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Sample records for matrix composites reinforced

  1. Sapphire reinforced alumina matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaskowiak, Martha H.; Setlock, John A.

    1994-01-01

    Unidirectionally reinforced A1203 matrix composites have been fabricated by hot pressing. Approximately 30 volume % of either coated or uncoated sapphire fiber was used as reinforcement. Unstabilized ZrO2 was applied as the fiber coating. Composite mechanical behavior was analyzed both after fabrication and after additional heat treatment. The results of composite tensile tests were correlated with fiber-matrix interfacial shear strengths determined from fiber push-out tests. Substantially higher strength and greater fiber pull-out were observed for the coated fiber composites for all processing conditions studied. The coated fiber composites retained up to 95% and 87% of their as-fabricated strength when heat treated at 14000C for 8 or 24 hours, respectively. Electron microscopy analysis of the fracture surfaces revealed extensive fiber pull-out both before and after heat treatment.

  2. Research on graphite reinforced glass matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, J. F.; Prewo, K. M.

    1977-01-01

    The results of research for the origination of graphite-fiber reinforced glass matrix composites are presented. The method selected to form the composites consisted of pulling the graphite fiber through a slurry containing powdered glass, winding up the graphite fiber and the glass it picks up on a drum, drying, cutting into segments, loading the tape segment into a graphite die, and hot pressing. During the course of the work, composites were made with a variety of graphite fibers in a glass matrix.

  3. Research on graphite reinforced glass matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prewo, K. M.; Thompson, E. R.

    1980-01-01

    High levels of mechanical performance in tension, flexure, fatigue, and creep loading situations of graphite fiber reinforced glass matrix composites are discussed. At test temperatures of up to 813 K it was found that the major limiting factor was the oxidative instability of the reinforcing graphite fibers. Particular points to note include the following: (1) a wide variety of graphite fibers were found to be comparable with the glass matrix composite fabrication process; (2) choice of fiber, to a large extent, controlled resultant composite performance; (3) composite fatigue performance was found to be excellent at both 300 K and 703 K; (4) composite creep and stress rupture at temperatures of up to 813 K was limited by the oxidative stability of the fiber; (5) exceptionally low values of composite thermal expansion coefficient were attributable to the dimensional stability of both matrix and fiber; and (6) component fabricability was demonstrated through the hot pressing of hot sections and brazing using glass and metal joining phases.

  4. Nanotube reinforced thermoplastic polymer matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shofner, Meisha Lei

    The inherent high strength, thermal conductivity, and electrical conductivity make nanotubes attractive reinforcements for polymer matrix composites. However, the structure that makes them desirable also causes highly anisotropic properties and limited reactivity with other materials. This thesis isolates these problems in two separate studies aimed at improving mechanical properties with single wall nanotube (SWNT) reinforced thermoplastic polymer composites. The two studies demonstrate the effect of solid freeform fabrication (SFF) and chemical functionalization on anisotropy and limited reactivity, respectively. Both studies showed mechanical property improvements. The alignment study demonstrates a maximum increase of 93% in tensile modulus with single wall nanotubes (SWNTs). The chemical functionalization study shows a larger increase in storage modulus for functionalized SWNTs as compared to purified SVWNTs with respective increases of 9% and 44% in storage modulus. Improved interfacial properties are also observed as a decrease in mechanical damping. Maximum property increases in composites are obtained when nanotubes are aligned, requiring additional processing consideration to the anisotropic structure. Melt spinning and extrusion processing effectively align nanotubes, but the end product of these techniques, composite fibers, requires further processing to be incorporated into finished parts. Extrusion-based SFF is a novel technique for processing nanotube reinforced composites because it allows for the direct fabrication of finished parts containing aligned nanotubes. SFF processing produces parts containing preferentially oriented nanotubes with improved mechanical properties when compared to isotropic composites. Functionalization of the nanotube surface disrupts the rope structure to obtain smaller ropes and promote further interfacial bonding. The chemically inert nature of nanotubes resulting from a structure containing few defects and the

  5. Fiber reinforced thermoplastic resin matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Robert J. (Inventor); Chang, Glenn E. C. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Polyimide polymer composites having a combination of enhanced thermal and mechanical properties even when subjected to service temperatures as high as 700.degree. F. are described. They comprise (a) from 10 to 50 parts by weight of a thermoplastic polyimide resin prepared from 2,2-bis[4-(4-aminophenoxy)phenyl]hexafluoropropane and (b) from 90 to 50 parts by weight of continuous reinforcing fibers, the total of (a) and (b) being 100 parts by weight. Composites based on polyimide resin formed from 2,2-bis[4-(4-aminophenoxy)phenyl]hexafluoropropane and pyromellitic dianhydride and continuous carbon fibers retained at least about 50% of their room temperature shear strength after exposure to 700.degree. F. for a period of 16 hours in flowing air. Preferably, the thermoplastic polyimide resin is formed in situ in the composite material by thermal imidization of a corresponding amide-acid polymer prepared from 2,2-bis[4-(4-aminophenoxy)phenyl]hexafluoropropane. It is also preferred to initially size the continuous reinforcing fibers with up to about one percent by weight of an amide-acid polymer prepared from 2,2-bis[4-(4-aminophenoxy)phenyl]hexafluoropropane. In this way imidization at a suitable elevated temperature results in the in-situ formation of a substantially homogeneous thermoplastic matrix of the polyimide resin tightly and intimately bonded to the continuous fibers. The resultant composites tend to have optimum thermo-mechanical properties.

  6. Aluminum-Alloy-Matrix/Alumina-Reinforcement Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kashalikar, Uday; Rozenoyer, Boris

    2004-01-01

    Isotropic composites of aluminum-alloy matrices reinforced with particulate alumina have been developed as lightweight, high-specific-strength, less-expensive alternatives to nickel-base and ferrous superalloys. These composites feature a specific gravity of about 3.45 grams per cubic centimeter and specific strengths of about 200 MPa/(grams per cubic centimeter). The room-temperature tensile strength is 100 ksi (689 MPa) and stiffness is 30 Msi (206 GPa). At 500 F (260 C), these composites have shown 80 percent retention in strength and 95 percent retention in stiffness. These materials also have excellent fatigue tolerance and tribological properties. They can be fabricated in net (or nearly net) sizes and shapes to make housings, pistons, valves, and ducts in turbomachinery, and to make structural components of such diverse systems as diesel engines, automotive brake systems, and power-generation, mining, and oil-drilling equipment. Separately, incorporation of these metal matrix composites within aluminum gravity castings for localized reinforcement has been demonstrated. A composite part of this type can be fabricated in a pressure infiltration casting process. The process begins with the placement of a mold with alumina particulate preform of net or nearly net size and shape in a crucible in a vacuum furnace. A charge of the alloy is placed in the crucible with the preform. The interior of the furnace is evacuated, then the furnace heaters are turned on to heat the alloy above its liquidus temperature. Next, the interior of the furnace is filled with argon gas at a pressure about 900 psi (approximately equal to 6.2 MPa) to force the molten alloy to infiltrate the preform. Once infiltrated, the entire contents of the crucible can be allowed to cool in place, and the composite part recovered from the mold.

  7. Graphite fiber reinforced glass matrix composites for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prewo, K. M.; Bacon, J. F.; Dicus, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    The graphite fiber reinforced glass matrix composite system is described. Although this composite is not yet a mature material, it possesses low density, attractive mechanical properties at elevated temperatures, and good environmental stability. Properties are reported for a borosilicate glass matrix unidirectionally reinforced with 60 volume percent HMS graphite fiber. The flexural strength and fatigue characteristics at room and elevated temperature, resistance to thermal cycling and continuous high temperature oxidation, and thermal expansion characteristics of the composite are reported. The properties of this new composite are compared to those of advanced resin and metal matrix composites showing that graphite fiber reinforced glass matrix composites are attractive for aerospace applications.

  8. Research on graphite reinforced glass matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, J. F.; Prewo, K. M.; Thompson, E. R.

    1978-01-01

    A composite that can be used at temperatures up to 875 K with mechanical properties equal or superior to graphite fiber reinforced epoxy composites is presented. The composite system consist of graphite fiber, uniaxially or biaxially, reinforced borosilicate glass. The mechanical and thermal properties of such a graphite fiber reinforced glass composite are described, and the system is shown to offer promise as a high performance structural material. Specific properties that were measured were: a modified borosilicate glass uniaxially reinforced by Hercules HMS graphite fiber has a three-point flexural strength of 1030 MPa, a four-point flexural strength of 964 MPa, an elastic modulus of 199 GPa and a failure strain of 0.0052. The preparation and properties of similar composites with Hercules HTS, Celanese DG-102, Thornel 300 and Thornel Pitch graphite fibers are also described.

  9. Research on graphite reinforced glass matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prewo, K. M.; Thompson, E. R.

    1981-01-01

    A broad group of fibers and matrices were combined to create a wide range of composite properties. Primary material fabrication procedures were developed which readily permit the fabrication of flat plate and shaped composites. Composite mechanical properties were measured under a wide range of test conditions. Tensile, flexure mechanical fatigue, thermal fatigue, fracture toughness, and fatigue crack growth resistance were evaluated. Selected fiber-matrix combinations were shown to maintain their strength at up to 1300 K when tested in an inert atmosphere. Composite high temperature mechanical properties were shown to be limited primarily by the oxidation resistance of the graphite fibers. Composite thermal dimensional stability was measured and found to be excellent.

  10. The elevated temperature behavior of particle reinforced Al matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, D.J.

    1994-12-31

    The elevated temperature modulus, strength and creep of SiC particle reinforced composites produced by the DURALCAN{trademark} are discussed. It is shown that the reinforcing particles provide an increased modulus over the complete temperature range studied, and the temperature dependence of the composite modulus is controlled by the temperature dependence of the matrix modulus. The composite strength decreases with increasing temperature, reflecting softening of the matrix due to over aging, and as a result, is dependent on the thermal stability of the matrix. The particles provide increased creep resistance, and there are differences between the creep of melt processed composites and those produced by powder metallurgy.

  11. Plastic matrix composites with continuous fiber reinforcement

    SciTech Connect

    1991-09-19

    Most plastic resins are not suitable for structural applications. Although many resins are extremely tough, most lack strength, stiffness, and deform under load with time. By mixing strong, stiff, fibrous materials into the plastic matrix, a variety of structural composite materials can be formed. The properties of these composites can be tailored by fiber selection, orientation, and other factors to suit specific applications. The advantages and disadvantages of fiberglass, carbon-graphite, aramid (Kevlar 49), and boron fibers are summarized.

  12. Mechanical Properties of Particulate Reinforced Aluminium Alloy Matrix Composite

    SciTech Connect

    Sayuti, M.; Sulaiman, S.; Baharudin, B. T. H. T.; Arifin, M. K. A.; Suraya, S.; Vijayaram, T. R.

    2011-01-17

    This paper discusses the mechanical properties of Titanium Carbide (TiC) particulate reinforced aluminium-silicon alloy matrix composite. TiC particulate reinforced LM6 alloy matrix composites were fabricated by carbon dioxide sand molding process with different particulate weight fraction. Tensile strength, hardness and microstructure studies were conducted to determine the maximum load, tensile strength, modulus of elasticity and fracture surface analysis have been performed to characterize the morphological aspects of the test samples after tensile testing. Hardness values are measured for the TiC reinforced LM6 alloy composites and it has been found that it gradually increases with increased addition of the reinforcement phase. The tensile strength of the composites increased with the increase percentage of TiC particulate.

  13. Toughened Matrix SiC Fiber Reinforced Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Stanley R.; Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.; Morscher, Gregory N.; Kiser, James D.

    2005-01-01

    First matrix cracking stress is a critical parameter for application of Sic fiber reinforced composites in highly stressed, environmentally demanding applications such as turbine blades. High matrix fracture toughness is a key property that contributes to high composite fracture stress. Silicon nitride offers reduced matrix elastic modulus, lower coefficient of thermal expansion, and potentially high fracture toughness compared to Sic matrices. All of these factors can be used to advantage to increase matrix fracture stress. As a first model system we are pursuing toughened silicon nitride matrix composites reinforced with SCS-9 fibers. Fabrication is by tape casting the matrix plies and tape lay-up with fiber plies followed by hot pressing at 1800 C. Progress toward this end will be reported.

  14. Tungsten fiber reinforced copper matrix composites: A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdanels, David L.

    1989-01-01

    Tungsten fiber reinforced copper matrix (W/Cu) composites have served as an ideal model system with which to analyze the properties of metal matrix composites. A series of research programs were conducted to investigate the stress-strain behavior of W/Cu composites; the effect of fiber content on the strength, modulus, and conductivity of W/Cu composites; and the effect of alloying elements on the behavior of tungsten wire and of W/Cu composites. Later programs investigated the stress-rupture, creep, and impact behavior of these composites at elevated temperatures. Analysis of the results of these programs as allows prediction of the effects of fiber properties, matrix properties, and fiber content on the properties of W/Cu composites. These analyses form the basis for the rule-of-mixtures prediction of composite properties which was universally adopted as the criteria for measuring composite efficiency. In addition, the analyses allows extrapolation of potential properties of other metal matrix composites and are used to select candidate fibers and matrices for development of tungsten fiber reinforced superalloy composite materials for high temperature aircraft and rocket engine turbine applications. The W/Cu composite efforts are summarized, some of the results obtained are described, and an update is provided on more recent work using W/Cu composites as high strength, high thermal conductivity composite materials for high heat flux, elevated temperature applications.

  15. Mechanical Properties of Continuous Fiber Reinforced Zirconium Diboride Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuffle, Kevin; Creegan, Peter; Nowell, Steven; Bull, Jeffrey D.; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Continuous fiber reinforced zirconium diboride matrix composites, SCS-9a-(RBSiCZrB2)matrix, are being developed for leading edge, rocket nozzle and turbine engine applications. Recently, the composite materials have been characterized for tensile properties to 1250 C, the highest temperature tested. The tensile properties are fiber dominated as the matrix is microcracked on fabrication, but favorable failure characteristic are observed. Compression and shear mechanical testing results will be reported if completed. The effects of fiber volume fraction and matrix density on mechanical properties will be discussed. The target applications of the materials will be discussed. Specific testing being performed towards qualification for these applications will be included.

  16. Fracture criteria for discontinuously reinforced metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rack, H. J.; Goree, J. G.; Albritton, J.; Ratnaparkhi, P.

    1988-01-01

    Summarized is the progress achieved during the period September 16, 1987 to August 15, l988 on NASA Grant NAG1-724, Fracture Criteria for Discontinuously Reinforced Metal Matrix Composites. Appended are copies of three manuscripts prepared under NASA funding during the performance period.

  17. Fracture criteria for discontinuously reinforced metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rack, H. J.; Goree, J. G.; Albritton, J.; Ratnarparkhi, P.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of sample configuration on the details of initial crack propagation in discontinuously whisker reinforced aluminum metal matrix composites was investigated. Care was taken to allow direct comparison of fracture toughness values utilizing differing sample configurations and orientations, holding all materials variables constant, e.g., extrusion ration, heat treatment, and chemistry.

  18. Glass matrix composites. I - Graphite fiber reinforced glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prewo, K. M.; Bacon, J. F.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental program is described in which graphite fibers of Hercules HMS and HTS, Thornel 300, and Celanese DG-12 were used to reinforce, both uniaxially and biaxially, borosilicate pyrex glass. Composite flexural strength distribution, strength as a function of test temperature, fracture toughness and oxidative stability were determined and shown to be primarily a function of fiber type and the quality of fiber-matrix bond formed during composite fabrication. It is demonstrated that the graphite fiber reinforced glass system offers unique possibilities as a high performance structural material.

  19. Fabrication of Fiber-Reinforced Celsian Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Setlock, John A.

    2000-01-01

    A method has been developed for the fabrication of small diameter, multifilament tow fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites. Its application has been successfully demonstrated for the Hi-Nicalon/celsian system. Strong and tough celsian matrix composites, reinforced with BN/SiC-coated Hi-Nicalon fibers, have been fabricated by infiltrating the fiber tows with the matrix slurry, winding the tows on a drum, cutting and stacking of the prepreg tapes in the desired orientation, and hot pressing. The monoclinic celsian phase in the matrix was produced in situ, during hot pressing, from the 0.75BaO-0.25SrO-Al2O3-2SiO2 mixed precursor synthesized by solid state reaction from metal oxides. Hot pressing resulted in almost fully dense fiber-reinforced composites. The unidirectional composites having approx. 42 vol% of fibers exhibited graceful failure with extensive fiber pullout in three-point bend tests at room temperature. Values of yield stress and strain were 435 +/- 35 MPa and 0.27 +/- 0.01 percent, respectively, and ultimate strengths of 900 +/- 60 MPa were observed. The Young's modulus of the composites was measured to be 165 +/- 5 GPa.

  20. Ceramic fiber reinforced glass-ceramic matrix composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A slurry of BSAS glass powders is cast into tapes which are cut to predetermined sizes. Mats of continuous chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-SiC fibers are alternately stacked with these matrix tapes. This tape-mat stack is warm-pressed to produce a 'green' composite which is heated to burn out organic constituents. The remaining interim material is then hot-pressed to form a BSAS glass-ceramic fiber-reinforced composite.

  1. Ductility of a continuous fiber reinforced aluminum matrix composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jansson, S.; Leckie, Frederick A.

    1991-01-01

    The transverse properties of an aluminum alloy metal matrix composite reinforced by continuous alumina fibers have been investigated. The composite is subjected to both mechanical and cyclic thermal loading. The ductility can vary by an order of magnitude according to the operating conditions. For high mechanical and low thermal loading the ductility is small, for low mechanical and high thermal loading the ductility is an order of magnitude higher. Experiments on a beam in bending confirm that the ductility is strongly dependent on the loading conditions. The observations suggest a means of utilizing the inherent ductility of the matrix.

  2. Interfacial studies in fiber-reinforced thermoplastic-matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    The major theme of this dissertation is structure/property relationships in fiber-reinforced thermoplastic-matrix composites. Effort has been focused on the interface: interfacial crystallization and fiber/matrix adhesion. Included are investigations on interfacial nucleation and morphology, measurement of fiber/matrix adhesion, effects of interfacial adsorption and crystallization on fiber/matrix adhesion, and composites reinforced with thermotropic liquid crystal copolyester fibers. Crystallization of a copolyester and polybutylene terephthalate with glass, carbon, or aramid fibers has been studied with regard to interfacial morphology. Techniques employed included hot-stage optical microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. Nucleation by the fibers was found to be a general phenomenon. Morphology could be varied by changing the cooling rate. In order to better monitor fiber /matrix adhesion, a buckled plate test has been developed. The test measures transverse toughness as the parameter characterizing interfacial adhesion in unidirectional, continuous-fiber composites. The test is simple to perform yet has advantages over other interfacial evaluation techniques. The buckled plate test was found to be a sensitive measure of fiber/matrix adhesion. The buckled plate test has been used along with the transverse tensile test to examine how interfacial adsorption and crystallization affect fiber/matrix adhesion in polycarbonate/carbon fiber composites. Adsorption was found to be of primary importance in developing adhesion, while crystallization is a secondary effect. The toughness data have been fit successfully for annealing time and temperature dependence. The dependence of adsorption and transverse toughness on matrix molecular weight was found to be large, with higher molecular weights adsorbing more effectively.

  3. Creep behavior of tungsten fiber reinforced niobium metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobstein, T. L.

    1989-01-01

    Tungsten fiber reinforced niobium metal matrix composites were evaluated for use in space nuclear power conversion systems. The composite panels were fabricated using the arc-spray monotape technique at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The creep behavior of W/Nb composite material was determined at 1400 and 1500 K in vacuum over a wide range of applied loads. The time to reach 1 percent strain, the time to rupture, and the minimum creep rate were measured. The W/Nb composites exceeded the properties of monolithic niobium alloys significantly even when compared on a strength to density basis. The effect of fiber orientation on the creep strength also was evaluated. Kirkendall void formation was observed at the fiber/matrix interface; the void distribution differed depending on the fiber orientation relative to the stress axis. A relationship was found between the fiber orientation and the creep strength.

  4. Creep behavior of tungsten fiber reinforced niobium metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobstein, Toni L.

    1992-01-01

    Tungsten fiber reinforced niobium metal matrix composites were evaluated for use in space nuclear power conversion systems. The composite panels were fabricated using the arc-spray monotape technique at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The creep behavior of W/Nb composite material was determined at 1400 and 1500 K in vacuum over a wide range of applied loads. The time to reach 1 percent strain, the time to rupture, and the minimum creep rate were measured. The W/Nb composites exceeded the properties of monolithic niobium alloys significantly even when compared creep strength also was evaluated. Kirkendall void formation was observed at the fiber/matrix interface; the void distribution differed depending the fiber orientation relative to the stress axis. A relationship was found between the fiber orientation and the creep strength.

  5. Discontinuously reinforced intermetallic matrix composites via XD synthesis. [exothermal dispersion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, K. S.; Whittenberger, J. D.

    1992-01-01

    A review is given of recent results obtained for discontinuously reinforced intermetallic matrix composites produced using the XD process. Intermetallic matrices investigated include NiAl, multiphase NiAl + Ni2AlTi, CoAl, near-gamma titanium aluminides, and Ll2 trialuminides containing minor amounts of second phase. Such mechanical properties as low and high temperature strength, compressive and tensile creep, elastic modulus, ambient ductility, and fracture toughness are discussed as functions of reinforcement size, shape, and volume fraction. Microstructures before and after deformation are examined and correlated with measured properties. An observation of interest in many of the systems examined is 'dispersion weakening' at high temperatures and high strain rates. This behavior is not specific to the XD process; rather similar observations have been reported in other discontinuous composites. Proposed mechanisms for this behavior are presented.

  6. Dual-nanoparticulate-reinforced aluminum matrix composite materials.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hansang; Cho, Seungchan; Leparoux, Marc; Kawasaki, Akira

    2012-06-01

    Aluminum (Al) matrix composite materials reinforced with carbon nanotubes (CNT) and silicon carbide nanoparticles (nano-SiC) were fabricated by mechanical ball milling, followed by hot-pressing. Nano-SiC was used as an active mixing agent for dispersing the CNTs in the Al powder. The hardness of the produced composites was dramatically increased, up to eight times higher than bulk pure Al, by increasing the amount of nano-SiC particles. A small quantity of aluminum carbide (Al(4)C(3)) was observed by TEM analysis and quantified using x-ray diffraction. The composite with the highest hardness values contained some nanosized Al(4)C(3). Along with the CNT and the nano-SiC, Al(4)C(3) also seemed to play a role in the enhanced hardness of the composites. The high energy milling process seems to lead to a homogeneous dispersion of the high aspect ratio CNTs, and of the nearly spherical nano-SiC particles in the Al matrix. This powder metallurgical approach could also be applied to other nanoreinforced composites, such as ceramics or complex matrix materials. PMID:22571898

  7. Dual-nanoparticulate-reinforced aluminum matrix composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Hansang; Cho, Seungchan; Leparoux, Marc; Kawasaki, Akira

    2012-06-01

    Aluminum (Al) matrix composite materials reinforced with carbon nanotubes (CNT) and silicon carbide nanoparticles (nano-SiC) were fabricated by mechanical ball milling, followed by hot-pressing. Nano-SiC was used as an active mixing agent for dispersing the CNTs in the Al powder. The hardness of the produced composites was dramatically increased, up to eight times higher than bulk pure Al, by increasing the amount of nano-SiC particles. A small quantity of aluminum carbide (Al4C3) was observed by TEM analysis and quantified using x-ray diffraction. The composite with the highest hardness values contained some nanosized Al4C3. Along with the CNT and the nano-SiC, Al4C3 also seemed to play a role in the enhanced hardness of the composites. The high energy milling process seems to lead to a homogeneous dispersion of the high aspect ratio CNTs, and of the nearly spherical nano-SiC particles in the Al matrix. This powder metallurgical approach could also be applied to other nanoreinforced composites, such as ceramics or complex matrix materials.

  8. Shock Interaction Studies on Glass Fibre Reinforced Epoxy Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, K. P. J.; Jagadeesh, G.; Jayaram, V.; Reddy, B. Harinath; Madhu, V.; Reddy, C. Jaya Rami

    Glass fibre reinforced polymer matrix composites are being extensively used for structural applications both in civil and defense sectors, owing to their high specific strength, stiffness and good energy absorbing capability. Understanding the dynamic response of these composites on shock loading is very essential for effective design of structures resistant to blast loads. In the present study, E- glass/epoxy composite laminate has been fabricated and evaluated for their mechanical properties such as tensile strength, flexural strength and inter laminar shear strength (ILSS). Further, dynamic response of E-glass laminates is presently studied by shock loading. When E-glass composite subjected to peak shock reflected pressure of 7.2 MPa and estimated temperature of about 14000 K for short duration, it underwent surface discolorations and charring of epoxy matrix. Post test analysis of the composite sample was carried out to study the damage analysis using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), changes in thermal properties of composites using Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer (DMA) and Thermo-Gravimetric Analyzer (TGA). The results of these investigations are discussed in this paper.

  9. Rapid Prototyping of Continuous Fiber Reinforced Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaidyanathan, R.; Green, C.; Phillips, T.; Cipriani, R.; Yarlagadda, S.; Gillespie, J. W., Jr.; Effinger, M.; Cooper, K. C.

    2003-01-01

    For ceramics to be used as structural components in high temperature applications, their fracture toughness is improved by embedding continuous ceramic fibers. Ceramic matrix composite (CMC) materials allow increasing the overall operating temperature, raising the temperature safety margins, avoiding the need for cooling, and improving the damping capacity, while reducing the weight at the same time. They also need to be reliable and available in large quantities as well. In this paper, an innovative rapid prototyping technique to fabricate continuous fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites is described. The process is simple, robust and will be widely applicable to a number of high temperature material systems. This technique was originally developed at the University of Delaware Center for Composite Materials (UD-CCM) for rapid fabrication of polymer matrix composites by a technique called automated tow placement or ATP. The results of mechanical properties and microstructural characterization are presented, together with examples of complex shapes and parts. It is believed that the process will be able to create complex shaped parts at an order of magnitude lower cost than current chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) and polymer impregnation and pyrolysis (PIP) processes.

  10. Rapid Prototyping of Continuous Fiber Reinforced Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaidyanathan, R.; Green, C.; Phillips, T.; Cipriani, R.; Yarlagadda, S.; Gillespie, J.; Effinger, M.; Cooper, K. C.; Gordon, Gail (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    For ceramics to be used as structural components in high temperature applications, their fracture toughness is improved by embedding continuous ceramic fibers. Ceramic matrix composite (CMC) materials allow increasing the overall operating temperature, raising the temperature safety margins, avoiding the need for cooling, and improving the damping capacity, while reducing the weight at the same time. They also need to be reliable and available in large quantities as well. In this paper, an innovative rapid prototyping technique to fabricate continuous fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites is described. The process is simple, robust and will be widely applicable to a number of high temperature material systems. This technique was originally developed at the University of Delaware Center for Composite Materials (UD-CCM) for rapid fabrication of polymer matrix composites by a technique called automated tow placement or ATP. The results of mechanical properties and microstructural characterization are presented, together with examples of complex shapes and parts. It is believed that the process will be able to create complex shaped parts at an order of magnitude lower cost than current CVI and PIP processes.

  11. Flexural analysis of palm fiber reinforced hybrid polymer matrix composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatachalam, G.; Gautham Shankar, A.; Raghav, Dasarath; Santhosh Kiran, R.; Mahesh, Bhargav; Kumar, Krishna

    2015-07-01

    Uncertainty in availability of fossil fuels in the future and global warming increased the need for more environment friendly materials. In this work, an attempt is made to fabricate a hybrid polymer matrix composite. The blend is a mixture of General Purpose Resin and Cashew Nut Shell Liquid, a natural resin extracted from cashew plant. Palm fiber, which has high strength, is used as reinforcement material. The fiber is treated with alkali (NaOH) solution to increase its strength and adhesiveness. Parametric study of flexure strength is carried out by varying alkali concentration, duration of alkali treatment and fiber volume. Taguchi L9 Orthogonal array is followed in the design of experiments procedure for simplification. With the help of ANOVA technique, regression equations are obtained which gives the level of influence of each parameter on the flexure strength of the composite.

  12. Hot extruded carbon nanotube reinforced aluminum matrix composite materials.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hansang; Leparoux, Marc

    2012-10-19

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced aluminum (Al) matrix composite materials were successfully fabricated by mechanical ball milling followed by powder hot extrusion processes. Microstructural analysis revealed that the CNTs were well dispersed at the boundaries and were aligned with the extrusion direction in the composites obtained. Although only a small quantity of CNTs were added to the composite (1 vol%), the Vickers hardness and the tensile strength were significantly enhanced, with an up to three-fold increase relative to that of pure Al. From the fractography of the extruded Al-CNT composite, several shapes were observed in the fracture surface, and this unique morphology is discussed based on the strengthening mechanism. The damage in the CNTs was investigated with Raman spectroscopy. However, the Al-CNT composite materials were not only strengthened by the addition of CNTs but also enhanced by several synergistic effects. The nanoindentation stress-strain curve was successfully constructed by setting the effective zero-load and zero-displacement points and was compared with the tensile stress-strain curve. The yield strengths of the Al-CNT composites from the nanoindentation and tensile tests were compared and discussed. We believe that the yield strength can be predicted using a simple nanoindentation stress/strain curve and that this method will be useful for materials that are difficult to machine, such as complex ceramics. PMID:23011263

  13. Hot extruded carbon nanotube reinforced aluminum matrix composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Hansang; Leparoux, Marc

    2012-10-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced aluminum (Al) matrix composite materials were successfully fabricated by mechanical ball milling followed by powder hot extrusion processes. Microstructural analysis revealed that the CNTs were well dispersed at the boundaries and were aligned with the extrusion direction in the composites obtained. Although only a small quantity of CNTs were added to the composite (1 vol%), the Vickers hardness and the tensile strength were significantly enhanced, with an up to three-fold increase relative to that of pure Al. From the fractography of the extruded Al-CNT composite, several shapes were observed in the fracture surface, and this unique morphology is discussed based on the strengthening mechanism. The damage in the CNTs was investigated with Raman spectroscopy. However, the Al-CNT composite materials were not only strengthened by the addition of CNTs but also enhanced by several synergistic effects. The nanoindentation stress-strain curve was successfully constructed by setting the effective zero-load and zero-displacement points and was compared with the tensile stress-strain curve. The yield strengths of the Al-CNT composites from the nanoindentation and tensile tests were compared and discussed. We believe that the yield strength can be predicted using a simple nanoindentation stress/strain curve and that this method will be useful for materials that are difficult to machine, such as complex ceramics.

  14. Fatigue damage criteria - Matrix, fibers and interfaces of continuous fiber reinforced metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. S.

    1988-01-01

    Continuous fiber reinforced metal matrix composites (MMC) are projected for use in high temperature, stiffness critical parts that will be subjected to cyclic loadings. Depending on the relative fatigue behavior of the fiber and matrix, and the interface properties, the failure modes of MMC can be grouped into four catagories: (1) matrix dominated, (2) fiber dominated, (3) self-similar damage growth, and (4) fiber/matrix interfacial failures. These four types of damage are discussed and illustrated by examples. The emphasis is on the fatigue of unnotched laminates.

  15. Graphite fiber reinforced thermoplastic glass matrix composites for use at 1000 F

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prewo, K. M.; Minford, E. J.

    1985-01-01

    The fabrication and properties of the graphite fiber reinforced glass matrix composite system are described. By reinforcing borosilicate glass with graphite fibers it has been possible to develop a composite whose properties can be compared favorably with resin matrix counterparts. Both high elastic modulus and strength can be obtained and maintained to temperatures of approximately 600 C. In addition, composite dimensional stability is superior to resin or metal matrix systems due to the low thermal expansion behavior of the glass matrix.

  16. Creep Forming of Carbon-Reinforced Ceramic-Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughn, Wallace L.; Scotti, Stephan J.; Ashe, Melissa P.; Connolly, Liz

    2007-01-01

    A set of lecture slides describes an investigation of creep forming as a means of imparting desired curvatures to initially flat stock plates of carbon-reinforced ceramic-matrix composite (C-CMC) materials. The investigation is apparently part of a continuing effort to develop improved means of applying small CCMC repair patches to reinforced carbon-carbon leading edges of aerospace vehicles (e.g., space shuttles) prior to re-entry into the atmosphere of the Earth. According to one of the slides, creep forming would be an intermediate step in a process that would yield a fully densified, finished C-CMC part having a desired size and shape (the other steps would include preliminary machining, finish machining, densification by chemical vapor infiltration, and final coating). The investigation included experiments in which C-CMC disks were creep-formed by heating them to unspecified high temperatures for time intervals of the order of 1 hour while they were clamped into single- and double-curvature graphite molds. The creep-formed disks were coated with an oxidation- protection material, then subjected to arc-jet tests, in which the disks exhibited no deterioration after exposure to high-temperature test conditions lasting 490 seconds.

  17. Microstructure and mechanical behavior of metallic glass fiber-reinforced Al alloy matrix composites.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z; Georgarakis, K; Nakayama, K S; Li, Y; Tsarkov, A A; Xie, G; Dudina, D; Louzguine-Luzgin, D V; Yavari, A R

    2016-01-01

    Metallic glass-reinforced metal matrix composites are an emerging class of composite materials. The metallic nature and the high mechanical strength of the reinforcing phase offers unique possibilities for improving the engineering performance of composites. Understanding the structure at the amorphous/crystalline interfaces and the deformation behavior of these composites is of vital importance for their further development and potential application. In the present work, Zr-based metallic glass fibers have been introduced in Al7075 alloy (Al-Zn-Mg-Cu) matrices using spark plasma sintering (SPS) producing composites with low porosity. The addition of metallic glass reinforcements in the Al-based matrix significantly improves the mechanical behavior of the composites in compression. High-resolution TEM observations at the interface reveal the formation of a thin interdiffusion layer able to provide good bonding between the reinforcing phase and the Al-based matrix. The deformation behavior of the composites was studied, indicating that local plastic deformation occurred in the matrix near the glassy reinforcements followed by the initiation and propagation of cracks mainly through the matrix. The reinforcing phase is seen to inhibit the plastic deformation and retard the crack propagation. The findings offer new insights into the mechanical behavior of metal matrix composites reinforced with metallic glasses. PMID:27067824

  18. Microstructure and mechanical behavior of metallic glass fiber-reinforced Al alloy matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Georgarakis, K.; Nakayama, K. S.; Li, Y.; Tsarkov, A. A.; Xie, G.; Dudina, D.; Louzguine-Luzgin, D. V.; Yavari, A. R.

    2016-04-01

    Metallic glass-reinforced metal matrix composites are an emerging class of composite materials. The metallic nature and the high mechanical strength of the reinforcing phase offers unique possibilities for improving the engineering performance of composites. Understanding the structure at the amorphous/crystalline interfaces and the deformation behavior of these composites is of vital importance for their further development and potential application. In the present work, Zr-based metallic glass fibers have been introduced in Al7075 alloy (Al-Zn-Mg-Cu) matrices using spark plasma sintering (SPS) producing composites with low porosity. The addition of metallic glass reinforcements in the Al-based matrix significantly improves the mechanical behavior of the composites in compression. High-resolution TEM observations at the interface reveal the formation of a thin interdiffusion layer able to provide good bonding between the reinforcing phase and the Al-based matrix. The deformation behavior of the composites was studied, indicating that local plastic deformation occurred in the matrix near the glassy reinforcements followed by the initiation and propagation of cracks mainly through the matrix. The reinforcing phase is seen to inhibit the plastic deformation and retard the crack propagation. The findings offer new insights into the mechanical behavior of metal matrix composites reinforced with metallic glasses.

  19. Microstructure and mechanical behavior of metallic glass fiber-reinforced Al alloy matrix composites

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Z.; Georgarakis, K.; Nakayama, K. S.; Li, Y.; Tsarkov, A. A.; Xie, G.; Dudina, D.; Louzguine-Luzgin, D. V.; Yavari, A. R.

    2016-01-01

    Metallic glass-reinforced metal matrix composites are an emerging class of composite materials. The metallic nature and the high mechanical strength of the reinforcing phase offers unique possibilities for improving the engineering performance of composites. Understanding the structure at the amorphous/crystalline interfaces and the deformation behavior of these composites is of vital importance for their further development and potential application. In the present work, Zr-based metallic glass fibers have been introduced in Al7075 alloy (Al-Zn-Mg-Cu) matrices using spark plasma sintering (SPS) producing composites with low porosity. The addition of metallic glass reinforcements in the Al-based matrix significantly improves the mechanical behavior of the composites in compression. High-resolution TEM observations at the interface reveal the formation of a thin interdiffusion layer able to provide good bonding between the reinforcing phase and the Al-based matrix. The deformation behavior of the composites was studied, indicating that local plastic deformation occurred in the matrix near the glassy reinforcements followed by the initiation and propagation of cracks mainly through the matrix. The reinforcing phase is seen to inhibit the plastic deformation and retard the crack propagation. The findings offer new insights into the mechanical behavior of metal matrix composites reinforced with metallic glasses. PMID:27067824

  20. Elasto-plastic analysis of interface layers for fiber reinforced metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doghri, I.; Leckie, F. A.

    1991-01-01

    The mismatch in coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) of fiber and matrix in metal matrix composites reinforced with ceramic fibers induces high thermal stresses in the matrix. Elasto-plastic analyses - with different degrees of simplification and modelization - show that an interface layer with a sufficiently high CTE can reduce the tensile hoop stress in the matrix substantially.

  1. Studies on natural fiber reinforced polymer matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, R. H.; Kapatel, P. M.; Machchhar, A. D.; Kapatel, Y. A.

    2016-05-01

    Natural fiber reinforced composites show increasing importance in day to days applications because of their low cost, lightweight, easy availability, non-toxicity, biodegradability and environment friendly nature. But these fibers are hydrophilic in nature. Thus they have very low reactivity and poor compatibility with polymers. To overcome these limitations chemical modifications of the fibers have been carried out. Therefore, in the present work jute fibers have chemically modified by treating with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solutions. These treated jute fibers have been used to fabricate jute fiber reinforced epoxy composites. Mechanical properties like tensile strength, flexural strength and impact strength have been found out. Alkali treated composites show better properties compare to untreated composites.

  2. Fatigue of continuous fiber reinforced titanium matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. S.

    1991-01-01

    Several lay-ups of SCS-6/Ti-15-3 composites were investigated. Static and fatigue tests were conducted for both notched and unnotched specimens at room and elevated temperatures. Test results indicated that the stress in the 0 fibers is the controlling factor in fatigue life. The static and fatigue strength of these materials is shown to be dependent on the level of residual stresses and the fiber/ matrix interfacial strength. Fatigue tests of notched specimens showed that cracks can initiate and grow many fiber spacings in the matrix material without breaking fibers. These matrix cracks can significantly reduce the residual strength of notched composite.

  3. Matrix cracking initiation stress in fiber-reinforced ceramic-matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Kangutkar, P.B.

    1991-01-01

    One of the important design parameters in CMC's is the matrix cracking initiation stress (MCIS) which corresponds to the stress at which first matrix cracks are observed. Above the MCIS, the fibers will be exposed to the oxidizing environment which may degrade the mechanical property of the fibers and thus of the composite. In this thesis, a systematic study to explore the effects of matrix toughness and inherent strength, fiber diameter, stiffness and volume fraction, temperature and interfacial bonding on the MCIS was carried out. Composites were fabricated using three different matrices - borosilicate glass, aluminosilicate glass and polycrystalline zirconium silicate (or zircon), and two different reinforcing fibers - an SiC monofilament (140 {mu}m diameter) and an SiC yarn (16 {mu}m diameter). In-situ observations during 3-point bend test inside the SEM indicate that matrix cracking is a local phenomenon and occurs first in the matrix between widest spaced fibers. In all composites the MCIS was found to increase with fiber additions and scaled with the monolithic strength.

  4. Fracture Analysis of Particulate Reinforced Metal Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Min, James B.; Cornie, James A.

    2013-01-01

    A fracture analysis of highly loaded particulate reinforced composites was performed using laser moire interferometry to measure the displacements within the plastic zone at the tip of an advancing crack. Ten castings were made of five different particulate reinforcement-aluminum alloy combinations. Each casting included net-shape specimens which were used for the evaluation of fracture toughness, tensile properties, and flexure properties resulting in an extensive materials properties data. Measured fracture toughness range from 14.1 MPa for an alumina reinforced 356 aluminum alloy to 23.9 MPa for a silicon carbide reinforced 2214 aluminum alloy. For the combination of these K(sub Ic) values and the measured tensile strengths, the compact tension specimens were too thin to yield true plane strain K(sub Ic) values. All materials exhibited brittle behavior characterized by very small tensile ductility suggesting that successful application of these materials requires that the design stresses be below the elastic limit. Probabilistic design principles similar to those used with ceramics are recommended when using these materials. Such principles would include the use of experimentally determined design allowables. In the absence of thorough testing, a design allowable stress of 60 percent of the measured ultimate tensile stress is recommended.

  5. A method for measuring residual strains in fiber-reinforced titanium matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Ramamurty, U.; Dary, F.C.; Zok, F.W.

    1996-08-01

    A new method for measuring the residual fiber strains in fiber-reinforced titanium matrix composites has been developed. The method involves selectively etching the matrix over a prescribed length of composite and subsequently measuring the extension of the relaxed fibers relative to neighboring fibers that are still embedded within the matrix material. The extensions are measured using confocal microscopy. The method is demonstrated on three unidirectionally reinforced composites with varying fiber volume fractions. The effects of specimen tilt and fiber splaying following dissolution on the measured fiber extensions are analyzed. The residual fiber strains are rationalized on the basis of the thermoelastic properties of the constituents through a concentric cylinder model. The current method can be applied to other metal matrix composites reinforced with large diameter (monofilament) fibers, provided the matrix can be selectively etched.

  6. Toughening of a particulate-reinforced/ceramic-matrix composite. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Taya, M.; Hayashi, S.; Kobayashi, A.S.; Yoon, H.S.

    1989-09-01

    The toughening mechanism of particulate-reinforced/ceramic-matrix composites was attributed to the thermal residual-stress field induced by the differential thermal expansions of the matrix and the particulate when the composite is cooled from the processing to room temperature. The measured increase 77% in toughness in a TiB{sub 2}-particulate/SiC-matrix ceramic composite compared well with the predicted increase of 52%.

  7. Method of making metal matrix composites reinforced with ceramic particulates

    DOEpatents

    Cornie, J.A.; Kattamis, T.; Chambers, B.V.; Bond, B.E.; Varela, R.H.

    1989-08-01

    Composite materials and methods for making such materials are disclosed in which dispersed ceramic particles are at chemical equilibrium with a base metal matrix, thereby permitting such materials to be remelted and subsequently cast or otherwise processed to form net weight parts and other finished (or semi-finished) articles while maintaining the microstructure and mechanical properties (e.g. wear resistance or hardness) of the original composite. The composite materials of the present invention are composed of ceramic particles in a base metal matrix. The ceramics are preferably carbides of titanium, zirconium, tungsten, molybdenum or other refractory metals. The base metal can be iron, nickel, cobalt, chromium or other high temperature metal and alloys thereof. For ferrous matrices, alloys suitable for use as the base metal include cast iron, carbon steels, stainless steels and iron-based superalloys. 2 figs.

  8. Method of making metal matrix composites reinforced with ceramic particulates

    DOEpatents

    Cornie, James A.; Kattamis, Theodoulos; Chambers, Brent V.; Bond, Bruce E.; Varela, Raul H.

    1989-01-01

    Composite materials and methods for making such materials are disclosed in which dispersed ceramic particles are at chemical equilibrium with a base metal matrix, thereby permitting such materials to be remelted and subsequently cast or otherwise processed to form net weight parts and other finished (or semi-finished) articles while maintaining the microstructure and mechanical properties (e.g. wear resistance or hardness) of the original composite. The composite materials of the present invention are composed of ceramic particles in a base metal matrix. The ceramics are preferably carbides of titanium, zirconium, tungsten, molybdenum or other refractory metals. The base metal can be iron, nickel, cobalt, chromium or other high temperature metal and alloys thereof. For ferrous matrices, alloys suitable for use as the base metal include cast iron, carbon steels, stainless steels and iron-based superalloys.

  9. Self-lubricating carbon nanotube reinforced nickel matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Scharf, T. W.; Neira, A.; Hwang, J. Y.; Banerjee, R.; Tiley, J.

    2009-07-01

    Nickel (Ni)--multiwalled carbon nanotube (CNT) composites have been processed in a monolithic form using the laser-engineered net shape (LENS) processing technique. Auger electron spectroscopy maps determined that the nanotubes were well dispersed and bonded in the nickel matrix and no interfacial chemical reaction products were determined in the as-synthesized composites. Mechanisms of solid lubrication have been investigated by micro-Raman spectroscopy spatial mapping of the worn surfaces to determine the formation of tribochemical products. The Ni-CNT composites exhibit a self-lubricating behavior, forming an in situ, low interfacial shear strength graphitic film during sliding, resulting in a decrease in friction coefficient compared to pure Ni.

  10. Ceramic fiber-reinforced monoclinic celsian phase glass-ceramic matrix composite material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P. (Inventor); Dicarlo, James A. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A hyridopolysilazane-derived ceramic fiber reinforced monoclinic celsian phase barium aluminum silicate glass-ceramic matrix composite material is prepared by ball-milling an aqueous slurry of BAS glass powder and fine monoclinic celsian seeds. The fibers improve the mechanical strength and fracture toughness and with the matrix provide superior dielectric properties.

  11. Method of making carbon fiber-carbon matrix reinforced ceramic composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Brian (Inventor); Benander, Robert (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A method of making a carbon fiber-carbon matrix reinforced ceramic composite wherein the result is a carbon fiber-carbon matrix reinforcement is embedded within a ceramic matrix. The ceramic matrix does not penetrate into the carbon fiber-carbon matrix reinforcement to any significant degree. The carbide matrix is a formed in situ solid carbide of at least one metal having a melting point above about 1850 degrees centigrade. At least when the composite is intended to operate between approximately 1500 and 2000 degrees centigrade for extended periods of time the solid carbide with the embedded reinforcement is formed first by reaction infiltration. Molten silicon is then diffused into the carbide. The molten silicon diffuses preferentially into the carbide matrix but not to any significant degree into the carbon-carbon reinforcement. Where the composite is intended to operate between approximately 2000 and 2700 degrees centigrade for extended periods of time such diffusion of molten silicon into the carbide is optional and generally preferred, but not essential.

  12. Synthesis and Characterization of TiB2 Reinforced Aluminium Matrix Composites: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Narendra; Gautam, Gaurav; Gautam, Rakesh Kumar; Mohan, Anita; Mohan, Sunil

    2015-09-01

    Aluminium-matrix composites (AMCs) are developed to meet the demands of light weight high performance materials in aerospace, automotive, marine and other applications. The properties of AMCs can be tailored suitably by combinations of matrix, reinforcement and processing route. AMCs are one of the most attractive alternatives for the manufacturing of light weight and high strength parts due to their low density and high specific strength. There are various techniques for preparing the AMCs with different reinforcement particles. In AMCs, the reinforcements are usually in the form of metal oxides, carbides, borides, nitrides and their combination. Among the various reinforcements titanium di-boride (TiB2) is of much interest due to its excellent stiffness, hardness, and wear resistance. This paper attempts to provide an overview to explore the possibilities of synthesizing titanium di-boride reinforced AMCs with different techniques. The mechanical and tribological properties of these composites have been emphasized to project these as tribo-materials.

  13. Effect of fiber reinforcements on thermo-oxidative stability and mechanical properties of polymer matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Kenneth J.

    1991-01-01

    A number of studies have investigated the thermo-oxidative behavior of polymer matrix composites. Two significant observations have been made from these research efforts: (1) fiber reinforcement has a significant effect on composite thermal stability; and (2) geometric effects must be considered when evaluating thermal aging data. A compilation of some results from these studies is presented, and this information shows the influence of the reinforcement fibers on the oxidative degradation of various polymer matrix composites. The polyimide PMR-15 was the matrix material that was used in these studies. The control composite material was reinforced with Celion 6000 graphite fiber. T-40R graphite fibers, along with some very stable ceramic fibers were selected as reinforcing fibers because of their high thermal stability. The ceramic fibers were Nicalon (silicon carbide) and Nextel 312 (alumina-silica-boron oxide). The mechanical properties of the two graphite fiber composites were significantly different, probably owing to variations in interfacial bonding between the fibers and the polyimide matrix. The Celion 6000/PMR-15 bond is very tight but the T-40/PMR-15 bond is less tight. Three oxidation mechanisms were observed: (1) the preferential oxidation of the Celion 6000 fiber ends at cut surfaces, leaving a surface of matrix material with holes where the fiber ends were originally situated; (2) preferential oxidation of the composite matrix; and (3) interfacial degradation by oxidation. The latter two mechanisms were also observed on fiber end cut surfaces. The fiber and interface attacks appeared to initiate interfiber cracking along these surfaces.

  14. Synthesis and Characterization of Multi Wall Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNT) Reinforced Sintered Magnesium Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijaya Bhaskar, S.; Rajmohan, T.; Palanikumar, K.; Bharath Ganesh Kumar, B.

    2016-04-01

    Metal matrix composites (MMCs) reinforced with ceramic nano particles (less than 100 nm), termed as metal matrix nano composites (MMNCs), can overcome those disadvantages associated with the conventional MMCs. MMCs containing carbon nanotubes are being developed and projected for diverse applications in various fields of engineering like automotive, avionic, electronic and bio-medical sectors. The present investigation deals with the synthesis and characterization of hybrid magnesium matrix reinforced with various different wt% (0-0.45) of multi wall carbon nano tubes (MWCNT) and micro SiC particles prepared through powder metallurgy route. Microstructure and mechanical properties such as micro hardness and density of the composites were examined. Microstructure of MMNCs have been investigated by scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) for better observation of dispersion of reinforcement. The results indicated that the increase in wt% of MWCNT improves the mechanical properties of the composite.

  15. Method of producing a ceramic fiber-reinforced glass-ceramic matrix composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A fiber-reinforced composite composed of a BaO-Al2O3-2SiO2 (BAS) glass ceramic matrix is reinforced with CVD silicon carbide continuous fibers. A slurry of BAS glass powders is prepared and celsian seeds are added during ball melting. The slurry is cast into tapes which are cut to the proper size. Continuous CVD-SiC fibers are formed into mats of the desired size. The matrix tapes and the fiber mats are alternately stacked in the proper orientation. This tape-mat stack is warm pressed to produce a 'green' composite. The 'green' composite is then heated to an elevated temperature to burn out organic constituents. The remaining interim material is then hot pressed to form a silicon carbide fiber-reinforced celsian (BAS) glass-ceramic matrix composite which may be machined to size.

  16. Thermo-oxidative stability studies of PMR-15 polymer matrix composites reinforced with various fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Kenneth J.

    1990-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to measure the thermo-oxidative stability of PMR-15 polymer matrix composites reinforced with various fibers and to observe differences in the way they degrade in air. The fibers that were studied included graphite and the thermally stable Nicalon and Nextel ceramic fibers. Weight loss rates for the different composites were assessed as a function of mechanical properties, specimen geometry, fiber sizing, and interfacial bond strength. Differences were observed in rates of weight loss, matrix cracking, geometry dependency, and fiber-sizing effects. It was shown that Celion 6000 fiber-reinforced composites do not exhibit a straight-line Arrhenius relationship at temperatures above 316 C.

  17. A compliant, high failure strain, fibre-reinforced glass-matrix composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prewo, K. M.

    1982-01-01

    A glass-matrix composite reinforced by discontinuous graphite fibers was produced by hot pressing glass-powder-impregnated two-dimensional arrays of in-plane randomly oriented graphite fibers held together by approximately 5-10% by weight of organic binder (generally polyester). The composite tensile behavior is characterized by a highly nonlinear stress-strain curve which differs markedly from that of either unreinforced glass or a similarly reinforced epoxy-matrix composite. By virtue of this nonlinearity, the composite is able to redistribute applied stresses to achieve a high load-carrying capacity. The fibrous microstructure and the low fiber-matrix bond provide a mechanism for achieving high fracture toughness and unusually high compliance. For a 96%-silica-matrix composite, the strength is retained to over 1000 C.

  18. Fabrication and characterization of carbon nanotube reinforced magnesium matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mindivan, Harun; Efe, Arife; Kosatepe, A. Hadi; Kayali, E. Sabri

    2014-11-01

    In the present investigation, Mg chips are recycled to produce Mg-6 wt.% Al reinforced with 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 wt.% nanosized CNTs by mechanical ball milling, cold pressing and subsequently hot extrusion process without sintering step. The microstructure, mechanical properties and corrosion behavior of Mg/Al without CNT (base alloy) and composites were evaluated. The distribution of CNTs was analyzed using a Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) equipped with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) analyzer and a Wavelength Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence spectrometer (WDXRF). Microstructural analysis revealed that the CNTs on the Mg chips were present throughout the extrusion direction and the uniform distribution of CNTs at the chip surface decreased with increase in the CNT content. The results of the mechanical and corrosion test showed that small addition of CNTs (0.5 wt.%) evidently improved the hardness and corrosion resistance of the composite by comparing with the base alloy, while increase in the CNT weight fraction in the initial mixture resulted in a significant decrease of hardness, compression strength, wear rate and corrosion resistance.

  19. Strength variability in alumina fiber-reinforced aluminum matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Ramamurty, U.; Zok, F.W.; Leckie, F.A.; Deve, H.E.

    1997-11-01

    The strength variability of an Al-2% Cu alloy matrix reinforced with 65 vol.% Nextel-610 Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} fibers has been investigated, with the aim of identifying and separating the contributions associated with the variabilities in both the fiber bundle strength and the fiber volume fraction. Strength distributions have been measured using three test geometries, including three- and four-point flexure and unixaxial tension. The measured distributions are rationalized on the basis of a fiber strength distribution that follows Weibull statistics and a fiber volume fraction distribution characterized by a Gaussian. The fiber bundle strength distribution is found to be extremely narrow, with a Weibull modulus in the range of {approximately}50--60. In addition, the coefficient of variation in the fiber volume fraction distribution is inferred to be {approximately}6%; by comparison, measurements made on relatively large specimens yield a coefficient of variation of {approximately}3%. The differences in these values are attributed to local volume fraction variations which are not detectable by the global measurements. The measured strengths are compared with the predicted values based on the theoretical work of Curtin and co-workers, incorporating the effects of local load sharing between broken fibers and their neighbors. Good correlations are obtained between the experimental data and the model predictions.

  20. Microstructural factors controlling the strength and ductility of particle-reinforced metal-matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llorca, J.; González, C.

    1998-01-01

    A micromechanical model is developed to simulate the mechanical response in tension of particle-reinforced metal-matrix composites. The microstructure of the composite is represented as a three-dimensional array of hexagonal prisms with one reinforcement at the centre of each prism. The shape, volume fraction and state (either intact or broken) of the reinforcement is independent for each cell, so the interaction among all these factors could be studied. The tensile response of the composite is determined from the behaviour of the intact and damaged cells, the fraction of damaged cells being calculated on the assumption that the reinforcement strength follows the Weibull statistics. The model is used to determine the microstructural factors which provide optimum behaviour from the point of view of the tensile strength and ductility. The analyses included the effect of the matrix and reinforcement properties, the reinforcement volume fraction, the interaction between reinforcements of different shape and the heterogeneous distribution of the reinforcements within the composite.

  1. A study of the composition and microstructure of aluminum matrix composites reinforced with alumina fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolotova, D.; Serpova, V.; Prokofiev, M.; Rabinskiy, L.; Shavnev, A.

    2016-04-01

    This article presents the results of a study of the microstructure and the composition of aluminum-based metal matrix composites (MMC) reinforced with continuous alumina fibers. An Al-Mg-Cu alloy similar to that of AA 2024 was used. X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence analyses were used for investigation of a probable volume fraction of a spinel phase in MMC. Scanning electron microscopy and an X-ray microanalysis were used to study a change of the elemental composition of the composites microstructure on the polished cross sections. The constant mass fractions of magnesium (0.65 wt. %) and copper (1.25 wt. %) were found in the interphase area within radius of 1 μm around fibers.

  2. Styrene-terminated polysulfone oligomers as matrix material for graphite reinforced composites - An initial study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Dana; Bowles, Kenneth J.; Vannucci, Raymond D.

    1987-01-01

    Results pertaining to graphite reinforced composites containing styrene-terminated oligomers as the matrix material are summarized. The processing parameters are determined and the properties of the resulting composite are evaluated. In terms of solvent impregnation techniques, CH2Cl2 is the preferred solvent due to its easy removal during the prepreg drying and consolidation steps.

  3. Al-based metal matrix composites reinforced with nanocrystalline Al-Ti-Ni particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scudino, S.; Ali, F.; Surreddi, K. B.; Prashanth, K. G.; Sakaliyska, M.; Eckert, J.

    2010-07-01

    Al-based metal matrix composites containing different volume fractions of nanocrystalline Al70Ti20Ni10 reinforcing particles have been produced by powder metallurgy and the effect of the volume fraction of reinforcement on the mechanical properties of the composites has been studied. Room temperature compression tests reveal a considerable improvement of the mechanical properties as compared to pure Aluminum. The compressive strength increases from 155 MPa for pure Al to about 200 and 240 MPa for the samples with 20 and 40 vol.% of reinforcement, respectively, while retaining appreciable plastic deformation with a fracture strain ranging between 43 and 28 %.

  4. Evaluation of several micromechanics models for discontinuously reinforced metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. Steven; Birt, M. J.

    1990-01-01

    A systematic experimental evaluation of whisker and particulate reinforced aluminum matrix composites was conducted to assess the variation in tensile properties with reinforcement type, volume fraction, and specimen thickness. Each material was evaluated in three thicknesses, 1.8, 3.18, and 6.35 mm, to determine the size, distribution, and orientation of the reinforcements. This information was used to evaluate several micromechanical models that predict composite moduli. The longitudinal and transverse moduli were predicted for reinforced aluminum. The Paul model, the Cox model and the Halpin-Tsai model were evaluated. The Paul model gave a good upper bound prediction for the particulate reinforced composites but under predicted whisker reinforced composite moduli. The Cox model gave good moduli predictions for the whisker reinforcement, but was too low for the particulate. The Halpin-Tsai model gave good results for both whisker and particulate reinforced composites. An approach using a trigonometric projection of whisker length to predict the fiber contribution to the modulus in the longitudinal and transverse directions was compared to the more conventional lamination theory approach.

  5. Hi Nicalon{trademark} SiC fiber reinforced glass and glass-ceramic matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Tredway, W.K.

    1996-12-31

    A multi-year research program was conducted by a team consisting of Nippon Carbon Corporation, United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), the University of Tokyo, and the University of Delaware to study and analyze basic mechanisms of failure in SiC fiber reinforced glass matrix composites. This paper presents the results of one portion of this investigation performed by UTRC that studied the mechanical performance and in-situ carbon interfacial layer formation characteristics of glass and glass-ceramic matrix composites reinforced with Hi Nicalon{trademark} SiC fiber. The fiber was produced by Nippon Carbon Corp. and was supplied to UTRC for their use on the program.

  6. Investigation of failure modes in fiber-reinforced ceramic-matrix composites. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Moschler, J.W.

    1988-12-01

    This experimental study was conducted to investigate the damage progression in fiber-reinforced ceramic-matrix composites under tensile loading. As part of this study, the effect of the residual stresses at the fiber-matrix interface on damage progression was evaluated. Composite samples were fabricated from silicon carbide fibers and borosilicate glass matrices. Each glass had a different coefficient of thermal expansion than the fiber and through the variation of this mismatch, the residual stresses at the fiber-matrix interface were varied resulting in different bonding conditions at the fiber-matrix interface. The mechanical properties of the composites were measured using a servo-hydraulic mechanical testing machine. During these tests, transverse strain reversal was observed that is believed to be caused by axial matrix cracks and fiber-matrix debonding. Tensile tests were conducted on the composites using a constant-load straining device in which damage progression was observed using an optical microscope.

  7. Numerical exploration into the potential of tungsten reinforced CuCrZr matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohe, Jörg; Fliegener, Sascha; Findeisen, Claudio; Reiser, Jens; Widak, Verena; Rieth, Michael

    2016-03-01

    The present study provides a numerical investigation into the potential of tungsten reinforced CuCrZr materials in order to overcome their limited performance at higher temperatures. Metal matrix composites including (i) particle reinforced microstructures, (ii) short fiber reinforced microstructures with both randomly orientated and (iii) aligned fibers as well as (iv) laminates consisting of stacked tungsten and CuCrZr layers are considered. The numerical analysis is performed by means of an energy based homogenization procedure in conjunction with a finite element analysis of representative volume elements for the respective microstructures. The results of the screening analysis reveal a distinct improvement of the mechanical properties of CuCrZr materials by the tungsten reinforcements even for moderate tungsten volume fractions. In a comparison of the different microstructures, the ordered microstructures, i.e. laminates and the aligned short fiber reinforced composites in most cases outperform their disordered counterparts.

  8. Seamless metal-clad fiber-reinforced organic matrix composite structures and process for their manufacture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bluck, Raymond M. (Inventor); Bush, Harold G. (Inventor); Johnson, Robert R. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A metallic outer sleeve is provided which is capable of enveloping a hollow metallic inner member having continuous reinforcing fibers attached to the distal end thereof. The inner member is then introduced into outer sleeve until inner member is completely enveloped by outer sleeve. A liquid matrix member is then injected into space between inner member and outer sleeve. A pressurized heat transfer medium is flowed through the inside of inner member, thereby forming a fiber reinforced matrix composite material. The wall thicknesses of both inner member and outer sleeve are then reduced to the appropriate size by chemical etching, to adjust the thermal expansion coefficient of the metal-clad composite structure to the desired value. thereby forming a fiber reinforced matrix composite material. The wall thicknesses of both inner member and outer sleeve are then reduced to the appropriate size by chemical etching, to adjust the thermal expansion coefficient of the metal-clad composite structure to the desired value. The novelty of this invention resides in the development of a efficient method of producing seamless metal clad fiber reinforced organic matrix composite structures.

  9. Nanofiber reinforcement of a geopolymer matrix for improved composite materials mechanical performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, AKM Samsur

    Geopolymers have the potential to cross the process performance gap between polymer matrix and ceramic matrix composites (CMC), enabling high temperature capable composites that are manufactured at relatively low temperatures. Unfortunately, the inherently low toughness of these geopolymers limits the performance of the resulting fiber reinforced geopolymer matrix composites. Toughness improvements in composites can be addressed through the adjustments in the fiber/matrix interfacial strength and through the improvements in the inherent toughness of the constituent materials. This study investigates the potential to improve the inherent toughness of the geopolymer matrix material through the addition of nanofillers, by considering physical dimensions, mechanical properties, reinforcing capability and interfacial bond strength effects. A process optimization study was first undertaken to develop the ability to produce consistent, neat geopolymer samples, a critical precursor to producing nano-filled geopolymer for toughness evaluation. After that, single edge notched bend beam fracture toughness and un-notched beam flexural strength were evaluated for silicon carbide, alumina and carbon nanofillers reinforced geopolymer samples treated at various temperatures in reactive and inert environments. Toughness results of silicon carbide and carbon nanofillers reinforced geopolymers suggested that with the improved baseline properties, high aspect ratio nanofillers with high interfacial bond strength are the most capable in further improving the toughness of geopolymers. Among the high aspect ratio nanofillers i.e. nanofibers, 2vol% silicon carbide whicker (SCW) showed the highest improvement in fracture toughness and flexural strength of ~164% & ~185%, respectively. After heat treatment at 650 °C, SCW reinforcement was found to be effective, with little reduction in the performance, while the performance of alumina nanofiber (ANF) reinforced geopolymer significantly

  10. Structural Evolution of Silicon Oxynitride Fiber Reinforced Boron Nitride Matrix Composite at High Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Chunrong; Li, Bin; Zhang, Changrui; Wang, Siqing; Xie, Zhengfang; Shao, Changwei

    2016-02-01

    The structural evolution of a silicon oxynitride fiber reinforced boron nitride matrix (Si-N-Of/BN) wave-transparent composite at high temperatures was investigated. When heat treated at 1600 °C, the composite retained a favorable bending strength of 55.3 MPa while partially crystallizing to Si2N2O and h-BN from the as-received amorphous structure. The Si-N-O fibers still performed as effective reinforcements despite the presence of small pores due to fiber decomposition. Upon heat treatment at 1800 °C, the Si-N-O fibers already lost their reinforcing function and rough hollow microstructure formed within the fibers because of the accelerated decomposition. Further heating to 2000 °C led to the complete decomposition of the reinforcing fibers and only h-BN particles survived. The crystallization and decomposition behaviors of the composite at high temperatures are discussed.

  11. Thermo-oxidative stability studies of PMR-15 polymer matrix composites reinforced with various continuous fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Kenneth J.

    1990-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to measure the thermooxidative stability of PMR-15 composites reinforced with various fibers and to observe differences in the way they degrade in air. The fibers studied include graphite and the thermally stable Nicalon and Nextel ceramic fibers. Weight-loss rates for the different composites were assessed as a function of mechanical properties, specimen geometry, fiber sizing, and interfacial bond strength. Differences were observed in rates of weight loss, matrix cracking, geometry dependency, and fiber sizing effects. It was shown that Celion 6000 fiber-reinforced composites do not exhibit a straight-line Arrhenius relationship at temperatures above 316 C.

  12. Particle denuded zones in alumina reinforced aluminum matrix composite weldments

    SciTech Connect

    Chidambaram, A.; Bhole, S.D.

    1996-08-01

    The Welding Institute of Canada (WIC), Ontario, has been studying the weldability of different DURALCAN MMC`s. Research on alumina reinforced (20 vol.%) 6061 Al alloy GTA welds showed satisfactory tensile and yield strengths (0.2% Proof Stress) but the welds failed to pass the bend test requirements with fracture taking place in the relatively brittle heat affected zone (HAZ). Further, the welds were characterized by a region which was devoid of reinforcement particles adjacent to the fusion lines. The present study was undertaken to try and explain the formation of this particle denuded zone (PDZ) at the fusion lines.

  13. The role of rapid solidification processing in the fabrication of fiber reinforced metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locci, Ivan E.; Noebe, Ronald D.

    1989-01-01

    Advanced composite processing techniques for fiber reinforced metal matrix composites require the flexibility to meet several widespread objectives. The development of uniquely desired matrix microstructures and uniformly arrayed fiber spacing with sufficient bonding between fiber and matrix to transmit load between them without degradation to the fiber or matrix are the minimum requirements necessary of any fabrication process. For most applications these criteria can be met by fabricating composite monotapes which are then consolidated into composite panels or more complicated components such as fiber reinforced turbine blades. Regardless of the end component, composite monotapes are the building blocks from which near net shape composite structures can be formed. The most common methods for forming composite monotapes are the powder cloth, foil/fiber, plasma spray, and arc spray processes. These practices, however, employ rapid solidification techniques in processing of the composite matrix phase. Consequently, rapid solidification processes play a vital and yet generally overlooked role in composite fabrication. The future potential of rapid solidification processing is discussed.

  14. Hi-Nicalon Fiber-Reinforced Celsian Matrix Composites: Influence of Interface Modification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Eldridge, Jeffrey I.

    1998-01-01

    Unidirectional celsian matrix composites having 42-45 vol % of uncoated or BN-SIC coated Hi-Nicalon fibers were tested in three-point bend at room temperature. The uncoated fiber-reinforced composites showed catastrophic failure with strength of 210 35 MPa and a flat fracture surface. In contrast, composites reinforced with coated fibers exhibited graceful failure with extensive fiber pullout. Values of first matrix cracking stress and strain were 435 +/- 35 MPa and 0.27 +/- 0.01%, respectively, with ultimate strength as high as 960 MPa. The elastic Young modulus of the uncoated and coated fiber-reinforced composites were 184 +/- 4 GPa and 165 +/- 5 GPa, respectively. Fiber push-through tests and microscopic examination indicated no chemical reaction at the uncoated or coated fiber-matrix interface. The low strength of composite with uncoated fibers is due to degradation of the fiber strength from mechanical damage during processing. Because both the coated- and uncoated-fiber-reinforced composites exhibited weak interfaces, the beneficial effect of the BN-SIC dual layer is primarily the protection of fibers from mechanical damage during processing.

  15. Effect of fiber reinforcement on thermo-oxidative stability and mechanical properties of polymer matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, K. J.

    1992-01-01

    A number of studies have investigated the thermooxidative behavior of polymer matrix composites. Two significant observations have been made from these research efforts: (1) fiber reinforcement has a significant effect on composite thermal stability; and (2) geometric effects must be considered when evaluating thermal aging data. The polyimide PMR-15 was the matrix material used in these studies. The control composite material was reinforced with Celion 6000 graphite fiber. T-4OR graphite fibers, along with some very stable ceramic fibers were selected as reinforcing fibers because of their high thermal stability. The ceramic fibers were Nicalon (silicon carbide) and Nextel 312 (alumina-silica-boron oxide). The mechanical properties of the two graphite fiber composites were significantly different, probably owing to variations in interfacial bonding between the fibers and the polyimide matrix. Three oxidation mechanisms were observed: (1) the preferential oxidation of the Celion 6000 fiber ends at cut surfaces, leaving a surface of matrix material with holes where the fiber ends were originally situated; (2) preferential oxidation of the composite matrix; and (3) interfacial degradation by oxidation. The latter two mechanisms were also observed on fiber end cut surfaces. The fiber and interface attacks appeared to initiate interfiber cracking along these surfaces.

  16. Determination of Material Parameters for Microbuckling Analysis of Fiber Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanowicz, M.

    2015-05-01

    This research focuses on studying the effect of the constitutive law adopted for a matrix material on the compressive response of a unidirectional fiber reinforced polymer matrix composite. To investigate this effect, a periodic unit cell model of a unidirectional composite with an initial fiber waviness and inelastic behavior of the matrix was used. The sensitivity of the compressive strength to the hydrostatic pressure, the flow rule and the fiber misalignment angle were presented. The model was verified against an analytical solution and experimental data. Results of this study indicate that a micromechanical model with correctly identified material parameters provides a useful alternative to theoretical models and experimentation.

  17. Mechanisms controlling fatigue damage development in continuous fiber reinforced metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. S.

    1989-01-01

    Damage in continuous fiber reinforced metal matrix composite materials can be quite complex since there are a number of different constituents (fiber, matrix, and the fiber/matrix interface) that can fail. Multidirectional lay-ups have an even greater number of possible damage orientations and mechanisms. Based on the simplifying assumption of equivalent constituent strain states in the absence of damage, a strain based failure criteria may be applied to determine when and where initial damage will occur. Based on the relative strain to fatigue failure of the fiber and matrix, the possible damage mechanisms of an MMC can be grouped into three categories: (1) matrix dominated, (2) fiber dominated, and (3) self-similar damage growth. A fourth type of damage development, fiber/matrix interface failure, is dependent on the relative strength of the fiber/matrix interface and the matrix yield strength. These four types of damage are discussed and illustrated by examples.

  18. The oxidative stability of carbon fibre reinforced glass-matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prewo, K. M.; Batt, J. A.

    1988-01-01

    The environmental stability of carbon fibre reinforced glass-matrix composites is assessed. Loss of composite strength due to oxidative exposure at elevated temperatures under no load, static load and cyclic fatigue as well as due to thermal cycling are all examined. It is determined that strength loss is gradual and predictable based on the oxidation of carbon fibres. The glass matrix was not found to prevent this degradation but simply to limit it to a gradual process progressing from the composite surfaces inward.

  19. Mechanical Behavior of Sapphire Reinforced Alumina Matrix Composites at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaskowiak, Martha H.; Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Setlock, John A.; Gyekenyesi, John Z.

    1997-01-01

    Zirconia coated sapphire reinforced alumina matrix composites have been tested both after heat treatment to 1400 C and at temperatures ranging from 800 C to 1200 C in. air. Interfacial shear stress has also been measured with fiber pushout tests performed in air at room temperature, 800 C and 1OOO C. Matrix crack spacing was measured for the tensile tested composites and used to estimate interfacial shear stress up to 1200 C. Electron microscopy was used to determine the source of fiber fracture and to study interfacial failure within the composite.

  20. Effect of fiber shape on mechanical behavior of composite with elastoplastic matrix and SMA reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yuping; Dui, Guansuo

    2009-10-01

    In this paper, an equivalent three-phase micromechanical model of composite with an elasto- plastic matrix and shape memory alloy (SMA) reinforcement is developed. Compared with the traditional two-phase method, the interaction among the austenitic phase, the martensite phase and the matrix phase is considered. During applications of the model, the predicted curve shows good agreement with the experimental result. Most attention is given to the effect of fiber shape on the overall response of the composite and the residual stress. It is helpful to design an intelligent composite. PMID:19627851

  1. Evaluation of tensile strength of hybrid fiber (jute/gongura) reinforced hybrid polymer matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatachalam, G.; Gautham Shankar, A.; Vijay, Kumar V.; Chandan, Byral R.; Prabaharan, G. P.; Raghav, Dasarath

    2015-07-01

    The polymer matrix composites attract many industrial applications due to its light weight, less cost and easy for manufacturing. In this paper, an attempt is made to prepare and study of the tensile strength of hybrid (two natural) fibers reinforced hybrid (Natural + Synthetic) polymer matrix composites. The samples were prepared with hybrid reinforcement consists of two different fibers such as jute and Gongura and hybrid polymer consists of polyester and cashew nut shell resins. The hybrid composites tensile strength is evaluated to study the influence of various fiber parameters on mechanical strength. The parameters considered here are the duration of fiber treatment, the concentration of alkali in fiber treatment and nature of fiber content in the composites.

  2. Fabrication of fibre reinforced nickel aluminide matrix composites by reactive processing

    SciTech Connect

    Downing, M.; Horsfall, I.

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes the fabrication by reactive processing of short, and continuous, alumina fibre reinforced nickel aluminide matrix composites. The fibre is introduced into the aluminide system to increase toughness and high temperature strength. The short fibre reinforced nickel aluminide is formed by squeeze casting a porous preform containing nickel powder and SAFFIL fibre with an aluminium or aluminium alloy melt. The continuous fibre reinforced nickel aluminide is formed by squeeze casting a jig containing nickel coated ALMAX fibre. The short fibre reinforced composite (containing 10% and 20% volume fibre) reacted during infiltration with an aluminium melt to form a single phase intermetallic. Using an aluminium-copper melt the intermetallic formation was inhibited and a multi-phase composite was obtained. A preliminary study into reactive processing of this system by utilising a hot isostatic pressing (HIP) cycle is presented. HIP was required to prevent the formation of porosity due to an imbalance in the diffusive mobility of the various components. It was found that HIP was only effective on canned samples, the preferred encapsulation material being glass. The continuous fibre reinforced composite did not react to an intermetallic phase when infiltrated with an aluminum melt. Use of an aluminum-copper melt resulted in partial nickel-melt reaction producing various nickel-aluminum (-copper) phases. HIP was then used to form a two phase intermetallic matrix with no evidence of fibre damage.

  3. The mechanical properties measurement of multiwall carbon nanotube reinforced nanocrystalline aluminum matrix composite

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Manjula Pal, Hemant; Sharma, Vimal

    2015-05-15

    Nanocrystalline aluminum matrix composite containing carbon nanotubes were fabricated using physical mixing method followed by cold pressing. The microstructure of the composite has been investigated using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy techniques. These studies revealed that the carbon nanotubes were homogeneously dispersed throughout the metal matrix. The consolidated samples were pressureless sintered in inert atmosphere to further actuate a strong interface between carbon nanotubes and aluminum matrix. The nanoindentation tests carried out on considered samples showed that with the addition of 0.5 wt% carbon nanotubes, the hardness and elastic modulus of the aluminum matrix increased by 21.2 % and 2 % repectively. The scratch tests revealed a decrease in the friction coefficient of the carbon nanotubes reinforced composite due to the presence of lubricating interfacial layer. The prepared composites were promising entities to be used in the field of sporting goods, construction materials and automobile industries.

  4. Characterization of SiC Fiber (SCS-6) Reinforced-Reaction-Formed Silicon Carbide Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, M.; Dickerson, R. M.

    1996-01-01

    Silicon carbide fiber (SCS-6) reinforced-reaction-formed silicon carbide matrix composites were fabricated using a reaction-forming process. Silicon-2 at.% niobium alloy was used as an infiltrant instead of pure silicon to reduce the amount of free silicon in the matrix after reaction forming. The matrix primarily consists of silicon carbide with a bimodal grain size distribution. Minority phases dispersed within the matrix are niobium disilicide (NbSi2), carbon, and silicon. Fiber pushout tests on these composites determined a debond stress of approximately 67 MPa and a frictional stress of approximately 60 MPa. A typical four-point flexural strength of the composite is 297 MPa (43.1 KSi). This composite shows tough behavior through fiber pullout.

  5. The mechanical properties measurement of multiwall carbon nanotube reinforced nanocrystalline aluminum matrix composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Manjula; Pal, Hemant; Sharma, Vimal

    2015-05-01

    Nanocrystalline aluminum matrix composite containing carbon nanotubes were fabricated using physical mixing method followed by cold pressing. The microstructure of the composite has been investigated using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy techniques. These studies revealed that the carbon nanotubes were homogeneously dispersed throughout the metal matrix. The consolidated samples were pressureless sintered in inert atmosphere to further actuate a strong interface between carbon nanotubes and aluminum matrix. The nanoindentation tests carried out on considered samples showed that with the addition of 0.5 wt% carbon nanotubes, the hardness and elastic modulus of the aluminum matrix increased by 21.2 % and 2 % repectively. The scratch tests revealed a decrease in the friction coefficient of the carbon nanotubes reinforced composite due to the presence of lubricating interfacial layer. The prepared composites were promising entities to be used in the field of sporting goods, construction materials and automobile industries.

  6. Characterization of SiC (SCS-6) Fiber Reinforced Reaction-Formed Silicon Carbide Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Mrityunjay; Dickerson, Robert M.

    1995-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SCS-6) fiber reinforced-reaction formed silicon carbide matrix composites were fabricated using NASA's reaction forming process. Silicon-2 at a percent of niobium alloy was used as an infiltrant instead of pure silicon to reduce the amount of free silicon in the matrix after reaction forming. The matrix primarily consists of silicon carbide with a bi-modal grain size distribution. Minority phases dispersed within the matrix are niobium disilicide (NbSi2), carbon and silicon. Fiber push-out tests on these composites determined a debond stress of approx. 67 MPa and a frictional stress of approx. 60 MPa. A typical four point flexural strength of the composite is 297 MPa (43.1 KSi). This composite shows tough behavior through fiber pull out.

  7. Ultrasonic velocity technique for monitoring property changes in fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kautz, Harold E.; Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.

    1991-01-01

    A technique for measuring ultrasonic velocity was used to monitor changes that occur during processing and heat treatment of a SiC/RBSM composite. Results indicated that correlations exist between the ultrasonic velocity data and elastic modulus and interfacial shear strength data determined from mechanical tests. The ultrasonic velocity data can differentiate strength. The advantages and potential of this nondestructive evaluation method for fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composite applications are discussed.

  8. Effect of reinforcement type and porosity on strength of metal matrix composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, S. G.; Lal, Achchhe; Menghani, J. V.

    2016-05-01

    In the present work, experimental investigation and the numerical analysis are carried out for strength analysis of A356 alloy matrix composites reinforced with alumina, fly ash and hybrid particle composites. The combined strengthening effect of load bearing, Hall-Petch, Orowan, coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch and elastic modulus mismatch is studied for predicting accurate uniaxial stress-strain behavior of A356 based alloy matrix composite. The unit cell micromechanical approach and nine noded isoparametric finite element analysis (FEA) is used to investigate the yield failure load by considering material defect of porosity as fabrication errors in particulate composite. The Ramberg-Osgood approach is considered for the linear and nonlinear relationship between stress and strain of A356 based metal matrix composites containing different amounts of fly ash and alumina reinforcing particles. A numerical analysis of material porosity on the stress strain behavior of the composite is performed. The literature and experimental results exhibit the validity of this model and confirm the importance of the fly ash as the cheapest and low density reinforcement obtained as a waste by product in thermal power plants.

  9. Laminate behavior for SiC fiber-reinforced reaction-bonded silicon nitride matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.; Phillips, Ronald E.

    1990-01-01

    The room temperature mechanical properties of SiC fiber reinforced reaction-bonded silicon nitride matrix composite laminates (SiC/RBSN) have been measured. The laminates contained approx 30 volume fraction of aligned 142-micron diameter SiC fiber in a porous RBSN matrix. Three types of laminate studied were unidirectional: (1) (0) sub 8, (2) (10) sub 8, and (3) (45) sub 8, and (90) sub 8; cross plied laminates (0 sub 2/90 sub 2); and angle plied laminates: (+45 sub 2/-45 sub 2). Each laminate contained eight fiber plies. Results of the unidirectionally reinforced composites tested at various angles to the reinforcement direction indicate large anisotropy in in-plane properties. In addition, strength properties of these composites along the fiber direction were independent of specimen gage length and were unaffected by notches normal to the fiber direction. Splitting parallel to the fiber at the notch tip appears to be the dominant crack blunting mechanism responsible for notch insensitive behavior of these composites. In-plane properties of the composites can be improved by 2-D laminate construction. Mechanical property results for (0 sub 2/90 sub 2) sub s and (+45/-45 sub 2) sub s laminates showed that their matrix failure strains were similar to that for (0) sub 8 laminates, but their primary elastic moduli, matrix cracking strengths, and ultimate composite strengths were lower. The elastic properties of unidirectional, cross-ply, and angle-ply composites can be predicted from modified constitutive equations and laminate theory. Further improvements in laminate properties may be achieved by reducing the matrix porosity and by optimizing the bond strength between the SiC fiber and RBSN matrix.

  10. Laminate behavior for SiC fiber-reinforced reaction-bonded silicon nitride matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhatt, R. T.; Phillips, R. E.

    1988-01-01

    The room temperature mechanical properties of SiC fiber reinforced reaction-bonded silicon nitride matrix composite laminates (SiC/RBSN) have been measured. The laminates contained approx 30 volume fraction of aligned 142-micron diameter SiC fiber in a porous RBSN matrix. Three types of laminate studied were unidirectional: (1) (0) sub 8, (2) (10) sub 8, and (3) (45) sub 8, and (90) sub 8; cross plied laminates (0 sub 2/90 sub 2); and angle plied laminates: (+45 sub 2/-45 sub 2). Each laminate contained eight fiber plies. Results of the unidirectionally reinforced composites tested at various angles to the reinforcement direction indicate large anisotropy in in-plane properties. In addition, strength properties of these composites along the fiber direction were independent of specimen gage length and were unaffected by notches normal to the fiber direction. Splitting parallel to the fiber at the notch tip appears to be the dominant crack blunting mechanism responsible for notch insensitive behavior of these composites. In-plane properties of the composites can be improved by 2-D laminate construction. Mechanical property results for (0 sub 2/90 sub 2)sub s and (+45/-45 sub 2) sub s laminates showed that their matrix failure strains were similar to that for (0) sub 8 laminates, but their primary elastic moduli, matrix cracking strengths, and ultimate composite strengths were lower. The elastic properties of unidirectional, cross-ply, and angle-ply composites can be predicted from modified constitutive equations and laminate theory. Further improvements in laminate properties may be achieved by reducing the matrix porosity and by optimizing the bond strength between the SiC fiber and RBSN matrix.

  11. Role of interfacial and matrix creep during thermal cycling of continuous fiber reinforced metal-matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, I.

    2000-03-14

    A uni-dimensional micro-mechanical model for thermal cycling of continuous fiber reinforced metal-matrix composites is developed. The model treats the fiber and matrix as thermo-elastic and thermo-elasto-plastic-creeping solids, respectively, and allows the operation of multiple matrix creep mechanisms at various stages of deformation through the use of unified creep laws. It also incorporates the effect of interfacial sliding by an interface-diffusion-controlled diffusional creep mechanism proposed earlier (Funn and Dutta, Acta mater., 1999, 47, 149). The results of thermal cycling simulations based on a graphite fiber reinforced pure aluminum-matrix composite were compared with experimental data on a P100 graphite-6061 Al composite. The model successfully captured all the important features of the observed heating/cooling rate dependence, strain hysteresis, residual permanent strain at the end of a cycle, as well as both intrusion and protrusion of the fiber-ends relative to the matrix at the completion of cycling. The analysis showed that the dominant deformation mechanism operative in the matrix changes continually during thermal cycling due to continuous stress and temperature revision. Based on these results, a framework for the construction of a transient deformation mechanism map for thermal excursions of continuous fiber composites is proposed.

  12. Strengthening behavior of chopped multi-walled carbon nanotube reinforced aluminum matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, S.E.; Bae, D.H.

    2013-09-15

    Strengthening behavior of the aluminum composites reinforced with chopped multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) or aluminum carbide formed during annealing at 500 °C has been investigated. The composites were fabricated by hot-rolling the powders which were ball-milled under various conditions. During the early annealing process, aluminum atoms can cluster inside the tube due to the diffusional flow of aluminum atoms into the tube, providing an increase of the strength of the composite. Further annealing induces the formation of the aluminum carbide phase, leading to an overall drop in the strength of the composites. While the strength of the composites can be evaluated according to the rule of mixture, a particle spacing effect can be additionally imparted on the strength of the composites reinforced with the chopped MWCNTs or the corresponding carbides since the reinforcing agents are smaller than the submicron matrix grains. - Highlights: • Strengthening behavior of chopped CNT reinforced Al-based composites is investigated. • Chopped CNTs have influenced the strength and microstructures of the composites. • Chopped CNTs are created under Ar- 3% H2 atmosphere during mechanical milling. • Strength can be evaluated by the rule of the mixture and a particle spacing effect.

  13. Effect of Fiber Poisson Contraction on Matrix Multicracking Evolution of Fiber-Reinforced Ceramic-Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longbiao, Li

    2015-12-01

    An analytical methodology has been developed to investigate the effect of fiber Poisson contraction on matrix multicracking evolution of fiber-reinforced ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs). The modified shear-lag model incorporated with the Coulomb friction law is adopted to solve the stress distribution in the interface slip region and intact region of the damaged composite. The critical matrix strain energy criterion which presupposes the existence of an ultimate or critical strain energy limit beyond which the matrix fails has been adopted to describe matrix multicracking of CMCs. As more energy is placed into the composite, matrix fractures and the interface debonding occurs to dissipate the extra energy. The interface debonded length under the process of matrix multicracking is obtained by treating the interface debonding as a particular crack propagation problem along the fiber/matrix interface. The effects of the interfacial frictional coefficient, fiber Poisson ratio, fiber volume fraction, interface debonded energy and cycle number on the interface debonding and matrix multicracking evolution have been analyzed. The theoretical results are compared with experimental data of unidirectional SiC/CAS, SiC/CAS-II and SiC/Borosilicate composites.

  14. Strong and Tough Hi-Nicalon Fiber-Reinforced Celsian Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.

    1997-01-01

    Strong, tough and almost fully dense Hi-Nicalon/BN/SiC fiber reinforced celsian matrix composites have been fabricated by impregnation of the fiber tows with the matrix slurry, winding on a drum, stacking the prepreg tapes in the desired orientation, and hot pressing. The monoclinic celsian phase in the matrix was produced in situ, during hot pressing, from a mixed oxide precursor. The unidirectional composites having approx. 42 volume percent of fibers exhibited graceful failure with extensive fiber pullout in three-point bend tests at room temperature. Values of first matrix cracking stress and strain were 435 +/- 35 MPa and 0.27 +/- 0.01 %, respectively, and ultimate strengths of 900 +/- 60 MPa were observed. The Young's modulus of the composites was 165 +/- 5 GPa.

  15. Micromechanics Fatigue Damage Analysis Modeling for Fabric Reinforced Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Min, J. B.; Xue, D.; Shi, Y.

    2013-01-01

    A micromechanics analysis modeling method was developed to analyze the damage progression and fatigue failure of fabric reinforced composite structures, especially for the brittle ceramic matrix material composites. A repeating unit cell concept of fabric reinforced composites was used to represent the global composite structure. The thermal and mechanical properties of the repeating unit cell were considered as the same as those of the global composite structure. The three-phase micromechanics, the shear-lag, and the continuum fracture mechanics models were integrated with a statistical model in the repeating unit cell to predict the progressive damages and fatigue life of the composite structures. The global structure failure was defined as the loss of loading capability of the repeating unit cell, which depends on the stiffness reduction due to material slice failures and nonlinear material properties in the repeating unit cell. The present methodology is demonstrated with the analysis results evaluated through the experimental test performed with carbon fiber reinforced silicon carbide matrix plain weave composite specimens.

  16. Thermal expansion of multiwall carbon nanotube reinforced nanocrystalline silver matrix composite

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Manjula Sharma, Vimal; Pal, Hemant

    2014-04-24

    Multiwall carbon nanotube reinforced silver matrix composite was fabricated by novel molecular level mixing method, which involves nucleation of Ag ions inside carbon nanotube dispersion at the molecular level. As a result the carbon nanotubes get embedded within the powder rather than on the surfaces. Micro structural characterization by X- ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy reveals that the nanotubes are homogeneously dispersed and anchored within the matrix. The thermal expansion of the composite with the multiwall nanotube content (0, 1.5 vol%) were investigated and it is found that coefficient of thermal expansion decreases with the addition of multiwall nanotube content and reduce to about 63% to that of pure Ag.

  17. Silicon carbide fiber reinforced strontium aluminosilicate glass-ceramic matrix composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A SrO-Al2O3 - 2SrO2 (SAS) glass ceramic matrix is reinforced with CVD SiC continuous fibers. This material is prepared by casting a slurry of SAS glass powder into tapes. Mats of continuous CVD-SiC fibers are alternately stacked with the matrix tapes. This tape-mat stack is warm-pressed to produce a 'green' composite. Organic constituents are burned out of the 'green' composite, and the remaining interim material is hot pressed.

  18. Method of producing a silicon carbide fiber reinforced strontium aluminosilicate glass-ceramic matrix composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A SrO-Al2O3-2SrO2 (SAS) glass ceramic matrix is reinforced with CVD SiC continuous fibers. This material is prepared by casting a slurry of SAS glass powder into tapes. Mats of continuous CVD-SiC fibers are alternately stacked with the matrix tapes. This tape-mat stack is warm-pressed to produce a 'green' composite. Organic constituents are burned out of the 'green' composite, and the remaining interim material is hot pressed.

  19. Graphite-Fiber-Reinforced Glass-Matrix Composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prewo, K. M.; Dicus, D. L.

    1982-01-01

    G/GI structural composite material made of graphite fibers embedded in borosilicate glass exhibit excellent strength, fracture toughness, and dimensional stability at elevated temperatures. It is made by passing graphite-fiber yarn through slurry containing suspension of fine glass particles in carrier liquid and winding on drum to produce prepegged uniaxial tape. After drying, tapes are cut into appropriate lengths and laid up in graphite die in desired stacking scheme. Stack is consolidated by hot pressing in furnace.

  20. Effect of reinforcement and fiber-matrix interface on dynamic fracture of fiber-reinforced composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Khanna, S.K.

    1992-01-01

    The experimental technique of dynamic photoelasticity coupled with high speed photography has been used to study the interaction of running cracks with brittle and ductile fibers embedded in a brittle polymeric matrix. The effect of reinforcement and the fiber-matrix interface on dynamic stress intensity factor, crack bridging phenomena, crack surface morphology and toughening mechanisms occurring during dynamic fracturing of reinforced brittle matrix composites has been investigated. It is found that reinforcement reduces the crack velocity and the stress intensity factor. Thus the energy supplied to the crack tip is reduced resulting in reduction of the crack jump distance. Fiber pullout experiments were done to characterize the fiber-matrix interface. Rapid pullout results in an increase in interface shear strength. For rapid pullout of fibers the difference between maximum pullout loads. for well and weakly bonded fibers, is much smaller than for very slow pullout. A fiber-matrix interface which is weaker in the vicinity of the crack path, termed the partly debonded interface, produces higher crack closing forces and lower stress intensity factor compared to well bonded fibers. The former interface condition results in low fracture energy and shorter crack jump compared to the later. The interface condition significantly affects the fracture surface morphology. The fracture surface roughness is lower for reinforced materials compared to monolithic. Further the partly debonded fibers result in lower surface roughness compared to the well bonded fibers. Inclined fibers with various interface conditions have no significant effect on the stress intensity factor. The fiber debonded length, however, decreases, as compared to fibers which are aligned with the loading direction, due to the kinking of the fibers.

  1. Dynamic Effects in Elastothermodynamic Damping of Hollow Particle Reinforced Metal-Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Sunil Kumar; Mishra, Bhanu Kumar

    2016-06-01

    The Metal-Matrix Composites (MMCs) containing hollow spherical reinforcements are under active development for the applications such as space structures, submarine hulls etc. where weight is of critical importance. When these materials are subjected to a time varying strain field, energy is dissipated because of the thermoelastic effect (Elastothermodynamic Damping or ETD). The quasi-static ETD analysis for the MMCs containing hollow spherical particles has been reported in literature. The entropic approach, which is better suited for composite materials with perfect or imperfect interfaces, is used for the analysis. In the present work, the effect of inertia forces is carried out on ETD of hollow particle-reinforced MMCs. For given particle volume fractions (V p ), the inertia forces are found to be more significant at higher value of thermal parameter (Ω T1) (alternatively, frequency of vibration if reinforcement radius is fixed), large cavity volume fraction (V h ) and low value of the parameter B1.

  2. Interfacial reaction in cast WC particulate reinforced titanium metal matrix composites coating produced by laser processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dejian; Hu, Peipei; Min, Guoqing

    2015-06-01

    Laser injection of ceramic particle was conducted to produce particulate reinforced metal matrix composites (MMCs) coating on Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Cast WC particle (WCp) was used as injection reinforcement to avoid excessive release of carbon atoms into the melt pool. The interfaces and boundaries between WC and Ti matrix were investigated by electron microscopy study. Compared with single crystal WCp, cast WCp was an appropriate solution to control the reaction products (TiC) in the matrix and the total amount of reaction products was significantly reduced. Irregular-shape reaction layers were formed around cast WCp. The reaction layers consist of a W2C layer and a mixed layer of W and TiC. Such reaction layers are effective in load transfer under an external load.

  3. Space environmental effects on LDEF low Earth orbit exposed graphite reinforced polymer matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, Pete

    1992-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) was deployed on April 7, 1984 in low earth orbit (LEO) at an altitude of 482 kilometers. On board experiments experienced the harsh LEO environment including atomic oxygen (AO), ultraviolet radiation (UV), and thermal cycling. During the 5.8 year mission, the LDEF orbit decayed to 340 kilometers where significantly higher AO concentrations exist. LDEF was retrieved on January 12, 1990 from this orbit. One experiment on board LDEF was M0003, Space Effects on Spacecraft Materials. As a subset of M0003 nearly 500 samples of polymer, metal, and glass matrix composites were flown as the Advanced Composites Experiment M0003-10. The Advanced Composites Experiment is a joint effort between government and industry with the Aerospace Corporation serving as the experiment integrator. A portion of the graphite reinforced polymer matrix composites were furnished by the Boeing Defense and Space Group, Seattle, Washington. Test results and discussions for the Boeing portion of M0003-10 are presented. Experiment and specimen location on the LDEF are presented along with a quantitative summary of the pertinent exposure conditions. Matrix materials selected for the test were epoxy, polysulfone, and polyimide. These composite materials were selected due to their suitability for high performance structural capability in spacecraft applications. Graphite reinforced polymer matrix composites offer higher strength to weight ratios along with excellent dimensional stability. The Boeing space exposed and corresponding ground control composite specimens were subjected to post flight mechanical, chemical, and physical testing in order to determine any changes in critical properties and performance characteristics. Among the more significant findings are the erosive effect of atomic oxygen on leading edge exposed specimens and microcracking in non-unidirectionally reinforced flight specimens.

  4. Multi-Scale CNT-Based Reinforcing Polymer Matrix Composites for Lightweight Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberly, Daniel; Ou, Runqing; Karcz, Adam; Skandan, Ganesh; Mather, Patrick; Rodriguez, Erika

    2013-01-01

    Reinforcing critical areas in carbon polymer matrix composites (PMCs), also known as fiber reinforced composites (FRCs), is advantageous for structural durability. Since carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have extremely high tensile strength, they can be used as a functional additive to enhance the mechanical properties of FRCs. However, CNTs are not readily dispersible in the polymer matrix, which leads to lower than theoretically predicted improvement in mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties of CNT composites. The inability to align CNTs in a polymer matrix is also a known issue. The feasibility of incorporating aligned CNTs into an FRC was demonstrated using a novel, yet commercially viable nanofiber approach, termed NRMs (nanofiber-reinforcing mats). The NRM concept of reinforcement allows for a convenient and safe means of incorporating CNTs into FRC structural components specifically where they are needed during the fabrication process. NRMs, fabricated through a novel and scalable process, were incorporated into FRC test panels using layup and vacuum bagging techniques, where alternating layers of the NRM and carbon prepreg were used to form the reinforced FRC structure. Control FRC test panel coupons were also fabricated in the same manner, but comprised of only carbon prepreg. The FRC coupons were machined to size and tested for flexural, tensile, and compression properties. This effort demonstrated that FRC structures can be fabricated using the NRM concept, with an increased average load at break during flexural testing versus that of the control. The NASA applications for the developed technologies are for lightweight structures for in-space and launch vehicles. In addition, the developed technologies would find use in NASA aerospace applications such as rockets, aircraft, aircraft/spacecraft propulsion systems, and supporting facilities. The reinforcing aspect of the technology will allow for more efficient joining of fiber composite parts, thus offering

  5. Compressive and Tensile Behaviours of PLLA Matrix Composites Reinforced with Randomly Dispersed Flax Fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roussière, Fabrice; Baley, Christophe; Godard, Grégory; Burr, Dominique

    2012-04-01

    Nowadays, the ecological footprint of a material is becoming tremendously important. The Poly l-Lactide Acid (PLLA) matrix composites reinforced by randomly scattered flax fibres have mechanical properties similar to polyester/glass composites [1], lower environmental impacts and can be compost at the end of their lives. In this study, the mechanical characterization of biocomposites has been pushed further with the determination of the compressive and tensile properties. Furthermore, the mechanical properties of single flax fibres have been measured and implemented in a micro-mechanical estimation of the composite elastic modulus. Tensile and compressive stiffness determined by the mechanical analyses show very good correlations with the mathematical estimation.

  6. Porosity characterization of fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composite using synchrotron X-ray computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, C.; Marrow, T. J.; Reinhard, C.; Li, B.; Zhang, C.; Wang, S.

    2016-03-01

    The pore structure and porosity of a continuous fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composite has been characterized using high-resolution synchrotron X-ray computed tomography (XCT). Segmentation of the reconstructed tomograph images reveals different types of pores within the composite, the inter-fiber bundle open pores displaying a "node-bond" geometry, and the intra-fiber bundle isolated micropores showing a piping shape. The 3D morphology of the pores is resolved and each pore is labeled. The quantitative filtering of the pores measures a total porosity 8.9% for the composite, amid which there is about 7.1~ 9.3% closed micropores.

  7. Preparation and Characteristics of Al Matrix Composites Reinforced with ZnWO4 Coated (WO3p + ABOw) Hybrid Reinforcements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Y. C.; Cao, G. J.; Fan, G. H.; Wang, L. P.; Geng, L.

    2013-02-01

    In this article, a ZnWO4 coating was prepared successfully on the surfaces of WO3 particulates and Al18B4O33 whiskers by a chemical precipitation method. Then the Al matrix composite with coated reinforcements was fabricated by a squeeze casting technique. Scanning electronic microscope analysis shows that a thin coating is coated on the surfaces of reinforcements. Differential thermal analysis and x-ray diffraction (XRD) results show that the Zn(OH)2 decomposes at 248°C and that the ZnWO4 is produced by reaction WO3 with ZnO at 716°C. Transmission electronic microscope and XRD analysis show that the coating of ZnWO4 is effective to prevent interfacial reaction between the WO3 particle and the Al matrix. The mechanical property testing shows that the ultimate tensile strength, elastic modulus, and elongation of the hybrid composites with coated reinforcements are improved greatly by introduction of ZnWO4 coating.

  8. Fatigue Hysteresis of Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Ceramic-Matrix Composites at Room and Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Longbiao

    2016-02-01

    When the fiber-reinforced ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs) are first loading to fatigue peak stress, matrix multicracking and fiber/matrix interface debonding occur. Under fatigue loading, the stress-strain hysteresis loops appear as fiber slipping relative to matrix in the interface debonded region upon unloading/reloading. Due to interface wear at room temperature or interface oxidation at elevated temperature, the interface shear stress degredes with increase of the number of applied cycles, leading to the evolution of the shape, location and area of stress-strain hysteresis loops. The evolution characteristics of fatigue hysteresis loss energy in different types of fiber-reinforced CMCs, i.e., unidirectional, cross-ply, 2D and 2.5D woven, have been investigated. The relationships between the fatigue hysteresis loss energy, stress-strain hysteresis loops, interface frictional slip, interface shear stress and interface radial thermal residual stress, matrix stochastic cracking and fatigue peak stress of fiber-reinforced CMCs have been established.

  9. Matrix free fiber reinforced polymeric composites via high-temperature high-pressure sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Tao

    2004-11-01

    A novel manufacturing process called high-temperature high-pressure sintering was studied and explored. Solid fiber reinforced composites are produced by consolidating and compacting layers of polymeric fabrics near their melting temperature under high pressure. There is no need to use an additional matrix as a bonding material. Partial melting and recrystallization of the fibers effectively fuse the material together. The product is called a "matrix free" fiber reinforced composite and essentially a one-polymer composite in which the fiber and the matrix have the same chemical composition. Since the matrix is eliminated in the process, it is possible to achieve a high fiber volume fraction and light weight composite. Interfacial adhesion between fibers and matrix is very good due to the molecular continuity throughout the system and the material is thermally shapeable. Plain woven Spectra RTM cloth made of SpectraRTM fiber was used to comprehensively study the process. The intrinsic properties of the material demonstrate that matrix free SpectraRTM fiber reinforced composites have the potential to make ballistic shields such as body armor and helmets. The properties and structure of the original fiber and the cloth were carefully examined. Optimization of the processing conditions started with the probing of sintering temperatures by Differential Scanning Calorimetry. Coupled with the information from structural, morphological and mechanical investigations on the samples sintered at different processing conditions, the optimal processing windows were determined to ensure that the outstanding original properties of the fibers translate into high ballistic performance of the composites. Matrix free SpectraRTM composites exhibit excellent ballistic resistance in the V50 tests conducted by the US Army. In the research, process-structure-property relationship is established and correlations between various properties and structures are understood. Thorough knowledge is

  10. Modeling of stress/strain behavior of fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composites including stress redistribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mital, Subodh K.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Chamis, Christos C.

    1994-01-01

    A computational simulation procedure is presented for nonlinear analyses which incorporates microstress redistribution due to progressive fracture in ceramic matrix composites. This procedure facilitates an accurate simulation of the stress-strain behavior of ceramic matrix composites up to failure. The nonlinearity in the material behavior is accounted for at the constituent (fiber/matrix/interphase) level. This computational procedure is a part of recent upgrades to CEMCAN (Ceramic Matrix Composite Analyzer) computer code. The fiber substructuring technique in CEMCAN is used to monitor the damage initiation and progression as the load increases. The room-temperature tensile stress-strain curves for SiC fiber reinforced reaction-bonded silicon nitride (RBSN) matrix unidirectional and angle-ply laminates are simulated and compared with experimentally observed stress-strain behavior. Comparison between the predicted stress/strain behavior and experimental stress/strain curves is good. Collectively the results demonstrate that CEMCAN computer code provides the user with an effective computational tool to simulate the behavior of ceramic matrix composites.

  11. Thermal expansion of selected graphite reinforced polyimide-, epoxy-, and glass-matrix composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tompkins, S. S.

    1985-01-01

    The thermal expansion of three epoxy-matrix composites, a polyimide-matrix composite and a borosilicate glass-matrix composite, each reinforced with continuous carbon fibers, has been measured and compared. The expansion of a composite with a rubber toughened epoxy-matrix and P75S carbon fibers was very different from the expansion of two different single phase epoxy-matrix composites with P75S fibers although all three had the same stacking sequence. Reasonable agreement was obtained between measured thermal-expansion data and results from classical laminate theory. The thermal expansion of a material may change markedly as a result of thermal cycling. Microdamage, induced by 250 cycles between -156 C and 121 C in the graphite/polyimide laminate, caused a 53 percent decrease in the coefficient of thermal expansion. The thermal expansion of the graphite/glass laminate was not changed by 100 thermal cycles from -129 C to 38 C; however, a residual strain of about 10 x 10 to the minus 6 power was measured for the laminate tested.

  12. A first look at erosion of continuous-fiber reinforced ceramic-matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Karasek, K.R.; Gonczy, S.T. ); Kupperman, J.B.; Zamirowski, E.J.; Goretta, K.C.; Routbort, J.L. )

    1991-12-01

    We report the initial results of a study of solid-particle erosion of Nicalon{trademark} Sic reinforced carbon-modified-silica-glass composites. SiC abrasives with diameters between 42 to 390{mu}m were used with impact angles of 30{degrees} and 90{degrees}, and velocities ranged 30 to 80 m/s. Fibers were parallel to the surface in all cases. Woven-fiber composites exhibited the same erosive behavior as uniaxial composites. Interfacial chemistry was controlled, and the comparison between composites which exhibit low-strength-brittle and high-strength-fibrous fractures under flexure conditions showed no significant difference in erosion resistance. This result and SEM data indicate that most of the fracture occurs within the matrix and/or at the fiber-matrix interface. We have found in previous work that polymer-matrix composites (with fibers parallel to the surface) are more susceptible to erosion damage than the matrix polymer. This also appears to be the case for the ceramic composites.

  13. Matrix cracking in fiber-reinforced ceramic composites. Ph.D. Thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Danchaivijit, S.

    1994-01-01

    Matrix cracking in fiber-reinforced ceramic composites with unbonded frictional interface was studied using fracture mechanics theory. The critical stress for extension of a fiber-bridged crack was analyzed using the stress-intensity approach. The analysis used a new shear-lag formulation of the crack-closure traction applied by the bridging fibers based on the assumption of a constant sliding friction stress over the sliding length of the fiber-matrix interface. The new formulation satisfied two required limiting conditions: (1) when the stress in the bridging fiber approached the far-field applied stress, the crack-opening displacement approached a steady-state upper limit that was in agreement with the previous formulations; and (2) in the limit of zero crack opening, the stress in the bridging fiber approached the far-field fiber stress. This lower limit of the bridging stress was distinctly different from the previous formulations. Numerical calculations using the stress-intensity approach indicated that the critical stress for crack extension decreased with increasing crack length and approached a constant steady-state value for large cracks. The steady-state matrix-cracking stress agreed with a steady-state energy balance analysis applied to the continuum model, but it was slightly less than the matrix-cracking stress predicted by such theories of steady-state cracking as that of Aveston, Cooper, and Kelly (ACK). The origin of this difference and a method for reconciliation of the two theoretical approaches were discussed. The effects of residual stresses and partially bridged crack was studied and incorporated into the calculation of the critical stress for extension of matrix cracks. Matrix cracking was studied in a model, unidirectional SiC (fiber)-reinforced epoxy-alumina matrix composite. The fiber-matrix interface was tailored with coatings to achieve an unbonded frictional interface.

  14. Local-global analysis of crack growth in continuously reinforced ceramic matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballarini, Roberto; Ahmed, Shamin

    1988-01-01

    The development is described of a mathematical model for predicting the strength and micromechanical failure characteristics of continuously reinforced ceramic matrix composites. The local-globe analysis models the vicinity of a propagating crack tip as a local heterogeneous region (LHR) consisting of spring like representation of the matrix, fibers and interfaces. This region is embedded in an anisotropic continuum (representing the bulk composite) which is modeled by conventional finite elements. Parametric studies are conducted to investigate the effects of LHR size, component properties, interface conditions, etc. on the strength and sequence of the failure processes in the unidirectional composite system. The results are compared with those predicted by the models developed by Marshall et al. (1985) and by Budiansky et al. (1986).

  15. Vacuum brazing of high volume fraction SiC particles reinforced aluminum matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Dongfeng; Niu, Jitai; Gao, Zeng; Wang, Peng

    2015-03-01

    This experiment chooses A356 aluminum matrix composites containing 55% SiC particle reinforcing phase as the parent metal and Al-Si-Cu-Zn-Ni alloy metal as the filler metal. The brazing process is carried out in vacuum brazing furnace at the temperature of 550°C and 560°C for 3 min, respectively. The interfacial microstructures and fracture surfaces are investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy spectrum analysis (EDS). The result shows that adequacy of element diffusion are superior when brazing at 560°C, because of higher activity and liquidity. Dislocations and twins are observed at the interface between filler and composite due to the different expansion coefficient of the aluminum alloy matrix and SiC particles. The fracture analysis shows that the brittle fracture mainly located at interface of filler and composites.

  16. Modeling the Tensile Strength of Carbon Fiber - Reinforced Ceramic - Matrix Composites Under Multiple Fatigue Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Longbiao

    2016-06-01

    An analytical method has been developed to investigate the effect of interface wear on the tensile strength of carbon fiber - reinforced ceramic - matrix composites (CMCs) under multiple fatigue loading. The Budiansky - Hutchinson - Evans shear - lag model was used to describe the micro stress field of the damaged composite considering fibers failure and the difference existed in the new and original interface debonded region. The statistical matrix multicracking model and fracture mechanics interface debonding criterion were used to determine the matrix crack spacing and interface debonded length. The interface shear stress degradation model and fibers strength degradation model have been adopted to analyze the interface wear effect on the tensile strength of the composite subjected to multiple fatigue loading. Under tensile loading, the fibers failure probabilities were determined by combining the interface wear model and fibers failure model based on the assumption that the fiber strength is subjected to two - parameter Weibull distribution and the loads carried by broken and intact fibers satisfy the Global Load Sharing criterion. The composite can no longer support the applied load when the total loads supported by broken and intact fibers approach its maximum value. The conditions of a single matrix crack and matrix multicrackings for tensile strength corresponding to multiple fatigue peak stress levels and different cycle number have been analyzed.

  17. Modeling the Tensile Strength of Carbon Fiber - Reinforced Ceramic - Matrix Composites Under Multiple Fatigue Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Longbiao

    2015-09-01

    An analytical method has been developed to investigate the effect of interface wear on the tensile strength of carbon fiber - reinforced ceramic - matrix composites (CMCs) under multiple fatigue loading. The Budiansky - Hutchinson - Evans shear - lag model was used to describe the micro stress field of the damaged composite considering fibers failure and the difference existed in the new and original interface debonded region. The statistical matrix multicracking model and fracture mechanics interface debonding criterion were used to determine the matrix crack spacing and interface debonded length. The interface shear stress degradation model and fibers strength degradation model have been adopted to analyze the interface wear effect on the tensile strength of the composite subjected to multiple fatigue loading. Under tensile loading, the fibers failure probabilities were determined by combining the interface wear model and fibers failure model based on the assumption that the fiber strength is subjected to two - parameter Weibull distribution and the loads carried by broken and intact fibers satisfy the Global Load Sharing criterion. The composite can no longer support the applied load when the total loads supported by broken and intact fibers approach its maximum value. The conditions of a single matrix crack and matrix multicrackings for tensile strength corresponding to multiple fatigue peak stress levels and different cycle number have been analyzed.

  18. Processing and Material Characterization of Continuous Basalt Fiber Reinforced Ceramic Matrix Composites Using Polymer Derived Ceramics.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Sarah B.

    2014-01-01

    The need for high performance vehicles in the aerospace industry requires materials which can withstand high loads and high temperatures. New developments in launch pads and infrastructure must also be made to handle this intense environment with lightweight, reusable, structural materials. By using more functional materials, better performance can be seen in the launch environment, and launch vehicle designs which have not been previously used can be considered. The development of high temperature structural composite materials has been very limited due to the high cost of the materials and the processing needed. Polymer matrix composites can be used for temperatures up to 260C. Ceramics can take much higher temperatures, but they are difficult to produce and form in bulk volumes. Polymer Derived Ceramics (PDCs) begin as a polymer matrix, allowing a shape to be formed and cured and then to be pyrolized in order to obtain a ceramic with the associated thermal and mechanical properties. The use of basalt in structural and high temperature applications has been under development for over 50 years, yet there has been little published research on the incorporation of basalt fibers as a reinforcement in the composites. In this study, continuous basalt fiber reinforced PDCs have been fabricated and tested for the applicability of this composite system as a high temperature structural composite material. The oxyacetylene torch testing and three point bend testing have been performed on test panels and the test results are presented.

  19. Tensile flow properties of Al-based matrix composites reinforced with a random planar network of continuous metallic fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Boland, F.; Salmon, C.; Delannay, F.; Colin, C.

    1998-11-20

    Squeeze casting was used for processing two new types of composites: pure Al matrix composites reinforced with fibers of Inconel 601, and AS13 (Al-12% Si) matrix composites reinforced with fibers of Inconel 601 or stainless steel 316L. The fibers are continuous with a diameter of 12 {micro}m and their volume fraction in the composites varied from 20 to 80%. The processing conditions were such that no trace of interfacial reaction compound or of matrix precipitate resulting from the dissolution of elements of the fibers could be detected. The quality of the process was attested by Young`s modulus and electrical conductivity measurements. Tensile tests were carried out from room temperature up to 300 C. The composites with the pure Al matrix present a remarkable tensile ductility. They thus constitute convenient materials for assessing continuum plasticity models for composites. Properties of composites with the AS13 matrix are much affected by interface adhesion strength.

  20. Analysis of stress-strain, fracture and ductility behavior of aluminum matrix composites containing discontinuous silicon carbide reinforcement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdanels, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    Mechanical properties and stress-strain behavior for several types of commercially fabricated aluminum matrix composites, containing up to 40 vol % discontinuous SiC whisker, nodule, or particulate reinforcement were evaluated. It was found that the elastic modulus of the composites was isotropic, to be independent of type of reinforcement, and to be controlled solely by the volume percentage of SiC reinforcement present. The yield/tensile strengths and ductility were controlled primarily by the matrix alloy and temper condition. Ductility decreased with increasing reinforcement content, however, the fracture strains observed were higher than those reported in the literature for this type of composite. This increase in fracture strain is attributed to cleaner matrix powder and increased mechanical working during fabrication. Conventional aluminum and titanium structural alloys were compared and have shown that the properties of these low cost, lightweight composites have good potential for application to aerospace structures.

  1. Fatigue testing and damage development in continuous fiber reinforced metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. S.

    1989-01-01

    A general overview of the fatigue behavior of metal matrix composites (MMC) is presented. The first objective is to present experimental procedures and techniques for conducting a meaningful fatigue test to detect and quantify fatigue damage in MMC. These techniques include interpretation of stress-strain responses, acid etching of the matrix, edge replicas of the specimen under load, radiography, and micrographs of the failure surfaces. In addition, the paper will show how stiffness loss in continuous fiber reinforced metal matrix composites can be a useful parameter for detecting fatigue damage initiation and accumulation. Second, numerous examples of how fatigue damage can initiate and grow in various MMC are given. Depending on the relative fatigue behavior of the fiber and matrix, and the interface properties, the failure modes of MMC can be grouped into four categories: (1) matrix dominated, (2) fiber dominated, (3) self-similar damage growth, and (4) fiber/matrix interfacial failures. These four types of damage will be discussed and illustrated by examples with the emphasis on the fatigue of unnotched laminates.

  2. Fatigue testing and damage development in continuous fiber reinforced metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. S.

    1988-01-01

    A general overview of the fatigue behavior of metal matrix composites (MMC) is presented. The first objective is to present experimental procedures and techniques for conducting a meaningful fatigue test to detect and quantify fatigue damage in MMC. These techniques include interpretation of stress-strain responses, acid etching of the matrix, edge replicas of the specimen under load, radiography, and micrographs of the failure surfaces. In addition, the paper will show how stiffness loss in continuous fiber reinforced metal matrix composites can be a useful parameter for detecting fatigue damage initiation and accumulation. Second, numerous examples of how fatigue damage can initiate and grow in various MMC are given. Depending on the relative fatigue behavior of the fiber and matrix, and the interface properties, the failure modes of MMC can be grouped into four categories: (1) matrix dominated, (2) fiber dominated, (3) self-similar damage growth, and (4) fiber/matrix interfacial failures. These four types of damage will be discussed and illustrated by examples with the emphasis on the fatigue of unnotched laminates.

  3. Long-term water-aging of whisker-reinforced polymer-matrix composites.

    PubMed

    Xu, H H K

    2003-01-01

    Long-term water exposure may degrade polymer-matrix composites. This study investigated the water-aging of whisker composites. It was hypothesized that whiskers would provide stable and substantial reinforcement, and that whisker type would affect water-aging resistance. Silica-fused Si(3)N(4) and SiC whiskers were incorporated into a resin. The specimens were tested by three-point flexure and nano-indentation vs. water-aging for 1 to 730 days. After 730 days, SiC composite had a strength (mean +/- SD; n = 6) of 185 +/- 33 MPa, similar to 146 +/- 44 MPa for Si(3)N(4) composite (p = 0.064); both were significantly higher than 67 +/- 23 MPa for an inlay/onlay control (p < 0.001). Compared with 1 day, the strength of the SiC composite showed no decrease, while that of the Si(3)N(4) composite decreased. The decrease was due to whisker weakening rather than to resin degradation or interface breakdown. Whisker composites also had higher moduli than the controls. In conclusion, silica-fused whiskers bonded to polymer matrix and resisted long-term water attack, resulting in much stronger composites than the controls after water-aging. PMID:12508045

  4. Damage evolution in uniaxial silicon carbide fiber-reinforced titanium matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanan, Jay Clarke

    Fiber fractures initiate damage zones ultimately determining the strength and lifetime of metal matrix composites (MMCs). The evolution of damage in a MMC comprising a row of unidirectional SiC fibers (32 vol.%) surrounded by a Ti matrix was examined using X-ray microdiffraction (gym beam size) and macrodiffraction (mm beam size). A comparison of high-energy X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques including a powerful two-dimensional XRD method capable of obtaining powder averaged strains from a small number of grains is presented (HEmuXRD2). Using macrodiffraction, the bulk residual strain in the composite was determined against a true strain-free reference. In addition, the bulk in situ response of both the fiber reinforcement and the matrix to tensile stress was observed and compared to a three-dimensional finite element model. Using microdiffraction, multiple strain maps including both phases were collected in situ before, during, and after the application of tensile stress, providing an unprecedented detailed picture of the micromechanical behavior in the laminate metal matrix composite. Finally, the elastic axial strains were compared to predictions from a modified shear lag model, which unlike other shear lag models, considers the elastic response of both constituents. The strains showed excellent correlation with the model. The results confirmed, for the first time, both the need and validity of this new model specifically developed for large scale multifracture and damage evolution simulations of metal matrix composites. The results also provided unprecedented insight for the model, revealing the necessity of incorporating such factors as plasticity of the matrix, residual stress in the composite, and selection of the load sharing parameter. The irradiation of a small number of grains provided strain measurements comparable to a continuum mechanical state in the material. Along the fiber axes, thermal residual stresses of 740 MPa (fibers) and +350 MPa (matrix

  5. Graphene-reinforced aluminum matrix composites prepared by spark plasma sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Wen-ming; Li, Song-mei; Wang, Bo; Chen, Xin; Liu, Jian-hua; Yu, Mei

    2016-06-01

    Graphene-reinforced 7055 aluminum alloy composites with different contents of graphene were prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS). The structure and mechanical properties of the composites were investigated. Testing results show that the hardness, compressive strength, and yield strength of the composites are improved with the addition of 1wt% graphene. A clean, strong interface is formed between the metal matrix and graphene via metallurgical bonding on atomic scale. Harmful aluminum carbide (Al4C3) is not formed during SPS processing. Further addition of graphene (above 1wt%) results in the deterioration in mechanical properties of the composites. The agglomeration of graphene plates is exacerbated with increasing graphene content, which is the main reason for this deterioration.

  6. Mechanical behavior of fiber reinforced SiC/RBSN ceramic matrix composites: Theory and experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chulya, Abhisak; Gyekenyesi, John P.; Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.

    1991-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of continuous fiber reinforced SiC/RBSN (Reaction Bonded Silicon Nitride) composites with various fiber contents is evaluated. Both catastrophic and noncatastrophic failures are observed in tensile specimens. Damage and failure mechanisms are identified via in-situ monitoring using NDE (nondestructive evaluation) techniques through the loading history. Effects of fiber/matrix interface debonding (splitting) parallel to fibers are discussed. Statistical failure behavior of fibers is also observed, especially when the interface is weak. Micromechanical models incorporating residual stresses to calculate the critical matrix cracking strength, ultimate strength, and work of pull-out are reviewed and used to predict composite response. For selected test problems, experimental measurements are compared to analytical predictions.

  7. Fabrication Of Carbon-Boron Reinforced Dry Polymer Matrix Composite Tape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belvin, Harry L.; Cano, Roberto J.; Treasure, Monte; Shahood, Thomas W.

    1999-01-01

    Future generation aerospace vehicles will require specialized hybrid material forms for component structure fabrication. For this reason, high temperature composite prepregs in both dry and wet forms are being developed at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). In an attempt to improve compressive properties of carbon fiber reinforced composites, a hybrid carbon-boron tape was developed and used to fabricate composite laminates which were subsequently cut into flexural and compression specimens and tested. The hybrid material, given the designation HYCARB, was fabricated by modifying a previously developed process for the manufacture of dry polymer matrix composite (PMC) tape at LaRC. In this work, boron fibers were processed with IM7/LaRC(TradeMark)IAX poly(amide acid) solution-coated prepreg to form a dry hybrid tape for Automated Tow Placement (ATP). Boron fibers were encapsulated between two (2) layers of reduced volatile, low fiber areal weight poly(amide acid) solution-coated prepreg. The hybrid prepreg was then fully imidized and consolidated into a dry tape suitable for ATP. The fabrication of a hybrid boron material form for tow placement aids in the reduction of the overall manufacturing cost of boron reinforced composites, while realizing the improved compression strengths. Composite specimens were press-molded from the hybrid material and exhibited excellent mechanical properties.

  8. Manufacturing of Aluminum Matrix Composites Reinforced with Iron Oxide (Fe3O4) Nanoparticles: Microstructural and Mechanical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayraktar, Emin; Ayari, Fayza; Tan, Ming Jen; Tosun-Bayraktar, Ayse; Katundi, Dhurata

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the low-cost manufacturing of aluminum matrix composites reinforced with nano iron oxide as light and efficient materials for engineering applications. It is very desirable to use reinforced aluminum matrix composites in structural applications (automotive, aeronautical, etc.) because of their outstanding stiffness-to-weight and strength-to-weight ratios. In modern industry, it is increasingly important to develop new composites as alternative materials to fabricate multifunctional pieces. Detailed information is presented on the manufacturing process of this composite, and a preliminary study was performed on the cryogenic-cycling behavior to evaluate the interface between the matrix and the reinforcement. Microindentation tests were carried out to evaluate the micromechanical properties of these materials; a simple and practical finite element model is proposed to predict certain parameters related to the composition of the composite.

  9. Recent advances in understanding the reinforcing ability and mechanism of carbon nanotubes in ceramic matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estili, Mehdi; Sakka, Yoshio

    2014-12-01

    Since the discovery of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), commonly referred to as ultimate reinforcement, the main purpose for fabricating CNT-ceramic matrix composites has been mainly to improve the fracture toughness and strength of the ceramic matrix materials. However, there have been many studies reporting marginal improvements or even the degradation of mechanical properties. On the other hand, those studies claiming noticeable toughening measured using indentation, which is an indirect/unreliable characterization method, have not demonstrated the responsible mechanisms applicable to the nanoscale, flexible CNTs; instead, those studies proposed those classical methods applicable to microscale fiber/whisker reinforced ceramics without showing any convincing evidence of load transfer to the CNTs. Therefore, the ability of CNTs to directly improve the macroscopic mechanical properties of structural ceramics has been strongly questioned and debated in the last ten years. In order to properly discuss the reinforcing ability (and possible mechanisms) of CNTs in a ceramic host material, there are three fundamental questions to our knowledge at both the nanoscale and macroscale levels that need to be addressed: (1) does the intrinsic load-bearing ability of CNTs change when embedded in a ceramic host matrix?; (2) when there is an intimate atomic-level interface without any chemical reaction with the matrix, could one expect any load transfer to the CNTs along with effective load bearing by them during crack propagation?; and (3) considering their nanometer-scale dimensions, flexibility and radial softness, are the CNTs able to improve the mechanical properties of the host ceramic matrix at the macroscale when individually, intimately and uniformly dispersed? If so, how? Also, what is the effect of CNT concentration in such a defect-free composite system? Here, we briefly review the recent studies addressing the above fundamental questions. In particular, we discuss the new

  10. Model of brittle matrix composite toughening based on discrete fiber reinforcement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubinstein, Asher A.

    1992-01-01

    An analytical approach for the analysis of the effectiveness of fiber reinforcement in brittle matrix composites is presented. The analytical method allows consideration of discrete fiber distribution and examination of the development of crack growth parameters on microscale. The problem associated with the bridging zone development is addressed here; therefore, the bridging zone is considered to be smaller than the main preexisting crack, and the small scale approach is used. The mechanics of the reinforcement is accurately accounted for in the process zone of a growing crack. Closed form solutions characterizing the initial failure process are presented for linear and nonlinear force - fiber pullout displacement relationships. The implicit exact solution for the extended bridging zone is presented as well.

  11. On constitutive equations for thermoelastic analysis of fiber-reinforced composites with isotropic matrix material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usal, Melek; Usal, Mustafa Reşit; Esendemir, Ümran

    2013-01-01

    This paper is concerned with developing constitutive equations for the thermoelastic analysis of composites consisting of an isotropic matrix reinforced by independent and inextensible two families of fibers having an arbitrary distribution. The composite medium is assumed to be incompressible, dependent on temperature gradient, and showing linear elastic behavior. The reaction of the composite material subject to external loads is expressed in stress tensor and heat flux vector. The matrix material made of elastic material involving an artificial anisotropy due to fibers reinforcing by arbitrary distributions has been assumed as an isotropic medium. The theory is formulated within the scope of continuum mechanics. As a result of thermodynamic constraints, it has been determined that the stress potential function is dependent on the deformation tensor, the fiber fields vectors and the temperature, while the heat flux vector function is dependent on the deformation tensor, the fiber fields vectors, the temperature and temperature gradient. To determine arguments of the constitutive functionals, findings relating to the theory of invariants have been used as a method because of that isotropy constraint is imposed on the material. The constitutive equations of stress and heat flux vector have been written in terms of different coordinate descriptions.

  12. Mechanical Properties of Aluminum Matrix Composite Reinforced by Carbothermally Reduced of Fly Ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamasri, Wildan, M. W.; Sulardjaka, Kusnanto

    2011-01-01

    The addition of fly ash into aluminum as reinforcement can potentially reduce the production cost and density of aluminum. However, mechanical properties of aluminum matrix composite reinforced by fly ash (MMC ALFA) have some limitations due to the characteristic of fly ash. In this study, a carbothermal reduction process of fly ash and activated carbon powder with particle size <32 μm was performed prior to produce MMC ALFA. The process was carried out in a furnace at 1300° C in vacuum condition under argon flow. Synthesis product was analyzed by XRD with Cu-Kα radiation. From XRD analysis, it shows that the synthesis process can produce SiC powder. The synthesis product was subsequently used as reinforcement particle. Aluminum powder was mixed with 5, 10 and 15% of the synthesized powder, and then uni-axially compacted at pressure of 300 MPa. The compacted product was sintered for 2 hours in argon atmosphere at temperature variation of 550 and 600° C. Flexural strength, hardness and density of MMC ALFA's product were respectively evaluated using a four point bending test method based on ASTM C1161 standard, Brinell hardness scale and Archimedes method. The result of this study shows that the increase of weight of reinforcement can significantly increase the hardness and flexural strength of MMCs. The highest hardness and flexural strength of the MMC product are 300 kg/mm2 and 107.5 MPa, respectively.

  13. Mechanical Properties of Aluminum Matrix Composite Reinforced by Carbothermally Reduced of Fly Ash

    SciTech Connect

    Jamasri; Wildan, M. W.; Sulardjaka; Kusnanto

    2011-01-17

    The addition of fly ash into aluminum as reinforcement can potentially reduce the production cost and density of aluminum. However, mechanical properties of aluminum matrix composite reinforced by fly ash (MMC ALFA) have some limitations due to the characteristic of fly ash. In this study, a carbothermal reduction process of fly ash and activated carbon powder with particle size <32 {mu}m was performed prior to produce MMC ALFA.The process was carried out in a furnace at 1300 deg. C in vacuum condition under argon flow. Synthesis product was analyzed by XRD with Cu-K{sub {alpha}} radiation. From XRD analysis, it shows that the synthesis process can produce SiC powder. The synthesis product was subsequently used as reinforcement particle. Aluminum powder was mixed with 5, 10 and 15% of the synthesized powder, and then uni-axially compacted at pressure of 300 MPa. The compacted product was sintered for 2 hours in argon atmosphere at temperature variation of 550 and 600 deg. C. Flexural strength, hardness and density of MMC ALFA's product were respectively evaluated using a four point bending test method based on ASTM C1161 standard, Brinell hardness scale and Archimedes method. The result of this study shows that the increase of weight of reinforcement can significantly increase the hardness and flexural strength of MMCs. The highest hardness and flexural strength of the MMC product are 300 kg/mm{sup 2} and 107.5 MPa, respectively.

  14. RC beams shear-strengthened with fabric-reinforced-cementitious-matrix (FRCM) composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loreto, Giovanni; Babaeidarabad, Saman; Leardini, Lorenzo; Nanni, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    The interest in retrofit/rehabilitation of existing concrete structures has increased due to degradation and/or introduction of more stringent design requirements. Among the externally-bonded strengthening systems fiber-reinforced polymers is the most widely known technology. Despite its effectiveness as a material system, the presence of an organic binder has some drawbacks that could be addressed by using in its place a cementitious binder as in fabric-reinforced cementitious matrix (FRCM) systems. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) beams strengthened in shear with U-wraps made of FRCM. An extensive experimental program was undertaken in order to understand and characterize this composite when used as a strengthening system. The laboratory results demonstrate the technical viability of FRCM for shear strengthening of RC beams. Based on the experimental and analytical results, FRCM increases shear strength but not proportionally to the number of fabric plies installed. On the other hand, FRCM failure modes are related with a high consistency to the amount of external reinforcement applied. Design considerations based on the algorithms proposed by ACI guidelines are also provided.

  15. Properties of Graphite Fiber Reinforced Copper Matrix Composites for Space Power Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, David L.

    1992-01-01

    The thermal and mechanical properties of pitch-based graphite fiber reinforced copper matrix (Gr/Cu) composites usable for space applications such as radiator fins were investigated. Thermal conductivity was measured as a function of fiber volume fraction and architecture. Results showed for unidirectional P-100 Gr/Cu composites, the longitudinal thermal conductivity was nearly independent of fiber volume fraction. Transverse thermal conductivities (perpendicular to the fibers) were strongly affected by the fiber volume fraction with higher volume fractions resulting in lower thermal conductivities. The effect of architecture on thermal conductivity followed the cosine squared law for simple architectures. Insufficient data are available currently to model more complex architectures, but adding fibers in the direction of the heat flow increases the thermal conductivity as low conductivity plies are supplemented by high conductivity plies. Thermal expansion tests were conducted on the Gr fibers and Gr/Cu composites. The results show a considerable thermal expansion mismatch between the fibers and the Cu matrix. The longitudinal thermal expansion showed a strong dependence on the architecture of the Gr/Cu composites. The composites also show a thermal expansion hysteresis. The hysteresis was eliminated by an engineered interface. Mechanical testing concentrated on the dynamic modulus and strength of the composites. The dynamic modulus of the Gr/Cu composites was 305 GPa up to 400 C, a value equivalent to Be. The strengths of the composites were less than expected, but this is attributed to the poor bond across the interface between the Gr fibers and Cu matrix. Testing of composites with an engineered interface is expected to yield strengths nearer the values predicted by the rule of mixtures.

  16. Microstructure and properties of alumina-whisker-reinforced tetragonal zirconia polycrystal matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, J.M.; Singh, J.P. ); Scattergood, R.O. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1991-01-01

    With the increasing demand of today's technology, there is a growing need for high temperature materials with improved fracture toughness. Whisker-reinforced ceramic composites are materials with potentially high fracture toughness. Many whisker-matrix systems are possible, but the choices for toughened composites are limited by such considerations as chemical compatibility and thermal expansion mismatch. In view of the high fracture toughness of tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (TZP) matrix, many investigators have successfully attempted to improve the mechanical properties of yttria stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (Y-TZP) with the addition of strong, single crystal SiC whiskers. The primary objective of this work was to place Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} whiskers into an Y-TZP matrix and study the toughening effects on the new composite. This particular system was chosen because of the high strength and reasonably high toughness inherent within Y-TZP and potentially high strength obtainable within a single crystal alumina. This, combined with an agreeable thermal expansion mismatch, could theoretically produce a composite of exceptionally high toughness. 14 refs., 7 figs.

  17. Influence of thermal residual stress on behaviour of metal matrix composites reinforced with particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzmán, R. E.; Hernández Arroyo, E.

    2016-02-01

    The properties of a metallic matrix composites materials (MMC's) reinforced with particles can be affected by different events occurring within the material in a manufacturing process. The existence of residual stresses resulting from the manufacturing process of these materials (MMC's) can markedly differentiate the curves obtained in tensile tests obtained from compression tests. One of the themes developed in this work is the influence of residual stresses on the mechanical behaviour of these materials. The objective of this research work presented is numerically estimate the thermal residual stresses using a unit cell model for the Mg ZC71 alloy reinforced with SiC particles with volume fraction of 12% (hot-forging technology). The MMC's microstructure is represented as a three dimensional prismatic cube-shaped with a cylindrical reinforcing particle located in the centre of the prism. These cell models are widely used in predicting stress/strain behaviour of MMC's materials, in this analysis the uniaxial stress/strain response of the composite can be obtained through the calculation using the commercial finite-element code.

  18. Specimen Preparation for Metal Matrix Composites with a High Volume Fraction of Reinforcing Particles for EBSD Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, A. S.; Belozerov, G. A.; Smirnova, E. O.; Konovalov, A. V.; Shveikin, V. P.; Muizemnek, O. Yu.

    2016-06-01

    The paper deals with a procedure of preparing a specimen surface for the EBSD analysis of a metal matrix composite (MMC) with a high volume fraction of reinforcing particles. Unlike standard procedures of preparing a specimen surface for the EBSD analysis, the proposed procedure is iterative with consecutive application of mechanical and electrochemical polishing. This procedure significantly improves the results of an indexed MMC matrix in comparison with the standard procedure of specimen preparation. The procedure was verified on a MMC with pure aluminum (99.8% Al) as the matrix, SiC particles being used as reinforcing elements. The average size of the SiC particles is 14 μm, and their volume fraction amounts to 50% of the total volume of the composite. It has been experimentally found that, for making the EBSD analysis of a material matrix near reinforcing particles, the difference in height between the particles and the matrix should not exceed 2 µm.

  19. Specimen Preparation for Metal Matrix Composites with a High Volume Fraction of Reinforcing Particles for EBSD Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, A. S.; Belozerov, G. A.; Smirnova, E. O.; Konovalov, A. V.; Shveikin, V. P.; Muizemnek, O. Yu.

    2016-07-01

    The paper deals with a procedure of preparing a specimen surface for the EBSD analysis of a metal matrix composite (MMC) with a high volume fraction of reinforcing particles. Unlike standard procedures of preparing a specimen surface for the EBSD analysis, the proposed procedure is iterative with consecutive application of mechanical and electrochemical polishing. This procedure significantly improves the results of an indexed MMC matrix in comparison with the standard procedure of specimen preparation. The procedure was verified on a MMC with pure aluminum (99.8% Al) as the matrix, SiC particles being used as reinforcing elements. The average size of the SiC particles is 14 μm, and their volume fraction amounts to 50% of the total volume of the composite. It has been experimentally found that, for making the EBSD analysis of a material matrix near reinforcing particles, the difference in height between the particles and the matrix should not exceed 2 µm.

  20. Influence of oxide reinforcement materials on high-temperatue oxidation resistance of Ni sub 3 A1 matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Tortorelli, P.F.; DeVan, J.H.; McKamey, C.G.; Howell, M.

    1990-01-01

    The oxidation resistance of Ni{sub 3}Al-based metal matrix composites was studied in high-temperature air under isothermal and thermal cycling conditions as a function of the composition and form of oxide reinforcement material. The incorporation of oxide fibers Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, HfO{sub 2}, or Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}--ZrO{sub 2} or particles into the Ni{sub 3}Al matrix led to oxidation rates significantly greater than that for the monolithic aluminide. The increase in susceptibility was primarily due to internal oxidation along the fiber- (or particle-) matrix interfaces and depended on the type of reinforcement material and its deposition in the matrix. The results suggest that the choice of reinforcement material and the method of materials processing will be important considerations in the design of oxidation-resistant Ni{sub 3}Al composites. 10 refs, 4 figs.

  1. Properties of advanced fibers for reinforcing metal and ceramic matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, J.

    1993-12-31

    The mechanical properties of ceramic reinforcing fibers need to be well characterized before their incorporation into composite materials. Critical fiber properties include strength and Weibull modulus, bundle strength, modulus and creep resistance. Important composite properties include thermochemical stability, interface debond energy and interfacial sliding resistance. Tailoring these interfacial properties by fiber coating can, in turn, influence fiber properties. Methods of measuring strength related properties are addressed and the results of a computer simulation to assess the quality of measured data statistically are presented. The readily available monofilament fibers are mostly chemically vapor deposited (CVD) silicon carbide. Current aerospace programs have identified the need for new ceramic fibers as enabling materials for their success. Alternate fibers such as sapphire are therefore currently under development with several objectives including: a CTE greater than that of SiC, higher strength and creep resistance, and chemical stability in new candidate matrices. The strength of a ceramic fiber is statistical, being determined by the largest flaw in the flaw population of the tested length of fiber. In a brittle matrix material such as an intermetallic, for toughening by continuous fiber reinforcement, fibers need to exhibit pull-out during matrix crack propagation. However, the stress distribution along a bridging fiber has a maximum in the crack plane and for fiber failure to occur away from the crack plane, a prerequisite for pull-out, a weak link must also exist away from the crack plane.

  2. Process for the manufacture of seamless metal-clad fiber-reinforced organic matrix composite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bluck, Raymond M. (Inventor); Bush, Harold G. (Inventor); Johnson, Robert R. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A process for producing seamless metal-clad composite structures includes providing a hollow, metallic inner member and an outer sleeve to surround the inner member and define an inner space therebetween. A plurality of continuous reinforcing fibers is attached to the distal end of the outside diameter of the inner member, and the inner member is then introduced, distal end first, into one end of the outer sleeve. The inner member is then moved, distal end first, into the outer sleeve until the inner member is completely enveloped by the outer sleeve. A liquid matrix material is then injected into the space containing the reinforcing fibers between the inner member and the outer sleeve. Next a pressurized heat transfer medium is passed through the inner member to cure the liquid matrix material. Finally, the wall thickness of both the inner member and the outer sleeve are reduced to desired dimensions by chemical etching, which adjusts the thermal expansion coefficient of the metal-clad composite structure to a desired value.

  3. Evolution of In-Situ Generated Reinforcement Precipitates in Metal Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sen, S.; Kar, S. K.; Catalina, A. V.; Stefanescu, D. M.; Dhindaw, B. K.

    2004-01-01

    Due to certain inherent advantages, in-situ production of Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs) have received considerable attention in the recent past. ln-situ techniques typically involve a chemical reaction that results in precipitation of a ceramic reinforcement phase. The size and spatial distribution of these precipitates ultimately determine the mechanical properties of these MMCs. In this paper we will investigate the validity of using classical growth laws and analytical expressions to describe the interaction between a precipitate and a solid-liquid interface (SLI) to predict the size and spatial evolution of the in-situ generated precipitates. Measurements made on size and distribution of Tic precipitates in a Ni&I matrix will be presented to test the validity of such an approach.

  4. Dry Sliding Wear Behaviour of Flyash Reinforced ZA-27 Alloy Based Metal Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, S. C.; Krishna, M.; Bhattacharyya, D.

    In the present investigation, an attempt has been made to evaluate the wear rate of ZA-27 alloy composites reinforced with fly ash particles from 1 to 3 wt% in steps of 1 wt%. The compo-casting method has been used to fabricate the composites using Raichur fly ash of average size 3-5 microns. The wear specimens are tested under dry conditions using a pin-on-disc sliding wear testing machine with wear loads of 20-120 N in steps of 20 N, and the sliding distances in the range of 0.5 km to 2.5 km. The results indicate that the wear rate of the composites is less than that of the matrix alloy and it further decreases with the increase in fly ash content. However, the material loss in terms of wear rate and wear volume increases with the increase in load and sliding distance, both in the cases of composites and the matrix alloy. An increase in the applied load increases the wear severity by changing the wear mechanism from abrasion to particle-cracking induced delamination wear. It is found that with the increase in fly ash content, the wear resistance increases monotonically. The observations have been explained using scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis of the worn surfaces of the composites.

  5. Abrasive wear behavior of a brittle matrix (MoSi2) composite reinforced with a ductile phase (Nb)

    SciTech Connect

    Alman, David E.; Hawk, Jeffrey A.

    2001-10-01

    The toughness of a variety of brittle ceramic and intermetallic matrices has been improved through the incorporation of ductile metallic reinforcements. In these composites resistance to catastrophic failure of the matrix is derived through a combination of mechanisms, including matrix crack bridging, matrix crack defection and rupturing of the ductile phase. The degree to which these mechanisms operate is a function of composite microstructure. In general, the ductile phase is softer than the matrix phase. This may have unique implications when the materials are subjected to a wear environment, whether intentional or not. Hence, it is important to understand the wear behavior of these new materials. MoSi2–Nb was selected as a model composite system, in part because of the wide body of open literature regarding this system. The influences of abrasive wear environment and the composite microstructure (Nb reinforcement size, shape and volume fraction) on the wear resistance of the composites are reported.

  6. Mechanical behavior of a continuous fiber reinforced aluminum matrix composite subjected to transverse and thermal loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jansson, S.; Leckie, F. A.

    1991-01-01

    The transverse properties of an aluminum alloy metal matrix composite reinforced by continuous alumina fibers were investigated. The composite is subjected to both mechanical and cyclic thermal loading. The results of an experimental program indicate that the shakedown concept of structural mechanics provides a means of describing the material behavior. When the loading conditions are within the shakedown region, the material finally responds in an elastic manner after initial plastic response, and for loading conditions outside the shakedown region, the material exhibits a rapid incremental plastic strain accumulation. The failure strain varies by an order of magnitude according to the operating conditions. Hence, for high mechanical and low thermal loading, the failure strains is small; for low mechanical and high thermal loading, the failure strain is large.

  7. A novel processing route for carbon nanotube reinforced glass-ceramic matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dassios, Konstantinos G.; Bonnefont, Guillaume; Fantozzi, Gilbert; Matikas, Theodore E.

    2015-03-01

    The current study reports the establishment of a novel feasible way for processing glass- and ceramic- matrix composites reinforced with carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The technique is based on high shear compaction of glass/ceramic and CNT blends in the presence of polymeric binders for the production of flexible green bodies which are subsequently sintered and densified by spark plasma sintering. The method was successfully applied on a borosilicate glass / multi-wall CNT composite with final density identical to that of the full-dense ceramic. Preliminary non-destructive evaluation of dynamic mechanical properties such as Young's and shear modulus and Poisson's ratio by ultrasonics show that property improvement maximizes up to a certain CNT loading; after this threshold is exceeded, properties degrade with further loading increase.

  8. Micromechanics and Structural Response of Functionally Graded, Particulate-Matrix, Fiber-Reinforced Composites

    PubMed Central

    Genin, Guy M.; Birman, Victor

    2009-01-01

    Reinforcement of fibrous composites by stiff particles embedded in the matrix offers the potential for simple, economical functional grading, enhanced response to mechanical loads, and improved functioning at high temperatures. Here, we consider laminated plates made of such a material, with spherical reinforcement tailored by layer. The moduli for this material lie within relatively narrow bounds. Two separate moduli estimates are considered: a “two-step” approach in which fibers are embedded in a homogenized particulate matrix, and the Kanaun-Jeulin (2001) approach, which we re-derive in a simple way using the Benveniste (1988) method. Optimal tailoring of a plate is explored, and functional grading is shown to improve the performance of the structures considered. In the example of a square, simply supported, cross-ply laminated panel subjected to uniform transverse pressure, a modest functional grading offers significant improvement in performance. A second example suggests superior blast resistance of the panel achieved at the expense of only a small increase in weight. PMID:23874001

  9. Jet Electrochemical Machining of Particle Reinforced Aluminum Matrix Composites with Different Neutral Electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackert-Oschätzchen, M.; Lehnert, N.; Martin, A.; Schubert, A.

    2016-03-01

    Conventional mechanical machining of particle reinforced aluminum matrix composites (AMCs) is challenging because the hard ceramic particles in the soft aluminum matrix lead to an increased tool wear. Furthermore, the mechanical and thermal impact during conventional machining affects the microstructure of the AMCs. Electrochemical machining (ECM) is an alternative method to machine AMCs. Based on anodic dissolution, ECM has a slight influence on the work piece material structure and is independent of material strength and hardness. So the microstructure of the work piece remains unaffected. One method of ECM is electrochemical machining with continuous electrolytic free jet (Jet-ECM). Hereby the electrochemical removal is localized by the geometry of the electrolyte jet. By moving the electrolyte jet micro-structures and microgeometries can be generated quickly and flexibly in metallic parts [1]. Another advantage of Jet-ECM is the low consumption of electrolyte which allows an easy and inexpensive change of electrolyte for investigations with different types of electrolyte. In this study AMCs reinforced with different amounts of SiC-particles are machined with two pH-neutral electrolytes using Jet-ECM. The results provide information about the suitability of the selected electrolytes for the machining of AMCs. In addition, the influence of the particle content on the electrochemical removal result will be evaluated.

  10. Reuse of EAF Slag as Reinforcing Filler for Polypropylene Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornacchia, G.; Agnelli, S.; Gelfi, M.; Ramorino, G.; Roberti, R.

    2015-06-01

    Electric-arc furnace (EAF) slag, the by-product of steel fabricated at the EAF, is in most cases still sent to dumps, with serious environmental consequences. This work shows an innovative, economically convenient application for EAF slag: its use as reinforcing filler for polypropylene. Composites based on polypropylene containing 10-40 wt.% of EAF slag particles were prepared by melt compounding followed by injection molding. A physical-chemical analysis of the EAF slag was performed to determine microstructural features and main component phases. Leaching tests demonstrated that, although EAF slag can release small amounts of toxic elements, such as heavy metals, incorporating such material into the polymeric matrix immobilizes the heavy metals inside that matrix. The mechanical characterization of the polymer-based composites was performed. Incorporating EAF slag particles raises the Young's modulus and the tensile strength at yield, whereas elongation at break and the impact strength of the polymer-based composite are significantly reduced only when large amounts of filler are added, i.e., 30% or more.

  11. Mechanics of interfaces in fiber reinforced SiC/RBSN ceramic matrix composites. [reaction bonded silicon nitride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chulya, Abhisak; Gyekenyesi, John P.

    1991-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of continuous fiber reinforced SiC/RBSN composites with strong and weak interface characteristics is evaluated. Both catastrophic and noncatastrophic failures are observed in tensile specimens. Effects of fiber/matrix interface debonding (splitting) parallel to the fibers are discussed. Micromechanical models incorporating residual stresses to calculate the critical matrix cracking strength, ultimate strength and work of pull-out are reviewed and used to predict composite response. Experimental results are compared to analytical predictions.

  12. Effects of Interface Modification on Mechanical Behavior of Hi-Nicalon Fiber-Reinforced Celsian Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Eldridge, Jeffrey I.

    1997-01-01

    Unidirectional celsian matrix composites having approx. 42 volume percent of uncoated or BN/SiC-coated Hi-Nicalon fibers were tested in three-point bend at room temperature. The uncoated fiber-reinforced composites showed catastrophic failure with strength of 210 +/- 35 MPa and a flat fracture surface. In contrast, composites reinforced with BN/SiC-coated fibers exhibited graceful failure with extensive fiber pullout. Values of first matrix cracking stress and strain were 435 +/- 35 MPa and 0.27 +/- 0.01 %, respectively, with ultimate strength as high as 960 MPa. The elastic Young's modulus of the uncoated and BN/SiC-coated fiber-reinforced composites were measured as 184 q 4 GPa and 165 +/- 5 GPa, respectively. Fiber push-through tests and microscopic examination indicated no chemical reaction at the uncoated or coated fiber-matrix interface. The low strength of the uncoated fiber-reinforced composite is probably due to degradation of the fibers from mechanical surface damage during processing. Because both the coated and uncoated fiber reinforced composites exhibited weak interfaces, the beneficial effect of the BN-SiC dual layer is primarily the protection of fibers from mechanical damage during processing.

  13. Experimental investigation of interface properties in SiC fiber-reinforced reaction-bonded silicon nitride matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Eldridge, J.I.; Bhatt, R.T.

    1995-10-01

    Interfacial properties of 1-D SiC/RBSN composites were measured by the matrix crack spacing method and by the fiber push-out method, and the results were compared. The composites consisted of 8 to 33 vol% of aligned SCS-6 SiC fibers (142 {micro}m diameter) in a relatively porous (20 to 40 vol%) Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} matrix. The effects of fiber volume fraction and test temperature on the interfacial properties have been investigated. The advantages and limitations of both methods in evaluating the interface properties of fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composites and the factors influencing the interfacial measurements are discussed.

  14. Microstructure and mechanical properties of 2D SiC-reinforced carbon matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Bourrat, X.; Evans, A.G.

    1995-10-01

    Fiber-reinforced composites consisting of combinations of SiC and C have been explored as materials having thermostructural characteristics suitable for elevated temperature applications. There are two opposing strategies. One uses C fibers and a matrix of SiC, usually produced by CVI. The other uses SiC fibers and a matrix consisting of C; those are designated CERACARB{trademark} and were studied in this paper. Among different grades of CERACARB{trademark} examined in this work, one has a high tensile strength and good notch resistance. This material has a relatively low interface sliding resistance, {tau} (10--15 MPa) and satisfies global load sharing (GLS) criteria for the ultimate tensile strength (UTS). The present designations for this material is LT. The second material, designated HT, has lower tensile strength and greater notch sensitivity. This material has a relatively large interface sliding resistance ({tau} {approx} 90MPa). This UTS loss is related to the addition of oxidation inhibitors (B{sub 4}C) as filler in the matrix. This work was focused on the structural investigation of this effect and the addition of a pyrocarbon interface to recover the right mechanical behavior (material LTC).

  15. Matrix Dominated Failure of Fiber-Reinforced Composite Laminates Under Static and Dynamic Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Joseph Daniel

    Hierarchical material systems provide the unique opportunity to connect material knowledge to solving specific design challenges. Representing the quickest growing class of hierarchical materials in use, fiber-reinforced polymer composites (FRPCs) offer superior strength and stiffness-to-weight ratios, damage tolerance, and decreasing production costs compared to metals and alloys. However, the implementation of FRPCs has historically been fraught with inadequate knowledge of the material failure behavior due to incomplete verification of recent computational constitutive models and improper (or non-existent) experimental validation, which has severely slowed creation and development. Noted by the recent Materials Genome Initiative and the Worldwide Failure Exercise, current state of the art qualification programs endure a 20 year gap between material conceptualization and implementation due to the lack of effective partnership between computational coding (simulation) and experimental characterization. Qualification processes are primarily experiment driven; the anisotropic nature of composites predisposes matrix-dominant properties to be sensitive to strain rate, which necessitates extensive testing. To decrease the qualification time, a framework that practically combines theoretical prediction of material failure with limited experimental validation is required. In this work, the Northwestern Failure Theory (NU Theory) for composite lamina is presented as the theoretical basis from which the failure of unidirectional and multidirectional composite laminates is investigated. From an initial experimental characterization of basic lamina properties, the NU Theory is employed to predict the matrix-dependent failure of composites under any state of biaxial stress from quasi-static to 1000 s-1 strain rates. It was found that the number of experiments required to characterize the strain-rate-dependent failure of a new composite material was reduced by an order of

  16. Nondestructive Evaluation of Advanced Fiber Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composites: A Technology Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yolken, H. Thomas; Matzkanin, George A.

    2009-01-01

    Because of their increasing utilization in structural applications, the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of advanced fiber reinforced polymer composites continues to receive considerable research and development attention. Due to the heterogeneous nature of composites, the form of defects is often very different from a metal and fracture mechanisms are more complex. The purpose of this report is to provide an overview and technology assessment of the current state-of-the-art with respect to NDE of advanced fiber reinforced polymer composites.

  17. Mechanical characterization of copper coated carbon nanotubes reinforced aluminum matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Maqbool, Adnan; Hussain, M. Asif; Khalid, F. Ahmad; Bakhsh, Nabi; Hussain, Ali; Kim, Myong Ho

    2013-12-15

    In this investigation, carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced aluminum composites were prepared by the molecular-level mixing process using copper coated CNTs. The mixing of CNTs was accomplished by ultrasonic mixing and ball milling. Electroless Cu-coated CNTs were used to enhance the interfacial bonding between CNTs and aluminum. Scanning electron microscope analysis revealed the homogenous dispersion of Cu-coated CNTs in the composite samples compared with the uncoated CNTs. The samples were pressureless sintered under vacuum followed by hot rolling to promote the uniform microstructure and dispersion of CNTs. In 1.0 wt.% uncoated and Cu-coated CNT/Al composites, compared to pure Al, the microhardness increased by 44% and 103%, respectively. As compared to the pure Al, for 1.0 wt.% uncoated CNT/Al composite, increase in yield strength and ultimate tensile strength was estimated about 58% and 62%, respectively. However, in case of 1.0 wt.% Cu-coated CNT/Al composite, yield strength and ultimate tensile strength were increased significantly about 121% and 107%, respectively. - Graphical Abstract: Copper coated CNTs were synthesized by the electroless plating process. Optimizing the plating bath to (1:1) by wt CNTs with Cu, thickness of Cu-coated CNTs has been reduced to 100 nm. Cu-coated CNTs developed the stronger interfacial bonding with the Al matrix which resulted in the efficient transfer of load. Highlights: • Copper coated CNTs were synthesized by the electroless plating process. • Thickness of Cu-coated CNTs has been reduced to 100 nm by optimized plating bath. • In 1.0 wt.% Cu-coated CNT/Al composite, microhardness increased by 103%. • Cu-coated CNTs transfer load efficiently with stronger interfacial bonding. • In 1.0 wt.% Cu-coated CNT/Al composite, Y.S and UTS increased by 126% and 105%.

  18. Carbon Nanotubes Reinforced Composites for Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Zhu, Yuhe; Liao, Susan; Li, Jiajia

    2014-01-01

    This review paper reported carbon nanotubes reinforced composites for biomedical applications. Several studies have found enhancement in the mechanical properties of CNTs-based reinforced composites by the addition of CNTs. CNTs reinforced composites have been intensively investigated for many aspects of life, especially being made for biomedical applications. The review introduced fabrication of CNTs reinforced composites (CNTs reinforced metal matrix composites, CNTs reinforced polymer matrix composites, and CNTs reinforced ceramic matrix composites), their mechanical properties, cell experiments in vitro, and biocompatibility tests in vivo. PMID:24707488

  19. Double layer oxidation resistant coating for carbon fiber reinforced silicon carbide matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, X. H.; Du, Y. G.; Xiao, J. Y.; Zhang, W. J.; Zhang, L. C.

    2009-01-01

    Double layer coatings, with celsian-Y 2SiO 5 as inner layer and Y 2Si 2O 7 as outer layer, were prepared by microwave sintering on the surface of carbon fiber reinforced silicon carbide matrix composite. Both celsian, Y 2SiO 5 and Y 2Si 2O 7 were synthesized by in situ method using BAS glass, Y 2O 3 and SiO 2 as staring materials. The sintering temperature was 1500 °C, and little damage was induced to the composite. The composition and micrograph of the fired coating were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The oxidation and thermal shock resistance of samples with doubled-layered coating were characterized at 1400 °C in air. After 150 min oxidation and thermal cycling between 1400 °C and room temperature for 15 times, the weight loss of double layer-coated sample was 1.22% and there were no cracks in the coating.

  20. Quasicrystalline particulate reinforced aluminum composite

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, I.E.; Biner, S.B.; Sordelet, D.J.; Unal, O.

    1997-07-01

    Particulate reinforced aluminum and aluminum alloy composites are rapidly emerging as new commercial materials for aerospace, automotive, electronic packaging and other high performance applications. However, their low processing ductility and difficulty in recyclability have been the key concern. In this study, two composite systems having the same aluminum alloy matrix, one reinforced with quasicrystals and the other reinforced with the conventional SiC reinforcements were produced with identical processing routes. Their processing characteristics and tensile mechanical properties were compared.

  1. Synthesis and Characterization of Ti3SiC2 Particulate-Reinforced Novel Zn Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, S.; Habib, M. A.; Dunnigan, R.; Kaabouch, N.; Ghosh, S.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we report the synthesis and characterization of novel Ti3SiC2-reinforced Zn matrix composites. All the composites were hot pressed at 500 °C for 5 min at a uniaxial pressure of ~150 MPa. Microstructure analysis by scanning electron microscopy and phase analysis by x-ray diffraction confirmed that there was minimal interfacial reaction between Ti3SiC2 particles and Zn matrix. The addition of Ti3SiC2 improved the tribological performance of these composites against alumina substrates but did not have any beneficial effect on the mechanical performance.

  2. Lifetime Response of a Hi-Nicalon Fiber-Reinforced Melt-Infiltrated SiC Matrix Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Becher, P.F.; Lin, H.T.; Singh, M.

    1999-04-25

    Lifetime studies in four-point flexure were performed on a Hi-NicalonTM fiber-reinforced SiC matrix composite over a temperature range of 700 degrees to 1150 degrees C in air. The composite consisted of ~40 vol. % Hi-NicalonTM fiber (8-harness weave) with a 0.5 Mu-m BN fiber coating and a melt-infiltration SiC matrix wand was tested with as-machined surfaces. Lifetime results indicated that the composite exhibited a stress-dependent lifetime at stress levels above an apparent fatigue limit, similar to the trend observed in CG-NicalonTM fiber reinforced CVI SiC matrix composites. At less than or equal to 950 degrees C, the lifetimes of Hi-Nicalon/MI SiC composites decreased with increasing applied stress level and test temperature. However, the lifetimes were extended as test temperature increased from 950 degees to 1150 degrees C as a result of surface crack sealing due to glass formation by the oxidation of Mi SiC matrix. The lifetime governing processes were, in general, attributed to the progressive oxidation of BN fiber coating and formation of glassy phase, which formed a strong bond between fiber and matrix, resulting in embrittlement of the composite with time.

  3. Fatigue damage growth mechanisms in continuous fiber reinforced titanium matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. S.; Naik, R. A.; Pollock, W. D.

    1990-01-01

    The role of fiber/matrix interface strength, residual thermal stresses, and fiber and matrix properties on fatigue damage accumulation in continuous fiber metal matrix composites (MMC) will be discussed. Results from titanium matrix/silicon-carbide fiber composites will be the primary topic of discussion. Results have been obtained from both notched and unnotched specimens at room and elevated temperatures. The stress in the 0 deg fibers has been indentified as the controlling factor in fatigue life. Fatigue of the notched specimens indicated that cracks can grow many fiber spacings in the matrix materials without breaking fibers.

  4. Fatigue damage growth mechanisms in continuous fiber reinforced titanium matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. S.; Naik, R. A.; Pollock, W. D.

    1990-01-01

    The role of fiber/matrix interface strength, residual thermal stresses, and fiber and matrix properties on fatigue damage accumulation in continuous fiber metal matrix composites (MMC) is discussed. Results from titanium matrix silicon carbide fiber composites is the primary topic of discussion. Results were obtained from both notched and unnotched specimens at room and elevated temperatures. The stress in the 0 deg fibers was identified as the controlling factor in fatigue life. Fatigue of the notched specimens indicated that cracks can grow in the matrix materials without breaking fibers.

  5. Effect of Matrix Modification on Interlaminar Shear Strength of Glass Fibre Reinforced Epoxy Composites at Cryogenic Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhixiong; Li, Jingwen; Huang, Chuanjun; Li, Laifeng

    In order to investigate the effect of the matrix variability on the interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) of glass fiber reinforced composites at 77K, three kinds of modifiers were employed to diethyl toluene diamine (DETD) cured diglycidyl ether of bisphenol F (DGEBF) epoxy resin system. The woven glass fiber reinforced composites were fabricated by vacuum pressure impregnation (VPI). The ILSS at 77 K was studied and the results indicated that introduction of modifiers used in this study can enhance the ILSS of composite at 77 K. A maximum of 14.87% increase was obtained by addition of 10 wt% IPBE into the epoxy matrix. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to investigate the fracture mechanism and strengthening effect.

  6. Application of weakest-link fracture statistics to fiber-reinforced ceramic-matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    McNulty, J.C.; Zok, F.W.

    1997-06-01

    The strength and reliability of fiber-reinforced ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs) are dependent on whether conditions of local or global load sharing prevail. Global load sharing is promoted by a low interfacial sliding stress and is manifested in a zero-tangent modulus at the point of tensile failure along with random fiber failures and extensive fiber pullout. In this paper, it is demonstrated that conditions of global load sharing are not present in two commonly studied CMCs, despite the fibrous appearance of their fracture surfaces. This behavior is manifested in a volume-dependent strength, as evidenced by strength differences measured in tension and flexure (accounting for the nonlinear stress distribution in flexure). Methods of weakest-link statistics are used to relate the strengths measured in the two test configurations. Estimates for the Weibull moduli of the two systems are obtained from the experiments and compared with values obtained through Monte Carlo simulations based on a three-dimensional-lattice Green`s function method. The implications of these results on the strength of large components and of small regions of high stress concentration are discussed briefly.

  7. Evaluation of the Technical-Economic Potential of Particle- Reinforced Aluminum Matrix Composites and Electrochemical Machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, A.; Götze, U.; Hackert-Oschätzchen, M.; Lehnert, N.; Herold, F.; Meichsner, G.; Schmidt, A.

    2016-03-01

    Compared to conventional cutting, the processing of materials by electrochemical machining offers some technical advantages like high surface quality, no thermal or mechanical impact on the work piece and preservation of the microstructure of the work piece material. From the economic point of view, the possibility of process parallelization and the absence of any process-related tool wear are mentionable advantages of electrochemical machining. In this study, based on experimental results, it will be evaluated to what extent the electrochemical machining is technically and economically suitable for the finish-machining of particle- reinforced aluminum matrix composites (AMCs). Initial studies showed that electrochemical machining - in contrast to other machining processes - has the potential to fulfil demanding requirements regarding precision and surface quality of products or components especially when applied to AMCs. In addition, the investigations show that processing of AMCs by electrochemical machining requires less energy than the electrochemical machining of stainless steel. Therefore, an evaluation of electrochemically machined AMCs - compared to stainless steel - from a technical and an economic perspective will be presented in this paper. The results show the potential of electro-chemically machined AMCs and contribute to the enhancement of instruments for technical-economic evaluations as well as a comprehensive innovation control.

  8. Microstructural study and densification analysis of hot work tool steel matrix composites reinforced with TiB{sub 2} particles

    SciTech Connect

    Fedrizzi, A.; Pellizzari, M.; Zadra, M.; Marin, E.

    2013-12-15

    Hot work tool steels are characterized by good toughness and high hot hardness but are less wear resistant than other tooling materials, such as high speed steel. Metal matrix composites show improved tribological behavior, but not much work has been done in the field of hot work tool steels. In this paper TiB{sub 2}-reinforced hot work tool steel matrix composites were produced by spark plasma sintering (SPS). Mechanical alloying (MA) was proposed as a suited process to improve the composite microstructure. Density measurements and microstructure confirmed that MA promotes sintering and produces a fine and homogeneous dispersion of reinforcing particles. X-ray diffraction patterns of the sintered composites highlighted the formation of equilibrium Fe{sub 2}B and TiC, as predicted by thermodynamic calculations using Thermo-Calc® software. Scanning electron microscopy as well as scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy highlighted the reaction of the steel matrix with TiB{sub 2} particles, showing the formation of a reaction layer at the TiB{sub 2}-steel interface. Phase investigations pointed out that TiB{sub 2} is not chemically stable in steel matrix because of the presence of carbon even during short time SPS. - Highlights: • TiB{sub 2} reinforced steel matrix composites were produced by spark plasma sintering. • TiB{sub 2} was successfully dispersed in the steel matrix by mechanical alloying. • Steel and TiB{sub 2} react during sintering forming equilibrium Fe{sub 2}B and TiC. • The new phases were investigated by means of AFM, Volta potential and XRD analyses.

  9. Thermomechanical Performance of C and SiC Multilayer, Fiber-Reinforced, CVI SiC Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morscher, Gregory N.; Singh, Mrityunjay

    2004-01-01

    Hybrid fiber approaches have been attempted in the past to alloy desirable properties of different fiber-types for mechanical properties, thermal stress management, and oxidation resistance. Such an approach has potential for the CrSiC and SiCrSiC composite systems. SiC matrix composites with different stacking sequences of woven C fiber (T300) layers and woven Sic fiber (Hi-NicalonTM) layers were fabricated using the standard CVI process. Delamination occurred to some extent due to thermal mismatch for all of the composites. However, for the composites with a more uniform stacking sequence, minimal delamination occurred, enabling tensile properties to be determined at room temperature and elevated temperatures (stress-rupture in air). Composites were seal-coated with a CVI SiC layer as well as a proprietary C-B-Si (CBS) layer. Definite improvement in rupture behavior was observed in air for composites with increasing SiC fiber content and a CBS layer. The results will be compared to standard C fiber reinforced CVI SiC matrix and Hi-Nicalon reinforced CVI SiC matrix composites.

  10. Interphase for ceramic matrix composites reinforced by non-oxide ceramic fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiCarlo, James A. (Inventor); Bhatt, Ramakrishna (Inventor); Morscher, Gregory N. (Inventor); Yun, Hee-Mann (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A ceramic matrix composite material is disclosed having non-oxide ceramic fibers, which are formed in a complex fiber architecture by conventional textile processes; a thin mechanically weak interphase material, which is coated on the fibers; and a non-oxide or oxide ceramic matrix, which is formed within the interstices of the interphase-coated fiber architecture. During composite fabrication or post treatment, the interphase is allowed to debond from the matrix while still adhering to the fibers, thereby providing enhanced oxidative durability and damage tolerance to the fibers and the composite material.

  11. Styrene-terminated polysulfone oligomers as matrix material for graphite reinforced composites: An initial study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Dana; Bowles, Kenneth J.; Vannucci, Raymond D.

    1987-01-01

    Styrene terminated polysulfone oligomers are part of an oligomeric class of compounds with end groups capable of thermal polymerization. These materials can be used as matrices for graphite reinforced composites. The initial evaluation of styrene terminated polysulfone oligomer based composites are summarized in terms of fabrication methods, and mechanical and environmental properties. In addition, a description and evaluation is provided of the NASA/Industry Fellowship Program for Technology Transfer.

  12. Approach to In- Situ Producing Reinforcing Phase Within an Active-Transient Liquid Phase Bond Seam for Aluminum Matrix Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guifeng; Liao, Xianjin; Chen, Bo; Zhang, Linjie; Zhang, Jianxun

    2015-06-01

    To optimize the braze composition design route for aluminum matrix composite, the feasibility of in situ producing reinforcing phase within the transient liquid phase bond seam matrix, by adding active melting point increaser (MPI, e.g., Ti) together with general melting point depressant (MPD, e.g., Cu) into the interlayer, was demonstrated. For SiC p /A356 composite, by comparing the wettability, joint microstructure, joint shear strength, and fracture path for the developed Al-19Cu-1Ti, Al-19Cu, Al-33Cu-1Ti, Al-33Cu (wt pct), and commercial Cu foils as interlayer, the feasibility of in situ producing reinforcing phase within the bond seam by adding Ti was demonstrated. Especially for Al-19Cu-1Ti active braze, small and dispersed ternary aluminide of Al-Si-Ti phase was obtained within the bond seam as in situ reinforcement, leading to a favorable fracture path within SiC p /A356, not along the initial interface or within the bond seam. For the formation mechanism of the in situ reinforcing phase of MPI-containing intermetallic compound within the bond seam, a model of repeating concentration-precipitation-termination-engulfment during isothermal solidification is proposed.

  13. Mechanical characterization and modeling of non-linear deformation and fracture of a fiber reinforced metal matrix composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jansson, S.

    1991-01-01

    The nonlinear anisotropic mechanical behavior of an aluminum alloy metal matrix composite reinforced with continuous alumina fibers was determined experimentally. The mechanical behavior of the composite were modeled by assuming that the composite has a periodical microstructure. The resulting unit cell problem was solved with the finite element method. Excellent agreement was found between theoretically predicted and measured stress-strain responses for various tensile and shear loadings. The stress-strain responses for transverse and inplane shear were found to be identical and this will provide a simplification of the constitutive equations for the composite. The composite has a very low ductility in transverse tension and a limited ductility in transverse shear that was correlated to high hydrostatic stresses that develop in the matrix. The shape of the initial yield surface was calculated and good agreement was found between the calculated shape and the experimentally determined shape.

  14. Understanding the interdiffusion behavior and determining the long term stability of tungsten fiber reinforced niobium-base matrix composite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tien, John K.

    1990-01-01

    The long term interdiffusional stability of tungsten fiber reinforced niobium alloy composites is addressed. The matrix alloy that is most promising for use as a high temperature structural material for reliable long-term space power generation is Nb1Zr. As an ancillary project to this program, efforts were made to assess the nature and kinetics of interphase reaction between selected beryllide intermetallics and nickel and iron aluminides.

  15. Optimization of interface layers in the design of ceramic fiber reinforced metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doghri, I.; Jansson, S.; Leckie, F. A.; Lemaitre, J.

    1990-01-01

    The potential of using an interface layer to reduce thermal stresses in the matrix of composites with a mismatch in coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) of fiber and matrix was investigated. It was found that the performance of the layer can be defined by the product of the CTE and the thickness, and that a compensating layer with a sufficiently high CTE can reduce the thermal stresses in the matrix significantly. A practical procedure offering a window of candidate layer materials is proposed.

  16. Reduction of thermal stresses in continuous fiber reinforced metal matrix composites with interface layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jansson, S.; Leckie, F. A.

    1992-01-01

    The potential of using interface layer to reduce thermal stresses in the matrix of composites with a mismatch in coefficients of thermal expansion of fiber and matrix has been investigated. It was found that compliant layers, with properties of readily available materials, do not have the potential to reduce thermal stresses significantly. However, interface layers with high coefficient of thermal expansion can compensate for the mismatch and reduce thermal stresses in the matrix significantly.

  17. Reduction of thermal stresses in continuous fiber reinforced metal matrix composites with interface layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jansson, S.; Leckie, F. A.

    1990-01-01

    The potential of using an interface layer to reduce thermal stresses in the matrix of composites with a mismatch in coefficients of thermal expansion of fiber and matrix was investigated. It was found that compliant layers, with properties of readily available materials, do not have the potential to reduce thermal stresses significantly. However, interface layers with high coefficient of thermal expansion can compensate for the mismatch and reduce thermal stresses in the matrix significantly.

  18. Corrosion of Continuous Fiber Reinforced Aluminum Metal Matrix Composites (CF-AMCs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Shruti

    The first objective of this research is to study the atmospheric corrosion behavior of continuous reinforced aluminum matrix composites (CF-AMCs). The materials used for this research were alumina (Al2O3) and nickel (Ni) coated carbon (C) fibers reinforced AMCs. The major focus is to identify the correlation between atmospheric parameters and the corrosion rates of CF-AMCs in the multitude of microclimates and environments in Hawai'i. The micro-structures of CF-AMCs were obtained to correlate the microstructures with their corrosion performances. Also electrochemical polarization experiments were conducted in the laboratory to explain the corrosion mechanism of CF-AMCs. In addition, CF-AMCs were exposed to seven different test sites for three exposure periods. The various climatic conditions like temperature (T), relative humidity (RH), rainfall (RF), time of wetness (TOW), chloride (Cl- ) and sulfate (SO42-) deposition rate, and pH were monitored for three exposure period. Likewise, mass losses of CF-AMCs at each test site for three exposure periods were determined. The microstructure of the CF-AMCS showed that Al/C/50f MMCs contained a Ni-rich phase in the matrix, indicating that the Ni coating on the C fiber dissolved in the matrix. The intermetallic phases obtained in Al-2wt% Cu/Al 2O3/50f-T6 MMC and Al-2wt%-T6 monolith were rich in Cu and Fe. The intermetallic phases obtained in Al 7075/Al2O3/50f-T6 MMC and Al 7075-T6 monolith also contained traces of Mg, Zn, Ni, and Si. Electrochemical polarization experiment indicated that the Al/Al 2O3/50f Al-2wt% Cu/Al2O3/50f-T6 and Al 7075/Al2O3/50f-T6 MMC showed similar corrosion trends as their respective monoliths pure Al, Al-2wt%-T6 and Al 7075-T6 in both aerated and deaerated condition. Al2O3 fiber, being an insulator, did not have a great effect on the polarization behavior of the composites. Al/C/50f MMCs corroded at a much faster rate as compared to pure Al monolith due to the galvanic effect between C and Al

  19. Corrosion of Continuous Fiber Reinforced Aluminum Metal Matrix Composites (CF-AMCs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Shruti

    The first objective of this research is to study the atmospheric corrosion behavior of continuous reinforced aluminum matrix composites (CF-AMCs). The materials used for this research were alumina (Al2O3) and nickel (Ni) coated carbon (C) fibers reinforced AMCs. The major focus is to identify the correlation between atmospheric parameters and the corrosion rates of CF-AMCs in the multitude of microclimates and environments in Hawai'i. The micro-structures of CF-AMCs were obtained to correlate the microstructures with their corrosion performances. Also electrochemical polarization experiments were conducted in the laboratory to explain the corrosion mechanism of CF-AMCs. In addition, CF-AMCs were exposed to seven different test sites for three exposure periods. The various climatic conditions like temperature (T), relative humidity (RH), rainfall (RF), time of wetness (TOW), chloride (Cl- ) and sulfate (SO42-) deposition rate, and pH were monitored for three exposure period. Likewise, mass losses of CF-AMCs at each test site for three exposure periods were determined. The microstructure of the CF-AMCS showed that Al/C/50f MMCs contained a Ni-rich phase in the matrix, indicating that the Ni coating on the C fiber dissolved in the matrix. The intermetallic phases obtained in Al-2wt% Cu/Al 2O3/50f-T6 MMC and Al-2wt%-T6 monolith were rich in Cu and Fe. The intermetallic phases obtained in Al 7075/Al2O3/50f-T6 MMC and Al 7075-T6 monolith also contained traces of Mg, Zn, Ni, and Si. Electrochemical polarization experiment indicated that the Al/Al 2O3/50f Al-2wt% Cu/Al2O3/50f-T6 and Al 7075/Al2O3/50f-T6 MMC showed similar corrosion trends as their respective monoliths pure Al, Al-2wt%-T6 and Al 7075-T6 in both aerated and deaerated condition. Al2O3 fiber, being an insulator, did not have a great effect on the polarization behavior of the composites. Al/C/50f MMCs corroded at a much faster rate as compared to pure Al monolith due to the galvanic effect between C and Al

  20. Carbon nanofiber reinforced epoxy matrix composites and syntactic foams - mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poveda, Ronald Leonel

    The tailorability of composite materials is crucial for use in a wide array of real-world applications, which range from heat-sensitive computer components to fuselage reinforcement on commercial aircraft. The mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties of composites are highly dependent on their material composition, method of fabrication, inclusion orientation, and constituent percentages. The focus of this work is to explore carbon nanofibers (CNFs) as potential nanoscale reinforcement for hollow particle filled polymer composites referred to as syntactic foams. In the present study, polymer composites with high weight fractions of CNFs, ranging from 1-10 wt.%, are used for quasi-static and high strain rate compression analysis, as well as for evaluation and characterization of thermal and electrical properties. It is shown that during compressive characterization of vapor grown carbon nanofiber (CNF)/epoxy composites in the strain rate range of 10-4-2800 s-1, a difference in the fiber failure mechanism is identified based on the strain rate. Results from compression analyses show that the addition of fractions of CNFs and glass microballoons varies the compressive strength and elastic modulus of epoxy composites by as much as 53.6% and 39.9%. The compressive strength and modulus of the syntactic foams is also shown to generally increase by a factor of 3.41 and 2.96, respectively, with increasing strain rate when quasi-static and high strain rate testing data are compared, proving strain rate sensitivity of these reinforced composites. Exposure to moisture over a 6 month period of time is found to reduce the quasi-static and high strain rate strength and modulus, with a maximum of 7% weight gain with select grades of CNF/syntactic foam. The degradation of glass microballoons due to dealkalization is found to be the primary mechanism for reduced mechanical properties, as well as moisture diffusion and weight gain. In terms of thermal analysis results, the

  1. Fundamental Studies of Low Velocity Impact Resistance of Graphite Fiber Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composites. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, K. J.

    1985-01-01

    A study was conducted to relate the impact resistance of graphite fiber reinforced composites with matrix properties through gaining an understanding of the basic mechanics involved in the deformation and fracture process, and the effect of the polymer matrix structure on these mechanisms. It was found that the resin matrix structure influences the composite impact resistance in at least two ways. The integration of flexibilizers into the polymer chain structure tends to reduce the T sub g and the mechanical properties of the polymer. The reduction in the mechanical properties of the matrix does not enhance the composite impact resistance because it allows matrix controlled failure to initiate impact damage. It was found that when the instrumented dropweight impact tester is used as a means for assessing resin toughness, the resin toughness is enhanced by the ability of the clamped specimen to deflect enough to produce sufficient membrane action to support a significant amount of the load. The results of this study indicate that crossplied composite impact resistance is very much dependent on the matrix mechanical properties.

  2. Modeling the Effect of Oxidation on Tensile Strength of Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Ceramic-Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longbiao, Li

    2015-12-01

    An analytical method has been developed to investigate the effect of oxidation on the tensile strength of carbon fiber - reinforced ceramic - matrix composites (CMCs). The Budiansky - Hutchinson - Evans shear - lag model was used to describe the micro stress field of the damaged composite considering fibers failure. The statistical matrix multicracking model and fracture mechanics interface debonding criterion were used to determine the matrix crack spacing and interface debonded length. The fiber strength degradation model and oxidation region propagation model have been adopted to analyze the oxidation effect on tensile strength of the composite, which is controlled by diffusion of oxygen gas through matrix cracks. Under tensile loading, the fibers failure probabilities were determined by combining oxidation model and fiber statistical failure model based on the assumption that fiber strength is subjected to two-parameter Weibull distribution and the loads carried by broken and intact fibers statisfy the global load sharing criterion. The composite can no longer support the applied load when the total loads supported by broken and intact fibers approach its maximum value. The conditions of a single matrix crack and matrix multicrackings for tensile strength considering oxidation time and temperature have been analyzed.

  3. Computational Simulation of Continuous Fiber-Reinforced Ceramic Matrix Composites Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Chamis, Christos C.; Mital, Subodh K.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes a methodology which predicts the behavior of ceramic matrix composites and has been incorporated in the computational tool CEMCAN (CEramic Matrix Composite ANalyzer). The approach combines micromechanics with a unique fiber substructuring concept. In this new concept, the conventional unit cell (the smallest representative volume element of the composite) of the micromechanics approach is modified by substructuring it into several slices and developing the micromechanics-based equations at the slice level. The methodology also takes into account nonlinear ceramic matrix composite (CMC) behavior due to temperature and the fracture initiation and progression. Important features of the approach and its effectiveness are described by using selected examples. Comparisons of predictions and limited experimental data are also provided.

  4. Metal Matrix Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, Warren; Herling, Darrell R.

    2004-02-01

    Metal matrix composites have found selected application in areas that can cost-effectively capitalize on improvements in specific stiffness, specific strength, fatigue resistance, wear resistance, and coefficient of thermal expansion. Metal matrix composites comprise a relatively wide range of materials defined by the metal matrix, reinforcement type, and reinforcement geometry. In the area of the matrix, most metallic systems have been explored, including aluminum, beryllium, magnesium, titanium, iron, nickel, cobalt, and silver. However, aluminum is by far the most preferred. For reinforcements, the materials are typically ceramics, which provide a very beneficial combination of stiffness, strength, and relatively low density. Candidate reinforcement materials include SiC, Al2O3, B4C, TiC, TiB2, graphite, and a number of other ceramics. In addition, metallic materials such as tungsten and steel fibers have been considered.

  5. Mechanical Properties of High Purity SiC Fiber-Reinforced CVI-SiC Matrix Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Hinoki, Tatsuya; Lara-Curzio, Edgar; Snead, Lance L.

    2003-07-15

    Mechanical properties of silicon carbide composites reinforced with highly crystalline fibers and fabricated by the chemical vapor infiltration method were evaluated. Materials used were SiC/SiC composites reinforced with unidirectional Hi-Nicalon Type-S fibers and unidirectional Tyranno SA fibers with various fiber/matrix interphase. Also, SiC/SiC composites reinforced with plain weave Tyranno SA fibers with carbon or multilayers of silicon carbide and carbon interphase were evaluated. In-plane tensile, transthickness tensile and interlaminar shear properties were evaluated by the in-plane tensile test, the transthickness tensile test, the diametral compression test and the compression test of double-notched specimens.The elastic modulus and proportional limit stress were improved by using high purity silicon carbide fibers. The in-plane tensile properties were insensitive to carbon interphase thickness for a range of thicknesses between 30 and 230 nm. It was found that the in-plane tensile strength of composites containing multilayers of silicon carbide and carbon coating of fibers and fiber bundles was superior to that of composites with carbon alone. Transthickness tensile strength and shear strength of high purity silicon carbide composites were successfully evaluated.

  6. Tensile Properties of Nano AL2O3 Particulate-Reinforced Aluminum Matrix Composites by Mechanical Alloying and Hot Extrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehdinia, M.; Jenabali Jahromi, S. A.

    The powder of the micro Al and variant volume fractions of nano Al2O3 were milled by a high energy planetary ball-mill. By milling, a homogenous distribution of nano Al2O3 particles in the metal matrix were developed. Then the milled powder was cold compressed and sintered at 545°C for one hr. The mold and the sintered sample hold in a furnace until the temperature reached 545°C. Then the hot 27mm diameter sample was extruded to 6mm diameter. From the extruded specimens, tensile, hardness and microstructure of the prepared specimens were determined. By these tests the effect of milling time, the percent of nano-particles and the microstructure were evaluated. The hardness and tensile behaviors of aluminum matrix composites reinforced with nano Al2O3 particulate have been found to increase remarkably with the volume fraction of the reinforcement.

  7. Micromechanics for particulate reinforced composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Goldberg, Robert K.; Mital, Subodh K.

    1996-01-01

    A set of micromechanics equations for the analysis of particulate reinforced composites is developed using the mechanics of materials approach. Simplified equations are used to compute homogenized or equivalent thermal and mechanical properties of particulate reinforced composites in terms of the properties of the constituent materials. The microstress equations are also presented here to decompose the applied stresses on the overall composite to the microstresses in the constituent materials. The properties of a 'generic' particulate composite as well as those of a particle reinforced metal matrix composite are predicted and compared with other theories as well as some experimental data. The micromechanics predictions are in excellent agreement with the measured values.

  8. Applicability of ultrasonic testing for the determination of volume fraction of particulates in alumina-reinforced aluminum matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, C.K.; Fang, R.L.; Weng, W.P.; Chuang, T.H.

    1999-10-01

    An ultrasonic testing technique was employed to determine the volume fraction of alumina particulate reinforcement in 6061 aluminum matrix composites. this study was performed on various composites with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nominal volume fractions of 10, 15, and 20%. For comparison, other techniques were employed as well, including the Archimedes method, metallographic image analysis, X-ray diffraction, and acid dissolution. Observations indicated that ultrasonic testing and acid dissolution methods are more reliable than the other techniques, while ultrasonic testing is faster than the acid dissolution method.

  9. Damage Mechanisms of a TiB2-Reinforced Steel Matrix Composite for Lightweight Automotive Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y. Z.; Luo, Z. C.; Yi, H. L.; Huang, M. X.

    2016-05-01

    The microscopic strain-and-stress fields related to primary and eutectic particles in a lightweight steel matrix composite (SMC) produced by in situ precipitation of TiB2 particles during solidification were investigated by means of microscale digital image correlation and finite element method. The damage process in this SMC is a sequential process of primary particles cracking, the fracture of the surrounding eutectic particles, and finally the growth and coalescence of voids in the ferrite matrix.

  10. The high frequency fatigue behavior of continuous-fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chawla, Nikhilesh

    Many potential applications for continuous fiber ceramic matrix composites (CFCMCs), such as gas turbines and heat exchangers, will involve high frequency cyclic loading (75 Hz or higher). While most of the work in the area of fatigue of CFCMCs has concentrated on low frequency behavior, it has been shown that fatigue at high frequencies can exacerbate the accumulation of microstructural damage and significantly decrease fatigue life. "Soft" matrix composites with strong interface bonding provided superior resistance to high frequency fatigue damage. Nicalon/SiCON composites with strong interfacial bonding between the fibers and matrix exhibited very little internal heating during high frequency fatigue loading. This composite system exhibited excellent fatigue life, with fatigue runout at 10sp7 cycles occurring for stresses close to 80% of the ultimate strength (at a loading frequency of 100 Hz). Thick fiber coatings may be more effective in reducing the amount of fiber wear and damage which occur during high frequency fatigue. More effective lubrication at the fiber/matrix interface was achieved with thicker carbon coatings in Nicalon/C/SiC composites subjected to high frequency fatigue loading. Composites with thicker coatings exhibited substantially lower frictional heating and had much higher fatigue lives. The effect of laminate stacking sequence had a significant effect on the high frequency fatigue behavior of CFCMCs. In SCS-6/Sisb3Nsb4 composites, frictional heating in angle-ply laminates (±45) was substantially higher than that in cross-ply laminates (0/90). Since the angle-ply had a lower stiffness, matrix microcracking in this composite was more predominant. Finally, preliminary fatigue damage mechanism maps for CFCMCs were developed. These maps provided a means to identify which fatigue mechanisms were operating at a given stress level and number of cycles.

  11. Creep and Stress-strain Behavior After Creep from Sic Fiber Reinforced, Melt-infiltrated Sic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morscher, Gregory N.; Pujar, Vijay

    2004-01-01

    Silicon carbide fiber (Hi-Nicalon Type S, Nippon Carbon) reinforced silicon carbide matrix composites containing melt-infiltrated Si were subjected to creep at 1315 C for a number of different stress conditions, This study is aimed at understanding the time-dependent creep behavior of CMCs for desired use-conditions, and also more importantly, how the stress-strain response changes as a result of the time-temperature-stress history of the crept material. For the specimens that did not rupture, fast fracture experiments were performed at 1315 C or at room temperature immediately following tensile creep. In many cases, the stress-strain response and the resulting matrix cracking stress of the composite change due to stress-redistribution between composite constituents during tensile creep. The paper will discuss these results and its implications on applications of these materials for turbine engine components.

  12. Optimization of the strength-fracture toughness relation in particulate-reinforced aluminum composites via control of the matrix microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, I.; McNelley, T. R.; Nagarajan, R.; Quiles, F. N.

    1998-09-01

    The evolution of the microstructure and mechanical properties of a 17.5 vol. pct SiC particulate-reinforced aluminum alloy 6092-matrix composite has been studied as a function of postfabrication processing and heat treatment. It is demonstrated that, by the control of particulate distribution, matrix grain, and substructure and of the matrix precipitate state, the strength-toughness combination in the composite can be optimized over a wide range of properties, without resorting to unstable, underaged (UA) matrix microstructures, which are usually deemed necessary to produce a higher fracture toughness than that displayed in the peak-aged condition. Further, it is demonstrated that, following an appropriate combination of thermomechanical processing and unconventional heat treatment, the composite may possess better stiffness, strength, and fracture toughness than a similar unreinforced alloy. In the high- and low-strength matrix microstructural conditions, the matrix grain and substructure were found to play a substantial role in determining fracture properties. However, in the intermediate-strength regime, properties appeared to be optimizable by the utilization of heat treatments only. These observations are rationalized on the basis of current understanding of the grain size dependence of fracture toughness and the detailed microstructural features resulting from thermomechanical treatments.

  13. Numerical simulations of interfacial debonding in ductile-phase reinforced intermetallic matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Henshall, G.A.; Zywicz, E.; Strum, M.J.

    1993-08-10

    The fracture toughness of brittle intermetallic compounds can be improved by ductile-phase reinforcements. Effectiveness of the ductile phase in bridging cracks, and therefore increasing, the composite toughness, is known qualitatively to depend upon the extent of debonding, between the two phases. Numerical crack-growth simulations are used here to provide semi-quantitative predictions of the influence of interfacial debonding on the macroscopic stress-displacement behavior and, hence, the fracture toughness of an idealized Pb/glass composite. The interfacial toughness required to cause debonding, characterized by a constant critical energy release rate, is varied parametrically. As expected, higher interfacial toughness results in less interphase debonding, higher composite strength, and greater ductile-phase constraint. Consequently, the increase in ductile-phase triaxiality can potentially accelerate internal void formation and growth or facilitate cleavage fracture, either of which would likely decrease the toughness of the composite.

  14. Corrosion Behavior of Ti-Based In Situ Dendrite-Reinforced Metallic Glass Matrix Composites in Various Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, F.; Tian, H. F.; Lan, A. D.; Zhou, H. F.; Wang, B. C.; Yang, H. J.; Qiao, J. W.

    2015-06-01

    The electrochemical corrosion behaviors of Ti40Zr24V12Cu5Be19 in situ dendrite-reinforced metallic glass matrix composites (MGMCs) were investigated by potentiodynamic polarization experiments and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in acidic, salty, and alkaline solutions. Ti40Zr24V12Cu5Be19 in situ dendrite-reinforced MGMCs have an impressive corrosion resistance in strong acidic environment, while their performance was not so great in strong alkaline environment. Further immersion test in same solutions revealed similar chemical corrosion behaviors. XRD and SEM examinations were conducted to check the structure and surface modification of the material during the corrosion process. EDS test indicated that the amorphous matrices, which show excellent corrosion resistance, have a considerable composition variation from its crystalline dendrites counterpart.

  15. Thermal conductivity and thermal expansion of graphite fiber-reinforced copper matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, David L.; Mcdanels, David L.

    1993-01-01

    The high specific conductivity of graphite fiber/copper matrix (Gr/Cu) composites offers great potential for high heat flux structures operating at elevated temperatures. To determine the feasibility of applying Gr/Cu composites to high heat flux structures, composite plates were fabricated using unidirectional and cross-plied pitch-based P100 graphite fibers in a pure copper matrix. Thermal conductivity of the composites was measured from room temperature to 1073 K, and thermal expansion was measured from room temperature to 1050 K. The longitudinal thermal conductivity, parallel to the fiber direction, was comparable to pure copper. The transverse thermal conductivity, normal to the fiber direction, was less than that of pure copper and decreased with increasing fiber content. The longitudinal thermal expansion decreased with increasing fiber content. The transverse thermal expansion was greater than pure copper and nearly independent of fiber content.

  16. Consolidation of Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Aluminum Matrix Composites by High-Pressure Torsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asgharzadeh, Hamed; Joo, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Hyoung Seop

    2014-08-01

    Al-3 vol pct carbon nanotube (CNT) composites are fabricated by consolidation through high-pressure torsion (HPT) at room temperature. The densification behavior, microstructural evolution, and mechanical properties of Al/CNT composites are studied. The results show that density and microstructural homogeneity increase with increasing number of revolutions under a high pressure of 6 GPa. Substantial grain refinement is achieved after 10 turns of HPT with an average grain thickness of ~38 nm perpendicular to the compression axis of HPT. The Al/CNT composite shows a considerable increase in hardness and strength compared to the Al matrix. The strengthening mechanisms of the Al/CNT composite are found to be (i) grain refinement of Al matrix and (ii) Orowan looping. Raman spectroscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy reveal that the structure of most of CNTs is changed during processing through mechanical milling and HPT.

  17. Tensile behavior and cyclic creep of continuous fiber-reinforced glass matrix composites at room and elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boccaccini, A. R.; West, G.; Janczak, J.; Lewis, M. H.; Kern, H.

    1997-06-01

    In this study we investigated the stress-strain behavior at room and elevated temperatures and the tensile creep and cyclic creep response of a unidirectional SiC fiber-reinforced aluminosilicate glass matrix composite. The interfacial condition of the as-received material was measured by a push-out indentation technique. The stress-strain behavior was that expected for this kind of composite, i.e. “pseudoductile” behavior with extensive fiber “pull-out” at room temperature and brittle failure at intermediate temperatures (750 °C) due to oxidation embrittlement. The stiffness of the composite at 750°C was analyzed for different loading rates, highlighing the influence of the loading rate on apparent composite stiffness, due to matrix softening. The creep studies were conducted at temperatures above and below the softening temperature of the glass (T g, 745 °C) in air. The cyclic creep experiments showed the existence of extensive viscous strain recovery during the unloading period. The creep strain recovery was quantified using strain recovery ratios. These ratios showed a slight dependence on the temperatures investigated (700 and 750 °C). The crept composites retained their “graceful” fracture behavior only partially after testing, indicating that oxidation of the fiber/matrix interface due to oxygen diffusion through the matrix occurred in the peripheral area of the samples.

  18. Modeling the Effect of Interface Wear on Fatigue Hysteresis Behavior of Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Ceramic-Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longbiao, Li

    2015-12-01

    An analytical method has been developed to investigate the effect of interface wear on fatigue hysteresis behavior in carbon fiber-reinforced ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs). The damage mechanisms, i.e., matrix multicracking, fiber/matrix interface debonding and interface wear, fibers fracture, slip and pull-out, have been considered. The statistical matrix multicracking model and fracture mechanics interface debonding criterion were used to determine the matrix crack spacing and interface debonded length. Upon first loading to fatigue peak stress and subsequent cyclic loading, the fibers failure probabilities and fracture locations were determined by combining the interface wear model and fiber statistical failure model based on the assumption that the loads carried by broken and intact fibers satisfy the global load sharing criterion. The effects of matrix properties, i.e., matrix cracking characteristic strength and matrix Weibull modulus, interface properties, i.e., interface shear stress and interface debonded energy, fiber properties, i.e., fiber Weibull modulus and fiber characteristic strength, and cycle number on fibers failure, hysteresis loops and interface slip, have been investigated. The hysteresis loops under fatigue loading from the present analytical method were in good agreement with experimental data.

  19. Poly /Diels-Alder/ matrix resins. [high temperature resistant graphite reinforced composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. J.; Orell, M. K.; Sheppard, C. H.; Vaughan, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    A poly (Diels-Alder) (PDA) resin approach was investigated as a means to achieve autoclavability of high-temperature resistant resin/fiber composites under mild fabrication conditions. The results of the study were highly promising and program objectives were achieved. Low-void content Type A-S graphite reinforced composites were autoclave fabricated from a PDA resin/fiber prepreg prepared from an acetone:methanol:dioxane varnish. Autoclave conditions were 400 F and 100 psi for up to two hours duration. After postcure at temperatures up to 600 F, the composites demonstrated high initial mechanical properties at temperatures up to 550 F. The results from isothermal aging studies in air for 1000 hours indicated potential for long-term (over 1000 hours) use at 500 F and shorter-term use at 550 F.

  20. Laser surface forming of AlCoCrCuFeNi particle reinforced AZ91D matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Guanghui; Yue, T. M.; Lin, Xin; Yang, Haiou; Xie, Hui; Ding, Xu

    2015-07-01

    Traditionally, the laser melt injection (LMI) technique can only be used for forming ceramic particles reinforced metal matrix composites (MMCs) for enhancing surface properties of lightweight engineering materials. In this research, the LMI method was employed to form metal particles reinforced MMCs on AZ91D instead. This was viable because of the unique properties of the AlCoCrCuFeNi high-entropy alloy (HEA) metal particles used. The large difference in melting point between the HEA and the substrate material (AZ91D), and the limited reaction and the lack of fusion between the HEA and Mg have made it possible that a metal particles reinforced AZ91D composite material was produced. The reason of limited reaction was considered mainly due to the relatively high mixing enthalpy between the HEA constituent elements and Mg. Although there was some melting occurred at the particles surface with some solute segregation found in the vicinity close to the surface, intermetallic compounds were not observed. With regard to the wear resistance of the MMCs, it was found that when the volume fraction of the reinforcement phase, i.e. the HEA particles, reached about 0.4, the wear volume loss of the coating was only one-seventh of that of the substrate material.

  1. Fiber-Reinforced Composite Foam

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A two-phase method for making fiber-reinforced compositions was developed to achieve uniform fiber dispersion in a composite matrix. The first phase involved mixing together water, fibers, and a portion of a fiber dispersant to form a viscous composition. The high viscosity imparted by the dispersa...

  2. Strain intensity factor approach for predicting the strength of continuously reinforced metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poe, C. C., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    A method was previously developed to predict the fracture toughness (stress intensity factor at failure) of composites in terms of the elastic constants and the tensile failing strain of the fibers. The method was applied to boron/aluminum composites made with various proportions of 0 to + or - 45 deg plies. Predicted values of fracture toughness were in gross error because widespread yielding of the aluminum matrix made the compliance very nonlinear. An alternate method was developed to predict the strain intensity factor at failure rather than the stress intensity factor because the singular strain field was not affected by yielding as much as the stress field. Strengths of specimens containing crack-like slits were calculated from predicted failing strains using uniaxial stress-strain curves. Predicted strengths were in good agreement with experimental values, even for the very nonlinear laminates that contained only + or - 45 deg plies. This approach should be valid for other metal matrix composites that have continuous fibers.

  3. Matrix toughness, long-term behavior, and damage tolerance of notched graphite fiber-reinforced composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakis, C. E.; Simonds, R. A.; Stinchcomb, W. W.; Vick, L. W.

    1990-01-01

    The long-term behavior of notched graphite-fiber-reinforced composite laminates with brittle or tough matrix materials and different fiber architectures was investigated using damage measurements and stiffness change, residual strength, and life data. The fiber/matrix materials included T300/5208, AS4/3501-6, AS4/1808, AS4/PEEK, and C3000/PMR-15 matrices and unidirectional tape and woven cloth fiber architectures. Results of damage evaluation and of residual strength measurements during the fatigue damage development showed that the long-term behavior and damage tolerance are controlled by a number of interacting factors such as the matrix toughness, fiber architecture, loading levels, and damage types and distributions.

  4. Oxidation effects on the mechanical properties of SiC fiber-reinforced reaction-bonded silicon nitride matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.

    1989-01-01

    The room temperature mechanical properties of SiC fiber reinforced reaction bonded silicon nitride composites were measured after 100 hrs exposure at temperatures to 1400 C in nitrogen and oxygen environments. The composites consisted of approx. 30 vol percent uniaxially aligned 142 micron diameter SiC fibers in a reaction bonded Si3N4 matrix. The results indicate that composites heat treated in a nitrogen environment at temperatures to 1400 C showed deformation and fracture behavior equivalent to that of the as-fabricated composites. Also, the composites heat treated in an oxidizing environment beyond 400 C yielded significantly lower tensile strength values. Specifically in the temperature range from 600 to 1000 C, composites retained approx. 40 percent of their as-fabricated strength, and those heat treated in the temperatures from 1200 to 1400 C retained 70 percent. Nonetheless, for all oxygen heat treatment conditions, composite specimens displayed strain capability beyond the matrix fracture stress; a typical behavior of a tough composite.

  5. Damping mechanisms in alumina borate whisker-reinforced-aluminum matrix composites with or without SnO{sub 2} coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, J.; Wang, X. F.; Zheng, Z. Z.

    2010-01-15

    SnO{sub 2} was successfully coated on the surface of alumina borate whiskers. The pure aluminum matrix composites reinforced with a SnO{sub 2}-coated alumina borate whisker were fabricated by squeeze casting. The effects of coating contents on the damping properties of the coated composites at various temperatures, frequencies, and strain amplitudes were examined. The microstructures of the coated composites were also investigated through transmission electron microscopy observations. These results indicate that the introduction of Sn at the interface between whisker and matrix in the coated composites during the squeeze casting process alters not only the interface structures but also the dislocation status of the matrices in the vicinity of the interface. The results of damping characterization indicate that the damping capacities of the coated composites strongly depend on the coating contents and strain amplitudes. A damping peak at low temperatures appeared not only in the coated composites but also in the noncoated one, which is related to dislocation motion and interfacial slip caused by Sn. A damping peak at high temperatures appeared only in the coated composites, and the damping mechanisms at high temperature change with the increase in strain amplitudes. Sn played an important role on the damping mechanisms of the coated composites all along.

  6. Development and analysis of three-dimensionally reinforced cellular matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wei

    2000-10-01

    The objective of this research was to develop a new class of lightweight three-dimensional textile reinforced cellular matrix composite (3-D CMC) materials using a high-pressure foaming method. The scope of the research includes fabrication, experimental evaluation and mathematical modeling of the new composite materials. Principles of thermodynamics and transport phenomena involved in the cell nucleation and bubble growth in plastics using gas blowing agents were reviewed. The determinative factors for the foaming process were the foaming pressure, surface tension, viscous and inertial resistance forces. Foaming of epoxy resins by pressure quenching were carried out using a high-pressure vessel with a digital temperature controller and nitrogen gas as the blowing agent, at 100°C and 28--110.5 bar. The cure time was 2--2.5 hr., well before the time of gel point, 293 min., determined by means of dynamic mechanical spectroscopy. It was found that the foam density decreased monotonously and the average bubble radius slightly decreased, while the cell density increased, with the increasing foaming pressure. Cure time of 2 and 2.5 hours have no influence on the foam density, but have opposite influences on the bubble radius and cell density. Samples of 3-D woven carbon CMC materials were fabricated using the high-pressure foaming apparatus at a foaming pressure of 60 bar as the epoxy resin cured for 1.5--2 hr. at 100°C. Photomicrographs of cross-sections of the samples revealed that the epoxy resins in the epoxy pockets of the 3-D CMC samples were removed during foaming. Average density was found 1.009 g/cm 3 for TM samples and 1.076 g/cm3 for TS samples, corresponding to weight reduction of 36.92% and 28.37%, respectively, as compared with the 3-D RMC material, where TM and TS samples used 3-D woven carbon preforms of different weaving parameters. Tensile test, 3-point bending and high velocity projectile impact test were conducted to evaluate the mechanical

  7. Properties of silicon carbide fiber-reinforced silicon nitride matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.

    1988-01-01

    The mechanical properties of NASA Lewis developed SiC/RBSN composites and their thermal and environmental stability havd been studied. The composites consist of nearly 30 vol pct of aligned 142 micron diameter chemically vapor-deposited SiC fibers in a relatively porous silicon nitride matrix. In the as-fabricated condition, the unidirectional and 2-D composites exhibited metal-like stress-strain behavior, graceful failure, and showed improved properties when compared with unreinforced matrix of comparable density. Furthermore, the measured room temperature tensile properties were relativley independent of tested volume and were unaffected by artifical notches normal to the loading direction or by thermal shocking from temperatures up to 800 C. The four-point bend strength data measured as a function of temperature to 1400 C in air showed that as-fabricated strength was maintained to 1200 C. At 1400 C, however, nearly 15 pct loss in strength was observed. Measurement of room temperature tensile strength after 100 hr exposure at temperatures to 1400 C in a nitrogen environment indicated no loss from the as-fabricated composite strength. On the other hand, after 100 hr exposure in flowing oxygen at 1200 and 1400 C, the composites showed approximately 40 pct loss from their as-fabricated ultimate tensile strength. Those exposed between 400 to 1200 C showed nearly 60 pct strength loss. Oxidation of the fiber/matrix interface as well as internal oxidation of the porous Si3N4 matrix are likely mechanisms for strength degradation. The excellent strength reproducibility, notch insensitivity, and high temperature strength of the composite makes it an ideal candidate for advanced heat engine applications provided coating or densification methods are developed to avoid internal oxidation attack.

  8. Mechanical behavior of fiber reinforced SiC/RBSN ceramic matrix composites - Theory and experiment. [Reaction Bonded Silicon Nitride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chulya, Abhisak; Gyekenyesi, John P.; Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.

    1991-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of continuous fiber reinforced SiC/RBSN (Reaction Bonded Silicon Nitride) composites with various fiber contents is evaluated. Both catastrophic and noncatastrophic failures are observed in tensile specimens. Damage and failure mechanisms are identified via in-situ monitoring using NDE (nondestructive evaluation) techniques throughout the loading history. Effects of fiber/matrix interface debonding (splitting) parallel to fibers are discussed. Statistical failure behavior of fibers is also observed, especially when the interface is weak. Micromechanical models incorproating residual stresses to calculate the critical matrix cracking strength, ultimate strength, and work of pull-out are reviewed and used to predict composite response. For selected test problems, experimental measurements are compared to analytical predictions.

  9. Effect of γ irradiation on the properties of basalt fiber reinforced epoxy resin matrix composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ran; Gu, Yizhuo; Yang, Zhongjia; Li, Min; Wang, Shaokai; Zhang, Zuoguang

    2015-11-01

    Gamma-ray (γ-ray) irradiation is a crucial reason for the aging in materials used for nuclear industry. Due to high specific strength and stiffness, light weight and good corrosion resistance, fiber reinforced composites are regarded as an alternative of traditional materials used on nuclear facilities. In this study, basalt fiber (BF)/AG80 epoxy composite laminates were fabricated by autoclave process and treated with 60Co gamma irradiation dose up to 2.0 MGy. Irradiation induced polymer chain scission and oxidation of AG80 resin were detected from physical and chemical analysis. The experimental results show that the tensile and flexural performances of irradiated BF/AG80 composite maintain stable and have a low amplitude attenuation respectively, and the interlaminar shear strength has increased from irradiation dose of 0-1.5 MGy. Furthermore, the comparison between the studied BF composite and reported polymer and composite materials was done for evaluating the γ resistance property of BF composite.

  10. Crack initiation and propagation behavior of WC particles reinforced Fe-based metal matrix composite produced by laser melting deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiandong; Li, Liqun; Tao, Wang

    2016-08-01

    It is generally believed that cracks in metal matrix composites (MMC) parts manufacturing are crucial to the reliable material properties, especially for the reinforcement particles with high volume fraction. In this paper, WC particles (WCp) reinforced Fe-based metal matrix composites (WCp/Fe) were manufactured by laser melting deposition (LMD) technology to investigate the characteristics of cracks formation. The section morphology of composites were analyzed by optical microscope (OM), and microstructure of WCp, matrix and interface were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), in order to study the crack initiation and propagation behavior under different laser process conditions. The temperature of materials during the laser melting deposition was detected by the infrared thermometer. The results showed that the cracks often appeared after five layers laser deposition in this experiment. The cracks crossed through WC particles rather than the interface, so the strength of interface obtained by the LMD was relatively large. When the thermal stress induced by high temperature gradient during LMD and the coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch between WC and matrix was larger than yield strength of WC, the cracks would initiate inside WC particle. Cracks mostly propagated along the eutectic phases whose brittleness was very large. The obtained thin interface was beneficial to transmitting the stress from particle to matrix. The influence of volume fraction of particles, laser power and scanning speed on cracks were investigated. This paper investigated the influence of WC particles size on cracks systematically, and the smallest size of cracked WC in different laser processing parameters was also researched.

  11. Mechanical properties of several neat polymer matrix materials and unidirectional carbon fiber-reinforced composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coguill, Scott L.; Adams, Donald F.

    1989-01-01

    The mechanical and physical properties of three neat matrix materials, i.e., PEEK (polyetheretherketone) thermoplastic, Hexcel F155 rubber-toughened epoxy and Hercules 8551-7 rubber-toughened epoxy, were experimentally determined. Twelve unidirectional carbon fiber composites, incorporating matrix materials characterized in this or earlier studies (with one exception; the PISO(sub 2)-TPI matrix itself was not characterized), were also tested. These composite systems included AS4/2220-1, AS4/2220-3, T500/R914, IM6/HX1504, T300/4901A (MDA), T700/4901A (MDA), T300/4901B (MPDA), T700/4901B (MPDA), APC2 (AS4/PEEK, ICI), APC2 (AS4/PEEK, Langley Research Center), AS4/8551-7, and AS4/PISO(sub 2)-TPI. For the neat matrix materials, the tensile, shear, fracture toughness, coefficient of thermal expansion, and coefficient of moisture expansion properties were measured as a function of both temperature and moisture content. For the unidirectional composites, axial and transverse tensile, longitudinal shear, coefficient of thermal expansion, and coefficient of moisture expansion properties were determined, at room temperature and 100 C.

  12. The optimal fiber volume fraction and fiber-matrix property compatibility in fiber reinforced composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pan, Ning

    1992-01-01

    Although the question of minimum or critical fiber volume fraction beyond which a composite can then be strengthened due to addition of fibers has been dealt with by several investigators for both continuous and short fiber composites, a study of maximum or optimal fiber volume fraction at which the composite reaches its highest strength has not been reported yet. The present analysis has investigated this issue for short fiber case based on the well-known shear lag (the elastic stress transfer) theory as the first step. Using the relationships obtained, the minimum spacing between fibers is determined upon which the maximum fiber volume fraction can be calculated, depending on the fiber packing forms within the composites. The effects on the value of this maximum fiber volume fraction due to such factors as fiber and matrix properties, fiber aspect ratio and fiber packing forms are discussed. Furthermore, combined with the previous analysis on the minimum fiber volume fraction, this maximum fiber volume fraction can be used to examine the property compatibility of fiber and matrix in forming a composite. This is deemed to be useful for composite design. Finally some examples are provided to illustrate the results.

  13. Fabrication and fracture behavior of metallic fiber reinforced NiAl matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S.Y.; Lin, S.J.

    1997-07-01

    NiAl intermetallic is recently of considerable interest as the high temperature structure material because of its high melting point, high specific stiffness, better oxidation and creep resistance. However, the low-temperature brittleness of the NiAl intermetallic remained a main reason for its unpopularity for industrial applications. Composite ductile phase toughening approaches have been utilized by many researchers to improve the fracture toughness of intermetallics. In liquid metallurgy, pressure casting or infiltration of molten nickel aluminide into a preform is the usual method for the fabrication of nickel aluminide intermetallic composites. But generally, it is not useful for metallic reinforcements because of the drastic reactions between the molten nickel aluminide and the metallic preform, and the difficulty in sustaining the performance of the metallic preform at a high temperature. In solid metallurgy, this process is based on reactive powder metallurgy and hot pressing, hot extrusion and hot isostatic pressing (HIP). High processing temperature and pressure, generally at a temperature of at least 1,200 C, are necessary conditions for hot pressing, hot extrusion and HIP. Hence the processes require sophisticated manufacturing equipment and considerable energy and render the application of nickel aluminide intermetallic composites unpopular. Work on reactive hot pressing(RHP) at a low temperature near the melting point of aluminum is reconsidered again. Efforts indicated that by combining the spontaneous reaction of the electrically coated nickel film and the aluminum foils, and hot pressing at a temperature about 500 C lower than previously accomplished by HIP, would overcome the fabrication problem of NiAl intermetallic composites reinforced with the uniformly distributed metallic fibers.

  14. The Microstructure-Processing-Property Relationships in an Al Matrix Composite System Reinforced by Al-Cu-Fe Alloy Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Fei Tang

    2004-12-19

    Metal matrix composites (MMC), especially Al matrix composites, received a lot of attention during many years of research because of their promise for the development of automotive and aerospace materials with improved properties and performance, such as lighter weight and better structural properties, improved thermal conductivity and wear resistance. In order to make the MMC materials more viable in various applications, current research efforts on the MMCs should continue to focus on two important aspects, including improving the properties of MMCs and finding more economical techniques to produce MMCs. Solid state vacuum sintering was studied in tap densified Al powder and in hot quasi-isostatically forged samples composed of commercial inert gas atomized or high purity Al powder, generated by a gas atomization reaction synthesis (GARS) technique. The GARS process results in spherical Al powder with a far thinner surface oxide. The overall results indicated the enhanced ability of GARS-processed Al and Al alloy powders for solid state sintering, which may lead to simplification of current Al powder consolidation processing methods. Elemental Al-based composites reinforced with spherical Al-Cu-Fe alloy powders were produced by quasi-isostatic forging and vacuum hot pressing (VHP) consolidation methods. Microstructures and tensile properties of AYAl-Cu-Fe composites were characterized. It was proved that spherical Al-Cu-Fe alloy powders can serve as an effective reinforcement particulate for elemental Al-based composites, because of their high hardness and a preferred type of matrix/reinforcement interfacial bonding, with reduced strain concentration around the particles. Ultimate tensile strength and yield strength of the composites were increased over the corresponding Al matrix values, far beyond typical observations. This remarkable strengthening was achieved without precipitation hardening and without severe strain hardening during consolidation because of

  15. Fabrication of in-situ grown graphene reinforced Cu matrix composites

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yakun; Zhang, Xiang; Liu, Enzuo; He, Chunnian; Shi, Chunsheng; Li, Jiajun; Nash, Philip; Zhao, Naiqin

    2016-01-01

    Graphene/Cu composites were fabricated through a graphene in-situ grown approach, which involved ball-milling of Cu powders with PMMA as solid carbon source, in-situ growth of graphene on flaky Cu powders and vacuum hot-press sintering. SEM and TEM characterization results indicated that graphene in-situ grown on Cu powders guaranteed a homogeneous dispersion and a good combination between graphene and Cu matrix, as well as the intact structure of graphene, which was beneficial to its strengthening effect. The yield strength of 244 MPa and tensile strength of 274 MPa were achieved in the composite with 0.95 wt.% graphene, which were separately 177% and 27.4% enhancement over pure Cu. Strengthening effect of in-situ grown graphene in the matrix was contributed to load transfer and dislocation strengthening. PMID:26763313

  16. Modeling for Fatigue Hysteresis Loops of Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Ceramic-Matrix Composites under Multiple Loading Stress Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longbiao, Li

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, the fatigue hysteresis loops of fiber-reinforced ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs) under multiple loading stress levels considering interface wear has been investigated using micromechanical approach. Under fatigue loading, the fiber/matrix interface shear stress decreases with the increase of cycle number due to interface wear. Upon increasing of fatigue peak stress, the interface debonded length would propagate along the fiber/matrix interface. The difference of interface shear stress existed in the new and original debonded region would affect the interface debonding and interface frictional slipping between the fiber and the matrix. Based on the fatigue damage mechanism of fiber slipping relative to matrix in the interface debonded region upon unloading and subsequent reloading, the interface slip lengths, i.e., the interface debonded length, interface counter-slip length and interface new-slip length, are determined by fracture mechanics approach. The fatigue hysteresis loops models under multiple loading stress levels have been developed. The effects of single/multiple loading stress levels and different loading sequences on fatigue hysteresis loops have been investigated. The fatigue hysteresis loops of unidirectional C/SiC composite under multiple loading stress levels have been predicted.

  17. A constitutive law for continuous fiber reinforced brittle matrix composites with fiber fragmentation and stress recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumeister, Jonas M.

    1993-08-01

    THE TENSILE BEHAVIOR of a brittle matrix composite is studied for post matrix crack saturation conditions. Scatter of fiber strength following the Weibull distribution as well as the influence of the major microstructural variables is considered. The stress in a fiber is assumed to recover linearly around a failure due to a fiber-matrix interface behavior mainly ruled by friction. The constitutive behavior for such a composite is analysed. Results are given for a simplified and a refined approximate description and compared with an analysis resulting from the exact analytical theory of fiber fragmentation. It is shown that the stress-strain relation for the refined model excellently follows the exact solution and gives the location of the maximum to within 1% in both stress and strain; for most materials the agreement is even better. Also it is shown that all relations can be normalized to depend on only two variables; a stress reference and the Weibull exponent. For systems with low scatter in fiber strength the simplified model is sufficient to determine the stress maximum but not the postcritical behavior. In addition, the simplified model gives explicit analytical expressions for the maximum stress and corresponding strain. None of the models contain any volume dependence or statistical scatter, but the maximum stress given by the stress-strain relation constitutes an upper bound for the ultimate tensile strength of the composite.

  18. On Porosity Formation in Metal Matrix Composites Made with Dual-Scale Fiber Reinforcements Using Pressure Infiltration Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etemadi, Reihaneh; Pillai, Krishna M.; Rohatgi, Pradeep K.; Hamidi, Sajad Ahmad

    2015-05-01

    This is the first such study on porosity formation phenomena observed in dual-scale fiber preforms during the synthesis of metal matrix composites (MMCs) using the gas pressure infiltration process. In this paper, different mechanisms of porosity formation during pressure infiltration of Al-Si alloys into Nextel™ 3D-woven ceramic fabric reinforcements (a dual-porosity or dual-scale porous medium) are studied. The effect of processing conditions on porosity content of the ceramic fabric infiltrated by the alloys through the gas PIP (PIP stands for "Pressure Infiltration Process" in which liquid metal is injected under pressure into a mold packed with reinforcing fibers.) is investigated. Relative density (RD), defined as the ratio of the actual MMC density and the density obtained at ideal 100 pct saturation of the preform, was used to quantify the overall porosity. Increasing the infiltration temperature led to an increase in RD due to reduced viscosity of liquid metal and enhanced wettability leading to improved feedability of the liquid metal. Similarly, increasing the infiltration pressure led to enhanced penetration of fiber tows and resulted in higher RD and reduced porosity. For the first time, the modified Capillary number ( Ca*), which is found to predict formation of porosity in polymer matrix composites quite well, is employed to study porosity in MMCs made using PIP. It is observed that in the high Ca* regime which is common in PIP, the overall porosity shows a strong downward trend with increasing Ca*. In addition, the effect of matrix shrinkage on porosity content of the samples is studied through using a zero-shrinkage Al-Si alloy as the matrix; usage of this alloy as the matrix led to a reduction in porosity content.

  19. Effect of re-melting on particle distribution and interface formation in SiC reinforced 2124Al matrix composite

    SciTech Connect

    Mandal, Durbadal; Viswanathan, Srinath

    2013-12-15

    The interface between metal matrix and ceramic reinforcement particles plays an important role in improving properties of the metal matrix composites. Hence, it is important to find out the interface structure of composite after re-melting. In the present investigation, the 2124Al matrix with 10 wt.% SiC particle reinforced composite was re-melted at 800 °C and 900 °C for 10 min followed by pouring into a permanent mould. The microstructures reveal that the SiC particles are distributed throughout the Al-matrix. The volume fraction of SiC particles varies from top to bottom of the composite plate and the difference increases with the decrease of re-melting temperature. The interfacial structure of re-melted 2124Al–10 wt.%SiC composite was investigated using scanning electron microscopy, an electron probe micro-analyzer, a scanning transmission electron detector fitted with scanning electron microscopy and an X-ray energy dispersive spectrometer. It is found that a thick layer of reaction product is formed at the interface of composite after re-melting. The experimental results show that the reaction products at the interface are associated with high concentration of Cu, Mg, Si and C. At re-melting temperature, liquid Al reacts with SiC to form Al{sub 4}C{sub 3} and Al–Si eutectic phase or elemental Si at the interface. High concentration of Si at the interface indicates that SiC is dissociated during re-melting. The X-ray energy dispersive spectrometer analyses confirm that Mg- and Cu-enrich phases are formed at the interface region. The Mg is segregated at the interface region and formed MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} in the presence of oxygen. The several elements identified at the interface region indicate that different types of interfaces are formed in between Al matrix and SiC particles. The Al–Si eutectic phase is formed around SiC particles during re-melting which restricts the SiC dissolution. - Highlights: • Re-melted composite shows homogeneous particle

  20. Life Limiting Behavior in Interlaminar Shear of Continuous Fiber-Reinforced Ceramic Matrix Composites at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Calomino, Anthony M.; Bansal, Narottam P.; Verrilli, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    Interlaminar shear strength of four different fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composites was determined with doublenotch shear test specimens as a function of test rate at elevated temperatures ranging from 1100 to 1316 C in air. Life limiting behavior, represented as interlaminar shear strength degradation with decreasing test rate, was significant for 2-D crossplied SiC/MAS-5 and 2-D plain-woven C/SiC composites, but insignificant for 2-D plain-woven SiC/SiC and 2-D woven Sylramic (Dow Corning, Midland, Michigan) SiC/SiC composites. A phenomenological, power-law delayed failure model was proposed to account for and to quantify the rate dependency of interlaminar shear strength of the composites. Additional stress rupture testing in interlaminar shear was conducted at elevated temperatures to validate the proposed model. The model was in good agreement with SiC/MAS-5 and C/SiC composites, but in poor to reasonable agreement with Sylramic SiC/SiC. Constant shear stress-rate testing was proposed as a possible means of life prediction testing methodology for ceramic matrix composites subjected to interlaminar shear at elevated temperatures when short lifetimes are expected.

  1. Microstructure and Wear Behavior of High-Cr WCI Matrix Surface Composite Reinforced with Cemented Carbide Rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Shuzeng; Bao, Chonggao; Zhang, Zhiyun; Bai, Yaping

    2013-07-01

    The present article reports a new superior wear resistance surface composite prepared by a vacuum evaporative pattern casting-in process. This surface composite was constructed with reinforcing cemented carbide rod (CCR) array within high-Cr white cast iron (WCI) matrix. Three reaction zones that formed around the CCRs were characterized and established the good metallurgical bonding between CCRs and matrix. In addition, some compound carbide containing Fe, Cr, W, and Co elements were formed in the reaction zones, owing to the partial dissolution of the CCRs and the resulting interdiffusion of elements such as W, Co, C, Fe, and Cr. The wear behavior of the composite was evaluated and compared with unreinforced high-Cr WCI by means of a three-body abrasive wear tester. The results showed that the wear resistance of the composite was significantly higher than that of the unreinforced high-Cr WCI. The exciting wear resistance can be ascribed to protective effect introduced by the CCRs during wear process and the good metallurgical bonding between CCRs and matrix.

  2. Nanostructured composite reinforced material

    DOEpatents

    Seals, Roland D.; Ripley, Edward B.; Ludtka, Gerard M.

    2012-07-31

    A family of materials wherein nanostructures and/or nanotubes are incorporated into a multi-component material arrangement, such as a metallic or ceramic alloy or composite/aggregate, producing a new material or metallic/ceramic alloy. The new material has significantly increased strength, up to several thousands of times normal and perhaps substantially more, as well as significantly decreased weight. The new materials may be manufactured into a component where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the bulk and/or matrix material, or as a coating where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the coating or surface of a "normal" substrate material. The nanostructures are incorporated into the material structure either randomly or aligned, within grains, or along or across grain boundaries.

  3. A damage mechanics of a particle-reinforced ductile matrix composite with progressive partial debonding

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Y.H.; Weng, G.J.

    1995-12-31

    A micromechanical damage theory is developed to determine the overall elastoplastic stress-strain behavior of a ductile composite containing homogeneously dispersed prolate inclusions which, under the action of external tension, experience debonding on the top and bottom of the interface. The debonding process is described by Weibull`s probability function in terms of the tensile stress of the inclusions. Qiu and Weng`s energy approach is also used here to determine the internal stress state of the damaged composite. The initial two-phase system gradually turns into a three-phase one as the debonded inclusions lose their load-carrying capacity partially. The stress-strain responses are then derived as a function of volume concentrations of still bonded particles and already debonded ones, and of the shape of inclusions and the average interfacial strength. It is shown that the stress-strain curve of the system always starts out with that of perfectly a bonded composite, then deviates from it, and finally approaches a state parallel to that of a porous material containing similarly aligned voids. A detail comparison is provided with the results from Mochida, Taya, and Obata`s rigid particle theory with an elastic matrix and Togho and Weng`s completely debonding theory with an elastoplastic matrix. It is found that the behavior of a partially debonded composite always lies between the two.

  4. Wear Resistance of Aluminum Matrix Composites Reinforced with Al2O3 Particles After Multiple Remelting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klasik, Adam; Pietrzak, Krystyna; Makowska, Katarzyna; Sobczak, Jerzy; Rudnik, Dariusz; Wojciechowski, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Based on previous results, the commercial composites of A359 (AlSi9Mg) alloy reinforced with 22 vol.% Al2O3 particles were submitted to multiple remelting by means of gravity casting and squeeze-casting procedures. The studies were focused on tribological tests, x-ray phase analyses, and microstructural examinations. More promising results were obtained for squeeze-casting method mainly because of the reduction of the negative microstructural effects such as shrinkage porosity or other microstructural defects and discontinuities. The results showed that direct remelting may be treated as economically well-founded and alternative way compared to other recycling processes. It was underlined that the multiple remelting method must be analyzed for any material separately.

  5. Creep behavior of interfaces in fiber reinforced metal-matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Funn, J.V.; Dutta, I.

    1998-12-11

    The elevated temperature deformation behavior of interfaces in model single fiber composites was isolated and studied using a fiber push-down approach, whereby the interface is loaded in shear. Two fiber-matrix systems, one with no mutual solubility (quartz-lead) and the other with limited mutual solubility (nickel-lead), were investigated. In both systems, the matrix and fiber underwent sliding relative to each other, with the interface acting as a high diffusivity path. The mechanism of sliding was inferred to be interface-diffusion-controlled diffusional creep with a threshold stress (Bingham flow). The behavior was modeled analytically using a continuum approach, and an expression for the constitutive creep behavior of the interface was derived. The model provided a physical basis for the observed threshold behavior, which was found to be directly related to the normal (radial) residual stress acting on the fiber-matrix interface. The results are deemed to be significant because (1) in some instances, interfacial sliding may be instrumental in determining the overall creep/thermal cycling response of a composite; and (2) they offer an alternative rationalization of threshold behavior during diffusional flow (besides interface reaction control) and may be useful in understanding creep in multi-phase systems with internal stresses.

  6. Mechanical properties of neat polymer matrix materials and their unidirectional carbon fiber-reinforced composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, Richard S.; Adams, Donald F.

    1988-01-01

    The mechanical properties of two neat resin systems for use in carbon fiber epoxy composites were characterized. This included tensile and shear stiffness and strengths, coefficients of thermal and moisture expansion, and fracture toughness. Tests were conducted on specimens in the dry and moisture-saturated states, at temperatures of 23, 82 and 121 C. The neat resins tested were American Cyanamid 1806 and Union Carbide ERX-4901B(MPDA). Results were compared to previously tested neat resins. Four unidirectional carbon fiber reinforced composites were mechanically characterized. Axial and transverse tension and in-plane shear strengths and stiffness were measured, as well as transverse coefficients of thermal and moisture expansion. Tests were conducted on dry specimens only at 23 and 100 C. The materials tested were AS4/3502, AS6/5245-C, T300/BP907, and C6000/1806 unidirectional composites. Scanning electron microscopic examination of fracture surfaces was performed to permit the correlation of observed failure modes with the environmental test conditions.

  7. Cyclic saturation behavior of tungsten monofilament-reinforced monocrystalline copper matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J.; Laird, C.

    1999-10-26

    Studies on saturation behavior produced by cyclic deformation have been conducted on tungsten monofilament-reinforced monocrystalline copper composites. The effect of the fiber on strain localization has been investigated using interferometry. For a given applied strain amplitude, local strain and volume fraction of the persistent slip bands (PSBs) in the composite appeared no different from those observed in monolithic copper single crystals. However, the distribution of the PSBs was observed to be more uniform, and the total number of PSBs is substantially higher than that in monolithic crystals. The PSBs appeared mostly in the form of micro-PSBs or macro-PSBs with very limited width. Instead of expanding existing PSBs, new PSBs were more likely to nucleate at new locations during cyclic deformation. The volume fraction and width of the PSBs were observed to increase during saturation, which indicates that some of the PSBs become aged and new PSBs form in order to continue to carry the plastic strain. A rule of mixtures model was established to link the cyclic stress-strain response of the monocrystalline composites to the behavior of monolithic single crystals and fibers. The results calculated from the model show very good agreement with the experimental data.

  8. Sodium sulfate corrosion of silicon carbide fiber-reinforced calcium aluminosilicate glass-ceramic matrix composites. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, P.J.

    1994-03-01

    Hot corrosion effects of Sodium Sulfate (NaSO4) coated Calcium Aluminosilicate (CAS)/Silicon Carbide (SiC) reinforced glass-ceramic matrix composite were investigated using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDX) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The samples provided by the Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) were unidirectional SiC/CAS as follows: (1) as received, (2) uncoated in air, (3) Na2SO4, coated in air and (4) Na2SO4 coated in argon. A heat treatment was conducted at 900 deg C for 100 hours. Experimental observations indicated that the Na2S04 coating in an oxidising environment had severely corroded the silicon fiber resulting in a silica rich, Nepheline, Wollastonite, Rankinite, Albite and glassy phases. In the argon atmosphere fiber degradation was present although less severe than in the oxygen environment. Similar phases of silica rich, Nepheline, Albite, Rankinite, Mullite, Pseudo-Wollastonite and a glassy region were present. Minimal fiber and matrix degradation was observed in the uncoated sample beat treated in air. Calcium aluminosilicate, SiC Fiber reinforced composites.

  9. Effect of heat treatment on microstructure and interface of SiC particle reinforced 2124 Al matrix composite

    SciTech Connect

    Mandal, Durbadal; Viswanathan, Srinath

    2013-11-15

    The microstructure and interface between metal matrix and ceramic reinforcement of a composite play an important role in improving its properties. In the present investigation, the interface and intermetallic compound present in the samples were characterized to understand structural stability at an elevated temperature. Aluminum based 2124 alloy with 10 wt.% silicon carbide (SiC) particle reinforced composite was prepared through vortex method and the solid ingot was deformed by hot rolling for better particle distribution. Heat treatment of the composite was carried out at 575 °C with varying holding time from 1 to 48 h followed by water quenching. In this study, the microstructure and interface of the SiC particle reinforced Al based composites have been studied using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA) associated with wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (WDS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to identify the precipitate and intermetallic phases that are formed during heat treatment. The SiC particles are uniformly distributed in the aluminum matrix. The microstructure analyses of Al–SiC composite after heat treatment reveal that a wide range of dispersed phases are formed at grain boundary and surrounding the SiC particles. The energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy analyses confirm that finely dispersed phases are CuAl{sub 2} and CuMgAl{sub 2} intermetallic and large spherical phases are Fe{sub 2}SiAl{sub 8} or Al{sub 15}(Fe,Mn){sub 3}Si. It is also observed that a continuous layer enriched with Cu and Mg of thickness 50–80 nm is formed at the interface in between Al and SiC particles. EDS analysis also confirms that Cu and Mg are segregated at the interface of the composite while no carbide is identified at the interface. - Highlights: • The composite was successfully heat treated at 575°C for 1

  10. Modeling the Effect of Active Fiber Cooling on the Microstructure of Fiber-Reinforced Metal Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Nguyen Q.; Peterson, Sean D.; Gupta, Nikhil; Rohatgi, Pradeep K.

    2009-08-01

    A modified pressure infiltration process was recently developed to synthesize carbon-fiber-reinforced aluminum matrix composites. In the modified process, the ends of carbon fibers are extended out of the crucible to induce selective cooling. The process is found to be effective in improving the quality of composites. The present work is focused on determining the effect of the induced conductive heat transfer on the composite system through numerical methods. Due to the axisymmetry of the system, a two-dimensional (2-D) model is studied that can be expanded into three dimensions. The variables in this transient analysis include the fiber radius, fiber length, and melt superheat temperature. The results show that the composite system can be tailored to have a temperature on the fiber surface that is lower than the melt, to promote nucleation on the fiber surface. It is also observed that there is a point of inflection in the temperature profile along the particle/melt interface at which there is no temperature gradient in the radial direction. The information about the inflection point can be used to control the diffusion of solute atoms in the system. The result can be used in determining the optimum fiber volume fraction in metal matrix composite (MMC) materials to obtain the desired microstructure.

  11. Studies of Matrix/Fiber Reinforced Composite Materials for the High Speed Research (HSR) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orwoll, Robert A.

    1998-01-01

    The research on the curing mechanism of the phenylethynyl terminated imide matrix resins was the primary focus of this research. The ability to process high performance polymers into useful adhesives and high quality composites has been significantly advanced by synthetic techniques in which oligomers terminated with reactive groups cure or crosslink at elevated temperature after the article has been fabricated. The research used a variety of analytical techniques. Many stable products were isolated, and attempts at identification were made. This research was intended to provide fundamental insight into the molecular structure of these new engineering materials.

  12. Inertia-friction welding of a particulate-reinforced aluminum-matrix composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cola, M. J.; Baeslack, W. A., III; Altshuller, B.; Sjostrom, T.

    Inertia-friction welds were produced between an aluminum-matrix composite tube and a monolithic aluminum alloy bar. The effects of flywheel speed and axial pressure, and the effect of the flywheel speed/axial pressure interaction for a tube-to-bar joint geometry were statistically evaluated. Welds were evaluated with light and scanning-electron microscopy, tensile tested, and measured for hardness. Light microscopy of the interface region of selected inertia-friction welds were sound and free of discontinuities. The tensile strength of the inertia-friction welds was 82 percent of the aluminum-composite base material. Failures were at, or near the weld interface. Fractography of failed tensile specimen fracture surfaces revealed a varying topography and mixed-mode fracture morphology.

  13. Hot isostatic pressing of SiC particulate reinforced metal matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Loh, N.L.; Wei, Z.; Xu, Z.

    1996-12-31

    Two as-cast SiC particulate reinforced A359-based composites were hot isostatically pressed for a fixed length of time but at various pressures (in the range 100--150 MPa) and temperatures (in the range 450--550 C). It was found that HIP treatment generally increased the ductility but reduced the yield stress drastically. The improvement of ductility was attributed to a reduction of the porosity levels. Quantitative image analyses showed that the HIP treatment reduced the porosity levels significantly. It is of interest to observe that increasing HIP temperature is more effective than increasing HIP pressure in terms of improvement in strength and ductility. Another interesting observation is that most eutectic Si particles were spheroidized during HIP. The spheroidization of Si was believed to contribute to the improvement of mechanical properties, because fracture initiation of the composites was observed to be related to either the breaking of Si particles or the debonding of Si particles from the nearby SiC particles.

  14. Enhancement of Wettability of Aluminum Based Silicon Carbide Reinforced Particulate Metal Matrix Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, V. K.; Chauhan, Sakshi; Gope, P. C.; Chaudhary, A. K.

    2015-04-01

    Lately, materials research has shifted to composite materials from monolithic, adjusting to the global need for light weight, low cost, quality, and high performance in structural materials. Every effort aims to develop a material which can be appropriate for various industry and machinery purpose. In the present study, a modest attempt has been made to develop cast aluminum based silicon carbide (SiC) particulate metal matrix composite (MMC) and worked upon to raise the wettability factor between the matrix and dispersion phase. Magnesium (Mg) is used as wetting agent. It works by scavenging the oxygen from dispersoids surface and thinning the gas layer around dispersoids and this is done by forming MgO or MgAl2O4 or both according to concentration of Magnesium added. Mg2Si is the compound responsible for strengthening. The combination of aluminum and magnesium seems to have synergetic effect on wetting and give appropriate strength. All mechanical properties obtained are well correlated with microstructure obtained by Scanning electron micrograph. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) also justified the results obtained in present investigations.

  15. SiC (SCS-6) Fiber Reinforced-Reaction Formed SiC Matrix Composites: Microstructure and Interfacial Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, M.; Dickerson, R. M.; Olmstead, Forrest A.; Eldridge, J. I.

    1997-01-01

    Microstructural and interfacial characterization of unidirectional SiC (SCS-6) fiber reinforced-reaction formed SiC (RFSC) composites has been carried out. Silicon-1.7 at.% molybdenum alloy was used as the melt infiltrant, instead of pure silicon, to reduce the activity of silicon in the melt as well as to reduce the amount of free silicon in the matrix. Electron microprobe analysis was used to evaluate the microstructure and phase distribution in these composites. The matrix is SiC with a bi-modal grain-size distribution and small amounts of MoSi2, silicon, and carbon. Fiber push-outs tests on these composites showed that a desirably low interfacial shear strength was achieved. The average debond shear stress at room temperature varied with specimen thickness from 29 to 64 MPa, with higher values observed for thinner specimens. Initial frictional sliding stresses showed little thickness dependence with values generally close to 30 MPa. Push-out test results showed very little change when the test temperature was increased to 800 C from room temperature, indicating an absence of significant residual stresses in the composite.

  16. Fabrication of W-1%ThO[sub 2] reinforced Fe-25Cr-8Al-0. 5Y superalloy matrix composite

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, W.; Ramulu, M.; Taya, M. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1994-01-01

    Four different aligned W-1%ThO[sub 2] reinforced Fe-25Cr-8Al-0.5Y matrix fiber reinforced superalloy [FRS] material billets were produced by powder metallurgical processing. Three materials differed only in reinforcing fiber aspect ratio, while one material included a small diameter, misoriented Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] hybrid reinforcement. Tensile and thermal cycling specimens were fabricated from the composite billets by using abrasive water jet and turning processes. Finally the specimens were protected from high temperature oxidation by a FeCrAlY thermal spray coating. Metallurgical and mechanical properties were evaluated and discussed.

  17. Effect of monomer composition of polymer matrix on flexural properties of glass fibre-reinforced orthodontic archwire.

    PubMed

    Ohtonen, J; Vallittu, P K; Lassila, L V J

    2013-02-01

    To compare force levels obtained from glass fibre-reinforced composite (FRC) archwires. Specifically, FRC wires were compared with polymer matrices having different dimethacrylate monomer compositions. FRC material (E-glass provided by Stick Tech Ltd, Turku, Finland) with continuous unidirectional glass fibres and four different types of dimethacrylate monomer compositions for the resin matrix were tested. Cross-sectionally round FRC archwires fitting into the 0.3 mm slot of a bracket were divided into 16 groups with six specimens in each group. Glass fibres were impregnated by the manufacturer, and they were initially light-cured by hand light-curing unit or additionally post-cured in light-curing oven. The FRC archwire specimens were tested at 37°C according to a three-point bending test in dry and wet conditions using a span length of 10 mm and a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/minute. The wires were loaded until final failure. The data were statistically analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The dry FRC archwire specimens revealed higher load values than water stored ones, regardless of the polymer matrix. A majority of the FRC archwires showed higher load values after being post-cured. ANOVA revealed that the polymer matrix, curing method, and water storage had a significant effect (P < 0.05) on the flexural behaviour of the FRC archwire. Polymer matrix composition, curing method, and water storage affected the flexural properties and thus, force level and working range which could be obtained from the FRC archwire. PMID:22058110

  18. Sodium sulfate corrosion of silicon carbide fiber-reinforced lithium aluminosilicate glass-ceramic matrix composites. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Maldia, L.C.

    1993-12-01

    Sodium sulfate hot corrosion of a SiC fiber-reinforced lithium aluminosilicate (LAS) glass-ceramic matrix composite was studied using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). Changes in the microstructural chemical composition of the specimens were investigated. The samples provided by Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC), Warminster, PA were grouped as follows: (1) as-received, (2) Na2SO4 salt-coated and heat-treated in oxygen, (3) noncoated and heat-treated in oxygen, (4) Na2SO4. Salt-coated and heat-treated in argon, and (5) noncoated and heat-treated in argon. Heat treatment was performed by NAWC for 100 hours at 900 deg C. Experimental data obtained indicated that the presence of Na2SO4 in an oxidative environment resulted in rapid corrosion of the matrix and SiC fibers and in the latter rings of SiO2 replaced what had previously been SiC. There was very limited degradation of the fibers and matrix exposed at the surface in the noncoated sample heat-treated in oxygen and in the salt-coated sample heat-treated in argon. A significant reduction in the amount of mullite in the matrices of all heat-treated samples was observed. Mullite dissolved into either the glassy phase or into the Beta-spodumene matrix. Lastly, the presence of distinct magnesium silicate crystalline phases in the salt-coated and heat-treated in oxygen sample implies that the MgO at the surface reacted with the SiO2 in the matrix.

  19. MWNT-Doped Epoxy Matrix for Detecting Impact Damages in Fiber Reinforced Composites by Electrical Resistance Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monti, Marco; Natali, Maurizio; Kenny, Josè M.; Torre, Luigi

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, we report the development of a glass fiber reinforced composite based on a MWNT-doped epoxy matrix. The intrinsic electrical conductivity of carbon nanotubes has allowed the production of a nanocomposite with enhanced electrical properties, respect the neat matrix. Due to the high aspect ratio of carbon nanotubes, very small amounts of these particles were enough for modifying the electrical properties of the obtained glass fiber composites. A low-velocity impact was created on the surface of the laminate, in order to produce a damage, which not involved the catastrophic failure of the sample. In order to evaluate the damage level, a mechanical characterization was performed on pristine samples, on one hand, and impacted The measurement of the electrical resistance, before and after the impact, was exploited as a way for detecting the presence of the damage produced. The results have shown that it is possible to associate the increase in electrical resistance of the composite with the formation of a damage due to an impact.

  20. Micromechanisms of fatigue crack propagation in particulate-reinforced metal-matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Shang, Jianku.

    1989-01-01

    Consequences of the interaction of cracks with SiC particles are examined with emphasis on micromechanisms influencing fatigue crack propagation in high strength aluminum alloy matrix composites. Fatigue crack propagation is found to show three distinct regimes; each accompanied by growth mechanisms reflecting different roles of SiC particles. At near-threshold levels, SiC particles impeded fatigue crack growth by deflecting the crack to promote roughness-induced crack closure and by acting as crack traps along the crack front. A two-dimensional crack trapping analysis based on the interaction of a finite crack with a SiC particle indicates that a limiting criterion for fatigue crack growth in SiC{sub p}/Al composites can be established, which requires that the maximum plastic-zone size exceed the effective mean particle size or that the tensile stress in the matrix beyond the particle on the crack front exceed the yield strength of the material. Implications of crack closure and crack trapping to near-threshold crack growth, including load-ration and particle-size dependence of fatigue thresholds, are discussed in terms of contributions from each mechanism. At higher stress intensities, limited fracture of SiC particles ahead of the crack tip leads to the development of uncracked ligaments along the crack length, resulting in a reduced crack-tip stress intensity from ligament bridging. Micromechanical models are developed for such bridges induced by both overlapping cracks and co-planar ligaments, based on the notion of a limiting crack opening displacement or limiting strain in the ligament. The predicted reduction in crack tip stress intensity is shown to be consistent with experimental observations.

  1. An experimental and theoretical investigation of the rapid consolidation of continuously reinforced, metal-matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolaou, P. D.; Semiatin, S. L.; Goetz, R. L.

    1996-06-01

    The feasibility of the rapid consolidation of T-14Al-21Nb/SCS-6 foil/fiber/foil composites using a forging approach was established as an alternative to slower and more expensive processes such as those based on hot isostatic pressing (HIP) or vacuum hot pressing (VHP). A firm basis for the technique was developed through theoretical analyses of temperature transients, forging pressures, and fiber fracture. These analyses demonstrated that there exists an optimal forging speed at which the consolidation stresses are a minimum. It was also shown that the flow stress of the encapsulation material relative to that of the densifying layup is an important consideration in achieving full consolidation during forging. Specifically, the difference in flow stress between the two materials influences the magnitude and sign of the in-plane (secondary) stresses that are developed during forging and therefore the rate of pore closure during the latter stages of the process. With regard to fiber fracture, analyses were performed to estimate the axial and tangential stresses during rapid consolidation. The theoretical work was validated by experimental trials using the Ti-14Al-21Nb matrix/silicon carbide fiber system. Measured forging pressures were in good agreement with predictions. Fiber fracture observations indicated that tangential tensile stresses developed in the fiber control failure; a forging window to avoid such failures was thus developed. Finally, it was demonstrated that matrix microstructures and mechanical properties similar to those of conventionally consolidated Ti-14Al-21Nb/silicon carbide composites can be achieved by the forge-consolidation technique.

  2. An experimental and theoretical investigation of the rapid consolidation of continuously reinforced, metal-matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Nicolaou, P.D.; Semiatin, S.L.; Goetz, R.L.

    1996-06-01

    The feasibility of the rapid consolidation of Ti-14Al-21Nb/SCS-6 foil/fiber/foil composites using a forging approach was established as an alternative to slower and more expensive processes such as those based on hot isostatic pressing (HIP) or vacuum hot pressing (VHP). A firm basis for the technique was developed through theoretical analyses of temperature transients, forging pressures, and fiber fracture. These analyses demonstrated that there exists an optimal forging speed at which the consolidation stresses are a minimum. It was also shown that the flow stress of the encapsulation material relative to that of the densifying layup is an important consideration in achieving full consolidation during forging. Specifically, the difference in flow stress between the two materials influences the magnitude and sign of the in-plane (secondary) stresses that are developed during forging and therefore the rate of pore closure during the latter stages of the process. With regard to fiber fracture, analyses were performed to estimate the axial and tangential stresses during rapid consolidation. The theoretical work was validated by experimental trials using the Ti-14Al-21Nb matrix/silicon carbide fiber system. Measured forging pressures were in good agreement wit h predictions. Fiber fracture observations indicated that tangential tensile stresses developed in the fiber control failure; a forging window to avoid such failures was thus developed. Finally, it was demonstrated that matrix microstructures and mechanical properties similar to those of conventionally consolidated Ti-14Al-21Nb/silicon carbide composites can be achieved by the forge-consolidation technique.

  3. Relationship Between Hysteresis Dissipated Energy and Temperature Rising in Fiber-Reinforced Ceramic-Matrix Composites Under Cyclic Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longbiao, Li

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the relationship between hysteresis dissipated energy and temperature rising of the external surface in fiber-reinforced ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs) during the application of cyclic loading has been analyzed. The temperature rise, which is caused by frictional slip of fibers within the composite, is related to the hysteresis dissipated energy. Based on the fatigue hysteresis theories considering fibers failure, the hysteresis dissipated energy and a hysteresis dissipated energy-based damage parameter changing with the increase of cycle number have been investigated. The relationship between the hysteresis dissipated energy, a hysteresis dissipated energy-based damage parameter and a temperature rise-based damage parameter have been established. The experimental temperature rise-based damage parameter of unidirectional, cross-ply and 2D woven CMCs corresponding to different fatigue peak stresses and cycle numbers have been predicted. It was found that the temperature rise-based parameter can be used to monitor the fatigue damage evolution and predict the fatigue life of fiber-reinforced CMCs.

  4. Composite Intersection Reinforcement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misciagna, David T. (Inventor); Fuhrer, Jessica J. (Inventor); Funk, Robert S. (Inventor); Tolotta, William S. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An assembly and method for manufacturing a composite reinforcement for unitizing a structure are provided. According to one embodiment, the assembly includes a base having a plurality of pins extending outwardly therefrom to define a structure about which a composite fiber is wound to define a composite reinforcement preform. The assembly also includes a plurality of mandrels positioned adjacent to the base and at least a portion of the composite reinforcement preform, and a cap that is positioned over at least a portion of the plurality of mandrels. The cap is configured to engage each of the mandrels to support the mandrels and the composite reinforcement preform during a curing process to form the composite reinforcement.

  5. Composite intersection reinforcement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misciagna, David T. (Inventor); Fuhrer, Jessica J. (Inventor); Funk, Robert S. (Inventor); Tolotta, William S. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An assembly and method for manufacturing a composite reinforcement for unitizing a structure are provided. According to one embodiment, the assembly includes a base having a plurality of pins extending outwardly therefrom to define a structure about which a composite fiber is wound to define a composite reinforcement preform. The assembly also includes a plurality of mandrels positioned adjacent to the base and at least a portion of the composite reinforcement preform, and a cap that is positioned over at least a portion of the plurality of mandrels. The cap is configured to engage each of the mandrels to support the mandrels and the composite reinforcement preform during a curing process to form the composite reinforcement.

  6. Oxidation of SiC Fiber-Reinforced SiC Matrix Composites with a BN Interphase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opila, Elizabeth; Boyd, Meredith K.

    2010-01-01

    SiC-fiber reinforced SiC matrix composites with a BN interphase were oxidized in reduced oxygen partial pressures of oxygen to simulate the environment for hypersonic vehicle leading edge applications. The constituent fibers as well as composite coupons were oxidized in oxygen partial pressures ranging from 1000 ppm O2 to 5% O2 balance argon. Exposure temperatures ranged from 816 C to 1353 C (1500 F to 2450 F). The oxidation kinetics of the coated fibers were monitored by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). An initial rapid transient weight gain was observed followed by parabolic kinetics. Possible mechanisms for the transient oxidation are discussed. One edge of the composite coupon seal coat was ground off to simulate damage to the composite which allowed oxygen ingress to the interior of the composite. Oxidation kinetics of the coupons were characterized by scanning electron microscopy since the weight changes were minimal. It was found that sealing of the coupon edge by silica formation occurred. Differences in the amount and morphology of the sealing silica as a function of time, temperature and oxygen partial pressure are discussed. Implications for use of these materials for hypersonic vehicle leading edge materials are summarized.

  7. Interface characterization of fiber-reinforced Ni3Al matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.-M.; Kao, W. H.; Liu, C. T.

    1989-11-01

    The interfacial reaction characteristics of SCS-6, Sigma, and B4C/B fibers with nickel aluminide (Ni3Al) matrix have been investigated between 780°C to 980°C for times ranging from 1 to 100 hours. The microstructure and elemental compositions across the reaction zone have been analyzed quantitatively using microscopy and electron probe microanalyses, respectively. The results show that Ni3Al reacts extensively with SCS-6, Sigma, and B4C/B fibers to form complex reaction products, and Ni is the dominant diffusing species controlling the extent of reaction. In the SiC/Ni3Al composite, the C-rich layer on the SiC surface can slow down but cannot stop the inward diffusion of Ni into SiC fiber. When the C-rich layer is depleted, a rapid increase in reaction zone thickness occurs. Diffusion barrier coating on the fibers is required to minimize the interfacial reactions.

  8. The interface in tungsten fiber reinforced niobium metal-matrix composites. Final Report Ph.D. Thesis - Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobstein, Toni L.

    1989-01-01

    The creep resistance of tungsten fiber reinforced niobium metal-matrix composites was evaluated. The interface region between the fiber and matrix was characterized by microhardness and electron probe microanalysis measurements which indicated that its properties were between those of fiber and matrix. However, the measured properties of the composite exceeded those calculated by the rule of mixtures even when the interface zone was assumed to retain all the strength of the fiber. The composite structure appeared to enhance the strengths of both the fibers and the matrix above what they exhibited in stand-alone tests. The effect of fiber orientation and matrix alloy composition on the fiber/matrix interface were also evaluated. Small alloying additions of zirconium and tungsten to the niobium matrix affected the creep resistance of the composites only slightly. A decrease in the creep resistance of the composite with increasing zirconium content in the matrix was ascribed to an increase in the diffusion rate of the fiber/matrix interdiffusion reaction, and a slight increase in the creep resistance of the composite was observed with an addition of 9 w percent tungsten to the matrix. In addition, Kirkendall void formation was observed at the fiber/matrix interface; the void distribution differed depending on the fiber orientation relative to the stress axis.

  9. Preparation and tribological properties of C fibre reinforced C/SiC dual matrix composites fabrication by liquid silicon infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhuan; Xiao, Peng; Xiong, Xiang; Huang, Bo-yun

    2013-02-01

    Three-dimensional needle carbon fibre reinforced carbon and silicon carbide dual matrix composite (C/C-SiC) is one of a new type of high performance brake material. The carbon fibre preform prepared by three-dimensional needling method was first densified by chemical vapour infiltration (CVI) to form porous carbon/carbon (C/C) composites. Then, the porous C/C composites were converted into C/C-SiC by liquid silicon infiltration (LSI), in which silicon carbide matrix was formed by reaction of carbon and melting silicon. The microstructure, mechanical properties and friction behaviour of C/C-SiC have been investigated. The results indicated that the composite was composed of 55 wt% C, 39 wt% SiC and 6 wt% Si. The density of C/C-SiC was 2.2 g cm-3 with 6.4% open porosity. The C/C-SiC exhibited good mechanical properties, especially excellent toughness which can help to avoid catastrophic brittle fracture. The flexural and compressive strength can reach to 214.6 MPa and 271.0 MPa, respectively. In addition, C/C-SiC had excellent impact damage tolerance of 25.2 kJ m-2. Compared to the self-friction, the C/C-SiC with steel opposing material shown higher static coefficient of friction (0.74) and better stability coefficient (0.28), while exhibited lower dynamic coefficient of friction (0.25), higher temperature of friction subsurface (444 °C), higher wear rate (2.88 μm cycle-1). The main wear mechanism of the C/C-SiC composites with different opposing material both includes adhesion and oxidation abrasion.

  10. Interfacial properties of as-received and coated SiC (SCS-6) fiber reinforced reaction-formed SiC matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Gaeta, P.J.; Sisson, R.D. Jr.; Singh, M.; Eldridge, J.I.

    1995-10-01

    The possibility of improving the interfacial shear strength of the SiC fiber reinforced SiC matrix composite system was examined. A ceramic fiber coating was chosen based on availability and chemical stability with the fiber and matrix. Fiber push-out tests conducted on as-received and coated fiber reinforced composite samples allowed characterization of the interfacial shear strength. Average debond shear and frictional sliding stresses were calculated. The effects of sample thickness and second phase addition in the matrix were also evaluated. Tested samples were examined by SEM to determine the location of the interfacial failure and to determine if any interface reactions had occurred. The coating was then evaluated based on the resulting interfacial shear strength, failure location, and integrity of the interface as compared to those properties of samples reinforced with as-received fibers.