pond culture and two natural freshwater habitats (Rio Miranda; Lagoa Baiazinha) in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. In total, 2270 shrimps were examined (603 males; 1667 females, 157 of these ovigerous). Sex ratio (males:females) was at all sampling sites strongly female-biased, ranging from 0.2-0.6. Maximum body size was larger in natural habitats compared to the pond culture, suggesting reduced growth or a shorter life span under artificial mass rearing conditions. Maximum fecundity observed in our material was 676 eggs, reached by the largest female (TL=65mm; Lagoa Baiazinha). A significant difference between slope parameters of linear regressions describing fecundity, either in terms of numbers of eggs laid or of larvae released, in relation to female fresh weight, indicates egg losses. This may be due in part to a 2.4-fold increase in egg volume occurring during the course of embryonic development, while the available space under the abdomen remains limited. Size-weight relationships differed significantly between males and females, indicating sexspecific morphometric differences. Males appear to have a more slender body shape than females, reaching thus lower weight at equal TL. When

  14. Observations about chemical composition of aerosols in the Brazilian Amazon region - Case study: Biomass burning in the subequatorial Amazon region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gioda, A.; Monteiro, I. L.; Almeida, A. C.; Hacon, S. S.; Dallacort, R.; Ignotti, E.; Godoy, J. M.; Loureiro, A. L.; Morais, F.; Artaxo, P.

    2012-04-01

    The study was carried out in two cities in the Brazilian Amazon region, Tangará da Serra (14 ° 37'10 "S, 57 ° 29'09" W, 427 m asl), located in a transition area between the Amazon biome and the Cerrado and has the characteristics of urban area in Amazon region; and Alta Floresta (9 ° 52 '32 "S, 56 ° 5' 10" W, 283 m asl) situated in the extreme north of the state of Mato Grosso (MT), both in the subequatorial Amazon region. Tangara da Serra has the largest production of sugar cane in the subequatorial Amazon region. They are located 800 km from each other. These two regions are inserted in a region with typical cycles of drought and rain that alter air pollution levels, and lies in the dispersion path of the pollution plume resulting from burnings in the Brazilian Amazon and pollution emanating from neighboring countries. Both cities have wet tropical climate with two well defined seasons: rainy summer (November to May) and dry winter (June to October). During the dry winter, biomass burnings are frequent in these regions. In 2008, the Department of the Environment has banned fires in the period from July 15 to September 15 throughout the State. In this study chemical characterization was performed for approximately 100 aerosol samples collected in each site during 2008. Fine and coarse aerosol samples collected in SFUs were analyzed by ion chromatography for determination of cations (Na+, K+, NH3+, Ca2+ and Mg2+), anions (SO42-, Cl- and NO3-) and organic acids (acetate and formiate) and also measures of black carbon (BC) (Aethalometer). The results showed that for both sites the average concentrations were quite similar for PM2.5 (16 µg/m3), PM10 (11 and 13 µg/m3) and black carbon (1.4 µg/m3 for PM2.5 and 1.6 µg/m3 for PM10). Sulfate was the predominant species in fine (45%) and coarse (26%) particles in both sites. The sulfate concentrations ranged from 0.01-1.92 µg/m3 in PM2.5 and 0.01-1.66 µg/m3 in PM10 in Tangará da Serra and 0.01-2.93 µg/m3 in PM2

  15. Human geomorphic footprint and global geomorphic change: implications for hydrogeomorphic hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remondo, Juan

    2010-05-01

    sedimentation rates in different areas showing that in most of them sedimentation has increased significantly during the last century (by about one order of magnitude in most cases) and that such increase does not seem to be related to climate but rather to human activity. If a global geomorphic change is indeed taking place, an increase in the frequency/intensity of related hazards, such as landslides or floods, should be expected. Data are presented indicating that it could be so. If what the data presented suggest is confirmed by further and deeper analyses, existing hazard and risk assessments for those processes should be reconsidered, because they would likely represent underestimates. The CAMGEO Team is formed by the following persons: Antonio Cendrero1, Gonzalo Méndez2, Jaime Bonachea1, José Gómez-Arozamena1, José Luis Cavallotto5, José Manuel Naredo3, Juan Remondo1, Lazaro V. Zuquette6, Luis Salas1, Luis M. Forte4, Marcilene Dantas-Ferreira6, Maria Angélica de O. Bezerra7, Mario da Silva, Martín A. Hurtado4, Osni J. Pejon6, Victoria Rivas1, Viola M. Bruschi1. 1) Universidad de Cantabria, Spain; 2) Universidad de Vigo, Spain; 3) Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain; 4) Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Argentina; 5) Servicio de Hidrografía Naval, Argentina; 6) Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos, Brazil; 7) Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

  16. Aircraft Observations into the Characteristics of Biomass Burning Instigated 'Regional Haze' Over the Amazon during the SAMBBA Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darbyshire, Eoghan

    2013-04-01

    Rhondonia and Cerrado agricultural fires in Mato Grosso. Thus, the ten (of twenty) SAMMBA flights that encountered haze, sampled from a diversity of haze types. The haze was sampled using the standard instrumentation suite available onboard FAAM, a C-ToF-AMS (Compact Time-of-flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer) and a SP2 (Single Particle Soot Photometer), thereby allowing a detailed physiochemical analysis: results from the AMS yielded size resolved chemical composition of organic and inorganic (e.g. nitrate, sulphate) components, whilst the SP2 yielded size resolved black carbon mass on a single particle basis. SAMBBA also represented the first utilization of the C-ToF-AMS in sampling BB in Amazonia. This data allows the preliminary presentation of the chemical and physical characteristics of regional haze during SAMBBA including the structure, in terms of vertical profiles and spatial distribution, and composition, in terms of mass loadings, size distributions, number concentrations and chemical processing. For instance, vertical profiles displayed significant structures, with layering from differing sources; typically a local shallow boundary layer would be covered by the extensive regional haze and above this, in the free troposphere, multiple detached layers were observed. This work complements the other, exhaustive, work of SAMBBA participants, helping to provide the most detailed characterization of Amazonian BB to date, aiding understanding of weather, climate and, more tangibly in an expanding Brazil, air quality issues.

  17. 78 FR 14836 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Members of SGIP 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ..., Beaverton, OR; Japan Smart Community Alliance, Kawasaki City, Kanagawa, JAPAN; Southern Company Services... Smart Grid Forum (ISGF), Chanakyapuri, New Dehli, INDIA; Oncor Electric Delivery, Dallas, TX; Pepco... Potomac, MD; Milenthal- DelGrosso, Columbus, OH; ThinkSmartGrid, Chicago, IL; UPnP Forum, Beaverton,...

  18. [Yellow fever epidemiology in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Mondet, B

    2001-08-01

    present in the area but infecting humans only rarely if at all. The virus occasionally leaves the cyclic emergence area and appears in the sporadic emergence area to the east, in the states of Bahia, Minas Gerais and São Paulo, and, as a consequence, moving onto other hydraulic basins. The small river basins in Maranhão and NorthWest states, as well as in the northern part of the state of Roraima also form part of the sporadic emergence area. The epidemics that occur here are directly linked to the endemic area and are only preceded by sometimes indiscernible epizootics and can consequently not be foreseen. Again the virus appears to use privileged pathways to reach the sporadic emergence areas where human and monkey populations are generally only partially immunised against yellow fever and where contact with mosquitoes is intense despite the fact it is limited in space and time, being restricted to the often narrow strip of trees along the water courses. Other routes used by the virus may be the Madeira, Xingu and Tapajós rivers, the scene of outbreaks observed in the state of Rondônia and in the north of Mato Grosso, where ongoing environmental changes are likely to result in an increasing number of outbreaks in the coming years. Since the discovery of the sylvatic cycle of yellow fever in 1933, not only the extent of the epidemiological areas has changed, but also their limits. Ecological modifications that are currently taking place in the Amazon basin, which is an endemic reservoir of the virus, will inevitably facilitate an increase the contact between humans and vectors. While more and more urban areas harbour populations of Aedes aegypti, the domestic and urban vector of yellow fever, it is particularly important to try to protect human populations living in emergence zones and epidemic areas and thus to prevent the arrival of the virus in towns via humans with viremia--in other words the much feared urbanisation of yellow fever in Brazil. PMID:11681224

  19. A revision of Metaleptobasis Calvert (Odonata: Coenagrionidae) with seven synonymies and the description of eighteen new species from South America.

    PubMed

    Von Ellenrieder, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    . Beatty, A. Cordero & J. Hoffmann leg., in FSCA); M. longicauda (Holotype ♂, Brazil, Mato Grosso State, C. Teles Pires, Alto Tapajos, 1-31 viii 1956,  Sick leg., in MNRJ); M. orthogonia (Holotype ♂, Peru, Loreto Dep., San Juan, Río Amazonas, near Iquitos, viii 1939, J. Schunke leg., in FSCA); M. paludicola (Holotype ♂, Peru, Loreto Dep., Tamshiyacu-Tahuayo Reserve, swamp, 4°23'49''S, 73°14'57''W, 27 ii 2009, T. Faasen leg., in RMNH); M. panguanae (Holotype ♂, Peru, Huánuco Dep., Biological Station Panguana, E side Río Yuyapichis, 9°37'S, 74°57'W, 6-17 iv 2003, H.J. & E.-G. Burmeister leg., in ZSM); M. peltata (Holotype ♂, Peru Loreto Dep., Tamshiyacu-Tahuayo Reserve, 4°21'22''S, 73°11'0''W, 19 ii 2010, T. Faasen leg., in RMNH); M. prostrata (Holotype ♂, Peru, Junín Dep., Satipo, v 1945, P. Paprzycki leg., in UMMZ); M. silvicola (Holotype ♂, Peru, Madre de Dios Dep., Explorer's Inn on Río Tambopata, 30 km SW Puerto Maldonado, main trail, 1 viii 1979, M. Perkins & P. Donahue leg., in FSCA); M. spatulata (Holotype ♂, Peru, Huánuco Dep., 10 km N of Cucharas, confluence of Huallaga and Pacay rivers, viii 1954, F. Woytkowski leg., in UMMZ); M. tridentigera (Holotype ♂, Brazil, Rondônia State, Porto Velho, Area Abunan, T11 Aleatorio, 8°46'S, 63°54'W, 86 m, 16 v 2010, Nogueira & Mendes leg., in MZUSP); M. truncata (Holotype ♂, Brazil, Pará State, Jacareacanga, xi 1969, F.R. Barbosa leg., in UMMZ); and M. turbinata (Holotype ♂, Peru, Loreto Dep., Tamshiyacu-Tahuayo Reserve, forest swamp (4°24'18''S, 73°14'38''W), 25 ii 2010, T. Fassen leg., in RMNH). Illustrations, keys, diagnoses, and distribution maps for all 31 currently known species are provided. Phylogenetic relationships within the genus Metaleptobasis are analyzed based on 33 adult morphological characters, including the 31 currently described species of Metaleptobasis and eleven outgroup taxa of other Coenagrionidae of the subfamily Teinobasinae. The cladistic analysis recovered

  20. Anxiety, Depression, and Peer Relationships during Adolescence: Results from the Portuguese National Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Matos, Margarida Gaspar; Barrett, Paula; Dadds, Mark; Shortt, Alison

    2003-01-01

    Used data from the Portuguese HBSC (Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children) survey, which was conducted by one of the authors who is the national representative of the European Study HBSC, a World Health Organisation collaborative study (Currie, Hurrelmann, Setterbulte, Smith, & Todd, 2000; Matos, Simoes, Carvalhosa, Reis & Canha 2000), to…

  1. Education Policy and National Security in Brazil in the Post-1964 Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silveira, Rene Trentin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to analyse and show in detail the influence of the National Security and Development Doctrine, the main ideological prop of the 1964 civilian-military coup, on the education policy implemented by the regime. Special attention is given to the MEC-USAID agreements, the setting up of the Meira Matos Commission and the…

  2. Eventos de Marzo (March Events).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor

    Designed for teachers, this booklet, written in Spanish, contains information on seven March events: La Ley Jones; Pachin Marin; San Patricio; Primavera; Luis Pales Matos; La Masacre de Ponce; and La Esclavitud. The first section provides an overview of the Ley Jones, which introduced the bill of rights and made American citizenship obligatory for…

  3. New species and new records of freshwater Heterolepidoderma (Gastrotricha: Chaetonotidae) from Brazil with an identification key to the genus.

    PubMed

    Garraffoni, André R S; Melchior, Marina P

    2015-01-01

    A new species of freshwater Heterolepidoderma (Gastrotricha) was found in Brazil. Heterolepidoderma mariae sp. nov. is unique in possessing a three-lobed head, three types of dorsal keeled scales, a thin band of cilia on the head, connecting the two bands of ventral cilia, and an interciliary area with elliptical keeled scales with short spines. Heterolepidoderma famaillense Grosso & Drahg, 1991 is reported for the first time outside the type locality in Argentina, and we make some initial remarks on H. aff. majus Remane, 1927, a possible undescribed species. A dichotomous key for all freshwater species of Heterolepidoderma , with distributional data, is also provided. PMID:26701498

  4. [The Brazilguayans, Brazilian migrants in Paraguay].

    PubMed

    Pebayle, R

    1994-01-01

    "Since the 1950s, the population of Eastern regions of Paraguay has grown with the steady influx of Brazilian immigrants. Planters from Parana and Sao Paulo, mechanized wheat and soy farmers from the southern campos and cattle farmers from the Matto Grosso do Sul have joined mixed farmers, descendants of European settlers from the south of Brazil. Despite some local conflicts, the Brazilguayans...[in] Oriente [province] seem to be on the road to integration in Paraguay." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA AND POR) PMID:12288169

  5. Correction of sound velocity depending on the temperature for unconsolidated marine sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dae-Choul

    2016-04-01

    laboratory sound velocity measurements with systematic temperature change on unconsolidated marine sediment have been performed to establish the precise correction curves between temperature and the sound velocity. Piston and box core samples recovered from the East Sea and the South Sea of Korea were used for the measurement. The core samples were cooled (at temperature of nearly 0℃) and the temperature was gradually increased (from 0℃ to 30℃) to measure sound velocity depending on the changes in temperature. The sediment texture and physical properties (porosity, water content, and bulk density) were measured separately at the same depth. The rate of velocity increase for muddy, silty, and sandy sediment are about 2.63 m/s/℃, 2.74 m/s/℃, and 2.96 m/s/℃, respectively. This is similar to the velocity change rate, 2.97 m/s/℃ presented by Del Grosso (1952). The samples used in this research, however, have relatively higher porosity than those of Del Grosso (1952). Thus, the possibility of discrepancy is differences in water content which affect the sound velocity and measurement system. We used recently developed digital velocity measurement system using PXI based on LabVIEW. We suggest to employ this correction for the accurate in situ geoacoustic property from laboratory data particularly for the deep cold water sample such as the East Sea sediment that has very low bottom water temperature about 0℃. Keywords : in situ geoacoustic property, temperature correction, East Sea Acknowledgements: This research was supported by the Agency for Defense Development (UD14003DD) and by "Marine geological and geophysical mapping of the Korean seas" of the Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM).

  6. A new Amphisbaena (Squamata: Amphisbaenidae) from southern Espinhaço Range, southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Henrique C; Resende, Flávia C; Teixeira, Mauro; Dal Vechio, Francisco; Clemente, Cinara A

    2015-01-01

    A new species of Amphisbaena is described from a semi-deciduous forest in Conceição do Mato Dentro, southern Espinhaço Range, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The following combined characters can diagnose the new species from all congeners: head round-shaped; two or three precloacal pores sequentially arranged; 190-199 body annuli; 2-3 lateral annuli; 23-25 caudal annuli; autotomy sites on caudal annuli 7-9; 12-14 dorsal segments on midbody annulus; 14-16 ventral segments on midbody annulus; three supralabials; three infralabials; postmalar row present or absent; dorsum light brown, with cream intersegmental sutures; venter cream. To date, the new species is known only from the Espinhaço Range, highlighting the importance of conservation actions for these mountains. PMID:26131637

  7. Comparing Notes: Collaborative Networks, Breeding Environments, and Organized Crime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, Alejandro

    Collaborative network theory can be useful in refining current understanding of criminal networks and aid in understanding their evolution. Drug trafficking organizations that operate in the region directly north of Colombia’s Valle del Cauca department and the “collection agencies” that operate in the Colombian city of Cali have abandoned hierarchical organizational structures and have become networked-based entities. Through the exposition of Camarinha-Matos and Afsarmanesh’s business networking ideas, this chapter examines the similarities and differences between the application of collaborative networks in licit enterprises, such as small and medium enterprises in Europe, and how the networks might be used by illicit criminal enterprises in Colombia.

  8. Farmyard Manure and Fertilizer Effects on Seed Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Yield in Green House Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László, M.

    2009-04-01

    fertilizer (18.0 g pot-1) with a hard effect (57%). Our results are shown that it was possible developing of the seed potato production under tropical greenhouse conditions by optimalised soil-organic matter-fertilizer system. This datas should be as indicators to sustainable field potato advisory systems. Keywords: potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), greenhouse, latossolo vermelho soil, farmyard manure, burnt rice straw, 4N:14P:8K fertilizer, sustainability, yield Introducáo: Importância e situação actual em produção da batata no Brazíl A batata é atualmente uma das hortaliças de maior importância no Brasíl (Márton 2000a., 2000b.) com um cultivo annual médio de 173.000 ha e uma produção de 2600000 t. A produtividade médio nacional é de 15 t ha-1, muito baixa se considerar que é possivel a obtenção de rendimentos acima de 40 t ha-1. Observa- se também, que existe variação no produtividade entre regiões e estados. E importante como fonte de alimento pelo seu alto valor nutricional a quantidade produzida muito superior por unidade de área a tempo, se comparada com diversas outras culturas (László 2000b., 2000c.). Os estados que tradicionalmente produzem batata em maior ou menor escala são indicados em seguente: Pernambuco, Ceará, Sergipe, Goiás, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Rondonia e Acre. Os plantios predominantes são o das águas e das secas, sendo o de inverno bem menos expressivo, pois poucas áreas permitem o seu cultivo, na maioria dos casos necessitando- se de irrigação. Considerando as três épocas de plantio e diferentes condições climaticas brasileiras, podemos definir de um modo geral o plantio de batata no Brasíl da seguinte maneira: Nordeste e Centro- Oeste- plantio de inverno, Sudeste- plantio das águas, secas e inverno, Sul- plantio das aguas, secas e inverno. Sendo este último em áreas muito limitadas. Dentre as hortaliças a batata é uma das culturas mais estudadas actualmente. Os principais problemas que afetam a

  9. “Native Skywatchers - Earth Sky Mirroring, Kapemni Pairs - Ojibwe and D(L)akota Sacred Star Sites “

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Annette S.; Gawboy, Carl; Rock, Jim; Wilson, William; Tibbetts, Jeff; O'Rourke, Charleen

    2015-08-01

    Late in February, deep in the heart of the northern hemisphere winter, Ojibwe people know to look to the east a few hours after sunset and offer tobacco to Mizhi Bizhiw -Curly Tail, the Great Spirit Cat in the night sky. There are many beautiful and layered teachings about Mizhi Bizhiw - Curly Tail relating to the coming of spring, respect for the water, sugar bush camp, but most important; knowing the stars meant survival.Painted high on the granite rock cliffs above the glacial waters in red ochre is the Mizhi Bizhiw - Curly Tail constellation. Along with the Ojibwe lion are two neighboring seasonal constellations: Mooz (Pegasus) and Biboonkionini -Wintermaker (Orion+). On Lake Hegman in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area located near Ely, Minnesota, a sacred reflection, an earth-sky mirroring is illustrated. It is here that tangible and intangible star knowledge meet.In D(L)akota star knowledge one of the most important teachings is kapemni. Wrapped up in this one word are layers of meaning that can be thought of as ‘As it is above; it is below.’ Imagine two tipis stacked vertically. The top triangle is inverted so that the pair meets at the apex. It is understood that the top realm represents the sky above, the stars or the spirit world. The bottom tipi represents the Earth, the material or the physical world.On Summer Solstice each year the Sun can be found in the Mato Tipila - Bear’s Lodge D(L)akota constellation (Gemini). The day when this astronomical alignment happens is known as the ‘Wacipi - Sundance Ceremony in the Stars’. At this time traditionally D(L)akota people would meet at Mato Tipila Paha - Grey Horn Butte (Devil’s Tower) in northeast Wyoming and participate in the earthly Wacipi - Sun Dance ceremony. This is a beautiful example of a kapemni pair or an earth-sky mirroring.Presented here are just two examples of sacred star sites found in our region: Minnesota, North & South Dakota, US. These are examples of cultural heritage that is

  10. Native Geosciences: Strengthening the Future Through Tribal Traditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolman, J. R.; Quigley, I.; Douville, V.; Hollow Horn Bear, D.

    2008-12-01

    Native people have lived for millennia in distinct and unique ways in our natural sacred homelands and environments. Tribal cultures are the expression of deep understandings of geosciences shared through oral histories, language and ceremonies. Today, Native people as all people are living in a definite time of change. The developing awareness of "change" brings forth an immense opportunity to expand and elevate Native geosciences knowledge, specifically in the areas of earth, wind, fire and water. At the center of "change" is the need to balance the needs of the people with the needs of the environment. Native tradition and our inherent understanding of what is "sacred above is sacred below" is the foundation for an emerging multi-faceted approach to increasing the representation of Natives in geosciences. The approach is also a pathway to assist in Tribal language revitalization, connection of oral histories and ceremonies as well as building an intergenerational teaching/learning community. Humboldt State University, Sinte Gleska University and South Dakota School of Mines and Technology in partnership with Northern California (Hoopa, Yurok, & Karuk) and Great Plains (Lakota) Tribes have nurtured Native geosciences learning communities connected to Tribal Sacred Sites and natural resources. These sites include the Black Hills (Mato Paha, Mato Tiplia, Hinhan Kaga Paha, Mako Sica etc.), Klamath River (Ishkêesh), and Hoopa Valley (Natinixwe). Native geosciences learning is centered on the themes of earth, wind, fire and water and Native application of remote sensing technologies. Tribal Elders and Native geoscientists work collaboratively providing Native families in-field experiential intergenerational learning opportunities which invite participants to immerse themselves spiritually, intellectually, physically and emotionally in the experiences. Through this immersion and experience Native students and families strengthen the circle of our future Tribal

  11. The envisioning of cells.

    PubMed

    Parnes, O

    2000-01-01

    Microscopical consideration played a crucial role in German physiology in the period of, grosso modo, 1780-1830. Specifically, a conception of material change was established, according to which all life is grounded in the process of the generation of microscopical forms out of an amorphous, primitive generative substance. Embryological development, tissue growth, and the generation of microorganisms were all considered to be the manifestation of this fundamental developmental process. In contrast to the common historiography, I try to understand Theodor Schwann's 1838 discovery of the cell theory in terms of the epistemological categories he applied to the prevailing conceptions of life and living matter. I argue that Schwann was able to discern cells not because of any superior microscopical methods, but rather as part of his wider investigative endeavor to explicate life processes according to specific causal agents. I argue that Schwann was able to demonstrate the existence of cells only when he considered animal tissues in terms of a causal relation between specific material agents and their effect, that is, the developmental history of tissue. PMID:11624368

  12. Cloning of a sesquiterpene synthase from Lavandula x intermedia glandular trichomes.

    PubMed

    Sarker, Lukman S; Demissie, Zerihun A; Mahmoud, Soheil S

    2013-11-01

    The essential oil (EO) of Lavandula is dominated by monoterpenes, but can also contain small amounts of sesquiterpenes, depending on species and environmental conditions. For example, the sesquiterpene 9-epi-caryophyllene can make up to 8 % of the EO in a few species, including those commercially propagated for EO production. Here, we report the cloning and functional characterization of 9-epi-caryophyllene synthase (LiCPS) from the glandular trichomes of Lavandula x intermedia, cv. Grosso. The 1,617 bp open reading frame of LiCPS, which did not encode a transit peptide, was expressed in Escherichia coli and the recombinant protein purified by Ni-NTA agarose affinity chromatography. The ca. 60 kDa recombinant protein specifically converted farnesyl diphosphate to 9-epi-caryophyllene. LiCPS also produced a few monoterpenes when assayed with the monoterpene precursor geranyl diphosphate (GPP), but--unlike most monoterpene synthases--was not able to derive detectable amounts of any products from the cis isomer of GPP, neryl diphosphate. The LiCPS transcripts accumulated in developing L. x intermedia flowers and were highly enriched in glandular trichomes, but were not detected in leaves suggesting that the transcriptional expression of this gene is spatially and developmentally regulated. PMID:23918183

  13. Solar Atmosphere Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutten, R. J.

    2002-12-01

    This contribution honoring Kees de Jager's 80th birthday is a review of "one-dimensional" solar atmosphere modeling that followed on the initial "Utrecht Reference Photosphere" of Heintze, Hubenet & de Jager (1964). My starting point is the Bilderberg conference, convened by de Jager in 1967 at the time when NLTE radiative transfer theory became mature. The resulting Bilderberg model was quickly superseded by the HSRA and later by the VAL-FAL sequence of increasingly sophisticated NLTE continuum-fitting models from Harvard. They became the "standard models" of solar atmosphere physics, but Holweger's relatively simple LTE line-fitting model still persists as a favorite of solar abundance determiners. After a brief model inventory I discuss subsequent work on the major modeling issues (coherency, NLTE, dynamics) listed as to-do items by de Jager in 1968. The present conclusion is that one-dimensional modeling recovers Schwarzschild's (1906) finding that the lower solar atmosphere is grosso modo in radiative equilibrium. This is a boon for applications regarding the solar atmosphere as one-dimensional stellar example - but the real sun, including all the intricate phenomena that now constitute the mainstay of solar physics, is vastly more interesting.

  14. Genetic and phylogenetic characterization of rabies virus isolates from wildlife and livestock in Paraiba, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Shoji, Y; Kobayashi, Y; Sato, G; Gomes, A A B; Itou, T; Ito, F H; Sakai, T

    2006-01-01

    Thirty-four rabies virus (RV) isolates from foxes (8), insectivore bats (9), cattle (14), sheep (1), a goat (1) and a donkey (1) from Paraiba state, northeastern Brazil, were genetically characterized. Sequences of 890 nts of nucleoprotein (N) genes of these isolates were analyzed and compared with those of other Brazilian isolates characterized earlier. Phylogenetic analysis revealed three genetical lineages of RV co-existing in this region. Each lineage was found to be associated with particular host species and to circulate independently of each other. The first lineage was found in foxes (Dusicyon sp.) and could be discriminated from domestic carnivore isolates from Sao Paulo, Goias and Minas Gerais in the southern and central Brazil. The second lineage was associated with insectivorous bats (Molossus spp.) and differed from vampire bat-associated RV isolates. The third lineage was found in livestock and clustered with vampire bat-associated RV isolates from Sao Paulo, Tocantins, Goias and Matto Grosso. These results indicate that RV of these genetic lineages are cocirculating in the Paraiba state and that livestock in this region are infected with vampire bat-associated RV, suggesting that the vampire bat is the main reservoir of livestock rabies in this region. PMID:16599183

  15. Dynamics of vortices in polariton quantum fluids : From full vortices, to half vortices and vortex pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deveaud-Plédran, Benoit

    2012-02-01

    Polariton quantum fluids may be created both spontaneously through a standard phase transition towards a Bose Einstein condensate, or may be resonantly driven with a well-defined speed. Thanks to the photonic component of polaritons, the properties of the quantum fluid may be accessed rather directly with in particular the possibility of detained interferometric studies. Here, I will detail the dynamics of vortices, obtained with a picosecond time resolution, in different configurations, with in particular their phase dynamics. I will show in particular the dynamics the dynamics of spontaneous creation of a vortex, the dissociation of a full vortex into two half vortices as well as the dynamics of the dissociation of a dark soliton line into a street of pairs of vortices. Work done at EPFL by a dream team of Postdocs PhD students and collaborators: K. Lagoudakis, G. Nardin, T. Paraiso, G. Grosso, F. Manni, Y L'eger, M. Portella Oberli, F. Morier-Genoud and the help of our friend theorists V, Savona, M. Vouters and T. Liew.

  16. Calibration of sound velocimeter in pure water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhiwei; Zhang, Baofeng; Li, Tao; Zhu, Junchao; Xie, Ziming

    2016-01-01

    Accurate measurement of sound speed is important to calibrate a sound velocity profiler which provides real-time sound velocity to the sonar equipment in oceanographic survey. The sound velocity profiler calculates the sound speed by measuring the time-of-flight of a 1 MHz single acoustic pulse to travel over about 300 mm path. A standard sound velocimeter instrument was invited to calibrate the sound velocity profiler in pure water at temperatures of 278,283, 288, 293, 298, 303 and 308K in a thermostatic vessel at one atmosphere. The sound velocity profiler was deployed in the thermostatic vessel alongside the standard sound velocimeter instrument and two platinum resistance thermometers (PRT) which were calibrated to 0.002k by comparison with a standard PRT. Time of flight circuit board was used to measure the time-of-flight to 22 picosecond precision. The sound speed which was measured by the sound velocity profiler was compared to the standard sound speed calculated by UNESCO to give the laboratory calibration coefficients and was demonstrated agreement with CTD-derived sound speed using Del Grosso's seawater equation after removing a bias.

  17. Brain Signals of Face Processing as Revealed by Event-Related Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Olivares, Ela I.; Iglesias, Jaime; Saavedra, Cristina; Trujillo-Barreto, Nelson J.; Valdés-Sosa, Mitchell

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the functional significance of different event-related potentials (ERPs) as electrophysiological indices of face perception and face recognition, according to cognitive and neurofunctional models of face processing. Initially, the processing of faces seems to be supported by early extrastriate occipital cortices and revealed by modulations of the occipital P1. This early response is thought to reflect the detection of certain primary structural aspects indicating the presence grosso modo of a face within the visual field. The posterior-temporal N170 is more sensitive to the detection of faces as complex-structured stimuli and, therefore, to the presence of its distinctive organizational characteristics prior to within-category identification. In turn, the relatively late and probably more rostrally generated N250r and N400-like responses might respectively indicate processes of access and retrieval of face-related information, which is stored in long-term memory (LTM). New methods of analysis of electrophysiological and neuroanatomical data, namely, dynamic causal modeling, single-trial and time-frequency analyses, are highly recommended to advance in the knowledge of those brain mechanisms concerning face processing. PMID:26160999

  18. Antifungal Screening of Lavender Essential oils and Essential Oil Constituents on three Post-harvest Fungal Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Erland, Lauren A E; Bitcon, Christopher R; Lemke, Ashley D; Mahmoud, Soheil S

    2016-04-01

    A growing body of literature indicates that many synthetic pesticides have adverse effects on human, animal, and environmental health. As a result, plant-derived natural products are quickly gaining momentum as safer and less ecologically damaging alternatives due to their low toxicity, high biodegradability, and good specificity. Essential oils of Lavandula angustifolia, Lavandula x intermedia cv Grosso, and Lavandida x intermedia cv Provence as well as various mono- and sesquiterpene essential oil constituents were tested in order to assess their antifungal potential on three important agricultural pathogens: Botrytis cinerea, Mucor piriformis, and Penicillium expansum. Fungal susceptibility testing was performed using disk diffusion assays. The majority of essential oil constituents tested did not have a significant effect; however, 3-carene, carvacrol, geraniol, nerol and perillyl alcohol demonstrated significant inhibition at concentrations as low as 1 µ/mL. In vivo testing using strawberry fruit as a model system supported in vitro results and revealed that perillyl alcohol, carvacrol and 3-carene were effective in limiting infection by postharvest pathogens. PMID:27396210

  19. Patch size has no effect on insect visitation rate per unit area in garden-scale flower patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbuzov, Mihail; Madsen, Andy; Ratnieks, Francis L. W.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies investigating the effect of flower patch size on insect flower visitation rate have compared relatively large patches (10-1000s m2) and have generally found a negative relationship per unit area or per flower. Here, we investigate the effects of patch size on insect visitation in patches of smaller area (range c. 0.1-3.1 m2), which are of particular relevance to ornamental flower beds in parks and gardens. We studied two common garden plant species in full bloom with 6 patch sizes each: borage (Borago officinalis) and lavender (Lavandula × intermedia 'Grosso'). We quantified flower visitation by insects by making repeated counts of the insects foraging at each patch. On borage, all insects were honey bees (Apis mellifera, n = 5506 counts). On lavender, insects (n = 737 counts) were bumble bees (Bombus spp., 76.9%), flies (Diptera, 22.4%), and butterflies (Lepidoptera, 0.7%). On both plant species we found positive linear effects of patch size on insect numbers. However, there was no effect of patch size on the number of insects per unit area or per flower and, on lavender, for all insects combined or only bumble bees. The results show that it is possible to make unbiased comparisons of the attractiveness of plant species or varieties to flower-visiting insects using patches of different size within the small scale range studied and make possible projects aimed at comparing ornamental plant varieties using existing garden flower patches of variable area.

  20. Lavandin (Lavandula × intermedia Emeric ex Loiseleur) essential oil from Spain: determination of aromatic profile by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, antioxidant and lipoxygenase inhibitory bioactivities.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Alejandro; Martinez-Gutierrez, Ramiro; Tomas, Virginia; Tudela, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Lavandin (Lavandula × intermedia Emeric ex Loiseleur) essential oils (EOs), from Abrial, Super and Grosso cultivars, cultivated and extracted in the South East of Spain, were analysed by using GC/MS to determine their composition, in both relative (peak area) and absolute (using standard curves) concentrations. Linalool (34-47%), linalyl acetate (17-34%), camphor (4-9%) and eucalyptol (3-7%) were determined as the main molecules. This characterisation was completed with the enantioselective gas chromatography, where ( - )-linalool, (+)-camphor and ( - )-linalyl acetate were determined as the main components. Antioxidant activity was evaluated positively by several methods: activity against free radicals, chelating and reducing power, probably due to linalool and linalyl acetate. Mild inhibitory activity on lipoxygenase was observed supporting potential anti-inflammatory activity, mainly due to linalool and camphor. These properties support the potential use of L. × intermedia essential oils as natural cosmetic and natural pharmaceutical ingredient to fight several skin diseases. PMID:26106980

  1. Annual review of energy and the environment. Volume 23

    SciTech Connect

    Socolow, R.H.; Anderson, D.; Harte, J.

    1998-12-31

    Thirteen papers are included in this volume. The titles and authors are: From Physics to Development Strategies by Jose Goldemberg; Rewards and Penalties of Monitoring the Earth by Charles D. Keeling; Science and Nonscience Concerning Human-Caused Climate Warming by J. D. Mahlman; Consumption of Materials in the United States, 1990--1995 by Grecia Matos and Lorie Wagner; Future Technologies for Energy-Efficient Iron and Steel Making by Jeroen de Beer, Ernst Worrell, and Kornelis Blok; The O{sub 2} Balance of the Atmosphere: A Tool for Studying the Fate of Fossil Fuel CO{sub 2} by Michael L. Bender, Mark Battle, and Ralph F. Keeling; Mexican Electric End-Use Efficiency: Experiences to Date by Rafael Friedmann and Claudia Sheinbaum; Drinking Water in Developing Countries by Ashok Gadgil; Engineering-Economic Studies of Energy Technologies to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Opportunities and Challenges by Marilyn A. Brown, Mark D. Levine, Joseph P. Romm, Arthur H. Rosenfeld, and Jonathan G. Koomey; Climate Change Mitigation in the Energy and Forestry Sectors of Developing Countries by Jayant A. Sathaye and N. H. Ravindranath; Toward a Productive Divorce: Separating DOE Cleanups from Transition Assistance by M. Russell; Recycling Metals for the Environment by Iddo K. Wernick and Nickolas J. Themelis; and Environmentally Conscious Chemical Process Design by J. A. Cano-Ruiz and G. J. McRae.

  2. Trapped ions in laser fields: A benchmark for deformed quantum oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Man'ko, V.; Marmo, G.; Porzio, A.; Solimeno, S.; Zaccaria, F.

    2000-11-01

    Some properties of the nonlinear coherent states (NCS), recognized by Vogel and de Matos Filho as dark states of a trapped ion, are extended to NCS on a circle, for which the Wigner functions are presented. These states are obtained by applying a suitable displacement operator Dh(α) to the vacuum state. The unity resolutions in terms of the projectors \\|α,h><α,h-1\\|,\\|α,h-1><α,h\\| are presented together with a measure allowing a resolution in terms of \\|α,h><α,h\\|. Dh(α) is also used for introducing the probability distribution funtion ρA,h(z) while the existence of a measure is exploited for extending the P representation to these states. The weight of the nth Fock state of the NCS relative to a trapped ion with Lamb-Dicke parameter η, oscillates so wildly as n grows up to infinity that the normalized NCS fill the open circle η-1 in the complex α plane. In addition, this prevents the existence of a measure including normalizable states only. This difficulty is overcome by introducing a family of deformations that are rational functions of n, each of them admitting a measure. By increasing the degree of these rational approximations, the deformation of a trapped ion can be approximated with any degree of accuracy and the formalism of the P representation can be applied.

  3. Transglutaminase 2 exacerbates α-synuclein toxicity in mice and yeast

    PubMed Central

    Grosso, Hilary; Woo, Jong-Min; Lee, Kang-Woo; Im, Joo-Young; Masliah, Eliezer; Junn, Eunsung; Mouradian, M. Maral

    2014-01-01

    α-Synuclein is a key pathogenic protein that aggregates in hallmark lesions in Parkinson's disease and other α-synucleinopathies. Prior in vitro studies demonstrated that it is a substrate for cross-linking by transglutaminase 2 (TG2) into higher-order species. Here we investigated whether this increased aggregation occurs in vivo and whether TG2 exacerbates α-synuclein toxicity in Mus musculus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Compared with α-synuclein transgenic (SynTg) mice, animals double transgenic for human α-synuclein and TG2 (TG2Tg/SynTg) manifested greater high-molecular-weight insoluble species of α-synuclein in brain lysates and developed α-synuclein aggregates in the synaptic vesicle fraction. In addition, larger proteinase K-resistant aggregates developed, along with increased thioflavin-S-positive amyloid fibrils. This correlated with an exaggerated neuroinflammatory response, as seen with more astrocytes and microglia. Further neuronal damage was suggested by greater morphological disruption of nerve fibers and a trend toward decreased c-Fos immunoreactive neurons. Finally, the performance of TG2Tg/SynTg animals on motor behavioral tasks was worse relative to SynTg mice. Greater toxicity of α-synuclein was also demonstrated in yeast cells coexpressing TG2. Our findings demonstrate that TG2 promotes the aggregation of α-synuclein in vivo and that this is associated with aggravated toxicity of α-synuclein and its downstream neuropathologic consequences.—Grosso, H., Woo, J.-M., Lee, K.-W., Im, J.-Y., Masliah, E., Junn, E., Mouradian, M. M. Transglutaminase 2 exacerbates α-synuclein toxicity in mice and yeast. PMID:24970392

  4. Astronomy and Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, Alex

    2009-10-01

    The problems of teaching of astronomy in the schools of the former communist countries has been disccused in the connection with the genealogical (family names) of the Presidents of the Countries and scientists astronomers and other Country leaders. Particularly the recent decision of the Russian authorities to reduce the hours for the course of astronomy in the Russian secondary schools is supposed to critics. Some improvements of the situation has been reported. The hours for the astronomy teaching in Russia varry, according with the will of Ministers of Education of the Countries, Prime ministers and Presidents. Similar news came from the Romania. In conclusion, there is no a stable curriculum for astronomy (physics) in some countries. This reffer especially to the number of hours. The influence of presidents of the Countries is so great, that the fate of the astronomy teaching (probably of science teaching in general), that it is difficult to have a scientific education in a country without an elementary scientific education of the Leaders of the Countries, particularly of the persons above. An incomplete list of political leaders and scientists (astronomers and physicists) with the same family names is given. Since the number of persons with decision power in the area is about 3 per country in 4 years, the modern astronomy is taught during about 200 years, the total number of family names responsible for the area of astronomy teaching throughout the world during the last 200 years is about 10000. A similar calculation could be made for physics teaching. Another aspect of the problem is the relation of the number of publications with the GDP/capita of the country. The relation between science and policy is mediated by the number of papers /population which "grosso modo" is proportional to the GDP/capita for the country given. Subsequently the GDP/capita corellates strongly with the policy. The SPIRES database ilustrates this with evidence, but with taking in

  5. Integrating geoscience and Native American experiences through a multi-state geoscience field trip for high school students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelso, P. R.; Brown, L. M.; Spencer, M.; Sabatine, S.; Goetz, E. R.

    2012-12-01

    Lake Superior State University (LSSU) developed the GRANITE (Geological Reasoning And Natives Investigating The Earth) to engage high school students in the geosciences. The GRANITE program's target audience is Native American high school students and other populations underrepresented in the geosciences. Through the GRANITE program students undertake a variety of field and laboratory geosciences activities that culminates in a two week summer geoscience field experience during which they travel from Michigan to Wyoming. The sites students visit were selected because of their interesting and diverse geologic features and because in many cases they have special significance to Native American communities. Examples of the processes and localities studied by GRANITE students include igneous processes at Bear Butte, SD (Mato Paha) and Devil's Tower, WY (Mato Tipila); sedimentary processes in the Badlands, SD (Mako Sica) and Black Hills, SD (Paha Sapa); karst processes at Wind Cave, SD (Wasun Niye) and Vore Buffalo Jump; structural processes at Van Hise rock, WI and Dillon normal fault Badlands, SD; hydrologic and laucustrine processes along the Great Lakes and at the Fond du Lac Reservation, MN; fluvial processes along the Mississippi and Missouri rivers; geologic resources at the Homestake Mine, SD and Champion Mine, MI; and metamorphic processes at Pipestone, MN and Baraboo, WI. Through the GRANITE experience students develop an understanding of how geoscience is an important part of their lives, their communities and the world around them. The GRANITE program also promotes each student's growth and confidence to attend college and stresses the importance of taking challenging math and science courses in high school. Geoscience career opportunities are discussed at specific geologic localities and through general discussions. GRANITE students learn geosciences concepts and their application to Native communities and society in general through activities and

  6. Current Topics in Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Chandana; Bhattacharyya, Shib Shankar

    Preface -- Ultrafast dynamics of nano and mesoscopic systems driven by asymmetric electromagnetic pulses / A. Matos-Abiague, A. S. Moskalenko and J. Berakdar -- One-dimensional non-linear oscillators as models for atoms and molecules under intense laser fields / A. Wadehra and B. M. Deb -- Experimenting with topological states of Bose-Einstein condensates / C. Raman -- Laser cooling and trapping of Rb atoms / S. Chakraborty ... [et al.] -- Pair-correlation in Bose-Einstein condensate and fermi superfluid of atomic gases / B. Deb -- Properties of trapped Bose gas in the large-gas-parameter regime / A. Banerjee -- A Feynman-Kac path integral study of Rb gas / S. Datta -- Mean field theory for interacting spin-1 bosons on a lattice / R. V. Pai, K. Sheshadri and R. Pandit -- Mixed internal-external state approach for quantum computation with neutral atoms on atom chips / E. Charron ... [et al.] -- Ultrafast pulse shaping developments for quantum computation / S. K. Karthick Kumar and D. Goswami -- Quantum information transfer in atom-photon interactions in a cavity / A. S. Majumdar, N. Nayak and B. Ghosh -- Liouville density evolution in billiards and the quantum connection / D. Biswas -- MRCPA: theory and application to highly correlating system / K. Tanaka -- Calculation of negative ion shape resonances using coupled cluster theory / Y. Sajeev and S. Pal -- Optical frequency standard with Sr+: a theoretical many-body approach / C. Sur ... [et al.] -- Fast heavy ion collisions with H[symbol] molecules and young type interference / L. C. Tribedi and D. Misra -- Estimation of ion kinetic energies from time-of-flight and momentum spectra / B. Bapat -- Third-order optical susceptibility of metal nanocluster-glass 28 composites / B. Ghosh and P. Chakraborty -- Study of atom-surface interaction using magnetic atom mirror / A. K. Mohapatra.

  7. Phospholipid turnover during phagocytosis in human polymorphonuclear leucocytes

    PubMed Central

    García Gil, Merche; Alonso, Fernando; Alvarez Chiva, Vicente; Sánchez Crespo, Mariano; Mato, José M.

    1982-01-01

    We have previously observed that the phagocytosis of zymosan particles coated with complement by human polymorphonuclear leucocytes is accompanied by a time- and dose-dependent inhibition of phosphatidylcholine synthesis by transmethylation [García Gil, Alonso, Sánchez Crespo & Mato (1981) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 101, 740–748]. The present studies show that phosphatidylcholine synthesis by a cholinephosphotransferase reaction is enhanced, up to 3-fold, during phagocytosis by polymorphonuclear cells. This effect was tested by both measuring the incorporation of radioactivity into phosphatidylcholine in cells labelled with [Me-14C]choline, and by assaying the activity of CDP-choline:diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase. The time course of CDP-choline:diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase activation by zymosan mirrors the inhibition of phospholipid methyltransferase activity previously reported. The extent of incorporation of radioactivity into phosphatidylcholine induced by various doses of zymosan correlates with the physiological response of the cells to this stimulus. This effect was specific for phosphatidylcholine, and phosphatidyl-ethanolamine turnover was not affected by zymosan. The purpose of this enhanced phosphatidylcholine synthesis is not to provide phospholipid molecules rich in arachidonic acid. The present studies show that about 80% of the arachidonic acid generated in response to zymosan derives from phosphatidylinositol. A transient accumulation of arachidonoyldiacylglycerol has also been observed, which indicates that a phospholipase C is responsible, at least in part, for the generation of arachidonic acid. Finally, isobutylmethylxanthine and quinacrine, inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol turnover, inhibit both arachidonic acid generation and phagocytosis, indicating a function for this pathway during this process. PMID:6181780

  8. Education relative a l'environnement (ERE): Une etude des representations sociales et des pratiques educatives d'enseignants de science et technologie du secondaire en contexte de formation continue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collard-Fortin, Ugo

    . Grosso modo , l'intention de cette formation continue a suivi la piste de la modification des representations sociales ainsi que des pratiques educatives en ERE. Nous avons cherche a savoir si elles se modifieraient ou non pendant la periode de recherche. Les resultats montrent que des elements de modification ont pu etre observes a posteriori, tant dans le discours que dans la pratique. On constate que les enseignants ont, soit bonifie, soit consolide leur representation et leurs pratiques a l'egard de l'ERE.

  9. A simple estimate of ecosystem respiration across biomes based on MODIS products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaegermeyr, J.; Hostert, P.; Lucht, W.

    2010-12-01

    respiration data. The model by Del Grosso et al. (2005) is more flexible to account for lower Q10 values at high temperatures and thus it is used to describe the temperature dependency here. Although we cannot explain flux variations arising from overall carbon pool variations, results suggest that our approach may contribute to simplified Reco estimates.

  10. Geostatistical analysis of soil properties at field scale using standardized data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millan, H.; Tarquis, A. M.; Pérez, L. D.; Matos, J.; González-Posada, M.

    2012-04-01

    -regionalization between different soil properties, which is of interest for delineating management zones within sugarcane fields. Cross-semivariograms showed larger correlation ranges than individual, univariate, semivariograms (A 29 m). All the findings were supported by multivariate spatial analysis, which showed the influence of soil tillage operations, harvesting machinery and irrigation water distribution on the status of the investigated area. Reference Millán, H., Tarquis, A.M.; Pérez, L.D.; Mato, J. and González-Posada, M. Spatial variability patterns of some Vertisol properties at a field scale using standardized data. Soil & Tillage Research, doi:10.1016/j.still.2011.11.003, 2012 (in press). Acknowledgements Funding provided by CEIGRAM (Research Centre for the Management of Agricultural and Environmental Risks) and by Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MICINN) through project no. AGL2010-21501/AGR is greatly appreciated.

  11. Spatial variability of detrended soil plow layer penetrometer resistance transect in a sugarcane field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Luis D.; Cumbrera, Ramiro; Mato, Juan; Millán, Humberto; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2015-04-01

    Spatial variability of soil properties is relevant for identifying those zones with physical degradation. In this sense, one has to face the problem of identifying the origin and distribution of spatial variability patterns (Brouder et al., 2001; Millán et al., 2012). The objective of the present work was to quantify the spatial structure of soil penetrometer resistance (PR) collected from a transect data consisted of 221 points equidistant. In each sampling, readings were obtained from 0 cm till 70 cm of depth, with an interval of 5 cm (Pérez, 2012). The study was conducted on a Vertisol (Typic Hapludert) dedicated to sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) production during the last sixty years (Pérez et al., 2010). Recently, scaling approach has been applied on the determination of the scaling data properties (Tarquis et al., 2008; Millán et al., 2012; Pérez, 2012). We focus in the Hurst analysis to characterize the data variability for each depth. Previously a detrended analysis was conducted in order to better study de intrinsic variability of the series. The Hurst exponent (H) for each depth was estimated showing a characteristic pattern and differentiating PR evolution in depth. References Brouder, S., Hofmann, B., Reetz, H.F., 2001. Evaluating spatial variability of soil parameters for input management. Better Crops 85, 8-11. Millán, H; AM Tarquís, Luís D. Pérez, Juan Mato, Mario González-Posada, 2012. Spatial variability patterns of some Vertisol properties at a field scale using standardized data. Soil and Tillage Research, 120, 76-84. Pérez, Luís D. 2012. Influencia de la maquinaria agrícola sobre la variabilidad espacial de la compactación del suelo. Aplicación de la metodología geoestadística-fractal. PhD thesis, UPM (In Spanish). Pérez, Luís D., Humberto Millán, Mario González-Posada 2010. Spatial complexity of soil plow layer penetrometer resistance as influenced by sugarcane harvesting: A prefractal approach. Soil and Tillage

  12. Chemical evolution on planetary surfaces: from simple gases to organic macrocycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Stefan; Strasdeit, Henry

    ., Dworkin, J. P., Glavin, D. P., Lazcano, A., Bada, J. L. (2008), Science, 322, 404. [3] Cronin, J. R., Pizzarello, S. (1983), Adv. Space Res., 3, 5. [4] Shapiro, R. (1984), Orig. Life, 14, 565. [5] Sobral, A. J. F. N., Rebanda, N. G. C. L., da Silva, M., Lampreia, S. H., Ramos Silva, M., Matos Beja, A., Paixão, J. A., and d'A. Rocha Gonsalves, A. M. (2003), Tetrahedron Lett., 44, 3971. a

  13. Portuguese Ornamental Stones - Identity and Cultural Heritage around the World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Luis

    2016-04-01

    , L.; Matos; M. J.; Machado, M.; Sobreiro, M. J.; Peres, M.; Martins, N.; Bonito, N.; Henriques, P. & Sobreiro, S., 2007. Mármores e Calcários Ornamentais de Portugal. INETI (National Institute of Engineering, Technology and Innovation), ISBN 978-972-676-204-1. 383. Lopes, L., Carrilho Lopes, J. C., CABRAL, J. P. & Sarantopoulos, P. (2000) - Caracterização Petrográfica dos Monumentos Romanos de Évora. Revista "Cidade de Évora", II Série, N°4. 129-142. Silva, Z. C. (2007) - O Lioz Português de lastro. De navio a arte na Bahia, Edições Afrontamento, Porto, ISBN 978-972-36-0924-0, 156.

  14. Climate change impacts on the design of stormwater drainage infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Mário; Macário, Eduarda; Gaspar, Sónia; Fernandes, Luís; Pinto, Joaquim

    2013-04-01

    In Portugal, as in many other countries of the world, the design of stormwater drainage infrastructure relies on the implicit assumption that the intense precipitation distribution is statistically stationary and based on the intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curves. However, observed changes in recent past climate and projections for future climate suggest differences in precipitation regime in Portugal, in particular, in what respects to the frequency and intensity of extreme events, thus leading to the need to evaluate the impact of potential climate change on IDF curves. The objective of this study is to assess the potential consequences of climate change in the design of drainage systems for rainwater and hence the need to review rules and legislation on this design, based on a comparative analysis between Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves defined in the Regulatory Decree n ° 23/95 of 23rd August, proposed by Matos and Silva (1986), and those obtained with observed data in meteorological stations representing the three rainfall zones recommended for Portugal and with data simulated by the COSMO-CLM regional climate model for recent past (C20) and future (A1B and B1) climate scenarios. The methodology adopted for the delineation of IDF curves, is based on study of Brandão et al. (2001) and includes: (i) precipitation disaggregation process for sub-daily (method fragments) and sub-hourly (disaggregation coefficients suggested by Brandão et al. 2001) scales; (ii) preliminary statistical exploratory analysis and fitting of the Gumbel distribution function to time series of maximum precipitation intensity for each of the ten durations; (iii) the use of the Gumbel inverse probability distribution to estimate maximum precipitation intensity values for eight return periods; (iv) linearization of IDF curves with logarithms and the estimation of the parameters a and b with robust regression after; and (v) correction of the bias introduced by the COSMO

  15. PREFACE: Preface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-10-01

    The bi-annual Meeting of the Spanish Neutron Scattering Association, V RSETN, took place in Gijón (Asturias), Spain, from 28-30 June 2010, at the Hotel Silken 'Ciudad Gijón', close to the beautiful Cantabric seashore. It was the fifth in a series of successful scientific meetings, beginning in 2002 (Donostia - San Sebastián), and followed by conferences in: Puerto de la Cruz (Canary Islands, 2004), Jaca (Pyrenees, 2006) and Sant Feliú de Guixols (Costa Brava, 2008). Vicente Gotor, Rector of the University of Oviedo and Paz Fernández Felgueroso, Mayor of the city of Gijón chaired the opening ceremony. The conference covered a broad range of topics related to the use of neutron scattering techniques, from soft matter and biosciences to magnetism, condensed matter and materials applications. In addition to those topics, Spanish scientists working at neutron facilities talked about the recent upgrades of the neutron instruments. Colin Carlile (ESS, Lund), F J Bermejo (ESS, Bilbao) and Michael Steiner (Chairman of the European Neutron Scattering Association, ENSA) gave their personal views concerning the present and future perspectives of neutron scattering in Europe. They reviewed the situation of the running and new neutron facilities (European Spalation Source, ESS), the increase in the number of users and the spread of the scientific topics in which neutron scattering is used or where the impact of ESS will be most significant. Wonderful Plenary talks by Albert Furrer, Juan Manuel Pérez-Mato and José Antonio Alonso opened the scientific sessions of this three-day meeting. The V RSETN was organized by the Department of Physics of The University of Oviedo in cooperation with the Spanish Society for Neutron Techniques (SETN, 'Sociedad Española de Técnicas Neutrónicas'). The meeting attracted around 80 participants, including 13 invited talks, 23 oral presentations and more than 30 posters, both domestic and from abroad. The three best oral presentations by

  16. EDITORIAL: Announcing the 2009 Measurement Science and Technology Outstanding Paper Awards Announcing the 2009 Measurement Science and Technology Outstanding Paper Awards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foss, John; Dewhurst, Richard; Fujii, Kenichi; Regtien, Paul

    2010-06-01

    new method for measuring the air and vacuum permittivity by observing a nanonewton force in a disk-pendulum. The frequency dependence of the vacuum permittivity, ɛ0, has been one of the fundamental questions in physics. Although it is confidently believed that there is no frequency dependence in ɛ0, very few experiments have been conducted to verify the properties of ɛ0. Especially in the region near zero frequencies, no experiment has been done in the vacuum. The precise measurement of the vacuum permittivity is therefore of fundamental interest to test the correctness of Maxwell's equations in an electrostatic field. In this paper, the author developed a new principle using a disk-pendulum, where the displacement of the disk-pendulum in the presence of an electrostatic field has been detected by optical interferometry. The nanonewton forces generated by the electrostatic field have been measured to evaluate the air and vacuum permittivity at zero frequencies, achieving a relative standard uncertainty of 10-5 in the measurement of ɛ0. The measurement system developed here also opened a new way for the force standard in the nanonewton region, investigation of the Casimir effect, direct measurement of laser power etc. This paper has been downloaded more than 200 times since its publication. The selection committee members on precision measurement selected this paper from a strongly competitive list of eleven candidates for its sophisticated idea, originality in apparatus, and excellent result with uncertainty evaluation. Considering its impact on fundamental physics and also on precision force measurement in the nanonewton region, the paper was nominated for the MST Precision Measurement Award from the papers published in 2009. 2009 Award Winners—Sensors and Sensing Systems High-resolution and compact refractometer for salinity measurements D Malardé, Z Y Wu, P Grosso, J-L de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye and M Le Menn Optics Department, UMR CNRS 6082 FOTON, TELECOM

  17. EDITORIAL: Welcome to the 2012 volume Welcome to the 2012 volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Ephrahim

    2012-01-01

    articles last year, as well as our authors and contributors for submitting their high quality research. We very much look forward to your further involvement with the journal in 2012. Finally, I would like to extend a huge thank you to our diverse Board of Associate Editors who have devoted their time and energy giving invaluable advice on each submitted article, and have been dedicated ambassadors for SMS. A special welcome to Professor Kwang J Kim who joined the Board a few months ago. Professor D Abbott, University of Adelaide, Australia Professor G Akhras, Royal Military College of Canada, Ontario, Canada Professor C Boller, University of Saarland, Saarbrücken, Germany; Fraunhofer-Institut für Zerstörungsfreie Prüfverfahren, Dresden, Germany Professor Cagnol, École Centrale Paris, France Professor G Carman, University of California-Los Angeles, USA Professor S-B Choi, Inha University, Incheon, Korea Dr S H Choi, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA, USA Professor A Del Grosso, Università degli Studi di Genova, Italy Professor D Erickson, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA Professor A Flatau, University of Maryland, College Park, USA Professor U Gabbert, Universität Magdeburg, Germany Professor A Güemes, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Spain Professor S Gopalakrishnan, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India Professor J Kim, Inha University, Incheon, Korea Professor K J Kim, University of Nevada, Reno, USA Professor S J Kim, Seoul National University, Korea Professor D Lagoudas, Texas A&M University, College Station, USA Professor R Lammering, Helmut-Schmidt-Universität/Universität der Bundeswehr Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany Professor C K Lee, National Taiwan University, Taiwan Professor J Leng, Harbin Institute of Technology, China Professor W Li, University of Wollongong, Australia Professor W H Liao, Chinese University of Hong Kong, China Professor C S Lynch, University of California-Los Angeles, USA Dr S Masri, University of Southern California

  18. Infrared Images of an Infant Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-05-01

    was obtained on August 15, 2001, under very good observing conditions (with "seeing" of 0.4 arcsec). Now the two reflection nebulae are clearly seen ( PR Photos 12b-c/02 ), and the dark dust lane is well resolved. The leader of the group, Nicolas Grosso , recalls the first impression when seeing the true shape of the object: "That is when we looked at each other and, with one voice, immediately decided to nickname it the `Flying Saucer'!". The nature of the new object Seven young stars in the Rho Ophiuchi star-forming region are known to display similar reflection nebulae surrounding a dark lane (suggesting the presence of a dusty disk), but these objects are all still deeply embedded in the dense cores of this dark cloud. They are mostly protostars with ages of about 100,000 years, surrounded by a remnant infalling envelope. On the other hand, astronomers think that the newly found object has an age of about 1 million years and is in a more evolved stage than those in the neighboring Rho Ophiuchi star-forming region. The new disk is located at the periphery of the dark cloud and is much less obscured than the younger objects still embedded in the dense dark cloud nursery, thus allowing a much clearer view of the dust disk. The resolved circumstellar dust disk in the "Flying Saucer" has a radius of about 300 Astronomical Units (45 billion km), or 5 times the size of the orbit of Neptune (assuming the same distance as the Rho Ophiuchi star-forming cloud, 500 light-years). From model calculations, the astronomers find that it is inclined only about 4° to the line of sight and therefore seen very nearly from the side. A lower limit to the total mass of the disk is about twice the mass of planet Jupiter, or 600-700 times the mass of the Earth. A study of the recorded (reflected) light from the optical to the near-infrared indicates that the central young solar-type star has a temperature of about 3000 K and 0.4 times the luminosity of our actual Sun. A detailed analysis

  19. Welcome to the 2014 volume of Smart Materials and Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Ephrahim

    2014-01-01

    time, the energy harvesting symposium. (2) A special issue called 'Electromechanically active polymer (EAP) transducers: research in Europe', a collection of articles from the European Scientific Network for Artificial Muscles—ESNAM group. This year, look out for focus issues put together by the editorial board on 'fluidic artificial muscles' and 'active materials and structures for origami engineering'. We will also continue to run a busy program of Topical Reviews, which are often among the most cited and most downloaded articles in the journal. Congratulations to Ganesh Raghunath and his team (University of Maryland) who won the Smart Materials and Structures prize for the best paper at SMASIS 2013, and to Kyle Mulligan and his team (University of Sherbrooke) who won our best student paper prize at Cansmart 2013. We were delighted with the news last year that ASME awarded two of its prestigious annual best paper awards to articles published in SMS: the 2013 ASME 'Adaptive Structures and Material Systems Best Paper Award in Adaptive Materials and Material Systems' went to Donghyeon Ryu and Kenneth J Loh for their article 'Strain sensing using photocurrent generated by photoactive P3HT-based nanocomposites'. The 2013 ASME 'Adaptive Structures and Material Systems Best Paper Award in Structural Dynamics and Control' went to Julianna Abel, Jonathan Luntz and Diann Brei for their article 'A two-dimensional analytical model and experimental validation of garter stitch knitted shape memory alloy actuator architecture'. Finally, may I take this opportunity to thank our fantastic Editorial board of Associate Editors who tirelessly oversee the review of each submitted article and give their invaluable advice, helping to develop and shape the journal. Welcome to Professor Alper Erturk who has recently joined us. We also acknowledge and thank Professor Andrea Del Grosso, Professor Sami Masri, Professor Seung Jo Kim and Professor Christian Boller who retired from the Board

  20. Steatite and schist as contenders for the Global Heritage Stone Resource due to their importance in Brazil's natural stone built heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilberto Costa, Antônio

    2013-04-01

    some of Caeté's monuments. They can range from silverfish to light green, such as the quartz-sericite schist from Diamantina, some of which contain variable amounts of kyanite, chlorite, or even chloritoid, as well as the presence of whitish bands rich with carbonate and quartz crystals, such as in Caeté and Sabará. They can be serpentine schist and chlorite schist, from quarries around Caraça Ridge and employed in historical buildings in Brumal and Catas Altas do Mato Dentro, to name but a few. They can as well be kyanite-garnet-mica schists, with coloration ranging from green to bluish green, outcropping on Itacolomy Ridge, near Passagem de Mariana, or, simply, sericite schist from Santo Antônio Hill, in the same region. They can also be muscovite-chlorite-quartz schists with magnetite either dispersed or concentrated in thin bands, extracted around Ouro Preto and locally applied, or those used in buildings in São João d'El Rey and Tiradentes which were extracted from old quarries situated in the Candoga region, between Santa Cruz and Tiradentes, or from quarries in the Mangue region.

  1. PREFACE: Dielectrics 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadjiloucas, Sillas; Blackburn, John

    2013-11-01

    pleased to express our thanks to the Conference Department of the Institute of Physics for their invaluable support in organizing this event. We are especially grateful to Dawn Stewart for her responsive and day-to-day handling of this conference, as well as Claire Garland for help in planning and managing this international event. We would also like to thank Dr Steve Welch, Director at ESP Central Ltd, representing the interest of the Electronics, Sensors, Photonics Knowledge Transfer Network, as well as Paul Naylor and Susan Matos for their contribution towards the KTN session of the Conference. Finally, we would like to thank Solartron Analytical, Ametek and Princeton Applied Research for demonstrating precision electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurement techniques at the conference. We hope that the wider Dielectrics community will find these proceedings of interest and will use them as reference text in their future work. Programme committee R Pethig, University of Edinburgh J Blackburn, National Physical Laboratory J Swingler, Heriot Watt University S Hadjiloucas, University of Reading A West, University of Sheffiled M Hughes, University of Surrey S Dodd, University of Leicester D Almond, University of Bath M Cain, National Physical Laboratory D J Swaffield, University of Southampton N Green, University of Southampton A Vaughan, University of Southampton Sillas Hadjiloucas and John Blackburn (Summer 2013)

  2. [Studies on cerebral scavenger cells (fluorescent granular perithelial cells) - especially uptake and digestion of incorporated fat].

    PubMed

    Mato, M; Ookawara, S; Sano, M; Kurihara, K

    1982-10-01

    Small cerebral vessels including capillaries are provided with the specific barrier (blood brain barrier) for a transport of substances from blood to cerebral tissue. However, it is also established that fat soluble substances are easily permeable in this barrier. Along cerebral small vessels, the cells having intracellular fluorescent granules are distributed and named "fluorescent granular perithelia (F.G.P.)" by the authors. They are potent in the uptake capacity for exogenous substances as reported in the previous papers. In this study, 24 male Wistar rats aged 8 months and 2.5 years old were employed. They were fed with a fat rich chow (Oriental Co.) containing 10% lard, 2% cholesterol and methylthiouracil for one day and fifteen days. Half of them was subcutaneously injected with 5 mg/kg of elastase (Eisai Co.) dissolved in physiological saline once a day. To clarify the effect of elastase on fat incorporated by F.G.P., 4 rats aged 2.5 years were fed with a fat rich chow for 2 days. After then, they were fed with ordinal rat chow for 3 days with or without elastase injection. After decapitation, cerebral cortex of rats was removed in cold physiological saline and sliced with a blade. Half of the sliced specimens was prepared by the authors' method (Mato and Ookawara, 1979) and stained with hematoxylin eosin, periodic acid Schiff reaction and sudan black B for a light microscopical observation. The other half of the specimens was immersed in a mixture containing 2% paraformaldehyde and 2.5% glutaraldehyde buffered with 0.1M phosphate solution (pH 7.4) for 10 h. The specimens were then postfixed with osmium tetroxide buffered with the same solution for 2h. The other procedures for embedding and cutting were the same as in a routine method. Following findings were obtained at the light and electron microscopical levels; when they were fed with a fat rich chow, fat in blood passed through vascular walls and was taken up by F.G.P.. The quantity of fatty deposits

  3. La prise en charge de la douleur chez l'enfant cancéreux

    PubMed Central

    Moukhlissi, Mohamed; Aitidir, Malika; Bouamama, Imane; Maani, Khadija; Hachim, Jamila

    2015-01-01

    C'est une étude prospective étalée sur une année (Juin 2007 à Mai 2008) portant sur une série de 140 malades (84 garçons et 56 filles), hospitalisés à l'unité d'hémato-oncologie du service de pédiatrie III à l'hôpital d'enfant de Casablanca. L'objectif de l’étude est de reconnaître la douleur chez l'enfant, l’évaluer en fonction des échelles internationales, et d’ assurer sa prise en charge globale en rapportant l'expérience du service. L’évaluation de la douleur a concerné différentes pathologies cancéreuses: quatre vingt enfants avaient des leucémies aigues lymphoblastiques (57%), 24 enfants présentaient des lymphomes (17%), 10 enfants avaient des neuroblastomes (7%) et 10 autres des néphroblastomes (7%). Parmi les 140 malades évalués, 100 présentaient des douleurs et qui ont fait l'objet de notre étude, donc on peut estimer la prévalence de la douleur ressentie au cours de l'hospitalisation à 71,4%. Plusieurs types d’échelles en fonction de l’âge de l'enfant, et de sa capacité à exprimer par lui-même, ou non, sa douleur, ont été mises à la disposition pour une mesure chiffrée et reproductible mais aussi une base à l'adaptation du traitement antalgique et pour assurer un suivi évolutif sous traitement. Le Traitement anticancéreux reçu par les malades à but curatif: dix malades soit 7,2% ont bénéficié d'une chirurgie curative et une chimiothérapie, cent vingt cinq enfants (89,2%) ont reçu une chimiothérapie seule et cinq malades (3,6%) ont bénéficié d'une association chirurgie, chimiothérapie et radiothérapie. La douleur ressentie avait en lien direct avec la maladie cancéreuse chez 30% des cas (30 enfants), secondaire au traitement anticancéreux chez 30% (30 enfants), et elle était surtout induite par des actes invasifs à visée diagnostique ou thérapeutique chez 40% des cas (40 enfants). Le traitement antalgique a été instauré en fonction de l’évaluation clinique: 67% des patients

  4. Overcoming the risk of inaction from emissions uncertainty in smallholder agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, N. J.; Ryan, C. M.

    2013-03-01

    data. Although process-based models have been adopted for quantifying mitigation benefit in smallholder agriculture systems (for example Seebauer et al 2012), their use is currently limited to those with specialist knowledge or access to detailed site specific information. Web-based tools that link existing global, regional, and local environmental data with process-based models (such as RothC (Coleman and Jenkinson 1996), CENTURY (Parton et al 1987), DNDC (Li et al 1994) and DAYCENT (Del Grosso et al 2002)) that have been validated for specific areas allow users to generate initial estimates of the carbon sequestration potential of agricultural systems simply by specifying the location and intervention. This can support assessments of the feasibility of supporting these interventions through various funding sources. The same tools can also generate accurate, site specific assessments and monitoring to varying levels of detail, when required, given the inclusion of new data collected in situ . When accounting for greenhouse gases in smallholder agriculture systems users should be free to decide whether it is worthwhile to invest in collecting input data to estimate mitigation benefits with sufficient precision to meet the requirements for carbon offsets, or if greater uncertainty is tolerable. By using tools that do not require specialist support and accepting estimates of mitigation benefits that are less precise, and not necessarily conservative, those providing performance-based finance can help ensure that a greater proportion of limited budgets are spent on the activities that directly benefit smallholders and that are likely to benefit the global climate. The Small-Holder Agriculture Monitoring and Baseline Assessment methodology and prototype tool (SHAMBA 2012), which has been trialled with fifteen agroforestry and conservation agriculture projects in Malawi and is currently under review for validation under the Plan Vivo Standard (Plan Vivo 2012), provides a

  5. Chandra Finds Evidence for Stellar Cannibalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-09-01

    Nicolas Grosso of the University of Strasbourg, Ben Zuckerman from UCLA, Marshall Perrin from the Space Telescope Science Institute, Thierry Forveille of the Grenoble Astrophysics Laboratory in France and James Graham from University of California, Berkeley. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program for NASA's Science Mission Directorate in Washington. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls Chandra's science and flight operations from Cambridge, Mass. More information, including images and other multimedia, can be found at: http://chandra.harvard.edu and http://chandra.nasa.gov

  6. PREFACE: International Conference on Computing in High Energy and Nuclear Physics (CHEP 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernst, Michael; Düllmann, Dirk; Rind, Ofer; Wong, Tony

    2012-12-01

    Wisconsin-Madison, United States Günter Duckeck, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Germany Richard Dubois, SLAC, United States Michael Ernst, BNL, United States Ian Fisk, Fermilab, United States Gonzalo Merino, PIC, Spain John Gordon, STFC-RAL, United Kingdom Volker Gülzow, DESY, Germany Frederic Hemmer, CERN, Switzerland Viatcheslav Ilyin, Moscow State University, Russia Nobuhiko Katayama, KEK, Japan Alexei Klimentov, BNL, United States Simon C. Lin, Academia Sinica, Taiwan Milos Lokajícek, FZU Prague, Czech Republic David Malon, ANL, United States Pere Mato Vila, CERN, Switzerland Mauro Morandin, INFN CNAF, Italy Harvey Newman, Caltech, United States Farid Ould-Saada, University of Oslo, Norway Ruth Pordes, Fermilab, United States Hiroshi Sakamoto, University of Tokyo, Japan Alberto Santoro, UERJ, Brazil Jim Shank, Boston University, United States Dongchul Son, Kyungpook National University, South Korea Reda Tafirout, TRIUMF, Canada Stephen Wolbers, Fermilab, United States Frank Wuerthwein, UCSD, United States

  7. PREFACE: International Conference on Computing in High Energy and Nuclear Physics (CHEP 2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Simon C.; Shen, Stella; Neufeld, Niko; Gutsche, Oliver; Cattaneo, Marco; Fisk, Ian; Panzer-Steindel, Bernd; Di Meglio, Alberto; Lokajicek, Milos

    2011-12-01

    & Genoa University/INFN, Switzerland Lothar Bauerdick, Fermilab, USA Ian Bird, CERN, Switzerland Amber Boehnlein, US Department of Energy, USA Kors Bos, CERN, Switzerland Federico Carminati, CERN, Switzerland Philippe Charpentier, CERN, Switzerland Gang Chen, Institute of High Energy Physics, China Peter Clarke, University of Edinburgh, UK Michael Ernst, Brookhaven National Laboratory, USA David Foster, CERN, Switzerland Merino Gonzalo, CIEMAT, Spain John Gordon, STFC-RAL, UK Volker Guelzow, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg, Germany John Harvey, CERN, Switzerland Frederic Hemmer, CERN, Switzerland Hafeez Hoorani, NCP, Pakistan Viatcheslav Ilyin, Moscow State University, Russia Matthias Kasemann, DESY, Germany Nobuhiko Katayama, KEK, Japan Milos Lokajícek, FZU Prague, Czech Republic David Malon, ANL, USA Pere Mato Vila, CERN, Switzerland Mirco Mazzucato, INFN CNAF, Italy Richard Mount, SLAC, USA Harvey Newman, Caltech, USA Mitsuaki Nozaki, KEK, Japan Farid Ould-Saada, University of Oslo, Norway Ruth Pordes, Fermilab, USA Hiroshi Sakamoto, The University of Tokyo, Japan Alberto Santoro, UERJ, Brazil Jim Shank, Boston University, USA Alan Silverman, CERN, Switzerland Randy Sobie , University of Victoria, Canada Dongchul Son, Kyungpook National University, South Korea Reda Tafirout , TRIUMF, Canada Victoria White, Fermilab, USA Guy Wormser, LAL, France Frank Wuerthwein, UCSD, USA Charles Young, SLAC, USA

  8. List of Participants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-08-01

    GonzalezBUAP, FCFM Lorenzo Díaz CruzBUAP Facultad de Ciencias Físico Matemáticas Luis Rey Díaz BarrónDivisión de Ciencias e Ingenierías Luis UrenaUniversidad de Guanajuato Magda LolaDept. of Physics, University of Patras, Greece Mahmoud WahbaEgyptian Center for Theoretical Physics, MTI Marcus S CohenNew Mexico State University Mario A Acero OrtegaICN - UNAM Mario E GomezUniversidad de Huelva Mark PipeUniversity of Sheffield Mauro NapsucialeDCI-UG Mirco CannoniUniversidad de Huelva Mónica Felipa Ramírez PalaciosUniversidad de Guadalajara Murli Manohar VermaLucknow university, India Nassim BozorgniaUCLA Octavio Obregón Octavio ValenzuelaIA-UNAM Oleg KamaevUniversity of Minnesota Osamu SetoHokkai-Gakuen University Pedro F González DíazIFF, CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid, Spain Qaisar ShafiBartol Research Inst. and Delaware U. Raul Hennings-YeomansLos Alamos National Laboratory René Ángeles MartínezDepartamento de Fisica, del DCI de la Universidad de Guanajuato Reyna XoxocotziBUAP, FCFM Rishi Kumar TiwariGovt. Model Science College, Rewa (MP) INDIA Roberto A SussmanICN-UNAM Selim Gómez ÁvilaDCI-UG Sugai KenichiSaitama University Susana Valdez AlvaradoDCI-UG TVladimir - 2K CollaborationColorado State University Tonatiuh MatosCINVESTAV Valeriy DvoeglazovUniversidad de Zacatecas Vannia Gonzalez MaciasDCI-UG Vladimir Avila-ReeseInstituto de Astronomia, UNAM Wolfgang BietenholzINC, UNAM (Mexico) Yamanaka MasatoKyoto Sangyo University Yann MambriniLPT Orsay Yu-Feng ZhouInstitute of Theotretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PR China Aaron HigueraDCI-UG Azarael Yebra PérezDCI-UG César Hernández AguayoDCI-UG Jaime Chagoya AlvarezDCI-UG Jonathan Rashid Rosique CampuzanoDCI-UG José Alfredo Soto ÁlvarezDCI-UG Juan Carlos De Haro SantosDCI-UG Luis Eduardo Medina MedranoDCI-UG Maria Fatima Rubio EspinozaDCI-UG Paulo Alberto Rodriguez HerreraDCI-UG Roberto Oziel Gutierrez CotaDCI-UG Rocha Moran Maria PaulinaDCI-UG Xareni Sanchez MonroyDCI-UG

  9. EDITORIAL: Announcing the 2009 Measurement Science and Technology Outstanding Paper Awards Announcing the 2009 Measurement Science and Technology Outstanding Paper Awards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foss, John; Dewhurst, Richard; Fujii, Kenichi; Regtien, Paul

    2010-06-01

    new method for measuring the air and vacuum permittivity by observing a nanonewton force in a disk-pendulum. The frequency dependence of the vacuum permittivity, ɛ0, has been one of the fundamental questions in physics. Although it is confidently believed that there is no frequency dependence in ɛ0, very few experiments have been conducted to verify the properties of ɛ0. Especially in the region near zero frequencies, no experiment has been done in the vacuum. The precise measurement of the vacuum permittivity is therefore of fundamental interest to test the correctness of Maxwell's equations in an electrostatic field. In this paper, the author developed a new principle using a disk-pendulum, where the displacement of the disk-pendulum in the presence of an electrostatic field has been detected by optical interferometry. The nanonewton forces generated by the electrostatic field have been measured to evaluate the air and vacuum permittivity at zero frequencies, achieving a relative standard uncertainty of 10-5 in the measurement of ɛ0. The measurement system developed here also opened a new way for the force standard in the nanonewton region, investigation of the Casimir effect, direct measurement of laser power etc. This paper has been downloaded more than 200 times since its publication. The selection committee members on precision measurement selected this paper from a strongly competitive list of eleven candidates for its sophisticated idea, originality in apparatus, and excellent result with uncertainty evaluation. Considering its impact on fundamental physics and also on precision force measurement in the nanonewton region, the paper was nominated for the MST Precision Measurement Award from the papers published in 2009. 2009 Award Winners—Sensors and Sensing Systems High-resolution and compact refractometer for salinity measurements D Malardé, Z Y Wu, P Grosso, J-L de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye and M Le Menn Optics Department, UMR CNRS 6082 FOTON, TELECOM

  10. EDITORIAL: Welcome to the 2013 volume Welcome to the 2013 volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Ephrahim

    2013-01-01

    Professor Derek Abbott, Professor Alison Flatau, Professor Jinsong Leng and Professor Yuji Matsuzaki who have retired from the Board. Professor Matsuzaki worked on the journal for almost two decades. Associate Editors Professor G Akhras, Royal Military College of Canada, Ontario, Canada Professor C Boller, University of Saarland, Saarbrücken, Germany; Fraunhofer-Institut für Zerstörungsfreie Prüfverfahren, Dresden, Germany Professor Cagnol, École Centrale Paris, France Professor G Carman, University of California-Los Angeles, USA Professor S-B Choi, Inha University, Incheon, Korea Professor S H Choi, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA, USA Professor A Del Grosso, Università degli Studi di Genova, Italy Professor D Erickson, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA Professor U Gabbert, Universität Magdeburg, Germany Professor A Güemes, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Spain Professor S Gopalakrishnan, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India Professor J Kim, Inha University, Incheon, Korea Professor K J Kim, University of Nevada, Reno, USA Professor S J Kim, Seoul National University, Korea Professor D Lagoudas, Texas A&M University, College Station, USA Professor R Lammering, Helmut-Schmidt-Universität/Universität der Bundeswehr Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany Professor C K Lee, National Taiwan University, Taiwan Professor W Li, University of Wollongong, Australia Professor W H Liao, Chinese University of Hong Kong, China Professor Y Liu, Harbin Institute of Technology, China Professor C S Lynch, University of California-Los Angeles, USA Professor S Masri, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA Professor W M Ostachowicz, Polish Academy of Sciences, Gdansk, Poland Professor K Peters, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, USA Professor M Shahinpoor, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, USA Professor H Sodano, Arizona State University, Tempe, USA Professor G Song, University of Houston, TX, USA Professor W J Staszewski, AGH University of Science

  11. CERN, ESA and ESO Launch "Physics On Stage"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-03-01

    and the scientific community. The European Southern Observatory (ESO) is an intergovernmental organisation supported by Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Sweden and Switzerland. Portugal has an agreement with ESO aiming at full membership. ESO is a major driving force in European astronomy, performing tasks that are beyond the capabilities of the individual member countries. The ESO La Silla observatory (Chile) is one of the largest and best-equipped in the world. ESO's Very Large Telescope Array (VLT) is under construction at Cerro Paranal (Chile). When completed in 2001, the VLT will be the largest optical telescope in the world. Useful Physics On Stage addresses "Physics on Stage" webaddress: http://www.estec.esa.nl/outreach/pos International Steering Committee (ISC) Clovis de Matos (Executive Coordinator) ESA/ESTEC European Space Research and Technology Centre Office for Educational Outreach Activities Keplerlaan 1 Postbus 299 NL-2200 AG Noordwijk The Netherlands email: cdematos@estec.esa.nl Telephone: +31-71-565- 5518 Fax: +31-71-565 5590

  12. Advancing agricultural greenhouse gas quantification*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olander, Lydia; Wollenberg, Eva; Tubiello, Francesco; Herold, Martin

    2013-03-01

    : IPCC National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme) IPCC 2006 Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. Prepared by the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme ed H S Eggleston et al (Hayama: IGES) IPCC 2012 IPCC Emission Factor Database (EFDB) (www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/EFDB/main.php) Kissinger G, Herold M and De Sy V 2012 Drivers of Deforestation and Forest Degradation: A Synthesis Report for REDD+ Policymakers (Vancouver: Lexeme Consulting) (www.decc.gov.uk/assets/decc/11/tackling-climate-change/international-climate-change/6316-drivers-deforestation-report.pdf) Murphy D, McCandless M and Drexhage J 2010 Expanding Agriculture's Role in the International Climate Change Regime: Capturing the Opportunities (Winnipeg: International Institute for Sustainable Development) Nihart A 2012 unpublished data Olander L, Wollenberg L and Van de Bogert A 2013 Understanding the users and uses of agricultural greenhouse gas information CCAFS/NI T-AGG Report (in progress) Olander L P and Haugen-Kozyra K with contributions from Del Grosso S, Izaurralde C, Malin D, Paustian K and Salas W 2011 Using Biogeochemical Process Models to Quantify Greenhouse Gas Mitigation from Agricultural Management Projects (Durham, NC: Nicholas Institute for Environmental Policy Solutions, Duke University) (http://nicholasinstitute.duke.edu/ecosystem/t-agg/using-biogeochemical-process) Romijn J E, Herold M, Kooistra L, Murdiyarso D and Verchot L 2012 Assessing capacities of non-Annex I countries for national forest monitoring in the context of REDD+ Environ. Sci. Policy 20 33-48 Smith P et al 2007 Agriculture Climate Change 2007: Mitigation. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ed B Metz, O R Davidson, P R Bosch, R Dave and L A Meyer (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) Smith P et al 2008 Greenhouse gas mitigation in agriculture Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 363 789-813 UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on