Science.gov

Sample records for matrix composites irradiated

  1. Effect of γ irradiation on the properties of basalt fiber reinforced epoxy resin matrix composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ran; Gu, Yizhuo; Yang, Zhongjia; Li, Min; Wang, Shaokai; Zhang, Zuoguang

    2015-11-01

    Gamma-ray (γ-ray) irradiation is a crucial reason for the aging in materials used for nuclear industry. Due to high specific strength and stiffness, light weight and good corrosion resistance, fiber reinforced composites are regarded as an alternative of traditional materials used on nuclear facilities. In this study, basalt fiber (BF)/AG80 epoxy composite laminates were fabricated by autoclave process and treated with 60Co gamma irradiation dose up to 2.0 MGy. Irradiation induced polymer chain scission and oxidation of AG80 resin were detected from physical and chemical analysis. The experimental results show that the tensile and flexural performances of irradiated BF/AG80 composite maintain stable and have a low amplitude attenuation respectively, and the interlaminar shear strength has increased from irradiation dose of 0-1.5 MGy. Furthermore, the comparison between the studied BF composite and reported polymer and composite materials was done for evaluating the γ resistance property of BF composite.

  2. Hybrid matrix fiber composites

    DOEpatents

    Deteresa, Steven J.; Lyon, Richard E.; Groves, Scott E.

    2003-07-15

    Hybrid matrix fiber composites having enhanced compressive performance as well as enhanced stiffness, toughness and durability suitable for compression-critical applications. The methods for producing the fiber composites using matrix hybridization. The hybrid matrix fiber composites include two chemically or physically bonded matrix materials, whereas the first matrix materials are used to impregnate multi-filament fibers formed into ribbons and the second matrix material is placed around and between the fiber ribbons that are impregnated with the first matrix material and both matrix materials are cured and solidified.

  3. Metal Matrix Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, Warren; Herling, Darrell R.

    2004-02-01

    Metal matrix composites have found selected application in areas that can cost-effectively capitalize on improvements in specific stiffness, specific strength, fatigue resistance, wear resistance, and coefficient of thermal expansion. Metal matrix composites comprise a relatively wide range of materials defined by the metal matrix, reinforcement type, and reinforcement geometry. In the area of the matrix, most metallic systems have been explored, including aluminum, beryllium, magnesium, titanium, iron, nickel, cobalt, and silver. However, aluminum is by far the most preferred. For reinforcements, the materials are typically ceramics, which provide a very beneficial combination of stiffness, strength, and relatively low density. Candidate reinforcement materials include SiC, Al2O3, B4C, TiC, TiB2, graphite, and a number of other ceramics. In addition, metallic materials such as tungsten and steel fibers have been considered.

  4. Hybridized polymer matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    House, E. E.; Hoggatt, J. T.; Symonds, W. A.

    1980-01-01

    The extent to which graphite fibers are released from resin matrix composites that are exposed to fire and impact conditions was determined. Laboratory simulations of those conditions that could exist in the event of an aircraft crash and burn situation were evaluated. The effectiveness of various hybridizing concepts in preventing this release of graphite fibers were also evaluated. The baseline (i.e., unhybridized) laminates examined were prepared from commercially available graphite/epoxy, graphite/polyimide, and graphite/phenolic materials. Hybridizing concepts investigated included resin fillers, laminate coatings, resin blending, and mechanical interlocking of the graphite reinforcement. The baseline and hybridized laminates' mechanical properties, before and after isothermal and humidity aging, were also compared. It was found that a small amount of graphite fiber was released from the graphite/epoxy laminates during the burn and impact conditions used in this program. However, the extent to which the fibers were released is not considered a severe enough problem to preclude the use of graphite reinforced composites in civil aircraft structure. It also was found that several hybrid concepts eliminated this fiber release. Isothermal and humidity aging did not appear to alter the fiber release tendencies.

  5. Molybdenum disilicide alloy matrix composite

    DOEpatents

    Petrovic, John J.; Honnell, Richard E.; Gibbs, W. Scott

    1990-01-01

    Compositions of matter consisting of matrix matrials having silicon carbide dispersed throughout them and methods of making the compositions. A matrix material is an alloy of an intermetallic compound, molybdenum disilicide, and at least one secondary component which is a refractory silicide. The silicon carbide dispersant may be in the form of VLS whiskers, VS whiskers, or submicron powder or a mixture of these forms.

  6. Molybdenum disilicide alloy matrix composite

    DOEpatents

    Petrovic, John J.; Honnell, Richard E.; Gibbs, W. Scott

    1991-01-01

    Compositions of matter consisting of matrix materials having silicon carbide dispersed throughout them and methods of making the compositions. A matrix material is an alloy of an intermetallic compound, molybdenum disilicide, and at least one secondary component which is a refractory silicide. The silicon carbide dispersant may be in the form of VLS whiskers, VS whiskers, or submicron powder or a mixture of these forms.

  7. Molybdenum disilicide alloy matrix composite

    DOEpatents

    Petrovic, J.J.; Honnell, R.E.; Gibbs, W.S.

    1991-12-03

    Compositions of matter consisting of matrix materials having silicon carbide dispersed throughout them and methods of making the compositions are disclosed. A matrix material is an alloy of an intermetallic compound, molybdenum disilicide, and at least one secondary component which is a refractory silicide. The silicon carbide dispersant may be in the form of VLS whiskers, VS whiskers, or submicron powder or a mixture of these forms. 3 figures.

  8. Molybdenum disilicide matrix composite

    DOEpatents

    Petrovic, John J.; Carter, David H.; Gac, Frank D.

    1991-01-01

    A composition consisting of an intermetallic compound, molybdenum disilicide, which is reinforced with VS silicon carbide whiskers dispersed throughout it and a method of making the reinforced composition. Use of the reinforcing material increases fracture toughness at low temperatures and strength at high temperatures, as compared to pure molybdenum disilicide.

  9. Molybdenum disilicide matrix composite

    DOEpatents

    Petrovic, John J.; Carter, David H.; Gac, Frank D.

    1990-01-01

    A composition consisting of an intermetallic compound, molybdenum disilicide, which is reinforced with VS silicon carbide whiskers dispersed throughout it and a method of making the reinforced composition. Use of the reinforcing material increases fracture toughness at low temperatures and strength at high temperatures, as compared to pure molybdenum disilicide.

  10. Matrix cracking in ceramic-matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Danchaivijit, S.; Shetty, D.K. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1993-10-01

    Matrix cracking in ceramic-matrix composites with unbonded frictional interface has been studied using fracture mechanics theory. The critical stress for extension of a fiber-bridged crack has been analyzed using the stress-intensity approach. The analysis uses a new shear-lag formulation of the crack-closure traction applied by the bridging fibers based on the assumption of a constant sliding friction stress over the sliding length of the fiber-matrix interface. The new formulation satisfies two required limiting conditions: (a) when the stress in the bridging fiber approaches the far-field applied stress, the crack-opening displacement approaches a steady-state upper limit that is in agreement with the previous formulations; and (b) in the limit of zero crack opening, the stress in the bridging fiber approaches the far-field fiber stress. This lower limit of the bridging stress is distinctly different from the previous formulations. For all other conditions, the closure traction is a function of the far-field applied stress in addition to the local crack-opening displacement, the interfacial sliding friction stress, and the material properties. Numerical calculations using the stress-intensity approach indicate that the critical stress for crack extension decreases with increasing crack length and approaches a constant steady-state value for large cracks. The steady-state matrix-cracking stress agrees with a steady-state energy balance analysis applied to the continuum model, but it is slightly less than the matrix-cracking stress predicted by such theories of steady-state cracking as that of Aveston, Cooper, and Kelly. The origin of this difference and a method for reconciliation of the two theoretical approaches are discussed.

  11. High Temperature Polymer Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    These are the proceedings of the High Temperature Polymer Matrix Composites Conference held at the NASA Lewis Research Center on March 16 to 18, 1983. The purpose of the conference is to provide scientists and engineers working in the field of high temperature polymer matrix composites an opportunity to review, exchange, and assess the latest developments in this rapidly expanding area of materials technology. Technical papers are presented in the following areas: (1) matrix development; (2) adhesive development; (3) characterization; (4) environmental effects; and (5) applications.

  12. Hybridized polymer matrix composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, B. A.; Visser, T.

    1981-01-01

    Under certain conditions of combined fire and impact, graphite fibers are released to the atmosphere by graphite fiber composites. The retention of graphite fibers in these situations is investigated. Hybrid combinations of graphite tape and cloth, glass cloth, and resin additives are studied with resin systems. Polyimide resins form the most resistant composites and resins based on simple novolac epoxies the least resistant of those tested. Great improvement in the containment of the fibers is obtained in using graphite/glass hybrids, and nearly complete prevention of individual fiber release is made possible by the use of resin additives.

  13. Hybridized polymer matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    London, A.

    1981-01-01

    Design approaches and materials are described from which are fabricated pyrostatic graphite/epoxy (Gr/Ep) laminates that show improved retention of graphite particulates when subjected to burning. Sixteen hybridized plus two standard Gr/Ep laminates were designed, fabricated, and tested in an effort to eliminate the release of carbon (graphite) fiber particles from burned/burning, mechanically disturbed samples. The term pyrostatic is defined as meaning mechanically intact in the presence of fire. Graphite particulate retentive laminates were constructed whose constituent materials, cost of fabrication, and physical and mechanical properties were not significantly different from existing Gr/Ep composites. All but one laminate (a Celion graphite/bis-maleimide polyimide) were based on an off-the-shelf Gr/Ep, the AS-1/3501-5A system. Of the 16 candidates studied, four thin (10-ply) and four thick (50-ply) hybridized composites are recommended.

  14. Sapphire reinforced alumina matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaskowiak, Martha H.; Setlock, John A.

    1994-01-01

    Unidirectionally reinforced A1203 matrix composites have been fabricated by hot pressing. Approximately 30 volume % of either coated or uncoated sapphire fiber was used as reinforcement. Unstabilized ZrO2 was applied as the fiber coating. Composite mechanical behavior was analyzed both after fabrication and after additional heat treatment. The results of composite tensile tests were correlated with fiber-matrix interfacial shear strengths determined from fiber push-out tests. Substantially higher strength and greater fiber pull-out were observed for the coated fiber composites for all processing conditions studied. The coated fiber composites retained up to 95% and 87% of their as-fabricated strength when heat treated at 14000C for 8 or 24 hours, respectively. Electron microscopy analysis of the fracture surfaces revealed extensive fiber pull-out both before and after heat treatment.

  15. Ceramic matrix composite article and process of fabricating a ceramic matrix composite article

    DOEpatents

    Cairo, Ronald Robert; DiMascio, Paul Stephen; Parolini, Jason Robert

    2016-01-12

    A ceramic matrix composite article and a process of fabricating a ceramic matrix composite are disclosed. The ceramic matrix composite article includes a matrix distribution pattern formed by a manifold and ceramic matrix composite plies laid up on the matrix distribution pattern, includes the manifold, or a combination thereof. The manifold includes one or more matrix distribution channels operably connected to a delivery interface, the delivery interface configured for providing matrix material to one or more of the ceramic matrix composite plies. The process includes providing the manifold, forming the matrix distribution pattern by transporting the matrix material through the manifold, and contacting the ceramic matrix composite plies with the matrix material.

  16. Hybridized polymer matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henshaw, J.

    1983-01-01

    Methods of improving the fire resistance of graphite epoxy composite laminates were investigated with the objective of reducing the volume of loose graphite fibers disseminated into the airstream as the result of a high intensity aircraft fuel fire. Improvements were sought by modifying the standard graphite epoxy systems without significantly negating their structural effectiveness. The modifications consisted primarily of an addition of a third constituent material such as glass fibers, glass flakes, carbon black in a glassy resin. These additions were designed to encourage coalescense of the graphite fibers and thereby reduce their aerodynamic float characteristics. A total of 38 fire tests were conducted on thin (1.0 mm) and thick (6.0 mm) hybrid panels.

  17. Corrosion of Titanium Matrix Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Covino, B.S., Jr.; Alman, D.E.

    2002-09-22

    The corrosion behavior of unalloyed Ti and titanium matrix composites containing up to 20 vol% of TiC or TiB{sub 2} was determined in deaerated 2 wt% HCl at 50, 70, and 90 degrees C. Corrosion rates were calculated from corrosion currents determined by extrapolation of the tafel slopes. All curves exhibited active-passive behavior but no transpassive region. Corrosion rates for Ti + TiC composites were similar to those for unalloyed Ti except at 90 degrees C where the composites were slightly higher. Corrosion rates for Ti + TiB{sub 2} composites were generally higher than those for unalloyed Ti and increased with higher concentrations of TiB{sub 2}. XRD and SEM-EDS analyses showed that the TiC reinforcement did not react with the Ti matrix during fabrication while the TiB{sub 2} reacted to form a TiB phase.

  18. Inert matrix fuel behaviour in test irradiations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellwig, Ch.; Streit, M.; Blair, P.; Tverberg, T.; Klaassen, F. C.; Schram, R. P. C.; Vettraino, F.; Yamashita, T.

    2006-06-01

    Among others, three large irradiation tests on inert matrix fuels have been performed during the last five years: the two irradiation tests IFA-651 and IFA-652 in the OECD Halden Material Test Reactor and the OTTO irradiation in the High Flux Reactor in Petten. While the OTTO irradiation is already completed, the other two irradiations are still ongoing. The objectives of the experiments differ: for OTTO, the focus was on the comparison of different concepts of IMF, i.e. homogeneous fuel versus different types of heterogeneous fuel. In IFA-651, single phase yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) doped with Pu is compared with MOX. In IFA-652, the potential of calcia stabilized zirconia (CSZ) as a matrix with and without thoria is evaluated. The design of the three experiments is explained and the current status is reviewed. The experiments show that the homogeneous, single phase YSZ-based or CSZ-based fuel show good and stable irradiation behaviour. It can be said that homogeneous stabilized zirconia based fuel is the most promising IMF concept for an LWR environment. Nevertheless, the fuel temperatures were relatively high due to the low thermal conductivity, potentially leading to high fission gas release, and must be taken into account in the fuel design.

  19. Characterization of Metal Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniel, I. M.; Chun, H. J.; Karalekas, D.

    1994-01-01

    Experimental methods were developed, adapted, and applied to the characterization of a metal matrix composite system, namely, silicon carbide/aluminim (SCS-2/6061 Al), and its constituents. The silicon carbide fiber was characterized by determining its modulus, strength, and coefficient of thermal expansion. The aluminum matrix was characterized thermomechanically up to 399 C (750 F) at two strain rates. The unidirectional SiC/Al composite was characterized mechanically under longitudinal, transverse, and in-plane shear loading up to 399 C (750 F). Isothermal and non-isothermal creep behavior was also measured. The applicability of a proposed set of multifactor thermoviscoplastic nonlinear constitutive relations and a computer code was investigated. Agreement between predictions and experimental results was shown in a few cases. The elastoplastic thermomechanical behavior of the composite was also described by a number of new analytical models developed or adapted for the material system studied. These models include the rule of mixtures, composite cylinder model with various thermoelastoplastic analyses and a model based on average field theory. In most cases satisfactory agreement was demonstrated between analytical predictions and experimental results for the cases of stress-strain behavior and thermal deformation behavior at different temperatures. In addition, some models yielded detailed three-dimensional stress distributions in the constituents within the composite.

  20. Metal-matrix composites: Status and prospects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Applications of metal matrix composites for air frames and jet engine components are discussed. The current state of the art in primary and secondary fabrication is presented. The present and projected costs were analyzed to determine the cost effectiveness of metal matrix composites. The various types of metal matrix composites and their characteristics are described.

  1. Ceramic matrix and resin matrix composites: A comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurwitz, Frances I.

    1987-01-01

    The underlying theory of continuous fiber reinforcement of ceramic matrix and resin matrix composites, their fabrication, microstructure, physical and mechanical properties are contrasted. The growing use of organometallic polymers as precursors to ceramic matrices is discussed as a means of providing low temperature processing capability without the fiber degradation encountered with more conventional ceramic processing techniques. Examples of ceramic matrix composites derived from particulate-filled, high char yield polymers and silsesquioxane precursors are provided.

  2. Ceramic matrix and resin matrix composites - A comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurwitz, Frances I.

    1987-01-01

    The underlying theory of continuous fiber reinforcement of ceramic matrix and resin matrix composites, their fabrication, microstructure, physical and mechanical properties are contrasted. The growing use of organometallic polymers as precursors to ceramic matrices is discussed as a means of providing low temperature processing capability without the fiber degradation encountered with more conventional ceramic processing techniques. Examples of ceramic matrix composites derived from particulate-filled, high char yield polymers and silsesquioxane precursors are provided.

  3. Third Intermetallic Matrix Composites Symposium, volume 350

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, J.A.; Bowman, R.R.; Lewandowski, J.J.

    1994-04-01

    Partial contents include: issues in potential IMC application for aerospace structures; powder metallurgy processing of intermetallic matrix composites; microstructure and properties of intermetallic matrix composites produced by reaction synthesis; combustion synthesis of niobium aluminide matrix composites; ambient temperature synthesis of bulk intermetallics; wear behavior of SHS intermetallic matrix composites; fracture characteristics of metal-intermetallic laminates produced by SHS reactions; and vapor phase synthesis of Ti aluminides and the interfacial bonding effect on the mechanical property of micro-composites reinforced by pyrolized SiC fibers.

  4. Evaluation of metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okelly, K. P.

    1971-01-01

    The results of an evaluation of candidate metal-matrix composite materials for shuttle space radiators mounted to external structure are presented. The evaluation was specifically applicable to considerations of the manufacturing and properties of a potential space radiator. Two candidates, boron/aluminum and graphite/aluminum were obtained or made in various forms and tested in sufficient depth to allow selection of one of the two for future scale-up programs. The effort accomplished on this program verified that aluminum reinforced with boron was within the state-of-the-art in industry and possessed properties usable in the external skin areas available for shuttle radiators where re-entry temperatures will not exceed 800 F. It further demonstrated that graphite/aluminum has an apparently attractive future for space applications but requires extension development prior to scale-up.

  5. Thermoplastic matrix composite processing model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dara, P. H.; Loos, A. C.

    1985-01-01

    The effects the processing parameters pressure, temperature, and time have on the quality of continuous graphite fiber reinforced thermoplastic matrix composites were quantitatively accessed by defining the extent to which intimate contact and bond formation has occurred at successive ply interfaces. Two models are presented predicting the extents to which the ply interfaces have achieved intimate contact and cohesive strength. The models are based on experimental observation of compression molded laminates and neat resin conditions, respectively. Identified as the mechanism explaining the phenomenon by which the plies bond to themselves is the theory of autohesion (or self diffusion). Theoretical predictions from the Reptation Theory between autohesive strength and contact time are used to explain the effects of the processing parameters on the observed experimental strengths. The application of a time-temperature relationship for autohesive strength predictions is evaluated. A viscoelastic compression molding model of a tow was developed to explain the phenomenon by which the prepreg ply interfaces develop intimate contact.

  6. Multiscale Modeling of Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Mital, Subodh K.; Pineda, Evan J.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    Results of multiscale modeling simulations of the nonlinear response of SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites are reported, wherein the microstructure of the ceramic matrix is captured. This micro scale architecture, which contains free Si material as well as the SiC ceramic, is responsible for residual stresses that play an important role in the subsequent thermo-mechanical behavior of the SiC/SiC composite. Using the novel Multiscale Generalized Method of Cells recursive micromechanics theory, the microstructure of the matrix, as well as the microstructure of the composite (fiber and matrix) can be captured.

  7. Simulating Microfracture In Metal-Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mital, Subodh K.; Chamis, Christos C.; Gotsis, Pascal K.

    1994-01-01

    Computational procedures developed for simulating microfracture in metal-matrix/fiber composite materials under mechanical and/or thermal loads at ambient and high temperatures. Procedures evaluate microfracture behavior of composites, establish hierarchies and sequences of fracture modes, and examine influences of compliant layers and partial debonding on properties of composites and on initiation of microfractures in them.

  8. High-temperature polymer matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Michael A.

    1990-01-01

    Polymers research at the NASA Lewis Research Center has produced high-temperature, easily processable resin systems, such as PMR-15. In addition, the Polymers Branch has investigated ways to improve the mechanical properties of polymers and the microcracking resistance of polymer matrix composites in response to industry need for new and improved aeropropulsion materials. Current and future research in the Polymers Branch is aimed at advancing the upper use temperature of polymer matrix composites to 700 F and beyond by developing new resins, by examining the use of fiber reinforcements other than graphite, and by developing coatings for polymer matrix composites to increase their oxidation resistance.

  9. Metal matrix composites microfracture: Computational simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mital, Subodh K.; Caruso, John J.; Chamis, Christos C.

    1990-01-01

    Fiber/matrix fracture and fiber-matrix interface debonding in a metal matrix composite (MMC) are computationally simulated. These simulations are part of a research activity to develop computational methods for microfracture, microfracture propagation and fracture toughness of the metal matrix composites. The three-dimensional finite element model used in the simulation consists of a group of nine unidirectional fibers in three by three unit cell array of SiC/Ti15 metal matrix composite with a fiber volume ration of 0.35. This computational procedure is used to predict the fracture process and establish the hierarchy of fracture modes based on strain energy release rate. It is also used to predict stress redistribution to surrounding matrix-fibers due to initial and progressive fracture of fiber/matrix and due to debonding of fiber-matrix interface. Microfracture results for various loading cases such as longitudinal, transverse, shear and bending are presented and discussed. Step-by-step procedures are outlined to evaluate composite microfracture for a given composite system.

  10. Celsian Glass-Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Dicarlo, James A.

    1996-01-01

    Glass-ceramic matrix reinforced fiber composite materials developed for use in low dielectric applications, such as radomes. Materials strong and tough, exhibit low dielectric properties, and endure high temperatures.

  11. Spark plasma sintering of aluminum matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Vineet

    2011-12-01

    Aluminum matrix composites make a distinct category of advanced engineering materials having superior properties over conventional aluminum alloys. Aluminum matrix composites exhibit high hardness, yield strength, and excellent wear and corrosion resistance. Due to these attractive properties, aluminum matrix composites materials have many structural applications in the automotive and the aerospace industries. In this thesis, efforts are made to process high strength aluminum matrix composites which can be useful in the applications of light weight and strong materials. Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) is a relatively novel process where powder mixture is consolidated under the simultaneous influence of uniaxial pressure and pulsed direct current. In this work, SPS was used to process aluminum matrix composites having three different reinforcements: multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), silicon carbide (SiC), and iron-based metallic glass (MG). In Al-CNT composites, significant improvement in micro-hardness, nano-hardness, and compressive yield strength was observed. The Al-CNT composites further exhibited improved wear resistance and lower friction coefficient due to strengthening and self-lubricating effects of CNTs. In Al-SiC and Al-MG composites, microstructure, densification, and tribological behaviors were also studied. Reinforcing MG and SiC also resulted in increase in micro-hardness and wear resistance.

  12. Polymer Matrix Composite Material Oxygen Compatibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, Tom

    2001-01-01

    Carbon fiber/polymer matrix composite materials look promising as a material to construct liquid oxygen (LOX) tanks. Based on mechanical impact tests the risk will be greater than aluminum, however, the risk can probably be managed to an acceptable level. Proper tank design and operation can minimize risk. A risk assessment (hazard analysis) will be used to determine the overall acceptability for using polymer matrix composite materials.

  13. Micromechanical Modeling of Woven Metal Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy

    1997-01-01

    This report presents the results of an extensive micromechanical modeling effort for woven metal matrix composites. The model is employed to predict the mechanical response of 8-harness (8H) satin weave carbon/copper (C/Cu) composites. Experimental mechanical results for this novel high thermal conductivity material were recently reported by Bednarcyk et al. along with preliminary model results. The micromechanics model developed herein is based on an embedded approach. A micromechanics model for the local (micro-scale) behavior of the woven composite, the original method of cells (Aboudi), is embedded in a global (macro-scale) micromechanics model (the three-dimensional generalized method of cells (GMC-3D) (Aboudi). This approach allows representation of true repeating unit cells for woven metal matrix composites via GMC-3D, and representation of local effects, such as matrix plasticity, yarn porosity, and imperfect fiber-matrix bonding. In addition, the equations of GMC-3D were reformulated to significantly reduce the number of unknown quantities that characterize the deformation fields at the microlevel in order to make possible the analysis of actual microstructures of woven composites. The resulting micromechanical model (WCGMC) provides an intermediate level of geometric representation, versatility, and computational efficiency with respect to previous analytical and numerical models for woven composites, but surpasses all previous modeling work by allowing the mechanical response of a woven metal matrix composite, with an elastoplastic matrix, to be examined for the first time. WCGMC is employed to examine the effects of composite microstructure, porosity, residual stresses, and imperfect fiber-matrix bonding on the predicted mechanical response of 8H satin C/Cu. The previously reported experimental results are summarized, and the model predictions are compared to monotonic and cyclic tensile and shear test data. By considering appropriate levels of porosity

  14. Tough high performance composite matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pater, Ruth H. (Inventor); Johnston, Norman J. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    This invention is a semi-interpentrating polymer network which includes a high performance thermosetting polyimide having a nadic end group acting as a crosslinking site and a high performance linear thermoplastic polyimide. Provided is an improved high temperature matrix resin which is capable of performing in the 200 to 300 C range. This resin has significantly improved toughness and microcracking resistance, excellent processability, mechanical performance, and moisture and solvent resistances.

  15. METCAN-PC - METAL MATRIX COMPOSITE ANALYZER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, P. L.

    1994-01-01

    High temperature metal matrix composites offer great potential for use in advanced aerospace structural applications. The realization of this potential however, requires concurrent developments in (1) a technology base for fabricating high temperature metal matrix composite structural components, (2) experimental techniques for measuring their thermal and mechanical characteristics, and (3) computational methods to predict their behavior. METCAN (METal matrix Composite ANalyzer) is a computer program developed to predict this behavior. METCAN can be used to computationally simulate the non-linear behavior of high temperature metal matrix composites (HT-MMC), thus allowing the potential payoff for the specific application to be assessed. It provides a comprehensive analysis of composite thermal and mechanical performance. METCAN treats material nonlinearity at the constituent (fiber, matrix, and interphase) level, where the behavior of each constituent is modeled accounting for time-temperature-stress dependence. The composite properties are synthesized from the constituent instantaneous properties by making use of composite micromechanics and macromechanics. Factors which affect the behavior of the composite properties include the fabrication process variables, the fiber and matrix properties, the bonding between the fiber and matrix and/or the properties of the interphase between the fiber and matrix. The METCAN simulation is performed as point-wise analysis and produces composite properties which are readily incorporated into a finite element code to perform a global structural analysis. After the global structural analysis is performed, METCAN decomposes the composite properties back into the localized response at the various levels of the simulation. At this point the constituent properties are updated and the next iteration in the analysis is initiated. This cyclic procedure is referred to as the integrated approach to metal matrix composite analysis. METCAN

  16. Fracture toughness testing of polymer matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, Joseph E.

    1992-01-01

    The experimental techniques and associated data analysis methods used to measure the resistance to interlaminar fracture, or 'fracture toughness', of polymer matrix composite materials are described. A review in the use of energy techniques to characterize fracture behavior in elastic solids is given. An overview is presented of the types of approaches employed in the design of delamination-resistant composite materials.

  17. Processing of magnesia pyrochlore composites for inert matrix materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yates, S. J.; Xu, P.; Wang, J.; Tulenko, J. S.; Nino, J. C.

    2007-05-01

    Inert matrix (IM) materials for nuclear fuel in light water reactors must meet several critical requirements that include high temperature stability, good irradiation behaviour, high thermal conductivity, and hot water corrosion resistance. MgO possesses all of the necessary requirements for an ideal IM candidate, except hot water corrosion resistance. A composite approach is being investigated in order to improve the corrosion resistance of MgO, while simultaneously taking advantage of the high thermal conductivity of MgO and its ability to be reprocessed in nitric acid. MgO-pyrochlore composite compositions are fabricated based on neutronic property simulations for assessment as potential IM materials. The selected pyrochlore compositions are synthesized by both sol gel and solid state processing, and how composite processing affects the microstructure will be discussed. Among the multiple composite processing approaches investigated, ball milling produces the most homogeneous and consistent microstructures.

  18. Research on graphite reinforced glass matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, J. F.; Prewo, K. M.

    1977-01-01

    The results of research for the origination of graphite-fiber reinforced glass matrix composites are presented. The method selected to form the composites consisted of pulling the graphite fiber through a slurry containing powdered glass, winding up the graphite fiber and the glass it picks up on a drum, drying, cutting into segments, loading the tape segment into a graphite die, and hot pressing. During the course of the work, composites were made with a variety of graphite fibers in a glass matrix.

  19. Nanophosphor composite scintillators comprising a polymer matrix

    DOEpatents

    Muenchausen, Ross Edward; Mckigney, Edward Allen; Gilbertson, Robert David

    2010-11-16

    An improved nanophosphor composite comprises surface modified nanophosphor particles in a solid matrix. The nanophosphor particle surface is modified with an organic ligand, or by covalently bonding a polymeric or polymeric precursor material. The surface modified nanophosphor particle is essentially charge neutral, thereby preventing agglomeration of the nanophosphor particles during formation of the composite material. The improved nanophosphor composite may be used in any conventional scintillator application, including in a radiation detector.

  20. Research on graphite reinforced glass matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prewo, K. M.; Thompson, E. R.

    1981-01-01

    A broad group of fibers and matrices were combined to create a wide range of composite properties. Primary material fabrication procedures were developed which readily permit the fabrication of flat plate and shaped composites. Composite mechanical properties were measured under a wide range of test conditions. Tensile, flexure mechanical fatigue, thermal fatigue, fracture toughness, and fatigue crack growth resistance were evaluated. Selected fiber-matrix combinations were shown to maintain their strength at up to 1300 K when tested in an inert atmosphere. Composite high temperature mechanical properties were shown to be limited primarily by the oxidation resistance of the graphite fibers. Composite thermal dimensional stability was measured and found to be excellent.

  1. Matrix cracking in brittle-matrix composites with tailored interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Danchaivijit, S.; Chao, L.Y.; Shetty, D.K.

    1995-10-01

    Matrix cracking from controlled through cracks with bridging filaments was studied in a model unidirectional composite of SiC filaments in an epoxy-bonded alumina matrix. An unbonded, frictional interface was produced by moderating the curing shrinkage of the epoxy with the alumina filler and coating the filaments with a releasing agent. Uniaxial tension test specimens (2.5 x 25 x 125 mm) with filament-bridged through cracks were fabricated by a novel two-step casting technique involving casting, precracking and joining of cracked and uncracked sections. Distinct matrix-cracking stresses, corresponding to the extension of the filament-bridged cracks, were measured in uniaxial tension tests using a high-sensitivity extensometer. The crack-length dependence of the matrix-cracking stress was found to be in good agreement with the prediction of a fracture-mechanics analysis that employed a new crack-closure force-crack-opening displacement relation in the calculation of the stress intensity for fiber-bridged cracks. The prediction was based on independent experimental measurements of the matrix fracture toughness (K{sub cm}), the interfacial sliding friction stress ({tau}) and the residual stress in the matrix ({sigma}{sub m}{sup I}). The matrix-cracking stress for crack lengths (2a) greater than 3 mm was independent of the crack length and agreed with the prediction of the steady-state theory of Budiansky, Hutchinson and Evans. Tests on specimens without the deliberately introduced cracks indicated a matrix-cracking stress significantly higher than the steady-state stress.

  2. Optimum interface properties for metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghosn, Louis J.; Lerch, Bradley A.

    1989-01-01

    Due to the thermal expansion coefficient mismatch (CTE) between the fiber and the matrix, high residual sresses exist in metal matrix composite systems upon cool down from processing temperature to room temperature. An interface material can be placed between the fiber and the matrix to reduce the high tensile residual stresses in the matrix. A computer program was written to minimize the residual stress in the matrix subject to the interface material properties. The decision variables are the interface modulus, thickness and thermal expansion coefficient. The properties of the interface material are optimized such that the average distortion energy in the matrix and the interface is minimized. As a result, the only active variable is the thermal expansion coefficient. The optimum modulus of the interface is always the minimum allowable value and the interface thickness is always the maximum allowable value, independent of the fiber/matrix system. The optimum interface thermal expansion coefficient is always between the values of the fiber and the matrix. Using this analysis, a survey of materials was conducted for use as fiber coatings in some specific composite systems.

  3. Intermetallic bonded ceramic matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Plucknett, K.P.; Tiegs, T.N.; Alexander, K.B.; Becher, P.F.; Schneibel, J.H.; Waters, S.B.; Menchhofer, P.A.

    1995-07-01

    A range of carbide and oxide-based cermets have been developed utilizing ductile nickel aluminide (Ni{sub 3}Al) alloy binder phases. Some of these, notably materials based upon tungsten and titanium carbides (WC and TiC respectively), offer potential as alternatives to the cermets which use cobalt binders (i.e. WC/Co). Samples have been prepared by blending commercially available Ni{sub 3}Al alloy powders with the desired ceramic phases, followed by hot-pressing. Alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) matrix materials have also been prepared by pressurized molten alloy infiltration. The microstructure, flexure strength and fracture toughness of selected materials are discussed.

  4. Ceramic Matrix Composites Performances Under High Gamma Radiation Doses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cemmi, A.; Baccaro, S.; Fiore, S.; Gislon, P.; Serra, E.; Fassina, S.; Ferrari, E.; Ghisolfi, E.

    2014-06-01

    Ceramic matrix composites reinforced by continuous ceramic fibers (CMCs) represent a class of advanced materials developed for applications in automotive, aerospace, nuclear fusion reactors and in other specific systems for harsh environments. In the present work, the silicon carbide/silicon carbide (SiCf/SiC) composites, manufactured by Chemical Vapour Infiltration process at FN S.p.A. plant, have been evaluated in term of gamma radiation hardness at three different absorbed doses (up to around 3MGy). Samples behavior has been investigated before and after irradiation by means of mechanical tests (flexural strength) and by surface and structural analyses (X-ray diffraction, SEM, FTIR-ATR, EPR).

  5. Fiber coatings for ceramic matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, H.W.; Bohlen, J.W.

    1992-08-01

    Two fiber coating concepts for ceramic matrix composites were successfully demonstrated in a preliminary study. These coatings were designed to promote toughness in composites and resist oxidation. The concepts were: (1) thin, multiple unbonded layers, and (2) a single porous layer that provided low interfacial strengths between the fiber and matrix. Chemical vapor deposited (CVD) SiC and sol-gel derived oxides were used to produce the fiber coatings. Specimens consisted of a single coated monofilament fiber and a sheath of CVD SiC to represent the matrix. Results from flexure tests showed that matrix cracks were deflected and that fibers debonded the same as in specimens made using carbon-coated fibers. Crack deflection and fiber debonding were also evident after exposure in air at elevated temperatures. 5 refs.

  6. Microstructural Development in Irradiated U-7Mo/6061 Al Alloy Matrix Dispersion Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis D. Keiser, Jr.; Adam B. Robinson; Jan-Fong Jue; Pavel G. Medvedev; Daniel M. Wachs; M. Ross Finlay

    2009-09-01

    A U-7Mo alloy/6061 Al alloy matrix dispersion fuel plate was irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor and then destructively examined using optical metallography and scanning electron microscopy to characterize the developed microstructure. Results were compared to the microstructures of as-fabricated dispersion fuel to identify changes that occurred during irradiation. The interaction layers that formed on the surface of the fuel U-7Mo particles during fuel fabrication exhibited stable irradiation performance as a result of the ~0.88 wt% Si present in the fuel meat matrix. During irradiation, the interaction layers changed very little in thickness and composition. The overall irradiation performance of the fuel plate to moderate power and burnup was considered excellent.

  7. Effects of electron irradiation on LDPE/MWCNT composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jianqun; Li, Xingji; Liu, Chaoming; Rui, Erming; Wang, Liqin

    2015-12-01

    In this study, mutiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were incorporated into low density polyethylene (LDPE) in different concentrations (2%, 4% and 8%) using a melt blending process. Structural, thermal stability and tensile property of the unirradiated/irradiated LDPE/MWCNT composites by 110 keV electrons were investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), Raman spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and uniaxial tensile techniques. Experimental results show that the addition of MWCNTs obviously increases the ultimate tensile strength of LDPE and decreases the elongation at break, which is attributed to the homogeneous distribution of the MWCNTs in LDPE and intense interaction between MWCNTs and LDPE matrix. Also, the electron irradiation further increases the ultimate tensile strength of LDPE/MWCNT composites, which can be ascribed to the more intense interaction between MWCNTs and LDPE matrix, and the formation of crosslinking sites in LDPE matrix induced by the electron irradiation. The addition of MWCNTs significantly enhances thermal stability of the LDPE due to the hindering effect and the scavenging free radicals, while the electron irradiation decreases thermal stability of the LDPE/MWCNT composites since the structure of the MWCNTs and LDPE matrix damages.

  8. Solidification processing of monotectic alloy matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frier, Nancy L.; Shiohara, Yuh; Russell, Kenneth C.

    1989-01-01

    Directionally solidified aluminum-indium alloys of the monotectic composition were found to form an in situ rod composite which obeys a lambda exp 2 R = constant relation. The experimental data shows good agreement with previously reported results. A theoretical boundary between cellular and dendritic growth conditions was derived and compared with experiments. The unique wetting characteristics of the monotectic alloys can be utilized to tailor the interface structure in metal matrix composites. Metal matrix composites with monotectic and hypermonotectic Al-In matrices were made by pressure infiltration, remelted and directionally solidified to observe the wetting characteristics of the alloys as well as the effect on structure of solidification in the constrained field of the fiber interstices. Models for monotectic growth are modified to take into account solidification in these constrained fields.

  9. Influence of Binder in Iron Matrix Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Shamsuddin, S.; Jamaludin, S. B.; Hussain, Z.; Ahmad, Z. A.

    2010-03-11

    The ability to use iron and its alloys as the matrix material in composite systems is of great importance because it is the most widely used metallic material with a variety of commercially available steel grades [1]. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of binder in particulate iron based metal matrix composites. There are four types of binder that were used in this study; Stearic Acid, Gummi Arabisch, Polyvinyl alcohol 15000 MW and Polyvinyl alcohol 22000 MW. Six different weight percentage of each binder was prepared to produce the composite materials using powder metallurgy (P/M) route; consists of dry mixing, uniaxially compacting at 750 MPa and vacuum sintering at 1100 deg. C for two hours. Their characterization included a study of density, porosity, hardness and microstructure. Results indicate that MMC was affected by the binder and stearic acid as a binder produced better properties of the composite.

  10. Plastic matrix composites with continuous fiber reinforcement

    SciTech Connect

    1991-09-19

    Most plastic resins are not suitable for structural applications. Although many resins are extremely tough, most lack strength, stiffness, and deform under load with time. By mixing strong, stiff, fibrous materials into the plastic matrix, a variety of structural composite materials can be formed. The properties of these composites can be tailored by fiber selection, orientation, and other factors to suit specific applications. The advantages and disadvantages of fiberglass, carbon-graphite, aramid (Kevlar 49), and boron fibers are summarized.

  11. Processable polyimide adhesive and matrix composite resin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Progar, Donald J. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A high temperature polyimide composition prepared by reacting 4,4'-isophthaloyldiphthalic anhydride with metaphenylenediamine is employed to prepare matrix resins, adhesives, films, coatings, moldings, and laminates, especially those showing enhanced flow with retention of mechanical and adhesive properties. It can be used in the aerospace industry, for example, in joining metals to metals or metals to composite structures. One area of application is in the manufacture of lighter and stronger aircraft and spacecraft structures.

  12. Research on graphite reinforced glass matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prewo, K. M.; Thompson, E. R.

    1980-01-01

    High levels of mechanical performance in tension, flexure, fatigue, and creep loading situations of graphite fiber reinforced glass matrix composites are discussed. At test temperatures of up to 813 K it was found that the major limiting factor was the oxidative instability of the reinforcing graphite fibers. Particular points to note include the following: (1) a wide variety of graphite fibers were found to be comparable with the glass matrix composite fabrication process; (2) choice of fiber, to a large extent, controlled resultant composite performance; (3) composite fatigue performance was found to be excellent at both 300 K and 703 K; (4) composite creep and stress rupture at temperatures of up to 813 K was limited by the oxidative stability of the fiber; (5) exceptionally low values of composite thermal expansion coefficient were attributable to the dimensional stability of both matrix and fiber; and (6) component fabricability was demonstrated through the hot pressing of hot sections and brazing using glass and metal joining phases.

  13. Development of Matrix Microstructures in UHTC Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Sylvia; Stackpoole, Margaret; Gusman, Michael

    2012-01-01

    One of the major issues hindering the use of ultra high temperature ceramics for aerospace applications is low fracture toughness. There is considerable interest in developing fiber-reinforced composites to improve fracture toughness. Considerable knowledge has been gained in controlling and improving the microstructure of monolithic UHTCs, and this paper addresses the question of transferring that knowledge to composites. Some model composites have been made and the microstructures of the matrix developed has been explored and compared to the microstructure of monolithic materials in the hafnium diboride/silicon carbide family. Both 2D and 3D weaves have been impregnated and processed.

  14. Metal matrix composites for aircraft propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Signorelli, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    Studies of advanced aircraft propulsion systems have indicated that performance gains and operating costs are possible through the application of metal matrix composites. Compressor fan blades and turbine blades have been identified as components with high payoff potential as a result of these studies. This paper will present the current status of development of five candidate materials for such applications. Boron fiber/aluminum, boron fiber/titanium, and silicon carbide fiber/titanium composites are considered for lightweight compressor fan blades. Directionally solidified eutectic superalloy and tungsten wire/superalloy composites are considered for application to turbine blades for use temperatures to 1100 C (2000 F).

  15. Ceramic-matrix composites fatigue and fracture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, David L.

    1995-10-01

    Fiber-reinforced ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs) have been shown to exhibit excellent high-temperature properties. There are some published data on the mechanical properties of Nicalon fiber-reinforced composites with various matrices, but much of the work was performed in bending, and there is little information on the failure modes in textile-reinforced CMCs, especially under cyclic-loading conditions. This article is an interim report on research that examines the tensile deformation, fracture, smoothbar fatigue, and fatigue crack-growth behavior of several CMCs. Unidirectional, two-dimensional eight-harness satin weave, and three-dimensional angle-interlock weave Nicalon fiber architectures infiltrated with polymers and then pyrolized were investigated and are compared with similar experiments on Nicalon-reinforced calcium-silicate glass-ceramic-matrix composites.

  16. Thermomechanical fatigue of polymer matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Strait, L.H.; Koudela, K.L.; Karasek, M.L.; Amateau, M.F.; Runt, J.P.

    1996-12-31

    The present research was undertaken to evaluate the effects of mechanical constraint on the response of polymer matrix composites during thermal cycling. Analytical and experimental techniques were used to characterize the response of carbon-fiber-reinforced cyanate ester and bismaleimide composites. Cross-ply laminates were subjected to thermal cycles from 24 to 177 C in the unconstrained, fully constrained, and overconstrained conditions. Laminate response, damage mechanisms, and residual compressive properties were characterized for each material and degree of constraint. The results of this research indicate that the level of constraint can have a significant effect on the response of polymer matrix composites during thermal cycling. However, longer-term testing is required to determine if the observed changes in response will ultimately affect the final failure mode and fatigue endurance of the materials.

  17. Radial matrix cracking in unidirectional brittle matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Tandon, G.P.; Pagano, N.J.

    1994-12-31

    This work presents a mathematical study of radial cracking in the transverse direction of a unidirectional composite under the influence of thermal and mechanical loads. The formulation is based on the use of Reissner`s variational theorem in conjunction with an equilibrium stress field in which the r-dependence is assumed. In this study, this newly developed model is employed to evaluate the effect of the extent of radial matrix cracking on the elastic response of a unidirectional composite. Parametric studies are also conducted to examine the effect of varying the elastic properties of the constituents on the energy release rate of a radial crack. The computed values are shown to be in good agreement with the reported exact solution.

  18. Inelastic deformation of metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissenden, C. J.; Herakovich, C. T.; Pindera, M-J.

    1993-01-01

    A theoretical model capable of predicting the thermomechanical response of continuously reinforced metal matrix composite laminates subjected to multiaxial loading was developed. A micromechanical model is used in conjunction with nonlinear lamination theory to determine inelastic laminae response. Matrix viscoplasticity, residual stresses, and damage to the fiber/matrix interfacial zone are explicitly included in the model. The representative cell of the micromechanical model is considered to be in a state of generalized plane strain, enabling a quasi two-dimensional analysis to be performed. Constant strain finite elements are formulated with elastic-viscoplastic constitutive equations. Interfacial debonding is incorporated into the model through interface elements based on the interfacial debonding theory originally presented by Needleman, and modified by Tvergaard. Nonlinear interfacial constitutive equations relate interfacial tractions to displacement discontinuities at the interface. Theoretical predictions are compared with the results of an experimental program conducted on silicon carbide/titanium (SiC/Ti) unidirectional, (O4), and angle-ply, (+34)(sub s), tubular specimens. Multiaxial loading included increments of axial tension, compression, torque, and internal pressure. Loadings were chosen in an effort to distinguish inelastic deformation due to damage from matrix plasticity and separate time-dependent effects from time-independent effects. Results show that fiber/matrix debonding is nonuniform throughout the composite and is a major factor in the effective response. Also, significant creep behavior occurs at relatively low applied stress levels at room temperature.

  19. Thermal stress effects in intermetallic matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, P. K.; Sensmeier, M. D.; Kupperman, D. S.; Wadley, H. N. G.

    1993-01-01

    Intermetallic matrix composites develop residual stresses from the large thermal expansion mismatch (delta-alpha) between the fibers and matrix. This work was undertaken to: establish improved techniques to measure these thermal stresses in IMC's; determine residual stresses in a variety of IMC systems by experiments and modeling; and, determine the effect of residual stresses on selected mechanical properties of an IMC. X ray diffraction (XRD), neutron diffraction (ND), synchrotron XRD (SXRD), and ultrasonics (US) techniques for measuring thermal stresses in IMC were examined and ND was selected as the most promising technique. ND was demonstrated on a variety of IMC systems encompassing Ti- and Ni-base matrices, SiC, W, and Al2O3 fibers, and different fiber fractions (Vf). Experimental results on these systems agreed with predictions of a concentric cylinder model. In SiC/Ti-base systems, little yielding was found and stresses were controlled primarily by delta-alpha and Vf. In Ni-base matrix systems, yield strength of the matrix and Vf controlled stress levels. The longitudinal residual stresses in SCS-6/Ti-24Al-llNb composite were modified by thermomechanical processing. Increasing residual stress decreased ultimate tensile strength in agreement with model predictions. Fiber pushout strength showed an unexpected inverse correlation with residual stress. In-plane shear yield strength showed no dependence on residual stress. Higher levels of residual tension led to higher fatigue crack growth rates, as suggested by matrix mean stress effects.

  20. Thermal shock resistance of ceramic matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carper, D. M.; Nied, H. F.

    1993-01-01

    The experimental and analytical investigation of the thermal shock phenomena in ceramic matrix composites is detailed. The composite systems examined were oxide-based, consisting of an aluminosilicate matrix with either polycrystalline aluminosilicate or single crystal alumina fiber reinforcement. The program was divided into three technical tasks; baseline mechanical properties, thermal shock modeling, and thermal shock testing. The analytical investigation focused on the development of simple expressions for transient thermal stresses induced during thermal shock. The effect of various material parameters, including thermal conductivity, elastic modulus, and thermal expansion, were examined analytically for their effect on thermal shock performance. Using a simple maximum stress criteria for each constituent, it was observed that fiber fracture would occur only at the most extreme thermal shock conditions and that matrix fracture, splitting parallel to the reinforcing fiber, was to be expected for most practical cases. Thermal shock resistance for the two material systems was determined experimentally by subjecting plates to sudden changes in temperature on one surface while maintaining the opposite surface at a constant temperature. This temperature change was varied in severity (magnitude) and in number of shocks applied to a given sample. The results showed that for the most severe conditions examined that only surface matrix fracture was present with no observable fiber fracture. The impact of this damage on material performance was limited to the matrix dominated properties only. Specifically, compression strength was observed to decrease by as much as 50 percent from the measured baseline.

  1. Unified Viscoplastic Behavior of Metal Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, S. M.; Robinson, D. N.; Bartolotta, P. A.

    1992-01-01

    The need for unified constitutive models was recognized more than a decade ago in the results of phenomenological tests on monolithic metals that exhibited strong creep-plasticity interaction. Recently, metallic alloys have been combined to form high-temperature ductile/ductile composite materials, raising the natural question of whether these metallic composites exhibit the same phenomenological features as their monolithic constituents. This question is addressed in the context of a limited, yet definite (to illustrate creep/plasticity interaction) set of experimental data on the model metal matrix composite (MMC) system W/Kanthal. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that a unified viscoplastic representation, extended for unidirectional composites and correlated to W/Kanthal, can accurately predict the observed longitudinal composite creep/plasticity interaction response and strain rate dependency. Finally, the predicted influence of fiber orientation on the creep response of W/Kanthal is illustrated.

  2. Solidification processing of metal-matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Mortensen, A.; Cornie, J.A.; Flemings, M.C.

    1988-02-01

    Infiltration of fibers with molten metal and metal/reinforcement slurry casting have been developed for the net-shape solidification processing of MMCs, the largest portion of whose production costs are associated with processing. The low viscosity of liquid metals renders the fabrication of MMCs by casting much easier than that of polymer matrix composites. Attention is given to the methods developed to date to deal with problems that arise from fiber/matrix reactivity and porosity due to poor infiltration. 219 references.

  3. Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) Materials Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calomino, Anthony

    2001-01-01

    Under the former NASA EPM Program, much initial progress was made in identifying constituent materials and processes for SiC/SiC ceramic composite hot-section components. This presentation discusses the performance benefits of these approaches and elaborates on further constituent and property improvements made under NASA UEET. These include specific treatments at NASA that significantly improve the creep and environmental resistance of the Sylramic(TM) SiC fiber as well as the thermal conductivity and creep resistance of the CVI Sic matrix. Also discussed are recent findings concerning the beneficial effects of certain 2D-fabric architectures and carbon between the BN interphase coating and Sic matrix.

  4. Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) Materials Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiCarlo, James

    2001-01-01

    Under the former NASA EPM Program, much initial progress was made in identifying constituent materials and processes for SiC/SiC ceramic composite hot-section components. This presentation discusses the performance benefits of these approaches and elaborates on further constituent and property improvements made under NASA UEET. These include specific treatments at NASA that significantly improve the creep and environmental resistance of the Sylramic(TM) Sic fiber as well as the thermal conductivity and creep resistance of the CVI Sic matrix. Also discussed are recent findings concerning the beneficial effects of certain 2D-fabric architectures and carbon between the BN interphase coating and Sic matrix.

  5. Properties of five toughened matrix composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cano, Roberto J.; Dow, Marvin B.

    1992-01-01

    The use of toughened matrix composite materials offers an attractive solution to the problem of poor damage tolerance associated with advanced composite materials. In this study, the unidirectional laminate strengths and moduli, notched (open-hole) and unnotched tension and compression properties of quasi-isotropic laminates, and compression-after-impact strengths of five carbon fiber/toughened matrix composites, IM7/E7T1-2, IM7/X1845, G40-800X/5255-3, IM7/5255-3, and IM7/5260 have been evaluated. The compression-after-impact (CAI) strengths were determined primarily by impacting quasi-isotropic laminates with the NASA Langley air gun. A few CAI tests were also made with a drop-weight impactor. For a given impact energy, compression after impact strengths were determined to be dependent on impactor velocity. Properties and strengths for the five materials tested are compared with NASA data on other toughened matrix materials (IM7/8551-7, IM6/1808I, IM7/F655, and T800/F3900). This investigation found that all five materials were stronger and more impact damage tolerant than more brittle carbon/epoxy composite materials currently used in aircraft structures.

  6. High temperature insulation for ceramic matrix composites

    DOEpatents

    Merrill, Gary B.; Morrison, Jay Alan

    2001-01-01

    A ceramic composition is provided to insulate ceramic matrix composites under high temperature, high heat flux environments. The composition comprises a plurality of hollow oxide-based spheres of various dimensions, a phosphate binder, and at least one oxide filler powder, whereby the phosphate binder partially fills gaps between the spheres and the filler powders. The spheres are situated in the phosphate binder and the filler powders such that each sphere is in contact with at least one other sphere. The spheres may be any combination of Mullite spheres, Alumina spheres, or stabilized Zirconia spheres. The filler powder may be any combination of Alumina, Mullite, Ceria, or Hafnia. Preferably, the phosphate binder is Aluminum Ortho-Phosphate. A method of manufacturing the ceramic insulating composition and its application to CMC substrates are also provided.

  7. High temperature insulation for ceramic matrix composites

    DOEpatents

    Merrill, Gary B.; Morrison, Jay Alan

    2004-01-13

    A ceramic composition is provided to insulate ceramic matrix composites under high temperature, high heat flux environments. The composition comprises a plurality of hollow oxide-based spheres of various dimensions, a phosphate binder, and at least one oxide filler powder, whereby the phosphate binder partially fills gaps between the spheres and the filler powders. The spheres are situated in the phosphate binder and the filler powders such that each sphere is in contact with at least one other sphere. The spheres may be any combination of Mullite spheres, Alumina spheres, or stabilized Zirconia spheres. The filler powder may be any combination of Alumina, Mullite, Ceria, or Hafnia. Preferably, the phosphate binder is Aluminum Ortho-Phosphate. A method of manufacturing the ceramic insulating composition and its application to CMC substrates are also provided.

  8. High temperature insulation for ceramic matrix composites

    DOEpatents

    Merrill, Gary B.; Morrison, Jay Alan

    2000-01-01

    A ceramic composition is provided to insulate ceramic matrix composites under high temperature, high heat flux environments. The composite comprises a plurality of hollow oxide-based spheres of varios dimentions, a phosphate binder, and at least one oxide filler powder, whereby the phosphate binder partially fills gaps between the spheres and the filler powders. The spheres are situated in the phosphate binder and the filler powders such that each sphere is in contact with at least one other sphere. The spheres may be any combination of Mullite spheres, Alumina spheres, or stabilized Zirconia spheres. The filler powder may be any combination of Alumina, Mullite, Ceria, or Hafnia. Preferably, the phosphate binder is Aluminum Ortho-Phosphate. A method of manufacturing the ceramic insulating composition and its application to CMC substates are also provided.

  9. METCAN: The metal matrix composite analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, Dale A.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.

    1988-01-01

    Metal matrix composites (MMC) are the subject of intensive study and are receiving serious consideration for critical structural applications in advanced aerospace systems. MMC structural analysis and design methodologies are studied. Predicting the mechanical and thermal behavior and the structural response of components fabricated from MMC requires the use of a variety of mathematical models. These models relate stresses to applied forces, stress intensities at the tips of cracks to nominal stresses, buckling resistance to applied force, or vibration response to excitation forces. The extensive research in computational mechanics methods for predicting the nonlinear behavior of MMC are described. This research has culminated in the development of the METCAN (METal Matrix Composite ANalyzer) computer code.

  10. Spin Forming of Aluminum Metal Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jonathan A.; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    An exploratory effort between NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and SpinCraft, Inc., to experimentally spin form cylinders and concentric parts from small and thin sheets of aluminum Metal Matrix Composites (MMC), successfully yielded good microstructure data and forming parameters. MSFC and SpinCraft will collaborate on the recent technical findings and develop strategy to implement this technology for NASA's advanced propulsion and airframe applications such as pressure bulkheads, combustion liner assemblies, propellant tank domes, and nose cone assemblies.

  11. Ceramic Matrix Composites for Rotorcraft Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halbig, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    Ceramic matrix composite (CMC) components are being developed for turbine engine applications. Compared to metallic components, the CMC components offer benefits of higher temperature capability and less cooling requirements which correlates to improved efficiency and reduced emissions. This presentation discusses a technology develop effort for overcoming challenges in fabricating a CMC vane for the high pressure turbine. The areas of technology development include small component fabrication, ceramic joining and integration, material and component testing and characterization, and design and analysis of concept components.

  12. Thermal expansion measurements of metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tompkins, Stephen S.; Dries, Gregory A.

    1988-01-01

    The laser-interferometric-dilatometer system currently operational at NASA-Langley is described. The system, designed to characterize metal matrix composites, features high precision, automated data acquisition, and the ability to test a wide variety of specimen geometries over temperature ranges within 80-422 K. The paper presents typical thermal-expansion measurement data for a Gr/Al rod; Gr/Al and Gr/Mg unidirectional laminates; and a Gr/Mg (+ or -8)s laminate.

  13. Metal matrix composites - Their time to shine?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. S.

    1987-01-01

    Basic types of metal matrix composite (MMC) systems (namely, the particulates-, the whisker/flakes-, and the continuous-fiber-reinforced) are discussed together with the advantages and the disadvantages of each system. Special consideration is given to the new MMC systems under development that meet the needs of aerospace applications and to the properties of stiffness and thermal expansion of these systems. As a family of structural materials, MMCs have great potential for missile airframe applications.

  14. Method of producing a hybrid matrix fiber composite

    DOEpatents

    Deteresa, Steven J.; Lyon, Richard E.; Groves, Scott E.

    2006-03-28

    Hybrid matrix fiber composites having enhanced compressive performance as well as enhanced stiffness, toughness and durability suitable for compression-critical applications. The methods for producing the fiber composites using matrix hybridization. The hybrid matrix fiber composites comprised of two chemically or physically bonded matrix materials, whereas the first matrix materials are used to impregnate multi-filament fibers formed into ribbons and the second matrix material is placed around and between the fiber ribbons that are impregnated with the first matrix material and both matrix materials are cured and solidified.

  15. Program For Analysis Of Metal-Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, P. L. N.; Mital, S. K.

    1994-01-01

    METCAN (METal matrix Composite ANalyzer) is computer program used to simulate computationally nonlinear behavior of high-temperature metal-matrix composite structural components in specific applications, providing comprehensive analyses of thermal and mechanical performances. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  16. Probabilistic Modeling of Ceramic Matrix Composite Strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shan, Ashwin R.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Mital, Subodh K.; Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.

    1998-01-01

    Uncertainties associated with the primitive random variables such as manufacturing process (processing temperature, fiber volume ratio, void volume ratio), constituent properties (fiber, matrix and interface), and geometric parameters (ply thickness, interphase thickness) have been simulated to quantify the scatter in the first matrix cracking strength (FMCS) and the ultimate tensile strength of SCS-6/RBSN (SiC fiber (SCS-6) reinforced reaction-bonded silicon nitride composite) ceramic matrix composite laminate at room temperature. Cumulative probability distribution function for the FMCS and ultimate tensile strength at room temperature (RT) of (0)(sub 8), (0(sub 2)/90(sub 2), and (+/-45(sub 2))(sub S) laminates have been simulated and the sensitivity of primitive variables to the respective strengths have been quantified. Computationally predicted scatter of the strengths for a uniaxial laminate have been compared with those from limited experimental data. Also the experimental procedure used in the tests has been described briefly. Results show a very good agreement between the computational simulation and the experimental data. Dominating failure modes in (0)(sub 8), (0/90)(sub s) and (+/-45)(sub S) laminates have been identified. Results indicate that the first matrix cracking strength for the (0)(sub S), and (0/90)(sub S) laminates is sensitive to the thermal properties, modulus and strengths of both the fiber and matrix whereas the ultimate tensile strength is sensitive to the fiber strength and the fiber volume ratio. In the case of a (+/-45)(sub S), laminate, both the FMCS and the ultimate tensile strengths have a small scatter range and are sensitive to the fiber tensile strength as well as the fiber volume ratio.

  17. Effects of. gamma. irradiation on cartilage matrix calcification

    SciTech Connect

    Nijweide, P.J.; Burger, E.H.; van Delft, J.L.; Kawilarange-de Haas, E.W.M.; Wassenaar, A.M.; Mellink, J.H.

    1980-10-01

    The effect of ..gamma.. irradiation on cartilage matrix calcification was studied in vitro. Metatarsal bones of 14- to 17-day-old embryonic mice were dissected and cultured under various conditions. Prior to culture, half of the metatarsal bones received absorbed doses of 1.0 to 30.0 Gy ..gamma.. radiation. Their paired counterparts served as controls. Irradiation inhibited longitudinal growth and calcification of the cartilage matrix during culture. In addition, a number of histological changes were noted. The inhibition of matrix calcification appeared to be due to an inhibition of the intracellular calcium accumulation. The formation of extracellular calcification foci and the growth of the calcified area already present at the moment of explanation were not inhibited during culture.

  18. Creep of plain weave polymer matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Abhishek

    Polymer matrix composites are increasingly used in various industrial sectors to reduce structural weight and improve performance. Woven (also known as textile) composites are one class of polymer matrix composites with increasing market share mostly due to their lightweight, their flexibility to form into desired shape, their mechanical properties and toughness. Due to the viscoelasticity of the polymer matrix, time-dependent degradation in modulus (creep) and strength (creep rupture) are two of the major mechanical properties required by engineers to design a structure reliably when using these materials. Unfortunately, creep and creep rupture of woven composites have received little attention by the research community and thus, there is a dire need to generate additional knowledge and prediction models, given the increasing market share of woven composites in load bearing structural applications. Currently, available creep models are limited in scope and have not been validated for any loading orientation and time period beyond the experimental time window. In this thesis, an analytical creep model, namely the Modified Equivalent Laminate Model (MELM), was developed to predict tensile creep of plain weave composites for any orientation of the load with respect to the orientation of the fill and warp fibers, using creep of unidirectional composites. The ability of the model to predict creep for any orientation of the load is a "first" in this area. The model was validated using an extensive experimental involving the tensile creep of plain weave composites under varying loading orientation and service conditions. Plain weave epoxy (F263)/ carbon fiber (T300) composite, currently used in aerospace applications, was procured as fabrics from Hexcel Corporation. Creep tests were conducted under two loading conditions: on-axis loading (0°) and off-axis loading (45°). Constant load creep, in the temperature range of 80-240°C and stress range of 1-70% UTS of the

  19. Ceramic matrix composites by microwave assisted CVI

    SciTech Connect

    Currier, R.P.; Devlin, D.J.

    1993-05-01

    Chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) processes for producing continuously reinforced ceramic composites are reviewed. The potential advantages of microwave assisted CVI are noted. Recent numerical studies of microwave assisted CVI are then reviewed. These studies predict inverted thermal gradients in fibrous ceramic preforms subjected to microwave radiation and suggest processing strategies for achieving uniformly dense composites. Comparisons are made to experimental results obtained using silicon based composite systems. The importance of microwave-material interactions is stressed. In particular, emphasis is placed on the role played by the relative ability of fiber and matrix to dissipate microwave energy. Results suggest that microwave induced inverted gradients can in fact be exploited using the CVI technique to promote inside-out densification.

  20. Ceramic matrix composites by microwave assisted CVI

    SciTech Connect

    Currier, R.P.; Devlin, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    Chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) processes for producing continuously reinforced ceramic composites are reviewed. The potential advantages of microwave assisted CVI are noted. Recent numerical studies of microwave assisted CVI are then reviewed. These studies predict inverted thermal gradients in fibrous ceramic preforms subjected to microwave radiation and suggest processing strategies for achieving uniformly dense composites. Comparisons are made to experimental results obtained using silicon based composite systems. The importance of microwave-material interactions is stressed. In particular, emphasis is placed on the role played by the relative ability of fiber and matrix to dissipate microwave energy. Results suggest that microwave induced inverted gradients can in fact be exploited using the CVI technique to promote inside-out densification.

  1. Polymer Matrix Composite Lines and Ducts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nettles, A. T.

    2001-01-01

    Since composite laminates are beginning to be identified for use in reusable launch vehicle propulsion systems, a task was undertaken to assess the feasibility of making cryogenic feedlines with integral flanges from polymer matrix composite materials. An additional level of complexity was added by having the feedlines be elbow shaped. Four materials, each with a unique manufacturing method, were chosen for this program. Feedlines were to be made by hand layup (HLU) with standard autoclave cure, HLU with electron beam cure, solvent-assisted resin transfer molding (SARTM), and thermoplastic tape laying (TTL). A test matrix of fill and drain cycles with both liquid nitrogen and liquid helium, along with a heat up to 250 F, was planned for each of the feedlines. A pressurization to failure was performed on any feedlines that passed the cryogenic cycling testing. A damage tolerance subtask was also undertaken in this study. The effects of foreign object impact to the materials used was assessed by cross-sectional examination and by permeability after impact testing. At the end of the program, the manufacture of the electron beam-cured feedlines never came to fruition. All of the TTL feedlines leaked heavily before any cryogenic testing, all of the SARTM feedlines leaked heavily after one cryogenic cycle. Thus, only the HLU with autoclave cure feedlines underwent the complete test matrix. They passed the cyclic testing and were pressurized to failure.

  2. Nanotube reinforced thermoplastic polymer matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shofner, Meisha Lei

    The inherent high strength, thermal conductivity, and electrical conductivity make nanotubes attractive reinforcements for polymer matrix composites. However, the structure that makes them desirable also causes highly anisotropic properties and limited reactivity with other materials. This thesis isolates these problems in two separate studies aimed at improving mechanical properties with single wall nanotube (SWNT) reinforced thermoplastic polymer composites. The two studies demonstrate the effect of solid freeform fabrication (SFF) and chemical functionalization on anisotropy and limited reactivity, respectively. Both studies showed mechanical property improvements. The alignment study demonstrates a maximum increase of 93% in tensile modulus with single wall nanotubes (SWNTs). The chemical functionalization study shows a larger increase in storage modulus for functionalized SWNTs as compared to purified SVWNTs with respective increases of 9% and 44% in storage modulus. Improved interfacial properties are also observed as a decrease in mechanical damping. Maximum property increases in composites are obtained when nanotubes are aligned, requiring additional processing consideration to the anisotropic structure. Melt spinning and extrusion processing effectively align nanotubes, but the end product of these techniques, composite fibers, requires further processing to be incorporated into finished parts. Extrusion-based SFF is a novel technique for processing nanotube reinforced composites because it allows for the direct fabrication of finished parts containing aligned nanotubes. SFF processing produces parts containing preferentially oriented nanotubes with improved mechanical properties when compared to isotropic composites. Functionalization of the nanotube surface disrupts the rope structure to obtain smaller ropes and promote further interfacial bonding. The chemically inert nature of nanotubes resulting from a structure containing few defects and the

  3. Reliability analysis of ceramic matrix composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, David J.; Wetherhold, Robert C.

    1991-01-01

    At a macroscopic level, a composite lamina may be considered as a homogeneous orthotropic solid whose directional strengths are random variables. Incorporation of these random variable strengths into failure models, either interactive or non-interactive, allows for the evaluation of the lamina reliability under a given stress state. Using a non-interactive criterion for demonstration purposes, laminate reliabilities are calculated assuming previously established load sharing rules for the redistribution of load as the failure of laminae occur. The matrix cracking predicted by ACK theory is modeled to allow a loss of stiffness in the fiber direction. The subsequent failure in the fiber direction is controlled by a modified bundle theory. Results using this modified bundle model are compared with previous models which did not permit separate consideration of matrix cracking, as well as to results obtained from experimental data.

  4. Cooled Ceramic Matrix Composite Propulsion Structures Demonstrated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaskowiak, Martha H.; Dickens, Kevin W.

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Next Generation Launch Technology (NGLT) Program has successfully demonstrated cooled ceramic matrix composite (CMC) technology in a scramjet engine test. This demonstration represented the world s largest cooled nonmetallic matrix composite panel fabricated for a scramjet engine and the first cooled nonmetallic composite to be tested in a scramjet facility. Lightweight, high-temperature, actively cooled structures have been identified as a key technology for enabling reliable and low-cost space access. Tradeoff studies have shown this to be the case for a variety of launch platforms, including rockets and hypersonic cruise vehicles. Actively cooled carbon and CMC structures may meet high-performance goals at significantly lower weight, while improving safety by operating with a higher margin between the design temperature and material upper-use temperature. Studies have shown that using actively cooled CMCs can reduce the weight of the cooled flow-path component from 4.5 to 1.6 lb/sq ft and the weight of the propulsion system s cooled surface area by more than 50 percent. This weight savings enables advanced concepts, increased payload, and increased range. The ability of the cooled CMC flow-path components to operate over 1000 F hotter than the state-of-the-art metallic concept adds system design flexibility to space-access vehicle concepts. Other potential system-level benefits include smaller fuel pumps, lower part count, lower cost, and increased operating margin.

  5. Interfacial roughness in ceramic matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Jero, P.D.; Parthasarathy, T.A.; Kerans, R.J.

    1992-08-01

    Recent work using push-out and push-back tests has shown that interfacial roughness contributes substantially to the sliding friction in at least some ceramic matrix composites (CMC's). Other work examining frictional heating of CMC's during cyclic fatigue has shown the important role that interfacial friction plays, and further that the interface is degraded upon extended cycling. From this it is apparent that interfacial roughness may play a key role in determining composite behavior. Although the observation of a seating drop during fiber push-back gives some information about the amplitude and spatial extent of the interfacial roughness, actual measurement of the roughness has proven difficult due to its extremely fine scale. In the present work, a laser interferometer has been used to examine the roughness of composite interfaces (both fiber and matrix) as well as virgin fibers. In addition, long range (mm scale) push-out tests have been followed by interferometric characterization to examine the severity and rate of interfacial degradation associated with fiber sliding. 4 refs.

  6. Metal-Matrix/Hollow-Ceramic-Sphere Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Dean M.

    2011-01-01

    A family of metal/ceramic composite materials has been developed that are relatively inexpensive, lightweight alternatives to structural materials that are typified by beryllium, aluminum, and graphite/epoxy composites. These metal/ceramic composites were originally intended to replace beryllium (which is toxic and expensive) as a structural material for lightweight mirrors for aerospace applications. These materials also have potential utility in automotive and many other terrestrial applications in which there are requirements for lightweight materials that have high strengths and other tailorable properties as described below. The ceramic component of a material in this family consists of hollow ceramic spheres that have been formulated to be lightweight (0.5 g/cm3) and have high crush strength [40.80 ksi (.276.552 MPa)]. The hollow spheres are coated with a metal to enhance a specific performance . such as shielding against radiation (cosmic rays or x rays) or against electromagnetic interference at radio and lower frequencies, or a material to reduce the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the final composite material, and/or materials to mitigate any mismatch between the spheres and the matrix metal. Because of the high crush strength of the spheres, the initial composite workpiece can be forged or extruded into a high-strength part. The total time taken in processing from the raw ingredients to a finished part is typically 10 to 14 days depending on machining required.

  7. Metal Matrix Composite Materials for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, Biliyar N.; Jones, C. S. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Metal matrix composites (MMC) are attractive materials for aerospace applications because of their high specific strength, high specific stiffness, and lower thermal expansion coefficient. They are affordable since complex parts can be produced by low cost casting process. As a result there are many commercial and Department of Defense applications of MMCs today. This seminar will give an overview of MMCs and their state-of-the-art technology assessment. Topics to be covered are types of MMCs, fabrication methods, product forms, applications, and material selection issues for design and manufacture. Some examples of current and future aerospace applications will also be presented and discussed.

  8. METal matrix composite ANalyzer (METCAN): Theoretical manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, P. L. N.; Chamis, C. C.

    1993-01-01

    This manuscript is intended to be a companion volume to the 'METCAN User's Manual' and the 'METAN Demonstration Manual.' The primary purpose of the manual is to give details pertaining to micromechanics and macromechanics equations of high temperature metal matrix composites that are programmed in the METCAN computer code. The subroutines which contain the programmed equations are also mentioned in order to facilitate any future changes or modifications that the user may intend to incorporate in the code. Assumptions and derivations leading to the micromechanics equations are briefly mentioned.

  9. Effectiveness of metal matrix and ceramic matrix composites as orbital debris shield materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgill, Preston B.; Mount, Angela R.

    1992-01-01

    The effectiveness of two metal matrix composites and one ceramic matrix material in defeating hypervelocity impacts at about 3.8 km/s are evaluated to determine the potential of these composites as spacecraft shield materials. The metal matrix composites investigated consist of SiC particles (70 percent by volume) in an aluminum matrix and Al2O3 particles (50 percent by volume) in an Al matrix. The ceramic composite consists of ZrB2 platelets in a ZrC matrix. Both the metal matrix and ceramic matrix composites are found to perform as well or better than 6061-T6 aluminum, which is presently used in the Whipple type bumper shield of Space Station Freedom. Test results indicate that the composites tested may have applications as micrometeoroid/orbital debris shield materials.

  10. Graphite fiber reinforced glass matrix composites for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prewo, K. M.; Bacon, J. F.; Dicus, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    The graphite fiber reinforced glass matrix composite system is described. Although this composite is not yet a mature material, it possesses low density, attractive mechanical properties at elevated temperatures, and good environmental stability. Properties are reported for a borosilicate glass matrix unidirectionally reinforced with 60 volume percent HMS graphite fiber. The flexural strength and fatigue characteristics at room and elevated temperature, resistance to thermal cycling and continuous high temperature oxidation, and thermal expansion characteristics of the composite are reported. The properties of this new composite are compared to those of advanced resin and metal matrix composites showing that graphite fiber reinforced glass matrix composites are attractive for aerospace applications.

  11. Effect of irradiation on thermal expansion of SiC{sub f}/SiC composites

    SciTech Connect

    Senor, D.J.; Trimble, D.J.; Woods, J.J.

    1996-06-01

    Linear thermal expansion was measured on five different SiC-fiber-reinforced/SiC-matrix (SiC{sub f}/SiC) composite types in the unirradiated and irradiated conditions. Two matrices were studied in combination with Nicalon CG reinforcement and a 150 nm PyC fiber/matrix interface: chemical vapor infiltrated (CVI) SiC and liquid-phase polymer impregnated precursor (PIP) SiC. Composites of PIP SiC with Tyranno and HPZ fiber reinforcement and a 150 nm PyC interface were also tested, as were PIP SiC composites with Nicalon CG reinforcement and a 150 nm BN fiber/matrix interface. The irradiation was conducted in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II at a nominal temperature of 1,000 C to doses of either 33 or 43 dpa-SiC. Irradiation caused complete fiber/matrix debonding in the CVI SiC composites due to a dimensional stability mismatch between fiber and matrix, while the PIP SiC composites partially retained their fiber/matrix interface after irradiation. However, the thermal expansion of all the materials tested was found to be primarily dependent on the matrix and independent of either the fiber or the fiber/matrix interface. Further, irradiation had no significant effect on thermal expansion for either the CVI SiC or PIP SiC composites. In general, the thermal expansion of the CVI SiC composites exceeded that of the PIP SiC composites, particularly at elevated temperatures, but the expansion of both matrix types was less than chemical vapor deposited (CVD) {beta}-SiC at all temperatures.

  12. Fiber reinforced thermoplastic resin matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Robert J. (Inventor); Chang, Glenn E. C. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Polyimide polymer composites having a combination of enhanced thermal and mechanical properties even when subjected to service temperatures as high as 700.degree. F. are described. They comprise (a) from 10 to 50 parts by weight of a thermoplastic polyimide resin prepared from 2,2-bis[4-(4-aminophenoxy)phenyl]hexafluoropropane and (b) from 90 to 50 parts by weight of continuous reinforcing fibers, the total of (a) and (b) being 100 parts by weight. Composites based on polyimide resin formed from 2,2-bis[4-(4-aminophenoxy)phenyl]hexafluoropropane and pyromellitic dianhydride and continuous carbon fibers retained at least about 50% of their room temperature shear strength after exposure to 700.degree. F. for a period of 16 hours in flowing air. Preferably, the thermoplastic polyimide resin is formed in situ in the composite material by thermal imidization of a corresponding amide-acid polymer prepared from 2,2-bis[4-(4-aminophenoxy)phenyl]hexafluoropropane. It is also preferred to initially size the continuous reinforcing fibers with up to about one percent by weight of an amide-acid polymer prepared from 2,2-bis[4-(4-aminophenoxy)phenyl]hexafluoropropane. In this way imidization at a suitable elevated temperature results in the in-situ formation of a substantially homogeneous thermoplastic matrix of the polyimide resin tightly and intimately bonded to the continuous fibers. The resultant composites tend to have optimum thermo-mechanical properties.

  13. Characterization of Hybrid CNT Polymer Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimsley, Brian W.; Cano, Roberto J.; Kinney, Megan C.; Pressley, James; Sauti, Godfrey; Czabaj, Michael W.; Kim, Jae-Woo; Siochi, Emilie J.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been studied extensively since their discovery and demonstrated at the nanoscale superior mechanical, electrical and thermal properties in comparison to micro and macro scale properties of conventional engineering materials. This combination of properties suggests their potential to enhance multi-functionality of composites in regions of primary structures on aerospace vehicles where lightweight materials with improved thermal and electrical conductivity are desirable. In this study, hybrid multifunctional polymer matrix composites were fabricated by interleaving layers of CNT sheets into Hexcel® IM7/8552 prepreg, a well-characterized toughened epoxy carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite. The resin content of these interleaved CNT sheets, as well as ply stacking location were varied to determine the effects on the electrical, thermal, and mechanical performance of the composites. The direct-current electrical conductivity of the hybrid CNT composites was characterized by in-line and Montgomery four-probe methods. For [0](sub 20) laminates containing a single layer of CNT sheet between each ply of IM7/8552, in-plane electrical conductivity of the hybrid laminate increased significantly, while in-plane thermal conductivity increased only slightly in comparison to the control IM7/8552 laminates. Photo-microscopy and short beam shear (SBS) strength tests were used to characterize the consolidation quality of the fabricated laminates. Hybrid panels fabricated without any pretreatment of the CNT sheets resulted in a SBS strength reduction of 70 percent. Aligning the tubes and pre-infusing the CNT sheets with resin significantly improved the SBS strength of the hybrid composite To determine the cause of this performance reduction, Mode I and Mode II fracture toughness of the CNT sheet to CFRP interface was characterized by double cantilever beam (DCB) and end notch flexure (ENF) testing, respectively. Results are compared to the

  14. Aluminum-Alloy-Matrix/Alumina-Reinforcement Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kashalikar, Uday; Rozenoyer, Boris

    2004-01-01

    Isotropic composites of aluminum-alloy matrices reinforced with particulate alumina have been developed as lightweight, high-specific-strength, less-expensive alternatives to nickel-base and ferrous superalloys. These composites feature a specific gravity of about 3.45 grams per cubic centimeter and specific strengths of about 200 MPa/(grams per cubic centimeter). The room-temperature tensile strength is 100 ksi (689 MPa) and stiffness is 30 Msi (206 GPa). At 500 F (260 C), these composites have shown 80 percent retention in strength and 95 percent retention in stiffness. These materials also have excellent fatigue tolerance and tribological properties. They can be fabricated in net (or nearly net) sizes and shapes to make housings, pistons, valves, and ducts in turbomachinery, and to make structural components of such diverse systems as diesel engines, automotive brake systems, and power-generation, mining, and oil-drilling equipment. Separately, incorporation of these metal matrix composites within aluminum gravity castings for localized reinforcement has been demonstrated. A composite part of this type can be fabricated in a pressure infiltration casting process. The process begins with the placement of a mold with alumina particulate preform of net or nearly net size and shape in a crucible in a vacuum furnace. A charge of the alloy is placed in the crucible with the preform. The interior of the furnace is evacuated, then the furnace heaters are turned on to heat the alloy above its liquidus temperature. Next, the interior of the furnace is filled with argon gas at a pressure about 900 psi (approximately equal to 6.2 MPa) to force the molten alloy to infiltrate the preform. Once infiltrated, the entire contents of the crucible can be allowed to cool in place, and the composite part recovered from the mold.

  15. Fatigue damage accumulation in various metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. S.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review some of the latest understanding of the fatigue behavior of continuous fiber reinforced metal matrix composites. The emphasis is on the development of an understanding of different fatigue damage mechanisms and why and how they occur. The fatigue failure modes in continuous fiber reinforced metal matrix composites are controlled by the three constituents of the system: fiber, matrix, and fiber/matrix interface. The relative strains to fatigue failure of the fiber and matrix will determine the failure mode. Several examples of matrix, fiber, and self-similar damage growth dominated fatigue damage are given for several metal matrix composite systems. Composite analysis, failure modes, and damage modeling are discussed. Boron/aluminum, silicon-carbide/aluminum, FP/aluminum, and borsic/titanium metal matrix composites are discussed.

  16. Pendulum impact resistance of tungsten fiber/metal matrix composites.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winsa, E. A.; Petrasek, D. W.

    1972-01-01

    The impact properties of copper, copper-10 nickel, and a superalloy matrix reinforced with tungsten fibers were studied. In most cases the following increased composite impact strength: increased fiber or matrix toughness, decreased fiber-matrix reaction, increased test temperature, hot working and heat treatment. Notch sensitivity was reduced by increasing fiber or matrix toughness. The effect of fiber content depended on the relative toughness of the fibers and matrix. Above 530 K a 60 volume per cent superalloy matrix composite had a greater impact strength than a turbine blade superalloy, whereas below 530 K a hot worked 56 volume per cent composite had a greater impact strength than the superalloy.

  17. Ceramic matrix composites in simulated SSME environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbell, Thomas P.; Eckel, Andrew J.

    1988-01-01

    Future Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME)-type rocket engines can benefit from the use of fiber-reinforced ceramix matrix composites (FRCMC). Ceramics reinforced with long continuous fibers exhibit improved tolerance to severe thermomechanical and environmental exposures. An in-house NASA-Lewis program to evaluate the durability of FRCMC in simulated SSME environments is described. Primary tests involve multiple (one second) exposures of FRCMC specimens in a hydrogen/oxygen rocket test rig. This rig generates surface heating rates of 1000 to 2500 C/second. The FRCMC durability evaluation involves measurement of retained strength as a function of thermal shock severity and number of upshock cycles. Preliminary test results for monolithic silicon nitride (Si3N4) and silicon carbide (SiC), and one type of silicon based FRCMC, are presented. The test data are examined in terms of simple thermal shock theory.

  18. Intelligent processing for metal matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backman, D. G.; Russell, E. S.; Wei, D. Y.; Pang, Y.

    Intelligent processing of materials (IPM) is a powerful processing concept which requires integration of process knowledge, analytical models, process sensors, and expert system based control technology. An IPM system to manufacture metal matrix composites (MMC) using inductively coupled plasma deposition is under development. Process knowledge is contained in a reduced-order process simulator, consisting of thermal, fluid flow, solid mechanics, and material kinetics models. A working deposit thermal model has been developed, while the solid mechanics and material kinetics models are under development. Future directions for IPM development are discussed, including integration with related MMC processing operations, and establishment of a control system in which expert system based control is used to replicate operator decision-making.

  19. Fracture toughness testing of polymer matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, Joseph E.

    1992-01-01

    A review of the interlaminar fracture indicates that a standard specimen geometry is needed to obtain consistent fracture toughness measurements in polymer matrix composites. In general, the variability of measured toughness values increases as the toughness of the material increases. This variability could be caused by incorrect sizing of test specimens and/or inconsistent data reduction procedures. A standard data reduction procedure is therefore needed as well, particularly for the tougher materials. Little work has been reported on the effects of fiber orientation, fiber architecture, fiber surface treatment or interlaminar fracture toughness, and the mechanisms by which the fibers increase fracture toughness are not well understood. The little data that is available indicates that woven fiber reinforcement and fiber sizings can significantly increase interlaminar fracture toughness.

  20. Advanced Measurements of Silicon Carbide Ceramic Matrix Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Farhad Farzbod; Stephen J. Reese; Zilong Hua; Marat Khafizov; David H. Hurley

    2012-08-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) is being considered as a fuel cladding material for accident tolerant fuel under the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program sponsored by the Nuclear Energy Division of the Department of Energy. Silicon carbide has many potential advantages over traditional zirconium based cladding systems. These include high melting point, low susceptibility to corrosion, and low degradation of mechanical properties under neutron irradiation. In addition, ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) made from SiC have high mechanical toughness enabling these materials to withstand thermal and mechanical shock loading. However, many of the fundamental mechanical and thermal properties of SiC CMCs depend strongly on the fabrication process. As a result, extrapolating current materials science databases for these materials to nuclear applications is not possible. The “Advanced Measurements” work package under the LWRS fuels pathway is tasked with the development of measurement techniques that can characterize fundamental thermal and mechanical properties of SiC CMCs. An emphasis is being placed on development of characterization tools that can used for examination of fresh as well as irradiated samples. The work discuss in this report can be divided into two broad categories. The first involves the development of laser ultrasonic techniques to measure the elastic and yield properties and the second involves the development of laser-based techniques to measurement thermal transport properties. Emphasis has been placed on understanding the anisotropic and heterogeneous nature of SiC CMCs in regards to thermal and mechanical properties. The material properties characterized within this work package will be used as validation of advanced materials physics models of SiC CMCs developed under the LWRS fuels pathway. In addition, it is envisioned that similar measurement techniques can be used to provide process control and quality assurance as well as measurement of

  1. Characterizing damage in ceramic matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyekenyesi, Andrew L.; Baker, Christopher; Morscher, Gregory

    2014-04-01

    With the upcoming implementation of ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) within aerospace systems (e.g., aviation turbine engines), an in-depth understanding of the failure process due to mechanical loads is required. This includes developing a basic understanding of the complex, multi-mechanism failure process as well as the associated nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques that are capable of recognizing and quantifying the damage. Various NDE techniques have been successfully utilized for assessing the damage state of woven CMCs, in particular, consisting of silicon carbide fibers and silicon carbide matrices (SiC/SiC). The multiple NDE techniques, studied by the authors of this paper, included acousto-ultrasonics, modal acoustic emissions, electrical resistance, impedance based structural health monitoring, pulsed thermography as well as thermoelastic stress analysis. The observed damage within the composites was introduced using multiple experimental tactics including uniaxial tensile tests, creep tests, and most recently, ballistic impact. This paper offers a brief review and summary of results for each of the applied NDE tools.

  2. Composite Materials With Uncured Epoxy Matrix Exposed in Stratosphere During NASA Stratospheric Balloon Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kondyurin, Alexey; Kondyurina, Irina; Bilek, Marcela; de Groh, Kim K.

    2013-01-01

    A cassette of uncured composite materials with epoxy resin matrixes was exposed in the stratosphere (40 km altitude) over three days. Temperature variations of -76 to 32.5C and pressure up to 2.1 torr were recorded during flight. An analysis of the chemical structure of the composites showed, that the polymer matrix exposed in the stratosphere becomes crosslinked, while the ground control materials react by way of polymerization reaction of epoxy groups. The space irradiations are considered to be responsible for crosslinking of the uncured polymers exposed in the stratosphere. The composites were cured on Earth after landing. Analysis of the cured composites showed that the polymer matrix remains active under stratospheric conditions. The results can be used for predicting curing processes of polymer composites in a free space environment during an orbital space flight.

  3. Production of aluminium metal matrix composites by liquid processing methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hynes, N. Rajesh Jesudoss; Kumar, R.; Tharmaraj, R.; Velu, P. Shenbaga

    2016-05-01

    Owing to high strength to low weight ratio, Aluminium matrix composites are widely used in diverse applications of many industries. This lucrative property is achieved by reinforcing the brittle ceramic particles in the aluminium matrix. Aluminium matrix composites are produced by liquid processing methods and solid processing methods. Nevertheless, liquidprocessing techniques stand out because of its simplicity and its suitability for mass production. In this review article, the production of aluminium matrix composites by different liquid processing technique is discussed and a comparative study is carried out.

  4. Advanced composites: Environmental effects on selected resin matrix materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welhart, E. K.

    1976-01-01

    The effects that expected space flight environment has upon the mechanical properties of epoxy and polyimide matrix composites were analyzed. Environmental phenomena covered water immersion, high temperature aging, humidity, lightning strike, galvanic action, electromagnetic interference, thermal shock, rain and sand erosion, and thermal/vacuum outgassing. The technology state-of-the-art for graphite and boron reinforced epoxy and polyimide matrix materials is summarized to determine the relative merit of using composites in the space shuttle program. Resin matrix composites generally are affected to some degree by natural environmental phenomena with polyimide resin matrix materials less affected than epoxies.

  5. INTEGRATED COI S200 - Hi-NiCalon FIBER WITH AN S200 MATRIX (POLYMER MATRIX COMPOSITE - PMC) / AETB 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    INTEGRATED COI S200 - Hi-NiCalon FIBER WITH AN S200 MATRIX (POLYMER MATRIX COMPOSITE - PMC) / AETB 16 (FOAM CORE) / CARBON REINFORCED CYANOESTER (CERAMIC MATRIX COMPOSITE - CMC) HOT STRUCTURE, PANEL 884-1: SAMPLE 3

  6. INTEGRATED COI S200 - Hi-NiCalon FIBER WITH AN S200 MATRIX (POLYMER MATRIX COMPOSITE - PMC) / AETB 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    INTEGRATED COI S200 - Hi-NiCalon FIBER WITH AN S200 MATRIX (POLYMER MATRIX COMPOSITE - PMC) / AETB 16 (FOAM CORE) / CARBON REINFORCED CYANOESTER (CERAMIC MATRIX COMPOSITE - CMC) HOT STRUCTURE, PANEL 884-1: SAMPLE 1

  7. Auger analysis of a fiber/matrix interface in a ceramic matrix composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honecy, Frank S.; Pepper, Stephen V.

    1988-01-01

    Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) depth profiling was used to characterize the fiber/matrix interface of an SiC fiber, reaction bonded Si3N4 matrix composite. Depth profiles of the as received double coated fiber revealed concentration oscillations which disappeared after annealing the fiber in the environment used to fabricate the composite. After the composite was fractured, the Auger depth profiles showed that failure occurred in neither the Beta-SiC fiber body nor in the Si3N4 matrix but, concurrently, at the fiber coating/matrix interface and within the fiber coating itself.

  8. A Review of Irradiation Effects on Organic-Matrix Insulation

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, N.J.

    1993-06-01

    This review assesses the data base on epoxy and polyimide matrix insulation to determine whether organic electric insulation systems can be used in the toroidal field (TF) magnets of next generation fusion devices such as ITER* and TPX*. Owing to the difficulties of testing insulation under fusion reactor conditions, there is a considerable mismatch between the ITER requirements and the data that are currently available. For example, nearly all of the high-dose (5 x 10{sup 7} to 10{sup 8} Gy) data obtained on epoxy and polyimide matrix insulation employed gamma irradiation, electron irradiation, or reactor irradiation with a fast neutron fluence far below 10{sup 23}/m{sup 2}, the fluence expected for the insulation at the TF magnets, as set forth in ITER conceptual design documents. Also, the neutron spectrum did not contain a very high energy (E {ge} 5 MeV) component. Such data underestimate the actual damage that would be obtained with the neutron fluence and spectrum expected at a TF magnet. Experiments on a polyimide (Kapton) indicate that gamma or electron doses or mixed gamma and neutron reactor doses would have to be downgraded by a factor of up to ten to simulate fusion neutron doses. Even when neutrons did constitute a significant portion of the total dose, B-containing E-glass reinforcement was often used; therefore, excess damage from the {sup 10}B + n {yields} {sup 7}Li + {alpha} reaction occurred near the glass-epoxy interface. This problem can easily be avoided by substituting B-free glass (R, S, or T types).

  9. Parametric Study Of A Ceramic-Fiber/Metal-Matrix Composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, P. L. N.; Hopkins, D. A.; Chamis, C. C.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes computer-model parametric study of effects of degradation of constituent materials upon mechanical properties of ceramic-fiber/metal-matrix composite material. Contributes to understanding of weakening effects of large changes in temperature and mechanical stresses in fabrication and use. Concerned mainly with influences of in situ fiber and matrix properties upon behavior of composite. Particular attention given to influence of in situ matrix strength and influence of interphase degradation.

  10. Surface characterization of LDEF carbon fiber/polymer matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grammer, Holly L.; Wightman, James P.; Young, Philip R.; Slemp, Wayne S.

    1995-01-01

    XPS (x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) and SEM (scanning electron microscopy) analysis of both carbon fiber/epoxy matrix and carbon fiber/polysulfone matrix composites revealed significant changes in the surface composition as a result of exposure to low-earth orbit. The carbon 1s curve fit XPS analysis in conjunction with the SEM photomicrographs revealed significant erosion of the polymer matrix resins by atomic oxygen to expose the carbon fibers of the composite samples. This erosion effect on the composites was seen after 10 months in orbit and was even more obvious after 69 months.

  11. The elevated temperature behavior of particle reinforced Al matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, D.J.

    1994-12-31

    The elevated temperature modulus, strength and creep of SiC particle reinforced composites produced by the DURALCAN{trademark} are discussed. It is shown that the reinforcing particles provide an increased modulus over the complete temperature range studied, and the temperature dependence of the composite modulus is controlled by the temperature dependence of the matrix modulus. The composite strength decreases with increasing temperature, reflecting softening of the matrix due to over aging, and as a result, is dependent on the thermal stability of the matrix. The particles provide increased creep resistance, and there are differences between the creep of melt processed composites and those produced by powder metallurgy.

  12. Modeling the Stress Strain Behavior of Woven Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morscher, Gregory N.

    2006-01-01

    Woven SiC fiber reinforced SiC matrix composites represent one of the most mature composite systems to date. Future components fabricated out of these woven ceramic matrix composites are expected to vary in shape, curvature, architecture, and thickness. The design of future components using woven ceramic matrix composites necessitates a modeling approach that can account for these variations which are physically controlled by local constituent contents and architecture. Research over the years supported primarily by NASA Glenn Research Center has led to the development of simple mechanistic-based models that can describe the entire stress-strain curve for composite systems fabricated with chemical vapor infiltrated matrices and melt-infiltrated matrices for a wide range of constituent content and architecture. Several examples will be presented that demonstrate the approach to modeling which incorporates a thorough understanding of the stress-dependent matrix cracking properties of the composite system.

  13. Tungsten fiber reinforced copper matrix composites: A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdanels, David L.

    1989-01-01

    Tungsten fiber reinforced copper matrix (W/Cu) composites have served as an ideal model system with which to analyze the properties of metal matrix composites. A series of research programs were conducted to investigate the stress-strain behavior of W/Cu composites; the effect of fiber content on the strength, modulus, and conductivity of W/Cu composites; and the effect of alloying elements on the behavior of tungsten wire and of W/Cu composites. Later programs investigated the stress-rupture, creep, and impact behavior of these composites at elevated temperatures. Analysis of the results of these programs as allows prediction of the effects of fiber properties, matrix properties, and fiber content on the properties of W/Cu composites. These analyses form the basis for the rule-of-mixtures prediction of composite properties which was universally adopted as the criteria for measuring composite efficiency. In addition, the analyses allows extrapolation of potential properties of other metal matrix composites and are used to select candidate fibers and matrices for development of tungsten fiber reinforced superalloy composite materials for high temperature aircraft and rocket engine turbine applications. The W/Cu composite efforts are summarized, some of the results obtained are described, and an update is provided on more recent work using W/Cu composites as high strength, high thermal conductivity composite materials for high heat flux, elevated temperature applications.

  14. Evaluation of waterjet-machined metal matrix composite tensile specimens

    SciTech Connect

    Lavender, C.A.; Smith, M.T.

    1986-04-01

    Four magnesium/boron carbide metal matrix composite (MMC) tensile specimens fabricated using the waterjet machining method were evaluated in order to determine the effects of the waterjet material removal process on the composite material surface structure and properties. These results were then compared with data from material conventionally machined. Results showed that while waterjet cutting produces a rough surface finish and does not meet specified dimensional tolerances, the technique appears to be suitable for sectioning and rough machining of metal matrix composites.

  15. Toughened Matrix SiC Fiber Reinforced Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Stanley R.; Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.; Morscher, Gregory N.; Kiser, James D.

    2005-01-01

    First matrix cracking stress is a critical parameter for application of Sic fiber reinforced composites in highly stressed, environmentally demanding applications such as turbine blades. High matrix fracture toughness is a key property that contributes to high composite fracture stress. Silicon nitride offers reduced matrix elastic modulus, lower coefficient of thermal expansion, and potentially high fracture toughness compared to Sic matrices. All of these factors can be used to advantage to increase matrix fracture stress. As a first model system we are pursuing toughened silicon nitride matrix composites reinforced with SCS-9 fibers. Fabrication is by tape casting the matrix plies and tape lay-up with fiber plies followed by hot pressing at 1800 C. Progress toward this end will be reported.

  16. Fabrication and characterization of AZ91/CNT magnesium matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Yong-Ha; Park, Yong-Ho; Park, Ik-Min; Oak, Jeong-jung; Kimura, Hisamichi; Cho, Kyung-Mox

    2008-12-01

    Carbon Nano Tube (CNT) reinforced AZ91 metal matrix composites (MMC) were fabricated by the squeeze infiltrated method. Properties of magnesium alloys have been improved by impurity reduction, surface treatment and alloy design, and thus the usage for the magnesium alloys has been extended recently. However there still remain barriers for the adaption of magnesium alloys for engineering materials. In this study, we report light-weight, high strength heat resistant magnesium matrix composites. Microstructural study and tensile test were performed for the squeeze infiltrated magnesium matrix composites. The wear properties were characterized and the possibility for the application to automotive power train and engine parts was investigated. It was found that the squeeze infiltration technique is a proper method to fabricate magnesium matrix composites reducing casting defects such as pores and matrix/reinforcement interface separation etc. Improved tensile and mechanical properties were obtained with CNT reinforcing magnesium alloys

  17. Detecting Cracks in Ceramic Matrix Composites by Electrical Resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Craig; Gyekenyesi, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The majority of damage in SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites subjected to monotonic tensile loads is in the form of distributed matrix cracks. These cracks initiate near stress concentrations, such as 90o fiber tows or large matrix pores and continue to accumulate with additional stress until matrix crack saturation is achieved. Such damage is difficult to detect with conventional nondestructive evaluation techniques (immersion ultrasonics, x-ray, etc.). Monitoring a specimen.s electrical resistance change provides an indirect approach for monitoring matrix crack density. Sylramic-iBN fiber- reinforced SiC composites with a melt infiltrated (MI) matrix were tensile tested at room temperature. Results showed an increase in resistance of more than 500% prior to fracture, which can be detected either in situ or post-damage. A relationship between resistance change and matrix crack density was also determined.

  18. Detecting Damage in Ceramic Matrix Composites Using Electrical Resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Craig E.; Gyekenyesi, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The majority of damage in SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites subjected to monotonic tensile loads is in the form of distributed matrix cracks. These cracks initiate near stress concentrations, such as 90 deg fiber tows or large matrix pores and continue to accumulate with additional stress until matrix crack saturation is achieved. Such damage is difficult to detect with conventional nondestructive evaluation techniques (immersion ultrasonics, x-ray, etc.). Monitoring a specimen.s electrical resistance change provides an indirect approach for monitoring matrix crack density. Sylramic-iBN fiber- reinforced SiC composites with a melt infiltrated (MI) matrix were tensile tested at room temperature. Results showed an increase in resistance of more than 500% prior to fracture, which can be detected either in situ or post-damage. A relationship between resistance change and matrix crack density was also determined.

  19. Mechanical Properties of Continuous Fiber Reinforced Zirconium Diboride Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuffle, Kevin; Creegan, Peter; Nowell, Steven; Bull, Jeffrey D.; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Continuous fiber reinforced zirconium diboride matrix composites, SCS-9a-(RBSiCZrB2)matrix, are being developed for leading edge, rocket nozzle and turbine engine applications. Recently, the composite materials have been characterized for tensile properties to 1250 C, the highest temperature tested. The tensile properties are fiber dominated as the matrix is microcracked on fabrication, but favorable failure characteristic are observed. Compression and shear mechanical testing results will be reported if completed. The effects of fiber volume fraction and matrix density on mechanical properties will be discussed. The target applications of the materials will be discussed. Specific testing being performed towards qualification for these applications will be included.

  20. Continuous fiber ceramic matrix composites for heat engine components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripp, David E.

    1988-01-01

    High strength at elevated temperatures, low density, resistance to wear, and abundance of nonstrategic raw materials make structural ceramics attractive for advanced heat engine applications. Unfortunately, ceramics have a low fracture toughness and fail catastrophically because of overload, impact, and contact stresses. Ceramic matrix composites provide the means to achieve improved fracture toughness while retaining desirable characteristics, such as high strength and low density. Materials scientists and engineers are trying to develop the ideal fibers and matrices to achieve the optimum ceramic matrix composite properties. A need exists for the development of failure models for the design of ceramic matrix composite heat engine components. Phenomenological failure models are currently the most frequently used in industry, but they are deterministic and do not adequately describe ceramic matrix composite behavior. Semi-empirical models were proposed, which relate the failure of notched composite laminates to the stress a characteristic distance away from the notch. Shear lag models describe composite failure modes at the micromechanics level. The enhanced matrix cracking stress occurs at the same applied stress level predicted by the two models of steady state cracking. Finally, statistical models take into consideration the distribution in composite failure strength. The intent is to develop these models into computer algorithms for the failure analysis of ceramic matrix composites under monotonically increasing loads. The algorithms will be included in a postprocessor to general purpose finite element programs.

  1. Microplasticity phenomena in graphite/magnesium metal matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, J.S.; Rawal, S.; Misra, M.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses localized matrix plasticity in a Pitch 55 graphite/magnesium (Gr/Mg) metal matrix composite (MMC) due to damping/hysteresis effects in bending. It was found that for this material system, chosen mainly for its damping ability, plasticity or permanent deformation occurs in the matrix material of the composite from relatively small structural deformations. Hysteresis loops were determined on a local level in the diffusion bond region between adjacent graphite fiber bundles as well as on the free edge of the magnesium face sheet of the composite. Moire interferometry was combined with research on the microstructure of this particular material system to yield these subtle results.

  2. Nanophosphor composite scintillator with a liquid matrix

    DOEpatents

    McKigney, Edward Allen; Burrell, Anthony Keiran; Bennett, Bryan L.; Cooke, David Wayne; Ott, Kevin Curtis; Bacrania, Minesh Kantilal; Del Sesto, Rico Emilio; Gilbertson, Robert David; Muenchausen, Ross Edward; McCleskey, Thomas Mark

    2010-03-16

    An improved nanophosphor scintillator liquid comprises nanophosphor particles in a liquid matrix. The nanophosphor particles are optionally surface modified with an organic ligand. The surface modified nanophosphor particle is essentially surface charge neutral, thereby preventing agglomeration of the nanophosphor particles during dispersion in a liquid scintillator matrix. The improved nanophosphor scintillator liquid may be used in any conventional liquid scintillator application, including in a radiation detector.

  3. A new observational solar irradiance composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoell, Micha; Dudok de Wit, Thierry; Haberreiter, Margit; Kretzschmar, Matthieu; Misios, Stergios; Tourpali, Klairie; Schmutz, Werner

    2016-04-01

    Variations of the spectral solar irradiance (SSI) are an important driver for the chemistry, temperature and dynamics of the Earth's atmosphere and ultimately the Earth's climate. Due to the sparce and scattered SSI data sets it is important to establish tools to derive a consistent SSI dataset, including realistic uncertainties. We present the a new SSI composite based on the face values of SSI observations and applying a probabilistic method that takes into account the uncertainty of the data set scale-wise. We will present the data set and discuss its effects on the Earth's atmosphere in relation to SSI reconstruction models.

  4. Pseudomonas biofilm matrix composition and niche biology

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Ethan E.; Wozniak, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Biofilms are a predominant form of growth for bacteria in the environment and in the clinic. Critical for biofilm development are adherence, proliferation, and dispersion phases. Each of these stages includes reinforcement by, or modulation of, the extracellular matrix. Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been a model organism for the study of biofilm formation. Additionally, other Pseudomonas species utilize biofilm formation during plant colonization and environmental persistence. Pseudomonads produce several biofilm matrix molecules, including polysaccharides, nucleic acids, and proteins. Accessory matrix components shown to aid biofilm formation and adaptability under varying conditions are also produced by pseudomonads. Adaptation facilitated by biofilm formation allows for selection of genetic variants with unique and distinguishable colony morphology. Examples include rugose small-colony variants and wrinkly spreaders (WS), which over produce Psl/Pel or cellulose, respectively, and mucoid bacteria that over produce alginate. The well-documented emergence of these variants suggests that pseudomonads take advantage of matrix-building subpopulations conferring specific benefits for the entire population. This review will focus on various polysaccharides as well as additional Pseudomonas biofilm matrix components. Discussions will center on structure–function relationships, regulation, and the role of individual matrix molecules in niche biology. PMID:22212072

  5. Failure Mechanisms for Ceramic Matrix Textile Composites at High Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, Brian

    1999-03-01

    OAK B188 Failure Mechanisms for Ceramic Matrix Textile Composites at High Temperature. This summary refers to work done in approximately the twelve months to the present in our contract ''Failure Mechanisms for Ceramic Matrix Textile Composites at High Temperature,'' which commenced in August, 1997. Our activities have consisted mainly of measurements of creep-controlled crack growth in ceramic matrix composites (CMCS) at high temperature; imaging of deformation fields in textile CMCS; the assessment of mechanisms of damage in textile composites, especially those with through-thickness reinforcement; the formulation of models of delamination crack growth under fatigue in textile composites; analytical models of the bridging traction law for creeping fibers in a CMC at high temperature; and an analytical model of a bridging fiber tow in a textile composite.

  6. Thermal and mechanical behavior of metal matrix and ceramic matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, John M. (Editor); Moeller, Helen H. (Editor); Johnson, W. S. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The present conference discusses local stresses in metal-matrix composites (MMCs) subjected to thermal and mechanical loads, the computational simulation of high-temperature MMCs' cyclic behavior, an analysis of a ceramic-matrix composite (CMC) flexure specimen, and a plasticity analysis of fibrous composite laminates under thermomechanical loads. Also discussed are a comparison of methods for determining the fiber-matrix interface frictional stresses of CMCs, the monotonic and cyclic behavior of an SiC/calcium aluminosilicate CMC, the mechanical and thermal properties of an SiC particle-reinforced Al alloy MMC, the temperature-dependent tensile and shear response of a graphite-reinforced 6061 Al-alloy MMC, the fiber/matrix interface bonding strength of MMCs, and fatigue crack growth in an Al2O3 short fiber-reinforced Al-2Mg matrix MMC.

  7. Transverse thermal expansion of carbon fiber/epoxy matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmer, J. F.; Diefendorf, R. J.

    1983-01-01

    Thermal expansion coefficients and moduli of elasticity have been determined experimentally for a series of epoxy-matrix composites reinforced with carbon and Kevlar fibers. It is found that in the transverse direction the difference between the properties of the fiber and the matrix is not as pronounced as in the longitudinal direction, where the composite properties are fiber-dominated. Therefore, the pattern of fiber packing tends to affect transverse composite properties. The transverse properties of the composites tested are examined from the standpoint of the concept of homogeneity defined as the variation of packing (or lack thereof) throughout a sample.

  8. Modeling of 3-D Woven Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Sullivan, Roy M.; Mital, Subodh K.

    2003-01-01

    Three different approaches are being pursued at the NASA Glenn Research Center to predict the nanostructural behavior of three-dimensional woven ceramic matrix composites. These are: a micromechanics-based approach using W-CEMCAN (Woven Ceramic Matrix Composite Analyzer), a laminate analogy method and a structural frame approach (based on the finite element method). All three techniques are applied to predict the thermomechanical properties of a three-dimensional woven angle interlock C/SiC composite. The properties are predicted for room temperature and 1100 C and the predicted properties are compared to measurements. General observations regarding the three approaches for three-dimensional composite modeling are discussed.

  9. Modified Process For Formation Of Silicon Carbide Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behrendt, Donald R.; Singh, Mrityunjay

    1996-01-01

    Modified version of process for making SiC-fiber/SiC-matrix composite material reduces damage to SiC (SCS-6) fibers and to carbon-rich coatings on fibers. Modification consists of addition of second polymer-infiltration-and-pyrolysis step to increase carbon content of porous matrix before infiltration with liquid silicon or silicon alloy.

  10. Mechanical behavior of reactively hot-pressed aluminide matrix composite

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, M.; Suganuma, K.; Niihara, K.

    1997-12-31

    FeAl and Ni{sub 3}Al matrix composites containing various fine particles were fabricated successfully by reactive hot-pressing. The strength and the fracture toughness of these composites at ambient temperatures were evaluated. The addition of {beta}-SiC particles was effective for strengthening of the Fe-40at%Al matrix, however, an extreme decrease of fracture toughness occurred due to the suppression of stress relaxation effect by plastic deformation at a crack tip. The fracture toughness of the reactively hot pressed Fe-40at%Al and its composites was also affected by the environmental embrittlement effect. TiB{sub 2} and ZrB{sub 2} particles in the Fe-40at%Al matrix composites were clarified to play a role in the reduction of the environmental effect. For the Ni-25at%Al matrix, higher flexural strength was achieved by the addition of TiB{sub 2}, TiC and TiN particles. TiB{sub 2} particles reacted with the matrix during hot-pressing. The Ni-25at%Al/TiB{sub 2} composite had a fracture strength of 1.5 GPa in spite of large grain size of the matrix. TiC and TiN were the best choices as effective reinforcing materials for the Ni{sub 3}Al matrix among the chemical compatible ones.

  11. Steel-SiC Metal Matrix Composite Development

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Don D.

    2005-07-17

    The goal of this project is to develop a method for fabricating SiC-reinforced high-strength steel. We are developing a metal-matrix composite (MMC) in which SiC fibers are be embedded within a metal matrix of steel, with adequate interfacial bonding to deliver the full benefit of the tensile strength of the SiC fibers in the composite.

  12. Modification of natural matrix lac-bagasse for matrix composite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurhayati, Nanik Dwi; Widjaya, Karna; Triyono

    2016-02-01

    Material technology continues to be developed in order to a material that is more efficient with composite technology is a combination of two or more materials to obtain the desired material properties. The objective of this research was to modification and characterize the natural matrix lac-bagasse as composite films. The first step, natural matrix lac was changed from solid to liquid using an ethanol as a solvent so the matrix homogenly. Natural matrix lac was modified by adding citric acid with concentration variation. Secondly, the bagasse delignification using acid hydrolysis method. The composite films natural matrix lac-bagasse were prepared with optimum modified the addition citric acid 5% (v/v) and delignification bagasse optimum at 1,5% (v/v) in hot press at 80°C 6 Kg/cm-1. Thirdly, composite films without and with modification were characterized functional group analysis using FTIR spectrophotometer and mechanical properties using Universal Testing Machine. The result of research showed natural matrix lac can be modified by reaction with citric acid. FTIR spectra showed without and with modification had functional groups wide absorption 3448 cm-1 group -OH, C=O ester strong on 1712 cm-1 and the methylene group -CH2 on absorption 1465 cm-1. The mechanical properties showed tensile strength 0,55 MPa and elongation at break of 0,95 %. So that composite films natural matrix lac can be made with reinforcement bagasse for material application.

  13. Light weight polymer matrix composite material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Kenneth J. (Inventor); Lowell, Carl E. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A graphite fiber reinforced polymer matrix is layed up, cured, and thermally aged at about 750 F in the presence of an inert gas. The heat treatment improves the structural integrity and alters the electrical conductivity of the materials. In the preferred embodiment PMR-15 polyimides and Celion-6000 graphite fibers are used.

  14. Light weight polymer matrix composite material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Kenneth J. (Inventor); Lowell, Carl E. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A graphite fiber reinforced polymer matrix is layed up, cured, and thermally aged at about 750.degree. F. in the presence of an inert gas. The heat treatment improves the structural integrity and alters the electrical conductivity of the materials. In the preferred embodiment PMR-15 polyimides and Celion-6000 graphite fibers are used.

  15. Research on graphite reinforced glass matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, J. F.; Prewo, K. M.; Thompson, E. R.

    1978-01-01

    A composite that can be used at temperatures up to 875 K with mechanical properties equal or superior to graphite fiber reinforced epoxy composites is presented. The composite system consist of graphite fiber, uniaxially or biaxially, reinforced borosilicate glass. The mechanical and thermal properties of such a graphite fiber reinforced glass composite are described, and the system is shown to offer promise as a high performance structural material. Specific properties that were measured were: a modified borosilicate glass uniaxially reinforced by Hercules HMS graphite fiber has a three-point flexural strength of 1030 MPa, a four-point flexural strength of 964 MPa, an elastic modulus of 199 GPa and a failure strain of 0.0052. The preparation and properties of similar composites with Hercules HTS, Celanese DG-102, Thornel 300 and Thornel Pitch graphite fibers are also described.

  16. Analysis of thermal mechanical fatigue in titanium matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. Steven; Mirdamadi, Massoud

    1993-01-01

    Titanium metal matrix composites are being evaluated for structural applications on advanced hypersonic vehicles. These composites are reinforced with ceramic fibers such as silicon carbide, SCS-6. This combination of matrix and fiber results in a high stiffness, high strength composite that has good retention of properties even at elevated temperatures. However, significant thermal stresses are developed within the composite between the fiber and the matrix due to the difference in their respective coefficients of thermal expansion. In addition to the internal stresses that are generated due to thermal cycling, the overall laminate will be subjected to considerable mechanical loads during the thermal cycling. In order to develop life prediction methodology, one must be able to predict the stresses and strains that occur in the composite's constituents during the complex loading. Thus the purpose is to describe such an analytical tool, VISCOPLY.

  17. Fatigue of continuous fiber reinforced titanium matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. S.

    1991-01-01

    Several lay-ups of SCS-6/Ti-15-3 composites were investigated. Static and fatigue tests were conducted for both notched and unnotched specimens at room and elevated temperatures. Test results indicated that the stress in the 0 fibers is the controlling factor in fatigue life. The static and fatigue strength of these materials is shown to be dependent on the level of residual stresses and the fiber/ matrix interfacial strength. Fatigue tests of notched specimens showed that cracks can initiate and grow many fiber spacings in the matrix material without breaking fibers. These matrix cracks can significantly reduce the residual strength of notched composite.

  18. Comparison Of Models Of Metal-Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bigelow, C. A.; Johnson, W. S.; Naik, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    Report presents comparative review of four mathematical models of micromechanical behaviors of fiber/metal-matrix composite materials. Models differ in various details, all based on properties of fiber and matrix constituent materials, all involve square arrays of fibers continuous and parallel and all assume complete bonding between constituents. Computer programs implementing models used to predict properties and stress-vs.-strain behaviors of unidirectional- and cross-ply laminated composites made of boron fibers in aluminum matrices and silicon carbide fibers in titanium matrices. Stresses in fiber and matrix constituent materials also predicted.

  19. Approach to inherently stable interfaces for ceramic matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Besmann, T.M.; Kupp, E.R.; Stinton, D.P.; Shanmugham, S.

    1996-09-01

    Virtually all ceramic matrix composites require and interface coating between the fibers and matrix to achieve the desired mechanical performance. To date, the most effective interface materials for non- oxide matrix composites have been carbon and boron nitride. They are, however, susceptible to oxidation at elevated temperatures, and thus under many envisioned operating environments they will fail, possibly allowing oxidation of the fibers as well, adversely affecting mechanical behavior. Current efforts are directed toward developing stable interface coating, which include oxides and silicon carbide with appropriate thermomechanical properties.

  20. Explosive bonding of metal-matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reece, O. Y.

    1969-01-01

    Explosive bonding process produces sheet composites of aluminum alloy reinforced by high-strength stainless steel wires. The bonds are excellent metallurgically, no external heat is required, various metals can be bonded, and the process is inexpensive.

  1. Stable Boron Nitride Interphases for Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morscher, Gregory N.

    1999-01-01

    Ceramic matrix composites (CMC's) require strong fibers for good toughness and weak interphases so that cracks which are formed in the matrix debond and deflect around the fibers. If the fibers are strongly bonded to the matrix, CMC's behave like monolithic ceramics (e.g., a ceramic coffee cup), and when subjected to mechanical loads that induce cracking, such CMC's fail catastrophically. Since CMC's are being developed for high temperature corrosive environments such as the combustor liner for advanced High Speed Civil Transport aircraft, the interphases need to be able to withstand the environment when the matrix cracks.

  2. Metal matrix composite structural panel construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcwithey, R. R.; Royster, D. M. (Inventor); Bales, T. T.

    1983-01-01

    Lightweight capped honeycomb stiffeners for use in fabricating metal or metal/matrix exterior structural panels on aerospace type vehicles and the process for fabricating same are disclosed. The stiffener stringers are formed in sheets, cut to the desired width and length and brazed in spaced relationship to a skin with the honeycomb material serving directly as the required lightweight stiffeners and not requiring separate metal encasement for the exposed honeycomb cells.

  3. Strain Rate Dependent Modeling of Polymer Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Stouffer, Donald C.

    1999-01-01

    A research program is in progress to develop strain rate dependent deformation and failure models for the analysis of polymer matrix composites subject to high strain rate impact loads. Strain rate dependent inelastic constitutive equations have been developed to model the polymer matrix, and have been incorporated into a micromechanics approach to analyze polymer matrix composites. The Hashin failure criterion has been implemented within the micromechanics results to predict ply failure strengths. The deformation model has been implemented within LS-DYNA, a commercially available transient dynamic finite element code. The deformation response and ply failure stresses for the representative polymer matrix composite AS4/PEEK have been predicted for a variety of fiber orientations and strain rates. The predicted results compare favorably to experimentally obtained values.

  4. Analysis of thermal stresses in polymer matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, David E.; Griffin, O. H., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    In the present micromechanics study of the thermally-induced stress field which emerges at very low temperatures in the matrix and fibers of continuous fiber-reinforced polymer composites, the results obtained by a specialized FEM analysis are compared to an analytical solution of the composite cylinder model for several composite materials. Attention is given to the influence of microstructural geometry and constituent properties; it is established that the distributions and magnitudes of the thermally-induced stresses are affected by the assumed microstructural geometry of the sample. While matrix stresses are not a strong function of fiber properties, the temperature dependence of the matrix properties significantly affects the magnitudes of thermally-induced matrix stresses.

  5. Fatigue damage criteria - Matrix, fibers and interfaces of continuous fiber reinforced metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. S.

    1988-01-01

    Continuous fiber reinforced metal matrix composites (MMC) are projected for use in high temperature, stiffness critical parts that will be subjected to cyclic loadings. Depending on the relative fatigue behavior of the fiber and matrix, and the interface properties, the failure modes of MMC can be grouped into four catagories: (1) matrix dominated, (2) fiber dominated, (3) self-similar damage growth, and (4) fiber/matrix interfacial failures. These four types of damage are discussed and illustrated by examples. The emphasis is on the fatigue of unnotched laminates.

  6. Experimental study on mechanical behavior of fiber/matrix interface in metal matrix composite

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Q.; Chiang, F.P.

    1994-12-31

    The technique SIEM(Speckle Interferometry with Electron Microscopy) was employed to quantitatively measure the deformation on the fiber/matrix interface in SCS-6/Ti-6-4 composite at a microscale level. The displacement field within the fiber/matrix interphase zone was determined by in-situ observation with sensitivity of 0.003({micro}m). The macro-mechanical properties were compared with micro-mechanical behavior. It is shown that the strength in the interphase zone is weaker than the matrix tensile strength. The deformation process can be characterized by the uniform deformation, interface strain concentration and debond, and matrix plastic deformation.

  7. Micromechanics effects in creep of metal-matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, L. C.; Allison, J. E.

    1995-12-01

    The creep of metal-matrix composites is analyzed by finite element techniques. An axisymmetric unit-cell model with spherical reinforcing particles is used. Parameters appropriate to TiC particles in a precipitation-hardened (2219) Al matrix are chosen. The effects of matrix plasticity and residual stresses on the creep of the composite are calculated. We confirm (1) that the steady-state rate is independent of the particle elastic moduli and the matrix elastic and plastic properties, (2) that the ratio of composite to matrix steady-state rates depends only on the volume fraction and geometry of the reinforcing phase, and (3) that this ratio can be determined from a calculation of the stress-strain relation for the geometrically identical composite (same phase volume and geometry) with rigid particles in the appropriate power-law hardening matrix. The values of steady-state creep are compared to experimental ones (Krajewski et al.). Continuum mechanics predictions give a larger reduction of the composite creep relative to the unreinforced material than measured, suggesting that the effective creep rate of the matrix is larger than in unreinforced precipitation-hardened Al due to changes in microstructure, dislocation density, or creep mechanism. Changes in matrix creep properties are also suggested by the comparison of calculated and measured creep strain rates in the primary creep regime, where significantly different time dependencies are found. It is found that creep calculations performed for a timeindependent matrix creep law can be transformed to obtain the creep for a time-dependent creep law.

  8. Joining and fabrication of metal-matrix composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Royster, D. M.; Wiant, H. R.; Bales, T. T.

    1975-01-01

    Manufacturing technology associated with developing fabrication processes to incorporate metal-matrix composites into flight hardware is studied. The joining of composite to itself and to titanium by innovative brazing, diffusion bonding, and adhesive bonding is examined. The effects of the fabrication processes on the material properties and their influence on the design of YF-12 wing panels are discussed.

  9. Technological Readiness of Ceramic Matrix Composites: A Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neergaard, Lynn; Effinger, Michael

    2000-01-01

    This review intends to provide a snapshot of the state of industry of ceramic matrix composites (CMC). It is therefore organized in terms of design needs, composite properties, system capabilities, and technological availability. This publication will cover CMCs in use and development, with technological readiness levels (TRL) from laboratory testing of coupons to flight proven hardware.

  10. Evaluation of Damage Tolerance of Advanced SiC/SiC Composites after Neutron Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozawa, Kazumi; Katoh, Yutai; Nozawa, Takashi; Hinoki, Tatsuya; Snead, Lance L.

    2011-10-01

    Silicon carbide composites (SiC/SiC) are attractive candidate materials for structural and functional components in fusion energy systems. The effect of neutron irradiation on damage tolerance of the nuclear grade SiC/SiC composites (plain woven Hi-Nicalon™ Type-S reinforced CVI matrix composites multilayer interphase and unidirectional Tyranno™-SA3 reinforced NITE matrix with carbon mono-layer interphase) was evaluated by means of miniaturized single-edged notched beam test. No significant changes in crack extension behavior and in the load-loadpoint displacement characteristics such as the peak load and hysteresis loop width were observed after irradiation to 5.9 × 1025 n/m2 (E > 0.1 MeV) at 800°C and to 5.8 × 1025 n/m2 at 1300°C. By applying a global energy balance analysis based on non-linear fracture mechanics, the energy release rate for these composite materials was found to be unchanged by irradiation with a value of 3±2 kJ/m2. This has led to the conclusion that, for these fairly aggressive irradiation conditions, the effect of neutron irradiation on the fracture resistance of these composites appears insignificant.

  11. Advanced composites: Fabrication processes for selected resin matrix materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welhart, E. K.

    1976-01-01

    This design note is based on present state of the art for epoxy and polyimide matrix composite fabrication technology. Boron/epoxy and polyimide and graphite/epoxy and polyimide structural parts can be successfully fabricated. Fabrication cycles for polyimide matrix composites have been shortened to near epoxy cycle times. Nondestructive testing has proven useful in detecting defects and anomalies in composite structure elements. Fabrication methods and tooling materials are discussed along with the advantages and disadvantages of different tooling materials. Types of honeycomb core, material costs and fabrication methods are shown in table form for comparison. Fabrication limits based on tooling size, pressure capabilities and various machining operations are also discussed.

  12. The tensile failure modes of metal-matrix composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, M. A.; Wills, J. L.

    1974-01-01

    The strengths of individual boron fibers extracted from various as-received and thermally fatigued aluminum alloy matrix materials were measured. The results are described in terms of a Weibull distribution, and strengths of composites fabricated from these fibers are calculated in terms of lower and upper bounds. Tests conducted on composite specimens indicated that strengths approaching the upper bounds can be achieved in composites fabricated by normal diffusion bonding techniques. Cyclic temperature changes effectively reduced the strength values toward the lower bounds. It was concluded that this effect resulted from the degradation of the strength of the fiber-matrix bond.

  13. Advanced Ceramic Matrix Composites with Multifunctional and Hybrid Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Mrityunjay; Morscher, Gregory N.

    2004-01-01

    Ceramic matrix composites are leading candidate materials for a number of applications in aeronautics, space, energy, and nuclear industries. Potential composite applications differ in their requirements for thickness. For example, many space applications such as "nozzle ramps" or "heat exchangers" require very thin (< 1 mm) structures whereas turbine blades would require very thick parts (> or = 1 cm). Little is known about the effect of thickness on stress-strain behavior or the elevated temperature tensile properties controlled by oxidation diffusion. In this study, composites consisting of woven Hi-Nicalon (trademark) fibers a carbon interphase and CVI SiC matrix were fabricated with different numbers of plies and thicknesses. The effect of thickness on matrix crack formation, matrix crack growth and diffusion kinetics will be discussed. In another approach, hybrid fiber-lay up concepts have been utilized to "alloy" desirable properties of different fiber types for mechanical properties, thermal stress management, and oxidation resistance. Such an approach has potential for the C(sub I)-SiC and SiC(sub f)-SiC composite systems. CVI SiC matrix composites with different stacking sequences of woven C fiber (T300) layers and woven SiC fiber (Hi-Nicalon (trademark)) layers were fabricated. The results will be compared to standard C fiber reinforced CVI SiC matrix and Hi-Nicalon reinforced CVI SiC matrix composites. In addition, shear properties of these composites at different temperatures will also be presented. Other design and implementation issues will be discussed along with advantages and benefits of using these materials for various components in high temperature applications.

  14. Fiber shape effects on metal matrix composite behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, H. C.; Lee, H.-J.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of different fiber shapes on the behavior of metal matrix composites is computationally simulated. A three-dimensional finite element model consisting of a group of nine unidirectional fibers in a three by three unit cell array of a SiC/Ti-15-3 metal matrix composite is used in the analysis. The model is employed to represent five fiber shapes that include a circle, an ellipse, a kidney, and two different cross shapes. The distribution of stresses and the composite material properties, such as moduli, coefficients of thermal expansion, and Poisson's ratios, are obtained from the finite element analysis using the various fiber shapes. Comparisons of these results are used to determine the sensitivity of the composite behavior to the different fiber shapes. In general, fiber dominated properties are not affected by fiber geometry and matrix dominated properties are only moderately affected.

  15. Low dose irradiation performance of SiC interphase SiC/SiC composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snead, L. L.; Osborne, M. C.; Lowden, R. A.; Strizak, J.; Shinavski, R. J.; More, K. L.; Eatherly, W. S.; Bailey, J.; Williams, A. M.

    1998-03-01

    Reduced oxygen Hi-Nicalon™ fiber reinforced composite SiC materials were densified with a chemically vapor infiltrated (CVI) silicon carbide (SiC) matrix and interphases of either `porous' SiC or multilayer SiC and irradiated to a neutron fluence of 1.1×10 25 n m -2 ( E>0.1 MeV) in the temperature range of 260 to 1060°C. The unirradiated properties of these composites are superior to previously studied ceramic grade Nicalon fiber reinforced/carbon interphase materials. Negligible reduction in the macroscopic matrix microcracking stress was observed after irradiation for the multilayer SiC interphase material and a slight reduction in matrix microcracking stress was observed for the composite with porous SiC interphase. The reduction in strength for the porous SiC interfacial material is greatest for the highest irradiation temperature. The ultimate fracture stress (in four point bending) following irradiation for the multilayer SiC and porous SiC interphase materials was reduced by 15% and 30%, respectively, which is an improvement over the 40% reduction suffered by irradiated ceramic grade Nicalon fiber materials fabricated in a similar fashion, though with a carbon interphase. The degradation of the mechanical properties of these composites is analyzed by comparison with the irradiation behavior of bare Hi-Nicalon fiber and Morton chemically vapor deposited (CVD) SiC. It is concluded that the degradation of these composites, as with the previous generation ceramic grade Nicalon fiber materials, is dominated by interfacial effects, though the overall degradation of fiber and hence composite is reduced for the newer low-oxygen fiber.

  16. Time-dependent deformation of titanium metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bigelow, C. A.; Bahei-El-din, Y. A.; Mirdamadi, M.

    1995-01-01

    A three-dimensional finite element program called VISCOPAC was developed and used to conduct a micromechanics analysis of titanium metal matrix composites. The VISCOPAC program uses a modified Eisenberg-Yen thermo-viscoplastic constitutive model to predict matrix behavior under thermomechanical fatigue loading. The analysis incorporated temperature-dependent elastic properties in the fiber and temperature-dependent viscoplastic properties in the matrix. The material model was described and the necessary material constants were determined experimentally. Fiber-matrix interfacial behavior was analyzed using a discrete fiber-matrix model. The thermal residual stresses due to the fabrication cycle were predicted with a failed interface, The failed interface resulted in lower thermal residual stresses in the matrix and fiber. Stresses due to a uniform transverse load were calculated at two temperatures, room temperature and an elevated temperature of 650 C. At both temperatures, a large stress concentration was calculated when the interface had failed. The results indicate the importance of accuracy accounting for fiber-matrix interface failure and the need for a micromechanics-based analytical technique to understand and predict the behavior of titanium metal matrix composites.

  17. Effects of irradiation and post-irradiation annealing on the thermal conductivity/diffusivity of monolithic SiC and f-SiC/SiC composites

    SciTech Connect

    Youngblood, Gerald E.; Senor, David J.; Jones, Russell H.

    2004-08-01

    Laser flash thermal diffusivity measurements were made on high-purity monolithic CVD-SiC and 2D f-SiC(Hi-Nicalon)/ICVI-SiC composite samples before and after irradiation (250 to 800C, 4-8 dpa-SiC) and after post-irradiation annealing composite samples to 1200C. For irradiated CVD-SiC, the defect concentrations at saturation were estimated to range from 25,300 appm (250C) down to 940 appm (800C). The transverse thermal conductivity ratios after-to-before irradiation (Kir/Ko) determined at the irradiation temperatures were: 0.044 up to 0.12 (250 up to 800C) for irradiated CVD-SiC and 0.18 up to 0.29 (330 up to 800C) for the irradiated Hi-Nicalon composite. Analysis of thermal diffusivity values for the Hi-Nicalon composite measured in air, argon, helium and vacuum indicated that thermal conductivity degradation occurred primarily due to point defect accumulation in the matrix component. After annealing to 1200C and cooling to the irradiation temperature, fiber/matrix debonding occurred due to net shrinkage in the fiber and PyC interface components.

  18. Improving Turbine Performance with Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiCarlo, James A.

    2007-01-01

    Under the new NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program, efforts are on-going within the Supersonics Project aimed at the implementation of advanced SiC/SiC ceramic composites into hot section components of future gas turbine engines. Due to recent NASA advancements in SiC-based fibers and matrices, these composites are lighter and capable of much higher service temperatures than current metallic superalloys, which in turn will allow the engines to operate at higher efficiencies and reduced emissions. This presentation briefly reviews studies within Task 6.3.3 that are primarily aimed at developing physics-based concepts, tools, and process/property models for micro- and macro-structural design, fabrication, and lifing of SiC/SiC turbine components in general and airfoils in particular. Particular emphasis is currently being placed on understanding and modeling (1) creep effects on residual stress development within the component, (2) fiber architecture effects on key composite properties such as design strength, and (3) preform formation processes so that the optimum architectures can be implemented into complex-shaped components, such as turbine vanes and blades.

  19. Competitive formation of glasses and glass-matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Zhao Ping; Ma, D.; Liu, Chain T; Chang, Y. Austin

    2007-01-01

    By systematically investigating the effect of chemical composition on the competitive formation of glasses in various systems, we attempt to address two long-standing scientific puzzles upon metallic glasses, i.e., (i) which composition is the best for forming glasses and glass-matrix composites and (ii) what determines the easy glass-forming composition range in a given alloy system. Our findings have led to the construction of a qualitative microstructure selection map, which is useful for guiding the design of bulkier metallic glasses and glass-matrix composites. In addition, our analysis demonstrates that the classical kinetic treatment of glass formation is insufficient; to analyze glass formation properly, it is necessary to go beyond simple assumptions of single polymorphic solidification during crystallization.

  20. Effective thermal conductivity of composites with fibre-matrix debonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fadale, T. D.; Taya, M.

    1991-01-01

    Debonding of the fiber-matrix interface is a major cause for the degradation of the mechanical properties and the loss of thermal conductivity of fiber-reinforced composites. This paper discusses two analytical approaches for modeling the thermal conduction problem of composites. One is based on the concept of modeling the thermal barrier by an equivalent heat transfer coefficient at the fiber-matrix interface, as described by Hasselman and Johnson (1987) and Benveniste and Miloh (1986). The other approach, suggested by Hatta and Taya (1986), is by treating a composite with debonded interface as a coated-fiber composite. The major advantage of the latter aproach is that the thickness of the fiber coating can be realistically modeled depending upon the extent of degradation of the composite with the thermal conductivity of the coating as that of air.

  1. Stability analysis of bridged cracks in brittle matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballarini, Roberto; Muju, Sandeep

    1991-01-01

    The bridging of matrix cracks by fibers is an important toughening mechanism in fiber reinforced brittle matrix composites. This paper presents the results of a nonlinear finite element analysis of the Mode-I propagation of a bridged matrix crack in a finite size specimen. The composite is modeled as an orthotropic continuum and the bridging due to the fibers is modeled as a distribution of tractions which resist crack opening. A critical stress intensity factor criterion is employed for matrix crack propagation while a critical crack opening condition is used for fiber failure. The structural response of the specimen (load-deflection curves) as well as the stress intensity factor of the propagating crack are calculated for various constituent properties and specimen configurations for both tensile and bending loading. By controlling the length of the bridged crack results are obtained which highlight the transition from stable to unstable behavior of the propagating crack.

  2. Micromechanical characterization of nonlinear behavior of advanced polymer matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, Thomas S.; Chen, J. L.; Sun, C. T.

    1994-01-01

    Due to the presence of curing stresses and oriented crystalline structures in the matrix of polymer matrix fiber composites, the in situ nonlinear properties of the matrix are expected to be rather different from those of the bulk resin. A plane stress micromechanical model was developed to retrieve the in situ elastic-plastic properties of Narmco 5260 and Amoco 8320 matrices from measured elastic-plastic properties of IM7/5260 and IM7/8320 advance composites. In the micromechanical model, the fiber was assumed to be orthotropically elastic and the matrix to be orthotropic in elastic and plastic properties. The results indicate that both in situ elastic and plastic properties of the matrices are orthotropic.

  3. Localized plasticity of graphite/magnesium metal matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, J.S.; Rawal, S.; Misra, M.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses localized matrix plasticity in a pitch 55 graphite/magnesium (Gr/Mg) metal matrix composite (MMC) due to damping/hysteresis effects in bending. It was found that for this material system, chosen mainly for its damping ability, plasticity or permanent deformation occurs in the matrix material of the composite from relatively small structural deformations. The behavior of the plasticity is unique to these MMC systems as it is constrained to follow its original loading path back to its zero deformation state upon unloading. This retracement of loading path is attributed to the Gr fibers acting as elastic constraint layers. For optical rail platforms, the ability to recover the original platform shape, even with localized matrix plasticity, implies a high level of survivability. Moire interferometry was combined with research on the microstructure of this particular material system to yield these subtle results.

  4. The behaviour under irradiation of molybdenum matrix for inert matrix fuel containing americium oxide (CerMet concept)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Agata, E.; Knol, S.; Fedorov, A. V.; Fernandez, A.; Somers, J.; Klaassen, F.

    2015-10-01

    Americium is a strong contributor to the long term radiotoxicity of high activity nuclear waste. Transmutation by irradiation in nuclear reactors or Accelerator Driven System (ADS, subcritical reactors dedicated to transmutation) of long-lived nuclides like 241Am is therefore an option for the reduction of radiotoxicity of waste packages to be stored in a repository. In order to safely burn americium in a fast reactor or ADS, it must be incorporated in a matrix that could be metallic (CerMet target) or ceramic (CerCer target). One of the most promising matrix to incorporate Am is molybdenum. In order to address the issues (swelling, stability under irradiation, gas retention and release) of using Mo as matrix to transmute Am, two irradiation experiments have been conducted recently at the High Flux Reactor (HFR) in Petten (The Netherland) namely HELIOS and BODEX. The BODEX experiment is a separate effect test, where the molybdenum behaviour is studied without the presence of fission products using 10B to "produce" helium, the HELIOS experiment included a more representative fuel target with the presence of Am and fission product. This paper covers the results of Post Irradiation Examination (PIE) of the two irradiation experiments mentioned above where molybdenum behaviour has been deeply investigated as possible matrix to transmute americium (CerMet fuel target). The behaviour of molybdenum looks satisfying at operating temperature but at high temperature (above 1000 °C) more investigation should be performed.

  5. The behaviour under irradiation of molybdenum matrix for inert matrix fuel containing americium oxide (CerMet concept)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Agata, E.; Knol, S.; Fedorov, A. V.; Fernandez, A.; Somers, J.; Klaassen, F.

    2015-10-01

    Americium is a strong contributor to the long term radiotoxicity of high activity nuclear waste. Transmutation by irradiation in nuclear reactors or Accelerator Driven System (ADS, subcritical reactors dedicated to transmutation) of long-lived nuclides like 241Am is therefore an option for the reduction of radiotoxicity of waste packages to be stored in a repository. In order to safely burn americium in a fast reactor or ADS, it must be incorporated in a matrix that could be metallic (CerMet target) or ceramic (CerCer target). One of the most promising matrix to incorporate Am is molybdenum. In order to address the issues (swelling, stability under irradiation, gas retention and release) of using Mo as matrix to transmute Am, two irradiation experiments have been conducted recently at the High Flux Reactor (HFR) in Petten (The Netherland) namely HELIOS and BODEX. The BODEX experiment is a separate effect test, where the molybdenum behaviour is studied without the presence of fission products using 10B to "produce" helium, the HELIOS experiment included a more representative fuel target with the presence of Am and fission product. This paper covers the results of Post Irradiation Examination (PIE) of the two irradiation experiments mentioned above where molybdenum behaviour has been deeply investigated as possible matrix to transmute americium (CerMet fuel target). The behaviour of molybdenum looks satisfying at operating temperature but at high temperature (above 1000 °C) more investigation should be performed.

  6. Damage evolution in uniaxial silicon carbide fiber-reinforced titanium matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanan, Jay Clarke

    Fiber fractures initiate damage zones ultimately determining the strength and lifetime of metal matrix composites (MMCs). The evolution of damage in a MMC comprising a row of unidirectional SiC fibers (32 vol.%) surrounded by a Ti matrix was examined using X-ray microdiffraction (gym beam size) and macrodiffraction (mm beam size). A comparison of high-energy X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques including a powerful two-dimensional XRD method capable of obtaining powder averaged strains from a small number of grains is presented (HEmuXRD2). Using macrodiffraction, the bulk residual strain in the composite was determined against a true strain-free reference. In addition, the bulk in situ response of both the fiber reinforcement and the matrix to tensile stress was observed and compared to a three-dimensional finite element model. Using microdiffraction, multiple strain maps including both phases were collected in situ before, during, and after the application of tensile stress, providing an unprecedented detailed picture of the micromechanical behavior in the laminate metal matrix composite. Finally, the elastic axial strains were compared to predictions from a modified shear lag model, which unlike other shear lag models, considers the elastic response of both constituents. The strains showed excellent correlation with the model. The results confirmed, for the first time, both the need and validity of this new model specifically developed for large scale multifracture and damage evolution simulations of metal matrix composites. The results also provided unprecedented insight for the model, revealing the necessity of incorporating such factors as plasticity of the matrix, residual stress in the composite, and selection of the load sharing parameter. The irradiation of a small number of grains provided strain measurements comparable to a continuum mechanical state in the material. Along the fiber axes, thermal residual stresses of 740 MPa (fibers) and +350 MPa (matrix

  7. Interfacial studies in fiber-reinforced thermoplastic-matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    The major theme of this dissertation is structure/property relationships in fiber-reinforced thermoplastic-matrix composites. Effort has been focused on the interface: interfacial crystallization and fiber/matrix adhesion. Included are investigations on interfacial nucleation and morphology, measurement of fiber/matrix adhesion, effects of interfacial adsorption and crystallization on fiber/matrix adhesion, and composites reinforced with thermotropic liquid crystal copolyester fibers. Crystallization of a copolyester and polybutylene terephthalate with glass, carbon, or aramid fibers has been studied with regard to interfacial morphology. Techniques employed included hot-stage optical microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. Nucleation by the fibers was found to be a general phenomenon. Morphology could be varied by changing the cooling rate. In order to better monitor fiber /matrix adhesion, a buckled plate test has been developed. The test measures transverse toughness as the parameter characterizing interfacial adhesion in unidirectional, continuous-fiber composites. The test is simple to perform yet has advantages over other interfacial evaluation techniques. The buckled plate test was found to be a sensitive measure of fiber/matrix adhesion. The buckled plate test has been used along with the transverse tensile test to examine how interfacial adsorption and crystallization affect fiber/matrix adhesion in polycarbonate/carbon fiber composites. Adsorption was found to be of primary importance in developing adhesion, while crystallization is a secondary effect. The toughness data have been fit successfully for annealing time and temperature dependence. The dependence of adsorption and transverse toughness on matrix molecular weight was found to be large, with higher molecular weights adsorbing more effectively.

  8. Considerations concerning fatigue life of metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radhakrishnan, V. M.; Bartolotta, Paul A.

    1993-01-01

    Since metal matrix composites (MMC) are composed from two very distinct materials each having their own physical and mechanical properties, it is feasible that the fatigue resistance depends on the strength of the weaker constituent. Based on this assumption, isothermal fatigue lives of several MMC's were analyzed utilizing a fatigue life diagram approach. For each MMC, the fatigue life diagram was quantified using the mechanical properties of its constituents. The fatigue life regions controlled by fiber fracture and matrix were also quantitatively defined.

  9. Process-interactive nondestructive evaluation for metal-matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liaw, P. K.; Shannon, R. E.; Clark, W. G., Jr.; Harrigan, W. C., Jr.

    Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) has been conducted on composite products at various stages of fabrication processes including raw powders, powder mixtures, billets and final product extrusions. Eddy current was found to be effective in identifying matrix powder alloy chemistry and particle size, and in determining the mix ratio of silicon carbide (SiC) reinforcement particles in aluminum matrix alloy powders. Ultrasonic techniques were capable of identifying SiC clusters in large-scale, consolidated powder metallurgy (P/M) metal matrix composite (MMC) billets, while eddy current methods could be used to determine near-surface density variations in the billets. Multiple NDE techniques (eddy current, ultrasonics and resistivity) could be employed to quantify microstructural characteristics of composite extrusions. These results suggest that NDE methods can be integrated into manufacturing processes to provide online, closed-loop control of fabrication parameters.

  10. Gamma irradiation assisted fungal degradation of the polypropylene/biomass composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butnaru, Elena; Darie-Niţă, Raluca Nicoleta; Zaharescu, Traian; Balaeş, Tiberius; Tănase, Cătălin; Hitruc, Gabriela; Doroftei, Florica; Vasile, Cornelia

    2016-08-01

    White-rot fungus Bjerkandera adusta has been tested for its ability to degrade some biocomposites materials based on polypropylene and biomass (Eucalyptus globulus, pine cones, and Brassica rapa). γ-irradiation was applied to initiate the degradation of relatively inert polypropylene matrix. The degradation process has been studied by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, contact angle measurements, rheological and chemiluminescence tests. These analyses showed that the polypropylene/biomass composites properties are worsen under the action of the selected microorganism. The formation of cracks and scrap particles over the entire matrix surface and the decrease of the complex viscosity values, as well as the dynamic moduli of gamma irradiated PP/biomass composite and exposed to Bjerkandera adusta fungus, indicate fungal efficiency in composite degradation.

  11. Non-steady state cracking in ceramic matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dharani, L. R.; Chai, L.

    1989-01-01

    A micromechanics analytical model based on the consistent shear lag theory is developed for predicting the failure modes in a fiber-reinforced unidirectional ceramic matrix composite. The model accounts for the relatively large matrix stiffness. The fiber and matrix stresses are established as functions of the applied stress, crack geometry, and most importantly, the microstructural properties of the constituents. From the predicted stress, the mode of failure is established based on the point stress criterion. The role of the microstructural properties on the failure mode and ultimate strength is assessed.

  12. Interphase layer optimization for metal matrix composites with fabrication considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morel, M.; Saravanos, D. A.; Chamis, C. C.

    1991-01-01

    A methodology is presented to reduce the final matrix microstresses for metal matrix composites by concurrently optimizing the interphase characteristics and fabrication process. Application cases include interphase tailoring with and without fabrication considerations for two material systems, graphite/copper and silicon carbide/titanium. Results indicate that concurrent interphase/fabrication optimization produces significant reductions in the matrix residual stresses and strong coupling between interphase and fabrication tailoring. The interphase coefficient of thermal expansion and the fabrication consolidation pressure are the most important design parameters and must be concurrently optimized to further reduce the microstresses to more desirable magnitudes.

  13. Metal matrix composite micromechanics: In-situ behavior influence on composite properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, P. L. N.; Hopkins, D. A.; Chamis, C. C.

    1989-01-01

    Recent efforts in computational mechanics methods for simulating the nonlinear behavior of metal matrix composites have culminated in the implementation of the Metal Matrix Composite Analyzer (METCAN) computer code. In METCAN material nonlinearity is treated at the constituent (fiber, matrix, and interphase) level where the current material model describes a time-temperature-stress dependency of the constituent properties in a material behavior space. The composite properties are synthesized from the constituent instantaneous properties by virtue of composite micromechanics and macromechanics models. The behavior of metal matrix composites depends on fabrication process variables, in situ fiber and matrix properties, bonding between the fiber and matrix, and/or the properties of an interphase between the fiber and matrix. Specifically, the influence of in situ matrix strength and the interphase degradation on the unidirectional composite stress-strain behavior is examined. These types of studies provide insight into micromechanical behavior that may be helpful in resolving discrepancies between experimentally observed composite behavior and predicted response.

  14. Progressive delamination in polymer matrix composite laminates: A new approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Murthy, P. L. N.; Minnetyan, L.

    1992-01-01

    A new approach independent of stress intensity factors and fracture toughness parameters has been developed and is described for the computational simulation of progressive delamination in polymer matrix composite laminates. The damage stages are quantified based on physics via composite mechanics while the degradation of the laminate behavior is quantified via the finite element method. The approach accounts for all types of composite behavior, laminate configuration, load conditions, and delamination processes starting from damage initiation, to unstable propagation, and to laminate fracture. Results of laminate fracture in composite beams, panels, plates, and shells are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and versatility of this new approach.

  15. Preparing polymeric matrix composites using an aqueous slurry technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Norman J. (Inventor); Towell, Timothy W. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An aqueous process was developed to prepare a consolidated composite laminate from an aqueous slurry. An aqueous poly(amic acid) surfactant solution was prepared by dissolving a poly(amic acid) powder in an aqueous ammonia solution. A polymeric powder was added to this solution to form a slurry. The slurry was deposited on carbon fiber to form a prepreg which was dried and stacked to form a composite laminate. The composite laminate was consolidated using pressure and was heated to form the polymeric matrix. The resulting composite laminate exhibited high fracture toughness and excellent consolidation.

  16. Evaluation of Neutron Irradiated Silicon Carbide and Silicon Carbide Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Newsome G, Snead L, Hinoki T, Katoh Y, Peters D

    2007-03-26

    The effects of fast neutron irradiation on SiC and SiC composites have been studied. The materials used were chemical vapor deposition (CVD) SiC and SiC/SiC composites reinforced with either Hi-Nicalon{trademark} Type-S, Hi-Nicalon{trademark} or Sylramic{trademark} fibers fabricated by chemical vapor infiltration. Statistically significant numbers of flexural samples were irradiated up to 4.6 x 10{sup 25} n/m{sup 2} (E>0.1 MeV) at 300, 500 and 800 C in the High Flux Isotope Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Dimensions and weights of the flexural bars were measured before and after the neutron irradiation. Mechanical properties were evaluated by four point flexural testing. Volume increase was seen for all bend bars following neutron irradiation. Magnitude of swelling depended on irradiation temperature and material, while it was nearly independent of irradiation fluence over the fluence range studied. Flexural strength of CVD SiC increased following irradiation depending on irradiation temperature. Over the temperature range studied, no significant degradation in mechanical properties was seen for composites fabricated with Hi-Nicalon{trademark} Type-S, while composites reinforced with Hi-Nicalon{trademark} or Sylramic fibers showed significant degradation. The effects of irradiation on the Weibull failure statistics are also presented suggesting a reduction in the Weibull modulus upon irradiation. The cause of this potential reduction is not known.

  17. Composition of matrix in the CR chondrite LAP 02342

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasson, John T.; Rubin, Alan E.

    2009-03-01

    We report evidence of interchondrule matrix heterogeneity on a scale of ˜50 μm in the well-preserved CR2 chondrite LAP 02342. Despite minor effects resulting from asteroidal aqueous alteration, the matrix in this CR chondrite seems to preserve much of the compositional record of nebular fines. We carried out electron-microprobe studies using a 3-μm-diameter beam; we analyzed 10 elements in 36- or 49-point grids on 11 ca. 50 × 50-μm rectangular areas of matrix. Each grid area has a distinct composition, inconsistent with a simple model of matrix material having a uniform composition throughout the nebular formation region of the CR chondrites. On S-Fe, Mg-Si, K-Na and K-Al scatter diagrams, the grid areas (i.e., different matrix patches) are largely separated from each other; plots of means with 95% confidence limits demonstrate that the compositions are resolvable. Five matrix areas were analyzed again in duplicate runs; excellent agreement was observed between duplicate studies. LAP 02342 experienced two forms of mild aqueous alteration - as patchy enrichments in Ca (inferred to reflect CaCO 3) and as regions in which sulfide laths are embedded within phyllosilicates. Despite this evidence of aqueous transport, the effect on the composition of matrix is not resolvable. For example, matrix points that were adjacent to points with high CaCO 3 contents show elemental concentrations similar to those in regions having only one or two points with a Ca enrichment. It appears that secondary minerals are found in areas where there are suitable precursor phases and voids into which new phases could grow unimpeded. Calcium appears to be unique in forming a phase that greatly lowers the Ca ++ content of the aqueous medium, thus enhancing the rate of diffusion. Because chondrules vary widely in bulk composition, the formation of chondrules in small sets (100 or less) could generate "smoke" and mesostasis spray with compositions unique to each set. However, if these

  18. Ductility of a continuous fiber reinforced aluminum matrix composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jansson, S.; Leckie, Frederick A.

    1991-01-01

    The transverse properties of an aluminum alloy metal matrix composite reinforced by continuous alumina fibers have been investigated. The composite is subjected to both mechanical and cyclic thermal loading. The ductility can vary by an order of magnitude according to the operating conditions. For high mechanical and low thermal loading the ductility is small, for low mechanical and high thermal loading the ductility is an order of magnitude higher. Experiments on a beam in bending confirm that the ductility is strongly dependent on the loading conditions. The observations suggest a means of utilizing the inherent ductility of the matrix.

  19. Acousto-ultrasonic decay in metal matrix composite panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kautz, Harold E.

    1995-01-01

    Acousto-ultrasonic (A-U) decay rates (UD) were measured in metal matrix composite (MMC) panels. The MMC panels had fiber architectures and cross-sectional thicknesses corresponding to those designed for aerospace turbine engine structures. The wavelength-to-thickness ratio produced by the combination of experimental frequency setting conditions and specimen geometry was found to be a key parameter for identifying optimum conditions for UD measurements. The ratio was shown to be a useful rule of thumb when applied to ceramic matrix composites (CMC)s and monolithic thermo-plastics.

  20. Damage evolution in metal matrix composites subjected to thermomechanical fatigue

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, D.H.; Hurtado, L.D.; Helms, K.L.E.

    1995-05-01

    A thermomechanical analysis of unidirectional continuous fiber metal matrix composites is presented. The analysis includes the effects of processing induced residual thermal stresses, interface cracking, and inelastic matrix behavior on damage evolution. Due to the complexity of the nonlinear effects, the analysis is performed computationally using the finite element method. The interface fracture is modeled by a nonlinear constitutive model. The problem formulation is summarized and results are presented for a four-ply unidirectional SCS-6/{beta}21S titanium composite under high temperature isothermal mechanical fatigue.

  1. Composite Matrix Regenerator for Stirling Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knowles, Timothy R.

    1997-01-01

    This project concerns the design, fabrication and testing of carbon regenerators for use in Stirling power convertors. Radial fiber design with nonmetallic components offers a number of potential advantages over conventional steel regenerators: reduced conduction and pressure drop losses, and the capability for higher temperature, higher frequency operation. Diverse composite fabrication methods are explored and lessons learned are summarized. A pulsed single-blow test rig has been developed that has been used for generating thermal effectiveness data for different flow velocities. Carbon regenerators have been fabricated by carbon vapor infiltration of electroflocked preforms. Performance data in a small Stirling engine are obtained. Prototype regenerators designed for the BP-1000 power convertor were fabricated and delivered to NASA-Lewis.

  2. Electron beam curing of polymer matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Janke, C.J.; Wheeler, D.; Saunders, C.

    1998-01-08

    The purpose of the CRADA was to conduct research and development activities to better understand and utilize the electron beam PMC curing technology. This technology will be used to replace or supplement existing PMC thermal curing processes in Department of Energy (DOE) Defense Programs (DP) projects and American aircraft and aerospace industries. This effort involved Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc./Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corp. (Contractor), Sandia National Laboratories, and ten industrial Participants including four major aircraft and aerospace companies, three advanced materials companies, and three electron beam processing organizations. The technical objective of the CRADA was to synthesize and/or modify high performance, electron beam curable materials that meet specific end-use application requirements. There were six tasks in this CRADA including: Electron beam materials development; Electron beam database development; Economic analysis; Low-cost Electron Beam tooling development; Electron beam curing systems integration; and Demonstration articles/prototype structures development. The contractor managed, participated and integrated all the tasks, and optimized the project efforts through the coordination, exchange, and dissemination of information to the project participants. Members of the Contractor team were also the principal inventors on several electron beam related patents and a 1997 R and D 100 Award winner on Electron-Beam-Curable Cationic Epoxy Resins. The CRADA achieved a major breakthrough for the composites industry by having successfully developed high-performance electron beam curable cationic epoxy resins for use in composites, adhesives, tooling compounds, potting compounds, syntactic foams, etc. UCB Chemicals, the world`s largest supplier of radiation-curable polymers, has acquired a license to produce and sell these resins worldwide.

  3. Ceramic matrix composites -- Advanced high-temperature structural materials

    SciTech Connect

    Lowden, R.A.; Ferber, M.K.; Hellmann, J.R.; Chawla, K.K.; DiPietro, S.G.

    1995-10-01

    This symposium on Ceramic Matrix Composites: Advanced High-Temperature Structural Materials was held at the 1994 MRS Fall Meeting in Boston, Massachusetts on November 28--December 2. The symposium was sponsored by the Department of Energy`s Office of Industrial Technology`s Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composites Program, the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, and NASA Lewis Research Center. Among the competing materials for advanced, high-temperature applications, ceramic matrix composites are leading candidates. The symposium was organized such that papers concerning constituents--fibers and matrices--were presented first, followed by composite processing, modeling of mechanical behavior, and thermomechanical testing. More stable reinforcements are necessary to enhance the performance and life of fiber-reinforced ceramic composites, and to ensure final acceptance of these materials for high-temperature applications. Encouraging results in the areas of polymer-derived SiC fibers and single crystal oxide filaments were given, suggesting composites with improved thermomechanical properties and stability will be realized in the near future. The significance of the fiber-matrix interface in the design and performance of these materials is evident. Numerous mechanical models to relate interface properties to composite behavior, and interpret test methods and data, were enthusiastically discussed. One issue of great concern for any advanced material for use in extreme environments is stability. This theme arose frequently throughout the symposium and was the topic of focus on the final day. Fifty nine papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  4. Fabrication of Fiber-Reinforced Celsian Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Setlock, John A.

    2000-01-01

    A method has been developed for the fabrication of small diameter, multifilament tow fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites. Its application has been successfully demonstrated for the Hi-Nicalon/celsian system. Strong and tough celsian matrix composites, reinforced with BN/SiC-coated Hi-Nicalon fibers, have been fabricated by infiltrating the fiber tows with the matrix slurry, winding the tows on a drum, cutting and stacking of the prepreg tapes in the desired orientation, and hot pressing. The monoclinic celsian phase in the matrix was produced in situ, during hot pressing, from the 0.75BaO-0.25SrO-Al2O3-2SiO2 mixed precursor synthesized by solid state reaction from metal oxides. Hot pressing resulted in almost fully dense fiber-reinforced composites. The unidirectional composites having approx. 42 vol% of fibers exhibited graceful failure with extensive fiber pullout in three-point bend tests at room temperature. Values of yield stress and strain were 435 +/- 35 MPa and 0.27 +/- 0.01 percent, respectively, and ultimate strengths of 900 +/- 60 MPa were observed. The Young's modulus of the composites was measured to be 165 +/- 5 GPa.

  5. Creep behavior of tungsten fiber reinforced niobium metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobstein, T. L.

    1989-01-01

    Tungsten fiber reinforced niobium metal matrix composites were evaluated for use in space nuclear power conversion systems. The composite panels were fabricated using the arc-spray monotape technique at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The creep behavior of W/Nb composite material was determined at 1400 and 1500 K in vacuum over a wide range of applied loads. The time to reach 1 percent strain, the time to rupture, and the minimum creep rate were measured. The W/Nb composites exceeded the properties of monolithic niobium alloys significantly even when compared on a strength to density basis. The effect of fiber orientation on the creep strength also was evaluated. Kirkendall void formation was observed at the fiber/matrix interface; the void distribution differed depending on the fiber orientation relative to the stress axis. A relationship was found between the fiber orientation and the creep strength.

  6. Creep behavior of tungsten fiber reinforced niobium metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobstein, Toni L.

    1992-01-01

    Tungsten fiber reinforced niobium metal matrix composites were evaluated for use in space nuclear power conversion systems. The composite panels were fabricated using the arc-spray monotape technique at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The creep behavior of W/Nb composite material was determined at 1400 and 1500 K in vacuum over a wide range of applied loads. The time to reach 1 percent strain, the time to rupture, and the minimum creep rate were measured. The W/Nb composites exceeded the properties of monolithic niobium alloys significantly even when compared creep strength also was evaluated. Kirkendall void formation was observed at the fiber/matrix interface; the void distribution differed depending the fiber orientation relative to the stress axis. A relationship was found between the fiber orientation and the creep strength.

  7. Rate Dependent Deformation and Strength Analysis of Polymer Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Stouffer, Donald C.

    1999-01-01

    A research program is being undertaken to develop rate dependent deformation and failure models for the analysis of polymer matrix composite materials. In previous work in this program, strain-rate dependent inelastic constitutive equations used to analyze polymers have been implemented into a mechanics of materials based composite micromechanics method. In the current work, modifications to the micromechanics model have been implemented to improve the calculation of the effective inelastic strain. Additionally, modifications to the polymer constitutive model are discussed in which pressure dependence is incorporated into the equations in order to improve the calculation of constituent and composite shear stresses. The Hashin failure criterion is implemented into the analysis method to allow for the calculation of ply level failure stresses. The deformation response and failure stresses for two representative uniaxial polymer matrix composites, IM7/977-2 and AS4-PEEK, are predicted for varying strain rates and fiber orientations. The predicted results compare favorably to experimentally obtained values.

  8. High Strain Rate Behavior of Polymer Matrix Composites Analyzed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Roberts, Gary D.

    2001-01-01

    Procedures for modeling the high-speed impact of composite materials are needed for designing reliable composite engine cases that are lighter than the metal cases in current use. The types of polymer matrix composites that are likely to be used in such an application have a deformation response that is nonlinear and that varies with strain rate. To characterize and validate material models that could be used in the design of impactresistant engine cases, researchers must obtain material data over a wide variety of strain rates. An experimental program has been carried out through a university grant with the Ohio State University to obtain deformation data for a representative polymer matrix composite for strain rates ranging from quasi-static to high rates of several hundred per second. This information has been used to characterize and validate a constitutive model that was developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center.

  9. Modeling of crack bridging in a unidirectional metal matrix composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghosn, Louis J.; Kantzos, Pete; Telesman, Jack

    1992-01-01

    The effective fatigue crack driving force and crack opening profiles were determined analytically for fatigue tested unidirectional composite specimens exhibiting fiber bridging. The crack closure pressure due to bridging was modeled using two approaches: the fiber pressure model and the shear lag model. For both closure models, the Bueckner weight function method and the finite element method were used to calculate crack opening displacements and the crack driving force. The predicted near crack tip opening profile agreed well with the experimentally measured profiles for single edge notch SCS-6/Ti-15-3 metal matrix composite specimens. The numerically determined effective crack driving force, Delta K(eff), was calculated using both models to correlate the measure crack growth rate in the composite. The calculated Delta K(eff) from both models accounted for the crack bridging by showing a good agreement between the measured fatigue crack growth rates of the bridged composite and that of unreinforced, unbridged titanium matrix alloy specimens.

  10. Mechanical Properties of Particulate Reinforced Aluminium Alloy Matrix Composite

    SciTech Connect

    Sayuti, M.; Sulaiman, S.; Baharudin, B. T. H. T.; Arifin, M. K. A.; Suraya, S.; Vijayaram, T. R.

    2011-01-17

    This paper discusses the mechanical properties of Titanium Carbide (TiC) particulate reinforced aluminium-silicon alloy matrix composite. TiC particulate reinforced LM6 alloy matrix composites were fabricated by carbon dioxide sand molding process with different particulate weight fraction. Tensile strength, hardness and microstructure studies were conducted to determine the maximum load, tensile strength, modulus of elasticity and fracture surface analysis have been performed to characterize the morphological aspects of the test samples after tensile testing. Hardness values are measured for the TiC reinforced LM6 alloy composites and it has been found that it gradually increases with increased addition of the reinforcement phase. The tensile strength of the composites increased with the increase percentage of TiC particulate.

  11. 3-D woven, mullite matrix, composite filter

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, J.E.; Painter, C.J.; Radford, K.C. LeCostaouec, J.F.

    1995-12-01

    Westinghouse, with Techniweave as a major subcontractor, is conducting a three-phase program aimed at providing advanced candle filters for a 1996 pilot scale demonstration in one of the two hot gas filter systems at Southern Company Service`s Wilsonville PSD Facility. The Base Program (Phases I and II) objective is to develop and demonstrate the suitability of the Westinghouse/Techniweave next generation composite candle filter for use in Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) and/or Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power generation systems. The Optional Task (Phase M, Task 5) objective is to fabricate, inspect and ship to Wilsonville Hot gas particulate filters are key components for the successful commercializaion of advanced coal-based power-generation systems such as Pressurized Fluidized-bed Combustion (PFBC), including second-generation PFBC, and Integrated Gasification Combined Cycles (IGCC). Current generation monolithic ceramic filters are subject to catastrophic failure because they have very low resistance to crack propagation. To overcome this problem, a damage-tolerant ceramic filter element is needed.

  12. Effects of irradiation and post-irradiation annealing on the thermal conductivity/diffusivity of monolithic SiC and f-SiC/SiC composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youngblood, G. E.; Senor, D. J.; Jones, R. H.

    2004-08-01

    Laser flash thermal diffusivity measurements were made on high-purity monolithic CVD-SiC and 2D f-SiC(Hi-Nicalon™)/ICVI-SiC composite samples before and after irradiation (250-800 °C, 4-8 dpa-SiC) and after post-irradiation annealing composite samples to 1200 °C. For irradiated CVD-SiC, the defect concentrations at saturation were estimated to range from 25 300 appm (250 °C) down to 940 appm (800 °C). The transverse thermal conductivity ratios after-to-before irradiation ( Kir/ Ko) determined at the irradiation temperatures ranged from: 0.044 (250 °C) up to 0.12 (800 °C) for irradiated CVD-SiC and 0.18 (330 °C) up to 0.29 (800 °C) for the irradiated Hi-Nicalon™ composite. Analysis of thermal diffusivity values for the Hi-Nicalon composite measured in air, argon, helium and vacuum indicated that thermal conductivity degradation occurred primarily due to point defect accumulation in the matrix component. After annealing to 1200 °C and cooling to ambient, fiber/matrix debonding occurred due to net shrinkage in the fiber and PyC interface components.

  13. Fiber/matrix adhesion in graphite/PEKK composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bucher, R. A.; Hinkley, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    Experiments with poly ether ketone ketone (PEKK) resin and AS-4, IM-7, and G30-500 fibers showed excellent correlation between resin/fiber contact angle and composite transverse flexural strength as measures of resin/fiber interfacial strength. Both tests indicate the strongest interface for G30-500/PEKK followed by IM-7/PEKK and AS-4/PEKK. Also discussed are fiber effects on interlaminar fracture and on the in situ crystallization of the matrix during composite fabrication.

  14. Preparation and Characterization of Cast Ferrous Metal Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dash, R. R.; Chakrabarti, A. K.; Mukherjee, P. S.

    2012-02-01

    TiC/SiC reinforced cast ferrous composites have been prepared by smelting red mud—30 pct charcoal briquettes in a 20-kg basic lined, single-phase direct arc furnace. Elements like silicon, aluminum, zirconium, and so on are also reduced from their respective oxides in the red mud and dissolved in the ferrous matrix. TiC/SiC particulates in the composite grow in a typical spiraling fashion.

  15. Ceramic fiber reinforced glass-ceramic matrix composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A slurry of BSAS glass powders is cast into tapes which are cut to predetermined sizes. Mats of continuous chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-SiC fibers are alternately stacked with these matrix tapes. This tape-mat stack is warm-pressed to produce a 'green' composite which is heated to burn out organic constituents. The remaining interim material is then hot-pressed to form a BSAS glass-ceramic fiber-reinforced composite.

  16. Polymer precursors for ceramic matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litt, M. H.; Kumar, K.

    1986-01-01

    The synthesis and characterization of a polycyclohexasilane is reported. Because of its cyclic structure, it is anticipated that this polymer might serve as a precursor to SIC having a high char yield with little rearrangement to form small, volatile cyclic silanes, and, as such, would be of interest as a precursor to SiC composite matrices and fibers, or as a binder in ceramic processing. Several approaches to the synthesis of a bifunctional cyclic monomer were attempted; the most successful of these was metal coupling of PhMeSiCl2 and Me2SiCl2. The procedure gives six-membered ring compounds with all degrees of phenyl substitution, from none to hexaphenyl. The compounds with from 0-2 groups were isolated and characterized. The fraction with degree of phenyl substitution equal to 2, a mixture of cis and trans 1,2-; 1,3-; and 1,4 isomers, was isolated in 32 percent yield. Pure 1,4 diphenyldecamethylcyclohexasilane was isolated from the mixed diphenyl compounds and characterized. Diphenyldecamethylcyclohexasilanes were dephenylated to dichlorodecamethylcyclohexasilanes by treating with H2SO4.NH4Cl in benzene. The latter were purified and polymerized by reacting with sodium in toluene. The polymers were characterized by HPGPC, elemental analysis, proton NMR, and IR. Thermogravimetric analyses were carried out on the polymers. As the yield of residual SiC was low, polymers were heat treated to increase the residual char yield. As high as 51.52 percent residual char yield was obtained in one case.

  17. Thermosetting Polymer-Matrix Composites for Strucutral Repair Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Goertzen, William Kirby

    2007-12-01

    Several classes of thermosetting polymer matrix composites were evaluated for use in structural repair applications. Initial work involved the characterization and evaluation of woven carbon fiber/epoxy matrix composites for structural pipeline repair. Cyanate ester resins were evaluated as a replacement for epoxy in composites for high-temperature pipe repair applications, and as the basis for adhesives for resin infusion repair of high-temperature composite materials. Carbon fiber/cyanate ester matrix composites and fumed silica/cyanate ester nanocomposites were evaluated for their thermal, mechanical, viscoelastic, and rheological properties as they relate to their structure, chemistry, and processing characteristics. The bisphenol E cyanate ester under investigation possesses a high glass transition temperature, excellent mechanical properties, and unique ambient temperature processability. The incorporate of fumed silica served to enhance the mechanical and rheological properties of the polymer and reduce thermal expansion without sacrificing glass transition or drastically altering curing kinetics. Characterization of the composites included dynamic mechanical analysis, thermomechanical analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, rheological and rheokinetic evaluation, and transmission electron microscopy.

  18. Thermosetting polymer-matrix composites for structural repair applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goertzen, William Kirby

    2007-12-01

    Several classes of thermosetting polymer matrix composites were evaluated for use in structural repair applications. Initial work involved the characterization and evaluation of woven carbon fiber/epoxy matrix composites for structural pipeline repair. Cyanate ester resins were evaluated as a replacement for epoxy in composites for high-temperature pipe repair applications, and as the basis for adhesives for resin infusion repair of high-temperature composite materials. Carbon fiber/cyanate ester matrix composites and fumed silica/cyanate ester nanocomposites were evaluated for their thermal, mechanical, viscoelastic, and rheological properties as they relate to their structure, chemistry, and processing characteristics. The bisphenol E cyanate ester under investigation possesses a high glass transition temperature, excellent mechanical properties, and unique ambient temperature processability. The incorporation of fumed silica served to enhance the mechanical and rheological properties of the polymer and reduce thermal expansion without sacrificing glass transition or drastically altering curing kinetics. Characterization of the composites included dynamic mechanical analysis, thermomechanical analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, rheological and rheokinetic evaluation, and transmission electron microscopy.

  19. High Strain Rate Deformation Modeling of a Polymer Matrix Composite. Part 1; Matrix Constitutive Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Stouffer, Donald C.

    1998-01-01

    Recently applications have exposed polymer matrix composite materials to very high strain rate loading conditions, requiring an ability to understand and predict the material behavior under these extreme conditions. In this first paper of a two part report, background information is presented, along with the constitutive equations which will be used to model the rate dependent nonlinear deformation response of the polymer matrix. Strain rate dependent inelastic constitutive models which were originally developed to model the viscoplastic deformation of metals have been adapted to model the nonlinear viscoelastic deformation of polymers. The modified equations were correlated by analyzing the tensile/ compressive response of both 977-2 toughened epoxy matrix and PEEK thermoplastic matrix over a variety of strain rates. For the cases examined, the modified constitutive equations appear to do an adequate job of modeling the polymer deformation response. A second follow-up paper will describe the implementation of the polymer deformation model into a composite micromechanical model, to allow for the modeling of the nonlinear, rate dependent deformation response of polymer matrix composites.

  20. Matrix cracking initiation stress in fiber-reinforced ceramic-matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Kangutkar, P.B.

    1991-01-01

    One of the important design parameters in CMC's is the matrix cracking initiation stress (MCIS) which corresponds to the stress at which first matrix cracks are observed. Above the MCIS, the fibers will be exposed to the oxidizing environment which may degrade the mechanical property of the fibers and thus of the composite. In this thesis, a systematic study to explore the effects of matrix toughness and inherent strength, fiber diameter, stiffness and volume fraction, temperature and interfacial bonding on the MCIS was carried out. Composites were fabricated using three different matrices - borosilicate glass, aluminosilicate glass and polycrystalline zirconium silicate (or zircon), and two different reinforcing fibers - an SiC monofilament (140 {mu}m diameter) and an SiC yarn (16 {mu}m diameter). In-situ observations during 3-point bend test inside the SEM indicate that matrix cracking is a local phenomenon and occurs first in the matrix between widest spaced fibers. In all composites the MCIS was found to increase with fiber additions and scaled with the monolithic strength.

  1. Enhanced release of bone morphogenetic proteins from demineralized bone matrix by gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Nak-Yun; Choi, Jong-il

    2015-06-01

    Gamma irradiation is a useful method for sterilizing demineralized bone matrix (DBM), but its effect on the osteoinductivity of DBM is still controversial. In this study, the osteoinductive activity of gamma-irradiated DBM was examined using a mouse myoblastic cell line (C2C12). DBM was extracted from adult bovine bone and was irradiated at a dose of 25 kGy using a 60cobalt gamma-irradiator. Cell proliferation with DBM was not affected by gamma-irradiation, but alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin productions were significantly increased in C2C12 cell groups treated with gamma-irradiated DBM. It was reasoned that bone morphogenetic proteins were more efficiently released from gamma-irradiated DBM than from the non-irradiated control. This result suggests the effectiveness of radiation sterilization of bone implants

  2. Metal matrix composites: History, status, factors and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cyriac, Ajith James

    The history, status, and future of metal matrix composites are presented by evaluating the progression of available literature through time. The trends that existed and issues that still prevail are discussed and a prediction of the future for MMCs is presented. The factors that govern the performance of metal matrix composites are also discussed. In many developed countries and in several developing countries there exists continued interest in MMCs. Researchers tried numerous combinations of matrices and reinforcements since work strictly on MMCs began in the 1950s. This led to developments for aerospace and defense applications, but resultant commercial applications were limited. The introduction of ceramic whiskers as reinforcement and the development of 'in-situ' eutectics in the 1960s aided high temperature applications in aircraft engines. In the late 1970s the automobile industries started to take MMCs seriously. In the last 20 years, MMCs evolved from laboratories to a class of materials with numerous applications and commercial markets. After the collapse of the Berlin Wall, prevailing order in the world changed drastically. This effect was evident in the progression of metal matrix composites. The internet connected the world like never before and tremendous information was available for researchers around the world. Globalization and the internet resulted in the transformation of the world to a more level playing field, and this effect is evident in the nature and source of research on metal matrix composites happening around the world.

  3. Outgassing and dimensional changes of polymer matrix composites in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tennyson, R. C.; Matthews, R.

    1993-01-01

    A thermal-vacuum outgassing model and test protocol for predicting outgassing times and dimensional changes for polymer matrix composites is described. Experimental results derived from a 'control' sample are used to provide the basis for analytical predictions to compare with the outgassing response of Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) flight samples.

  4. Arc spray fabrication of metal matrix composite monotape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westfall, L. J. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    Arc metal spraying is used to spray liquid metal onto an array of high strength fibers that were previously wound onto a large drum contained inside a controlled atmosphere chamber. This chamber is first evacuated to remove gaseous contaminants and then backfilled with a neutral gas up to atmospheric pressure. This process is used to produce a large size metal matrix composite monotape.

  5. Key Issues for Aerospace Applications of Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clinton, R. G., Jr.; Levine, S. R.

    1998-01-01

    Ceramic matrix composites (CMC) offer significant advantages for future aerospace applications including turbine engine and liquid rocket engine components, thermal protection systems, and "hot structures". Key characteristics which establish ceramic matrix composites as attractive and often enabling choices are strength retention at high temperatures and reduced weight relative to currently used metallics. However, due to the immaturity of this class of materials which is further compounded by the lack of experience with CMC's in the aerospace industry, there are significant challenges involved in the development and implementation of ceramic matrix composites into aerospace systems. Some of the more critical challenges are attachment and load transfer methodologies; manufacturing techniques, particularly scale up to large and thick section components; operational environment resistance; damage tolerance; durability; repair techniques; reproducibility; database availability; and the lack of validated design and analysis tools. The presentation will examine the technical issues confronting the application of ceramic matrix composites to aerospace systems and identify the key material systems having potential for substantial payoff relative to the primary requirements of light weight and reduced cost for future systems. Current programs and future research opportunities will be described in the presentation which will focus on materials and processes issues.

  6. Fracture criteria for discontinuously reinforced metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rack, H. J.; Goree, J. G.; Albritton, J.; Ratnaparkhi, P.

    1988-01-01

    Summarized is the progress achieved during the period September 16, 1987 to August 15, l988 on NASA Grant NAG1-724, Fracture Criteria for Discontinuously Reinforced Metal Matrix Composites. Appended are copies of three manuscripts prepared under NASA funding during the performance period.

  7. Fracture criteria for discontinuously reinforced metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rack, H. J.; Goree, J. G.; Albritton, J.; Ratnarparkhi, P.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of sample configuration on the details of initial crack propagation in discontinuously whisker reinforced aluminum metal matrix composites was investigated. Care was taken to allow direct comparison of fracture toughness values utilizing differing sample configurations and orientations, holding all materials variables constant, e.g., extrusion ration, heat treatment, and chemistry.

  8. Analytical model for force prediction when machining metal matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikder, Snahungshu

    Metal Matrix Composites (MMC) offer several thermo-mechanical advantages over standard materials and alloys which make them better candidates in different applications. Their light weight, high stiffness, and strength have attracted several industries such as automotive, aerospace, and defence for their wide range of products. However, the wide spread application of Meal Matrix Composites is still a challenge for industry. The hard and abrasive nature of the reinforcement particles is responsible for rapid tool wear and high machining costs. Fracture and debonding of the abrasive reinforcement particles are the considerable damage modes that directly influence the tool performance. It is very important to find highly effective way to machine MMCs. So, it is important to predict forces when machining Metal Matrix Composites because this will help to choose perfect tools for machining and ultimately save both money and time. This research presents an analytical force model for predicting the forces generated during machining of Metal Matrix Composites. In estimating the generated forces, several aspects of cutting mechanics were considered including: shearing force, ploughing force, and particle fracture force. Chip formation force was obtained by classical orthogonal metal cutting mechanics and the Johnson-Cook Equation. The ploughing force was formulated while the fracture force was calculated from the slip line field theory and the Griffith theory of failure. The predicted results were compared with previously measured data. The results showed very good agreement between the theoretically predicted and experimentally measured cutting forces.

  9. Analysis of notched metal matrix composites under tension loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bigelow, C. A.

    1988-01-01

    Presented are techniques based on 3-D finite-element analysis for the examination of continuous fiber reinforced metal matrix composites. Examples are shown for specific metal matrix composites such as boron/aluminum and silicon-carbide/aluminum. Specimen stress-strain behavior and stress at first fiber failure were predicted for boron/aluminum laminates containing circular holes and crack-like slits. The predictions compared very well for (+ or - 45) sub 2s laminates. Mesh configuration was shown to have an effect on the calculation of stresses local to the notch. The presence of thin interface layers of matrix material had a significant influence on the slit-tip stress state, causing sharper stress gradients near the notch. Interface layers reduced the slit-tip fibers stresses in a (+ or - 45) sub s silicon-carbide/aluminum laminate but increased them in a (0/90) sub s laminate.

  10. Metal matrix composite fuel for space radioisotope energy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, H. R.; Ning, H.; Reece, M. J.; Ambrosi, R. M.; Bannister, N. P.; Stephenson, K.

    2013-02-01

    Radioisotope fuels produce heat that can be used for spacecraft thermal control or converted to electricity. They must retain integrity in the event of destruction or atmospheric entry of the parent spacecraft. Addition of a metal matrix to the actinide oxide could yield a more robust fuel form. Neodymium (III) oxide (Nd2O3) - niobium metal matrix composites were produced using Spark Plasma Sintering; Nd2O3 is a non-radioactive surrogate for americium (III) oxide (Am2O3). Two compositions, 70 and 50 wt% Nd2O3, were mechanically tested under equibiaxial (ring-on-ring) flexure according to ASTM C1499. The addition of the niobium matrix increased the mean flexural strength by a factor of about 2 compared to typical ceramic nuclear fuels, and significantly increased the Weibull modulus to over 20. These improved mechanical properties could result in reduced fuel dispersion in severe accidents and improved safety of space radioisotope power systems.

  11. Characterization and control of the fiber-matrix interface in ceramic matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Lowden, R.A.

    1989-03-01

    Fiber-reinforced SiC composites fabricated by thermal-gradient forced-flow chemical-vapor infiltration (FCVI) have exhibited both composite (toughened) and brittle behavior during mechanical property evaluation. Detailed analysis of the fiber-matrix interface revealed that a silica layer on the surface of Nicalon Si-C-O fibers tightly bonds the fiber to the matrix. The strongly bonded fiber and matrix, combined with the reduction in the strength of the fibers that occurs during processing, resulted in the observed brittle behavior. The mechanical behavior of Nicalon/SiC composites has been improved by applying thin coatings (silicon carbide, boron, boron nitride, molybdenum, carbon) to the fibers, prior to densification, to control the interfacial bond. Varying degrees of bonding have been achieved with different coating materials and film thicknesses. Fiber-matrix bond strengths have been quantitatively evaluated using an indentation method and a simple tensile test. The effects of bonding and friction on the mechanical behavior of this composite system have been investigated. 167 refs., 59 figs., 18 tabs.

  12. High power x-ray welding of metal-matrix composites

    DOEpatents

    Rosenberg, Richard A.; Goeppner, George A.; Noonan, John R.; Farrell, William J.; Ma, Qing

    1999-01-01

    A method for joining metal-matrix composites (MMCs) by using high power x-rays as a volumetric heat source is provided. The method involves directing an x-ray to the weld line between two adjacent MMCs materials to create an irradiated region or melt zone. The x-rays have a power density greater than about 10.sup.4 watts/cm.sup.2 and provide the volumetric heat required to join the MMC materials. Importantly, the reinforcing material of the metal-matrix composites remains uniformly distributed in the melt zone, and the strength of the MMCs are not diminished. In an alternate embodiment, high power x-rays are used to provide the volumetric heat required to weld metal elements, including metal elements comprised of metal alloys. In an alternate embodiment, high power x-rays are used to provide the volumetric heat required to weld metal elements, including metal elements comprised of metal alloys.

  13. Proposed framework for thermomechanical life modeling of metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halford, Gary R.; Lerch, Bradley A.; Saltsman, James F.

    1993-01-01

    The framework of a mechanics of materials model is proposed for thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) life prediction of unidirectional, continuous-fiber metal matrix composites (MMC's). Axially loaded MMC test samples are analyzed as structural components whose fatigue lives are governed by local stress-strain conditions resulting from combined interactions of the matrix, interfacial layer, and fiber constituents. The metallic matrix is identified as the vehicle for tracking fatigue crack initiation and propagation. The proposed framework has three major elements. First, TMF flow and failure characteristics of in situ matrix material are approximated from tests of unreinforced matrix material, and matrix TMF life prediction equations are numerically calibrated. The macrocrack initiation fatigue life of the matrix material is divided into microcrack initiation and microcrack propagation phases. Second, the influencing factors created by the presence of fibers and interfaces are analyzed, characterized, and documented in equation form. Some of the influences act on the microcrack initiation portion of the matrix fatigue life, others on the microcrack propagation life, while some affect both. Influencing factors include coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch strains, residual (mean) stresses, multiaxial stress states, off-axis fibers, internal stress concentrations, multiple initiation sites, nonuniform fiber spacing, fiber debonding, interfacial layers and cracking, fractured fibers, fiber deflections of crack fronts, fiber bridging of matrix cracks, and internal oxidation along internal interfaces. Equations exist for some, but not all, of the currently identified influencing factors. The third element is the inclusion of overriding influences such as maximum tensile strain limits of brittle fibers that could cause local fractures and ensuing catastrophic failure of surrounding matrix material. Some experimental data exist for assessing the plausibility of the proposed

  14. Formation of long-range ordered quantum dots arrays in amorphous matrix by ion beam irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Buljan, M.; Bogdanovic-Radovic, I.; Karlusic, M.; Desnica, U. V.; Radic, N.; Dubcek, P.; Drazic, G.; Salamon, K.; Bernstorff, S.; Holy, V.

    2009-08-10

    We demonstrate the production of a well ordered three-dimensional array of Ge quantum dots in amorphous silica matrix. The ordering is achieved by ion beam irradiation and annealing of a multilayer film. Structural analysis shows that quantum dots nucleate along the direction of the ion beam used for irradiation, while the mutual distance of the quantum dots is determined by the diffusion properties of the multilayer material rather than the distances between traces of ions that are used for irradiation.

  15. Strain and hysteresis by stochastic matrix cracking in ceramic matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, B. K.; Curtin, W. A.

    1997-02-01

    A theory is presented to predict the stress/strain relations and unload/reload hysteresis behavior during the evolution of multiple matrix cracking in unidirectional fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites (CMCs). The theory is based on the similarity between multiple matrix cracking and fiber fragmentation in a single fiber composite, and determines the crack and strain evolution as a function of the statistical distribution of initial flaws in the material, the interfacial sliding resistance τ, and the thermal residual stresses in the composite. The model properly includes matrix fragments of all lengths, from lengths smaller than the current slip length δ(σ) to larger than 2δ(σ), at applied stress σ, and accounts for their respective and differing contributions to the overall strain and hysteresis behavior of the composite. The procedure by which experimental stress/strain and hysteresis data can be interpreted to derive values for the interfacial shear stress, thermal stresses, and intrinsic matrix flaw distribution is discussed. The actual physical crack spacing needs only to be determined at one load level, such as post-fracture, which greatly simplifies the data acquisition and analysis. Several detailed examples are presented, and the results compared with a widely-used approach in which the crack spacing is assumed constant and equal to the average spacing obtained directly from experiment. The discrepancy between the previous and present theories is manifest in an incorrect estimate for the interfacial sliding, but only by approximately 10%. The effect of changing temperature, and hence residual stresses, without changing either matrix flaws or interfacial sliding resistance, is studied.

  16. Material damping in aluminum and metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawley, Edward F.; Van Schoor, Marthinus C.

    1987-01-01

    The material damping in beam-like specimens of aluminum and metal matrix composites was measured. A unique apparatus to determine damping by free decay while the specimens are in free fall in a vacuum was used. The specimens tested include 2024-T3 and 6061-T4 aluminum, and unidirectional graphite/metal matrix specimens with P55 and P100 fibers and 6061 Aluminum and AZ91C Magnesium as matrix materials. Tests were conducted to determine the dependence of damping on frequency and stress level. For the aluminum specimens, the material damping followed the Zener model at very low stress levels. Below the Zener relaxation frequency, a strong dependence of damping on stress was found for even moderate stress levels. Damping for the aluminum matrix materials was slightly above that predicted by the Zener model for a homogeneous bar of the matrix aluminum. For the magnesium matrix specimens, damping significantly above the Zener prediction for the homogeneous matrix material was observed.

  17. A comparison of fiber effects on polymer matrix composite oxidation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Kenneth J.

    1991-01-01

    A number of thermo-oxidative stability studies addressing the effects of fiber reinforcement on composite thermal stability and influence of geometry on the results of aging studies were performed at NASA-Lewis. The information presented herein, a compilation of some results from these studies, shows the influence of the reinforcement fibers on the oxidative degradation of various PMR-15 composites. Reinforcement of graphite and ceramics were studied and three composite oxidation mechanisms were observed. One was a dominant attack of the reinforcement fiber, the second was the aggressive oxidation of the matrix material, and the third was interfacial degradation.

  18. Ni-based Metal Matrix Composite Functionally Graded Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amado, J. M.; Montero, J.; Tobar, M. J.; Yáñez, A.

    Functional graded materials (FGMs) are a class of composites that have a continuous variation of material properties. One of the aims of such variation is to relieve the stress concentrations that appear in laminated materials. Coating techniques using powder as filler material can be adapted for the manufacture of composition gradients by means of a mixing unit in a powder feed system which is the basis of the laser cladding technology. The aim of this paper is to get coats with layers of the highest possible ceramic concentration on a metal matrix composite (MMC) with the help of the FGM methodology.

  19. Graphite fiber textile preform/copper matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filatovs, G. J.

    1993-01-01

    This project has the objective of exploring the use of graphite fiber textile preform/copper matrix composites in spacecraft heat transmitting and radiating components. The preforms are to be fabricated by braiding of tows and when infiltrated with copper will result in a 3-D reinforced, near net shape composite with improved specific properties such as lower density and higher stiffness. It is anticipated that the use of textile technology will result in a more robust preform and consequently better final composite; it is hard to anticipate what performance tradeoffs will result, and these will be explored through testing and characterization.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of bulk metallic glass matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi-Yim, Haein

    Composites with a bulk metallic glass matrix are synthesized and characterized. This was made possible by the recent development of bulk metallic glasses that exhibit high resistance to crystallization in the undercooled liquid state. In this thesis, experimental methods for processing metallic glass composites are introduced. Three different bulk metallic glass (BMG) forming alloys were used as the matrix materials. Ceramics such as SiC, WC, or TiC, and metals W or Ta were introduced as reinforcement into the metallic glass. Structure, microstructure and thermal stability of the composites are studied by X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. The metallic glass matrix remained amorphous after adding up to 30 percent volume fraction of particles or short wires. X-ray diffraction patterns of the composites show only peaks from the second phase particles superimposed on the broad diffuse maxima from the amorphous phase. Optical micrographs reveal uniformly distributed particles in the matrix. The thermal stability of the matrix did not deteriorate after adding the particles. In the case of SiC, the matrix becomes even more robust with respect to crystallization. The reactions at the interfaces between the matrix and the different reinforcing materials are investigated with scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and electron microprobe. At the interfaces between the matrix and the WC or SiC particles, ZrC layers formed. W and Si diffused into the matrix, respectively. At the interface between W and the matrix, a thin layer of nanocrystals is observed after cooling the liquid/particulate mixture. The mechanical properties of the composites are studied in compression and tension. Compressive strain to failure increased by over 300% compared to the unreinforced Zr57Nb5Al10Cu15.4 Ni12.6 and the energy to fracture of the tensile samples increased by over 50% adding 15 vol. % W. The effect of silicon on the

  1. Dual-nanoparticulate-reinforced aluminum matrix composite materials.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hansang; Cho, Seungchan; Leparoux, Marc; Kawasaki, Akira

    2012-06-01

    Aluminum (Al) matrix composite materials reinforced with carbon nanotubes (CNT) and silicon carbide nanoparticles (nano-SiC) were fabricated by mechanical ball milling, followed by hot-pressing. Nano-SiC was used as an active mixing agent for dispersing the CNTs in the Al powder. The hardness of the produced composites was dramatically increased, up to eight times higher than bulk pure Al, by increasing the amount of nano-SiC particles. A small quantity of aluminum carbide (Al(4)C(3)) was observed by TEM analysis and quantified using x-ray diffraction. The composite with the highest hardness values contained some nanosized Al(4)C(3). Along with the CNT and the nano-SiC, Al(4)C(3) also seemed to play a role in the enhanced hardness of the composites. The high energy milling process seems to lead to a homogeneous dispersion of the high aspect ratio CNTs, and of the nearly spherical nano-SiC particles in the Al matrix. This powder metallurgical approach could also be applied to other nanoreinforced composites, such as ceramics or complex matrix materials. PMID:22571898

  2. Probabilistic Micromechanics and Macromechanics for Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Mital, Subodh K.; Shah, Ashwin R.

    1997-01-01

    The properties of ceramic matrix composites (CMC's) are known to display a considerable amount of scatter due to variations in fiber/matrix properties, interphase properties, interphase bonding, amount of matrix voids, and many geometry- or fabrication-related parameters, such as ply thickness and ply orientation. This paper summarizes preliminary studies in which formal probabilistic descriptions of the material-behavior- and fabrication-related parameters were incorporated into micromechanics and macromechanics for CMC'S. In this process two existing methodologies, namely CMC micromechanics and macromechanics analysis and a fast probability integration (FPI) technique are synergistically coupled to obtain the probabilistic composite behavior or response. Preliminary results in the form of cumulative probability distributions and information on the probability sensitivities of the response to primitive variables for a unidirectional silicon carbide/reaction-bonded silicon nitride (SiC/RBSN) CMC are presented. The cumulative distribution functions are computed for composite moduli, thermal expansion coefficients, thermal conductivities, and longitudinal tensile strength at room temperature. The variations in the constituent properties that directly affect these composite properties are accounted for via assumed probabilistic distributions. Collectively, the results show that the present technique provides valuable information about the composite properties and sensitivity factors, which is useful to design or test engineers. Furthermore, the present methodology is computationally more efficient than a standard Monte-Carlo simulation technique; and the agreement between the two solutions is excellent, as shown via select examples.

  3. Dual-nanoparticulate-reinforced aluminum matrix composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Hansang; Cho, Seungchan; Leparoux, Marc; Kawasaki, Akira

    2012-06-01

    Aluminum (Al) matrix composite materials reinforced with carbon nanotubes (CNT) and silicon carbide nanoparticles (nano-SiC) were fabricated by mechanical ball milling, followed by hot-pressing. Nano-SiC was used as an active mixing agent for dispersing the CNTs in the Al powder. The hardness of the produced composites was dramatically increased, up to eight times higher than bulk pure Al, by increasing the amount of nano-SiC particles. A small quantity of aluminum carbide (Al4C3) was observed by TEM analysis and quantified using x-ray diffraction. The composite with the highest hardness values contained some nanosized Al4C3. Along with the CNT and the nano-SiC, Al4C3 also seemed to play a role in the enhanced hardness of the composites. The high energy milling process seems to lead to a homogeneous dispersion of the high aspect ratio CNTs, and of the nearly spherical nano-SiC particles in the Al matrix. This powder metallurgical approach could also be applied to other nanoreinforced composites, such as ceramics or complex matrix materials.

  4. Method of making metal matrix composites reinforced with ceramic particulates

    DOEpatents

    Cornie, J.A.; Kattamis, T.; Chambers, B.V.; Bond, B.E.; Varela, R.H.

    1989-08-01

    Composite materials and methods for making such materials are disclosed in which dispersed ceramic particles are at chemical equilibrium with a base metal matrix, thereby permitting such materials to be remelted and subsequently cast or otherwise processed to form net weight parts and other finished (or semi-finished) articles while maintaining the microstructure and mechanical properties (e.g. wear resistance or hardness) of the original composite. The composite materials of the present invention are composed of ceramic particles in a base metal matrix. The ceramics are preferably carbides of titanium, zirconium, tungsten, molybdenum or other refractory metals. The base metal can be iron, nickel, cobalt, chromium or other high temperature metal and alloys thereof. For ferrous matrices, alloys suitable for use as the base metal include cast iron, carbon steels, stainless steels and iron-based superalloys. 2 figs.

  5. Method of making metal matrix composites reinforced with ceramic particulates

    DOEpatents

    Cornie, James A.; Kattamis, Theodoulos; Chambers, Brent V.; Bond, Bruce E.; Varela, Raul H.

    1989-01-01

    Composite materials and methods for making such materials are disclosed in which dispersed ceramic particles are at chemical equilibrium with a base metal matrix, thereby permitting such materials to be remelted and subsequently cast or otherwise processed to form net weight parts and other finished (or semi-finished) articles while maintaining the microstructure and mechanical properties (e.g. wear resistance or hardness) of the original composite. The composite materials of the present invention are composed of ceramic particles in a base metal matrix. The ceramics are preferably carbides of titanium, zirconium, tungsten, molybdenum or other refractory metals. The base metal can be iron, nickel, cobalt, chromium or other high temperature metal and alloys thereof. For ferrous matrices, alloys suitable for use as the base metal include cast iron, carbon steels, stainless steels and iron-based superalloys.

  6. Cellular Magnesium Matrix Foam Composites for Mechanical Damping Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shunmugasamy, Vasanth Chakravarthy; Mansoor, Bilal; Gupta, Nikhil

    2016-01-01

    The damping characteristics of metal alloys and metal matrix composites are relevant to the automotive, aerospace, and marine structures. Use of lightweight materials can help in increasing payload capacity and in decreasing fuel consumption. Lightweight composite materials possessing high damping capabilities that can be designed as structural members can greatly benefit in addressing these needs. In this context, the damping properties of lightweight metals such as aluminum and magnesium and their respective composites have been studied in the existing literature. This review focuses on analyzing the damping properties of aluminum and magnesium alloys and their cellular composites. The damping properties of various lightweight alloys and composites are compared on the basis of their density to understand the potential for weight saving in structural applications. Magnesium alloys are observed to possess better damping properties in comparison to aluminum. However, aluminum matrix syntactic foams reinforced with silicon carbide hollow particles possess a damping capacity and density comparable to magnesium alloy. By using the data presented in the study, composites with specific compositions and properties can be selected for a given application. In addition, the comparison of the results helps in identifying the areas where attention needs to be focused to address the future needs.

  7. Fibre-matrix bond strength studies of glass, ceramic, and metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grande, D. H.; Mandell, J. F.; Hong, K. C. C.

    1988-01-01

    An indentation test technique for compressively loading the ends of individual fibers to produce debonding has been applied to metal, glass, and glass-ceramic matrix composites; bond strength values at debond initiation are calculated using a finite-element model. Results are correlated with composite longitudinal and interlaminar shear behavior for carbon and Nicalon fiber-reinforced glasses and glass-ceramics including the effects of matrix modifications, processing conditions, and high-temperature oxidation embrittlement. The data indicate that significant bonding to improve off-axis and shear properties can be tolerated before the longitudinal behavior becomes brittle. Residual stress and other mechanical bonding effects are important, but improved analyses and multiaxial interfacial failure criteria are needed to adequately interpret bond strength data in terms of composite performance.

  8. A creep model for metallic composites based on matrix testing: Application to Kanthal composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binienda, W. K.; Robinson, D. N.; Arnold, S. M.; Bartolotta, Paul A.

    1990-01-01

    An anisotropic creep model is formulated for metallic composites with strong fibers and low to moderate fiber volume percent (less than 40 percent). The idealization admits no creep in the local fiber direction and assumes equal creep strength in longitudinal and transverse shear. Identification of the matrix behavior with that of the isotropic limit of the theory permits characterization of the composite through uniaxial creep tests on the matrix material. Constant and step-wise creep tests are required as a data base. The model provides an upper bound on the transverse creep strength of a composite having strong fibers embedded in a particular matrix material. Comparison of the measured transverse strength with the upper bound gives an assessment of the integrity of the composite. Application is made to a Kanthal composite, a model high-temperature composite system. Predictions are made of the creep response of fiber reinforced Kanthal tubes under interior pressure.

  9. Electron Beam-Cure Polymer Matrix Composites: Processing and Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrenn, G.; Frame, B.; Jensen, B.; Nettles, A.

    2001-01-01

    Researchers from NASA and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are evaluating a series of electron beam curable composites for application in reusable launch vehicle airframe and propulsion systems. Objectives are to develop electron beam curable composites that are useful at cryogenic to elevated temperatures (-217 C to 200 C), validate key mechanical properties of these composites, and demonstrate cost-saving fabrication methods at the subcomponent level. Electron beam curing of polymer matrix composites is an enabling capability for production of aerospace structures in a non-autoclave process. Payoffs of this technology will be fabrication of composite structures at room temperature, reduced tooling cost and cure time, and improvements in component durability. This presentation covers the results of material property evaluations for electron beam-cured composites made with either unidirectional tape or woven fabric architectures. Resin systems have been evaluated for performance in ambient, cryogenic, and elevated temperature conditions. Results for electron beam composites and similar composites cured in conventional processes are reviewed for comparison. Fabrication demonstrations were also performed for electron beam-cured composite airframe and propulsion piping subcomponents. These parts have been built to validate manufacturing methods with electron beam composite materials, to evaluate electron beam curing processing parameters, and to demonstrate lightweight, low-cost tooling options.

  10. Thermal stress effects in intermetallic matrix composites. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, P.K.; Sensmeier, M.D.; Kupperman, D.S.; Wadley, H.N.G.

    1993-09-01

    Intermetallic matrix composites develop residual stresses from the large thermal expansion mismatch (delta-alpha) between the fibers and matrix. This work was undertaken to: establish improved techniques to measure these thermal stresses in IMC's; determine residual stresses in a variety of IMC systems by experiments and modeling; and, determine the effect of residual stresses on selected mechanical properties of an IMC. X ray diffraction (XRD), neutron diffraction (ND), synchrotron XRD (SXRD), and ultrasonics (US) techniques for measuring thermal stresses in IMC were examined and ND was selected as the most promising technique. ND was demonstrated on a variety of IMC systems encompassing Ti- and Ni-base matrices, SiC, W, and Al2O3 fibers, and different fiber fractions (Vf). Experimental results on these systems agreed with predictions of a concentric cylinder model. In SiC/Ti-base systems, little yielding was found and stresses were controlled primarily by delta-alpha and Vf. In Ni-base matrix systems, yield strength of the matrix and Vf controlled stress levels. The longitudinal residual stresses in SCS-6/Ti-24Al-llNb composite were modified by thermomechanical processing. Increasing residual stress decreased ultimate tensile strength in agreement with model predictions. Fiber pushout strength showed an unexpected inverse correlation with residual stress. In-plane shear yield strength showed no dependence on residual stress. Higher levels of residual tension led to higher fatigue crack growth rates, as suggested by matrix mean stress effects.

  11. Inelastic response of metal matrix composites under biaxial loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissenden, C. J.; Mirzadeh, F.; Pindera, M.-J.; Herakovich, C. T.

    1991-01-01

    Theoretical predictions and experimental results were obtained for inelastic response of unidirectional and angle ply composite tubes subjected to axial and torsional loading. The composite material consist of silicon carbide fibers in a titanium alloy matrix. This material is known to be susceptible to fiber matrix interfacial damage. A method to distinguish between matrix yielding and fiber matrix interfacial damage is suggested. Biaxial tests were conducted on the two different layup configurations using an MTS Axial/Torsional load frame with a PC based data acquisition system. The experimentally determined elastic moduli of the SiC/Ti system are compared with those predicted by a micromechanics model. The test results indicate that fiber matrix interfacial damage occurs at relatively low load levels and is a local phenomenon. The micromechanics model used is the method of cells originally proposed by Aboudi. Finite element models using the ABACUS finite element program were used to study end effects and fixture specimen interactions. The results to date have shown good correlation between theory and experiment for response prior to damage initiation.

  12. Stress corrosion cracking of metal matrix composites: Modeling and experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.H.

    1990-10-01

    The stress corrosion crack growth ate of metal matrix composites has been described by a model which is dependent on the length-to- diameter ({ell}/d) ratio and volume fraction of the reinforcing phase and matrix creep component. The model predicts a large dependence of the stress corrosion crack growth rate of a metal matrix composite on {ell}/d and matrix creep component and a small dependence on the volume fraction of reinforcement. Experimentally determined crack growth rates for 7090 Al/SiC tested in 3.5% NcCl solution, 6061 Al/SiC tested in moist air with NaCl and immersed in NaCl solution, and Mg/Al{sub 2}0{sub 3} tested in a chloride/chromate solution are all consistent with the model. The close correspondence between the model and experiment for a matrix creep stress exponent of 3 suggest that there is little corrosion damage to the reinforcing phase in these systems. 16 refs., 5 figs.

  13. Thermal expansion behavior of LDEF metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le, Tuyen D.; Steckel, Gary L.

    1993-01-01

    The thermal expansion behavior of Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) metal matrix composite materials was studied by (1) analyzing the flight data that was recorded on orbit to determine the effects of orbital time and heating/cooling rates on the performance of the composite materials, and (2) characterizing and comparing the thermal expansion behavior of post-flight LDEF and lab-control samples. The flight data revealed that structures in space are subjected to nonuniform temperature distributions, and thermal conductivity of a material is an important factor in establishing a uniform temperature distribution and avoiding thermal distortion. The flight and laboratory data showed that both Gr/Al and Gr/Mg composites were stabilized after prolonged thermal cycling on orbit. However, Gr/Al composites showed more stable thermal expansion behavior than Gr/Mg composites and offer advantages for space structures particularly where very tight thermal stability requirements in addition to high material performance must be met.

  14. Chemical feasibility of lithium as a matrix for structural composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swann, R. T.; Esterling, D. M.

    1984-01-01

    The chemical compatibility of lithium with tows of carbon and aramid fibers and silicon carbide and boron monofilaments was investigated by encapsulating the fibers in liquid lithium and also by sintering. The lithium did not readily wet the various fibers. In particular, very little lithium infiltration into the carbon and aramid tows was achieved and the strength of the tows was seriously degraded. The strength of the boron and silicon carbide monofilaments, however, was not affected by the liquid lithium. Therefore lithium is not feasible as a matrix for carbon and aramid fibers, but a composite containing boron or silicon carbide fibers in a lithium matrix may be feasible for specialized applications.

  15. Nonlinear laminate analysis for metal matrix fiber composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    A nonlinear laminate analysis is described for predicting the mechanical behavior (stress-strain relationships) of angle-ply laminates in which the matrix is strained nonlinearly by both the residual stress and the mechanical load and in which additional nonlinearities are induced due to progressive fiber fractures and ply relative rotations. The nonlinear laminate analysis is based on linear composite mechanics and a piece-wise linear laminate analysis to handle the nonlinear responses. Results obtained by using this nonlinear analysis on boron-fiber/aluminum-matrix angle-ply laminates agree well with experimental data. The results shown illustrate the in situ ply stress-strain behavior and synergistic strength enhancement.

  16. Nonlinear laminate analysis for metal matrix fiber composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    A nonlinear laminate analysis is described for predicting the mechanical behavior (stress-strain relationships) of angleplied laminates in which the matrix is strained nonlinearly by both the residual stress and the mechanical load and in which additional nonlinearities are induced due to progressive fiber fractures and ply relative rotations. The nonlinear laminate analysis (NLA) is based on linear composite mechanics and a piece wise linear laminate analysis to handle the nonlinear responses. Results obtained by using this nonlinear analysis on boron fiber/aluminum matrix angleplied laminates agree well with experimental data. The results shown illustrate the in situ ply stress-strain behavior and synergistic strength enhancement.

  17. Evaluation of 2D ceramic matrix composites in aeroconvective environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riccitiello, Salvatore R.; Love, Wendell L.; Balter-Peterson, Aliza

    1992-01-01

    An evaluation is conducted of a novel ceramic-matrix composite (CMC) material system for use in the aeroconvective-heating environments encountered by the nose caps and wing leading edges of such aerospace vehicles as the Space Shuttle, during orbit-insertion and reentry from LEO. These CMCs are composed of an SiC matrix that is reinforced with Nicalon, Nextel, or carbon refractory fibers in a 2D architecture. The test program conducted for the 2D CMCs gave attention to their subsurface oxidation.

  18. Simulation of Fatigue Behavior of High Temperature Metal Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tong, Mike T.; Singhal, Suren N.; Chamis, Christos C.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.

    1996-01-01

    A generalized relatively new approach is described for the computational simulation of fatigue behavior of high temperature metal matrix composites (HT-MMCs). This theory is embedded in a specialty-purpose computer code. The effectiveness of the computer code to predict the fatigue behavior of HT-MMCs is demonstrated by applying it to a silicon-fiber/titanium-matrix HT-MMC. Comparative results are shown for mechanical fatigue, thermal fatigue, thermomechanical (in-phase and out-of-phase) fatigue, as well as the effects of oxidizing environments on fatigue life. These results show that the new approach reproduces available experimental data remarkably well.

  19. Prediction of high temperature metal matrix composite ply properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caruso, J. J.; Chamis, C. C.

    1988-01-01

    The application of the finite element method (superelement technique) in conjunction with basic concepts from mechanics of materials theory is demonstrated to predict the thermomechanical behavior of high temperature metal matrix composites (HTMMC). The simulated behavior is used as a basis to establish characteristic properties of a unidirectional composite idealized an as equivalent homogeneous material. The ply properties predicted include: thermal properties (thermal conductivities and thermal expansion coefficients) and mechanical properties (moduli and Poisson's ratio). These properties are compared with those predicted by a simplified, analytical composite micromechanics model. The predictive capabilities of the finite element method and the simplified model are illustrated through the simulation of the thermomechanical behavior of a P100-graphite/copper unidirectional composite at room temperature and near matrix melting temperature. The advantage of the finite element analysis approach is its ability to more precisely represent the composite local geometry and hence capture the subtle effects that are dependent on this. The closed form micromechanics model does a good job at representing the average behavior of the constituents to predict composite behavior.

  20. Organic matrix composite protective coatings for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dursch, Harry W.; George, Pete

    1995-01-01

    Successful use of composites in low earth orbit (LEO) depends on their ability to survive long-term exposure to atomic oxygen (AO), ultraviolet radiation, charged particle radiation, thermal cycling, and micrometeoroid and space debris. The AO environment is especially severe for unprotected organic matrix composites surfaces in LEO. Ram facing unprotected graphite/epoxy flown on the 69-month Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) mission lost up to one ply of thickness (5 mils) resulting in decreased mechanical properties. The expected AO fluence of the 30 year Space Station Alpha mission is approximately 20 times that seen on LDEF. This exposure would result in significant material loss of unprotected ram facing organic matrix composites. Several protective coatings for composites were flown on LDEF including anodized aluminum, vacuum deposited coatings, a variety of thermal control coatings, metalized Teflon, and leafing aluminum. Results from the testing and analysis of the coated and uncoated composite specimens flown on LDEF's leading and trailing edges provide the baseline for determining the effectiveness of protectively coated composites in LEO. In addition to LDEF results, results from shuttle flight experiments and ground based testing will be discussed.

  1. Organic matrix composite protective coatings for space applications

    SciTech Connect

    Dursch, H.W.; George, P.

    1995-02-01

    Successful use of composites in low earth orbit (LEO) depends on their ability to survive long-term exposure to atomic oxygen (AO), ultraviolet radiation, charged particle radiation, thermal cycling, and micrometeoroid and space debris. The AO environment is especially severe for unprotected organic matrix composites surfaces in LEO. Ram facing unprotected graphite/epoxy flown on the 69-month Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) mission lost up to one ply of thickness (5 mils) resulting in decreased mechanical properties. The expected AO fluence of the 30 year Space Station Alpha mission is approximately 20 times that seen on LDEF. This exposure would result in significant material loss of unprotected ram facing organic matrix composites. Several protective coatings for composites were flown on LDEF including anodized aluminum, vacuum deposited coatings, a variety of thermal control coatings, metalized Teflon, and leafing aluminum. Results from the testing and analysis of the coated and uncoated composite specimens flown on LDEF`s leading and trailing edges provide the baseline for determining the effectiveness of protectively coated composites in LEO. In addition to LDEF results, results from shuttle flight experiments and ground based testing will be discussed.

  2. Shock Interaction Studies on Glass Fibre Reinforced Epoxy Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, K. P. J.; Jagadeesh, G.; Jayaram, V.; Reddy, B. Harinath; Madhu, V.; Reddy, C. Jaya Rami

    Glass fibre reinforced polymer matrix composites are being extensively used for structural applications both in civil and defense sectors, owing to their high specific strength, stiffness and good energy absorbing capability. Understanding the dynamic response of these composites on shock loading is very essential for effective design of structures resistant to blast loads. In the present study, E- glass/epoxy composite laminate has been fabricated and evaluated for their mechanical properties such as tensile strength, flexural strength and inter laminar shear strength (ILSS). Further, dynamic response of E-glass laminates is presently studied by shock loading. When E-glass composite subjected to peak shock reflected pressure of 7.2 MPa and estimated temperature of about 14000 K for short duration, it underwent surface discolorations and charring of epoxy matrix. Post test analysis of the composite sample was carried out to study the damage analysis using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), changes in thermal properties of composites using Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer (DMA) and Thermo-Gravimetric Analyzer (TGA). The results of these investigations are discussed in this paper.

  3. Rapid Prototyping of Continuous Fiber Reinforced Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaidyanathan, R.; Green, C.; Phillips, T.; Cipriani, R.; Yarlagadda, S.; Gillespie, J. W., Jr.; Effinger, M.; Cooper, K. C.

    2003-01-01

    For ceramics to be used as structural components in high temperature applications, their fracture toughness is improved by embedding continuous ceramic fibers. Ceramic matrix composite (CMC) materials allow increasing the overall operating temperature, raising the temperature safety margins, avoiding the need for cooling, and improving the damping capacity, while reducing the weight at the same time. They also need to be reliable and available in large quantities as well. In this paper, an innovative rapid prototyping technique to fabricate continuous fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites is described. The process is simple, robust and will be widely applicable to a number of high temperature material systems. This technique was originally developed at the University of Delaware Center for Composite Materials (UD-CCM) for rapid fabrication of polymer matrix composites by a technique called automated tow placement or ATP. The results of mechanical properties and microstructural characterization are presented, together with examples of complex shapes and parts. It is believed that the process will be able to create complex shaped parts at an order of magnitude lower cost than current chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) and polymer impregnation and pyrolysis (PIP) processes.

  4. Rapid Prototyping of Continuous Fiber Reinforced Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaidyanathan, R.; Green, C.; Phillips, T.; Cipriani, R.; Yarlagadda, S.; Gillespie, J.; Effinger, M.; Cooper, K. C.; Gordon, Gail (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    For ceramics to be used as structural components in high temperature applications, their fracture toughness is improved by embedding continuous ceramic fibers. Ceramic matrix composite (CMC) materials allow increasing the overall operating temperature, raising the temperature safety margins, avoiding the need for cooling, and improving the damping capacity, while reducing the weight at the same time. They also need to be reliable and available in large quantities as well. In this paper, an innovative rapid prototyping technique to fabricate continuous fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites is described. The process is simple, robust and will be widely applicable to a number of high temperature material systems. This technique was originally developed at the University of Delaware Center for Composite Materials (UD-CCM) for rapid fabrication of polymer matrix composites by a technique called automated tow placement or ATP. The results of mechanical properties and microstructural characterization are presented, together with examples of complex shapes and parts. It is believed that the process will be able to create complex shaped parts at an order of magnitude lower cost than current CVI and PIP processes.

  5. Micromechanical analysis of filamentary metal matrix composites under longitudinal loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gdoutos, Emmanuel E.; Karalekas, Dimitrios; Daniel, Isaac M.

    1991-01-01

    A two-material composite cylinder model (CCM) was considered for the study of the mechanical behavior at different temperatures of a fiber-reinforced silicon carbide/aluminum (SiC/Al) composite. An elastoplastic analysis of the model was performed in which the fiber was assumed to be linear elastic and the matrix elastoplastic with work-hardening. The analysis was based on the deformation theory of plasticity in conjunction with the von-Mises yield criterion. Experimental stress-strain curves of an SiC/Al composite were obtained at 24 and 288 C (75 and 550 F). The complete three-dimensional stress distribution in the composite using the CCM was determined. It was found that, in addition to longitudinal stresses, transverse stresses in both the fiber and the matrix were developed as a result of the different Poisson's ratios of the two materials. The transverse stresses, although much smaller than the longitudinal stresses, contributed to the plastic deformation of the matrix. The experimental stress-strain curves were favorably compared with the theoretical predictions.

  6. Characterization of the polymer-filler interface in (gamma)-irradiated silica-reinforced polysiloxane composites

    SciTech Connect

    Chien, A T; Balazs, B; LeMay, J

    2000-04-03

    The changes in hydrogen bonding at the interface of silica-reinforced polysiloxane composites due to aging in gamma radiation environments were examined in this study. Solvent swelling was utilized to determine the individual contributions of the matrix polymer and polymer-filler interactions to the overall crosslink density. The results show how the polymer-filler hydrogen bonding dominates the overall crosslink density of the material. Air irradiated samples displayed decreased hydrogen bonding at the polymer-filler interface, while vacuum irradiation revealed the opposite effect.

  7. A honeycomb composite of mollusca shell matrix and calcium alginate.

    PubMed

    You, Hua-jian; Li, Jin; Zhou, Chan; Liu, Bin; Zhang, Yao-guang

    2016-03-01

    A honeycomb composite is useful to carry cells for application in bone, cartilage, skin, and soft tissue regenerative therapies. To fabricate a composite, and expand the application of mollusca shells as well as improve preparing methods of calcium alginate in tissue engineering research, Anodonta woodiana shell powder was mixed with sodium alginate at varying mass ratios to obtain a gel mixture. The mixture was frozen and treated with dilute hydrochloric acid to generate a shell matrix/calcium alginate composite. Calcium carbonate served as the control. The composite was transplanted subcutaneously into rats. At 7, 14, 42, and 70 days after transplantation, frozen sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, followed by DAPI, β-actin, and collagen type-I immunofluorescence staining, and observed using laser confocal microscopy. The composite featured a honeycomb structure. The control and composite samples displayed significantly different mechanical properties. The water absorption rate of the composite and control group were respectively 205-496% and 417-586%. The composite (mass ratio of 5:5) showed good biological safety over a 70-day period; the subcutaneous structure of the samples was maintained and the degradation rate was lower than that of the control samples. Freezing the gel mixture afforded control over chemical reaction rates. Given these results, the composite is a promising honeycomb scaffold for tissue engineering. PMID:26700239

  8. High-dose neutron irradiation of Hi-Nicalon Type S silicon carbide composites. Part 2: Mechanical and physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katoh, Yutai; Nozawa, Takashi; Shih, Chunghao; Ozawa, Kazumi; Koyanagi, Takaaki; Porter, Wally; Snead, Lance L.

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear-grade silicon carbide (SiC) composite material was examined for mechanical and thermophysical properties following high-dose neutron irradiation in the High Flux Isotope Reactor at a temperature range of 573-1073 K. The material was chemical vapor-infiltrated SiC-matrix composite with a two-dimensional satin weave Hi-Nicalon Type S SiC fiber reinforcement and a multilayered pyrocarbon/SiC interphase. Moderate (1073 K) to very severe (573 K) degradation in mechanical properties was found after irradiation to >70 dpa, whereas no evidence was found for progressive evolution in swelling and thermal conductivity. The swelling was found to recover upon annealing beyond the irradiation temperature, indicating the irradiation temperature, but only to a limited extent. The observed strength degradation is attributed primarily to fiber damage for all irradiation temperatures, particularly a combination of severe fiber degradation and likely interphase damage at relatively low irradiation temperatures.

  9. High Dose Neutron Irradiation of Hi-Nicalon Type S Silicon Carbide Composites, Part 2. Mechanical and Physical Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Katoh, Yutai; Nozawa, Takashi; Shih, Chunghao Phillip; Ozawa, Kazumi; Koyanagi, Takaaki; Porter, Wallace D; Snead, Lance Lewis

    2015-01-07

    Nuclear-grade silicon carbide (SiC) composite material was examined for mechanical and thermophysical properties following high-dose neutron irradiation in the High Flux Isotope Reactor at a temperature range of 573–1073 K. Likewise, the material was chemical vapor-infiltrated SiC-matrix composite with a two-dimensional satin weave Hi-Nicalon Type S SiC fiber reinforcement and a multilayered pyrocarbon/SiC interphase. Moderate (1073 K) to very severe (573 K) degradation in mechanical properties was found after irradiation to >70 dpa, whereas no evidence was found for progressive evolution in swelling and thermal conductivity. The swelling was found to recover upon annealing beyond the irradiation temperature, indicating the irradiation temperature, but only to a limited extent. Moreover, the observed strength degradation is attributed primarily to fiber damage for all irradiation temperatures, particularly a combination of severe fiber degradation and likely interphase damage at relatively low irradiation temperatures.

  10. Processing and characterization of a polymer matrix composite using variable frequency microwave heating

    SciTech Connect

    Fathi, Z.; Garard, R.S.; DeMeuse, M.T.

    1995-12-31

    Variable frequency microwave energy was successfully applied to uniformly heat thermoset polymer matrix composite (PMC) materials consisting of glass-reinforced isocyanate/epoxy mixtures as well as graphite fiber-reinforced epoxy. Results of a series of materials processed via variable frequency microwave energy are compared with computed results from numerical modeling techniques. A finite difference time domain (FDTD) technique provides 2-D models of the electric and thermal field distributions inside the microwave cavity as well as inside the processed materials. The materials` physical and chemical characteristics from the empirical trials are evaluated for both variable and fixed frequency irradiation.