NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2001-01-01
Langley Research Center has licensed a new high-temperature polyimide with versatile applications to Unitech LLC, of Hampton, Virginia, and J. D. Lincoln, Inc., of Costa Mesa, California. Through a Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) and its license, Unitech, a client of the NASA Hampton Roads Technology Incubator (HRTI), is now selling the new polyimide, better known as RP46. Dr. Ruth Pater, of NASA Langley, developed RP46 for aerospace applications. The material was designed for re-entry vehicles and high-temperature engine components; however, its versatile nature makes it applicable as a molding, adhesive, coating, composite matrix resin, foam, or film. Available in liquid and powder forms, RP46 can also be fabricated over mesh for use in molds. RP46 presents a profitable option to manufacturers, because the ease of manufacturing the resin and the reduction in curing time saves money. Consumers save money because RP46 is more durable than similar products that are susceptible to microcracking when used as a coating or adhesive in high-temperature situations and often required reapplication. The chances of microcracking are significantly reduced with RP46 because of its unsurpased ability to resist heat and corrosion.
Li, Wang; Huan, Xiajuan; Zhou, Ying; Ma, Qingyi; Chen, Yulin
2009-06-12
A bacterial strain with high cellulase activity was isolated of feces sample of Golden Takin (Budorcas taxicolor Bedfordi). The bacterium was classified and designated Bacillus subtilis LN by morphological and 16SrDNA gene sequence analysis. Two putative cellulase genes, CelL15 and CelL73, were simultaneously cloned from the isolated strain by PCR. The putative gene CelL15 consisted of an open reading frame (ORF) of 1470 nucleotides and encoded a protein of 490 amino acids with a molecular weight of 54 kDa. The CelL73 gene consisted of an open reading frame (ORF) of 741 nucleotides and encoded a protein of 247 amino acids with a molecular weight of 27 kDa. Both genes were purified and cloned into pET-28a for expression in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The ability of E. coli to degrade cellulose was enhanced when the two recombinants were cultured together.
Design of channeled partial Mueller matrix polarimeters.
Alenin, Andrey S; Scott Tyo, J
2016-06-01
In this paper, we introduce a novel class of systems called channeled partial Mueller matrix polarimeters (c-pMMPs). Their analysis benefits greatly by drawing from the concepts of generalized construction of channeled polarimeters as described by the modulation matrix. The modulation matrix resembles that of the data reduction method of a conventional polarimeter, but instead of using Mueller vectors as the bases, attention is focused on the Fourier properties of the measurement conditions. By leveraging the understanding of the measurement's structure, its decomposition can be manipulated to reveal noise resilience and information about the polarimeter's ability to measure the aspect of polarization that are important for any given task. We demonstrate the theory with a numerical optimization that designs c-pMMPs for the task of monitoring the damage state of a material as presented earlier by Hoover and Tyo [Appl. Opt.46, 8364 (2007)APOPAI0003-693510.1364/AO.46.008364]. We select several example systems that produce a fewer-than-full-system number of channels yet retain the ability to discriminate objects of interest. Their respective trade-offs are discussed. PMID:27409432
Yao, Gang; Li, Yanhong; Li, Dayong; Williams, Peter; Hu, Jie
2016-07-01
The takin (Budorcas taxicolor) is an Endangered ungulate. We analyzed the variation within mtDNA control region sequences of takin populations in the Qinling Mountains, the Minshan Mountains and the confluence of these two mountain ranges. We did not find any shared haplotypes among the populations. We observed apparent variation in the control region length among the three populations, and independent population expansions in the late of Pleistocene, which suggests these populations may have independent evolutionary histories. We found only one haplotype, and the lowest measures of genetic diversity (h = 0; π = 0) in the population from the confluent zone, which suggests populations in the confluent zone may have grown from small founder populations and gene flow with other populations has ceased. Based on their phylogenetic relationships, we concluded that the takin population in the confluent zone was in the same clade as the Tangjiahe population, which suggests that these takin populations are Sichuan takin (Budorcas taxicolor tibetana). PMID:26024129
Teaching Improvement Model Designed with DEA Method and Management Matrix
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Montoneri, Bernard
2014-01-01
This study uses student evaluation of teachers to design a teaching improvement matrix based on teaching efficiency and performance by combining management matrix and data envelopment analysis. This matrix is designed to formulate suggestions to improve teaching. The research sample consists of 42 classes of freshmen following a course of English…
Analytical techniques for instrument design - matrix methods
Robinson, R.A.
1997-09-01
We take the traditional Cooper-Nathans approach, as has been applied for many years for steady-state triple-axis spectrometers, and consider its generalisation to other inelastic scattering spectrometers. This involves a number of simple manipulations of exponentials of quadratic forms. In particular, we discuss a toolbox of matrix manipulations that can be performed on the 6- dimensional Cooper-Nathans matrix: diagonalisation (Moller-Nielsen method), coordinate changes e.g. from ({Delta}k{sub I},{Delta}k{sub F} to {Delta}E, {Delta}Q & 2 dummy variables), integration of one or more variables (e.g. over such dummy variables), integration subject to linear constraints (e.g. Bragg`s Law for analysers), inversion to give the variance-covariance matrix, and so on. We show how these tools can be combined to solve a number of important problems, within the narrow-band limit and the gaussian approximation. We will argue that a generalised program that can handle multiple different spectrometers could (and should) be written in parallel to the Monte-Carlo packages that are becoming available. We will also discuss the complementarity between detailed Monte-Carlo calculations and the approach presented here. In particular, Monte-Carlo methods traditionally simulate the real experiment as performed in practice, given a model scattering law, while the Cooper-Nathans method asks the inverse question: given that a neutron turns up in a particular spectrometer configuration (e.g. angle and time of flight), what is the probability distribution of possible scattering events at the sample? The Monte-Carlo approach could be applied in the same spirit to this question.
Analytical techniques for instrument design -- Matrix methods
Robinson, R.A.
1997-12-31
The authors take the traditional Cooper-Nathans approach, as has been applied for many years for steady-state triple-axis spectrometers, and consider its generalization to other inelastic scattering spectrometers. This involves a number of simple manipulations of exponentials of quadratic forms. In particular, they discuss a toolbox of matrix manipulations that can be performed on the 6-dimensional Cooper-Nathans matrix. They show how these tools can be combined to solve a number of important problems, within the narrow-band limit and the gaussian approximation. They will argue that a generalized program that can handle multiple different spectrometers could (and should) be written in parallel to the Monte-Carlo packages that are becoming available. They also discuss the complementarity between detailed Monte-Carlo calculations and the approach presented here. In particular, Monte-Carlo methods traditionally simulate the real experiment as performed in practice, given a model scattering law, while the Cooper-Nathans method asks the inverse question: given that a neutron turns up in a particular spectrometer configuration (e.g. angle and time of flight), what is the probability distribution of possible scattering events at the sample? The Monte-Carlo approach could be applied in the same spirit to this question.
Zhao, Guang-Hui; Du, Shuai-Zhi; Wang, Hui-Bao; Hu, Xiong-Feng; Deng, Ming-Jun; Yu, San-Ke; Zhang, Long-Xian; Zhu, Xing-Quan
2015-08-01
Genetic study of Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia intestinalis and Enterocytozoon bieneusi at species/assemblage/genotype/subtype level facilitates understanding their mechanical transmissions and underpins their control. A total of 191 fresh faecal samples were collected from golden takins in China and examined using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Cryptosporidium spp. was detected in 15 faecal samples (7.9%), including Cryptosporidium parvum (2/15) and Cryptosporidium andersoni (13/15). MLST tool identified C. andersoni subtypes (A1, A4, A4, A1) and (A4, A4, A4, A1), and C. parvum gp60 gene subtype IId A19G1. The prevalence of G. intestinalis infection was 8.9% (17/191) and assemblage analysis identified 14 assemblage E and three assemblage B. Intra-variations were observed at triose phosphate isomerase (tpi), beta giardin (bg) and glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) loci within the assemblage E, showing seven, three and three new subtypes in respective locus. Ten and one multilocus genotypes (MLGs) were present in assemblages E and B, respectively. E. bieneusi infection was positive in 14.7% (28/191) of the examined specimens, with three genotypes known (BEB6, D and I) and four novel internal transcribed spacer (ITS) genotypes (TEB1-TEB4). The present study revealed, for the first time, the presence of zoonotic C. parvum IId A19G1, G. intestinalis assemblage B and E. bieneusi genotype D and four novel genotypes in golden takins in China. These findings expand the host range of three zoonotic pathogens and have important implications for controlling cryptosporidiosis, giardiasis and microsporidiosis in humans and animals. PMID:26190449
Design of RF MEMS based switch matrix for space applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Di Nardo, S.; Farinelli, P.; Kim, T.; Marcelli, R.; Margesin, B.; Paola, E.; Pochesci, D.; Vietzorreck, L.; Vitulli, F.
2013-07-01
RF MEMS based switch matrices have several advantages compared to the mechanical or solid-state switch based ones for space applications. They are compact, light and less lossy with a high linearity up to high frequency. In this work, a 12 × 12 switch matrix with RF MEMS and LTCC technologies is presented based on the planar Beneš network. The simulated performance of the 12 × 12 switch matrix is below -12 dB IL (Insertion Loss) up to C band and -15 dB RL (Return Loss) up to Ku band. Moreover, it has a good isolation better than -50 dB. A 4 × 4 switch matrix with the same design process and technologies is fabricated and measured to verify the 12 × 12 switch matrix design process. The measured performance agrees very well to the simulations.
Matrix filter design for passive sonar interference suppression
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vaccaro, Richard J.; Chhetri, Amit; Harrison, Brian F.
2004-06-01
The performance of passive acoustic signal-processing techniques can become severely degraded when the acoustic source of interest is obscured by strong interference. The application of matrix filters to suppress interference while passing a signal of interest with minimal distortion is presented. An algorithm for single-frequency matrix filter design is developed by converting a constrained convex optimization problem into a sequence of unconstrained problems. The approach is extended to broadband data by incoherently combining the responses of matrix filters designed at frequencies across a band of interest. The responses of single-frequency and multifrequency matrix filters are shown. Examples are given which demonstrate the effectiveness of matrix filtering applied to matched-field localization of a weak source in the presence of a strong interferer and noise. These examples show the matrix filter effectively suppressing the interference, thereby enabling the localization of the weak source. Standard matched-field processing, without matrix filtering, is not effective in localizing the weak source.
Airbreathing/Rocket Single-Stage-to-Orbit Design Matrix
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hunt, James L.
1995-01-01
A definitive design/performance study was performed on a single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) airbreathing propelled orbital vehicle with rocket propulsion augmentation in the Access to Space activities during 1993. A credible reference design was established, but by no means an optimum. The results supported the viability of SSTO airbreathing/rocket vehicles for operational scenarios and indicated compelling reasons to continue to explore the design matrix. This paper will (1) summarize the Access to Space design activity from the SSTO airbreathing/rocket perspective, (2) present an airbreathing/rocket SSTO design matrix established for continued optimization of the design space, and (3) focus on the compelling reasons for airbreathing vehicles in Access to Space scenarios.
A Matrix-Free Algorithm for Multidisciplinary Design Optimization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lambe, Andrew Borean
Multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) is an approach to engineering design that exploits the coupling between components or knowledge disciplines in a complex system to improve the final product. In aircraft design, MDO methods can be used to simultaneously design the outer shape of the aircraft and the internal structure, taking into account the complex interaction between the aerodynamic forces and the structural flexibility. Efficient strategies are needed to solve such design optimization problems and guarantee convergence to an optimal design. This work begins with a comprehensive review of MDO problem formulations and solution algorithms. First, a fundamental MDO problem formulation is defined from which other formulations may be obtained through simple transformations. Using these fundamental problem formulations, decomposition methods from the literature are reviewed and classified. All MDO methods are presented in a unified mathematical notation to facilitate greater understanding. In addition, a novel set of diagrams, called extended design structure matrices, are used to simultaneously visualize both data communication and process flow between the many software components of each method. For aerostructural design optimization, modern decomposition-based MDO methods cannot efficiently handle the tight coupling between the aerodynamic and structural states. This fact motivates the exploration of methods that can reduce the computational cost. A particular structure in the direct and adjoint methods for gradient computation motivates the idea of a matrix-free optimization method. A simple matrix-free optimizer is developed based on the augmented Lagrangian algorithm. This new matrix-free optimizer is tested on two structural optimization problems and one aerostructural optimization problem. The results indicate that the matrix-free optimizer is able to efficiently solve structural and multidisciplinary design problems with thousands of variables and
A Matrix-Free Algorithm for Multidisciplinary Design Optimization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lambe, Andrew Borean
Multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) is an approach to engineering design that exploits the coupling between components or knowledge disciplines in a complex system to improve the final product. In aircraft design, MDO methods can be used to simultaneously design the outer shape of the aircraft and the internal structure, taking into account the complex interaction between the aerodynamic forces and the structural flexibility. Efficient strategies are needed to solve such design optimization problems and guarantee convergence to an optimal design. This work begins with a comprehensive review of MDO problem formulations and solution algorithms. First, a fundamental MDO problem formulation is defined from which other formulations may be obtained through simple transformations. Using these fundamental problem formulations, decomposition methods from the literature are reviewed and classified. All MDO methods are presented in a unified mathematical notation to facilitate greater understanding. In addition, a novel set of diagrams, called extended design structure matrices, are used to simultaneously visualize both data communication and process flow between the many software components of each method. For aerostructural design optimization, modern decomposition-based MDO methods cannot efficiently handle the tight coupling between the aerodynamic and structural states. This fact motivates the exploration of methods that can reduce the computational cost. A particular structure in the direct and adjoint methods for gradient computation. motivates the idea of a matrix-free optimization method. A simple matrix-free optimizer is developed based on the augmented Lagrangian algorithm. This new matrix-free optimizer is tested on two structural optimization problems and one aerostructural optimization problem. The results indicate that the matrix-free optimizer is able to efficiently solve structural and multidisciplinary design problems with thousands of variables and
Airbreathing Hypersonic Vision-Operational-Vehicles Design Matrix
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hunt, James L.; Pegg, Robert J.; Petley, Dennis H.
1999-01-01
This paper presents the status of the airbreathing hypersonic airplane and space-access vision-operational-vehicle design matrix, with emphasis on horizontal takeoff and landing systems being, studied at Langley, it reflects the synergies and issues, and indicates the thrust of the effort to resolve the design matrix including Mach 5 to 10 airplanes with global-reach potential, pop-up and dual-role transatmospheric vehicles and airbreathing launch systems. The convergence of several critical systems/technologies across the vehicle matrix is indicated. This is particularly true for the low speed propulsion system for large unassisted horizontal takeoff vehicles which favor turbines and/or perhaps pulse detonation engines that do not require LOX which imposes loading concerns and mission Flexibility restraints.
Airbreathing Hypersonic Vision-Operational-Vehicles Design Matrix
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hunt, James L.; Pegg, Robert J.; Petley, Dennis H.
1999-01-01
This paper presents the status of the airbreathing hypersonic airplane and space-access vision-operational-vehicle design matrix, with emphasis on horizontal takeoff and landing systems being studied at Langley; it reflects the synergies and issues, and indicates the thrust of the effort to resolve the design matrix including Mach 5 to 10 airplanes with global-reach potential, pop-up and dual-role transatmospheric vehicles and airbreathing launch systems. The convergence of several critical systems/technologies across the vehicle matrix is indicated. This is particularly true for the low speed propulsion system for large unassisted horizontal takeoff vehicles which favor turbines and/or perhaps pulse detonation engines that do not require LOX which imposes loading concerns and mission flexibility restraints.
Motorcycle suspension design using matrix inequalities and passivity constraints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharma, Amrit; Limebeer, David J. N.
2012-03-01
This paper presents a design methodology for the suspension system of a novel aerodynamically efficient motorcycle. Since the machine's layout and the rider's seating position are unconventional, several aspects of the machine design, including the suspension, must be reviewed afresh. The design process is based on matrix inequalities that are used to optimise a road-grip objective function - others could be used equally well. The design problem is cast as the minimisation of an H 2 cost with passivity constraints imposed on the suspension transference. The resulting bilinear matrix inequality problem is solved using a locally optimal iterative algorithm. The matrix inequality-type characterisation of positive real functions permits the optimisation of the suspension system over an entire class of passive admittances. Torsional springs, dampers and inerters are then used to construct networks corresponding to the optimal (positive real) admittances. Networks of first, second, third and fourth orders are considered, and an argument based on the compromise between complexity and improved grip is made for the most suitable suspension configuration. Finally, the effects of improved road grip on the stability of the vehicle's lateral dynamics are analysed.
Design sensitivity and Hessian matrix of generalized eigenproblems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Li; Hu, Yujin; Wang, Xuelin
2014-02-01
A generalized eigenproblem is formed and its normalizations are presented and discussed. Then a unified consideration of the computation of the sensitivity and Hessian matrix is studied for both the self-adjoint and non-self-adjoint cases. In the self-adjoint case, a direct algebraic method is presented to determine the eigensolution derivatives simultaneously by solving a linear system with a symmetric coefficient matrix. In the non-self-adjoint case, an algebraic method is presented to determine the eigensolution derivatives directly and simultaneously without having to use the left eigenvectors. In this sense, the method has advantages in computational cost and storage capacity. It is shown that the second order derivatives of eigensolutions can also be obtained by solving a linear system and the computational effort of obtaining Hessian matrix is reduced remarkably since only the recalculation of the right-hand vector of the linear system is required. The presented methods are accurate, compact, numerically stable and easy to implement. Finally, two transcendental eigenproblem examples are used to demonstrate the validity of the presented methods. The first example is considered as an example of the case of non-self-adjoint systems, which can result from feedback control systems. The other example is used to illustrate the case of self-adjoint systems by considering the three bar truss structure which is a viscoelastic composite structure and consists of two aluminum truss components and one viscoelastic truss. In addition, the capacity of predicting the changes of eigenvalues and eigenvectors with respect to the changes of design parameters is studied.
Matrix structure for information-driven polarimeter design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alenin, Andrey S.
Estimating the polarization of light has been shown to have merit in a wide variety of applications between UV and LWIR wavelengths. These tasks include target identification, estimation of atmospheric aerosol properties, biomedical and other applications. In all of these applications, polarization sensing has been shown to assist in discrimination ability; however, due to the nature of many phenomena, it is difficult to add polarization sensing everywhere. The goal of this dissertation is to decrease the associated penalties of using polarimetry, and thereby broaden its applicability to other areas. First, the class of channeled polarimeter systems is generalized to relate the Fourier domains of applied modulations to the resulting information channels. The quality of reconstruction is maximized by virtue of using linear system manipulations rather than arithmetic derived by hand, while revealing system properties that allow for immediate performance estimation. Besides identifying optimal systems in terms of equally weighted variance (EWV), a way to redistribute the error between all the information channels is presented. The result of this development often leads to superficial changes that can improve signal-to-noise-ration (SNR) by up to a factor of three compared to existing designs in the literature. Second, the class of partial Mueller maitrx polarimeters (pMMPs) is inspected in regards to their capacity to match the level of discrimination performance achieved by full systems. The concepts of structured decomposition and the reconstructables matrix are developed to provide insight into Mueller subspace coverage of pMMPs, while yielding a pMMP basis that allows the formation of ten classes of pMMP systems. A method for evaluating such systems while considering a multi-objective optimization of noise resilience and space coverage is provided. An example is presented for which the number of measurements was reduced to half. Third, the novel developments
Designing a Calibrated Full Matrix Capture Based Inspection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duxbury, D.; Russell, J.; Lowe, M.
2011-06-01
Full Matrix Capture (FMC) technology is becoming increasingly attractive to industry. The development of FMC based inspection techniques is an active area of research, offering benefits in terms of defect detection and sizing and increased flexibility. However, before this technology can be fully transferred into industry there must be a method of reliably and robustly selecting the most appropriate inspection technique. A suitable calibration procedure must also be developed. A Huygens based array beam model has been developed and validated against the commercial software CIVA in a number of test cases. The model has been used as a tool to quickly allow visualisation of beams currently not supported by CIVA, or other available packages. A method of calibration is also presented that allows DAC curves to be extracted from a single scan of a calibration block for any beam type. The calibration algorithm is also used to set inspection sensitivity. This paper demonstrates through the use of a case study how a fully calibrated FMC based inspection can be designed, using the array beam model, to detect and accurately size a defect using multiple beam types.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ponick, F. S.
2002-01-01
Focuses on the connections between the music industry and music education. Address the trends in outreach and advocacy in the music industry. Includes a list of Web sites for the music industry and a list of organizations in the music industry. (CMK)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Krogness, Mary Mercer
1995-01-01
Describes the way one teacher utilizes a variety of activities by which the power of language is analyzed and fostered among students of English. Describes methods for making dictionaries, playing with words, and chanting poetry. (HB)
Blade system design studies volume II : preliminary blade designs and recommended test matrix.
Griffin, Dayton A.
2004-06-01
As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Partnerships for Advanced Component Technologies (WindPACT) program, Global Energy Concepts, LLC is performing a Blade System Design Study (BSDS) concerning innovations in materials, processes and structural configurations for application to wind turbine blades in the multi-megawatt range. The BSDS Volume I project report addresses issues and constraints identified to scaling conventional blade designs to the megawatt size range, and evaluated candidate materials, manufacturing and design innovations for overcoming and improving large blade economics. The current report (Volume II), presents additional discussion of materials and manufacturing issues for large blades, including a summary of current trends in commercial blade manufacturing. Specifications are then developed to guide the preliminary design of MW-scale blades. Using preliminary design calculations for a 3.0 MW blade, parametric analyses are performed to quantify the potential benefits in stiffness and decreased gravity loading by replacement of a baseline fiberglass spar with carbon-fiberglass hybrid material. Complete preliminary designs are then presented for 3.0 MW and 5.0 MW blades that incorporate fiberglass-to-carbon transitions at mid-span. Based on analysis of these designs, technical issues are identified and discussed. Finally, recommendations are made for composites testing under Part I1 of the BSDS, and the initial planned test matrix for that program is presented.
The Application of Concurrent Engineering Tools and Design Structure Matrix in Designing Tire
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ginting, Rosnani; Fachrozi Fitra Ramadhan, T.
2016-02-01
The development of automobile industry in Indonesia is growing rapidly. This phenomenon causes companies related to the automobile industry such as tire industry must develop products based on customers’ needs and considering the timeliness of delivering the product to the customer. It could be reached by applying strategic planning in developing an integrated concept of product development. This research was held in PT. XYZ that applied the sequential approach in designing and developing products. The need to improve in one stage of product development could occur re-designing that needs longer time in developing a new product. This research is intended to get an integrated product design concept of tire pertaining to the customer's needs using Concurrent Engineering Tools by implementing the two-phased of product development. The implementation of Concurrent Engineering approach results in applying the stage of project planning, conceptual design, and product modules. The product modules consist of four modules that using Product Architecture - Design Structure Matrix to ease the designing process of new product development.
The design of reversible hydrogels to capture extracellular matrix dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosales, Adrianne M.; Anseth, Kristi S.
2016-02-01
The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a dynamic environment that constantly provides physical and chemical cues to embedded cells. Much progress has been made in engineering hydrogels that can mimic the ECM, but hydrogel properties are, in general, static. To recapitulate the dynamic nature of the ECM, many reversible chemistries have been incorporated into hydrogels to regulate cell spreading, biochemical ligand presentation and matrix mechanics. For example, emerging trends include the use of molecular photoswitches or biomolecule hybridization to control polymer chain conformation, thereby enabling the modulation of the hydrogel between two states on demand. In addition, many non-covalent, dynamic chemical bonds have found increasing use as hydrogel crosslinkers or tethers for cell signalling molecules. These reversible chemistries will provide greater temporal control of adhered cell behaviour, and they allow for more advanced in vitro models and tissue-engineering scaffolds to direct cell fate.
Life Modeling and Design Analysis for Ceramic Matrix Composite Materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2005-01-01
The primary research efforts focused on characterizing and modeling static failure, environmental durability, and creep-rupture behavior of two classes of ceramic matrix composites (CMC), silicon carbide fibers in a silicon carbide matrix (SiC/SiC) and carbon fibers in a silicon carbide matrix (C/SiC). An engineering life prediction model (Probabilistic Residual Strength model) has been developed specifically for CMCs. The model uses residual strength as the damage metric for evaluating remaining life and is posed probabilistically in order to account for the stochastic nature of the material s response. In support of the modeling effort, extensive testing of C/SiC in partial pressures of oxygen has been performed. This includes creep testing, tensile testing, half life and residual tensile strength testing. C/SiC is proposed for airframe and propulsion applications in advanced reusable launch vehicles. Figures 1 and 2 illustrate the models predictive capabilities as well as the manner in which experimental tests are being selected in such a manner as to ensure sufficient data is available to aid in model validation.
Design of inner coupling matrix for robustly self-synchronizing networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gequn, Liu; Zhiguo, Zhan; Knowles, Gareth
2015-12-01
A self-synchronizing network may undergo change of scale and topology during its functioning, thus adjustment of parameters is necessary to enable the synchronization. The adjustment cost and runtime-break demand a method to maintain continuous operation of the network. To address these issues, this paper presents an analytical method for the design of the inner coupling matrix. The proposed method renders the synchronization robust to change of network scale and topology. It is usual in network models that scale and topology are represented by outer coupling matrix. In this paper we only consider diffusively coupled networks. For these networks, the eigenvalues of the outer coupling matrix are all non-positive. By utilizing this property, the designed inner coupling matrix can cover the entire left half of complex plane within the synchronized region to underlie robustness of synchronization. After elaborating the applicability of several types of synchronization state for a robustly self-synchronizing network, the analytical design method is given for the stable equilibrium point case. Sometimes the Jacobian matrix of the node dynamical equation may lead to an unrealizable complex inner coupling matrix in the method. We then introduce a lemma of matrix transformation to prevent this possibility. Additionally, we investigated the choice of inner coupling matrix to get a desirable self-synchronization speed. The corresponding condition in the design procedure is given to drive the network synchronization faster than convergence of each node. Finally, the article includes examples that show effectiveness and soundness of the method.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Singh, M.
1999-01-01
Ceramic matrix composite (CMC) components are being designed, fabricated, and tested for a number of high temperature, high performance applications in aerospace and ground based systems. The critical need for and the role of reliable and robust databases for the design and manufacturing of ceramic matrix composites are presented. A number of issues related to engineering design, manufacturing technologies, joining, and attachment technologies, are also discussed. Examples of various ongoing activities in the area of composite databases. designing to codes and standards, and design for manufacturing are given.
Design Concepts for Cooled Ceramic Matrix Composite Turbine Vanes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Boyle, Robert
2014-01-01
This project demonstrated that higher temperature capabilities of ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) can be used to reduce emissions and improve fuel consumption in gas turbine engines. The work involved closely coupling aerothermal and structural analyses for the first-stage vane of a high-pressure turbine (HPT). These vanes are actively cooled, typically using film cooling. Ceramic materials have structural and thermal properties different from conventional metals used for the first-stage HPT vane. This project identified vane configurations that satisfy CMC structural strength and life constraints while maintaining vane aerodynamic efficiency and reducing vane cooling to improve engine performance and reduce emissions. The project examined modifications to vane internal configurations to achieve the desired objectives. Thermal and pressure stresses are equally important, and both were analyzed using an ANSYS® structural analysis. Three-dimensional fluid and heat transfer analyses were used to determine vane aerodynamic performance and heat load distributions.
Interfacial Design of Mixed Matrix Membranes for Improved Gas Separation Performance.
Wang, Zhenggong; Wang, Dong; Zhang, Shenxiang; Hu, Liang; Jin, Jian
2016-05-01
High-performance metal-organic framework (MOF)/polyimide (PI) mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) are fabricated by a facile strategy by designing the MOF/PI matrix interface via poly dopamine coating. The overall separation performance of the designed MMMs surpasses the state-of-the-art 2008 Robeson upper bound for the H2 /CH4 and H2 /N2 gas pairs and approaches the 2008 upper bound for the O2 /N2 gas pair. PMID:26936293
The Comprehension Matrix: A Tool for Designing Comprehension Instruction
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gill, Sharon Ruth
2008-01-01
Recent reading research has shown teachers how to help students comprehend and has identified strategies that good comprehenders use. At the same time, however, researchers report that few if any of these techniques are used in classrooms. Reading teachers and content area teachers alike need to be able to design lessons that help students…
Library designs for generic C++ sparse matrix computations of iterative methods
Pozo, R.
1996-12-31
A new library design is presented for generic sparse matrix C++ objects for use in iterative algorithms and preconditioners. This design extends previous work on C++ numerical libraries by providing a framework in which efficient algorithms can be written *independent* of the matrix layout or format. That is, rather than supporting different codes for each (element type) / (matrix format) combination, only one version of the algorithm need be maintained. This not only reduces the effort for library developers, but also simplifies the calling interface seen by library users. Furthermore, the underlying matrix library can be naturally extended to support user-defined objects, such as hierarchical block-structured matrices, or application-specific preconditioners. Utilizing optimized kernels whenever possible, the resulting performance of such framework can be shown to be competitive with optimized Fortran programs.
2013-01-01
An intuitionistic method is proposed to design shadow masks to achieve thickness profile control for evaporation coating processes. The proposed method is based on the concept of the shadow matrix, which is a matrix that contains coefficients that build quantitive relations between shape parameters of masks and shadow quantities of substrate directly. By using the shadow matrix, shape parameters of shadow masks could be derived simply by solving a matrix equation. Verification experiments were performed on a special case where coating materials have different condensation characteristics. By using the designed mask pair with complementary shapes, thickness uniformities of better than 98% are demonstrated for MgF2 (m = 1) and LaF3 (m = 0.5) simultaneously on a 280 mm diameter spherical substrate with the radius curvature of 200 mm. PMID:24227996
Design of an Osteoinductive Extracellular Fibronectin Matrix Protein for Bone Tissue Engineering
Lee, Sujin; Lee, Dong-Sung; Choi, Ilsan; Pham, Le B. Hang; Jang, Jun-Hyeog
2015-01-01
Integrin-mediated cell-matrix interactions play an important role in osteogenesis. Here, we constructed a novel osteoinductive fibronectin matrix protein (oFN) for bone tissue engineering, designed to combine the integrin-binding modules from fibronectin (iFN) and a strong osteoinductive growth factor, bone morphogenetic protein-2. Compared with iFN, the purified oFN matrix protein caused a significant increase in cell adhesion and osteogenic differentiation of pre-osteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells (p < 0.05). PMID:25853265
Design verification test matrix development for the STME thrust chamber assembly
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dexter, Carol E.; Elam, Sandra K.; Sparks, David L.
1993-06-01
This report presents the results of the test matrix development for design verification at the component level for the National Launch System (NLS) space transportation main engine (STME) thrust chamber assembly (TCA) components including the following: injector, combustion chamber, and nozzle. A systematic approach was used in the development of the minimum recommended TCA matrix resulting in a minimum number of hardware units and a minimum number of hot fire tests.
Design verification test matrix development for the STME thrust chamber assembly
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dexter, Carol E.; Elam, Sandra K.; Sparks, David L.
1993-01-01
This report presents the results of the test matrix development for design verification at the component level for the National Launch System (NLS) space transportation main engine (STME) thrust chamber assembly (TCA) components including the following: injector, combustion chamber, and nozzle. A systematic approach was used in the development of the minimum recommended TCA matrix resulting in a minimum number of hardware units and a minimum number of hot fire tests.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1974-01-01
A monograph is presented which establishes structural design criteria and recommends practices to ensure the design of sound composite structures, including composite-reinforced metal structures. (It does not discuss design criteria for fiber-glass composites and such advanced composite materials as beryllium wire or sapphire whiskers in a matrix material.) Although the criteria were developed for aircraft applications, they are general enough to be applicable to space vehicles and missiles as well. The monograph covers four broad areas: (1) materials, (2) design, (3) fracture control, and (4) design verification. The materials portion deals with such subjects as material system design, material design levels, and material characterization. The design portion includes panel, shell, and joint design, applied loads, internal loads, design factors, reliability, and maintainability. Fracture control includes such items as stress concentrations, service-life philosophy, and the management plan for control of fracture-related aspects of structural design using composite materials. Design verification discusses ways to prove flightworthiness.
Gupta-Ostermann, Disha; Hirose, Yoichiro; Odagami, Takenao; Kouji, Hiroyuki; Bajorath, Jürgen
2015-01-01
In a previous Method Article, we have presented the 'Structure-Activity Relationship (SAR) Matrix' (SARM) approach. The SARM methodology is designed to systematically extract structurally related compound series from screening or chemical optimization data and organize these series and associated SAR information in matrices reminiscent of R-group tables. SARM calculations also yield many virtual candidate compounds that form a "chemical space envelope" around related series. To further extend the SARM approach, different methods are developed to predict the activity of virtual compounds. In this follow-up contribution, we describe an activity prediction method that derives conditional probabilities of activity from SARMs and report representative results of first prospective applications of this approach. PMID:25949808
Information Architecture for the Web: The IA Matrix Approach to Designing Children's Portals.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Large, Andrew; Beheshti, Jamshid; Cole, Charles
2002-01-01
Presents a matrix that can serve as a tool for designing the information architecture of a Web portal in a logical and systematic manner. Highlights include interfaces; metaphors; navigation; interaction; information retrieval; and an example of a children's Web portal to provide access to museum information. (Author/LRW)
Design Studies for a Multiple Application Thermal Reactor for Irradiation Experiments (MATRIX)
Pope, Michael A.; Gougar, Hans D.; Ryskamp, J. M.
2015-03-01
The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a high power density test reactor specializing in fuel and materials irradiation. For more than 45 years, the ATR has provided irradiations of materials and fuels testing along with radioisotope production. Should unforeseen circumstances lead to the decommissioning of ATR, the U.S. Government would be left without a large-scale materials irradiation capability to meet the needs of its nuclear energy and naval reactor missions. In anticipation of this possibility, work was performed under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program to investigate test reactor concepts that could satisfy the current missions of the ATR along with an expanded set of secondary missions. A survey was conducted in order to catalogue the anticipated needs of potential customers. Then, concepts were evaluated to fill the role for this reactor, dubbed the Multi-Application Thermal Reactor Irradiation eXperiments (MATRIX). The baseline MATRIX design is expected to be capable of longer cycle lengths than ATR given a particular batch scheme. The volume of test space in In-Pile-Tubes (IPTs) is larger in MATRIX than in ATR with comparable magnitude of neutron flux. Furthermore, MATRIX has more locations of greater volume having high fast neutron flux than ATR. From the analyses performed in this work, it appears that the lead MATRIX design can be designed to meet the anticipated needs of the ATR replacement reactor. However, this design is quite immature, and therefore any requirements currently met must be re-evaluated as the design is developed further.
Chen, Deng-kai; Gu, Rong; Gu, Yu-feng; Yu, Sui-huai
2016-01-01
Consumers' Kansei needs reflect their perception about a product and always consist of a large number of adjectives. Reducing the dimension complexity of these needs to extract primary words not only enables the target product to be explicitly positioned, but also provides a convenient design basis for designers engaging in design work. Accordingly, this study employs a numerical design structure matrix (NDSM) by parameterizing a conventional DSM and integrating genetic algorithms to find optimum Kansei clusters. A four-point scale method is applied to assign link weights of every two Kansei adjectives as values of cells when constructing an NDSM. Genetic algorithms are used to cluster the Kansei NDSM and find optimum clusters. Furthermore, the process of the proposed method is presented. The details of the proposed approach are illustrated using an example of electronic scooter for Kansei needs clustering. The case study reveals that the proposed method is promising for clustering Kansei needs adjectives in product emotional design.
Modeling and controller design of a wind energy conversion system including a matrix converter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barakati, S. Masoud
and combined to enable steady-state and transient simulations of the overall system. In addition, the constraint constant V/f strategy is included in the final dynamic model. The model is intended to be useful for controller design purposes. The dynamic behavior of the model is investigated by simulating the response of the overall model to step changes in selected input variables. Moreover, a linearized model of the system is developed at a typical operating point, and stability, controllability, and observability of the system are investigated. Two control design methods are adopted for the design of the closed-loop controller: a state-feedback controller and an output feedback controller. The state-feedback controller is designed based on the Linear Quadratic method. An observer block is used to estimate the states in the state-feedback controller. Two other controllers based on transfer-function techniques and output feedback are developed for the wind turbine system. Finally, a maximum power point tracking method, referred to as mechanical speed-sensorless power signal feedback, is developed for the wind turbine system under study to control the matrix converter control variables in order to capture the maximum wind energy without measuring the wind velocity or the turbine shaft speed.
Tosetto, Thaís; Camarotto, João Alberto
2012-01-01
The paper presents a correlation between the parameters of classical TRIZ and variables of analysis of the EWA to construct a matrix of contradictions in ergonomics, with the objective of assisting the designing processes in the Brazilian agricultural sector. Given the representativeness of the sector in the economy, the boundary conditions in which the activities are developed and their impact on the health of workers, this proposal should contribute to the development of adaptable solutions and the promotion of Decent Work. PMID:22317547
Baseline Design Compliance Matrix for the Rotary Mode Core Sampling System
LECHELT, J.A.
2000-10-17
The purpose of the design compliance matrix (DCM) is to provide a single-source document of all design requirements associated with the fifteen subsystems that make up the rotary mode core sampling (RMCS) system. It is intended to be the baseline requirement document for the RMCS system and to be used in governing all future design and design verification activities associated with it. This document is the DCM for the RMCS system used on Hanford single-shell radioactive waste storage tanks. This includes the Exhauster System, Rotary Mode Core Sample Trucks, Universal Sampling System, Diesel Generator System, Distribution Trailer, X-Ray Cart System, Breathing Air Compressor, Nitrogen Supply Trailer, Casks and Cask Truck, Service Trailer, Core Sampling Riser Equipment, Core Sampling Support Trucks, Foot Clamp, Ramps and Platforms and Purged Camera System. Excluded items are tools such as light plants and light stands. Other items such as the breather inlet filter are covered by a different design baseline. In this case, the inlet breather filter is covered by the Tank Farms Design Compliance Matrix.
Gunjal, P. T.; Shinde, M. B.; Gharge, V. S.; Pimple, S. V.; Gurjar, M. K.; Shah, M. N.
2015-01-01
The objective of this present investigation was to develop and formulate floating sustained release matrix tablets of s (-) atenolol, by using different polymer combinations and filler, to optimize by using surface response methodology for different drug release variables and to evaluate the drug release pattern of the optimized product. Floating sustained release matrix tablets of various combinations were prepared with cellulose-based polymers: Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, sodium bicarbonate as a gas generating agent, polyvinyl pyrrolidone as a binder and lactose monohydrate as filler. The 32 full factorial design was employed to investigate the effect of formulation variables on different properties of tablets applicable to floating lag time, buoyancy time, % drug release in 1 and 6 h (D1 h,D6 h) and time required to 90% drug release (t90%). Significance of result was analyzed using analysis of non variance and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. S (-) atenolol floating sustained release matrix tablets followed the Higuchi drug release kinetics that indicates the release of drug follows anomalous (non-Fickian) diffusion mechanism. The developed floating sustained release matrix tablet of improved efficacy can perform therapeutically better than a conventional tablet. PMID:26798171
Design Tool Developed for Probabilistic Modeling of Ceramic Matrix Composite Strength
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Mital, Subodh K.; Shah, Ashwin R.
1999-01-01
Ceramic matrix composites are being evaluated as candidate materials for many high temperature applications such as engine combustor liners for the High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). They are required to have an assured life of several thousand hours. Estimating the reliability of these components is quite a complex process and requires knowledge of the uncertainties that occur at various scales. The properties of ceramic matrix composites (CMC) are known to display a considerable amount of scatter due to variations in fiber/matrix properties, interphase/coating properties, bonding, amount of matrix voids, and many geometry- and fabrication-related parameters such as ply thickness and ply orientations. The objective of this research effort is to account for these uncertainties in a formal way by probabilistically analyzing both the stiffness- and strength related properties of CMC's. In current deterministic approaches, uncertainties are usually accounted for by safety factors. This approach often yields overly conservative designs, thereby reducing the potential of many advanced composite materials.
Gunjal, P T; Shinde, M B; Gharge, V S; Pimple, S V; Gurjar, M K; Shah, M N
2015-01-01
The objective of this present investigation was to develop and formulate floating sustained release matrix tablets of s (-) atenolol, by using different polymer combinations and filler, to optimize by using surface response methodology for different drug release variables and to evaluate the drug release pattern of the optimized product. Floating sustained release matrix tablets of various combinations were prepared with cellulose-based polymers: Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, sodium bicarbonate as a gas generating agent, polyvinyl pyrrolidone as a binder and lactose monohydrate as filler. The 3(2) full factorial design was employed to investigate the effect of formulation variables on different properties of tablets applicable to floating lag time, buoyancy time, % drug release in 1 and 6 h (D1 h,D6 h) and time required to 90% drug release (t90%). Significance of result was analyzed using analysis of non variance and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. S (-) atenolol floating sustained release matrix tablets followed the Higuchi drug release kinetics that indicates the release of drug follows anomalous (non-Fickian) diffusion mechanism. The developed floating sustained release matrix tablet of improved efficacy can perform therapeutically better than a conventional tablet. PMID:26798171
A modified Finite Element-Transfer Matrix for control design of space structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tan, T.-M.; Yousuff, A.; Bahar, L. Y.; Konstandinidis, M.
1990-01-01
The Finite Element-Transfer Matrix (FETM) method was developed for reducing the computational efforts involved in structural analysis. While being widely used by structural analysts, this method does, however, have certain limitations, particularly when used for the control design of large flexible structures. In this paper, a new formulation based on the FETM method is presented. The new method effectively overcomes the limitations in the original FETM method, and also allows an easy construction of reduced models that are tailored for the control design. Other advantages of this new method include the ability to extract open loop frequencies and mode shapes with less computation, and simplification of the design procedures for output feedback, constrained compensation, and decentralized control. The development of this new method and the procedures for generating reduced models using this method are described in detail and the role of the reduced models in control design is discussed through an illustrative example.
Singh, Inderbir; Saini, Vikrant
2016-03-01
The purpose of the present study was to prepare floating matrix tablets of clarithromycin employing simplex lattice design. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and Ethyl Cellulose (EC) were used as matrix forming agents; sodium bicarbonate and citric acid as effervescence producing agents. Simplex lattice design was used as optimization technique employing three independent formulation variables viz. concentration of HPMC (X1), Citric Acid (X2), EC (X3) whereas floating lag time, t50%, t90%, and MDT (Mean Dissolution Time) were the response (dependent) variables. Seven formulations (F1-F7) were prepared and evaluated for dissolution studies, floating characteristics, weight variation, hardness, thickness, friability.t50% of the formulations was found to be ranging from 317±2.54 to 522±2.39 minutes. The t90% and MDT of the tablets were found to be ranging between 659.65±1.89 to 967.35±1.67 minutes and 527.20±1.22 to 846.78±2.61 minutes respectively. Total floating time of the formulations was more than 12 hours and the drug content was in the range of 98.54±0.46 to 99.92±0.32. The amount of both HPMC and EC were found to play a dominating role in controlling the release of the drug from the formulation whereas ratios of sodium bicarbonate and citric acid were showing significant effect on the floating lag time. The release exponent (n) from Korsmeyer-Peppas model was found to be between 0.62 and 0.75 indicating non-Fickian or anomalous drug release behavior from the formulated floating matrix tablets. Simplex lattice design was reported to be an effective optimization technique for optimizing pharmaceutical formulations against desired responses. PMID:27087096
Floating Matrix Tablets of Domperidone Formulation and Optimization Using Simplex Lattice Design
Prajapati, Shailesh; Patel, Laxmanbhai; Patel, Chhaganbhai
2011-01-01
The purpose of this research was to prepare a floating matrix tablet containing domperidone as a model drug. Polyethylene oxide (PEO) and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) were evaluated for matrix-forming properties. A simplex lattice design was applied to systemically optimize the drug release profile. The amounts of PEO WSR 303, HPMC K15M and sodium bicarbonate were selected as independent variables and floating lag time, time required to release 50% of drug (t50) and 80% of drug (t80), diffusion coefficient (n) and release rate (k) as dependent variables. The amount of PEO and HPMC both had significant influence on the dependent variables. It was found that the content of PEO had dominating role as drug release controlling factor, but using suitable concentration of sodium bicarbonate, one can tailor the desired drug release from hydrophilic matrixes. The linear regression analysis and model fitting showed that all these formulations followed Korsmeyer and Peppas model, which had a higher value of correlation coefficient (r). The tablets of promising formulation were found to be stable for 3 months under accelerated (40°C / 75% RH) stability testing. PMID:24250376
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Colakoglu, M.; Soykasap, O.; Özek, T.
2007-01-01
Ballistic properties of two different polymer matrix composites used for military and non-military purposes are investigated in this study. Backside deformation and penetration speed are determined experimentally and numerically for Kevlar 29/Polivnyl Butyral and Polyethylene fiber composites because designing armors for only penetration is not enough for protection. After experimental ballistic tests, a model is constructed using finite element program, Abaqus. The backside deformation and penetration speed are determined numerically. It is found that the experimental and numeric results are in agreement and Polyethylene fiber composite has much better ballistic limit, the backside deformation, and penetration speed than those of Kevlar 29/Polivnyl Butyral composite if areal densities are considered.
Trial, A.F.; Spera, F.J. )
1994-09-01
The extended form of Fick's Law, which allows the diffusive flux of a chemical species to be a function of all the concentration gradients, provides an accurate and useful description of chemical diffusion in isothermal, multicomponent systems. For an (N + 1)-component system, N[sup 2] diffusion coefficients are required, however. Although recent attempts to measure the multicomponent diffusion matrix for natural silicate compositions and simpler analogs have been unsuccessful, this does not mean that the extended Fick's Law is inapplicable. The authors show that the diffusion matrix cannot be measured unless the experiment is carefully designed. The optimal experiment is a set of 2N isothermal interdiffusion runs using at least N distinct diffusion couples. The concept of orthogonal couples, i.e., mutually perpendicular composition directions, provides a practical guide for choosing distinct couples. The number of couples required depends on the size of the errors in the concentration measurements. Chi-square fitting is an appropriate technique for analyzing diffusion data, because it allows one to directly apply thermodynamic constraints on the eigenvalues of the diffusion matrix. They discuss the details of implementing chi-square fitting for isothermal interdiffusion experiments, including Jacobian and Hessian matrices for both the finite and infinite diffusion couple models. They also apply this method to data from the literature, extracting the diffusion matrix for a Na[sub 2]O-CaO-SiO[sub 2] composition and making preliminary observations about some dacite-rhyolite and CaMgSi[sub 2]O[sub 6]-CaAl[sub 2]Si[sub 2]O[sub 8] experiments.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hanks, Brantley R.; Skelton, Robert E.
1991-01-01
Vibration in modern structural and mechanical systems can be reduced in amplitude by increasing stiffness, redistributing stiffness and mass, and/or adding damping if design techniques are available to do so. Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) theory in modern multivariable control design, attacks the general dissipative elastic system design problem in a global formulation. The optimal design, however, allows electronic connections and phase relations which are not physically practical or possible in passive structural-mechanical devices. The restriction of LQR solutions (to the Algebraic Riccati Equation) to design spaces which can be implemented as passive structural members and/or dampers is addressed. A general closed-form solution to the optimal free-decay control problem is presented which is tailored for structural-mechanical system. The solution includes, as subsets, special cases such as the Rayleigh Dissipation Function and total energy. Weighting matrix selection is a constrained choice among several parameters to obtain desired physical relationships. The closed-form solution is also applicable to active control design for systems where perfect, collocated actuator-sensor pairs exist.
Becker, G.K.
1996-09-01
Regulatory compliance programs associated with the Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization Program (the Program) require the collection of waste characterization data of known quality to support repository performance assessment, permitting, and associated activities. Blind audit samples, referred to as PDP (performance demonstration program) samples, are devices used in the NDA PDP program to acquire waste NDA system performance data per defined measurement routines. As defined under the current NDA PDP Program Plan, a PDP sample consists of a DOT 17C 55-gallon PDP matrix drum configured with insertable radioactive standards, working reference materials (WRMs). The particular manner in which the matrix drum and PDP standard(s) are combined is a function of the waste NDA system performance test objectives of a given cycle. The scope of this document is confined to the design of the PDP drum radioactive standard internal support structure, the matrix type and the as installed configuration. The term benign is used to designate a matrix possessing properties which are nominally non-interfering to waste NDA measurement techniques. Measurement interference sources are technique specific but include attributes such as: high matrix density, heterogeneous matrix distributions, matrix compositions containing high moderator/high Z element concentrations, etc. To the extent practicable the matrix drum design should not unduly bias one NDA modality over another due to the manner in which the matrix drum configuration manifests itself to the measurement system. To this end the PDP matrix drum configuration and composition detailed below is driven primarily by the intent to minimize the incorporation of matrix attributes known to interfere with fundamental waste NDA modalities, i.e. neutron and gamma based techniques.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pak, Chan-gi; Li, Wesley W.
2009-01-01
Supporting the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate guidelines, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration [NASA] Dryden Flight Research Center is developing a multidisciplinary design, analysis, and optimization [MDAO] tool. This tool will leverage existing tools and practices, and allow the easy integration and adoption of new state-of-the-art software. Today s modern aircraft designs in transonic speed are a challenging task due to the computation time required for the unsteady aeroelastic analysis using a Computational Fluid Dynamics [CFD] code. Design approaches in this speed regime are mainly based on the manual trial and error. Because of the time required for unsteady CFD computations in time-domain, this will considerably slow down the whole design process. These analyses are usually performed repeatedly to optimize the final design. As a result, there is considerable motivation to be able to perform aeroelastic calculations more quickly and inexpensively. This paper will describe the development of unsteady transonic aeroelastic design methodology for design optimization using reduced modeling method and unsteady aerodynamic approximation. The method requires the unsteady transonic aerodynamics be represented in the frequency or Laplace domain. Dynamically linear assumption is used for creating Aerodynamic Influence Coefficient [AIC] matrices in transonic speed regime. Unsteady CFD computations are needed for the important columns of an AIC matrix which corresponded to the primary modes for the flutter. Order reduction techniques, such as Guyan reduction and improved reduction system, are used to reduce the size of problem transonic flutter can be found by the classic methods, such as Rational function approximation, p-k, p, root-locus etc. Such a methodology could be incorporated into MDAO tool for design optimization at a reasonable computational cost. The proposed technique is verified using the Aerostructures Test Wing 2 actually designed
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Theodore, Zachary B.
A robust proportional-integral (PI) controller was synthesized for the F-16 VISTA (Variable stability In-flight Simulator Test Aircraft) using a linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach, with the goal of eventually designing and implementing a linear parameter-varying PI controller on high performance aircraft. The combination of classical and modern control theory provides theoretically guaranteed stability and performance throughout the flight envelope and ease of implementation due to the simplicity of the PI controller structure. The controller is designed by solving a set of LMIs with pole placement constraints. This closed-loop system was simulated in MATLAB/Simulink to analyze the performance of the controller. A robust Hinfinity controller was also developed to compare performance with PI controller. The simulation results showed stability, albeit with poor performance compared to the Hinfinity controlle.
Study of mould design and forming process on advanced polymer-matrix composite complex structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, S. J.; Zhan, L. H.; Bai, H. M.; Chen, X. P.; Zhou, Y. Q.
2015-07-01
Advanced carbon fibre-reinforced polymer-matrix composites are widely applied to aviation manufacturing field due to their outstanding performance. In this paper, the mould design and forming process of the complex composite structure were discussed in detail using the hat stiffened structure as an example. The key issues of the moulddesign were analyzed, and the corresponding solutions were also presented. The crucial control points of the forming process such as the determination of materials and stacking sequence, the temperature and pressure route of the co-curing process were introduced. In order to guarantee the forming quality of the composite hat stiffened structure, a mathematical model about the aperture of rubber mandrel was introduced. The study presented in this paper may provide some actual references for the design and manufacture of the important complex composite structures.
Design, analysis, and testing of a metal matrix composite web/flange intersection
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Biggers, S. B.; Knight, N. F., Jr.; Moran, S. G.; Olliffe, R.
1992-01-01
An experimental and analytical program to study the local design details of a typical T-shaped web/flange intersection made from a metal matrix composite is described. Loads creating flange bending were applied to specimens having different designs and boundary conditions. Finite element analyses were conducted on models of the test specimens to predict the structural response. The analyses correctly predict failure load, mode, and location in the fillet material in the intersection region of the web and the flange when specimen quality is good. The test program shows the importance of fabrication quality in the intersection region. The full-scale test program that led to the investigation of this local detail is also described.
The computational design of junctions by carbon nanotube insertion into a graphene matrix
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mao, Yuliang; Zhong, Jianxin
2009-09-01
Using first-principles density functional theory calculations, two types of junction models constructed from armchair and zigzag carbon nanotube (CNT) insertion into a graphene matrix have been envisioned. It has been found that the insertion of the CNT into the graphene matrix leads to the formation of C-C covalent bonds between graphene and the CNT that distort the CNT geometry. However, the hydrogenation of the suspended carbon bonds on the graphene resumes the graphene-like structure of the pristine tube. The calculated band structure of armchair CNT insertion into graphene or hydrogenation graphene opens up a band gap and converts the metallic CNT into a semiconductor. For the zigzag CNT, the sp3 hybridization between the graphene and nanotube alters the band structure of the tube significantly, whereas saturating the dangling bonds of terminal carbon atoms of graphene makes the CNT almost keep the same character of the bands as that in the pristine tube. The synthesis of our designed hybrid structures must be increasingly driven by an interest in molecules that not only have intriguing structures but also have special functions such as hydrogen storage.
Designing metallic glass matrix composites with high toughness and tensile ductility.
Hofmann, Douglas C; Suh, Jin-Yoo; Wiest, Aaron; Duan, Gang; Lind, Mary-Laura; Demetriou, Marios D; Johnson, William L
2008-02-28
The selection and design of modern high-performance structural engineering materials is driven by optimizing combinations of mechanical properties such as strength, ductility, toughness, elasticity and requirements for predictable and graceful (non-catastrophic) failure in service. Highly processable bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) are a new class of engineering materials and have attracted significant technological interest. Although many BMGs exhibit high strength and show substantial fracture toughness, they lack ductility and fail in an apparently brittle manner in unconstrained loading geometries. For instance, some BMGs exhibit significant plastic deformation in compression or bending tests, but all exhibit negligible plasticity (<0.5% strain) in uniaxial tension. To overcome brittle failure in tension, BMG-matrix composites have been introduced. The inhomogeneous microstructure with isolated dendrites in a BMG matrix stabilizes the glass against the catastrophic failure associated with unlimited extension of a shear band and results in enhanced global plasticity and more graceful failure. Tensile strengths of approximately 1 GPa, tensile ductility of approximately 2-3 per cent, and an enhanced mode I fracture toughness of K(1C) approximately 40 MPa m(1/2) were reported. Building on this approach, we have developed 'designed composites' by matching fundamental mechanical and microstructural length scales. Here, we report titanium-zirconium-based BMG composites with room-temperature tensile ductility exceeding 10 per cent, yield strengths of 1.2-1.5 GPa, K(1C) up to approximately 170 MPa m(1/2), and fracture energies for crack propagation as high as G(1C) approximately 340 kJ m(-2). The K(1C) and G(1C) values equal or surpass those achievable in the toughest titanium or steel alloys, placing BMG composites among the toughest known materials. PMID:18305540
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Bo; Petropulu, Athina P.; Trappe, Wade
2016-09-01
Recently proposed multiple input multiple output radars based on matrix completion (MIMO-MC) employ sparse sampling to reduce the amount of data that need to be forwarded to the radar fusion center, and as such enable savings in communication power and bandwidth. This paper proposes designs that optimize the sharing of spectrum between a MIMO-MC radar and a communication system, so that the latter interferes minimally with the former. First, the communication system transmit covariance matrix is designed to minimize the effective interference power (EIP) to the radar receiver, while maintaining certain average capacity and transmit power for the communication system. Two approaches are proposed, namely a noncooperative and a cooperative approach, with the latter being applicable when the radar sampling scheme is known at the communication system. Second, a joint design of the communication transmit covariance matrix and the MIMO-MC radar sampling scheme is proposed, which achieves even further EIP reduction.
Kabir, Khairul; Haidar, Azzam; Tomov, Stanimire; Dongarra, Jack J
2015-01-01
The manycore paradigm shift, and the resulting change in modern computer architectures, has made the development of optimal numerical routines extremely challenging. In this work, we target the development of numerical algorithms and implementations for Xeon Phi coprocessor architecture designs. In particular, we examine and optimize the general and symmetric matrix-vector multiplication routines (gemv/symv), which are some of the most heavily used linear algebra kernels in many important engineering and physics applications. We describe a successful approach on how to address the challenges for this problem, starting with our algorithm design, performance analysis and programing model and moving to kernel optimization. Our goal, by targeting low-level and easy to understand fundamental kernels, is to develop new optimization strategies that can be effective elsewhere for use on manycore coprocessors, and to show significant performance improvements compared to existing state-of-the-art implementations. Therefore, in addition to the new optimization strategies, analysis, and optimal performance results, we finally present the significance of using these routines/strategies to accelerate higher-level numerical algorithms for the eigenvalue problem (EVP) and the singular value decomposition (SVD) that by themselves are foundational for many important applications.
New stimulation pattern design to improve P300-based matrix speller performance at high flash rate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Polprasert, Chantri; Kukieattikool, Pratana; Demeechai, Tanee; Ritcey, James A.; Siwamogsatham, Siwaruk
2013-06-01
Objective. We propose a new stimulation pattern design for the P300-based matrix speller aimed at increasing the minimum target-to-target interval (TTI). Approach. Inspired by the simplicity and strong performance of the conventional row-column (RC) stimulation, the proposed stimulation is obtained by modifying the RC stimulation through alternating row and column flashes which are selected based on the proposed design rules. The second flash of the double-flash components is then delayed for a number of flashing instants to increase the minimum TTI. The trade-off inherited in this approach is the reduced randomness within the stimulation pattern. Main results. We test the proposed stimulation pattern and compare its performance in terms of selection accuracy, raw and practical bit rates with the conventional RC flashing paradigm over several flash rates. By increasing the minimum TTI within the stimulation sequence, the proposed stimulation has more event-related potentials that can be identified compared to that of the conventional RC stimulations, as the flash rate increases. This leads to significant performance improvement in terms of the letter selection accuracy, the raw and practical bit rates over the conventional RC stimulation. Significance. These studies demonstrate that significant performance improvement over the RC stimulation is obtained without additional testing or training samples to compensate for low P300 amplitude at high flash rate. We show that our proposed stimulation is more robust to reduced signal strength due to the increased flash rate than the RC stimulation.
Designed composites for mimicking compressive mechanical properties of articular cartilage matrix.
Zhu, Youjia; Wu, Hua; Sun, Shaofa; Zhou, Ting; Wu, Jingjing; Wan, Ying
2014-08-01
Collagen, chitosan-polycaprolactone (CH-PCL) copolymer with PCL content of around 40wt% and chondroitin sulfate (CS) were mixed together at various ratios to prepare collagen/CH-PCL/CS composites and the resulting composites were used to build stratified porous scaffolds that are potentially applicable for articular cartilage repair. The ternary composites were designed in such a way that collagen content in the scaffolds decreased from the top layer to the bottom layer while the content of CH-PCL and CS altered in a reversed trend in order to reach partial similarity to cartilage matrix in the composition of main components. Porous structures inside collagen/CH-PCL/CS scaffolds were constructed using a low-temperature deposition processing technique and graded average pore-size and porosity for the scaffolds were established. Such produced scaffolds were further crosslinked using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl) carbodiimide under optimized conditions, and the obtained scaffolds showed well-defined elastic compressive properties. Compressive modulus (E) and stress at 10% strain (σ10) of full scaffolds in wet state reached about 2.8MPa and 0.3MPa, respectively, and meanwhile, E and σ10 of layers inside hydrated scaffolds changed in a gradient-increased manner from the top layer to the bottom layer with significant differences between contiguous layers, which partially mimics compressive mechanical properties of cartilage matrix. In addition, in vitro culture of cell-scaffold constructs exhibited that scaffolds were able to well support the ingrowth and migration of seeded cells, and cells also showed relatively uniform distribution throughout the scaffolds. These results suggest that the presently developed collagen/CH-PCL/CS scaffolds have promising potential for applications in articular cartilage repair. PMID:24793172
Optimization of interface layers in the design of ceramic fiber reinforced metal matrix composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Doghri, I.; Jansson, S.; Leckie, F. A.; Lemaitre, J.
1990-01-01
The potential of using an interface layer to reduce thermal stresses in the matrix of composites with a mismatch in coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) of fiber and matrix was investigated. It was found that the performance of the layer can be defined by the product of the CTE and the thickness, and that a compensating layer with a sufficiently high CTE can reduce the thermal stresses in the matrix significantly. A practical procedure offering a window of candidate layer materials is proposed.
Design Considerations for Ceramic Matrix Composite Vanes for High Pressure Turbine Applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Boyle, Robert J.; Parikh, Ankur H.; Nagpal, Vinod K.; Halbig, Michael C.
2013-01-01
Issues associated with replacing conventional metallic vanes with Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) vanes in the first stage of the High Pressure Turbine (HPT) are explored. CMC materials have higher temperature capability than conventional HPT vanes, and less vane cooling is required. The benefits of less vane coolant are less NOx production and improved vane efficiency. Comparisons between CMC and metal vanes are made at current rotor inlet temperatures and at an vane inlet pressure of 50 atm.. CMC materials have directionally dependent strength characteristics, and vane designs must accommodate these characteristics. The benefits of reduced NOx and improved cycle efficiency obtainable from using CMC vanes. are quantified Results are given for vane shapes made of a two dimensional CMC weave. Stress components due to thermal and pressure loads are shown for all configurations. The effects on stresses of: (1) a rib connecting vane pressure and suction surfaces; (2) variation in wall thickness; and (3) trailing edge region cooling options are discussed. The approach used to obtain vane temperature distributions is discussed. Film cooling and trailing edge ejection were required to avoid excessive vane material temperature gradients. Stresses due to temperature gradients are sometimes compressive in regions where pressure loads result in high tensile stresses.
Liu, Haitao; Wang, Quanzhen; Liu, Yuyan; Chen, Guo; Cui, Jian
2013-02-01
Solvent, impregnation time, sonication repetitions, and ultrasonic power were important factors in the process of ultrasound-assisted extraction from chicory (Cichorium intybus) root, while there were no studies about optimizing these 4 factors for extract yield, total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant, antibacterial, and antifungal activity of the extracts using orthogonal matrix design. The present research demonstrated that the solvent composition played a significant role in the improving extract yield, TPC, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities. The other 3 factors had inequable effect on different purposes, ultrasonic power could improve TPC and antioxidant activity, but long time of extraction lowered antioxidant activity. The TPC increased from 22.34 to 27.87 mg GAE (gallic acid equivalents)/100 g (dry extracts) with increasing solvent polarity. The half inhibition concentration (IC(50,) μg/mL) of the radical scavenging activity of the chicory extracts ranged from 281.00 to 983.33 μg/mL. The content of caffeoylquinic acids of root extract, which was extracted by the optimal combination was 0.104%. Several extracts displayed antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus subtilis, and Salmonella typhi, while Penicillium sp. and Aspergillus sp. resisted against all the extracts. Combination of 70% ethanol v/v, 24-h impregnation time, 3 sonication rounds, and 300-W ultrasonic input power was found to be the optimal combination for the chicory extract yield, TPC, antioxidant activity, and antibacterial activity. PMID:23387896
SURVEY DESIGN FOR SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION FITTING: A FISHER MATRIX APPROACH
Acquaviva, Viviana; Gawiser, Eric; Bickerton, Steven J.; Grogin, Norman A.; Guo Yicheng; Lee, Seong-Kook
2012-04-10
The spectral energy distribution (SED) of a galaxy contains information on the galaxy's physical properties, and multi-wavelength observations are needed in order to measure these properties via SED fitting. In planning these surveys, optimization of the resources is essential. The Fisher Matrix (FM) formalism can be used to quickly determine the best possible experimental setup to achieve the desired constraints on the SED-fitting parameters. However, because it relies on the assumption of a Gaussian likelihood function, it is in general less accurate than other slower techniques that reconstruct the probability distribution function (PDF) from the direct comparison between models and data. We compare the uncertainties on SED-fitting parameters predicted by the FM to the ones obtained using the more thorough PDF-fitting techniques. We use both simulated spectra and real data, and consider a large variety of target galaxies differing in redshift, mass, age, star formation history, dust content, and wavelength coverage. We find that the uncertainties reported by the two methods agree within a factor of two in the vast majority ({approx}90%) of cases. If the age determination is uncertain, the top-hat prior in age used in PDF fitting to prevent each galaxy from being older than the universe needs to be incorporated in the FM, at least approximately, before the two methods can be properly compared. We conclude that the FM is a useful tool for astronomical survey design.
Sultana, Afrin; Reznik, Alla; Karim, Karim S; Rowlands, J A
2008-10-01
Protein crystallography is the most important technique for resolving the three-dimensional atomic structure of protein by measuring the intensity of its x-ray diffraction pattern. This work proposes a large area flat panel detector for protein crystallography based on direct conversion x-ray detection technique using avalanche amorphous selenium (a-Se) as the high gain photoconductor, and active matrix readout using amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin film transistors. The detector employs avalanche multiplication phenomenon of a-Se to make the detector sensitive to each incident x ray. The advantages of the proposed detector over the existing imaging plate and charge coupled device detectors are large area, high dynamic range coupled to single x-ray detection capability, fast readout, high spatial resolution, and inexpensive manufacturing process. The optimal detector design parameters (such as detector size, pixel size, and thickness of a-Se layer), and operating parameters (such as electric field across the a-Se layer) are determined based on the requirements for protein crystallography application. The performance of the detector is evaluated in terms of readout time (<1 s), dynamic range (approximately 10(5)), and sensitivity (approximately 1 x-ray photon), thus validating the detector's efficacy for protein crystallography. PMID:18975678
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Azizur Rahman, M.; Fujimura, Hiroyuki; Shinjo, Ryuichi; Oomori, Tamotsu
2011-06-01
In this study, we demonstrate a key function of extracellular matrix proteins (ECMPs) on seed crystals, which are isolated from calcified endoskeletons of soft coral and contain only CaCO 3 without any living cells. This is the first report that an ECMP protein extracted from a marine organism could potentially influence in modifying the surface of a substrate for designing materials via crystallization. We previously studied with the ECMPs from a different type of soft coral ( Sinularia polydactyla) without introducing any seed crystals in the process , which showed different results. Thus, crystallization on the seed in the presence of ECMPs of present species is an important first step toward linking function to individual proteins from soft coral. For understanding this interesting phenomenon, in vitro crystallization was initiated in a supersaturated solution on seed particles of calcite (1 0 4) with and without ECMPs. No change in the crystal growth shape occurred without ECMPs present during the crystallization process. However, with ECMPs, the morphology and phase of the crystals in the crystallization process changed dramatically. Upon completion of crystallization with ECMPs, an attractive crystal morphology was found. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was utilized to observe the crystal morphologies on the seeds surface. The mineral phases of crystals nucleated by ECMPs on the seeds surface were examined by Raman spectroscopy. Although 50 mM Mg 2+ is influential in making aragonite in the crystallization process, the ECMPs significantly made calcite crystals even when 50 mM Mg 2+ was present in the process. Crystallization with the ECMP additive seems to be a technically attractive strategy to generate assembled micro crystals that could be used in crystals growth and design in the Pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Packard, A. K.; Sastry, S. S.
1986-01-01
A method of solving a class of linear matrix equations over various rings is proposed, using results from linear geometric control theory. An algorithm, successfully implemented, is presented, along with non-trivial numerical examples. Applications of the method to the algebraic control system design methodology are discussed.
Guo, Yin; Sun, LiQun; Yang, Zheng; Liu, Zilong
2016-02-20
During this study we constructed a generalized parametric modified four-objective multipass matrix system (MMS). We used an optical system comprising four asymmetrical spherical mirrors to improve the alignment process. The use of a paraxial equation for the design of the front transfer optics yielded the initial condition for modeling our MMS. We performed a ray tracing simulation to calculate the significant aberration of the system (astigmatism). Based on the calculated meridional and sagittal focus positions, the complementary focusing mirror was easily designed to provide an output beam free of astigmatism. We have presented an example of a 108-transit multipass system (5×7 matrix arrangement) with a relatively larger numerical aperture source (xenon light source). The whole system exhibits zero theoretical geometrical loss when simulated with Zemax software. The MMS construction strategy described in this study provides an anastigmatic output beam and the generalized approach to design a controllable matrix spot pattern on the field mirrors. Asymmetrical reflective mirrors aid in aligning the whole system with high efficiency. With the generalized design strategy in terms of optics configuration and asymmetrical fabrication method in this paper, other kinds of multipass matrix system coupled with different sources and detector systems also can be achieved. PMID:26906598
Saurí, J; Millán, D; Suñé-Negre, J M; Colom, H; Ticó, J R; Miñarro, M; Pérez-Lozano, P; García-Montoya, E
2014-12-30
The aim of this study is to obtain swelling controlled release matrix tablets of captopril using the Quality by Design methodology (ICH Q8) and to know the transport mechanisms involved in captopril release. To obtain the area of knowledge, the design of experiments studying the effect of two components (HPMC K15M and ethylcellulose) at different levels has been applied, with the captopril dissolution profile as the product's most important critical quality attribute (CQA). Different dissolution profiles have been obtained with the design of experiments performed, which is a key factor in the development of controlled release matrix tablets. Kinetic analysis according to the equations of Higuchi and Korsmeyer-Peppas demonstrates that the release mechanism is a mechanism of erosion when the whole percentage of the polymer is ethylcellulose, and a diffusion mechanism when the whole percentage of the polymer is HPMC K15M. The physico-chemical characteristics of the gel layer determine the release rate of captopril. The thickness of the gel layer, the porosity which is formed in the matrix upon contact with water, pore size, the swelling rate, the erosion rate of the matrix, and the physico-chemical characteristics of captopril, are factors related to the kinetic equations described and that allow us to predict the release mechanism of captopril. A new relationship of the kinetic equations governing the in vitro behavior with the physical characteristics of the gel layer of the different formulations has been established. This study shows that the size of water-filled pores and the degree of crosslinking between the chains of HPMC K15M of the matrix are related to the exponent n of the Korsmeyer-Peppas equation and the type of transport of the captopril from within the matrix to the dissolution medium, that is, if the transport is only through water-filled pores, or if a combination of diffusion occurs through water-filled pores with a transport through continuous
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deng, Meng
The first part of the work presented in this dissertation is focused on the design and development of novel miscible and biocompatible polyphosphazene-polyester blends as candidate materials for scaffold-based bone tissue engineering applications. Biodegradable polyesters such as poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLAGA) are among the most widely used polymeric materials for bone tissue engineering. However, acidic degradation products resulting from the bulk degradation mechanism often lead to catastrophic failure of the structure integrity, and adversely affect biocompatibility both in vitro and in vivo. One promising approach to circumvent these limitations is to blend PLAGA with other macromolecules that can buffer the acidic degradation products with a controlled degradation rate. Biodegradable polyphosphazenes (PPHOS), a new class of biomedical materials, have proved to be superior candidate materials to achieve this objective due to their unique buffering degradation products. A highly practical blending approach was adopted to develop novel biocompatible, miscible blends of these two polymers. In order to achieve this miscibility, a series of amino acid ester, alkoxy, aryloxy, and dipeptide substituted PPHOS were synthesized to promote hydrogen bonding interactions with PLAGA. Five mixed-substituent PPHOS compositions were designed and blended with PLAGA at different weight ratios producing candidate blends via a mutual solvent method. Preliminary characterization identified two specific side groups namely glycylglycine dipeptide and phenylphenoxy that resulted in improved blend miscibility and enhanced in vitro osteocompatibility. These findings led to the synthesis of a mixed-substituent polyphosphazene poly[(glycine ethyl glycinato)1(phenylphenoxy)1phosphazene] (PNGEGPhPh) for blending with PLAGA. Two dipeptide-based blends having weight ratios of PNGEGPhPh to PLAGA namely 25:75 (Matrix1) and 50:50 (Matrix2) were fabricated. Both of the blends were
Patel, J.K.; Patel, N.V.; Shah, S.H.
2009-01-01
A controlled release matrix formulation for mesalamine was designed and developed to achieve a 24 h release profile. Using compritol 888 ATO (glyceryl behenate) as an inert matrix-forming agent to control the release of mesalamine, formulation granules containing the solid dispersions were investigated. Pectin, a polysaccharide, was used as bacterial dependent polymer for colon targeting. The matrix tablets for these formulations were prepared by direct compression and their in vitro release tests were carried out. A 32 full factorial design was used for optimization by taking the amounts of glyceryl behenate (X1) and pectin (X2) as independent variables and percentage drug released at 2 (Q2), 16 (Q16) and 24 (Q24) h as dependent variables. Drug release from the matrix tablets formulations lasted for over 24 h. Images of the tablet surface and cross-section were characterized by scanning electron microscopy to show the formed pores and channels in the matrices. These may provide the release pathway for the inner embedded drugs. The co-mixing of polysaccharide pectin, into the waxy matrices played a meaningful role in targeting the tablets to colon. The drug release from the novel formulation may be attributed to the diffusion-controlled mechanism. The results of the full factorial design indicated that an optimum amount of compritol ATO 888 and a high amount of pectin favors the colon targeting and controlled release of mesalamine from dosage form. PMID:21589801
Design and development of polyethylene oxide based matrix tablets for verapamil hydrochloride.
Vidyadhara, S; Sasidhar, R L C; Nagaraju, R
2013-03-01
In the present investigation an attempt has been made to increase therapeutic efficacy, reduced frequency of administration and improved patient compliance by developing controlled release matrix tablets of verapamil hydrochloride. Verapamil hydrochloride was formulated as oral controlled release matrix tablets by using the polyethylene oxides (Polyox WSR 303). The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of polymer level and type of fillers namely lactose (soluble filler), swellable filler (starch 1500), microcrystalline cellulose and dibasic calcium phosphate (insoluble fillers) on the release rate and mechanism of release for verapamil hydrochloride from matrix tablets prepared by direct compression process. Higher polymeric content in the matrix decreased the release rate of drug. On the other hand, replacement of lactose with anhydrous dibasic calcium phosphate and microcrystalline cellulose has significantly retarded the release rate of verapamil hydrochloride. Biopharmaceutical evaluation of satisfactory formulations were also carried out on New Zealand rabbits and parameters such as maximum plasma concentration, time to reach peak plasma concentration, area under the plasma concentration time curve(0-t) and area under first moment curve(0-t) were determined. In vivo pharmacokinetic study proves that the verapamil hydrochloride from matrix tablets showed prolonged release and were be able to sustain the therapeutic effect up to 24 h. PMID:24019567
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Greer, James A.
2011-11-01
Since the development of the Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) process by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) in the late 1990s, MAPLE has become an active area of research for the deposition of a variety of polymer, biological, and organic thin films. As is often the case with advancements in thin-film deposition techniques new technology sometimes evolves by making minor or major adjustments to existing deposition process equipment and techniques. This is usually the quickest and least expensive way to try out new ideas and to "push the envelope" in order to obtain new and unique scientific results as quickly as possible. This process of "tweaking" current equipment usually works to some degree, but once the new process is further refined overall designs for a new deposition tool based on the critical attributes of the new process typically help capitalize more fully on the all the salient features of the new and improved process. This certainly has been true for the MAPLE process. In fact the first MAPLE experiments the polymer/solvent matrix was mixed and poured into a copper holder held at LN2 temperature on a laboratory counter top. The holder was then quickly placed onto a LN2 cooled reservoir in a vacuum deposition chamber and placed in a vertical position on a LN2 cooled stage and pumped down as quickly as possible. If the sample was not placed into the chamber quickly enough the frozen matrix would melt and drip into the bottom of the chamber onto the chambers main gate valve making a bit of a mess. However, skilled and motivated scientists usually worked quickly enough to make this process work most of the time. The initial results from these experiments were encouraging and led to several publications which sparked considerable interest in this newly developed technique Clearly this approach provided the vision that MAPLE was a viable deposition process, but the equipment was not optimal for conducting MAPLE experiments on a regular basis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Greer, James A.
2011-11-01
Since the development of the Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) process by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) in the late 1990s, MAPLE has become an active area of research for the deposition of a variety of polymer, biological, and organic thin films. As is often the case with advancements in thin-film deposition techniques new technology sometimes evolves by making minor or major adjustments to existing deposition process equipment and techniques. This is usually the quickest and least expensive way to try out new ideas and to "push the envelope" in order to obtain new and unique scientific results as quickly as possible. This process of "tweaking" current equipment usually works to some degree, but once the new process is further refined overall designs for a new deposition tool based on the critical attributes of the new process typically help capitalize more fully on the all the salient features of the new and improved process. This certainly has been true for the MAPLE process. In fact the first MAPLE experiments the polymer/solvent matrix was mixed and poured into a copper holder held at LN2 temperature on a laboratory counter top. The holder was then quickly placed onto a LN2 cooled reservoir in a vacuum deposition chamber and placed in a vertical position on a LN2 cooled stage and pumped down as quickly as possible. If the sample was not placed into the chamber quickly enough the frozen matrix would melt and drip into the bottom of the chamber onto the chambers main gate valve making a bit of a mess. However, skilled and motivated scientists usually worked quickly enough to make this process work most of the time. The initial results from these experiments were encouraging and led to several publications which sparked considerable interest in this newly developed technique Clearly this approach provided the vision that MAPLE was a viable deposition process, but the equipment was not optimal for conducting MAPLE experiments on a regular basis
Optimal binning of X-ray spectra and response matrix design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaastra, J. S.; Bleeker, J. A. M.
2016-03-01
Aims: A theoretical framework is developed to estimate the optimal binning of X-ray spectra. Methods: We derived expressions for the optimal bin size for model spectra as well as for observed data using different levels of sophistication. Results: It is shown that by taking into account both the number of photons in a given spectral model bin and their average energy over the bin size, the number of model energy bins and the size of the response matrix can be reduced by a factor of 10-100. The response matrix should then contain the response at the bin centre as well as its derivative with respect to the incoming photon energy. We provide practical guidelines for how to construct optimal energy grids as well as how to structure the response matrix. A few examples are presented to illustrate the present methods.
Performance and Safety Tests of Lithium-Ion Cells Arranged in a Matrix Design Configuration
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jeevarajan, Judith; Tracinski, Walt
2010-01-01
Matrix Packs display large variations in cell bank voltages at the charge and discharge current (C/2) used in this test program. The voltage difference is larger at the end of discharge than at the end of charge under the conditions studied. Disconnection of a cell from the pack leads to a larger voltage difference during discharge (greater than 2.0 V) between the bank that has one less cell and the other banks. Thermal profile does not show any significant changes or increase in temperature after one cell was disconnected from the bank in spite of falling to very low voltages at the end of discharge. All tests on the matrix pack with the HAM displayed lower max in general due to the placement of thermocouple on the outside of the HAM rather than on the cells. Disconnection of cells has almost no influence on the performance of the packs and does not show any abnormal thermal changes for the 100 cycles obtained in this test program. Longer cycle life may influence the performance especially if the low voltage cell goes into reversal. Overcharge leads to CID activation of cells. If the matrix configuration has a larger number of cells in series, (more than 5 S configuration), the limitations of protective devices may manifest itself irrespective of it being in a matrix configuration. External short circuit causes a fire with expulsion of content from some cells. The fire does not propagate itself laterally, but if there was cell module stacking, then the fire would cause the cells above it to also go into flames/thermal runaway. Limitations of protective devices are observed in this case as the PTCs in the cells did not protect under this abusive condition. Matrix configurations seem to provide protection against lateral propagation of fire and flame. Matrix pack configuration seems to provide good performance in spite of losing cell connections; at least for the configuration tested under this program.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kozhina, T. D.; Eroshkov, V. Yu
2016-04-01
The paper highlights the methods to assign technological conditions for machining providing the required performance characteristics due to control of quality parameters of a surface layer and machining accuracy. Assignment of technological conditions for machining is performed at the design stage of technological conditions in accordance with the methods developed based on the matrix system of analysis and computation of groups of technological and operational factors.
Designer Extracellular Matrix Based on DNA-Peptide Networks Generated by Polymerase Chain Reaction.
Finke, Alexander; Bußkamp, Holger; Manea, Marilena; Marx, Andreas
2016-08-16
Cell proliferation and differentiation in multicellular organisms are partially regulated by signaling from the extracellular matrix. The ability to mimic an extracellular matrix would allow particular cell types to be specifically recognized, which is central to tissue engineering. We present a new functional DNA-based material with cell-adhesion properties. It is generated by using covalently branched DNA as primers in PCR. These primers were functionalized by click chemistry with the cyclic peptide c(RGDfK), a peptide that is known to predominantly bind to αvβ3 integrins, which are found on endothelial cells and fibroblasts, for example. As a covalent coating of surfaces, this DNA-based material shows cell-repellent properties in its unfunctionalized state and gains adhesiveness towards specific target cells when functionalized with c(RGDfK). These cells remain viable and can be released under mild conditions by DNase I treatment. PMID:27410200
Lornoxicam gastro retentive floating matrix tablets: Design and in vitro evaluation
Sathiyaraj, S.; Devi, Ramya D.; Hari, Vedha B. N.
2011-01-01
The objective of this present investigation is to prolong the gastric residence time of Lornoxicam by fabricating it into a floating sustained release matrix tablets. Lornoxicam, a potent oxicam group of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, suffers from relatively short half life of 2 to 3 hrs showing maximal absorption in proximal gastro intestinal tract region necessitating its need to be formulated as a floating sustained release matrix tablets. In this current investigation, hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose K15M, a high viscous grade polymer with apparent viscosity of 15,000 cps, was kept as a variable (10-50%) and calcium carbonate (13%) was used as a gas generator. The prepared blends were subjected for its pre-formulation characterization. The directly compressed tablets were evaluated for physical parameters such as weight uniformity, hardness, friability, drug content, in-vitro buoyancy with axial and radial enlargement measurement, swelling index. From the investigation it was observed that the buoyancy lasted for up to 24 hrs. Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy peaks assured the compatibility of the drug with excipients and confirmed the presence of pure drug in the formulation. It was supported by in-vitro dissolution studies; and the dissolution data was subjected to various release kinetic models to understand the mechanism of drug release. PMID:22171312
Chin-Pampillo, Juan Salvador; Ruiz-Hidalgo, Karla; Masís-Mora, Mario; Carazo-Rojas, Elizabeth; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E
2015-12-01
Pesticide biopurification systems contain a biologically active matrix (biomixture) responsible for the accelerated elimination of pesticides in wastewaters derived from pest control in crop fields. Biomixtures have been typically prepared using the volumetric composition 50:25:25 (lignocellulosic substrate/humic component/soil); nonetheless, formal composition optimization has not been performed so far. Carbofuran is an insecticide/nematicide of high toxicity widely employed in developing countries. Therefore, the composition of a highly efficient biomixture (composed of coconut fiber, compost, and soil, FCS) for the removal of carbofuran was optimized by means of a central composite design and response surface methodology. The volumetric content of soil and the ratio coconut fiber/compost were used as the design variables. The performance of the biomixture was assayed by considering the elimination of carbofuran, the mineralization of (14)C-carbofuran, and the residual toxicity of the matrix, as response variables. Based on the models, the optimal volumetric composition of the FCS biomixture consists of 45:13:42 (coconut fiber/compost/soil), which resulted in minimal residual toxicity and ∼99% carbofuran elimination after 3 days. This optimized biomixture considerably differs from the standard 50:25:25 composition, which remarks the importance of assessing the performance of newly developed biomixtures during the design of biopurification systems. PMID:26250812
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, C. H.; Park, H. J.; Lee, J.; Lee, H. W.; Lee, K. D.
2015-05-01
This paper develops a discrete optimal control based on the multi-rate observer method for electromagnetic suspension systems in order to levitate the vehicle, maintaining the desired gap. The proposed multi-rate compensator consists of two parts which are the discrete Kalman filter and the optimal control law. The Kalman filter estimates all states with fast sampling rate time, using a slowly measured output from the gap sensor. The optimal control law is determined by linear matrix inequality optimization for the discrete time multiple input system obtained by the lifting operator. The proposed multi-rate controller has the advantages to guarantee the stability of the slow-rate optimal control and maintain the performance of fast-rate control. The simulation and experiment show the effectiveness of the proposed control method.
Jatav, Vijay Singh; Saggu, Jitender Singh; Sharma, Ashish Kumar; Sharma, Anil; Jat, Rakesh Kumar
2013-01-01
Background: Nebivolol hydrochloride is a third generation β-blocker with highly selective β1-receptor antagonist with antihypertensive properties having plasma half life of 10 h and 12% oral bioavailability. The aim of the present investigation was to form matrix type transdermal patches containing Nebivolol hydrochloride to avoid its extensive hepatic first pass metabolism, lesser side effect and increase bioavailability of drug. Materials and Methods: Matrix type transdermal patches containing Nebivolol hydrochloride were prepared using EudragitRS100, HPMC K100M (2:8) polymers by solvent evaporation technique. Aluminum foil was used as a backing membrane. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) 400 was used as plasticizer and Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was used as a penetration enhancer. Drug polymer interactions determined by FTIR and standard calibration curve of Nebivolol hydrochloride were determined by using UV estimation. Result: The systems were evaluated physicochemical parameters and drug present in the patches was determined by scanning electron microscopy. All prepared formulations indicated good physical stability. In vitro drug permeation studies of formulations were performed by using Franz diffusion cells using abdomen skin of Wistar albino rat. Result showed best in vitro skin permeation through rat skin as compared to all other formulations prepared with hydrophilic polymer containing permeation enhancer. Conclusions: It was observed that the formulation containing HPMC: EudragitRS100 (8:2) showed ideal higuchi release kinetics. On the basis of in vitro drug release through skin permeation performance, Formulation F1 was found to be better than other formulations and it was selected as the optimized formulation. PMID:24223377
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qiu, Lemiao; Liu, Xiaojian; Zhang, Shuyou; Sun, Liangfeng
2014-05-01
The current research of configurable product disassemblability focuses on disassemblability evaluation and disassembly sequence planning. Little work has been done on quantitative analysis of configurable product disassemblability. The disassemblability modeling technology for configurable product based on disassembly constraint relation weighted design structure matrix (DSM) is proposed. Major factors affecting the disassemblability of configurable product are analyzed, and the disassembling degrees between components in configurable product are obtained by calculating disassembly entropies such as joint type, joint quantity, disassembly path, disassembly accessibility and material compatibility. The disassembly constraint relation weighted DSM of configurable product is constructed and configuration modules are formed by matrix decomposition and tearing operations. The disassembly constraint relation in configuration modules is strong coupling, and the disassembly constraint relation between modules is weak coupling, and the disassemblability configuration model is constructed based on configuration module. Finally, taking a hydraulic forging press as an example, the decomposed weak coupling components are used as configuration modules alone, components with a strong coupling are aggregated into configuration modules, and the disassembly sequence of components inside configuration modules is optimized by tearing operation. A disassemblability configuration model of the hydraulic forging press is constructed. By researching the disassemblability modeling technology of product configuration design based on disassembly constraint relation weighted DSM, the disassembly property in maintenance, recycling and reuse of configurable product are optimized.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hanks, Brantley R.; Skelton, Robert E.
1991-01-01
This paper addresses the restriction of Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) solutions to the algebraic Riccati Equation to design spaces which can be implemented as passive structural members and/or dampers. A general closed-form solution to the optimal free-decay control problem is presented which is tailored for structural-mechanical systems. The solution includes, as subsets, special cases such as the Rayleigh Dissipation Function and total energy. Weighting matrix selection is a constrained choice among several parameters to obtain desired physical relationships. The closed-form solution is also applicable to active control design for systems where perfect, collocated actuator-sensor pairs exist. Some examples of simple spring mass systems are shown to illustrate key points.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sanford, James L.; Schlig, Eugene S.; Prache, Olivier; Dove, Derek B.; Ali, Tariq A.; Howard, Webster E.
2002-02-01
The IBM Research Division and eMagin Corp. jointly have developed a low-power VGA direct view active matrix OLED display, fabricated on a crystalline silicon CMOS chip. The display is incorporated in IBM prototype wristwatch computers running the Linus operating system. IBM designed the silicon chip and eMagin developed the organic stack and performed the back-end-of line processing and packaging. Each pixel is driven by a constant current source controlled by a CMOS RAM cell, and the display receives its data from the processor memory bus. This paper describes the OLED technology and packaging, and outlines the design of the pixel and display electronics and the processor interface. Experimental results are presented.
Hamza, Yassin El-Said; Aburahma, Mona Hassan
2010-01-01
The short half-life of lornoxicam, a potent non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, makes the development of sustained-release (SR) forms extremely advantageous. However, due to its weak acidic nature, its release from SR delivery systems is limited to the lower gastrointestinal tract which consequently leads to a delayed onset of its analgesic action. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to develop lornoxicam SR matrix tablets that provide complete drug release that starts in the stomach to rapidly alleviate the painful symptoms and continues in the intestine to maintain protracted analgesic effect as well as meets the reported SR specifications. The proposed strategy was based on preparing directly compressed hydroxypropylmethylcellulose matrix tablets to sustain lornoxicam release. Basic pH-modifiers, either sodium bicarbonate or magnesium oxide, were incorporated into these matrix tablets to create basic micro-environmental pH inside the tablets favorable to drug release in acidic conditions. All the prepared matrix tablets containing basic pH-modifiers showed acceptable physical properties before and after storage. Release studies, performed in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids used in sequence to mimic the GI transit, demonstrate the possibility of sustaining lornoxicam release by combining hydrophilic matrix formers and basic pH-Modifiers to prepare tablets that meet the reported sustained-release specifications. PMID:19895367
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tsai, Kuan Chen
2016-01-01
The purpose of the present study is to explore to what extent the use of a more structured mode of assessing creative products--specifically, the CPAM--could beneficially influence design students' product creativity and creative processes. For this qualitative inquiry, following our CPAM-based intervention, students wrote reflective papers in…
Jiang, Hong; Zuo, Yi; Zhang, Li; Li, Jidong; Zhang, Aiming; Li, Yubao; Yang, Xiaochao
2014-03-01
Each approach for artificial cornea design is toward the same goal: to develop a material that best mimics the important properties of natural cornea. Accordingly, the selection and optimization of corneal substitute should be based on their physicochemical properties. In this study, three types of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogels with different polymerization degree (PVA1799, PVA2499 and PVA2699) were prepared by freeze-thawing techniques. After characterization in terms of transparency, water content, water contact angle, mechanical property, root-mean-square roughness and protein adsorption behavior, the optimized PVA2499 hydrogel with similar properties of natural cornea was selected as a matrix material for artificial cornea. Based on this, a biomimetic artificial cornea was fabricated with core-and-skirt structure: a transparent PVA hydrogel core, surrounding by a ringed PVA-matrix composite skirt that composed of graphite, Fe-doped nano hydroxyapatite (n-Fe-HA) and PVA hydrogel. Different ratio of graphite/n-Fe-HA can tune the skirt color from dark brown to light brown, which well simulates the iris color of Oriental eyes. Moreover, morphologic and mechanical examination showed that an integrated core-and-skirt artificial cornea was formed from an interpenetrating polymer network, no phase separation appeared on the interface between the core and the skirt. PMID:24464723
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Crivello, James V.
2000-01-01
Several new series of novel, high reactivity epoxy resins are described which are designed specifically for the fabrication of high performance carbon fiber reinforced composites for commercial aircraft structural applications using cationic UV and e-beam curing. The objective of this investigation is to provide resin matrices which rapidly and efficiently cure under low e-beam doses which are suitable to high speed automated composite fabrication techniques such as automated tape and tow placement. It was further the objective of this work to provide resins with superior thermal, oxidative and atomic oxygen resistance.
Designing matrix models for fluorescence energy transfer between moving donors and acceptors.
van der Meer, B W; Raymer, M A; Wagoner, S L; Hackney, R L; Beechem, J M; Gratton, E
1993-01-01
A recipe is given for designing theoretical models for donor-acceptor systems in which fluorescence energy transfer and motion takes place simultaneously. This recipe is based on the idea that a system exhibiting both motion and fluorescence energy transfer can be modeled by specifying a number of "states" and the rates of transitions between them. A state in this context is a set of specific coordinates and conditions that describe the system at a certain moment in time. As time goes on, the coordinates and conditions for the system change, and this evolution can be described as a series of transitions from one state to the next. The recipe is applied to a number of example systems in which the donors and/or acceptors undergo either rotational or translational motion. In each example, fluorescence intensities and anisotropies for the donor and acceptor are calculated from solutions of eigensystems. The proposed method allows for analyzing time-resolved fluorescence energy transfer data without restrictive assumptions for motional averaging regimes and the orientation factor. It is shown that the fluorescence quantities depend on the size of the motional step (i.e., on the number of states), only if fluorescence energy transfer occurs. This finding indicates that fluorescence energy transfer studies may reveal whether the dynamics of a system (e.g., a protein) is better described in terms of transitions between a relatively small number of discrete states (jumping) or a large number of dense states (diffusion). PMID:8494980
Zirehpour, Alireza; Rahimpour, Ahmad; Jahanshahi, Mohsen; Peyravi, Majid
2014-01-01
Olive oil mill wastewater (OMW) is a concentrated effluent with a high organic load. It has high levels of organic chemical oxygen demand (COD) and phenolic compounds. This study presents a unique process to treat OMW. The process uses ultrafiltration (UF) membranes modified by a functionalized multi wall carbon nano-tube (F-MWCNT). The modified tube has an inner diameter of 15-30 nm and is added to the OMW treatment process to improve performance of the membrane. Tests were done to evaluate the following operating parameters of the UF system; pressure, pH and temperature; also evaluated parameters of permeate flux, flux decline, COD removal and total phenol rejection. The Taguchi robust design method was applied for an optimization evaluation of the experiments. Variance (ANOVA) analysis was used to determine the most significant parameters affecting permeate flux, flux decline, COD removal and total phenols rejection. Results demonstrated coagulation and pH as the most important factors affecting permeate flux of the UF. Moreover, pH and F-MWCNT UF had significant positive effects on flux decline, COD removal and total phenols rejection. Based on the optimum conditions determined by the Taguchi method, evaluations for permeate flux tests; flux decline, COD removal and total phenols rejection were about 21.2 (kg/m(2) h), 12.6%, 72.6% and 89.5%, respectively. These results were in good agreement with those predicted by the Taguchi method (i.e.; 22.8 (kg/m(2) h), 11.9%, 75.8 and 94.7%, respectively). Mechanical performance of the membrane and its application for high organic wastewater treatment were determined as strong. PMID:24291584
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grujicic, M.; Arakere, G.; Pandurangan, B.; Sellappan, V.; Vallejo, A.; Ozen, M.
2010-11-01
A multi-disciplinary design-optimization procedure has been introduced and used for the development of cost-effective glass-fiber reinforced epoxy-matrix composite 5 MW horizontal-axis wind-turbine (HAWT) blades. The turbine-blade cost-effectiveness has been defined using the cost of energy (CoE), i.e., a ratio of the three-blade HAWT rotor development/fabrication cost and the associated annual energy production. To assess the annual energy production as a function of the blade design and operating conditions, an aerodynamics-based computational analysis had to be employed. As far as the turbine blade cost is concerned, it is assessed for a given aerodynamic design by separately computing the blade mass and the associated blade-mass/size-dependent production cost. For each aerodynamic design analyzed, a structural finite element-based and a post-processing life-cycle assessment analyses were employed in order to determine a minimal blade mass which ensures that the functional requirements pertaining to the quasi-static strength of the blade, fatigue-controlled blade durability and blade stiffness are satisfied. To determine the turbine-blade production cost (for the currently prevailing fabrication process, the wet lay-up) available data regarding the industry manufacturing experience were combined with the attendant blade mass, surface area, and the duration of the assumed production run. The work clearly revealed the challenges associated with simultaneously satisfying the strength, durability and stiffness requirements while maintaining a high level of wind-energy capture efficiency and a lower production cost.
Design and evaluation of matrix diffusion controlled transdermal patches of verapamil hydrochloride.
Kusum Devi, V; Saisivam, S; Maria, G R; Deepti, P U
2003-05-01
Transdermal patches of verapamil hydrochloride were prepared using four different polymers (individual and combination): Eudragit RL100 (ERL100), Eudragit RS100 (ERS100), hydroxypropyl methylcellulose 15 cps (HPMC), and ethyl cellulose (EC), of varying degrees of hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity. The effect of the polymers on the technological properties, i.e., drug release, water vapor transmission rate (WVTR), and percentage moisture loss (ML), percentage moisture absorption (MA), folding endurance, and thickness, was investigated. Different formulations were prepared in accordance with the 2(3) factorial design, with ERL100 being the parent polymer. The patch containing ERL100 alone showed maximum WVTR, % MA, and % ML, which could be attributed to its hydrophilic nature. As expected, substitution with ERS100, HPMC, and EC decreased all the above values in accordance with their decreasing degree of hydrophilicity. In vitro release studies showed zero-order release of the drug from all the patches, and the mechanism of release was diffusion mediated. Moreover, the release of the drug was sustained and it extended over a period of 24 hr in all formulations. A12 emerged as the most satisfactory formulation insofar as its technological properties were concerned. Further, release and permeation of the drug from the most satisfactory formulation (A12) was evaluated through different biological barriers (shed snake skin, rabbit skin, and rat skin) to get an idea of the drug permeation through human skin. Shed snake's skin was found to be most permeable (82.56% drug release at 24 hr) and rat skin was least permeable (52.38%). Percutaneous absorption studies were carried out in rabbits. The pharmacokinetic parameters calculated from blood levels of the drug revealed a profile typical of a sustained release formulation, with the ability to maintain adequate plasma levels for 24 hr. [AUC: 3.09 mg/mL hr, Cmax: 203.95 microg/mL, Tmax: 8 hr]. It can therefore be concluded
Low, Pearlie S J; Tjin, Monica S; Fong, Eileen
2015-01-01
Recombinant technology is a versatile platform to create novel artificial proteins with tunable properties. For the last decade, many artificial proteins that have incorporated functional domains derived from nature (or created de novo) have been reported. In particular, artificial extracellular matrix (aECM) proteins have been developed; these aECM proteins consist of biological domains taken from fibronectin, laminins and collagens and are combined with structural domains including elastin-like repeats, silk and collagen repeats. To date, aECM proteins have been widely investigated for applications in tissue engineering and wound repair. Recently, Tjin and coworkers developed integrin-specific aECM proteins designed for promoting human skin keratinocyte attachment and propagation. In their work, the aECM proteins incorporate cell binding domains taken from fibronectin, laminin-5 and collagen IV, as well as flanking elastin-like repeats. They demonstrated that the aECM proteins developed in their work were promising candidates for use as substrates in artificial skin. Here, we outline the design and construction of such aECM proteins as well as their purification process using the thermo-responsive characteristics of elastin. PMID:26132812
Myochin, Takuya; Hanaoka, Kenjiro; Komatsu, Toru; Terai, Takuya; Nagano, Tetsuo
2012-08-22
Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence probes are especially useful for simple and noninvasive in vivo imaging inside the body because of low autofluorescence and high tissue transparency in the NIR region compared with other wavelength regions. However, existing NIR fluorescence probes for matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which are tumor, atherosclerosis, and inflammation markers, have various disadvantages, especially as regards sensitivity. Here, we report a novel design strategy to obtain a NIR fluorescence probe that is rapidly internalized by free diffusion and well retained intracellularly after activation by extracellular MMPs. We designed and synthesized four candidate probes, each consisting of a cell permeable or nonpermeable NIR fluorescent dye as a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) donor linked to the NIR dark quencher BHQ-3 as a FRET acceptor via a MMP substrate peptide. We applied these probes for detection of the MMP activity of cultured HT-1080 cells, which express MMP2 and MT1-MMP, by fluorescence microscopy. Among them, the probe incorporating BODIPY650/665, BODIPY-MMP, clearly visualized the MMP activity as an increment of fluorescence inside the cells. We then applied this probe to a mouse xenograft tumor model prepared with HT-1080 cells. Following intratumoral injection of the probe, MMP activity could be visualized for much longer with BODIPY-MMP than with the probe containing SulfoCy5, which is cell impermeable and consequently readily washed out of the tissue. This simple design strategy should be applicable to develop a range of sensitive, rapidly responsive NIR fluorescence probes not only for MMP activity, but also for other proteases. PMID:22830429
Del Mercato, Loretta L; Passione, Laura Gioia; Izzo, Daniela; Rinaldi, Rosaria; Sannino, Alessandro; Gervaso, Francesca
2016-09-01
Three-dimensional (3D) porous scaffolds based on collagen are promising candidates for soft tissue engineering applications. The addition of stimuli-responsive carriers (nano- and microparticles) in the current approaches to tissue reconstruction and repair brings about novel challenges in the design and conception of carrier-integrated polymer scaffolds. In this study, a facile method was developed to functionalize 3D collagen porous scaffolds with biodegradable multilayer microcapsules. The effects of the capsule charge as well as the influence of the functionalization methods on the binding efficiency to the scaffolds were studied. It was found that the binding of cationic microcapsules was higher than that of anionic ones, and application of vacuum during scaffolds functionalization significantly hindered the attachment of the microcapsules to the collagen matrix. The physical properties of microcapsules-integrated scaffolds were compared to pristine scaffolds. The modified scaffolds showed swelling ratios, weight losses and mechanical properties similar to those of unmodified scaffolds. Finally, in vitro diffusional tests proved that the collagen scaffolds could stably retain the microcapsules over long incubation time in Tris-HCl buffer at 37°C without undergoing morphological changes, thus confirming their suitability for tissue engineering applications. The obtained results indicate that by tuning the charge of the microcapsules and by varying the fabrication conditions, collagen scaffolds patterned with high or low number of microcapsules can be obtained, and that the microcapsules-integrated scaffolds fully retain their original physical properties. PMID:27219851
Ngwuluka, Ndidi C; Choonara, Yahya E; Modi, Girish; du Toit, Lisa C; Kumar, Pradeep; Ndesendo, Valence M K; Pillay, Viness
2013-06-01
This study focused on developing a gastroretentive drug delivery system employing a triple-mechanism interpolyelectrolyte complex (IPEC) matrix comprising high density, swelling, and bioadhesiveness for the enhanced site-specific zero-order delivery of levodopa in Parkinson's disease. An IPEC was synthesized and directly compressed into a levodopa-loaded matrix employing pharmaceutical technology and evaluated with respect to its physicochemical and physicomechanical properties and in vitro drug release. The IPEC-based matrix displayed superior mechanical properties in terms of matrix hardness (34-39 N/mm) and matrix resilience (44-47%) when different normality's of solvent and blending ratios were employed. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the formation of the IPEC. The formulations exhibited pH and density dependence with desirable gastro-adhesion with Peak Force of Adhesion ranging between 0.15 and 0.21 N/mm, densities from 1.43 to 1.54 g/cm(3) and swellability values of 177-234%. The IPEC-based gastroretentive matrix was capable of providing site-specific levodopa release with zero-order kinetics corroborated by detailed mathematical and molecular modeling studies. Overall, results from this study have shown that the IPEC-based matrix has the potential to improve the absorption and subsequent bioavailability of narrow absorption window drugs, such as levodopa with constant and sustained drug delivery. PMID:23494468
Fudge, Douglas S.; Gosline, John M.
2004-01-01
We performed mechanical tests on a matrix-free keratin model-hagfish slime threads-to test the hypothesis that intermediate filaments (IFs) in hydrated hard alpha-keratins are maintained in a partly dehydrated state. This hypothesis predicts that dry IFs should possess mechanical properties similar to the properties of hydrated hard alpha-keratins, and should swell more than hard alpha-keratins in water. Mechanical and swelling measurements of hagfish threads were consistent with both of these predictions, suggesting that an elastomeric keratin matrix resists IF swelling and keeps IF stiffness and yield stress high. The elastomeric nature of the matrix is indirectly supported by the inability of matrix-free IFs (i.e. slime threads) to recover from post-yield deformation. We propose a general conceptual model of the structural mechanics of IF-based materials that predicts the effects of hydration and cross-linking on stiffness, yield stress and extensibility. PMID:15058441
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cannone, Jaime J.; Barnes, Cindy L.; Achari, Aniruddha; Kundrot, Craig E.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
The Sparse Matrix approach for obtaining lead crystallization conditions has proven to be very fruitful for the crystallization of proteins and nucleic acids. Here we report a Sparse Matrix developed specifically for the crystallization of protein-DNA complexes. This method is rapid and economical, typically requiring 2.5 mg of complex to test 48 conditions. The method was originally developed to crystallize basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) complexed with DNA sequences identified through in vitro selection, or SELEX, methods. Two DNA aptamers that bind with approximately nanomolar affinity and inhibit the angiogenic properties of bFGF were selected for co-crystallization. The Sparse Matrix produced lead crystallization conditions for both bFGF-DNA complexes.
A new sample chamber was developed that can be used in the measurement of the effects of moisture on the room-temperature solid-matrix phosphorescence of phosphors adsorbed onto filter paper. The sample chamber consists of a sealed quartz cell that contains a special teflon sampl...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wanasekara, Nandula; Stone, David; Wnek, Gary; Korley, Lashanda
2013-03-01
A new class of all-organic, stimuli-responsive and mechanically-adaptive electrospun nanocomposites, which have the ability to alter their stiffness upon hydration, were developed. These materials were fabricated by incorporating an electrospun mat of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) as the filler in a polymeric matrix consisting of either poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) or ethylene oxide-epicholorohydrin copolymer (EO-EPI). The incorporation of high stiffness, high aspect ratio PVA filler mat significantly enhanced the tensile storage modulus of EO-EPI based composites, while modulus enhancement was only noticed above the glass transition for PVAc-based composites. Composite materials based on a rubbery EO-EPI host polymer and PVA filler exhibit an irreversible reduction by a factor of 12 of the tensile modulus upon hydration. In contrast, composites comprised of PVAc show a reversible reduction of modulus by a factor of 280 upon water uptake. The mechanical morphing of the electrospun composites is the result of the filler crystallinity, and matrix-filler interactions facilitated by the surface hydroxyl groups of the PVA filler. The choice of polymer matrix and electrospun nanofiber fillers allow control of matrix-filler interactions in a new series of all-organic composites to achieve desired stimuli-responsiveness and mechanical-adaptability upon exposure to various stimuli.
Glowacki, David R; Goddard, Andrew; Seakins, Paul W
2007-11-10
The design of and initial results obtained from a multipass matrix system (MMS) for mid-infrared spectroscopy that operates in the Highly Instrumented Reactor for Atmospheric Chemistry (HIRAC) recently constructed in the School of Chemistry at the University of Leeds, is described. HIRAC is an evacuable, temperature variable, photochemical atmospheric reaction chamber. The MMS design is a modified Chernin cell, utilizing three objective mirrors and two field mirrors. In addition to providing the paraxial equations required for design of a throughput matched multipass cell and throughput matched transfer optics, advanced ray tracing simulations have been performed for the Chernin design described herein. The simulations indicate that, for this MMS, which features small off-axis angles and preserves perfectly the focal properties of the original White design, the paraxial equations are nearly exact, throughput losses due to astigmatism are insignificant, and the system has zero theoretical geometric loss. Measurements of the signal incident on the detector at different matrix arrangements confirm the ray trace results, suggesting that geometric loss in this system is insignificant. The MMS described herein provides adequate stability to permit measurements while the chamber mixing fans are on, gives very good detection limits for some representative species, and is easy to align. PMID:17994138
Kosik, Ivan; Raess, Avery
2015-01-01
Accurate reconstruction of 3D photoacoustic (PA) images requires detection of photoacoustic signals from many angles. Several groups have adopted staring ultrasound arrays, but assessment of array performance has been limited. We previously reported on a method to calibrate a 3D PA tomography (PAT) staring array system and analyze system performance using singular value decomposition (SVD). The developed SVD metric, however, was impractical for large system matrices, which are typical of 3D PAT problems. The present study consisted of two main objectives. The first objective aimed to introduce the crosstalk matrix concept to the field of PAT for system design. Figures-of-merit utilized in this study were root mean square error, peak signal-to-noise ratio, mean absolute error, and a three dimensional structural similarity index, which were derived between the normalized spatial crosstalk matrix and the identity matrix. The applicability of this approach for 3D PAT was validated by observing the response of the figures-of-merit in relation to well-understood PAT sampling characteristics (i.e. spatial and temporal sampling rate). The second objective aimed to utilize the figures-of-merit to characterize and improve the performance of a near-spherical staring array design. Transducer arrangement, array radius, and array angular coverage were the design parameters examined. We observed that the performance of a 129-element staring transducer array for 3D PAT could be improved by selection of optimal values of the design parameters. The results suggested that this formulation could be used to objectively characterize 3D PAT system performance and would enable the development of efficient strategies for system design optimization. PMID:25875177
Adhikari, Nilanjan; Halder, Amit K; Mallick, Sumana; Saha, Achintya; Saha, Kishna D; Jha, Tarun
2016-09-15
Broad range of selectivity possesses serious limitation for the development of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) inhibitors for clinical purposes. To develop potent and selective MMP-2 inhibitors, initially multiple molecular modeling techniques were adopted for robust design. Predictive and validated regression models (2D and 3D QSAR and ligand-based pharmacophore mapping studies) were utilized for estimating the potency whereas classification models (Bayesian and recursive partitioning analyses) were used for determining the selectivity of MMP-2 inhibitors over MMP-9. Bayesian model fingerprints were used to design selective lead molecule which was modified using structure-based de novo technique. A series of designed molecules were prepared and screened initially for inhibitions of MMP-2 and MMP-9, respectively, as these are designed followed by other MMPs to observe the broader selectivity. The best active MMP-2 inhibitor had IC50 value of 24nM whereas the best selective inhibitor (IC50=51nM) showed at least 4 times selectivity to MMP-2 against all tested MMPs. Active derivatives were non-cytotoxic against human lung carcinoma cell line-A549. At non-cytotoxic concentrations, these inhibitors reduced intracellular MMP-2 expression up to 78% and also exhibited satisfactory anti-migration and anti-invasive properties against A549 cells. Some of these active compounds may be used as adjuvant therapeutic agents in lung cancer after detailed study. PMID:27452283
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hou, Tan-Hung
2014-01-01
For the fabrication of resin matrix fiber reinforced composite laminates, a workable cure cycle (i.e., temperature and pressure profiles as a function of processing time) is needed and is critical for achieving void-free laminate consolidation. Design of such a cure cycle is not trivial, especially when dealing with reactive matrix resins. An empirical "trial and error" approach has been used as common practice in the composite industry. Such an approach is not only costly, but also ineffective at establishing the optimal processing conditions for a specific resin/fiber composite system. In this report, a rational "processing science" based approach is established, and a universal cure cycle design protocol is proposed. Following this protocol, a workable and optimal cure cycle can be readily and rationally designed for most reactive resin systems in a cost effective way. This design protocol has been validated through experimental studies of several reactive polyimide composites for a wide spectrum of usage that has been documented in the previous publications.
Ulu, Ahmet; Koytepe, Suleyman; Ates, Burhan
2016-11-20
We prepared biodegradable P(MAA-co-MMA)-starch composite as carrier matrix for the immobilization of l-asparaginase (l-ASNase), an important chemotherapeutic agent in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Chemical characteristics and thermal stability of the prepared composites were determined by FT-IR, TGA, DTA and, DSC, respectively. Also, biodegradability measurements of P(MAA-co-MMA)-starch composites were carried out to examine the effects of degradation of the starch. Then, l-ASNase was immobilized on the P(MAA-co-MMA)-starch composites. The surface morphology of the composite before and after immobilization was characterized by SEM, EDX, and AFM. The properties of the immobilized l-ASNase were investigated and compared with the free enzyme. The immobilized l-ASNase had better showed thermal and pH stability, and remained stable after 30days of storage at 25°C. Thus, based on the findings of the present work, the P(MAA-co-MMA)-starch composite can be exploited as the biocompatible matrix used for l-ASNase immobilization for medical applications due to biocompatibility and biodegradability. PMID:27561529
Design and in vitro/in vivo evaluation of extended release matrix tablets of nateglinide
Sharma, Pushkar R.; Lewis, Shaila A.
2013-01-01
Aim Nateglinide is a quick acting anti-diabetic medication whose potent activity lasts for a short duration. One of the dangerous side effects of nateglinide administration is rapid hypoglycemia, a condition that needs to be monitored carefully to prevent unnecessary fatalities. The aim of the study was to develop a longer lasting and slower releasing formulation of nateglinide that could be administered just once daily. Methods Matrix tablets of nateglinide were prepared in combination with the polymers hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC), eudragits, ethyl cellulose and polyethylene oxide and the formulated drug release patterns were evaluated using in vitro and in vivo studies. Conclusion Of the seventeen formulated matrix tablets tested, only one formulation labelled HA-2 that contained 15% HPMC K4M demonstrated release profile we had aimed for. Further, swelling studies and scanning electron microscopic analysis confirmed the drug release mechanism of HA-2. The optimized formulation HA-2 was found to be stable at accelerated storage conditions for 3 months with respect to drug content and physical appearance. Mathematical analysis of the release kinetics of HA-2 indicated a coupling of diffusion and erosion mechanisms. In-vitro release studies and pharmacokinetic in vivo studies of HA-2 in rabbits confirmed the sustained drug release profile we had aimed for. PMID:24563597
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
1982-02-01
A matrix representation of the ion optics of the analyzing stage has been used in a computer model of a tandem mass spectrometer with simultaneous detection for CAD. The matrix algorithm of this model is discussed here as an elegant way of describing the ion optics in a first-order approximation. The accuracy of the calculations is illustrated by comparing calculated and measured adjustments of the instrument under normal experiment conditions. The ion-optical possibilities with respect to transmission, mass resolution influence of several ion optical parameters on the shape and position of the mass focal plane is discussed. The experimental values of mass range, mass resolution and ion transmission agree very well with the calculations. Moreover, the computer model appears to be a useful tool for giving clear insight into the operation of the rather complex ion optics of the instrument. The calculations have been further developed towards higher accuracy, making possible automatic focusing of the mass focal plane onto the detector.
Nelson, Clarke; Khan, Yusuf; Laurencin, Cato T.
2014-01-01
Bone is an essential organ for health and quality of life. Due to current shortfalls in therapy for bone tissue engineering, scientists have sought the application of synthetic materials as bone graft substitutes. As a composite organic/inorganic material with significant extra cellular matrix (ECM), one way to improve bone graft substitutes may be to engineer a synthetic matrix that is influenced by the physical appearance of natural ECM networks. In this work, the authors evaluate composite, hybrid scaffolds for bone tissue engineering based on composite ceramic/polymer microsphere scaffolds with synthetic ECM-mimetic networks in their pore spaces. Using thermally induced phase separation, nanoscale fibers were deposited in the pore spaces of structurally sound microsphere-based scaffold with a density proportionate to the initial polymer concentration. Porosimetry and mechanical testing indicated no significant changes in overall pore characteristics or mechanical integrity as a result of the fiber deposition process. These scaffolds displayed adequate mechanical integrity on the scale of human trabecular bone and supported the adhesion and proliferation of cultured mouse calvarial osteoblasts. Drawing from natural cues, these scaffolds may represent a new avenue forward for advanced bone tissue engineering scaffolds. PMID:26816620
Zhang, Yu; Gu, Ying; Lee, Hsi-Ming; Hambardjieva, Elena; Vranková, Kveta; Golub, Lorne M; Johnson, Francis
2012-01-01
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are essential for the degradation and turnover of components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and, when pathologically elevated, mediate connective tissue loss (including bone destruction) in various inflammatory and other diseases. Tetracyclines (TCs) are known inhibitors of mammalian-derived MMPs, and non-antibiotic formulations of Doxycycline are FDA-approved to treat periodontitis and the chronic inflammatory skin disease, rosacea. Because the C-11/ C-12 diketonic moiety of the tetracyclines is primarily responsible, through zinc-binding, for MMP inhibition, we have uniquely modified curcumin as a "core" molecule, since it contains a similar enolic system and is known to have beneficial effects in diseases where connective-tissue loss occurs. Specifically we have developed new congeners which exhibit improved zinc-binding and solubility, and potent reduction of excessive MMP levels and activity. We now describe a series of curcuminoid bi- and tri-carbonylmethanes in which all of these properties are substantially improved. An N-phenylaminocarbonyl derivative of bis-demethoxycurcumin (CMC2.24) was selected as the "lead" substance because it showed superior potency in vitro (i.e., the lowest IC(50)) against a series of neutral proteases (MMPs) associated with tissue erosion. Moreover, CMC2.24 administered to diabetic rats orally (30mg/kg), reduced the secretion of pathologically-excessive levels of MMP-9 to normal in cultured peritoneal macrophages with no evidence of toxicity. Thus, this (and other similar novel) compound(s) may be useful in various diseases of connective-tissue loss. PMID:22830350
Del Buffa, Stefano; Bonini, Massimo; Ridi, Francesca; Severi, Mirko; Losi, Paola; Volpi, Silvia; Al Kayal, Tamer; Soldani, Giorgio; Baglioni, Piero
2015-06-15
This paper reports on the preparation, characterization, and cytotoxicity of a hybrid nanocomposite material made of Sr(II)-loaded Halloysite nanotubes included within a biopolymer (3-polyhydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) matrix. The Sr(II)-loaded inorganic scaffold is intended to provide mechanical resistance, multi-scale porosity, and to favor the in-situ regeneration of bone tissue thanks to its biocompatibility and bioactivity. The interaction of the hybrid system with the physiological environment is mediated by the biopolymer coating, which acts as a binder, as well as a diffusional barrier to the Sr(II) release. The degradation of the polymer progressively leads to the exposure of the Sr(II)-loaded Halloysite scaffold, tuning its interaction with osteogenic cells. The in vitro biocompatibility of the composite was demonstrated by cytotoxicity tests on L929 fibroblast cells. The results indicate that this composite material could be of interest for multiple strategies in the field of bone tissue engineering. PMID:25778738
Matrix computations in MACSYMA
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, P. S.
1977-01-01
Facilities built into MACSYMA for manipulating matrices with numeric or symbolic entries are described. Computations will be done exactly, keeping symbols as symbols. Topics discussed include how to form a matrix and create other matrices by transforming existing matrices within MACSYMA; arithmetic and other computation with matrices; and user control of computational processes through the use of optional variables. Two algorithms designed for sparse matrices are given. The computing times of several different ways to compute the determinant of a matrix are compared.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Whitacre, J.; West, W. C.; Mojarradi, M.; Sukumar, V.; Hess, H.; Li, H.; Buck, K.; Cox, D.; Alahmad, M.; Zghoul, F. N.; Jackson, J.; Terry, S.; Blalock, B.
2003-01-01
This paper presents a design approach to help attain any random grouping pattern between the microbatteries. In this case, the result is an ability to charge microbatteries in parallel and to discharge microbatteries in parallel or pairs of microbatteries in series.
2012-01-01
Matrix metalloproteases are key regulatory molecules in the breakdown of extracellular matrix and in inflammatory processes. Matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) can significantly enhance muscle regeneration by promoting the formation of myofibers and degenerating the fibrous tissue. Herein, we prepared novel MMP-1-loaded poly(lactide-co-glycolide-co-caprolactone) (PLGA-PCL) nanoparticles (NPs) capable of sustained release of MMP-1. We established quadratic equations as mathematical models and employed rotatable central composite design and response surface methodology to optimize the preparation procedure of the NPs. Then, characterization of the optimized NPs with respect to particle size distribution, particle morphology, drug encapsulation efficiency, MMP-1 activity assay and in vitro release of MMP-1 from NPs was carried out. The results of mathematical modeling show that the optimal conditions for the preparation of MMP-1-loaded NPs were as follows: 7 min for the duration time of homogenization, 4.5 krpm for the agitation speed of homogenization and 0.4 for the volume ratio of organic solvent phase to external aqueous phase. The entrapment efficiency and the average particle size of the NPs were 38.75 ± 4.74% and 322.7 ± 18.1 nm, respectively. Further scanning electron microscopy image shows that the NPs have a smooth and spherical surface, with mean particle size around 300 nm. The MMP-1 activity assay and in vitro drug release profile of NPs indicated that the bioactivity of the enzyme can be reserved where the encapsulation allows prolonged release of MMP-1 over 60 days. Taken together, we reported here novel PLGA-PCL NPs for sustained release of MMP-1, which may provide an ideal MMP-1 delivery approach for tissue reconstruction therapy. PMID:22747956
Antonuk, Larry E.; Zhao Qihua; El-Mohri, Youcef; Du Hong; Wang Yi; Street, Robert A.; Ho, Jackson; Weisfield, Richard; Yao, William
2009-07-15
Active matrix flat-panel imager (AMFPI) technology is being employed for an increasing variety of imaging applications. An important element in the adoption of this technology has been significant ongoing improvements in optical signal collection achieved through innovations in indirect detection array pixel design. Such improvements have a particularly beneficial effect on performance in applications involving low exposures and/or high spatial frequencies, where detective quantum efficiency is strongly reduced due to the relatively high level of additive electronic noise compared to signal levels of AMFPI devices. In this article, an examination of various signal properties, as determined through measurements and calculations related to novel array designs, is reported in the context of the evolution of AMFPI pixel design. For these studies, dark, optical, and radiation signal measurements were performed on prototype imagers incorporating a variety of increasingly sophisticated array designs, with pixel pitches ranging from 75 to 127 {mu}m. For each design, detailed measurements of fundamental pixel-level properties conducted under radiographic and fluoroscopic operating conditions are reported and the results are compared. A series of 127 {mu}m pitch arrays employing discrete photodiodes culminated in a novel design providing an optical fill factor of {approx}80% (thereby assuring improved x-ray sensitivity), and demonstrating low dark current, very low charge trapping and charge release, and a large range of linear signal response. In two of the designs having 75 and 90 {mu}m pitches, a novel continuous photodiode structure was found to provide fill factors that approach the theoretical maximum of 100%. Both sets of novel designs achieved large fill factors by employing architectures in which some, or all of the photodiode structure was elevated above the plane of the pixel addressing transistor. Generally, enhancement of the fill factor in either discrete or
Antonuk, Larry E.; Zhao, Qihua; El-Mohri, Youcef; Du, Hong; Wang, Yi; Street, Robert A.; Ho, Jackson; Weisfield, Richard; Yao, William
2009-01-01
Active matrix flat-panel imager (AMFPI) technology is being employed for an increasing variety of imaging applications. An important element in the adoption of this technology has been significant ongoing improvements in optical signal collection achieved through innovations in indirect detection array pixel design. Such improvements have a particularly beneficial effect on performance in applications involving low exposures and∕or high spatial frequencies, where detective quantum efficiency is strongly reduced due to the relatively high level of additive electronic noise compared to signal levels of AMFPI devices. In this article, an examination of various signal properties, as determined through measurements and calculations related to novel array designs, is reported in the context of the evolution of AMFPI pixel design. For these studies, dark, optical, and radiation signal measurements were performed on prototype imagers incorporating a variety of increasingly sophisticated array designs, with pixel pitches ranging from 75 to 127 μm. For each design, detailed measurements of fundamental pixel-level properties conducted under radiographic and fluoroscopic operating conditions are reported and the results are compared. A series of 127 μm pitch arrays employing discrete photodiodes culminated in a novel design providing an optical fill factor of ∼80% (thereby assuring improved x-ray sensitivity), and demonstrating low dark current, very low charge trapping and charge release, and a large range of linear signal response. In two of the designs having 75 and 90 μm pitches, a novel continuous photodiode structure was found to provide fill factors that approach the theoretical maximum of 100%. Both sets of novel designs achieved large fill factors by employing architectures in which some, or all of the photodiode structure was elevated above the plane of the pixel addressing transistor. Generally, enhancement of the fill factor in either discrete or continuous
Caves, Jeffrey M.; Kumar, Vivek A.; Martinez, Adam W.; Kim, Jeong; Ripberger, Carrie M.; Haller, Carolyn A.; Chaikof, Elliot L.
2013-01-01
Collagen and elastin networks contribute to highly specialized biomechanical responses in numerous tissues and species. Biomechanical properties such as modulus, elasticity, and strength ultimately affect tissue function and durability, as well as local cellular behavior. In the case of vascular bypass grafts, compliance at physiologic pressures is correlated with increased patency due to a reduction in anastomotic intimal hyerplasia. In this report, we combine extracellular matrix (ECM) protein analogues to yield multilamellar vascular grafts comprised of a recombinant elastin-like protein matrix reinforced with synthetic collagen microfibers. Structural analysis revealed that the fabrication scheme permits a range of fiber orientations and volume fractions, leading to tunable mechanical properties. Burst strengths of 239–2760 mm Hg, compliances of 2.8–8.4%/100 mm Hg, and suture retention strengths of 35–192 gf were observed. The design most closely approximating all target criteria displayed a burst strength of 1483 ± 43 mm Hg, a compliance of 5.1 ± 0.8%/100 mm Hg, and a suture retention strength of 173 ± 4 gf. These results indicate that through incorporation of reinforcing collagen microfibers, recombinant elastomeric protein-based biomaterials can play a significant role in load bearing tissue substitutes. We believe that similar composites can be incorporated into tissue engineering schemes that seek to integrate cells within the structure, prior to or after implantation in vivo. PMID:20584549
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nikitin, Anatoly G.; Karadzhov, Yuri
2011-07-01
We present a collection of matrix-valued shape invariant potentials which give rise to new exactly solvable problems of SUSY quantum mechanics. It includes all irreducible matrix superpotentials of the generic form W=kQ+\\frac{1}{k} R+P, where k is a variable parameter, Q is the unit matrix multiplied by a real-valued function of independent variable x, and P and R are the Hermitian matrices depending on x. In particular, we recover the Pron'ko-Stroganov 'matrix Coulomb potential' and all known scalar shape invariant potentials of SUSY quantum mechanics. In addition, five new shape invariant potentials are presented. Three of them admit a dual shape invariance, i.e. the related Hamiltonians can be factorized using two non-equivalent superpotentials. We find discrete spectrum and eigenvectors for the corresponding Schrödinger equations and prove that these eigenvectors are normalizable.
Grigoriev, Y.A.; Petrosyan, A.I.; Penzyakov, V.V.; Pimenov, V.G.; Rogovin, V.I.; Shesterkin, V.I.; Kudryashov, V.P.; Semyonov, V.C.
1997-03-01
The experimental study of matrix carbon field-emission cathodes (MCFECs), which has led to the stable operation of the cathodes with current emission values up to 100 mA, is described. A method of computer aided design of TWT electron guns (EGs) with MCFEC, based on the results of the MCFEC emission experimental study, is presented. The experimental MCFEC emission characteristics are used to define the field gain coefficient K and the cathode effective emission area S{sub eff}. The EG program computes the electric field upon the MCFEC surface, multiplies it by the K value and uses the Fowler{endash}Nordheim law and the S{sub eff} value to calculate the MCFEC current; the electron trajectories are computed as well. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Vacuum Society.}
Christopoulou, Ourania D; Sakkas, Vasilios A; Albanis, Triantafyllos A
2012-12-01
A simple, fast, and inexpensive procedure for sample preparation based on matrix solid-phase dispersion was developed for the determination of Environmental Protection Agency 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in indoor dust samples. Parameters that affect the extraction efficiency such as type of dispersant, elution solvent, and solvent volume were evaluated and optimized with the aid of experimental design and response surface methodology. Analysis was performed by HPLC coupled with UV-Vis diode array detector (UV-DAD). For verification, a GC coupled with a mass spectrometer in SIM mode was also applied. Recoveries obtained were from 53 to 120% for all target analytes with detection limits ranging from 0.2 to 10 ng/g and 0.2 to 2 ng/g for LC-UV-DAD and GC-MS, respectively. The optimized method was used for the analysis of 11 household dust samples collected from private houses. PMID:23125095
Simunovic, S; Zacharia, T
1997-11-01
This report provides a theoretical background for three constitutive models for a continuous strand mat (CSM) glass fiber-thermoset polymer matrix composite. The models were developed during fiscal years 1994 through 1997 as a part of the Cooperative Research and Development Agreement, "Application of High-Performance Computing to Automotive Design and Manufacturing." The full derivation of constitutive relations in the framework of the continuum program DYNA3D and have been used for the simulation and impact analysis of CSM composite tubes. The analysis of simulation and experimental results show that the model based on strain tensor split yields the most accurate results of the three implemented models. The parameters used in the models and their derivation from the physical tests are documented.
Adler, Camille; Schönenberger, Monica; Teleki, Alexandra; Kuentz, Martin
2016-02-29
Amorphous solid dispersions have for many years been a focus in oral formulations, especially in combination with a hot-melt extrusion process. The present work targets a novel approach with a system based on a fatty acid, a polymer and an inorganic carrier. It was intended to adsorb the acidic lipid by specific molecular interactions onto the solid carrier to design disorder in the alkyl chains of the lipid. Such designed lipid microdomains (DLM) were created as a new microstructure to accommodate a compound in a solid dispersion. Vibrational spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, atomic force microscopy as well as electron microscopic imaging were employed to study a system of stearic acid, hydroxypropylcellulose and aluminum magnesium silicate. β-carotene was used as a poorly water-soluble model substance that is difficult to formulate with conventional solid dispersion formulations. The results indicated that the targeted molecular excipient interactions indeed led to DLMs for specific compositions. The different methods provided complementary aspects and important insights into the created microstructure. The novel delivery system appeared to be especially promising for the formulation of oral compounds that exhibit both high crystal energy and lipophilicity. PMID:26721729
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lopes, D. F.; Oliveira, M. D.; Costa, C. A. Bana e.
2015-05-01
Risk matrices (RMs) are commonly used to evaluate health and safety risks. Nonetheless, they violate some theoretical principles that compromise their feasibility and use. This study describes how multiple criteria decision analysis methods have been used to improve the design and the deployment of RMs to evaluate health and safety risks at the Occupational Health and Safety Unit (OHSU) of the Regional Health Administration of Lisbon and Tagus Valley. ‘Value risk-matrices’ (VRMs) are built with the MACBETH approach in four modelling steps: a) structuring risk impacts, involving the construction of descriptors of impact that link risk events with health impacts and are informed by scientific evidence; b) generating a value measurement scale of risk impacts, by applying the MACBETH-Choquet procedure; c) building a system for eliciting subjective probabilities that makes use of a numerical probability scale that was constructed with MACBETH qualitative judgments on likelihood; d) and defining a classification colouring scheme for the VRM. A VRM built with OHSU members was implemented in a decision support system which will be used by OHSU members to evaluate health and safety risks and to identify risk mitigation actions.
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
2004-12-31
Sync Matrix provides a graphic display of the relationships among all of the response activities of each jurisdiction. This is accomplished through software that organizes and displays the activities by jurisdiction, function, and time for easy review and analysis. The software can also integrate the displays of multiple jurisdictions to allow examination of the total response.
Sun, Mingyun; Lin, Jennifer S; Barron, Annelise E
2011-11-01
Double-stranded (ds) DNA fragments over a wide size range were successfully separated in blended polymer matrices by microfluidic chip electrophoresis. Novel blended polymer matrices composed of two types of polymers with three different molar masses were developed to provide improved separations of large dsDNA without negatively impacting the separation of small dsDNA. Hydroxyethyl celluloses with average molar masses of ∼27 kDa and ∼1 MDa were blended with a second class of polymer, high-molar mass (∼7 MDa) linear polyacrylamide. Fast and highly efficient separations of commercially available DNA ladders were achieved on a borosilicate glass microchip. A distinct separation of a 1-kb DNA extension ladder (200-40,000 bp) was completed in 2 min. An orthogonal design of experiments was used to optimize experimental parameters for DNA separations over a wide size range. We find that the two dominant factors are the applied electric field strength and the inclusion of a high concentration of low-molar mass polymer in the matrix solution. These two factors exerted different effects on the separations of small dsDNA fragments below 1 kbp, medium dsDNA fragments between 1 and 10 kbp, and large dsDNA fragments above 10 kbp. PMID:22009451
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zhu, Dong-Ming; Choi, Sung R.; Ghosn, Louis J.; Miller, Robert A.
2004-01-01
Ceramic thermal/environmental barrier coatings for SiC-based ceramics will play an increasingly important role in future gas turbine engines because of their ability to effectively protect the engine components and further raise engine temperatures. However, the coating durability remains a major concern with the ever-increasing temperature requirements. Currently, advanced T/EBC systems, which typically include a high temperature capable zirconia- (or hahia-) based oxide top coat (thermal barrier) on a less temperature capable mullite/barium-strontium-aluminosilicate (BSAS)/Si inner coat (environmental barrier), are being developed and tested for higher temperature capability Sic combustor applications. In this paper, durability of several thermal/environmental barrier coating systems on SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites was investigated under laser simulated engine thermal gradient cyclic, and 1650 C (3000 F) test conditions. The coating cracking and delamination processes were monitored and evaluated. The effects of temperature gradients and coating configurations on the ceramic coating crack initiation and propagation were analyzed using finite element analysis (FEA) models based on the observed failure mechanisms, in conjunction with mechanical testing results. The environmental effects on the coating durability will be discussed. The coating design approach will also be presented.
Performance Appraisal for Matrix Management.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Edwards, M. R.; Sproull, J. Ruth
1985-01-01
A matrix management system designed for use by a highly technical nuclear weapons research and development facility to improve productivity and flexibility by the use of multiple authority, responsibility, and accountability relationships is described. (MSE)
Shekhar, R.; Karunasagar, D.; Ranjit, M.; Arunachalam, J.
2009-10-15
An open-to-air type electrolyte cathode discharge (ELCAD) has been developed with a new design. The present configuration leads to a stable plasma even at low flow rates (0.96 mL/min). Plasma fluctuations arising from the variations in the gap between solid anode and liquid cathode were eliminated by providing a V-groove to the liquid glass-capillary. Cathode (ground) connection is given to the solution at the V-groove itself. Interfaced to atomic emission spectrometry (AES), its analytical performance is evaluated. The optimized molarity of the solution is 0.2 M. The analytical response curves for Ca, Cu, Cd, Pb, Hg, Fe, and Zn demonstrated good linearity. The limit of detections of Ca, Cu, Cd, Pb, Hg, Fe, and Zn are determined to be 17, 11, 5, 45, 15, 28, and 3 ng mL{sup -1}. At an integration time of 0.3 s, the relative standard deviation (RSD) values of the acid blank solutions are found to be less than 10% for the elements Ca, Cu, Cd, Hg, Fe, and Zn and 18% for Pb. The method is applied for the determination of the elemental constituents in different matrix materials such as tuna fish (IAEA-350), oyster tissue (NIST SRM 1566a), and coal fly ash (CFA SRM 1633b). The obtained results are in good agreement with the certified values. The accuracy is found to be between 7% and 0.6% for major to trace levels of constituent elements and the precision between 11% and 0.6%. For the injection of 100 {mu} L of 200 ng mL{sup -1} mercury solution at the flow rate of 0.8 mL/min, the flow injection studies resulted in the relative standard deviation (RSD) of 8%, concentration detection limit of 10 ng/mL, and mass detection limit of 1 ng for mercury.
Shekhar, R; Karunasagar, D; Ranjit, Manjusha; Arunachalam, J
2009-10-01
An open-to-air type electrolyte cathode discharge (ELCAD) has been developed with a new design. The present configuration leads to a stable plasma even at low flow rates (0.96 mL/min). Plasma fluctuations arising from the variations in the gap between solid anode and liquid cathode were eliminated by providing a V-groove to the liquid glass-capillary. Cathode (ground) connection is given to the solution at the V-groove itself. Interfaced to atomic emission spectrometry (AES), its analytical performance is evaluated. The optimized molarity of the solution is 0.2 M. The analytical response curves for Ca, Cu, Cd, Pb, Hg, Fe, and Zn demonstrated good linearity. The limit of detections of Ca, Cu, Cd, Pb, Hg, Fe, and Zn are determined to be 17, 11, 5, 45, 15, 28, and 3 ng mL(-1). At an integration time of 0.3 s, the relative standard deviation (RSD) values of the acid blank solutions are found to be less than 10% for the elements Ca, Cu, Cd, Hg, Fe, and Zn and 18% for Pb. The method is applied for the determination of the elemental constituents in different matrix materials such as tuna fish (IAEA-350), oyster tissue (NIST SRM 1566a), and coal fly ash (CFA SRM 1633b). The obtained results are in good agreement with the certified values. The accuracy is found to be between 7% and 0.6% for major to trace levels of constituent elements and the precision between 11% and 0.6%. For the injection of 100 microL of 200 ng mL(-1) mercury solution at the flow rate of 0.8 mL/min, the flow injection studies resulted in the relative standard deviation (RSD) of 8%, concentration detection limit of 10 ng/mL, and mass detection limit of 1 ng for mercury. PMID:19715301
Matrix market: a web resource for test matrix collection
Boisvert, R.F.; Pozo, R.; Remington, K.; Barrett, R.F.; Dongarra, J.J. /
1996-05-30
We describe a repository of data for the testing of numerical algorithms and mathematical software for matrix computations. The repository is designed to accommodate both dense and sparse matrices, as well as software to generate matrices. It has been seeded with the well known Harwell-Boeing sparse matrix collection. The raw data files have been augmented with an integrated World Wide Web interface which describes the matrices in the collection quantitatively and visually, For example, each matrix has a Web page which details its attributes, graphically depicts its sparsity pattern, and provides access to the matrix itself in several formats. In addition, a search mechanism is included which allows retrieval of matrices based on a variety of attributes, such as type and size, as well as through free-text search in abstracts. The URL is http://math.nist.gov/MatrixMarket.
A fuel-oil matrix heat exchanger
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mikulin, E. I.; Shevich, Iu. A.; Potapov, V. N.; Veselov, V. A.; Saltais, E. A.; Glukhovskii, G. I.
A novel design of a welded matrix heat exchanger capable of handling high-pressure liquid and gas coolants is described. Results of tests conducted on matrix heat exchangers and their models are presented, and formulas are recommended for calculating the heat transfer and hydraulic resistance characteristics. A comparison of the characteristics of matrix and tube heat exchangers demonstrates the advantages of the former.
Bourgeois, J.C.; Kliebert, N.M.; Janusa, M.A.
1996-10-01
A significant portion of modem industrial waste is disposed by solidification in cement and slags. Cement has been found to be effective for some heavy metals while ineffective for others. There is a strong need for a better solidification/stabilization matrix that can help solve the hazardous waste disposal problem. Herein, the waste/cement matrix is improved by adding a polymer additive to the matrix. The polymer enhances the encapsulation and penetration of the cement system into the interstitial spaces of the waste. To make the process more economically feasible, the source of polymer was lignin obtained from the large excess of bagasse produced each year from sugar cane processors. The studies were done with lead as the initial heavy metal waste source.
Hypercube matrix computation task
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Calalo, Ruel H.; Imbriale, William A.; Jacobi, Nathan; Liewer, Paulett C.; Lockhart, Thomas G.; Lyzenga, Gregory A.; Lyons, James R.; Manshadi, Farzin; Patterson, Jean E.
1988-01-01
A major objective of the Hypercube Matrix Computation effort at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is to investigate the applicability of a parallel computing architecture to the solution of large-scale electromagnetic scattering problems. Three scattering analysis codes are being implemented and assessed on a JPL/California Institute of Technology (Caltech) Mark 3 Hypercube. The codes, which utilize different underlying algorithms, give a means of evaluating the general applicability of this parallel architecture. The three analysis codes being implemented are a frequency domain method of moments code, a time domain finite difference code, and a frequency domain finite elements code. These analysis capabilities are being integrated into an electromagnetics interactive analysis workstation which can serve as a design tool for the construction of antennas and other radiating or scattering structures. The first two years of work on the Hypercube Matrix Computation effort is summarized. It includes both new developments and results as well as work previously reported in the Hypercube Matrix Computation Task: Final Report for 1986 to 1987 (JPL Publication 87-18).
Hybrid matrix fiber composites
Deteresa, Steven J.; Lyon, Richard E.; Groves, Scott E.
2003-07-15
Hybrid matrix fiber composites having enhanced compressive performance as well as enhanced stiffness, toughness and durability suitable for compression-critical applications. The methods for producing the fiber composites using matrix hybridization. The hybrid matrix fiber composites include two chemically or physically bonded matrix materials, whereas the first matrix materials are used to impregnate multi-filament fibers formed into ribbons and the second matrix material is placed around and between the fiber ribbons that are impregnated with the first matrix material and both matrix materials are cured and solidified.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hyland, R. E.; Wohl, M. L.; Thompson, R. L.; Finnegan, P. M.
1972-01-01
The results are reported of a preliminary feasibility screening study for providing long-term solutions to the problems of handling and managing radioactive wastes by extraterrestrial transportation of the wastes. Matrix materials and containers are discussed along with payloads, costs, and destinations for candidate space vehicles. The conclusions reached are: (1) Matrix material such as spray melt can be used without exceeding temperature limits of the matrix. (2) The cost in mills per kw hr electric, of space disposal of fission products is 4, 5, and 28 mills per kw hr for earth escape, solar orbit, and solar escape, respectively. (3) A major factor effecting cost is the earth storage time. Based on a normal operating condition design for solar escape, a storage time of more than sixty years is required to make the space disposal charge less than 10% of the bus-bar electric cost. (4) Based on a 10 year earth storage without further processing, the number of shuttle launches required would exceed one per day.
Kazemikia, Kaveh; Bonabi, Fahimeh; Asadpoorchallo, Ali; Shokrzadeh, Majid
2015-02-01
In this work, an optimized pulsed magnetic field production apparatus is designed based on a RLC (Resistance/Self-inductance/Capacitance) discharge circuit. An algorithm for designing an optimum magnetic coil is presented. The coil is designed to work at room temperature. With a minor physical reinforcement, the magnetic flux density can be set up to 12 Tesla with 2 ms duration time. In our design process, the magnitude and the length of the magnetic pulse are the desired parameters. The magnetic field magnitude in the RLC circuit is maximized on the basis of the optimal design of the coil. The variables which are used in the optimization process are wire diameter and the number of coil layers. The coil design ensures the critically damped response of the RLC circuit. The electrical, mechanical, and thermal constraints are applied to the design process. A locus of probable magnetic flux density values versus wire diameter and coil layer is provided to locate the optimum coil parameters. Another locus of magnetic flux density values versus capacitance and initial voltage of the RLC circuit is extracted to locate the optimum circuit parameters. Finally, the application of high magnetic fields on carbon nanotube-PolyPyrrole (CNT-PPy) nano-composite is presented. Scanning probe microscopy technique is used to observe the orientation of CNTs after exposure to a magnetic field. The result shows alignment of CNTs in a 10.3 Tesla, 1.5 ms magnetic pulse. PMID:25725890
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kazemikia, Kaveh; Bonabi, Fahimeh; Asadpoorchallo, Ali; Shokrzadeh, Majid
2015-02-01
In this work, an optimized pulsed magnetic field production apparatus is designed based on a RLC (Resistance/Self-inductance/Capacitance) discharge circuit. An algorithm for designing an optimum magnetic coil is presented. The coil is designed to work at room temperature. With a minor physical reinforcement, the magnetic flux density can be set up to 12 Tesla with 2 ms duration time. In our design process, the magnitude and the length of the magnetic pulse are the desired parameters. The magnetic field magnitude in the RLC circuit is maximized on the basis of the optimal design of the coil. The variables which are used in the optimization process are wire diameter and the number of coil layers. The coil design ensures the critically damped response of the RLC circuit. The electrical, mechanical, and thermal constraints are applied to the design process. A locus of probable magnetic flux density values versus wire diameter and coil layer is provided to locate the optimum coil parameters. Another locus of magnetic flux density values versus capacitance and initial voltage of the RLC circuit is extracted to locate the optimum circuit parameters. Finally, the application of high magnetic fields on carbon nanotube-PolyPyrrole (CNT-PPy) nano-composite is presented. Scanning probe microscopy technique is used to observe the orientation of CNTs after exposure to a magnetic field. The result shows alignment of CNTs in a 10.3 Tesla, 1.5 ms magnetic pulse.
Grcar, Joseph F.
2002-02-04
A matrix lower bound is defined that generalizes ideas apparently due to S. Banach and J. von Neumann. The matrix lower bound has a natural interpretation in functional analysis, and it satisfies many of the properties that von Neumann stated for it in a restricted case. Applications for the matrix lower bound are demonstrated in several areas. In linear algebra, the matrix lower bound of a full rank matrix equals the distance to the set of rank-deficient matrices. In numerical analysis, the ratio of the matrix norm to the matrix lower bound is a condition number for all consistent systems of linear equations. In optimization theory, the matrix lower bound suggests an identity for a class of min-max problems. In real analysis, a recursive construction that depends on the matrix lower bound shows that the level sets of continuously differential functions lie asymptotically near those of their tangents.
Shekhter, Anatoly B; Rudenko, Tatyana G; Istranov, Leonid P; Guller, Anna E; Borodulin, Rostislav R; Vanin, Anatoly F
2015-10-12
Composites of a collagen matrix and dinitrosyl iron complexes with glutathione (DNIC-GS) (in a dose of 4.0 μmoles per item) in the form of spongy sheets (DNIC-Col) were prepared and then topically applied in rat excisional full-thickness skin wound model. The effects of DNIC-Col were studied in comparison with spontaneously healing wounds (SpWH) and wounds treated with collagen sponges (Col) without DNIC-GS. The composites induced statistically and clinically significant acceleration of complete wound closure (21±1 day versus 23±1 day and 26±1 day for DNIC-Col, Col and SpWH, respectively). Histological examination of wound tissues on days 4, 14, 18 and 21 after surgery demonstrated that this improvement was supported by enhanced growth, maturation and fibrous transformation of granulation tissue and earlier epithelization of the injured area in rats treated with DNIC-Col composites benchmarked against Col and SpWH. It is suggested that the positive effect of the new pharmaceutical material on wound healing is based on the release of NO from decomposing DNIC. This effect is believed to be potentiated by the synergy of DNIC and collagen. PMID:26066410
Farooque, M.; Yuh, C.Y.
1996-12-03
A carbonate fuel cell matrix is described comprising support particles and crack attenuator particles which are made platelet in shape to increase the resistance of the matrix to through cracking. Also disclosed is a matrix having porous crack attenuator particles and a matrix whose crack attenuator particles have a thermal coefficient of expansion which is significantly different from that of the support particles, and a method of making platelet-shaped crack attenuator particles. 8 figs.
Farooque, Mohammad; Yuh, Chao-Yi
1996-01-01
A carbonate fuel cell matrix comprising support particles and crack attenuator particles which are made platelet in shape to increase the resistance of the matrix to through cracking. Also disclosed is a matrix having porous crack attenuator particles and a matrix whose crack attenuator particles have a thermal coefficient of expansion which is significantly different from that of the support particles, and a method of making platelet-shaped crack attenuator particles.
Matrix differentiation formulas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Usikov, D. A.; Tkhabisimov, D. K.
1983-01-01
A compact differentiation technique (without using indexes) is developed for scalar functions that depend on complex matrix arguments which are combined by operations of complex conjugation, transposition, addition, multiplication, matrix inversion and taking the direct product. The differentiation apparatus is developed in order to simplify the solution of extremum problems of scalar functions of matrix arguments.
Matrix with Prescribed Eigenvectors
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ahmad, Faiz
2011-01-01
It is a routine matter for undergraduates to find eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a given matrix. But the converse problem of finding a matrix with prescribed eigenvalues and eigenvectors is rarely discussed in elementary texts on linear algebra. This problem is related to the "spectral" decomposition of a matrix and has important technical…
Parce, J. Wallace; Bernatis, Paul; Dubrow, Robert; Freeman, William P.; Gamoras, Joel; Kan, Shihai; Meisel, Andreas; Qian, Baixin; Whiteford, Jeffery A.; Ziebarth, Jonathan
2010-01-12
Matrixes doped with semiconductor nanocrystals are provided. In certain embodiments, the semiconductor nanocrystals have a size and composition such that they absorb or emit light at particular wavelengths. The nanocrystals can comprise ligands that allow for mixing with various matrix materials, including polymers, such that a minimal portion of light is scattered by the matrixes. The matrixes of the present invention can also be utilized in refractive index matching applications. In other embodiments, semiconductor nanocrystals are embedded within matrixes to form a nanocrystal density gradient, thereby creating an effective refractive index gradient. The matrixes of the present invention can also be used as filters and antireflective coatings on optical devices and as down-converting layers. Processes for producing matrixes comprising semiconductor nanocrystals are also provided. Nanostructures having high quantum efficiency, small size, and/or a narrow size distribution are also described, as are methods of producing indium phosphide nanostructures and core-shell nanostructures with Group II-VI shells.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Noton, B. R. (Editor); Kreider, K. G.; Chamis, C. C.
1974-01-01
This volume discusses a vaety of applications of both low- and high-cost composite materials in a number of selected engineering fields. The text stresses the use of fiber-reinforced composites, along with interesting material systems used in the electrical and nuclear industries. As to technology transfer, a similarity is noted between many of the reasons responsible for the utilization of composites and those problems requiring urgent solution, such as mechanized fabrication processes and design for production. Features topics include road transportation, rail transportation, civil aircraft, space vehicles, builing industry, chemical plants, and appliances and equipment. The laminate orientation code devised by Air Force materials laboratory is included. Individual items are announced in this issue.
Gupta-Ostermann, Disha; Hirose, Yoichiro; Odagami, Takenao; Kouji, Hiroyuki; Bajorath, Jürgen
2015-01-01
In a previous Method Article, we have presented the ‘Structure-Activity Relationship (SAR) Matrix’ (SARM) approach. The SARM methodology is designed to systematically extract structurally related compound series from screening or chemical optimization data and organize these series and associated SAR information in matrices reminiscent of R-group tables. SARM calculations also yield many virtual candidate compounds that form a “chemical space envelope” around related series. To further extend the SARM approach, different methods are developed to predict the activity of virtual compounds. In this follow-up contribution, we describe an activity prediction method that derives conditional probabilities of activity from SARMs and report representative results of first prospective applications of this approach. PMID:25949808
Finding Nonoverlapping Substructures of a Sparse Matrix
Pinar, Ali; Vassilevska, Virginia
2005-08-11
Many applications of scientific computing rely on computations on sparse matrices. The design of efficient implementations of sparse matrix kernels is crucial for the overall efficiency of these applications. Due to the high compute-to-memory ratio and irregular memory access patterns, the performance of sparse matrix kernels is often far away from the peak performance on a modern processor. Alternative data structures have been proposed, which split the original matrix A into A{sub d} and A{sub s}, so that A{sub d} contains all dense blocks of a specified size in the matrix, and A{sub s} contains the remaining entries. This enables the use of dense matrix kernels on the entries of A{sub d} producing better memory performance. In this work, we study the problem of finding a maximum number of nonoverlapping dense blocks in a sparse matrix, which is previously not studied in the sparse matrix community. We show that the maximum nonoverlapping dense blocks problem is NP-complete by using a reduction from the maximum independent set problem on cubic planar graphs. We also propose a 2/3-approximation algorithm that runs in linear time in the number of nonzeros in the matrix. This extended abstract focuses on our results for 2x2 dense blocks. However we show that our results can be generalized to arbitrary sized dense blocks, and many other oriented substructures, which can be exploited to improve the memory performance of sparse matrix operations.
Kidoaki, Satoru; Kwon, Il Kuen; Matsuda, Takehisa
2005-01-01
To design a mesoscopically ordered structure of the matrices and scaffolds composed of nano- and microscale fiber meshes for artificial and tissue-engineering devices, two new electrospinning techniques are proposed: multilayering electrospinning and mixing electrospinning. First, the following four kinds of component polymers were individually electrospun to determine the conditions for producing stable nano- and microfibers by optimizing the formulation parameters (solvent and polymer concentration) and operation parameters (voltage, air gap, and flow rate) for each polymer: (a) type I collagen, (b) styrenated gelatin (ST-gelatin), (c) segmented polyurethane (SPU), and (d) poly(ethylene oxide). A trilayered electrospun mesh, in which individual fiber meshes (type I collagen, ST-gelatin, and SPU) were deposited layer by layer, was formed by sequential electrospinning; this was clearly visualized by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The mixed electrospun-fiber mesh composed of SPU and PEO was prepared by simultaneous electrospinning on a stainless-steel mandrel with high-speed rotation and traverse movement. A bilayered tubular construct composed of a thick SPU microfiber mesh as an outer layer and a thin type I collagen nanofiber mesh as an inner layer was fabricated as a prototype scaffold of artificial grafts, and visualized by scanning electron microscopy. PMID:15193879
Fong, Jiunn N. C.; Yildiz, Fitnat H.
2015-01-01
Proteinaceous components of the biofilm matrix include secreted extracellular proteins, cell surface adhesins and protein subunits of cell appendages such as flagella and pili. Biofilm matrix proteins play diverse roles in biofilm formation and dissolution. They are involved in attaching cells to surfaces, stabilizing the biofilm matrix via interactions with exopolysaccharide and nucleic acid components, developing three-dimensional biofilm architectures, and dissolving biofilm matrix via enzymatic degradation of polysaccharides, proteins, and nucleic acids. In this chapter, we will review functions of matrix proteins in a selected set of microorganisms, studies of the matrix proteomes of Vibrio cholerae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and roles of outer membrane vesicles and of nucleoid-binding proteins in biofilm formation. PMID:26104709
Schlecht, Martin F.; Kassakian, John G.; Caloggero, Anthony J.; Rhodes, Bruce; Otten, David; Rasmussen, Neil
1982-01-01
An automatic switching matrix that includes an apertured matrix board containing a matrix of wires that can be interconnected at each aperture. Each aperture has associated therewith a conductive pin which, when fully inserted into the associated aperture, effects electrical connection between the wires within that particular aperture. Means is provided for automatically inserting the pins in a determined pattern and for removing all the pins to permit other interconnecting patterns.
Adaptive wavelet methods - Matrix-vector multiplication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Černá, Dana; Finěk, Václav
2012-12-01
The design of most adaptive wavelet methods for elliptic partial differential equations follows a general concept proposed by A. Cohen, W. Dahmen and R. DeVore in [3, 4]. The essential steps are: transformation of the variational formulation into the well-conditioned infinite-dimensional l2 problem, finding of the convergent iteration process for the l2 problem and finally derivation of its finite dimensional version which works with an inexact right hand side and approximate matrix-vector multiplications. In our contribution, we shortly review all these parts and wemainly pay attention to approximate matrix-vector multiplications. Effective approximation of matrix-vector multiplications is enabled by an off-diagonal decay of entries of the wavelet stiffness matrix. We propose here a new approach which better utilize actual decay of matrix entries.
Development, implementation, and test results on integrated optics switching matrix
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rutz, E.
1982-01-01
A small integrated optics switching matrix, which was developed, implemented, and tested, indicates high performance. The matrix serves as a model for the design of larger switching matrices. The larger integrated optics switching matrix should form the integral part of a switching center with high data rate throughput of up to 300 megabits per second. The switching matrix technique can accomplish the design goals of low crosstalk and low distortion. About 50 illustrations help explain and depict the many phases of the integrated optics switching matrix. Many equations used to explain and calculate the experimental data are also included.
Matrix cracking in ceramic-matrix composites
Danchaivijit, S.; Shetty, D.K. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)
1993-10-01
Matrix cracking in ceramic-matrix composites with unbonded frictional interface has been studied using fracture mechanics theory. The critical stress for extension of a fiber-bridged crack has been analyzed using the stress-intensity approach. The analysis uses a new shear-lag formulation of the crack-closure traction applied by the bridging fibers based on the assumption of a constant sliding friction stress over the sliding length of the fiber-matrix interface. The new formulation satisfies two required limiting conditions: (a) when the stress in the bridging fiber approaches the far-field applied stress, the crack-opening displacement approaches a steady-state upper limit that is in agreement with the previous formulations; and (b) in the limit of zero crack opening, the stress in the bridging fiber approaches the far-field fiber stress. This lower limit of the bridging stress is distinctly different from the previous formulations. For all other conditions, the closure traction is a function of the far-field applied stress in addition to the local crack-opening displacement, the interfacial sliding friction stress, and the material properties. Numerical calculations using the stress-intensity approach indicate that the critical stress for crack extension decreases with increasing crack length and approaches a constant steady-state value for large cracks. The steady-state matrix-cracking stress agrees with a steady-state energy balance analysis applied to the continuum model, but it is slightly less than the matrix-cracking stress predicted by such theories of steady-state cracking as that of Aveston, Cooper, and Kelly. The origin of this difference and a method for reconciliation of the two theoretical approaches are discussed.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Buchanan, Richard; Cross, Nigel; Durling, David; Nelson, Harold; Owen, Charles; Valtonen, Anna; Boling, Elizabeth; Gibbons, Andrew; Visscher-Voerman, Irene
2013-01-01
Scholars representing the field of design were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Richard Buchanan, Nigel Cross, David Durling, Harold Nelson, Charles Owen, and Anna Valtonen. Scholars…
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
2001-10-18
PETRA V2 provides matrix and vector services and the ability construct, query, and use matrix and vector objects that are used and computed by TRILINOS solvers. It provides all basic matr5ix and vector operations for solvers in TRILINOS.
Matrix metalloproteinases and epileptogenesis.
Ikonomidou, Chrysanthy
2014-12-01
Matrix metalloproteinases are vital drivers of synaptic remodeling in health and disease. It is suggested that at early stages of epileptogenesis, inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases may help ameliorate cell death, aberrant network rewiring, and neuroinflammation and prevent development of epilepsy. PMID:26567100
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Seraji, H.
1987-01-01
Given a multivariable system, it is proved that the numerator matrix N(s) of the transfer function evaluated at any system pole either has unity rank or is a null matrix. It is also shown that N(s) evaluated at any transmission zero of the system has rank deficiency. Examples are given for illustration.
Stoenescu, M.L.; Smith, T.M.
1980-02-01
The collision integral terms in Boltzmann equation are reformulated numerically leading to the substitution of the multiple integrals with a multiplicative matrix of the two colliding species velocity distribution functions which varies with the differential collision cross section. A matrix of lower rank may be constructed when one of the distribution functions is specified, in which case the matrix elements represent kinetic transition probabilities in the velocity space and the multiplication of the time rate collision matrix with the unknown velocity distribution function expresses the time rate of change of the distribution. The collision matrix may be used to describe the time evolution of systems in nonequilibrium conditions, to evaluate the rate of momentum and energy transfer between given species, or to generate validity criteria for linearized kinetic equations.
Grassmann matrix quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anninos, Dionysios; Denef, Frederik; Monten, Ruben
2016-04-01
We explore quantum mechanical theories whose fundamental degrees of freedom are rectangular matrices with Grassmann valued matrix elements. We study particular models where the low energy sector can be described in terms of a bosonic Hermitian matrix quantum mechanics. We describe the classical curved phase space that emerges in the low energy sector. The phase space lives on a compact Kähler manifold parameterized by a complex matrix, of the type discovered some time ago by Berezin. The emergence of a semiclassical bosonic matrix quantum mechanics at low energies requires that the original Grassmann matrices be in the long rectangular limit. We discuss possible holographic interpretations of such matrix models which, by construction, are endowed with a finite dimensional Hilbert space.
Finding nonoverlapping substructures of a sparse matrix
Pinar, Ali; Vassilevska, Virginia
2004-08-09
Many applications of scientific computing rely on computations on sparse matrices, thus the design of efficient implementations of sparse matrix kernels is crucial for the overall efficiency of these applications. Due to the high compute-to-memory ratio and irregular memory access patterns, the performance of sparse matrix kernels is often far away from the peak performance on a modern processor. Alternative data structures have been proposed, which split the original matrix A into A{sub d} and A{sub s}, so that A{sub d} contains all dense blocks of a specified size in the matrix, and A{sub s} contains the remaining entries. This enables the use of dense matrix kernels on the entries of A{sub d} producing better memory performance. In this work, we study the problem of finding a maximum number of non overlapping rectangular dense blocks in a sparse matrix, which has not been studied in the sparse matrix community. We show that the maximum non overlapping dense blocks problem is NP-complete by using a reduction from the maximum independent set problem on cubic planar graphs. We also propose a 2/3-approximation algorithm for 2 times 2 blocks that runs in linear time in the number of nonzeros in the matrix. We discuss alternatives to rectangular blocks such as diagonal blocks and cross blocks and present complexity analysis and approximation algorithms.
Polymer Matrix Composite Material Oxygen Compatibility
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Owens, Tom
2001-01-01
Carbon fiber/polymer matrix composite materials look promising as a material to construct liquid oxygen (LOX) tanks. Based on mechanical impact tests the risk will be greater than aluminum, however, the risk can probably be managed to an acceptable level. Proper tank design and operation can minimize risk. A risk assessment (hazard analysis) will be used to determine the overall acceptability for using polymer matrix composite materials.
Construction of the Dependence Matrix Based on the TRIZ Contradiction Matrix in OOD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Jianhong; Zhang, Quan; Wang, Yanling; Luo, Tao
In the Object-Oriented software design (OOD), design of the class and object, definition of the classes’ interface and inheritance levels and determination of dependent relations have a serious impact on the reusability and flexibility of the system. According to the concrete problems of design, how to select the right solution from the hundreds of the design schemas which has become the focus of attention of designers. After analyzing lots of software design schemas in practice and Object-Oriented design patterns, this paper constructs the dependence matrix of Object-Oriented software design filed, referring to contradiction matrix of TRIZ (Theory of Inventive Problem Solving) proposed by the former Soviet Union innovation master Altshuller. As the practice indicates, it provides a intuitive, common and standardized method for designers to choose the right design schema. Make research and communication more effectively, and also improve the software development efficiency and software quality.
Martens, J.S.; Hietala, V.M.; Plut, T.A.
1995-01-03
The present invention comprises a novel matrix amplifier. The matrix amplifier includes an active superconducting power divider (ASPD) having N output ports; N distributed amplifiers each operatively connected to one of the N output ports of the ASPD; and a power combiner having N input ports each operatively connected to one of the N distributed amplifiers. The distributed amplifier can included M stages of amplification by cascading superconducting active devices. The power combiner can include N active elements. The resulting (N[times]M) matrix amplifier can produce signals of high output power, large bandwidth, and low noise. 6 figures.
Martens, Jon S.; Hietala, Vincent M.; Plut, Thomas A.
1995-01-01
The present invention comprises a novel matrix amplifier. The matrix amplifier includes an active superconducting power divider (ASPD) having N output ports; N distributed amplifiers each operatively connected to one of the N output ports of the ASPD; and a power combiner having N input ports each operatively connected to one of the N distributed amplifiers. The distributed amplifier can included M stages of amplification by cascading superconducting active devices. The power combiner can include N active elements. The resulting (N.times.M) matrix amplifier can produce signals of high output power, large bandwidth, and low noise.
Measurement matrix optimization method based on matrix orthogonal similarity transformation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pan, Jinfeng
2016-05-01
Optimization of the measurement matrix is one of the important research aspects of compressive sensing theory. A measurement matrix optimization method is presented based on the orthogonal similarity transformation of the information operator's Gram matrix. In terms of the fact that the information operator's Gram matrix is a singular symmetric matrix, a simplified orthogonal similarity transformation is deduced, and thus the simplified diagonal matrix that is orthogonally similar to it is obtained. Then an approximation of the Gram matrix is obtained by letting all the nonzero diagonal entries of the simplified diagonal matrix equal their average value. Thus an optimized measurement matrix can be acquired according to its relationship with the information operator. Results of experiments show that the optimized measurement matrix compared to the random measurement matrix is less coherent with dictionaries. The relative signal recovery error also declines when the proposed measurement matrix is utilized.
Hunt, Warren; Herling, Darrell R.
2004-02-01
Metal matrix composites have found selected application in areas that can cost-effectively capitalize on improvements in specific stiffness, specific strength, fatigue resistance, wear resistance, and coefficient of thermal expansion. Metal matrix composites comprise a relatively wide range of materials defined by the metal matrix, reinforcement type, and reinforcement geometry. In the area of the matrix, most metallic systems have been explored, including aluminum, beryllium, magnesium, titanium, iron, nickel, cobalt, and silver. However, aluminum is by far the most preferred. For reinforcements, the materials are typically ceramics, which provide a very beneficial combination of stiffness, strength, and relatively low density. Candidate reinforcement materials include SiC, Al2O3, B4C, TiC, TiB2, graphite, and a number of other ceramics. In addition, metallic materials such as tungsten and steel fibers have been considered.
The "Pesticide-exposure Matrix" was developed to help epidemiologists and other researchers identify the active ingredients to which people were likely exposed when their homes and gardens were treated for pests in past years.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hill, William Fawcett
1971-01-01
Leadership style, group composition, and group development are simultaneously quantified through the use of the matrix. It represents an attempt to objectify the art of group therapy. Comment by Richard C. Rank follows. (Author)
Optical coherency matrix tomography
Kagalwala, Kumel H.; Kondakci, H. Esat; Abouraddy, Ayman F.; Saleh, Bahaa E. A.
2015-01-01
The coherence of an optical beam having multiple degrees of freedom (DoFs) is described by a coherency matrix G spanning these DoFs. This optical coherency matrix has not been measured in its entirety to date—even in the simplest case of two binary DoFs where G is a 4 × 4 matrix. We establish a methodical yet versatile approach—optical coherency matrix tomography—for reconstructing G that exploits the analogy between this problem in classical optics and that of tomographically reconstructing the density matrix associated with multipartite quantum states in quantum information science. Here G is reconstructed from a minimal set of linearly independent measurements, each a cascade of projective measurements for each DoF. We report the first experimental measurements of the 4 × 4 coherency matrix G associated with an electromagnetic beam in which polarization and a spatial DoF are relevant, ranging from the traditional two-point Young’s double slit to spatial parity and orbital angular momentum modes. PMID:26478452
NbTi superconductors with aluminium matrix
Buryak, V.P.; Dugadko, A.B.; Mironova, O.N.; Petrusenko, A.I. ); Bliznyuk, V.A.; Dolbinov, J.D.; Lykhin, V.A. )
1992-01-01
This paper reports that the authors designed, produced and studied NbTi composite superconductors with Al, or Al-alloy, or combined Al and Cu matrix, which have reduced weight. Wires of different design with 0.5-2.0 mm diameter were manufactured using hydrostatic extrusion. The weight reduction in comparison with the same filling factor copper matrix superconductor achieves 20-40%. The overall critical current density at 5 T magnetic field is (1.6-2.8) {center dot} 10{sup 9} A/cm{sup 2}.
On Matrix Representations of Participation Constraints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hartmann, Sven; Leck, Uwe; Link, Sebastian
We discuss the existence of matrix representations for generalised and minimum participation constraints which are frequently used in database design and conceptual modelling. Matrix representations, also known as Armstrong relations, have been studied in literature e.g. for functional dependencies and play an important role in example-based design and for the implication problem of database constraints. The major tool to achieve the results in this paper is a theorem of Hajnal and Szemerédi on the occurrence of clique graphs in a given graph.
Optimal matrix approximants in structural identification
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Beattie, C. A.; Smith, S. W.
1992-01-01
Problems of model correlation and system identification are central in the design, analysis, and control of large space structures. Of the numerous methods that have been proposed, many are based on finding minimal adjustments to a model matrix sufficient to introduce some desirable quality into that matrix. In this work, several of these methods are reviewed, placed in a modern framework, and linked to other previously known ideas in computational linear algebra and optimization. This new framework provides a point of departure for a number of new methods which are introduced here. Significant among these is a method for stiffness matrix adjustment which preserves the sparsity pattern of an original matrix, requires comparatively modest computational resources, and allows robust handling of noisy modal data. Numerical examples are included to illustrate the methods presented herein.
Fiber coatings for ceramic matrix composites
Carpenter, H.W.; Bohlen, J.W.
1992-08-01
Two fiber coating concepts for ceramic matrix composites were successfully demonstrated in a preliminary study. These coatings were designed to promote toughness in composites and resist oxidation. The concepts were: (1) thin, multiple unbonded layers, and (2) a single porous layer that provided low interfacial strengths between the fiber and matrix. Chemical vapor deposited (CVD) SiC and sol-gel derived oxides were used to produce the fiber coatings. Specimens consisted of a single coated monofilament fiber and a sheath of CVD SiC to represent the matrix. Results from flexure tests showed that matrix cracks were deflected and that fibers debonded the same as in specimens made using carbon-coated fibers. Crack deflection and fiber debonding were also evident after exposure in air at elevated temperatures. 5 refs.
Tendon Functional Extracellular Matrix
Screen, H.R.C.; Birk, D.E.; Kadler, K.E.; Ramirez, F; Young, M.F.
2015-01-01
This article is one of a series, summarising views expressed at the Orthopaedic Research Society New Frontiers in Tendon Research Conference. This particular article reviews the three workshops held under the “Functional Extracellular Matrix” stream. The workshops focused on the roles of the tendon extracellular matrix, such as performing the mechanical functions of tendon, creating the local cell environment and providing cellular cues. Tendon is a complex network of matrix and cells, and its biological functions are influenced by widely-varying extrinsic and intrinsic factors such as age, nutrition, exercise levels and biomechanics. Consequently, tendon adapts dynamically during development, ageing and injury. The workshop discussions identified research directions associated with understanding cell-matrix interactions to be of prime importance for developing novel strategies to target tendon healing or repair. PMID:25640030
Pan, Feng; Kasiviswanathan, Shiva
2010-01-01
In the matrix interdiction problem, a real-valued matrix and an integer k is given. The objective is to remove k columns such that the sum over all rows of the maximum entry in each row is minimized. This combinatorial problem is closely related to bipartite network interdiction problem which can be applied to prioritize the border checkpoints in order to minimize the probability that an adversary can successfully cross the border. After introducing the matrix interdiction problem, we will prove the problem is NP-hard, and even NP-hard to approximate with an additive n{gamma} factor for a fixed constant {gamma}. We also present an algorithm for this problem that achieves a factor of (n-k) mUltiplicative approximation ratio.
Brown, T. W.
2011-04-15
The same complex matrix model calculates both tachyon scattering for the c=1 noncritical string at the self-dual radius and certain correlation functions of operators which preserve half the supersymmetry in N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory. It is dual to another complex matrix model where the couplings of the first model are encoded in the Kontsevich-like variables of the second. The duality between the theories is mirrored by the duality of their Feynman diagrams. Analogously to the Hermitian Kontsevich-Penner model, the correlation functions of the second model can be written as sums over discrete points in subspaces of the moduli space of punctured Riemann surfaces.
Matrixed business support comparison study.
Parsons, Josh D.
2004-11-01
The Matrixed Business Support Comparison Study reviewed the current matrixed Chief Financial Officer (CFO) division staff models at Sandia National Laboratories. There were two primary drivers of this analysis: (1) the increasing number of financial staff matrixed to mission customers and (2) the desire to further understand the matrix process and the opportunities and challenges it creates.
Matrix Synthesis and Characterization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1984-01-01
The role of NASA in the area of composite material synthesis; evaluation techniques; prediction analysis techniques; solvent-resistant tough composite matrix; resistance to paint strippers; acceptable processing temperature and pressure for thermoplastics; and the role of computer modeling and fiber interface improvement were discussed.
Foster, James A; Gerton, George L
2016-01-01
The acrosome, a single exocytotic vesicle on the head of sperm, has an essential role in fertilization, but the exact mechanisms by which it facilitates sperm-egg interactions remain unresolved. The acrosome contains dozens of secretory proteins that are packaged into the forming structure during spermatogenesis; many of these proteins are localized into specific topographical areas of the acrosome, while others are more diffusely distributed. Acrosomal proteins can also be biochemically classified as components of the acrosomal matrix, a large, relatively insoluble complex, or as soluble proteins. This review focuses on recent findings using genetically modified mice (gene knockouts and transgenic "green acrosome" mice) to study the effects of eliminating acrosomal matrix-associated proteins on sperm structure and function. Some gene knockouts produce infertile phenotypes with obviously missing, specific activities that affect acrosome biogenesis during spermatogenesis or interfere with acrosome function in mature sperm. Mutations that delete some components produce fertile phenotypes with subtler effects that provide useful insights into acrosomal matrix function in fertilization. In general, these studies enable the reassessment of paradigms to explain acrosome formation and function and provide novel, objective insights into the roles of acrosomal matrix proteins in fertilization. The use of genetically engineered mouse models has yielded new mechanistic information that complements recent, important in vivo imaging studies. PMID:27194348
Matrix Embedded Organic Synthesis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kamakolanu, U. G.; Freund, F. T.
2016-05-01
In the matrix of minerals such as olivine, a redox reaction of the low-z elements occurs. Oxygen is oxidized to the peroxy state while the low-Z-elements become chemically reduced. We assign them a formula [CxHyOzNiSj]n– and call them proto-organics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elliott, John
2012-09-01
As part of our 'toolkit' for analysing an extraterrestrial signal, the facility for calculating structural affinity to known phenomena must be part of our core capabilities. Without such a resource, we risk compromising our potential for detection and decipherment or at least causing significant delay in the process. To create such a repository for assessing structural affinity, all known systems (language parameters) need to be structurally analysed to 'place' their 'system' within a relational communication matrix. This will need to include all known variants of language structure, whether 'living' (in current use) or ancient; this must also include endeavours to incorporate yet undeciphered scripts and non-human communication, to provide as complete a picture as possible. In creating such a relational matrix, post-detection decipherment will be assisted by a structural 'map' that will have the potential for 'placing' an alien communication with its nearest known 'neighbour', to assist subsequent categorisation of basic parameters as a precursor to decipherment. 'Universal' attributes and behavioural characteristics of known communication structure will form a range of templates (Elliott, 2001 [1] and Elliott et al., 2002 [2]), to support and optimise our attempt at categorising and deciphering the content of an extraterrestrial signal. Detection of the hierarchical layers, which comprise intelligent, complex communication, will then form a matrix of calculations that will ultimately score affinity through a relational matrix of structural comparison. In this paper we develop the rationales and demonstrate functionality with initial test results.
Inverter Matrix for the Clementine Mission
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buehler, M. G.; Blaes, B. R.; Tardio, G.; Soli, G. A.
1994-01-01
An inverter matrix test circuit was designed for the Clementine space mission and is built into the RRELAX (Radiation and Reliability Assurance Experiment). The objective is to develop a circuit that will allow the evaluation of the CMOS FETs using a lean data set in the noisy spacecraft environment.
Fracture toughness testing of polymer matrix composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Grady, Joseph E.
1992-01-01
The experimental techniques and associated data analysis methods used to measure the resistance to interlaminar fracture, or 'fracture toughness', of polymer matrix composite materials are described. A review in the use of energy techniques to characterize fracture behavior in elastic solids is given. An overview is presented of the types of approaches employed in the design of delamination-resistant composite materials.
Decision Matrix. NCEDL Spotlights, No. 8.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
National Center for Early Development & Learning, Chapel Hill, NC.
This report focuses on a decision-making model developed at the National Center for Early Development and Learning (NCEDL) and designed to help decisionmakers and policy analysts weigh various policy options for a public issue such as childcare quality. The matrix allows users to compare strategies in terms of desirability and feasibility factors…
Bohn, Mark S.; Anselmo, Mark
2001-01-01
Computer simulation was used in the development of an inward-burning, radial matrix gas burner and heat pipe heat exchanger. The burner and exchanger can be used to heat a Stirling engine on cloudy days when a solar dish, the normal source of heat, cannot be used. Geometrical requirements of the application forced the use of the inward burning approach, which presents difficulty in achieving a good flow distribution and air/fuel mixing. The present invention solved the problem by providing a plenum with just the right properties, which include good flow distribution and good air/fuel mixing with minimum residence time. CFD simulations were also used to help design the primary heat exchanger needed for this application which includes a plurality of pins emanating from the heat pipe. The system uses multiple inlet ports, an extended distance from the fuel inlet to the burner matrix, flow divider vanes, and a ring-shaped, porous grid to obtain a high-temperature uniform-heat radial burner. Ideal applications include dish/Stirling engines, steam reforming of hydrocarbons, glass working, and any process requiring high temperature heating of the outside surface of a cylindrical surface.
A high capacity satellite switched TDMA microwave switch matrix
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cory, B. J.; Berkowitz, M.
1981-01-01
A description is given of the conceptual design of a high-capacity satellite switched-time division multiple access (SS-TDMA) microwave switch matrix fabricated with GaAs monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs), including integration of both microwave and control logic circuits into the monolithic design. The technology required for a 30/20 GHz communications system includes an on-board SS-TDMA switch matrix. A conceptual design study that has been completed for a wideband, high-capacity (typically 100 x 100) channel switch matrix using technology anticipated for 1987 is described, noting that the study resulted in a switch matrix design concept using a coupled crossbar architecture implemented with MMIC. The design involves basic building block MMIC, permitting flexible growth and efficient wraparound redundancy to increase reliability.
Qian, Weixian; Zhou, Xiaojun; Lu, Yingcheng; Xu, Jiang
2015-09-15
Both the Jones and Mueller matrices encounter difficulties when physically modeling mixed materials or rough surfaces due to the complexity of light-matter interactions. To address these issues, we derived a matrix called the paths correlation matrix (PCM), which is a probabilistic mixture of Jones matrices of every light propagation path. Because PCM is related to actual light propagation paths, it is well suited for physical modeling. Experiments were performed, and the reflection PCM of a mixture of polypropylene and graphite was measured. The PCM of the mixed sample was accurately decomposed into pure polypropylene's single reflection, pure graphite's single reflection, and depolarization caused by multiple reflections, which is consistent with the theoretical derivation. Reflection parameters of rough surface can be calculated from PCM decomposition, and the results fit well with the theoretical calculations provided by the Fresnel equations. These theoretical and experimental analyses verify that PCM is an efficient way to physically model light-matter interactions. PMID:26371930
Integrating Sustainability in Higher Education: A Generic Matrix
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rusinko, Cathy A.
2010-01-01
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework in the form of a generic matrix of options for integrating sustainability in higher education (SHE) so that university faculty and administrators can make more appropriate and strategic choices with respect to SHE. Design/methodology/approach: This original matrix draws from and extends…
The Program Matrix: A Conceptual Framework for Language Programs.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Johnston, Bill; Peterson, Shannon
1994-01-01
An interaction of processes (e.g., design, implementation) and elements (e.g., curriculum) form a matrix for language teaching programs. The concept of stakeholders within this program matrix is elaborated: learners, teachers, administrators, and controlling authorities. A worksheet is appended. (Contains 56 references.) (Author)
Snapshot retinal imaging Mueller matrix polarimeter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yifan; Kudenov, Michael; Kashani, Amir; Schwiegerling, Jim; Escuti, Michael
2015-09-01
Early diagnosis of glaucoma, which is a leading cause for visual impairment, is critical for successful treatment. It has been shown that Imaging polarimetry has advantages in early detection of structural changes in the retina. Here, we theoretically and experimentally present a snapshot Mueller Matrix Polarimeter fundus camera, which has the potential to record the polarization-altering characteristics of retina with a single snapshot. It is made by incorporating polarization gratings into a fundus camera design. Complete Mueller Matrix data sets can be obtained by analyzing the polarization fringes projected onto the image plane. In this paper, we describe the experimental implementation of the snapshot retinal imaging Mueller matrix polarimeter (SRIMMP), highlight issues related to calibration, and provide preliminary images acquired from the camera.
t matrix of metallic wire structures
Zhan, T. R. Chui, S. T.
2014-04-14
To study the electromagnetic resonance and scattering properties of complex structures of which metallic wire structures are constituents within multiple scattering theory, the t matrix of individual structures is needed. We have recently developed a rigorous and numerically efficient equivalent circuit theory in which retardation effects are taken into account for metallic wire structures. Here, we show how the t matrix can be calculated analytically within this theory. We illustrate our method with the example of split ring resonators. The density of states and cross sections for scattering and absorption are calculated, which are shown to be remarkably enhanced at resonant frequencies. The t matrix serves as the basic building block to evaluate the interaction of wire structures within the framework of multiple scattering theory. This will open the door to efficient design and optimization of assembly of wire structures.
Iterative electro-optic matrix processor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carlotto, M. J.
An electro-optic vector matrix processor with electronic feedback is described. The iterative optical processor (IOP) is designed for the rapid solution of linear algebraic equations. The IOP and the iterative algorithm it realizes are analyzed and simulated. A version of the system was fabricated using advanced solid state light sources and detectors plus fiber optic technology, and its performance is evaluated. An extension of the system using wavelength multiplexing is developed and the basic system concepts demonstrated. Its use in the restoration of degraded images or signals (deconvolution) and the computation of matrix eigenvectors and eigenvalues and matrix inversion are demonstrated. The two major case studies pursued are: adaptive phased array radar processing and optimal control. In the former case, the system is used to compute the adaptive antenna weights for a radar system. In the latter case, the IOP solves the linear quadratic regular and algebraic Ricatti equations of modern control theory.
Nonsmooth nonnegative matrix factorization (nsNMF).
Pascual-Montano, Alberto; Carazo, J M; Kochi, Kieko; Lehmann, Dietrich; Pascual-Marqui, Roberto D
2006-03-01
We propose a novel nonnegative matrix factorization model that aims at finding localized, part-based, representations of nonnegative multivariate data items. Unlike the classical nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) technique, this new model, denoted "nonsmooth nonnegative matrix factorization" (nsNMF), corresponds to the optimization of an unambiguous cost function designed to explicitly represent sparseness, in the form of nonsmoothness, which is controlled by a single parameter. In general, this method produces a set of basis and encoding vectors that are not only capable of representing the original data, but they also extract highly localized patterns, which generally lend themselves to improved interpretability. The properties of this new method are illustrated with several data sets. Comparisons to previously published methods show that the new nsNMF method has some advantages in keeping faithfulness to the data in the achieving a high degree of sparseness for both the estimated basis and the encoding vectors and in better interpretability of the factors. PMID:16526426
Standard Errors for Matrix Correlations.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ogasawara, Haruhiko
1999-01-01
Derives the asymptotic standard errors and intercorrelations for several matrix correlations assuming multivariate normality for manifest variables and derives the asymptotic standard errors of the matrix correlations for two factor-loading matrices. (SLD)
On the Matrix Exponential Function
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hou, Shui-Hung; Hou, Edwin; Pang, Wan-Kai
2006-01-01
A novel and simple formula for computing the matrix exponential function is presented. Specifically, it can be used to derive explicit formulas for the matrix exponential of a general matrix A satisfying p(A) = 0 for a polynomial p(s). It is ready for use in a classroom and suitable for both hand as well as symbolic computation.
Matrix of educational and training materials in remote sensing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lindenlaub, J. C.; Lube, B. M.
1976-01-01
Remote sensing educational and training materials developed by LARS have been organized in a matrix format. Each row in the matrix represents a subject area in remote sensing and the columns represent different types of instructional materials. This format has proved to be useful for displaying in a concise manner the subject matter content, prerequisite requirements and technical depth of each instructional module in the matrix. A general description of the matrix is followed by three examples designed to illustrate how the matrix can be used to synthesize training programs tailored to meet the needs of individual students. A detailed description of each of the modules in the matrix is contained in a catalog section.
The cellulose resource matrix.
Keijsers, Edwin R P; Yılmaz, Gülden; van Dam, Jan E G
2013-03-01
The emerging biobased economy is causing shifts from mineral fossil oil based resources towards renewable resources. Because of market mechanisms, current and new industries utilising renewable commodities, will attempt to secure their supply of resources. Cellulose is among these commodities, where large scale competition can be expected and already is observed for the traditional industries such as the paper industry. Cellulose and lignocellulosic raw materials (like wood and non-wood fibre crops) are being utilised in many industrial sectors. Due to the initiated transition towards biobased economy, these raw materials are intensively investigated also for new applications such as 2nd generation biofuels and 'green' chemicals and materials production (Clark, 2007; Lange, 2007; Petrus & Noordermeer, 2006; Ragauskas et al., 2006; Regalbuto, 2009). As lignocellulosic raw materials are available in variable quantities and qualities, unnecessary competition can be avoided via the choice of suitable raw materials for a target application. For example, utilisation of cellulose as carbohydrate source for ethanol production (Kabir Kazi et al., 2010) avoids the discussed competition with easier digestible carbohydrates (sugars, starch) deprived from the food supply chain. Also for cellulose use as a biopolymer several different competing markets can be distinguished. It is clear that these applications and markets will be influenced by large volume shifts. The world will have to reckon with the increase of competition and feedstock shortage (land use/biodiversity) (van Dam, de Klerk-Engels, Struik, & Rabbinge, 2005). It is of interest - in the context of sustainable development of the bioeconomy - to categorize the already available and emerging lignocellulosic resources in a matrix structure. When composing such "cellulose resource matrix" attention should be given to the quality aspects as well as to the available quantities and practical possibilities of processing the
An Innovative Carbonate Fuel Cell Matrix, Abstract #188
Hilmi, Abdelkader; Surendranath, Arun; Yuh, Chao-Yi
2015-05-28
The electrolyte matrix in direct carbonate fuel cell (DFC) is a microporous ceramic structure sandwiched between the electrodes to isolate the fuel from the oxidant, store electrolyte and facilitate ionic transport. FCE has advanced DFC electrolyte matrix over the years and demonstrated that the matrix meets the requirements for greater than 5 year life based on accelerated tests and field stack operations. However, development of advanced designs and materials that can further increase the performance and extend cell life will enable accelerated MCFC deployment. This paper will report the progress on the development of an unique and innovative matrix design that offers numerous benefits to the carbonate fuel cell performance and durability. In addition, this paper will also review parameters that affect matrix material stability and approaches to extend cell life.
Advanced Integration Matrix Education Outreach
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Paul Heather L.
2004-01-01
The Advanced Integration Matrix (AIM) will design a ground-based test facility for developing revolutionary integrated systems for joint human-robotic missions in order to study and solve systems-level integration issues for exploration missions beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO). This paper describes development plans for educational outreach activities related to technological and operational integration scenarios similar to the challenges that will be encountered through this project. The education outreach activities will provide hands-on, interactive exercises to allow students of all levels to experience design and operational challenges similar to what NASA deals with everyday in performing the integration of complex missions. These experiences will relate to and impact students everyday lives by demonstrating how their interests in science and engineering can develop into future careers, and reinforcing the concepts of teamwork and conflict resolution. Allowing students to experience and contribute to real-world development, research, and scientific studies of ground-based simulations for complex exploration missions will stimulate interest in the space program, and bring NASA's challenges to the student level. By enhancing existing educational programs and developing innovative activities and presentations, AIM will support NASA s endeavor to "inspire the next generation of explorers.. .as only NASA can."
Luneburg lens and optical matrix algebra research
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wood, V. E.; Busch, J. R.; Verber, C. M.; Caulfield, H. J.
1984-01-01
Planar, as opposed to channelized, integrated optical circuits (IOCs) were stressed as the basis for computational devices. Both fully-parallel and systolic architectures are considered and the tradeoffs between the two device types are discussed. The Kalman filter approach is a most important computational method for many NASA problems. This approach to deriving a best-fit estimate for the state vector describing a large system leads to matrix sizes which are beyond the predicted capacities of planar IOCs. This problem is overcome by matrix partitioning, and several architectures for accomplishing this are described. The Luneburg lens work has involved development of lens design techniques, design of mask arrangements for producing lenses of desired shape, investigation of optical and chemical properties of arsenic trisulfide films, deposition of lenses both by thermal evaporation and by RF sputtering, optical testing of these lenses, modification of lens properties through ultraviolet irradiation, and comparison of measured lens properties with those expected from ray trace analyses.
Thermal expansion measurements of metal matrix composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tompkins, Stephen S.; Dries, Gregory A.
1988-01-01
The laser-interferometric-dilatometer system currently operational at NASA-Langley is described. The system, designed to characterize metal matrix composites, features high precision, automated data acquisition, and the ability to test a wide variety of specimen geometries over temperature ranges within 80-422 K. The paper presents typical thermal-expansion measurement data for a Gr/Al rod; Gr/Al and Gr/Mg unidirectional laminates; and a Gr/Mg (+ or -8)s laminate.
Ceramic Matrix Composites for Rotorcraft Engines
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Halbig, Michael C.
2011-01-01
Ceramic matrix composite (CMC) components are being developed for turbine engine applications. Compared to metallic components, the CMC components offer benefits of higher temperature capability and less cooling requirements which correlates to improved efficiency and reduced emissions. This presentation discusses a technology develop effort for overcoming challenges in fabricating a CMC vane for the high pressure turbine. The areas of technology development include small component fabrication, ceramic joining and integration, material and component testing and characterization, and design and analysis of concept components.
Ceramic matrix and resin matrix composites: A comparison
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hurwitz, Frances I.
1987-01-01
The underlying theory of continuous fiber reinforcement of ceramic matrix and resin matrix composites, their fabrication, microstructure, physical and mechanical properties are contrasted. The growing use of organometallic polymers as precursors to ceramic matrices is discussed as a means of providing low temperature processing capability without the fiber degradation encountered with more conventional ceramic processing techniques. Examples of ceramic matrix composites derived from particulate-filled, high char yield polymers and silsesquioxane precursors are provided.
Ceramic matrix and resin matrix composites - A comparison
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hurwitz, Frances I.
1987-01-01
The underlying theory of continuous fiber reinforcement of ceramic matrix and resin matrix composites, their fabrication, microstructure, physical and mechanical properties are contrasted. The growing use of organometallic polymers as precursors to ceramic matrices is discussed as a means of providing low temperature processing capability without the fiber degradation encountered with more conventional ceramic processing techniques. Examples of ceramic matrix composites derived from particulate-filled, high char yield polymers and silsesquioxane precursors are provided.
Hastings, Matthew B
2009-01-01
We show how to combine the light-cone and matrix product algorithms to simulate quantum systems far from equilibrium for long times. For the case of the XXZ spin chain at {Delta} = 0.5, we simulate to a time of {approx} 22.5. While part of the long simulation time is due to the use of the light-cone method, we also describe a modification of the infinite time-evolving bond decimation algorithm with improved numerical stability, and we describe how to incorporate symmetry into this algorithm. While statistical sampling error means that we are not yet able to make a definite statement, the behavior of the simulation at long times indicates the appearance of either 'revivals' in the order parameter as predicted by Hastings and Levitov (e-print arXiv:0806.4283) or of a distinct shoulder in the decay of the order parameter.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frahm, K. M.; Shepelyansky, D. L.
2012-10-01
We construct the Google matrix of the entire Twitter network, dated by July 2009, and analyze its spectrum and eigenstate properties including the PageRank and CheiRank vectors and 2DRanking of all nodes. Our studies show much stronger inter-connectivity between top PageRank nodes for the Twitter network compared to the networks of Wikipedia and British Universities studied previously. Our analysis allows to locate the top Twitter users which control the information flow on the network. We argue that this small fraction of the whole number of users, which can be viewed as the social network elite, plays the dominant role in the process of opinion formation on the network.
Hyaluronan: A Matrix Component
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rügheimer, Louise
2008-09-01
The glucosaminoglycan hyaluronan is a key component of the extracellular matrix. It is a large, negatively charged molecule that can act as an ion exchange reservoir for positive ions. Hyaluronan is involved in renomedullary water handling through its water-binding capacity. In the renal medulla, the main source for hyaluronan production is the renomedullary interstitial cells. Hyaluronan synthases are found in the inner part of the plasma membrane and polymerize hyaluronan chains which are extruded into the extracellular space. Hyaluronidases are a family of enzymes involved in the degradation of hyaluronan. They have a wide range of properties, including differences in size, inhibitor sensitivities, catalytic mechanisms, substrate specificities and pH optima.
Mixed Mode Matrix Multiplication
Meng-Shiou Wu; Srinivas Aluru; Ricky A. Kendall
2004-09-30
In modern clustering environments where the memory hierarchy has many layers (distributed memory, shared memory layer, cache,...), an important question is how to fully utilize all available resources and identify the most dominant layer in certain computations. When combining algorithms on all layers together, what would be the best method to get the best performance out of all the resources we have? Mixed mode programming model that uses thread programming on the shared memory layer and message passing programming on the distributed memory layer is a method that many researchers are using to utilize the memory resources. In this paper, they take an algorithmic approach that uses matrix multiplication as a tool to show how cache algorithms affect the performance of both shared memory and distributed memory algorithms. They show that with good underlying cache algorithm, overall performance is stable. When underlying cache algorithm is bad, superlinear speedup may occur, and an increasing number of threads may also improve performance.
Matrix membranes and integrability
Zachos, C.; Fairlie, D.; Curtright, T.
1997-06-01
This is a pedagogical digest of results reported in Curtright, Fairlie, {ampersand} Zachos 1997, and an explicit implementation of Euler`s construction for the solution of the Poisson Bracket dual Nahm equation. But it does not cover 9 and 10-dimensional systems, and subsequent progress on them Fairlie 1997. Cubic interactions are considered in 3 and 7 space dimensions, respectively, for bosonic membranes in Poisson Bracket form. Their symmetries and vacuum configurations are explored. Their associated first order equations are transformed to Nahm`s equations, and are hence seen to be integrable, for the 3-dimensional case, by virtue of the explicit Lax pair provided. Most constructions introduced also apply to matrix commutator or Moyal Bracket analogs.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1976-01-01
Design concepts for a 1000 mw thermal stationary power plant employing the UF6 fueled gas core breeder reactor are examined. Three design combinations-gaseous UF6 core with a solid matrix blanket, gaseous UF6 core with a liquid blanket, and gaseous UF6 core with a circulating blanket were considered. Results show the gaseous UF6 core with a circulating blanket was best suited to the power plant concept.
Matrix computations on systolic-type meshes
Moreno, J.H.; Lang, T. )
1990-04-01
This article focuses on the execution of matrix computations on systolic-type arrays in an application-specific environment. The authors first present an extension to the concept of a systolic cell by incorporating a small, fixed amount of storage inside the cells, and they discuss the trade-offs this storage gives rise to. Then they review different approaches to decomposing (partitioning) large problems, highlighting their bandwidth requirements and their capabilities for using the storage in the cells. Finally, the authors discuss the basic characteristics of methods for the design of systolic-type arrays, describe the multimesh graph (MMG) design method, and illustrate its application to the transitive closure algorithm.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dorey, Nick; Tong, David; Turner, Carl
2016-08-01
We study a U( N) gauged matrix quantum mechanics which, in the large N limit, is closely related to the chiral WZW conformal field theory. This manifests itself in two ways. First, we construct the left-moving Kac-Moody algebra from matrix degrees of freedom. Secondly, we compute the partition function of the matrix model in terms of Schur and Kostka polynomials and show that, in the large N limit, it coincides with the partition function of the WZW model. This same matrix model was recently shown to describe non-Abelian quantum Hall states and the relationship to the WZW model can be understood in this framework.
Takin' Care of Business: Confidentiality under the Business Exemption of the FOIA.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bunker, Matthew D.
1995-01-01
Analyzes the history of the Freedom of Information Act business exemption, the reasoning in the federal appellate case "Critical Mass III," and the aftermath of the case in federal courts. Explores its implications for public relations practitioners who may be seeking information about other businesses or trying to maintain confidentiality for…
Systematic errors for a Mueller matrix dual rotating compensator ellipsometer.
Broch, Laurent; En Naciri, Aotmane; Johann, Luc
2008-06-01
The characterization of anisotropic materials and complex systems by ellipsometry has pushed the design of instruments to require the measurement of the full reflection Mueller matrix of the sample with a great precision. Therefore Mueller matrix ellipsometers have emerged over the past twenty years. The values of some coefficients of the matrix can be very small and errors due to noise or systematic errors can induce distored analysis. We present a detailed characterization of the systematic errors for a Mueller Matrix Ellipsometer in the dual-rotating compensator configuration. Starting from a general formalism, we derive explicit first-order expressions for the errors on all the coefficients of the Mueller matrix of the sample. The errors caused by inaccuracy of the azimuthal arrangement of the optical components and residual ellipticity introduced by imperfect optical elements are shown. A new method based on a four-zone averaging measurement is proposed to vanish the systematic errors. PMID:18545594
Fabrication and characterization of AZ91/CNT magnesium matrix composites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Yong-Ha; Park, Yong-Ho; Park, Ik-Min; Oak, Jeong-jung; Kimura, Hisamichi; Cho, Kyung-Mox
2008-12-01
Carbon Nano Tube (CNT) reinforced AZ91 metal matrix composites (MMC) were fabricated by the squeeze infiltrated method. Properties of magnesium alloys have been improved by impurity reduction, surface treatment and alloy design, and thus the usage for the magnesium alloys has been extended recently. However there still remain barriers for the adaption of magnesium alloys for engineering materials. In this study, we report light-weight, high strength heat resistant magnesium matrix composites. Microstructural study and tensile test were performed for the squeeze infiltrated magnesium matrix composites. The wear properties were characterized and the possibility for the application to automotive power train and engine parts was investigated. It was found that the squeeze infiltration technique is a proper method to fabricate magnesium matrix composites reducing casting defects such as pores and matrix/reinforcement interface separation etc. Improved tensile and mechanical properties were obtained with CNT reinforcing magnesium alloys
Calkins, Noel C.
1991-01-01
An armor system which utilizes glass. A plurality of constraint cells are mounted on a surface of a substrate, which is metal armor plate or a similar tough material, such that the cells almost completely cover the surface of the substrate. Each constraint cell has a projectile-receiving wall parallel to the substrate surface and has sides which are perpendicular to and surround the perimeter of the receiving wall. The cells are mounted such that, in one embodiment, the substrate surface serves as a sixth side or closure for each cell. Each cell has inside of it a plate, termed the front plate, which is parallel to and in contact with substantially all of the inside surface of the receiving wall. The balance of each cell is completely filled with a projectile-abrading material consisting of glass and a ceramic material and, in certain embodiments, a polymeric material. The glass may be in monolithic form or particles of ceramic may be dispersed in a glass matrix. The ceramic material may be in monolithic form or may be in the form of particles dispersed in glass or dispersed in said polymer.
Hypercube matrix computation task
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Calalo, R.; Imbriale, W.; Liewer, P.; Lyons, J.; Manshadi, F.; Patterson, J.
1987-01-01
The Hypercube Matrix Computation (Year 1986-1987) task investigated the applicability of a parallel computing architecture to the solution of large scale electromagnetic scattering problems. Two existing electromagnetic scattering codes were selected for conversion to the Mark III Hypercube concurrent computing environment. They were selected so that the underlying numerical algorithms utilized would be different thereby providing a more thorough evaluation of the appropriateness of the parallel environment for these types of problems. The first code was a frequency domain method of moments solution, NEC-2, developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The second code was a time domain finite difference solution of Maxwell's equations to solve for the scattered fields. Once the codes were implemented on the hypercube and verified to obtain correct solutions by comparing the results with those from sequential runs, several measures were used to evaluate the performance of the two codes. First, a comparison was provided of the problem size possible on the hypercube with 128 megabytes of memory for a 32-node configuration with that available in a typical sequential user environment of 4 to 8 megabytes. Then, the performance of the codes was anlyzed for the computational speedup attained by the parallel architecture.
Hybridized polymer matrix composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
House, E. E.; Hoggatt, J. T.; Symonds, W. A.
1980-01-01
The extent to which graphite fibers are released from resin matrix composites that are exposed to fire and impact conditions was determined. Laboratory simulations of those conditions that could exist in the event of an aircraft crash and burn situation were evaluated. The effectiveness of various hybridizing concepts in preventing this release of graphite fibers were also evaluated. The baseline (i.e., unhybridized) laminates examined were prepared from commercially available graphite/epoxy, graphite/polyimide, and graphite/phenolic materials. Hybridizing concepts investigated included resin fillers, laminate coatings, resin blending, and mechanical interlocking of the graphite reinforcement. The baseline and hybridized laminates' mechanical properties, before and after isothermal and humidity aging, were also compared. It was found that a small amount of graphite fiber was released from the graphite/epoxy laminates during the burn and impact conditions used in this program. However, the extent to which the fibers were released is not considered a severe enough problem to preclude the use of graphite reinforced composites in civil aircraft structure. It also was found that several hybrid concepts eliminated this fiber release. Isothermal and humidity aging did not appear to alter the fiber release tendencies.
Emergency Response Synchronization Matrix
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
1999-06-01
An emergency response to a disaster is complex, requiring the rapid integration, coordination, and synchronization of multiple levels of governmental and non-governmental organizations from numerous jurisdictions into a unified community response. For example, a communitys response actions to a fixed site hazardous materials incident could occur in an area extending from an on-site storage location to points 25 or more miles away. Response actions are directed and controlled by local governments and agencies situated withinmore » the response area, as well as by state and federal operaticns centers quite removed from the area of impact. Time is critical and the protective action decision-making process is greatly compressed. The response community must carefully plan and coordinate response operations in order to have confidence that they will be effectively implemented when faced with the potentially catastrophic nature of such releases. A graphical depiction of the entire response process via an emergency response synchronization matrix is an effective tool in optimizing the planning, exercising, and implementation of emergency plans. This systembased approach to emergency planning depicts how a community organizes its response tasks across space and time in relation to hazard actions. It provides the opportunity to make realtime adjustments as necessary for maximizing the often limited resources in protecting area residents. A response must involve the entire community and must not be limited by individual jurisdictions and organizations acting on their own without coordination, integration, and synchronization.« less
Channeled partial Mueller matrix polarimetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alenin, Andrey S.; Tyo, J. S.
2015-09-01
In prior work,1,2 we introduced methods to treat channeled systems in a way that is similar to Data Reduction Method (DRM), by focusing attention on the Fourier content of the measurement conditions. Introduction of Q enabled us to more readily extract the performance of the system and thereby optimize it to obtain reconstruction with the least noise. The analysis tools developed for that exercise can be expanded to be applicable to partial Mueller Matrix Polarimeters (pMMPs), which were a topic of prior discussion as well. In this treatment, we combine the principles involved in both of those research trajectories and identify a set of channeled pMMP families. As a result, the measurement structure of such systems is completely known and the design of a channeled pMMP intended for any given task becomes a search over a finite set of possibilities, with the additional channel rotation allowing for a more desirable Mueller element mixing.
Ceramic matrix composite article and process of fabricating a ceramic matrix composite article
Cairo, Ronald Robert; DiMascio, Paul Stephen; Parolini, Jason Robert
2016-01-12
A ceramic matrix composite article and a process of fabricating a ceramic matrix composite are disclosed. The ceramic matrix composite article includes a matrix distribution pattern formed by a manifold and ceramic matrix composite plies laid up on the matrix distribution pattern, includes the manifold, or a combination thereof. The manifold includes one or more matrix distribution channels operably connected to a delivery interface, the delivery interface configured for providing matrix material to one or more of the ceramic matrix composite plies. The process includes providing the manifold, forming the matrix distribution pattern by transporting the matrix material through the manifold, and contacting the ceramic matrix composite plies with the matrix material.
Synthetic Division and Matrix Factorization
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Barabe, Samuel; Dubeau, Franc
2007-01-01
Synthetic division is viewed as a change of basis for polynomials written under the Newton form. Then, the transition matrices obtained from a sequence of changes of basis are used to factorize the inverse of a bidiagonal matrix or a block bidiagonal matrix.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jairam, Dharmananda; Kiewra, Kenneth A.; Kauffman, Douglas F.; Zhao, Ruomeng
2012-01-01
This study investigated how best to study a matrix. Fifty-three participants studied a matrix topically (1 column at a time), categorically (1 row at a time), or in a unified way (all at once). Results revealed that categorical and unified study produced higher: (a) performance on relationship and fact tests, (b) study material satisfaction, and…
Matrix cracking initiation stress in fiber-reinforced ceramic-matrix composites
Kangutkar, P.B.
1991-01-01
One of the important design parameters in CMC's is the matrix cracking initiation stress (MCIS) which corresponds to the stress at which first matrix cracks are observed. Above the MCIS, the fibers will be exposed to the oxidizing environment which may degrade the mechanical property of the fibers and thus of the composite. In this thesis, a systematic study to explore the effects of matrix toughness and inherent strength, fiber diameter, stiffness and volume fraction, temperature and interfacial bonding on the MCIS was carried out. Composites were fabricated using three different matrices - borosilicate glass, aluminosilicate glass and polycrystalline zirconium silicate (or zircon), and two different reinforcing fibers - an SiC monofilament (140 {mu}m diameter) and an SiC yarn (16 {mu}m diameter). In-situ observations during 3-point bend test inside the SEM indicate that matrix cracking is a local phenomenon and occurs first in the matrix between widest spaced fibers. In all composites the MCIS was found to increase with fiber additions and scaled with the monolithic strength.
Dürig, T; Venkatesh, G M; Fassihi, R
1999-10-01
The effects of the amounts of lubricants (magnesium stearate 0-5% and talc 0-3%) and changes in compaction rate and tablet porosity on the mechanism of drug release from high drug-load controlled-release theophylline tablets have been examined. Drug release was satisfactorily described by a surface-erosion model that takes into account the geometry of the tablet, differential radial and axial erosion rates, and the initial burst effect (r2 > 0.99 for all formulations). The axial and radial erosion rate constants were inversely proportional to the amount of magnesium stearate in the formulation (P < 0.0001). The most dramatic reductions in erosion rate occurred between 0 and 1% magnesium stearate content. For magnesium stearate concentrations > or =2.5% the ratio of radial to axial erosion rate constants was essentially constant at 3 (approx.); however, for formulations with magnesium stearate < or =1% the ratio tended toward unity. Reducing matrix porosity over the range 26 to 14% resulted in reduced erosion rates. However, a threshold of 17% (approx.) porosity was identified below which further reductions in porosity resulted in only incremental changes in release rates. The rate of erosion and drug release was insensitive to changes in machine speed over the range 20 to 100 rev min(-1). For highly loaded matrix tablets containing sparingly soluble drugs, such as theophylline, magnesium stearate at appropriate levels can modulate the erosion rate constants and act as an effective release-controlling excipient. Drug-release profiles are predictable and relatively robust in terms of changes in compaction rate and applied force routinely encountered in large-scale tablet manufacturing. PMID:10579678
Rolling Element Bearing Stiffness Matrix Determination (Presentation)
Guo, Y.; Parker, R.
2014-01-01
Current theoretical bearing models differ in their stiffness estimates because of different model assumptions. In this study, a finite element/contact mechanics model is developed for rolling element bearings with the focus of obtaining accurate bearing stiffness for a wide range of bearing types and parameters. A combined surface integral and finite element method is used to solve for the contact mechanics between the rolling elements and races. This model captures the time-dependent characteristics of the bearing contact due to the orbital motion of the rolling elements. A numerical method is developed to determine the full bearing stiffness matrix corresponding to two radial, one axial, and two angular coordinates; the rotation about the shaft axis is free by design. This proposed stiffness determination method is validated against experiments in the literature and compared to existing analytical models and widely used advanced computational methods. The fully-populated stiffness matrix demonstrates the coupling between bearing radial, axial, and tilting bearing deflections.
METCAN: The metal matrix composite analyzer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hopkins, Dale A.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.
1988-01-01
Metal matrix composites (MMC) are the subject of intensive study and are receiving serious consideration for critical structural applications in advanced aerospace systems. MMC structural analysis and design methodologies are studied. Predicting the mechanical and thermal behavior and the structural response of components fabricated from MMC requires the use of a variety of mathematical models. These models relate stresses to applied forces, stress intensities at the tips of cracks to nominal stresses, buckling resistance to applied force, or vibration response to excitation forces. The extensive research in computational mechanics methods for predicting the nonlinear behavior of MMC are described. This research has culminated in the development of the METCAN (METal Matrix Composite ANalyzer) computer code.
Cell–material interactions on biphasic polyurethane matrix
Dicesare, Patrick; Fox, Wade M.; Hill, Michael J.; Krishnan, G. Rajesh; Yang, Shuying; Sarkar, Debanjan
2013-01-01
Cell–matrix interaction is a key regulator for controlling stem cell fate in regenerative tissue engineering. These interactions are induced and controlled by the nanoscale features of extracellular matrix and are mimicked on synthetic matrices to control cell structure and functions. Recent studies have shown that nanostructured matrices can modulate stem cell behavior and exert specific role in tissue regeneration. In this study, we have demonstrated that nanostructured phase morphology of synthetic matrix can control adhesion, proliferation, organization and migration of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Nanostructured biodegradable polyurethanes (PU) with segmental composition exhibit biphasic morphology at nanoscale dimensions and can control cellular features of MSCs. Biodegradable PU with polyester soft segment and hard segment composed of aliphatic diisocyanates and dipeptide chain extender were designed to examine the effect polyurethane phase morphology. By altering the polyurethane composition, morphological architecture of PU was modulated and its effect was examined on MSC. Results show that MSCs can sense the nanoscale morphology of biphasic polyurethane matrix to exhibit distinct cellular features and, thus, signifies the relevance of matrix phase morphology. The role of nanostructured phases of a synthetic matrix in controlling cell–matrix interaction provides important insights for regulation of cell behavior on synthetic matrix and, therefore, is an important tool for engineering tissue regeneration. PMID:23255285
Cell-material interactions on biphasic polyurethane matrix.
Dicesare, Patrick; Fox, Wade M; Hill, Michael J; Krishnan, G Rajesh; Yang, Shuying; Sarkar, Debanjan
2013-08-01
Cell-matrix interaction is a key regulator for controlling stem cell fate in regenerative tissue engineering. These interactions are induced and controlled by the nanoscale features of extracellular matrix and are mimicked on synthetic matrices to control cell structure and functions. Recent studies have shown that nanostructured matrices can modulate stem cell behavior and exert specific role in tissue regeneration. In this study, we have demonstrated that nanostructured phase morphology of synthetic matrix can control adhesion, proliferation, organization and migration of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Nanostructured biodegradable polyurethanes (PU) with segmental composition exhibit biphasic morphology at nanoscale dimensions and can control cellular features of MSCs. Biodegradable PU with polyester soft segment and hard segment composed of aliphatic diisocyanates and dipeptide chain extender were designed to examine the effect polyurethane phase morphology. By altering the polyurethane composition, morphological architecture of PU was modulated and its effect was examined on MSC. Results show that MSCs can sense the nanoscale morphology of biphasic polyurethane matrix to exhibit distinct cellular features and, thus, signifies the relevance of matrix phase morphology. The role of nanostructured phases of a synthetic matrix in controlling cell-matrix interaction provides important insights for regulation of cell behavior on synthetic matrix and, therefore, is an important tool for engineering tissue regeneration. PMID:23255285
NASA supercritical airfoils: A matrix of family-related airfoils
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Harris, Charles D.
1990-01-01
The NASA supercritical airfoil development program is summarized in a chronological fashion. Some of the airfoil design guidelines are discussed, and coordinates of a matrix of family related supercritical airfoils ranging from thicknesses of 2 to 18 percent and over a design lift coefficient range from 0 to 1.0 are presented.
Interphase layer optimization for metal matrix composites with fabrication considerations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morel, M.; Saravanos, D. A.; Chamis, C. C.
1991-01-01
A methodology is presented to reduce the final matrix microstresses for metal matrix composites by concurrently optimizing the interphase characteristics and fabrication process. Application cases include interphase tailoring with and without fabrication considerations for two material systems, graphite/copper and silicon carbide/titanium. Results indicate that concurrent interphase/fabrication optimization produces significant reductions in the matrix residual stresses and strong coupling between interphase and fabrication tailoring. The interphase coefficient of thermal expansion and the fabrication consolidation pressure are the most important design parameters and must be concurrently optimized to further reduce the microstresses to more desirable magnitudes.
Separation of Nuclear Fuel Surrogates from Silicon Carbide Inert Matrix
Dr. Ronald Baney
2008-12-15
The objective of this project has been to identify a process for separating transuranic species from silicon carbide (SiC). Silicon carbide has become one of the prime candidates for the matrix in inert matrix fuels, (IMF) being designed to reduce plutonium inventories and the long half-lives actinides through transmutation since complete reaction is not practical it become necessary to separate the non-transmuted materials from the silicon carbide matrix for ultimate reprocessing. This work reports a method for that required process.l
Graphite matrix materials for nuclear waste isolation
Morgan, W.C.
1981-06-01
At low temperatures, graphites are chemically inert to all but the strongest oxidizing agents. The raw materials from which artificial graphites are produced are plentiful and inexpensive. Morover, the physical properties of artificial graphites can be varied over a very wide range by the choice of raw materials and manufacturing processes. Manufacturing processes are reviewed herein, with primary emphasis on those processes which might be used to produce a graphite matrix for the waste forms. The approach, recommended herein, involves the low-temperature compaction of a finely ground powder produced from graphitized petroleum coke. The resultant compacts should have fairly good strength, low permeability to both liquids and gases, and anisotropic physical properties. In particular, the anisotropy of the thermal expansion coefficients and the thermal conductivity should be advantageous for this application. With two possible exceptions, the graphite matrix appears to be superior to the metal alloy matrices which have been recommended in prior studies. The two possible exceptions are the requirements on strength and permeability; both requirements will be strongly influenced by the containment design, including the choice of materials and the waste form, of the multibarrier package. Various methods for increasing the strength, and for decreasing the permeability of the matrix, are reviewed and discussed in the sections in Incorporation of Other Materials and Elimination of Porosity. However, it would be premature to recommend a particular process until the overall multi-barrier design is better defined. It is recommended that increased emphasis be placed on further development of the low-temperature compacted graphite matrix concept.
Hybridized polymer matrix composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
London, A.
1981-01-01
Design approaches and materials are described from which are fabricated pyrostatic graphite/epoxy (Gr/Ep) laminates that show improved retention of graphite particulates when subjected to burning. Sixteen hybridized plus two standard Gr/Ep laminates were designed, fabricated, and tested in an effort to eliminate the release of carbon (graphite) fiber particles from burned/burning, mechanically disturbed samples. The term pyrostatic is defined as meaning mechanically intact in the presence of fire. Graphite particulate retentive laminates were constructed whose constituent materials, cost of fabrication, and physical and mechanical properties were not significantly different from existing Gr/Ep composites. All but one laminate (a Celion graphite/bis-maleimide polyimide) were based on an off-the-shelf Gr/Ep, the AS-1/3501-5A system. Of the 16 candidates studied, four thin (10-ply) and four thick (50-ply) hybridized composites are recommended.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oehlmann, Dietmar; Ohlmann, Odile M.; Danzebrink, Hans U.
2005-04-01
perform this exchange, as a matrix, understood as source, of new ideas.
Matrix cracking in brittle-matrix composites with tailored interfaces
Danchaivijit, S.; Chao, L.Y.; Shetty, D.K.
1995-10-01
Matrix cracking from controlled through cracks with bridging filaments was studied in a model unidirectional composite of SiC filaments in an epoxy-bonded alumina matrix. An unbonded, frictional interface was produced by moderating the curing shrinkage of the epoxy with the alumina filler and coating the filaments with a releasing agent. Uniaxial tension test specimens (2.5 x 25 x 125 mm) with filament-bridged through cracks were fabricated by a novel two-step casting technique involving casting, precracking and joining of cracked and uncracked sections. Distinct matrix-cracking stresses, corresponding to the extension of the filament-bridged cracks, were measured in uniaxial tension tests using a high-sensitivity extensometer. The crack-length dependence of the matrix-cracking stress was found to be in good agreement with the prediction of a fracture-mechanics analysis that employed a new crack-closure force-crack-opening displacement relation in the calculation of the stress intensity for fiber-bridged cracks. The prediction was based on independent experimental measurements of the matrix fracture toughness (K{sub cm}), the interfacial sliding friction stress ({tau}) and the residual stress in the matrix ({sigma}{sub m}{sup I}). The matrix-cracking stress for crack lengths (2a) greater than 3 mm was independent of the crack length and agreed with the prediction of the steady-state theory of Budiansky, Hutchinson and Evans. Tests on specimens without the deliberately introduced cracks indicated a matrix-cracking stress significantly higher than the steady-state stress.
Genotype imputation via matrix completion.
Chi, Eric C; Zhou, Hua; Chen, Gary K; Del Vecchyo, Diego Ortega; Lange, Kenneth
2013-03-01
Most current genotype imputation methods are model-based and computationally intensive, taking days to impute one chromosome pair on 1000 people. We describe an efficient genotype imputation method based on matrix completion. Our matrix completion method is implemented in MATLAB and tested on real data from HapMap 3, simulated pedigree data, and simulated low-coverage sequencing data derived from the 1000 Genomes Project. Compared with leading imputation programs, the matrix completion algorithm embodied in our program MENDEL-IMPUTE achieves comparable imputation accuracy while reducing run times significantly. Implementation in a lower-level language such as Fortran or C is apt to further improve computational efficiency. PMID:23233546
High Temperature Polymer Matrix Composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1985-01-01
These are the proceedings of the High Temperature Polymer Matrix Composites Conference held at the NASA Lewis Research Center on March 16 to 18, 1983. The purpose of the conference is to provide scientists and engineers working in the field of high temperature polymer matrix composites an opportunity to review, exchange, and assess the latest developments in this rapidly expanding area of materials technology. Technical papers are presented in the following areas: (1) matrix development; (2) adhesive development; (3) characterization; (4) environmental effects; and (5) applications.
Canonical density matrix perturbation theory.
Niklasson, Anders M N; Cawkwell, M J; Rubensson, Emanuel H; Rudberg, Elias
2015-12-01
Density matrix perturbation theory [Niklasson and Challacombe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 193001 (2004)] is generalized to canonical (NVT) free-energy ensembles in tight-binding, Hartree-Fock, or Kohn-Sham density-functional theory. The canonical density matrix perturbation theory can be used to calculate temperature-dependent response properties from the coupled perturbed self-consistent field equations as in density-functional perturbation theory. The method is well suited to take advantage of sparse matrix algebra to achieve linear scaling complexity in the computational cost as a function of system size for sufficiently large nonmetallic materials and metals at high temperatures. PMID:26764847
Mechanotransduction and extracellular matrix homeostasis
Humphrey, Jay D.; Dufresne, Eric R.; Schwartz, Martin A.
2015-01-01
Preface Soft connective tissues at steady state are yet dynamic; resident cells continually read environmental cues and respond to promote homeostasis, including maintenance of the mechanical properties of the extracellular matrix that are fundamental to cellular and tissue health. The mechanosensing process involves assessment of the mechanics of the matrix by the cells through integrins and the actomyosin cytoskeleton, and is followed by a mechano-regulation process that includes the deposition, rearrangement, or removal of matrix to maintain overall form and function. Progress toward understanding the molecular, cellular, and tissue scale effects that promote mechanical homeostasis has helped identify key questions for future research. PMID:25355505
Matrix Elements for Hylleraas CI
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harris, Frank E.
The limitation to at most a single interelectron distance in individual configurations of a Hylleraas-type multiconfiguration wave function restricts significantly the types of integrals occurring in matrix elements for energy calculations, but even then if the formulation is not handled efficiently the angular parts of these integrals escalate to create expressions of great complexity. This presentation reviews ways in which the angular-momentum calculus can be employed to systematize and simplify the matrix element formulas, particularly those for the kinetic-energy matrix elements.
Solid oxide fuel cell matrix and modules
Riley, B.
1988-04-22
Porous refractory ceramic blocks arranged in an abutting, stacked configuration and forming a three dimensional array provide a support structure and coupling means for a plurality of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The stack of ceramic blocks is self-supporting, with a plurality of such stacked arrays forming a matrix enclosed in an insulating refractory brick structure having an outer steel layer. The necessary connections for air, fuel, burnt gas, and anode and cathode connections are provided through the brick and steel outer shell. The ceramic blocks are so designed with respect to the strings of modules that by simple and logical design the strings could be replaced by hot reloading if one should fail. The hot reloading concept has not been included in any previous designs. 11 figs.
Matrix metalloproteases: Underutilized targets for drug delivery
Vartak, Deepali G.; Gemeinhart, Richard A.
2013-01-01
Pathophysiological molecules in the extracellular environment offer excellent targets that can be exploited for designing drug targeting systems. Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) are a family of extracellular proteolytic enzymes that are characterized by their overexpression or overactivity in several pathologies. Over the last two decades, the MMP literature reveals heightened interest in the research involving MMP biology, pathology, and targeting. This review describes various strategies that have been designed to utilize MMPs for targeting therapeutic entities. Key factors that need to be considered in the successful design of such systems have been identified based on the analyses of these strategies. Development of targeted drug delivery using MMPs has been steadily pursued; however, drug delivery efforts using these targets need to be intensified and focused to realize the clinical application of the fast developing fundamental MMP research. PMID:17365270
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic; Keselman, Anna; Nakatani, Naoki; Li, Zhendong; White, Steven R.
2016-07-01
Current descriptions of the ab initio density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) algorithm use two superficially different languages: an older language of the renormalization group and renormalized operators, and a more recent language of matrix product states and matrix product operators. The same algorithm can appear dramatically different when written in the two different vocabularies. In this work, we carefully describe the translation between the two languages in several contexts. First, we describe how to efficiently implement the ab initio DMRG sweep using a matrix product operator based code, and the equivalence to the original renormalized operator implementation. Next we describe how to implement the general matrix product operator/matrix product state algebra within a pure renormalized operator-based DMRG code. Finally, we discuss two improvements of the ab initio DMRG sweep algorithm motivated by matrix product operator language: Hamiltonian compression, and a sum over operators representation that allows for perfect computational parallelism. The connections and correspondences described here serve to link the future developments with the past and are important in the efficient implementation of continuing advances in ab initio DMRG and related algorithms.
Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic; Keselman, Anna; Nakatani, Naoki; Li, Zhendong; White, Steven R
2016-07-01
Current descriptions of the ab initio density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) algorithm use two superficially different languages: an older language of the renormalization group and renormalized operators, and a more recent language of matrix product states and matrix product operators. The same algorithm can appear dramatically different when written in the two different vocabularies. In this work, we carefully describe the translation between the two languages in several contexts. First, we describe how to efficiently implement the ab initio DMRG sweep using a matrix product operator based code, and the equivalence to the original renormalized operator implementation. Next we describe how to implement the general matrix product operator/matrix product state algebra within a pure renormalized operator-based DMRG code. Finally, we discuss two improvements of the ab initio DMRG sweep algorithm motivated by matrix product operator language: Hamiltonian compression, and a sum over operators representation that allows for perfect computational parallelism. The connections and correspondences described here serve to link the future developments with the past and are important in the efficient implementation of continuing advances in ab initio DMRG and related algorithms. PMID:27394094
Stochastic determination of matrix determinants.
Dorn, Sebastian; Ensslin, Torsten A
2015-07-01
Matrix determinants play an important role in data analysis, in particular when Gaussian processes are involved. Due to currently exploding data volumes, linear operations-matrices-acting on the data are often not accessible directly but are only represented indirectly in form of a computer routine. Such a routine implements the transformation a data vector undergoes under matrix multiplication. While efficient probing routines to estimate a matrix's diagonal or trace, based solely on such computationally affordable matrix-vector multiplications, are well known and frequently used in signal inference, there is no stochastic estimate for its determinant. We introduce a probing method for the logarithm of a determinant of a linear operator. Our method rests upon a reformulation of the log-determinant by an integral representation and the transformation of the involved terms into stochastic expressions. This stochastic determinant determination enables large-size applications in Bayesian inference, in particular evidence calculations, model comparison, and posterior determination. PMID:26274302
Stochastic determination of matrix determinants
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dorn, Sebastian; Enßlin, Torsten A.
2015-07-01
Matrix determinants play an important role in data analysis, in particular when Gaussian processes are involved. Due to currently exploding data volumes, linear operations—matrices—acting on the data are often not accessible directly but are only represented indirectly in form of a computer routine. Such a routine implements the transformation a data vector undergoes under matrix multiplication. While efficient probing routines to estimate a matrix's diagonal or trace, based solely on such computationally affordable matrix-vector multiplications, are well known and frequently used in signal inference, there is no stochastic estimate for its determinant. We introduce a probing method for the logarithm of a determinant of a linear operator. Our method rests upon a reformulation of the log-determinant by an integral representation and the transformation of the involved terms into stochastic expressions. This stochastic determinant determination enables large-size applications in Bayesian inference, in particular evidence calculations, model comparison, and posterior determination.
Extracellular matrix and wound healing.
Maquart, F X; Monboisse, J C
2014-04-01
Extracellular matrix has been known for a long time as an architectural support for the tissues. Many recent data, however, have shown that extracellular matrix macromolecules (collagens, elastin, glycosaminoglycans, proteoglycans and connective tissue glycoproteins) are able to regulate many important cell functions, such as proliferation, migration, protein synthesis or degradation, apoptosis, etc., making them able to play an important role in the wound repair process. Not only the intact macromolecules but some of their specific domains, that we called "Matrikines", are also able to regulate many cell activities. In this article, we will summarize main findings showing the effects of extracellular matrix macromolecules and matrikines on connective tissue and epithelial cells, particularly in skin, and their potential implication in the wound healing process. These examples show that extracellular matrix macromolecules or some of their specific domains may play a major role in wound healing. Better knowledge of these interactions may suggest new therapeutic targets in wound healing defects. PMID:24650524
Electronic nose with an air sensor matrix for detecting beef freshness
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
The design of an electronic nose includes the design of a matrix of chemical sensors such as gas sensors, and development of a pattern-recognition algorithm. The sensor matrix sniffs the vapor from a sample and provides a set of measurements. The pattern-recognizer compares the pattern of the meas...
Molybdenum disilicide alloy matrix composite
Petrovic, John J.; Honnell, Richard E.; Gibbs, W. Scott
1991-01-01
Compositions of matter consisting of matrix materials having silicon carbide dispersed throughout them and methods of making the compositions. A matrix material is an alloy of an intermetallic compound, molybdenum disilicide, and at least one secondary component which is a refractory silicide. The silicon carbide dispersant may be in the form of VLS whiskers, VS whiskers, or submicron powder or a mixture of these forms.
Molybdenum disilicide alloy matrix composite
Petrovic, J.J.; Honnell, R.E.; Gibbs, W.S.
1991-12-03
Compositions of matter consisting of matrix materials having silicon carbide dispersed throughout them and methods of making the compositions are disclosed. A matrix material is an alloy of an intermetallic compound, molybdenum disilicide, and at least one secondary component which is a refractory silicide. The silicon carbide dispersant may be in the form of VLS whiskers, VS whiskers, or submicron powder or a mixture of these forms. 3 figures.
Universal Keplerian state transition matrix
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shepperd, S. W.
1985-01-01
A completely general method for computing the Keplerian state transition matrix in terms of Goodyear's universal variables is presented. This includes a new scheme for solving Kepler's problem which is a necessary first step to computing the transition matrix. The Kepler problem is solved in terms of a new independent variable requiring the evaluation of only one transcendental function. Furthermore, this transcendental function may be conveniently evaluated by means of a Gaussian continued fraction.
Molybdenum disilicide alloy matrix composite
Petrovic, John J.; Honnell, Richard E.; Gibbs, W. Scott
1990-01-01
Compositions of matter consisting of matrix matrials having silicon carbide dispersed throughout them and methods of making the compositions. A matrix material is an alloy of an intermetallic compound, molybdenum disilicide, and at least one secondary component which is a refractory silicide. The silicon carbide dispersant may be in the form of VLS whiskers, VS whiskers, or submicron powder or a mixture of these forms.
Form development sample test matrix
Ebbinghaus, B B
1999-10-15
This document summarizes the status of sample fabrication and analysis in the Form Development Sample Test Matrix. Since its publication in the ''Baseline Formulation'' report (UCRL-ID- 133089, PIP-99-O 12) and in the ''Complete Single-Phase Sample Fabrications that Support the Licensing Application and Complete Process and Compositional Extreme Sample Fabrications that Support the Licensing Application'' report (PIP-99-078), the Sample Test Matrix has been updated and expanded. This version is current though September 30, 1999.
Hybridized polymer matrix composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Henshaw, J.
1983-01-01
Methods of improving the fire resistance of graphite epoxy composite laminates were investigated with the objective of reducing the volume of loose graphite fibers disseminated into the airstream as the result of a high intensity aircraft fuel fire. Improvements were sought by modifying the standard graphite epoxy systems without significantly negating their structural effectiveness. The modifications consisted primarily of an addition of a third constituent material such as glass fibers, glass flakes, carbon black in a glassy resin. These additions were designed to encourage coalescense of the graphite fibers and thereby reduce their aerodynamic float characteristics. A total of 38 fire tests were conducted on thin (1.0 mm) and thick (6.0 mm) hybrid panels.
Low-power SXGA active matrix OLED
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wacyk, Ihor; Prache, Olivier; Ghosh, Amal
2009-05-01
This paper presents the design and first evaluation of a full-color 1280×3×1024 pixel, active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) microdisplay that operates at a low power of 200mW under typical operating conditions of 35fL, and offers a precision 30-bit RGB digital interface in a compact size (0.78-inch diagonal active area). The new system architecture developed by eMagin for the SXGA microdisplay, based on a separate FPGA driver and AMOLED display chip, offers several benefits, including better power efficiency, cost-effectiveness, more features for improved performance, and increased system flexibility.
Metal Matrix Composite Materials for Aerospace Applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bhat, Biliyar N.; Jones, C. S. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
Metal matrix composites (MMC) are attractive materials for aerospace applications because of their high specific strength, high specific stiffness, and lower thermal expansion coefficient. They are affordable since complex parts can be produced by low cost casting process. As a result there are many commercial and Department of Defense applications of MMCs today. This seminar will give an overview of MMCs and their state-of-the-art technology assessment. Topics to be covered are types of MMCs, fabrication methods, product forms, applications, and material selection issues for design and manufacture. Some examples of current and future aerospace applications will also be presented and discussed.
Ultrasonic 2D matrix PVDF transducer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ptchelintsev, A.; Maev, R. Gr.
2000-05-01
During the past decade a substantial amount of work has been done in the area of ultrasonic imaging technology using 2D arrays. The main problems arising for the two-dimensional matrix transducers at megahertz frequencies are small size and huge count of the elements, high electrical impedance, low sensitivity, bad SNR and slower data acquisition rate. The major technological difficulty remains the high density of the interconnect. To solve these problems numerous approaches have been suggested. In the present work, a 24×24 elements (24 transmit+24 receive) matrix and a switching board were developed. The transducer consists of two 52 μm PVDF layers each representing a linear array of 24 elements placed one on the top of the other. Electrodes in these two layers are perpendicular and form the grid of 0.5×0.5 mm pitch. The layers are bonded together with the ground electrode being monolithic and located between the layers. The matrix is backed from the rear surface with an epoxy composition. During the emission, a linear element from the emitting layer generates a longitudinal wave pulse propagating inside the test object. Reflected pulses are picked-up by the receiving layer. During one transmit-receive cycle one transmit element and one receive element are selected by corresponding multiplexers. These crossed elements emulate a small element formed by their intersection. The present design presents the following advantages: minimizes number of active channels and density of the interconnect; reduces the electrical impedance of the element improving electrical matching; enables the transmit-receive mode; due to the efficient backing provides bandwidth and good time resolution; and, significantly reduces the electronics complexity. The matrix can not be used for the beam steering and focusing. Owing to this impossibility of focusing, the penetration depth is limited as well by the diffraction phenomena.
Automated acoustic matrix deposition for MALDI sample preparation.
Aerni, Hans-Rudolf; Cornett, Dale S; Caprioli, Richard M
2006-02-01
Novel high-throughput sample preparation strategies for MALDI imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) and profiling are presented. An acoustic reagent multispotter was developed to provide improved reproducibility for depositing matrix onto a sample surface, for example, such as a tissue section. The unique design of the acoustic droplet ejector and its optimization for depositing matrix solution are discussed. Since it does not contain a capillary or nozzle for fluid ejection, issues with clogging of these orifices are avoided. Automated matrix deposition provides better control of conditions affecting protein extraction and matrix crystallization with the ability to deposit matrix accurately onto small surface features. For tissue sections, matrix spots of 180-200 microm in diameter were obtained and a procedure is described for generating coordinate files readable by a mass spectrometer to permit automated profile acquisition. Mass spectral quality and reproducibility was found to be better than that obtained with manual pipet spotting. The instrument can also deposit matrix spots in a dense array pattern so that, after analysis in a mass spectrometer, two-dimensional ion images may be constructed. Example ion images from a mouse brain are presented. PMID:16448057
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
2007-12-01
SME is an emergency response planning and exercise design and management software. SME implements an innovative approach of hosting its data in a customized Windows SharPoint Services (WSS) 3.0 site, and uses a Microsoft Win Forms technology as front-end to access the backend SharePoint list data as a client-server application. The utilization of WSS 3.0 allowed for a light weight application with the pwoer or project, data, document and user management tools that can linkmore » with everyday application such as Microsoft Office products, especially Outlook. The WinForms front-end application programmatically accesses the SharePoint List data through the exposed SharePoint Web Services application programming inerface (API). The SharePoint environment includes customized Web Parts that programmatically create new SharePoint sites with custom lists. The application also takes advantage of AJAX and Silverlight technologies to create a richer user experience for the SharePoint users.« less
2007-12-01
SME is an emergency response planning and exercise design and management software. SME implements an innovative approach of hosting its data in a customized Windows SharPoint Services (WSS) 3.0 site, and uses a Microsoft Win Forms technology as front-end to access the backend SharePoint list data as a client-server application. The utilization of WSS 3.0 allowed for a light weight application with the pwoer or project, data, document and user management tools that can link with everyday application such as Microsoft Office products, especially Outlook. The WinForms front-end application programmatically accesses the SharePoint List data through the exposed SharePoint Web Services application programming inerface (API). The SharePoint environment includes customized Web Parts that programmatically create new SharePoint sites with custom lists. The application also takes advantage of AJAX and Silverlight technologies to create a richer user experience for the SharePoint users.
Custom Titanium Ridge Augmentation Matrix (CTRAM): A Case Report.
Connors, Christopher A; Liacouras, Peter C; Grant, Gerald T
2016-01-01
This is a case report of a custom titanium ridge augmentation matrix (CTRAM). Using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), a custom titanium space-maintaining device was developed. Alveolar ridges were virtually augmented, a matrix was virtually designed, and the CTRAM was additively manufactured with titanium (Ti6Al4V). Two cases are presented that resulted in sufficient increased horizontal bone volume with successful dental implant placement. The CTRAM design allows for preoperative planning for increasing alveolar ridge dimensions to support dental implants, reduces surgical time, and prevents the need for a second surgical site to gain sufficient alveolar ridge bone volume for dental implant therapy. PMID:27560675
The transfer matrix approach to circular graphene quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chau Nguyen, H.; Nguyen, Nhung T. T.; Nguyen, V. Lien
2016-07-01
We adapt the transfer matrix (T-matrix) method originally designed for one-dimensional quantum mechanical problems to solve the circularly symmetric two-dimensional problem of graphene quantum dots. Similar to one-dimensional problems, we show that the generalized T-matrix contains rich information about the physical properties of these quantum dots. In particular, it is shown that the spectral equations for bound states as well as quasi-bound states of a circular graphene quantum dot and related quantities such as the local density of states and the scattering coefficients are all expressed exactly in terms of the T-matrix for the radial confinement potential. As an example, we use the developed formalism to analyse physical aspects of a graphene quantum dot induced by a trapezoidal radial potential. Among the obtained results, it is in particular suggested that the thermal fluctuations and electrostatic disorders may appear as an obstacle to controlling the valley polarization of Dirac electrons.
Modeling the Stress Strain Behavior of Woven Ceramic Matrix Composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morscher, Gregory N.
2006-01-01
Woven SiC fiber reinforced SiC matrix composites represent one of the most mature composite systems to date. Future components fabricated out of these woven ceramic matrix composites are expected to vary in shape, curvature, architecture, and thickness. The design of future components using woven ceramic matrix composites necessitates a modeling approach that can account for these variations which are physically controlled by local constituent contents and architecture. Research over the years supported primarily by NASA Glenn Research Center has led to the development of simple mechanistic-based models that can describe the entire stress-strain curve for composite systems fabricated with chemical vapor infiltrated matrices and melt-infiltrated matrices for a wide range of constituent content and architecture. Several examples will be presented that demonstrate the approach to modeling which incorporates a thorough understanding of the stress-dependent matrix cracking properties of the composite system.
Han, Sang Won; Koh, Won-Gun
2016-06-21
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play a pivotal role in regulating the composition of the extracellular matrix and have a critical role in vascular disease, cancer progression, and bone disorders. This paper describes the design and fabrication of a microdevice as a new platform for highly sensitive MMP-9 detection. In this sensing platform, fluorescein isocyanate (FITC)-labeled MMP-9 specific peptides were covalently immobilized on an electrospun nanofiber matrix to utilize an enzymatic cleavage strategy. Prior to peptide immobilization, the nanofiber matrix was incorporated into hydrogel micropatterns for easy size control and handling of the nanofiber matrix. The resultant hydrogel-framed nanofiber matrix immobilizing the peptides was inserted into microfluidic devices consisting of reaction chambers and detection zones. The immobilized peptides were reacted with the MMP-9-containing solution in a reaction chamber, which resulted in the cleavage of the FITC-containing peptide fragments and subsequently generated fluorescent flow at the detection zone. As higher concentrations of the MMP-9 solution were introduced or larger peptide-immobilizing nanofiber areas were used, more peptides were cleaved, and a stronger fluorescence signal was observed. Due to the huge surface area of the nanofiber and small dimensions of the microsystem, a faster response time (30 min) and lower detection limit (10 pM) could be achieved in this study. The hydrogel-framed nanofiber matrix is disposable and can be replaced with new ones immobilizing either the same or different biomolecules for various bioassays, while the microfluidic system can be continuously reused. PMID:27214657
The Astrobiology Matrix and the "Drake Matrix" in Education
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mizser, A.; Kereszturi, A.
2003-01-01
We organized astrobiology lectures in the Eotvos Lorand University of Sciences and the Polaris Observatory in 2002. We present here the "Drake matrix" for the comparison of the astrobiological potential of different bodies [1], and astrobiology matrix for the visualization of the interdisciplinary connections between different fields of astrobiology. Conclusion: In Hungary it is difficult to integrate astrobiology in the education system but the great advantage is that it can connect different scientific fields and improve the view of students. We would like to get in contact with persons and organizations who already have experience in the education of astrobiology.
Matrix factorizations and elliptic fibrations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Omer, Harun
2016-09-01
I use matrix factorizations to describe branes at simple singularities of elliptic fibrations. Each node of the corresponding Dynkin diagrams of the ADE-type singularities is associated with one indecomposable matrix factorization which can be deformed into one or more factorizations of lower rank. Branes with internal fluxes arise naturally as bound states of the indecomposable factorizations. Describing branes in such a way avoids the need to resolve singularities. This paper looks at gauge group breaking from E8 fibers down to SU (5) fibers due to the relevance of such fibrations for local F-theory GUT models. A purpose of this paper is to understand how the deformations of the singularity are understood in terms of its matrix factorizations. By systematically factorizing the elliptic fiber equation, this paper discusses geometries which are relevant for building semi-realistic local models. In the process it becomes evident that breaking patterns which are identical at the level of the Kodaira type of the fibers can be inequivalent at the level of matrix factorizations. Therefore the matrix factorization picture supplements information which the conventional less detailed descriptions lack.
Relativistic Dipole Matrix Element Zeros
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lajohn, L. A.; Pratt, R. H.
2002-05-01
There is a special class of relativistic high energy dipole matrix element zeros (RZ), whose positions with respect to photon energy ω , only depend on the bound state l quantum number according to ω^0=mc^2/(l_b+1) (independent of primary quantum number n, nuclear charge Z, central potential V and dipole retardation). These RZ only occur in (n,l_b,j_b)arrow (ɛ , l_b+1,j_b) transitions such as ns_1/2arrow ɛ p_1/2; np_3/2arrow ɛ d_3/2: nd_5/2arrow ɛ f_5/2 etc. The nonrelativistic limit of these matrix elements can be established explicitly in the Coulomb case. Within the general matrix element formalism (such as that in [1]); when |κ | is substituted for γ in analytic expressions for matrix elements, the zeros remain, but ω^0 now becomes dependent on n and Z. When the reduction to nonrelativistic form is completed by application of the low energy approximation ω mc^2 mc^2, the zeros disappear. This nonzero behavior was noted in nonrelativistic dipole Coulomb matrix elements by Fano and Cooper [2] and later proven by Oh and Pratt[3]. (J. H. Scofield, Phys. Rev. A 40), 3054 (1989 (U. Fano and J. W. Cooper, Rev. Mod. Phys. 40), 441 (1968). (D. Oh and R. H. Pratt, Phys. Rev. A 34), 2486 (1986); 37, 1524 (1988); 45, 1583 (1992).
Cooled Ceramic Matrix Composite Propulsion Structures Demonstrated
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jaskowiak, Martha H.; Dickens, Kevin W.
2005-01-01
NASA's Next Generation Launch Technology (NGLT) Program has successfully demonstrated cooled ceramic matrix composite (CMC) technology in a scramjet engine test. This demonstration represented the world s largest cooled nonmetallic matrix composite panel fabricated for a scramjet engine and the first cooled nonmetallic composite to be tested in a scramjet facility. Lightweight, high-temperature, actively cooled structures have been identified as a key technology for enabling reliable and low-cost space access. Tradeoff studies have shown this to be the case for a variety of launch platforms, including rockets and hypersonic cruise vehicles. Actively cooled carbon and CMC structures may meet high-performance goals at significantly lower weight, while improving safety by operating with a higher margin between the design temperature and material upper-use temperature. Studies have shown that using actively cooled CMCs can reduce the weight of the cooled flow-path component from 4.5 to 1.6 lb/sq ft and the weight of the propulsion system s cooled surface area by more than 50 percent. This weight savings enables advanced concepts, increased payload, and increased range. The ability of the cooled CMC flow-path components to operate over 1000 F hotter than the state-of-the-art metallic concept adds system design flexibility to space-access vehicle concepts. Other potential system-level benefits include smaller fuel pumps, lower part count, lower cost, and increased operating margin.
Inert matrix fuel behaviour in test irradiations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hellwig, Ch.; Streit, M.; Blair, P.; Tverberg, T.; Klaassen, F. C.; Schram, R. P. C.; Vettraino, F.; Yamashita, T.
2006-06-01
Among others, three large irradiation tests on inert matrix fuels have been performed during the last five years: the two irradiation tests IFA-651 and IFA-652 in the OECD Halden Material Test Reactor and the OTTO irradiation in the High Flux Reactor in Petten. While the OTTO irradiation is already completed, the other two irradiations are still ongoing. The objectives of the experiments differ: for OTTO, the focus was on the comparison of different concepts of IMF, i.e. homogeneous fuel versus different types of heterogeneous fuel. In IFA-651, single phase yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) doped with Pu is compared with MOX. In IFA-652, the potential of calcia stabilized zirconia (CSZ) as a matrix with and without thoria is evaluated. The design of the three experiments is explained and the current status is reviewed. The experiments show that the homogeneous, single phase YSZ-based or CSZ-based fuel show good and stable irradiation behaviour. It can be said that homogeneous stabilized zirconia based fuel is the most promising IMF concept for an LWR environment. Nevertheless, the fuel temperatures were relatively high due to the low thermal conductivity, potentially leading to high fission gas release, and must be taken into account in the fuel design.
Fisher Matrix Preloaded — FISHER4CAST
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bassett, Bruce A.; Fantaye, Yabebal; Hlozek, Renée; Kotze, Jacques
The Fisher Matrix is the backbone of modern cosmological forecasting. We describe the Fisher4Cast software: A general-purpose, easy-to-use, Fisher Matrix framework. It is open source, rigorously designed and tested and includes a Graphical User Interface (GUI) with automated LATEX file creation capability and point-and-click Fisher ellipse generation. Fisher4Cast was designed for ease of extension and, although written in Matlab, is easily portable to open-source alternatives such as Octave and Scilab. Here we use Fisher4Cast to present new 3D and 4D visualizations of the forecasting landscape and to investigate the effects of growth and curvature on future cosmological surveys. Early releases have been available at since mid-2008. The current release of the code is Version 2.2 which is described here. For ease of reference a Quick Start guide and the code used to produce the figures in this paper are included, in the hope that it will be useful to the cosmology and wider scientific communities.
Bandwidth and Noise in Spatiotemporally Modulated Mueller Matrix Polarimeters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vaughn, Israel Jacob
Polarimetric systems design has seen recent utilization of linear systems theory for system descriptions. Although noise optimal systems have been shown, bandwidth performance has not been addressed in depth generally and is particularly lacking for Mueller matrix (active) polarimetric systems. Bandwidth must be considered in a systematic way for remote sensing polarimetric systems design. The systematic approach facilitates both understanding of fundamental constraints and design of higher bandwidth polarimetric systems. Fundamental bandwidth constraints result in production of polarimetric "artifacts" due to channel crosstalk upon Mueller matrix reconstruction. This dissertation analyzes bandwidth trade-offs in spatio-temporal channeled Mueller matrix polarimetric systems. Bandwidth is directly related to the geometric positioning of channels in the Fourier (channel) space, however channel positioning for polarimetric systems is constrained both physically and by design parameters like domain separability. We present the physical channel constraints and the constraints imposed when the carriers are separable between space and time. Polarimetric systems are also constrained by noise performance, and there is a trade-off between noise performance and bandwidth. I develop cost functions which account for the trade-off between noise and bandwidth for spatio-temporal polarimetric systems. The cost functions allow a systems designer to jointly optimize systems with good bandwidth and noise performance. Optimization is implemented for a candidate spatio-temporal system design, and high temporal bandwidth systems resulting from the optimization are presented. Systematic errors which impact the bandwidth performance and mitigation strategies for these systematic errors are also presented. Finally, a portable imaging Mueller matrix system is built and analyzed based on the theoretical bandwidth analysis and system bandwidth optimization. Temporal bandwidth performance is
Active Matrix OLED Test Report
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Salazar, George
2013-01-01
This report focuses on the limited environmental testing of the AMOLED display performed as an engineering evaluation by The NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC)-specifically. EMI. Thermal Vac, and radiation tests. The AMOLED display is an active-matrix Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED) technology. The testing provided an initial understanding of the technology and its suitability for space applications. Relative to light emitting diode (LED) displays or liquid crystal displays (LCDs), AMOLED displays provide a superior viewing experience even though they are much lighter and smaller, produce higher contrast ratio and richer colors, and require less power to operate than LCDs. However, AMOLED technology has not been demonstrated in a space environment. Therefore, some risks with the technology must be addressed before they can be seriously considered for human spaceflight. The environmental tests provided preliminary performance data on the ability of the display technology to handle some of the simulated induced space/spacecraft environments that an AMOLED display will see during a spacecraft certification test program. This engineering evaluation is part of a Space Act Agreement (SM) between The NASA/JSC and Honeywell International (HI) as a collaborative effort to evaluate the potential use of AMOLED technology for future human spaceflight missions- both government-led and commercial. Under this SM, HI is responsible for doing optical performance evaluation, as well as temperature and touch screen studies. The NASA/JSC is responsible for performing environmental testing comprised of EMI, Thermal Vac, and radiation tests. Additionally, as part of the testing, limited optical data was acquired to assess performance as the display was subjected to the induced environments. The NASA will benefit from this engineering evaluation by understanding AMOLED suitability for future use in space as well as becoming a smarter buyer (or developer) of the technology. HI benefits
Extracellular matrix in ovarian follicles.
Rodgers, R J; Irving-Rodgers, H F; van Wezel, I L
2000-05-25
A lot is known about the control of the development of ovarian follicles by growth factors and hormones, but less is known about the roles of extracellular matrix in the control of follicular growth and development. In this review we focus on the specialized extracellular matrix of the basal laminas that are present in ovarian follicles. These include the follicular basal lamina itself, the Call-Exner bodies of the membrana granulosa, the subendothelial and arteriole smooth muscle basal laminas in the theca, and the basal lamina-like material of the thecal matrix. We discuss the evidence that during follicle development the follicular basal lamina changes in composition, that many of its components are produced by the granulosa cells, and that the follicular basal laminas of different follicles have different ultrastructural appearances, linked to the shape of the aligning granulosa cells. All these studies suggest that the follicular basal lamina is extremely dynamic during follicular development. PMID:10963877
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raju, Suvrat
2009-06-01
As a simple example of how recently developed on-shell techniques apply to nonlocal theories, we study the S-matrix of noncommutative gauge theories. In the complex plane, this S-matrix has essential singularities that signal the nonlocal behavior of the theory. In spite of this, we show that tree-level amplitudes may be obtained by BCFW type recursion relations. At one loop we find a complete basis of master integrals (this basis is larger than the corresponding basis in the ordinary theory). Any one-loop noncommutative amplitude may be written as a linear combination of these integrals with coefficients that we relate to products of tree amplitudes. We show that the noncommutative Script N = 4 SYM theory has a structurally simple S-matrix, just like the ordinary Script N = 4 SYM theory.
Matrix model approach to cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chaney, A.; Lu, Lei; Stern, A.
2016-03-01
We perform a systematic search for rotationally invariant cosmological solutions to toy matrix models. These models correspond to the bosonic sector of Lorentzian Ishibashi, Kawai, Kitazawa and Tsuchiya (IKKT)-type matrix models in dimensions d less than ten, specifically d =3 and d =5 . After taking a continuum (or commutative) limit they yield d -1 dimensional Poisson manifolds. The manifolds have a Lorentzian induced metric which can be associated with closed, open, or static space-times. For d =3 , we obtain recursion relations from which it is possible to generate rotationally invariant matrix solutions which yield open universes in the continuum limit. Specific examples of matrix solutions have also been found which are associated with closed and static two-dimensional space-times in the continuum limit. The solutions provide for a resolution of cosmological singularities, at least within the context of the toy matrix models. The commutative limit reveals other desirable features, such as a solution describing a smooth transition from an initial inflation to a noninflationary era. Many of the d =3 solutions have analogues in higher dimensions. The case of d =5 , in particular, has the potential for yielding realistic four-dimensional cosmologies in the continuum limit. We find four-dimensional de Sitter d S4 or anti-de Sitter AdS4 solutions when a totally antisymmetric term is included in the matrix action. A nontrivial Poisson structure is attached to these manifolds which represents the lowest order effect of noncommutativity. For the case of AdS4 , we find one particular limit where the lowest order noncommutativity vanishes at the boundary, but not in the interior.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Yonghui; Zhan, Hongbin; Jin, Menggui
2016-08-01
This study deals with the problem of reactive solute transport in a fracture-matrix system using both analytical and numerical modeling methods. The groundwater flow velocity in the fracture is assumed to be high enough (no less than 0.1 m/day) to ensure the advection-dominant transport in the fracture. The problem includes advection along the fracture, transverse diffusion in the matrix, with linear sorption as well as first-order reactions operative in both the fracture and the matrix. A constant-concentration boundary condition and a decay source boundary condition in the fracture are considered. With a constant-concentration source, we obtain closed-form analytical solutions that account for the transport without reaction as well as steady-state solutions with different first-order reactions in the two media. With a decay source, a semi-analytical solution is obtained. The analytical and semi-analytical solutions are in excellent agreement with the numerical simulation results obtained using COMSOL Multiphysics. Sensitivity analysis is conducted to assess the relative importance of matrix diffusion coefficient, fracture aperture, and matrix porosity. We conclude that the first-order reaction as well as the matrix diffusion in the fractured rock would decrease the solute peak concentration and shorten the penetration distance into the fracture. The solutions can be applied to assess the spatial-temporal distribution of concentrations in the fracture and the matrix as well as to assess the contaminant mass stored in the rock matrix. All of these are useful for designing remediation plans for contaminated fractured rocks or for risk assessment of contaminated fracture-matrix systems.
Shrinkage estimation of the realized relationship matrix
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
The additive relationship matrix plays an important role in mixed model prediction of breeding values. For genotype matrix X (loci in columns), the product XX' is widely used as a realized relationship matrix, but the scaling of this matrix is ambiguous. Our first objective was to derive a proper ...
Integrability and generalized monodromy matrix
Lhallabi, T.; Moujib, A.
2007-09-15
We construct the generalized monodromy matrix M-circumflex({omega}) of two-dimensional string effective action by introducing the T-duality group properties. The integrability conditions with general solutions depending on spectral parameter are given. This construction is investigated for the exactly solvable Wess, Zumino, Novikov, and Witten model in pp-wave limit when B=0.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuhapatanakul, Kantaphon
2015-11-01
In this note, we study the Fibonacci and Lucas p-numbers. We introduce the Lucas p-matrix and companion matrices for the sums of the Fibonacci and Lucas p-numbers to derive some interesting identities of the Fibonacci and Lucas p-numbers.
[Matrix Support: a bibliographical study].
Iglesias, Alexandra; Avellar, Luziane Zacché
2014-09-01
This article presents a bibliographical review of matrix support in mental health. A search was conducted in the Virtual Health Library and the LILACS, SciELO and Google Scholar databases using the key words: "matrix support in mental health." Fourteen articles were located with the desired characteristics, which indicates that only a restricted number of publications are in circulation. The articles were analyzed with respect to their structural and methodological aspects, which revealed the absolute predominance of the use of qualitative methods and health professionals as the target research population. The same articles were then analyzed for their theoretical discussions. Among other issues, the importance of matrix support to enhance the primary health care teams provided to people suffering from psychic distress is highlighted. However, there is still considerable confusion regarding the proposal of the matrix support and shared responsibilities between teams of reference and mental health professionals, which emphasizes the need for training of these professionals, as well as better coordination and organization of the mental health care network. PMID:25184584
Matrix Treatment of Ray Optics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Quon, W. Steve
1996-01-01
Describes a method to combine two learning experiences--optical physics and matrix mathematics--in a straightforward laboratory experiment that allows engineering/physics students to integrate a variety of learning insights and technical skills, including using lasers, studying refraction through thin lenses, applying concepts of matrix…
Information & Technology Literacy Standards Matrix.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Potter, Calvin J.; Lohr, Neah J.; Klein, Jim; Sorensen, Richard J.
Intended to help library media specialists, technology educators, and curriculum planning teams identify where specific information and technology competencies might best fit into the assessed content areas of the curriculum, this document presents a matrix that identifies the correlation between Wisconsin's Information and Technology Literacy…
The Enrollment Analysis Matrix Concept.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chisholm, Mark
The underlying assumptions and the structure of the enrollment analysis matrix (EAM) concept are discussed. EAM is a component of the Strategic Planning Project of the National Center for Higher Education Management Systems. EAM relates changes in the population of potential students external to the institution to the impacts that might result…
Joining and fabrication of metal-matrix composite materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Royster, D. M.; Wiant, H. R.; Bales, T. T.
1975-01-01
Manufacturing technology associated with developing fabrication processes to incorporate metal-matrix composites into flight hardware is studied. The joining of composite to itself and to titanium by innovative brazing, diffusion bonding, and adhesive bonding is examined. The effects of the fabrication processes on the material properties and their influence on the design of YF-12 wing panels are discussed.
A Screening Matrix for an Initial Line of Inquiry
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nordness, Philip D.; Swain, Kristine D.; Haverkost, Ann
2012-01-01
The Screening for Understanding: Initial Line of Inquiry was designed to be used in conjunction with the child study team planning process for dealing with continuous problem behaviors prior to conducting a formal functional behavioral assessment. To conduct the initial line of inquiry a one-page reproducible screening matrix was used during child…
Evaluation of a Matrix Management Approach to School Organizations.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gogolin, Marilyn T.; Martois, John S.
The Management Responsibility Guidance (MRG) process is a matrix management program designed to clarify roles and improve staff integration, decision-making, effectiveness, and productivity. In 1976-77, Los Angeles County (California) used this approach in four pilot special education schools. As part of the MRG process, each staff member…
Technological Readiness of Ceramic Matrix Composites: A Review
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Neergaard, Lynn; Effinger, Michael
2000-01-01
This review intends to provide a snapshot of the state of industry of ceramic matrix composites (CMC). It is therefore organized in terms of design needs, composite properties, system capabilities, and technological availability. This publication will cover CMCs in use and development, with technological readiness levels (TRL) from laboratory testing of coupons to flight proven hardware.
A Contemporary Matrix Approach to Defining Shared Governance.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Davenport, Richard; Daniels, Elaine; Jones, James; Kesseler, Roger; Mowrey, Merlyn
This paper outlines a matrix approach to shared governance developed at Central Michigan University (CMU), designed to help faculty and administrators focus on specific decision areas and to define existing roles more clearly. The process began at CMU in spring 1998 with the formation of an ad hoc committee on governance which surveyed faculty and…
Factor Content of the Hill Interaction Matrix--Form B
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Drummond, Robert J.; McIntire, Walter G.
1976-01-01
Investigates the construct validity of the Hill Interaction Matrix--Form B, a 64-item instrument designed to assess preferred modes of interaction in group settings. A factor analysis was performed by using 134 subjects. Results indicate that the items and the conceptual format are appropriate. (Author)
Continuous fiber ceramic matrix composites for heat engine components
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tripp, David E.
1988-01-01
High strength at elevated temperatures, low density, resistance to wear, and abundance of nonstrategic raw materials make structural ceramics attractive for advanced heat engine applications. Unfortunately, ceramics have a low fracture toughness and fail catastrophically because of overload, impact, and contact stresses. Ceramic matrix composites provide the means to achieve improved fracture toughness while retaining desirable characteristics, such as high strength and low density. Materials scientists and engineers are trying to develop the ideal fibers and matrices to achieve the optimum ceramic matrix composite properties. A need exists for the development of failure models for the design of ceramic matrix composite heat engine components. Phenomenological failure models are currently the most frequently used in industry, but they are deterministic and do not adequately describe ceramic matrix composite behavior. Semi-empirical models were proposed, which relate the failure of notched composite laminates to the stress a characteristic distance away from the notch. Shear lag models describe composite failure modes at the micromechanics level. The enhanced matrix cracking stress occurs at the same applied stress level predicted by the two models of steady state cracking. Finally, statistical models take into consideration the distribution in composite failure strength. The intent is to develop these models into computer algorithms for the failure analysis of ceramic matrix composites under monotonically increasing loads. The algorithms will be included in a postprocessor to general purpose finite element programs.
Freezing-induced fluid-matrix interaction in poroelastic material
Han, Bumsoo; Miller, Jeffrey D.; Jung, Jun K.
2008-01-01
Freezing of biological tissue is emerging in various biomedical applications. The success of these applications requires precise control of the tissue functionality, which is closely associated with the microstructure of the extracellular matrix (ECM). In the present study, the spatiotemporal effects of freezing on the ECM were experimentally and theoretically investigated by approximating biological tissue as a poroelastic material saturated with interstitial fluid. The experiments with type I collagen gel showed that its matrix underwent two distinct levels of structural changes due to freezing : enlarged pore structure of the matrix and increased collagen fibril diameters. The extent of these changes was augmented as the freezing temperature was lowered. The theoretical model suggested that the interstitial fluid might be transported toward the unfrozen region from the phase change interface due to the volumetric expansion associated with the water-ice phase change, and the transported fluid could interact with the matrix and enlarge its pore structure. The model also illustrated the effects of matrix structural properties on this interaction including initial porosity, hydraulic conductivity and elastic modulus. These results imply that an identical macroscopic freezing protocol may result in different microstructural alterations of poroelastic materials depending on the structural properties of the matrix. This may be relevant to understanding the tissue-type dependent outcomes of cryomedicine applications and be useful in designing cryomedicine applications for a wide variety of tissues. PMID:19102561
MATRIX METALLOPROTEASES IN HEAD AND NECK CANCER
Rosenthal, Eben L.; Matrisian, Lynn M.
2010-01-01
Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) are a collection of enzymes capable of cleaving extracellular matrix components, growth factors, and cell-surface receptors. MMPs modulate most aspects of tumorigenesis and are highly expressed in cancer compared with normal tissues. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) express high levels of MMPs in vivo and that inhibition of these enzymes in vitro and in mouse models decreases invasion and metastasis. However, the clinical trials for MMP inhibitors have failed to demonstrate a significant survival advantage in most cancers. The disparity between preclinical and clinical studies has led to the reevaluation of how MMP functions in cancer and the design of clinical trials for molecularly targeted agents. Mouse model data and analysis of HNSCC tumor specimens suggests that membrane type-1 MMP (MT1-MMP) may be a critical enzyme in tumor cell invasion and survival in vivo. This accumulated data provide evidence for development of selective MT1-MMP inhibitors as therapy in HNSCC. PMID:16470875
Content addressable systolic array for sparse matrix computation
Wing, O.
1983-01-01
A systolic array is proposed which is specifically designed to solve a system of sparse linear equations. The array consists of a number of processing elements connected in a ring. Each processing element has its own content addressable memory where the nonzero elements of the sparse matrix are stored. Matrix elements to which elementary operations are applied are extracted from the memory by content addressing. The system of equations is solved in a systolic fashion and the solution is obtained in nz+5n-2 steps where nz is the number of nonzero elements along and below the diagonal and n is the number of equations. 13 references.
Printing microstructures in a polymer matrix using a ferrofluid droplet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdel Fattah, Abdel Rahman; Ghosh, Suvojit; Puri, Ishwar K.
2016-03-01
We print complex curvilinear microstructures in an elastomer matrix using a ferrofluid droplet as the print head. A magnetic field moves the droplet along a prescribed path in liquid polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The droplet sheds magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) clusters in its wake, forming printed features. The PDMS is subsequently heated so that it crosslinks, which preserves the printed features in the elastomer matrix. The competition between magnetic and drag forces experienced by the ferrofluid droplet and its trailing MNPs highlight design criteria for successful printing, which are experimentally confirmed. The method promises new applications, such as flexible 3D circuitry.
Acousto-ultrasonic decay in metal matrix composite panels
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kautz, Harold E.
1995-01-01
Acousto-ultrasonic (A-U) decay rates (UD) were measured in metal matrix composite (MMC) panels. The MMC panels had fiber architectures and cross-sectional thicknesses corresponding to those designed for aerospace turbine engine structures. The wavelength-to-thickness ratio produced by the combination of experimental frequency setting conditions and specimen geometry was found to be a key parameter for identifying optimum conditions for UD measurements. The ratio was shown to be a useful rule of thumb when applied to ceramic matrix composites (CMC)s and monolithic thermo-plastics.
Advanced composites: Fabrication processes for selected resin matrix materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Welhart, E. K.
1976-01-01
This design note is based on present state of the art for epoxy and polyimide matrix composite fabrication technology. Boron/epoxy and polyimide and graphite/epoxy and polyimide structural parts can be successfully fabricated. Fabrication cycles for polyimide matrix composites have been shortened to near epoxy cycle times. Nondestructive testing has proven useful in detecting defects and anomalies in composite structure elements. Fabrication methods and tooling materials are discussed along with the advantages and disadvantages of different tooling materials. Types of honeycomb core, material costs and fabrication methods are shown in table form for comparison. Fabrication limits based on tooling size, pressure capabilities and various machining operations are also discussed.
Scrambling with matrix black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brady, Lucas; Sahakian, Vatche
2013-08-01
If black holes are not to be dreaded sinks of information but rather fully described by unitary evolution, they must scramble in-falling data and eventually leak it through Hawking radiation. Sekino and Susskind have conjectured that black holes are fast scramblers; they generate entanglement at a remarkably efficient rate, with the characteristic time scaling logarithmically with the entropy. In this work, we focus on Matrix theory—M-theory in the light-cone frame—and directly probe the conjecture. We develop a concrete test bed for quantum gravity using the fermionic variables of Matrix theory and show that the problem becomes that of chains of qubits with an intricate network of interactions. We demonstrate that the black hole system evolves much like a Brownian quantum circuit, with strong indications that it is indeed a fast scrambler. We also analyze the Berenstein-Maldacena-Nastase model and reach the same tentative conclusion.
Corrosion of Titanium Matrix Composites
Covino, B.S., Jr.; Alman, D.E.
2002-09-22
The corrosion behavior of unalloyed Ti and titanium matrix composites containing up to 20 vol% of TiC or TiB{sub 2} was determined in deaerated 2 wt% HCl at 50, 70, and 90 degrees C. Corrosion rates were calculated from corrosion currents determined by extrapolation of the tafel slopes. All curves exhibited active-passive behavior but no transpassive region. Corrosion rates for Ti + TiC composites were similar to those for unalloyed Ti except at 90 degrees C where the composites were slightly higher. Corrosion rates for Ti + TiB{sub 2} composites were generally higher than those for unalloyed Ti and increased with higher concentrations of TiB{sub 2}. XRD and SEM-EDS analyses showed that the TiC reinforcement did not react with the Ti matrix during fabrication while the TiB{sub 2} reacted to form a TiB phase.
Sapphire reinforced alumina matrix composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jaskowiak, Martha H.; Setlock, John A.
1994-01-01
Unidirectionally reinforced A1203 matrix composites have been fabricated by hot pressing. Approximately 30 volume % of either coated or uncoated sapphire fiber was used as reinforcement. Unstabilized ZrO2 was applied as the fiber coating. Composite mechanical behavior was analyzed both after fabrication and after additional heat treatment. The results of composite tensile tests were correlated with fiber-matrix interfacial shear strengths determined from fiber push-out tests. Substantially higher strength and greater fiber pull-out were observed for the coated fiber composites for all processing conditions studied. The coated fiber composites retained up to 95% and 87% of their as-fabricated strength when heat treated at 14000C for 8 or 24 hours, respectively. Electron microscopy analysis of the fracture surfaces revealed extensive fiber pull-out both before and after heat treatment.
Tough high performance composite matrix
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pater, Ruth H. (Inventor); Johnston, Norman J. (Inventor)
1994-01-01
This invention is a semi-interpentrating polymer network which includes a high performance thermosetting polyimide having a nadic end group acting as a crosslinking site and a high performance linear thermoplastic polyimide. Provided is an improved high temperature matrix resin which is capable of performing in the 200 to 300 C range. This resin has significantly improved toughness and microcracking resistance, excellent processability, mechanical performance, and moisture and solvent resistances.
SnapShot: Mechanosensing Matrix.
Irianto, Jerome; Pfeifer, Charlotte R; Xia, Yuntao; Discher, Dennis E
2016-06-16
Cells sense and respond to properties of their microenvironment that can affect cell morphology, protein levels and localization, gene expression, and even nuclear integrity. Tissue micro-stiffness, largely influenced by extracellular matrix, varies dramatically within an organism and can be a useful parameter to both clarify and organize a wide range of cell and molecular processes, such as genomic changes in cancer. PMID:27315485
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Caldwell, Benjamin; Rohlman, Christopher; Benore-Parsons, Marilee
2004-01-01
We have designed a skills matrix to be used for developing and assessing undergraduate biochemistry and molecular biology laboratory curricula. We prepared the skills matrix for the Project Kaleidoscope Summer Institute workshop in Snowbird, Utah (July 2001) to help current and developing undergraduate biochemistry and molecular biology program…
An Early Childhood Program Matrix: Pulling the Pieces Together for Illinois
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Beneke, Sallee; Ruther, Gina; Fowler, Susan
2009-01-01
The early childhood program matrix in this article delineates the various requirements of nine publicly funded programs in Illinois that provide services to young children and families. The first section of the matrix addresses the design of each program and logistics, such as funding, payment, eligibility, and amount of services. The second…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Logan, Kent R.; And Others
Project SAMS (Skills, Activities, Matrixing System) was designed to develop and validate a curriculum process for educating students with profound disabilities. Central to the 3-year curriculum process was matrixing, or integrating, basic developmental skills across multiple functional, age-appropriate, and integrated activities. Components…
MALDI Matrix Research for Biopolymers
Fukuyama, Yuko
2015-01-01
Matrices are necessary materials for ionizing analytes in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). The choice of a matrix appropriate for each analyte controls the analyses. Thus, in some cases, development or improvement of matrices can become a tool for solving problems. This paper reviews MALDI matrix research that the author has conducted in the recent decade. It describes glycopeptide, carbohydrate, or phosphopeptide analyses using 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,5-DHB), 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidinium (TMG) salts of p-coumaric acid (CA) (G3CA), 3-aminoquinoline (3-AQ)/α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA) (3-AQ/CHCA) or 3-AQ/CA and gengeral peptide, peptide containing disulfide bonds or hydrophobic peptide analyses using butylamine salt of CHCA (CHCAB), 1,5-diaminonaphthalene (1,5-DAN), octyl 2,5-dihydroxybenzoate (alkylated dihydroxybenzoate, ADHB), or 1-(2,4,6-trihydroxyphenyl)octan-1-one (alkylated trihydroxyacetophenone, ATHAP). PMID:26819908
Chemical Biology for Understanding Matrix Metalloproteinase Function
Knapinska, Anna; Fields, Gregg B.
2013-01-01
The matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family has long been associated with normal physiological processes such as embryonic implantation, tissue remodeling, organ development, and wound healing, as well as multiple aspects of cancer initiation and progression, osteoarthritis, inflammatory and vascular diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases. The development of chemically designed MMP probes has advanced our understanding of the roles of MMPs in disease in addition to shedding considerable light on the mechanisms of MMP action. The first generation of protease-activated agents has demonstrated proof of principle as well as providing impetus for in vivo applications. One common problem has been a lack of agent stability at nontargeted tissues and organs due to activation by multiple proteases. The present review considers how chemical biology has impacted the progress made in understanding the roles of MMPs in disease and the basic mechanisms of MMP action. PMID:22933318
SALTSTONE MATRIX CHARACTERIZATION AND STADIUM SIMULATION RESULTS
Langton, C.
2009-07-30
less than that expected for saltstone containing the reference amount of slag (45 wt.% of the total cementitious mixture versus 21 wt.% used in the SIMCO samples). Consequently the SIMCO saltstone samples are expected to have lower strengths, and tortuosity and higher porosity, water diffusivity, and intrinsic permeability compared to the reference case MCU saltstone. MCU reference saltstone contains nonradioactive salt solution with a composition designed to simulate the product of the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (MCU) Unit [Harbour, 2009]. The SIMCO saltstone samples were cast in molds and cured for three days under plastic with a source of water to prevent drying. Details of the sample preparation process are presented in Attachment 2. The molds were then removed and the samples were cured at a constant temperature (76 F, 24 C) and 100 percent relative humidity for up to one year. Selected samples were periodically removed and characterized the evolution of the matrix as a function of age. In order to preserve the age dependent microstructure at the specified curing times it is necessary to stop hydration. This was accomplished by immersing the samples in isopropanol for 5 days to replace water with alcohol. The microstructure of the matrix material was also characterized as a function of aging. This information was used as a base line for comparison with leached microstructures. After curing for 137 days, specimens were cut into 20 mm disks and exposed to deionized water with a pH maintained at 10.5. Microstructure and calcium sulfur leaching results for samples leached for 31 days are presented in this report. Insufficient leached material was generated during the testing to date to obtain physical and mineralogical properties for leached saltstone. Longer term experiments are required because the matrix alteration rate due to immersion in deionized water is slow.
Solid oxide fuel cell matrix and modules
Riley, Brian
1990-01-01
Porous refractory ceramic blocks arranged in an abutting, stacked configuration and forming a three dimensional array provide a support structure and coupling means for a plurality of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Each of the blocks includes a square center channel which forms a vertical shaft when the blocks are arranged in a stacked array. Positioned within the channel is a SOFC unit cell such that a plurality of such SOFC units disposed within a vertical shaft form a string of SOFC units coupled in series. A first pair of facing inner walls of each of the blocks each include an interconnecting channel hole cut horizontally and vertically into the block walls to form gas exit channels. A second pair of facing lateral walls of each block further include a pair of inner half circular grooves which form sleeves to accommodate anode fuel and cathode air tubes. The stack of ceramic blocks is self-supporting, with a plurality of such stacked arrays forming a matrix enclosed in an insulating refractory brick structure having an outer steel layer. The necessary connections for air, fuel, burnt gas, and anode and cathode connections are provided through the brick and steel outer shell. The ceramic blocks are so designed with respect to the strings of modules that by simple and logical design the strings could be replaced by hot reloading if one should fail. The hot reloading concept has not been included in any previous designs.
Matrix-based image reconstruction methods for tomography
Llacer, J.; Meng, J.D.
1984-10-01
Matrix methods of image reconstruction have not been used, in general, because of the large size of practical matrices, ill condition upon inversion and the success of Fourier-based techniques. An exception is the work that has been done at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for imaging with accelerated radioactive ions. An extension of that work into more general imaging problems shows that, with a correct formulation of the problem, positron tomography with ring geometries results in well behaved matrices which can be used for image reconstruction with no distortion of the point response in the field of view and flexibility in the design of the instrument. Maximum Likelihood Estimator methods of reconstruction, which use the system matrices tailored to specific instruments and do not need matrix inversion, are shown to result in good preliminary images. A parallel processing computer structure based on multiple inexpensive microprocessors is proposed as a system to implement the matrix-MLE methods. 14 references, 7 figures.
Matrix Formulation of Pebble Circulation in the PEBBED Code
Gougar, Hans D; Terry, William Knox; Ougouag, Abderrafi Mohammed-El-Ami
2002-04-01
The PEBBED technique provides a foundation for equilibrium fuel-cycle analysis and optimization in pebble-bed cores in which the fuel elements are continuously flowing and, if desired, recirculating. In addition to the modern analysis techniques used in, or being developed for, the code, PEBBED incorporates a novel nuclide-mixing algorithm that allows for sophisticated recirculation patterns using a matrix generated from basic core parameters. Derived from a simple partitioning of the pebble flow, the elements of the recirculation matrix are used to compute the spatially averaged density of each nuclide at the entry plane from the nuclide densities of pebbles emerging from the discharge conus. The order of the recirculation matrix is a function of the flexibility and sophistication of the fuel handling mechanism. This formulation for coupling pebble flow and neutronics enables core design and fuel cycle optimization to be performed by manipulating a few key core parameters. The formulation is amenable to modern optimization techniques.
R&D of MCFC matrix for long term operation
Nishimura, Takashi; Fujita, Yoji; Urushibata, Hiroaki; Sasaki, Akira
1996-12-31
Long term operation is an essential subject in the commercialization of the Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC). Material stability is important for the development of the MCFC. particularly for long term operation. In this paper, the specification and the stabilization of MCFC matrix arc investigated, with the aim of producing 40000 hours of operation. It is common knowledge that matrix thickness has a large influence on shorting time, as shorting is caused by the dissolution of the nickel oxide cathodes. Therefore, the optimum thickness of a matrix designed for 40000 hours operation without the nickel shorting was sought. The influences of different electrolytes and matrix specifications on the shorting time were measured with accelerated cell tests. The internal resistance of the matrix was also estimated. Gamma( {gamma} )-lithium aluminate (LiAlO{sub 2}) powder with a sub-micron particle diameter is commonly used for a raw material of matrix to retain molten carbonate electrolytes. This is because most researchers found that {gamma}-LiA1O{sub 2} was the most stable material in the MCFC environment among the three allotropic forms alpha ( {alpha} ), beta ( {beta} ), and {gamma}. However. two problems with the stability of {gamma} -LiAlO{sub 2} are being vigorously discussed. especially in Japan: particle growth causes decreasing electrolyte retention, and the transformation of {gamma} to {alpha}. This transformation contradicts the accepted opinion that {gamma} is the most stable form. In this paper, the particle growth and the phase transformation of LiAlO{sub 2} are examined with post-test analyses. The influence of matrix degradation on cell performance is also considered.
Advanced Ceramic Matrix Composites with Multifunctional and Hybrid Structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Singh, Mrityunjay; Morscher, Gregory N.
2004-01-01
Ceramic matrix composites are leading candidate materials for a number of applications in aeronautics, space, energy, and nuclear industries. Potential composite applications differ in their requirements for thickness. For example, many space applications such as "nozzle ramps" or "heat exchangers" require very thin (< 1 mm) structures whereas turbine blades would require very thick parts (> or = 1 cm). Little is known about the effect of thickness on stress-strain behavior or the elevated temperature tensile properties controlled by oxidation diffusion. In this study, composites consisting of woven Hi-Nicalon (trademark) fibers a carbon interphase and CVI SiC matrix were fabricated with different numbers of plies and thicknesses. The effect of thickness on matrix crack formation, matrix crack growth and diffusion kinetics will be discussed. In another approach, hybrid fiber-lay up concepts have been utilized to "alloy" desirable properties of different fiber types for mechanical properties, thermal stress management, and oxidation resistance. Such an approach has potential for the C(sub I)-SiC and SiC(sub f)-SiC composite systems. CVI SiC matrix composites with different stacking sequences of woven C fiber (T300) layers and woven SiC fiber (Hi-Nicalon (trademark)) layers were fabricated. The results will be compared to standard C fiber reinforced CVI SiC matrix and Hi-Nicalon reinforced CVI SiC matrix composites. In addition, shear properties of these composites at different temperatures will also be presented. Other design and implementation issues will be discussed along with advantages and benefits of using these materials for various components in high temperature applications.
Metal-matrix composites: Status and prospects
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1974-01-01
Applications of metal matrix composites for air frames and jet engine components are discussed. The current state of the art in primary and secondary fabrication is presented. The present and projected costs were analyzed to determine the cost effectiveness of metal matrix composites. The various types of metal matrix composites and their characteristics are described.
DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF A METRONIDAZOLE CENTRAL CORE MATRIX TABLET
Nagaich, Upendra; Chaudhary, Vandana; Tonpay, S.D.; Karki, Roopa
2010-01-01
In this paper, a study of different concentration of HPMC K 15 M exerts influence on the drug release process from a new controlled drug delivery system has been realized in order to obtain a constant release rate during a prolonged period of time, for a programmed drug release. The drug release profiles obtained for the different batches have shown an interesting relationship between the particle size of the channeling agent used and the length of different operational periods. PMID:22247836
Brigido, Stephen A; Boc, Steven F; Lopez, Ramon C
2004-01-01
Wound healing is a significant problem in orthopedics. Graftjacket tissue matrix (Wright Medical Technology, Inc, Arlington, Tenn), a novel acellular regenerative tissue matrix, has been designed to aid wound closure. A prospective, randomized study was initiated to determine the efficacy of this tissue product in wound repair compared with conventional treatment. Lower extremity wounds are refractile to healing in patients with diabetes mellitus. Therefore, researchers used diabetic foot ulcers to evaluate the efficacy of GraftJacket tissue matrix in wound repair. Only a single administration of the tissue matrix was required. After 1 month of treatment, preliminary results demonstrate that this novel tissue matrix promotes faster healing at a statistically significant rate over conventional treatment. Because wounds in this series of patients are deep and circulation around the wound is poor, the preliminary results suggest that this tissue matrix will be applicable to other types of orthopedic wounds. PMID:14763548
Autocorrelation function of channel matrix in few-mode fibers with strong mode coupling.
Hu, Qian; Shieh, William
2013-09-23
Channel matrix plays a critical role in receiver design and ultimate channel performance. To fully describe the channel matrix of a few-mode fiber (FMF), we choose the generalized high-dimensional Gell-Mann matrices, an equivalent of the 2-dimensional Pauli matrices used for a single-mode fiber (SMF), as the basis for the channel matrix decomposition. The frequency dependence of channel matrix can be studied in terms of the autocorrelation function (ACF), showing how fast channel changes in frequency domain. In this paper, we derive a canonical stochastic differential equation (SDE) for the FMF channel matrix in the regime of strong coupling. With the SDE, we develop an analytical form for the ACF of FMF channel matrix, from which the channel correlation bandwidth is obtained. PMID:24104107
Improved Underwater Excitation-Emission Matrix Fluorometer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moore, Casey; daCunha, John; Rhoades, Bruce; Twardowski, Michael
2007-01-01
A compact, high-resolution, two-dimensional excitation-emission matrix fluorometer (EEMF) has been designed and built specifically for use in identifying and measuring the concentrations of organic compounds, including polluting hydrocarbons, in natural underwater settings. Heretofore, most EEMFs have been designed and built for installation in laboratories, where they are used to analyze the contents of samples collected in the field and brought to the laboratories. Because the present EEMF can be operated in the field, it is better suited to measurement of spatially and temporally varying concentrations of substances of interest. In excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorometry, fluorescence is excited by irradiating a sample at one or more wavelengths, and the fluorescent emission from the sample is measured at multiple wavelengths. When excitation is provided at only one wavelength, the technique is termed one-dimensional (1D) EEM fluorometry because the resulting matrix of fluorescence emission data (the EEM) contains only one row or column. When excitation is provided at multiple wavelengths, the technique is termed two-dimensional (2D) EEM fluorometry because the resulting EEM contains multiple rows and columns. EEM fluorometry - especially the 2D variety - is well established as a means of simultaneously detecting numerous dissolved and particulate compounds in water. Each compound or pool of compounds has a unique spectral fluorescence signature, and each EEM is rich in information content, in that it can contain multiple fluorescence signatures. By use of deconvolution and/or other mixture-analyses techniques, it is often possible to isolate the spectral signature of compounds of interest, even when their fluorescence spectra overlap. What distinguishes the present 2D EEMF over prior laboratory-type 2D EEMFs are several improvements in packaging (including a sealed housing) and other aspects of design that render it suitable for use in natural underwater
Random Matrix Theory and Econophysics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosenow, Bernd
2000-03-01
Random Matrix Theory (RMT) [1] is used in many branches of physics as a ``zero information hypothesis''. It describes generic behavior of different classes of systems, while deviations from its universal predictions allow to identify system specific properties. We use methods of RMT to analyze the cross-correlation matrix C of stock price changes [2] of the largest 1000 US companies. In addition to its scientific interest, the study of correlations between the returns of different stocks is also of practical relevance in quantifying the risk of a given stock portfolio. We find [3,4] that the statistics of most of the eigenvalues of the spectrum of C agree with the predictions of RMT, while there are deviations for some of the largest eigenvalues. We interpret these deviations as a system specific property, e.g. containing genuine information about correlations in the stock market. We demonstrate that C shares universal properties with the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble of random matrices. Furthermore, we analyze the eigenvectors of C through their inverse participation ratio and find eigenvectors with large ratios at both edges of the eigenvalue spectrum - a situation reminiscent of localization theory results. This work was done in collaboration with V. Plerou, P. Gopikrishnan, T. Guhr, L.A.N. Amaral, and H.E Stanley and is related to recent work of Laloux et al.. 1. T. Guhr, A. Müller Groeling, and H.A. Weidenmüller, ``Random Matrix Theories in Quantum Physics: Common Concepts'', Phys. Rep. 299, 190 (1998). 2. See, e.g. R.N. Mantegna and H.E. Stanley, Econophysics: Correlations and Complexity in Finance (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 1999). 3. V. Plerou, P. Gopikrishnan, B. Rosenow, L.A.N. Amaral, and H.E. Stanley, ``Universal and Nonuniversal Properties of Cross Correlations in Financial Time Series'', Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1471 (1999). 4. V. Plerou, P. Gopikrishnan, T. Guhr, B. Rosenow, L.A.N. Amaral, and H.E. Stanley, ``Random Matrix Theory
Regenerator matrix physical property data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fucinari, C. A.
1980-01-01
Among several cellular ceramic structures manufactured by various suppliers for regenerator application in a gas turbine engine, three have the best potential for achieving durability and performance objectives for use in gas turbines, Stirling engines, and waste heat recovery systems: (1) an aluminum-silicate sinusoidal flow passage made from a corrugated wate paper process; (2) an extruded isosceles triangle flow passage; and (3) a second generation matrix incorporating a square flow passage formed by an embossing process. Key physical and thermal property data for these configurations presented include: heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics, compressive strength, tensile strength and elasticity, thermal expansion characteristics, chanical attack, and thermal stability.
Matrix management for aerospace 2000
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mccarthy, J. F., Jr.
1980-01-01
The martix management approach to program management is an organized effort for attaining program objectives by defining and structuring all elements so as to form a single system whose parts are united by interaction. The objective of the systems approach is uncompromisingly complete coverage of the program management endeavor. Starting with an analysis of the functions necessary to carry out a given program, a model must be defined; a matrix of responsibility assignment must be prepared; and each operational process must be examined to establish how it is to be carried out and how it relates to all other processes.
Brain Extracellular Matrix in Neurodegeneration
Bonneh-Barkay, Dafna; Wiley, Clayton A.
2009-01-01
The role of extracellular matrix (ECM) in neurological development, function and degeneration has evolved from a simplistic physical adhesion to a system of intricate cellular signaling. While most cells require ECM adhesion to survive, it is now clear that differentiated function is intimately dependent upon cellular interaction with the ECM. Therefore, it is not surprising that the ECM is increasingly found to be involved in the enigmatic process of neurodegeneration. Descriptive studies of human neurodegenerative disorders and experimental studies of animal models of neurodegeneration have begun to define potential mechanisms of ECM disruption that can lead to synaptic and neuronal loss. PMID:18662234
Teaching Tip: When a Matrix and Its Inverse Are Stochastic
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ding, J.; Rhee, N. H.
2013-01-01
A stochastic matrix is a square matrix with nonnegative entries and row sums 1. The simplest example is a permutation matrix, whose rows permute the rows of an identity matrix. A permutation matrix and its inverse are both stochastic. We prove the converse, that is, if a matrix and its inverse are both stochastic, then it is a permutation matrix.
The Theory of Quaternion Matrix Derivatives
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Dongpo; Mandic, Danilo P.
2015-03-01
A systematic theory is introduced for calculating the derivatives of quaternion matrix function with respect to quaternion matrix variables. The proposed methodology is equipped with the matrix product rule and chain rule and it is able to handle both analytic and nonanalytic functions. This corrects a flaw in the existing methods, that is, the incorrect use of the traditional product rule. In the framework introduced, the derivatives of quaternion matrix functions can be calculated directly without the differential of this function. Key results are summarized in tables. Several examples show how the quaternion matrix derivatives can be used as an important tool for solving problems related to signal processing.
The q-Laguerre matrix polynomials.
Salem, Ahmed
2016-01-01
The Laguerre polynomials have been extended to Laguerre matrix polynomials by means of studying certain second-order matrix differential equation. In this paper, certain second-order matrix q-difference equation is investigated and solved. Its solution gives a generalized of the q-Laguerre polynomials in matrix variable. Four generating functions of this matrix polynomials are investigated. Two slightly different explicit forms are introduced. Three-term recurrence relation, Rodrigues-type formula and the q-orthogonality property are given. PMID:27190749
Automated Design of Quantum Circuits
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Williams, C.; Gray, G.
1998-01-01
In order to design a quantum circuit that performs a desired quantum computation, it is necessary to find a decomposition of the unitary matrix that represents that computation in terms of a sequence of quantum gate operations.
Characterization of Metal Matrix Composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Daniel, I. M.; Chun, H. J.; Karalekas, D.
1994-01-01
Experimental methods were developed, adapted, and applied to the characterization of a metal matrix composite system, namely, silicon carbide/aluminim (SCS-2/6061 Al), and its constituents. The silicon carbide fiber was characterized by determining its modulus, strength, and coefficient of thermal expansion. The aluminum matrix was characterized thermomechanically up to 399 C (750 F) at two strain rates. The unidirectional SiC/Al composite was characterized mechanically under longitudinal, transverse, and in-plane shear loading up to 399 C (750 F). Isothermal and non-isothermal creep behavior was also measured. The applicability of a proposed set of multifactor thermoviscoplastic nonlinear constitutive relations and a computer code was investigated. Agreement between predictions and experimental results was shown in a few cases. The elastoplastic thermomechanical behavior of the composite was also described by a number of new analytical models developed or adapted for the material system studied. These models include the rule of mixtures, composite cylinder model with various thermoelastoplastic analyses and a model based on average field theory. In most cases satisfactory agreement was demonstrated between analytical predictions and experimental results for the cases of stress-strain behavior and thermal deformation behavior at different temperatures. In addition, some models yielded detailed three-dimensional stress distributions in the constituents within the composite.
On matrix Painlevé hierarchies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gordoa, P. R.; Pickering, A.; Zhu, Z. N.
2016-07-01
We define a matrix first Painlevé hierarchy and a matrix second Painlevé (PII) hierarchy. For our matrix PII hierarchy we also give auto-Bäcklund transformations and consider the iteration of solutions. This is the first paper to define matrix Painlevé hierarchies and to give auto-Bäcklund transformations for a matrix Painlevé hierarchy. We also consider, amongst other results, the derivation of sequences of special integrals and autonomous limits. Until now it has been unknown how to connect the known matrix PII equation to the obvious candidates for related completely integrable matrix partial differential equations. Our matrix PII hierarchy is placed firmly within the context of a matrix modified Korteweg-de Vries (mKdV) hierarchy. In deriving our matrix PII hierarchy we make use of the Hamiltonian structure of this matrix mKdV hierarchy. We thus see once again the importance for Painlevé hierarchies of the integrability structures of related completely integrable equations.
Stabilized matrix for molten carbonate fuel cell
Nirasawa, Hitoshi; Kawachi, Takanori; Ogawa, Takashi; Hori, Michio; Tomimatsu, Norihiro; Nakagawa, Kazuaki; Ohzu, Hideyuki; Yamazaki, Yohtaro
1996-12-31
For commercialization of molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) power plants, the most important factors are MCFC performance and life. The performance and life of an MCFC depend on the electrolyte loss and gas crossover due to the matrix degradation, such as LiAlO{sub 2} particle growth during cell operation and the matrix cracking at the initial heat-up stage. In order to suppress the matrix degradation, the authors fabricated a stabilized matrix with {alpha}-LiAlO{sub 2} as the electrolyte support material and with long {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} fibers as the reinforcement. They assembled the cell with the stabilized matrix. The performance of the cell is stable for 7,000 hours. They consider that the matrix degradation, such as the particle growth during cell operation and matrix cracking, has not occurred in this cell.
Radial matrix cracking in unidirectional brittle matrix composites
Tandon, G.P.; Pagano, N.J.
1994-12-31
This work presents a mathematical study of radial cracking in the transverse direction of a unidirectional composite under the influence of thermal and mechanical loads. The formulation is based on the use of Reissner`s variational theorem in conjunction with an equilibrium stress field in which the r-dependence is assumed. In this study, this newly developed model is employed to evaluate the effect of the extent of radial matrix cracking on the elastic response of a unidirectional composite. Parametric studies are also conducted to examine the effect of varying the elastic properties of the constituents on the energy release rate of a radial crack. The computed values are shown to be in good agreement with the reported exact solution.
High Strain Rate Behavior of Polymer Matrix Composites Analyzed
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goldberg, Robert K.; Roberts, Gary D.
2001-01-01
Procedures for modeling the high-speed impact of composite materials are needed for designing reliable composite engine cases that are lighter than the metal cases in current use. The types of polymer matrix composites that are likely to be used in such an application have a deformation response that is nonlinear and that varies with strain rate. To characterize and validate material models that could be used in the design of impactresistant engine cases, researchers must obtain material data over a wide variety of strain rates. An experimental program has been carried out through a university grant with the Ohio State University to obtain deformation data for a representative polymer matrix composite for strain rates ranging from quasi-static to high rates of several hundred per second. This information has been used to characterize and validate a constitutive model that was developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center.
Crosslinked Matrix-free Nanocomposites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dach, Benjamin; Rengifo, Hernan; Turro, Nicholas; Koberstein, Jeffrey
2010-03-01
Matrix-free polymer-silica nanocomposites are formed by crosslinking polymer coated nanoparticles via the `click' reaction. The `click' reaction is also known as H"uisgen 1, 3-dipolar cycloaddition of terminal alkyne and azide functional groups to give 1, 2, 3-triazoles. Silica nanoparticles are functionalized with alkyne and azide moieties. Heterobifunctional α,φ-trimethylsilane-alkyne,azide-poly(styrene) (TMS-PS-N3) and α,φ-trimethylsilane-alkyne,azide--poly(tert-butyl acrylate) (TMS-PtBA-N3) are then covalently bound to the surfaces of the nanoparticles via the `click' reaction. The bare and modified nanoparticles are analyzed by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS). The thermal, morphological, and mechanical properties of the systems are investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and dynamic rheology, respectively. .
Thermoplastic matrix composite processing model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dara, P. H.; Loos, A. C.
1985-01-01
The effects the processing parameters pressure, temperature, and time have on the quality of continuous graphite fiber reinforced thermoplastic matrix composites were quantitatively accessed by defining the extent to which intimate contact and bond formation has occurred at successive ply interfaces. Two models are presented predicting the extents to which the ply interfaces have achieved intimate contact and cohesive strength. The models are based on experimental observation of compression molded laminates and neat resin conditions, respectively. Identified as the mechanism explaining the phenomenon by which the plies bond to themselves is the theory of autohesion (or self diffusion). Theoretical predictions from the Reptation Theory between autohesive strength and contact time are used to explain the effects of the processing parameters on the observed experimental strengths. The application of a time-temperature relationship for autohesive strength predictions is evaluated. A viscoelastic compression molding model of a tow was developed to explain the phenomenon by which the prepreg ply interfaces develop intimate contact.
Evaluation of metal matrix composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Okelly, K. P.
1971-01-01
The results of an evaluation of candidate metal-matrix composite materials for shuttle space radiators mounted to external structure are presented. The evaluation was specifically applicable to considerations of the manufacturing and properties of a potential space radiator. Two candidates, boron/aluminum and graphite/aluminum were obtained or made in various forms and tested in sufficient depth to allow selection of one of the two for future scale-up programs. The effort accomplished on this program verified that aluminum reinforced with boron was within the state-of-the-art in industry and possessed properties usable in the external skin areas available for shuttle radiators where re-entry temperatures will not exceed 800 F. It further demonstrated that graphite/aluminum has an apparently attractive future for space applications but requires extension development prior to scale-up.
Hastings, M. B.
2009-09-15
We show how to combine the light-cone and matrix product algorithms to simulate quantum systems far from equilibrium for long times. For the case of the XXZ spin chain at {delta}=0.5, we simulate to a time of {approx_equal}22.5. While part of the long simulation time is due to the use of the light-cone method, we also describe a modification of the infinite time-evolving bond decimation algorithm with improved numerical stability, and we describe how to incorporate symmetry into this algorithm. While statistical sampling error means that we are not yet able to make a definite statement, the behavior of the simulation at long times indicates the appearance of either 'revivals' in the order parameter as predicted by Hastings and Levitov (e-print arXiv:0806.4283) or of a distinct shoulder in the decay of the order parameter.
Applications of matrix inversion tomosynthesis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Warp, Richard J.; Godfrey, Devon J.; Dobbins, James T., III
2000-04-01
The improved image quality and characteristics of new flat- panel x-ray detectors have renewed interest in advanced algorithms such as tomosynthesis. Digital tomosynthesis is a method of acquiring and reconstructing a three-dimensional data set with limited-angle tube movement. Historically, conventional tomosynthesis reconstruction has suffered contamination of the planes of interest by blurred out-of- plane structures. This paper focuses on a Matrix Inversion Tomosynthesis (MITS) algorithm to remove unwanted blur from adjacent planes. The algorithm uses a set of coupled equations to solve for the blurring function in each reconstructed plane. This paper demonstrates the use of the MITS algorithm in three imaging applications: small animal microscopy, chest radiography, and orthopedics. The results of the MITS reconstruction process demonstrate an improved reduction of blur from out-of-plane structures when compared to conventional tomosynthesis. We conclude that the MITS algorithm holds potential in a variety of applications to improve three-dimensional image reconstruction.
Intermetallic bonded ceramic matrix composites
Plucknett, K.P.; Tiegs, T.N.; Alexander, K.B.; Becher, P.F.; Schneibel, J.H.; Waters, S.B.; Menchhofer, P.A.
1995-07-01
A range of carbide and oxide-based cermets have been developed utilizing ductile nickel aluminide (Ni{sub 3}Al) alloy binder phases. Some of these, notably materials based upon tungsten and titanium carbides (WC and TiC respectively), offer potential as alternatives to the cermets which use cobalt binders (i.e. WC/Co). Samples have been prepared by blending commercially available Ni{sub 3}Al alloy powders with the desired ceramic phases, followed by hot-pressing. Alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) matrix materials have also been prepared by pressurized molten alloy infiltration. The microstructure, flexure strength and fracture toughness of selected materials are discussed.
Spine Fusion Using Cell Matrix Composites Enriched in Bone Marrow-Derived Cells
Nitto, Hironori; Matsukura, Yoichi; Boehm, Cynthia; Valdevit, Antonio; Kambic, Helen; Davros, William; Powell, Kimerly; Easley, Kirk
2005-01-01
Bone marrow-derived cells including osteoblastic progenitors can be concentrated rapidly from bone marrow aspirates using the surface of selected implantable matrices for selective cell attachment. Concentration of cells in this way to produce an enriched cellular composite graft improves graft efficacy. The current study was designed to test the hypothesis that the biologic milieu of a bone marrow clot will significantly improve the efficacy of such a graft. An established posterior spinal fusion model and cancellous bone matrix was used to compare an enriched cellular composite bone graft alone, bone matrix plus bone marrow clot, and an enriched bone matrix composite graft plus bone marrow clot. Union score, quantitative computed tomography, and mechanical testing were used to define outcome. The union score for the enriched bone matrix plus bone marrow clot composite was superior to the enriched bone matrix alone and the bone matrix plus bone marrow clot. The enriched bone matrix plus bone marrow clot composite also was superior to the enriched bone matrix alone in fusion volume and in fusion area. These data confirm that the addition of a bone marrow clot to an enriched cell-matrix composite graft results in significant improvement in graft performance. Enriched composite grafts prepared using this strategy provide a rapid, simple, safe, and inexpensive method for intraoperative concentration and delivery of bone marrow-derived cells and connective tissue progenitors that may improve the outcome of bone grafting. PMID:12567137
Naik, Ganesh R; Nguyen, Hung T
2015-03-01
Surface electromyography (sEMG) is widely used in evaluating the functional status of the hand to assist in hand gesture recognition, prosthetics and rehabilitation applications. The sEMG is a noninvasive, easy to record signal of superficial muscles from the skin surface. Considering the nonstationary characteristics of sEMG, recent feature selection of hand gesture recognition using sEMG signals necessitate designers to use nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF)-based methods. This method exploits both the additive and sparse nature of signals by extracting accurate and reliable measurements of sEMG features using a minimum number of sensors. The testing has been conducted for simple and complex finger flexions using several experiments with artificial neural network classification scheme. It is shown, both by simulation and experimental studies, that the proposed algorithm is able to classify ten finger flexions (five simple and five complex finger flexions) recorded from two sEMG sensors up to 92% (95% for simple and 87% for complex flexions) accuracy. The recognition performances of simple and complex finger flexions are also validated with NMF permutation matrix analysis. PMID:25486650
Extracellular matrix component signaling in cancer.
Multhaupt, Hinke A B; Leitinger, Birgit; Gullberg, Donald; Couchman, John R
2016-02-01
Cell responses to the extracellular matrix depend on specific signaling events. These are important from early development, through differentiation and tissue homeostasis, immune surveillance, and disease pathogenesis. Signaling not only regulates cell adhesion cytoskeletal organization and motility but also provides survival and proliferation cues. The major classes of cell surface receptors for matrix macromolecules are the integrins, discoidin domain receptors, and transmembrane proteoglycans such as syndecans and CD44. Cells respond not only to specific ligands, such as collagen, fibronectin, or basement membrane glycoproteins, but also in terms of matrix rigidity. This can regulate the release and subsequent biological activity of matrix-bound growth factors, for example, transforming growth factor-β. In the environment of tumors, there may be changes in cell populations and their receptor profiles as well as matrix constitution and protein cross-linking. Here we summarize roles of the three major matrix receptor types, with emphasis on how they function in tumor progression. PMID:26519775
Convex nonnegative matrix factorization with manifold regularization.
Hu, Wenjun; Choi, Kup-Sze; Wang, Peiliang; Jiang, Yunliang; Wang, Shitong
2015-03-01
Nonnegative Matrix Factorization (NMF) has been extensively applied in many areas, including computer vision, pattern recognition, text mining, and signal processing. However, nonnegative entries are usually required for the data matrix in NMF, which limits its application. Besides, while the basis and encoding vectors obtained by NMF can represent the original data in low dimension, the representations do not always reflect the intrinsic geometric structure embedded in the data. Motivated by manifold learning and Convex NMF (CNMF), we propose a novel matrix factorization method called Graph Regularized and Convex Nonnegative Matrix Factorization (GCNMF) by introducing a graph regularized term into CNMF. The proposed matrix factorization technique not only inherits the intrinsic low-dimensional manifold structure, but also allows the processing of mixed-sign data matrix. Clustering experiments on nonnegative and mixed-sign real-world data sets are conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:25523040
Xu, Hui; Sandor, Maryellen; Lombardi, Jared
2013-01-01
Extracellular matrices derived from animal tissues for human tissue repairs are processed by various methods of physical, chemical, or enzymatic decellularization, viral inactivation, and terminal sterilization. The mechanisms of action in tissue repair vary among bioscaffolds and are suggested to be associated with process-induced extracellular matrix modifications. We compared three non-cross-linked, commercially available extracellular matrix scaffolds (Strattice, Veritas, and XenMatrix), and correlated extracellular matrix alterations to in vivo biological responses upon implantation in non-human primates. Structural evaluation showed significant differences in retaining native tissue extracellular matrix histology and ultrastructural features among bioscaffolds. Tissue processing may cause both the condensation of collagen fibers and fragmentation or separation of collagen bundles. Calorimetric analysis showed significant differences in the stability of bioscaffolds. The intrinsic denaturation temperature was measured to be 51°C, 38°C, and 44°C for Strattice, Veritas, and XenMatrix, respectively, demonstrating more extracellular matrix modifications in the Veritas and XenMatrix scaffolds. Consequently, the susceptibility to collagenase degradation was increased in Veritas and XenMatrix when compared to their respective source tissues. Using a non-human primate model, three bioscaffolds were found to elicit different biological responses, have distinct mechanisms of action, and yield various outcomes of tissue repair. Strattice permitted cell repopulation and was remodeled over 6 months. Veritas was unstable at body temperature, resulting in rapid absorption with moderate inflammation. XenMatrix caused severe inflammation and sustained immune reactions. This study demonstrates that extracellular matrix alterations significantly affect biological responses in soft tissue repair and regeneration. The data offer useful insights into the rational design of
Recent developments on the CKM matrix
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Wei
2014-07-01
In Standard Model, CP violation arises from an irreducible complex phase in the quark mixing matrix, now under the name Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix. This description has shown remarkable overall agreement with various experimental measurements. In this review, we discuss recent experimental data and theoretical developments on three quantities of CKM matrix that are most uncertain: the Vub, including its magnitude and the phase γ in standard parametrization, and the Bs-\\bar Bs mixing phase βs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Guo-Ming; Ni, Si-Dao
1998-11-01
The `auxiliary' symmetry properties of the system matrix (symmetry with respect to the trailing diagonal) for a general anisotropic dissipative medium and the special form for a monoclinic medium are revealed by rearranging the motion-stress vector. The propagator matrix of a single-layer general anisotropic dissipative medium is also shown to have auxiliary symmetry. For the multilayered case, a relatively simple matrix method is utilized to obtain the inverse of the propagator matrix. Further, Woodhouse's inverse of the propagator matrix for a transversely isotropic medium is extended in a clearer form to handle the monoclinic symmetric medium. The properties of a periodic layer system are studied through its system matrix Aly , which is computed from the propagator matrix P. The matrix Aly is then compared with Aeq , the system matrix for the long-wavelength equivalent medium of the periodic isotropic layers. Then we can find how the periodic layered medium departs from its long-wavelength equivalent medium when the wavelength decreases. In our numerical example, the results show that, when λ/D decreases to 6-8, the components of the two matrices will depart from each other. The component ratio of these two matrices increases to its maximum (more than 15 in our numerical test) when λ/D is reduced to 2.3, and then oscillates with λ/D when it is further reduced. The eigenvalues of the system matrix Aly show that the velocities of P and S waves decrease when λ/D is reduced from 6-8 and reach their minimum values when λ/D is reduced to 2.3 and then oscillate afterwards. We compute the time shifts between the peaks of the transmitted waves and the incident waves. The resulting velocity curves show a similar variation to those computed from the eigenvalues of the system matrix Aly , but on a smaller scale. This can be explained by the spectrum width of the incident waves.
Charge Resolution of the Silicon Matrix of the ATIC Experiment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zatsepin, V. I.; Adams, J. H., Jr.; Ahn, H. S.; Bashindzhagyan, G. L.; Batkov, K. E.; Case, G.; Christl, M.; Ganel, O.; Fazely, A. R.; Ganel, O.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
ATIC (Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter) is a balloon borne experiment designed to measure the cosmic ray composition for elements from hydrogen to iron and their energy spectra from approx.50 GeV to near 100 TeV. It consists of a Si-matrix detector to determine the charge of a CRT particle, a scintillator hodoscope for tracking, carbon interaction targets and a fully active BGO calorimeter. ATIC had its first flight from McMurdo, Antarctica from 28/12/2000 to 13/01/2001. The ATIC flight collected approximately 25 million events. The silicon matrix of the ATIC spectrometer is designed to resolve individual elements from proton to iron. To provide this resolution careful calibration of each pixel of the silicon matrix is required. Firstly, for each electronic channel of the matrix the pedestal value was subtracted taking into account its drift during the flight. The muon calibration made before the flight was used then to convert electric signals (in ADC channel number) to energy deposits in each pixel. However, the preflight muon calibration was not accurate enough for the purpose, because of lack of statistics in each pixel. To improve charge resolution the correction was done for the position of Helium peak in each pixel during the flight . The other way to set electric signals in electronics channels of the Si-matrix to one scale was correction for electric channel gains accurately measured in laboratory. In these measurements it was found that small different nonlinearities for different channels are present in the region of charge Z > 20. The correction for these non-linearities was not done yet. In linear approximation the method provides practically the same resolution as muon calibration plus He-peak correction. For searching a pixel with the signal of primary particle an indication from the cascade in the calorimeter was used. For this purpose a trajectory was reconstructed using weight centers of energy deposits in BGO layers. The point of intersection
Multiscale Modeling of Ceramic Matrix Composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Mital, Subodh K.; Pineda, Evan J.; Arnold, Steven M.
2015-01-01
Results of multiscale modeling simulations of the nonlinear response of SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites are reported, wherein the microstructure of the ceramic matrix is captured. This micro scale architecture, which contains free Si material as well as the SiC ceramic, is responsible for residual stresses that play an important role in the subsequent thermo-mechanical behavior of the SiC/SiC composite. Using the novel Multiscale Generalized Method of Cells recursive micromechanics theory, the microstructure of the matrix, as well as the microstructure of the composite (fiber and matrix) can be captured.
Third Intermetallic Matrix Composites Symposium, volume 350
Graves, J.A.; Bowman, R.R.; Lewandowski, J.J.
1994-04-01
Partial contents include: issues in potential IMC application for aerospace structures; powder metallurgy processing of intermetallic matrix composites; microstructure and properties of intermetallic matrix composites produced by reaction synthesis; combustion synthesis of niobium aluminide matrix composites; ambient temperature synthesis of bulk intermetallics; wear behavior of SHS intermetallic matrix composites; fracture characteristics of metal-intermetallic laminates produced by SHS reactions; and vapor phase synthesis of Ti aluminides and the interfacial bonding effect on the mechanical property of micro-composites reinforced by pyrolized SiC fibers.
Reconstituted asbestos matrix for fuel cells
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcbryar, H.
1975-01-01
Method is described for reprocessing commercially available asbestos matrix stock to yield greater porosity and bubble pressure (due to increased surface tension), improved homogeneity, and greater uniformity.
Autologous Matrix-Induced Chondrogenesis in the Knee
Suzer, Ferzan; Thermann, Hajo
2014-01-01
Objective: Autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis (AMIC) is a 1-step cartilage restoration technique that combines microfracture with the use of an exogenous scaffold. This matrix covers and mechanically stabilizes the clot. There have been an increasing number of studies performed related to the AMIC technique and an update of its use and results is warranted. Design and methods: Using the PubMed database, a literature search was performed using the terms “AMIC” or “Autologous Matrix Induced Chondrogenesis.” A total of 19 basic science and clinical articles were identified. Results: Ten studies that were published on the use of AMIC for knee chondral defects were identified and the results of 219 patients were analyzed. The improvements in Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective, Lysholm and Tegner scores at 2 years were comparable to the published results from autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) and matrix ACI techniques for cartilage repair. Conclusions: Our systematic review of the current state of the AMIC technique suggests that it is a promising 1-stage cartilage repair technique. The short-term clinical outcomes and magnetic resonance imaging results are comparable to other cell-based methods. Further studies with AMIC in randomized studies versus other repair techniques such as ACI are needed in the future. PMID:26069694
ANALYSIS OF A CLASSIFICATION ERROR MATRIX USING CATEGORICAL DATA TECHNIQUES.
Rosenfield, George H.; Fitzpatrick-Lins, Katherine
1984-01-01
Summary form only given. A classification error matrix typically contains tabulation results of an accuracy evaluation of a thematic classification, such as that of a land use and land cover map. The diagonal elements of the matrix represent the counts corrected, and the usual designation of classification accuracy has been the total percent correct. The nondiagonal elements of the matrix have usually been neglected. The classification error matrix is known in statistical terms as a contingency table of categorical data. As an example, an application of these methodologies to a problem of remotely sensed data concerning two photointerpreters and four categories of classification indicated that there is no significant difference in the interpretation between the two photointerpreters, and that there are significant differences among the interpreted category classifications. However, two categories, oak and cottonwood, are not separable in classification in this experiment at the 0. 51 percent probability. A coefficient of agreement is determined for the interpreted map as a whole, and individually for each of the interpreted categories. A conditional coefficient of agreement for the individual categories is compared to other methods for expressing category accuracy which have already been presented in the remote sensing literature.
Matrix interactions modulate neurotrophin-mediated neurite outgrowth and pathfinding
Madl, Christopher M.; Heilshorn, Sarah C.
2015-01-01
Both matrix biochemistry and neurotrophic factors are known to modulate neurite outgrowth and pathfinding; however, the interplay between these two factors is less studied. While previous work has shown that the biochemical identity of the matrix can alter the outgrowth of neurites in response to neurotrophins, the importance of the concentration of cell-adhesive ligands is unknown. Using engineered elastin-like protein matrices, we recently demonstrated a synergistic effect between matrix-bound cell-adhesive ligand density and soluble nerve growth factor treatment on neurite outgrowth from dorsal root ganglia. This synergism was mediated by Schwann cell-neurite contact through L1CAM. Cell-adhesive ligand density was also shown to alter the pathfinding behavior of dorsal root ganglion neurites in response to a gradient of nerve growth factor. While more cell-adhesive matrices promoted neurite outgrowth, less cell-adhesive matrices promoted more faithful neurite pathfinding. These studies emphasize the importance of considering both matrix biochemistry and neurotrophic factors when designing biomaterials for peripheral nerve regeneration. PMID:26170800
Sandia Generated Matrix Tool (SGMT) v. 1.0
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
2010-03-24
Provides a tool with which create and characterize a very large set of matrix-based visual analogy problems that have properties that are similar to Ravens Progressive Matrices (RPMs). The software uses the same underlying patterns found in RPMs to generate large numbers of unique matrix problems using parameters chosen by the researcher. Specifically, the software is designed so that researchers can choose the type, direction, and number of relations in a problem and then createmore » any number of unique matrices that share the same underlying structure (e.g. changes in numerosity in a diagonal pattern) but have different surface features (e.g. shapes, colors).Ravens Progressive Matrices (RPMs) are a widely-used test for assessing intelligence and reasoning ability. Since the test is non-verbal, it can be applied to many different populations and has been used all over the world. However, there are relatively few matrices in the sets developed by Raven, which limits their use in experiments requiring large numbers of stimuli. This tool creates a matrix set in a systematic way that allows researchers to have a great deal of control over the underlying structure, surface features, and difficulty of the matrix problems while providing a large set of novel matrices with which to conduct experiments.« less
Key Issues for Aerospace Applications of Ceramic Matrix Composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Clinton, R. G., Jr.; Levine, S. R.
1998-01-01
Ceramic matrix composites (CMC) offer significant advantages for future aerospace applications including turbine engine and liquid rocket engine components, thermal protection systems, and "hot structures". Key characteristics which establish ceramic matrix composites as attractive and often enabling choices are strength retention at high temperatures and reduced weight relative to currently used metallics. However, due to the immaturity of this class of materials which is further compounded by the lack of experience with CMC's in the aerospace industry, there are significant challenges involved in the development and implementation of ceramic matrix composites into aerospace systems. Some of the more critical challenges are attachment and load transfer methodologies; manufacturing techniques, particularly scale up to large and thick section components; operational environment resistance; damage tolerance; durability; repair techniques; reproducibility; database availability; and the lack of validated design and analysis tools. The presentation will examine the technical issues confronting the application of ceramic matrix composites to aerospace systems and identify the key material systems having potential for substantial payoff relative to the primary requirements of light weight and reduced cost for future systems. Current programs and future research opportunities will be described in the presentation which will focus on materials and processes issues.
Sandia Generated Matrix Tool (SGMT) v. 1.0
Benz, Zachary; & Dixon, Kevin
2010-03-24
Provides a tool with which create and characterize a very large set of matrix-based visual analogy problems that have properties that are similar to Ravens Progressive Matrices (RPMs). The software uses the same underlying patterns found in RPMs to generate large numbers of unique matrix problems using parameters chosen by the researcher. Specifically, the software is designed so that researchers can choose the type, direction, and number of relations in a problem and then create any number of unique matrices that share the same underlying structure (e.g. changes in numerosity in a diagonal pattern) but have different surface features (e.g. shapes, colors).Ravens Progressive Matrices (RPMs) are a widely-used test for assessing intelligence and reasoning ability. Since the test is non-verbal, it can be applied to many different populations and has been used all over the world. However, there are relatively few matrices in the sets developed by Raven, which limits their use in experiments requiring large numbers of stimuli. This tool creates a matrix set in a systematic way that allows researchers to have a great deal of control over the underlying structure, surface features, and difficulty of the matrix problems while providing a large set of novel matrices with which to conduct experiments.
Queering Participatory Design Research
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McWilliams, Jacob
2016-01-01
This article offers a way forward for educators and researchers interested in drawing on the principles of "queer theory" to inform participatory design. In this article, I aim to achieve two related goals: To introduce new concepts within a critical conceptual practice of questioning and challenging the "heterosexual matrix"…
The Evolution of Extracellular Matrix
Özbek, Suat; Balasubramanian, Prakash G.; Chiquet-Ehrismann, Ruth; Tucker, Richard P.
2010-01-01
We present a perspective on the molecular evolution of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in metazoa that draws on research publications and data from sequenced genomes and expressed sequence tag libraries. ECM components do not function in isolation, and the biological ECM system or “adhesome” also depends on posttranslational processing enzymes, cell surface receptors, and extracellular proteases. We focus principally on the adhesome of internal tissues and discuss its origins at the dawn of the metazoa and the expansion of complexity that occurred in the chordate lineage. The analyses demonstrate very high conservation of a core adhesome that apparently evolved in a major wave of innovation in conjunction with the origin of metazoa. Integrin, CD36, and certain domains predate the metazoa, and some ECM-related proteins are identified in choanoflagellates as predicted sequences. Modern deuterostomes and vertebrates have many novelties and elaborations of ECM as a result of domain shuffling, domain innovations and gene family expansions. Knowledge of the evolution of metazoan ECM is important for understanding how it is built as a system, its roles in normal tissues and disease processes, and has relevance for tissue engineering, the development of artificial organs, and the goals of synthetic biology. PMID:21160071
Extracellular Matrix Abnormalities in Schizophrenia
Berretta, Sabina
2011-01-01
Emerging evidence points to the involvement of the brain extracellular matrix (ECM) in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (SZ). Abnormalities affecting several ECM components, including Reelin and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), have been described in subjects with this disease. Solid evidence supports the involvement of Reelin, an ECM glycoprotein involved in corticogenesis, synaptic functions and glutamate NMDA receptor regulation, expressed prevalently in distinct populations of GABAergic neurons, which secrete it into the ECM. Marked changes of Reelin expression in SZ have typically been reported in association with GABA-related abnormalities in subjects with SZ and bipolar disorder. Recent findings from our group point to substantial abnormalities affecting CSPGs, a main ECM component, in the amygdala and entorhinal cortex of subjects with schizophrenia, but not bipolar disorder. Striking increases of glial cells expressing CSPGs were accompanied by reductions of perineuronal nets, CSPG- and Reelin-enriched ECM aggregates enveloping distinct neuronal populations. CSPGs developmental and adult functions, including neuronal migration, axon guidance, synaptic and neurotransmission regulation are highly relevant to the pathophysiology of SZ. Together with reports of anomalies affecting several other ECM components, these findings point to the ECM as a key component of the pathology of SZ. We propose that ECM abnormalities may contribute to several aspects of the pathophysiology of this disease, including disrupted connectivity and neuronal migration, synaptic anomalies and altered GABAergic, glutamatergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission. PMID:21856318
The influence of matrix microstructure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vyletel, G. M.; Allison, J. E.; Aken, D. C.
1993-11-01
The low-cycle and high-cycle fatigue behavior and cyclic response of naturally aged and artificially aged 2219/TiC/15p and unreinforced 2219 Al were investigated utilizing plastic strain-controlled and stress-controlled testing. The cyclic response of both the reinforced and un-reinforced materials was similar for all plastic strain amplitudes tested except that the saturation stress level for the composite was always greater than that of the unreinforced material. The cyclic response of the naturally aged materials exhibited cyclic hardening and, in some cases, cyclic softening, while the cyclic response for the artificially aged materials showed no evidence of either cyclic hardening or softening. The higher ductility of the unreinforced material made it more resistant to fatigue failure at high strains, and thus, at a given plastic strain, it had longer fatigue life. It should be noted that the tensile ductilities of the 2219/TiC/15p were significantly higher than those previously reported for 2XXX-series composites. During stress-controlled test-ing at stresses below 220 MPa, the presence of TiC particles lead to an improvement in fatigue life. Above 220 MPa, no influence of TiC reinforcement on fatigue life could be detected. In both the composite and unreinforced materials, the low-cycle and high-cycle fatigue lives were found to be virtually independent of matrix microstructure.
Vascular Extracellular Matrix and Arterial Mechanics
WAGENSEIL, JESSICA E.; MECHAM, ROBERT P.
2009-01-01
An important factor in the transition from an open to a closed circulatory system was a change in vessel wall structure and composition that enabled the large arteries to store and release energy during the cardiac cycle. The component of the arterial wall in vertebrates that accounts for these properties is the elastic fiber network organized by medial smooth muscle. Beginning with the onset of pulsatile blood flow in the developing aorta, smooth muscle cells in the vessel wall produce a complex extracellular matrix (ECM) that will ultimately define the mechanical properties that are critical for proper function of the adult vascular system. This review discusses the structural ECM proteins in the vertebrate aortic wall and will explore how the choice of ECM components has changed through evolution as the cardiovascular system became more advanced and pulse pressure increased. By correlating vessel mechanics with physiological blood pressure across animal species and in mice with altered vessel compliance, we show that cardiac and vascular development are physiologically coupled, and we provide evidence for a universal elastic modulus that controls the parameters of ECM deposition in vessel wall development. We also discuss mechanical models that can be used to design better tissue-engineered vessels and to test the efficacy of clinical treatments. PMID:19584318
Surface Characterization of Extracellular Matrix Scaffolds
Brown, Bryan N.; Barnes, Christopher A.; Kasick, Rena T.; Michel, Roger; Gilbert, Thomas W.; Beer-Stolz, Donna; Castner, David G.; Ratner, Buddy D.; Badylak, Stephen F.
2009-01-01
Extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffolds prepared from different tissue sources or using different methods have been demonstrated to have distinctive effects upon cell adhesion patterns and the ability to support and maintain differentiated phenotypes. It is unknown whether the molecular composition or the ultrastructure of the ECM plays a greater role in determining the phenotype of the cells with which it comes into contact. However, when implanted, the topology and ligand landscape of the material will determine the host molecules that bind and the type and behavior of cells that mediate the host response. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of surface characteristics is essential in the design of scaffolds for specific clinical applications. The surface characteristics of ECM scaffolds derived from porcine urinary bladder, small intestine, and liver as well as the effects of two commonly used methods of chemical cross-linking upon UBM were investigated. Electron microscopy and time of flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy were used to examine the surface characteristics of the scaffolds. The results show that ECM scaffolds have unique morphologic and structural properties which are dependant on the organ or tissue from which the scaffold is harvested. Furthermore, the results show that the surface characteristics of an ECM scaffold are changed through chemical cross-linking. PMID:19828192
Effectiveness of metal matrix and ceramic matrix composites as orbital debris shield materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcgill, Preston B.; Mount, Angela R.
1992-01-01
The effectiveness of two metal matrix composites and one ceramic matrix material in defeating hypervelocity impacts at about 3.8 km/s are evaluated to determine the potential of these composites as spacecraft shield materials. The metal matrix composites investigated consist of SiC particles (70 percent by volume) in an aluminum matrix and Al2O3 particles (50 percent by volume) in an Al matrix. The ceramic composite consists of ZrB2 platelets in a ZrC matrix. Both the metal matrix and ceramic matrix composites are found to perform as well or better than 6061-T6 aluminum, which is presently used in the Whipple type bumper shield of Space Station Freedom. Test results indicate that the composites tested may have applications as micrometeoroid/orbital debris shield materials.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shah, Sandeep; Lee, Jonathan; Bhat, Biliyar; Wells, Doug; Gregg, Wayne; Marsh, Matthew; Genge, Gary; Forbes, John; Salvi, Alex; Cornie, James A.; Jones, Clyde S. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
This presentation provides an overview of the effort by Metal Matrix Cast Composites, Inc. to redesign turbopump housing joints using metal matrix composite material and a toolless net-shape pressure infiltration casting technology. Topics covered include: advantage of metal matrix composites for propulsion components, baseline pump design and analysis, advanced toolless pressure infiltration casting process, subscale pump housing, preform splicing and joining for large components, and fullscale pump housing redesign.
Weak matrix elements for CP violation.
Lee, W.; Gupta, R.; Christ, N.; Fleming, G. T.; Kilcup, G.; Liu, G.; Mawhinney, R.; Sharpe, S.; Wu, L.; Bhattacharya, T.
2001-01-01
We present preliminary results of matrix elements of four fermion operators relevant to the determination of e and E ' / E using staggered fermions. To calculate the matrix elements relevant to CP violation in Kaon decays it is important to use a lattice formulation which preserves (some) chiral symmetry.
Transfer matrix of a spherical scatterer
Podolsky, V.S.; Lisyansky, A.A.
1996-11-01
We derive the off-shell scattering matrix for a spherical scatterer. The result obtained generalizes the off-on-shell matrix commonly used in the theory of scalar waves propagation in random media. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}
Optimum interface properties for metal matrix composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ghosn, Louis J.; Lerch, Bradley A.
1989-01-01
Due to the thermal expansion coefficient mismatch (CTE) between the fiber and the matrix, high residual sresses exist in metal matrix composite systems upon cool down from processing temperature to room temperature. An interface material can be placed between the fiber and the matrix to reduce the high tensile residual stresses in the matrix. A computer program was written to minimize the residual stress in the matrix subject to the interface material properties. The decision variables are the interface modulus, thickness and thermal expansion coefficient. The properties of the interface material are optimized such that the average distortion energy in the matrix and the interface is minimized. As a result, the only active variable is the thermal expansion coefficient. The optimum modulus of the interface is always the minimum allowable value and the interface thickness is always the maximum allowable value, independent of the fiber/matrix system. The optimum interface thermal expansion coefficient is always between the values of the fiber and the matrix. Using this analysis, a survey of materials was conducted for use as fiber coatings in some specific composite systems.
Improvements in sparse matrix operations of NASTRAN
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Harano, S.
1980-01-01
A "nontransmit" packing routine was added to NASTRAN to allow matrix data to be refered to directly from the input/output buffer. Use of the packing routine permits various routines for matrix handling to perform a direct reference to the input/output buffer if data addresses have once been received. The packing routine offers a buffer by buffer backspace feature for efficient backspacing in sequential access. Unlike a conventional backspacing that needs twice back record for a single read of one record (one column), this feature omits overlapping of READ operation and back record. It eliminates the necessity of writing, in decomposition of a symmetric matrix, of a portion of the matrix to its upper triangular matrix from the last to the first columns of the symmetric matrix, thus saving time for generating the upper triangular matrix. Only a lower triangular matrix must be written onto the secondary storage device, bringing 10 to 30% reduction in use of the disk space of the storage device.
Risk Management using Dependency Stucture Matrix
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petković, Ivan
2011-09-01
An efficient method based on dependency structure matrix (DSM) analysis is given for ranking risks in a complex system or process whose entities are mutually dependent. This rank is determined according to the element's values of the unique positive eigenvector which corresponds to the matrix spectral radius modeling the considered engineering system. For demonstration, the risk problem of NASA's robotic spacecraft is analyzed.
7 CFR 1770.17 - Expense matrix.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Expense matrix. 1770.17 Section 1770.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ACCOUNTING REQUIREMENTS FOR RUS TELECOMMUNICATIONS BORROWERS Uniform System of Accounts § 1770.17 Expense matrix. The...
Metal matrix composites microfracture: Computational simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mital, Subodh K.; Caruso, John J.; Chamis, Christos C.
1990-01-01
Fiber/matrix fracture and fiber-matrix interface debonding in a metal matrix composite (MMC) are computationally simulated. These simulations are part of a research activity to develop computational methods for microfracture, microfracture propagation and fracture toughness of the metal matrix composites. The three-dimensional finite element model used in the simulation consists of a group of nine unidirectional fibers in three by three unit cell array of SiC/Ti15 metal matrix composite with a fiber volume ration of 0.35. This computational procedure is used to predict the fracture process and establish the hierarchy of fracture modes based on strain energy release rate. It is also used to predict stress redistribution to surrounding matrix-fibers due to initial and progressive fracture of fiber/matrix and due to debonding of fiber-matrix interface. Microfracture results for various loading cases such as longitudinal, transverse, shear and bending are presented and discussed. Step-by-step procedures are outlined to evaluate composite microfracture for a given composite system.
The Molecules of the Cell Matrix.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Weber, Klaus; Osborn, Mary
1985-01-01
Cytoplasmic proteins form a highly structured yet changeable matrix that affects cell shape, division, motion, and transport of vesicles and organelles. Types of microfilaments, research techniques, actin and myosin, tumor cells, and other topics are addressed. Evidence indicates that the cell matrix might have a bearing on metabolism. (DH)
Induced Course Load Matrix: Conception and Use
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Suslow, Sidney
1976-01-01
The origins and range of applications of the academic matrix, or ICLM (Induced Course Load Matrix), are described by its originator. Its identification of interrelations among student majors and their course preferences makes it useful for academic planning and curriculum reviews, particularly in simulation models for exploring costs, personnel,…
Counseling Uses of the Hill Interaction Matrix.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Boyd, Robert E.
While the Hill Interaction Matrix was developed as a research instrument to assess interview process, it is also generally useful in any undertaking requiring the evaluation of verbal interaction and, hence, can be used as an aid in modifying communication in order to increase its therapeutic effect. The Hill Interaction Matrix with accompanying…
Application of the matrix exponential kernel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rohach, A. F.
1972-01-01
A point matrix kernel for radiation transport, developed by the transmission matrix method, has been used to develop buildup factors and energy spectra through slab layers of different materials for a point isotropic source. Combinations of lead-water slabs were chosen for examples because of the extreme differences in shielding properties of these two materials.
Matrix model description of baryonic deformations
Bena, Iosif; Murayama, Hitoshi; Roiban, Radu; Tatar, Radu
2003-03-13
We investigate supersymmetric QCD with N{sub c} + 1 flavors using an extension of the recently proposed relation between gauge theories and matrix models.The impressive agreement between the two sides provides a beautiful confirmation of the extension of the gauge theory-matrix model relation to this case.
Adiabatic approximation for the density matrix
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Band, Yehuda B.
1992-05-01
An adiabatic approximation for the Liouville density-matrix equation which includes decay terms is developed. The adiabatic approximation employs the eigenvectors of the non-normal Liouville operator. The approximation is valid when there exists a complete set of eigenvectors of the non-normal Liouville operator (i.e., the eigenvectors span the density-matrix space), the time rate of change of the Liouville operator is small, and an auxiliary matrix is nonsingular. Numerical examples are presented involving efficient population transfer in a molecule by stimulated Raman scattering, with the intermediate level of the molecule decaying on a time scale that is fast compared with the pulse durations of the pump and Stokes fields. The adiabatic density-matrix approximation can be simply used to determine the density matrix for atomic or molecular systems interacting with cw electromagnetic fields when spontaneous emission or other decay mechanisms prevail.
Biocompatible 3D Matrix with Antimicrobial Properties.
Ion, Alberto; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Rădulescu, Dragoș; Rădulescu, Marius; Iordache, Florin; Vasile, Bogdan Ștefan; Surdu, Adrian Vasile; Albu, Madalina Georgiana; Maniu, Horia; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Holban, Alina Maria
2016-01-01
The aim of this study was to develop, characterize and assess the biological activity of a new regenerative 3D matrix with antimicrobial properties, based on collagen (COLL), hydroxyapatite (HAp), β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and usnic acid (UA). The prepared 3D matrix was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Microscopy (FT-IRM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). In vitro qualitative and quantitative analyses performed on cultured diploid cells demonstrated that the 3D matrix is biocompatible, allowing the normal development and growth of MG-63 osteoblast-like cells and exhibited an antimicrobial effect, especially on the Staphylococcus aureus strain, explained by the particular higher inhibitory activity of usnic acid (UA) against Gram positive bacterial strains. Our data strongly recommend the obtained 3D matrix to be used as a successful alternative for the fabrication of three dimensional (3D) anti-infective regeneration matrix for bone tissue engineering. PMID:26805790
The matrix exponential in transient structural analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Minnetyan, Levon
1987-01-01
The primary usefulness of the presented theory is in the ability to represent the effects of high frequency linear response with accuracy, without requiring very small time steps in the analysis of dynamic response. The matrix exponential contains a series approximation to the dynamic model. However, unlike the usual analysis procedure which truncates the high frequency response, the approximation in the exponential matrix solution is in the time domain. By truncating the series solution to the matrix exponential short, the solution is made inaccurate after a certain time. Yet, up to that time the solution is extremely accurate, including all high frequency effects. By taking finite time increments, the exponential matrix solution can compute the response very accurately. Use of the exponential matrix in structural dynamics is demonstrated by simulating the free vibration response of multi degree of freedom models of cantilever beams.
A matrix analysis of conjugate gradient algorithms
Ashby, S.F.; Gutknecht, M.H.
1993-04-01
This paper explores the relationships between the conjugate gradient algorithms Orthodir, Orthomin, and Orthores. To facilitate this exploration, a matrix formulation for each algorithm is given. It is shown that Orthodir directly computes a Hessenberg matrix H{sub k} at step k. Orthores also computes a Hessenberg matrix, G{sub k}, which is similar to a Hessenberg matrix obtained from H{sub k} by perturbing its last column. (This perturbation vanishes at convergence.) Orthomin, on the other hand, computes a UL and LU factorization of the perturbed H{sub k} and G{sub k}, respectively. The breakdown of Orthomin and Orthores are interpreted in terms of these underlying matrix factorizations. A connection with Lanczos algorithms is also examined, as is the special case of B-normal(1) matrices (for which efficient three-term CG algorithms exist).
Graphical evaluation of relativistic matrix elements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huang, K. N.
1978-01-01
A graphical representation of angular momentum was used to evaluate relativistic matrix elements between antisymmetrized states of many particle configurations having any number of open shells. The antisymmetrized matrix element was expanded as a sum of semisymmetrized matrix elements. The diagram representing a semisymmetrized matrix element was composed of four diagram blocks; the bra block, the ket block, the spectator block, and the interaction block. The first three blocks indicate the couplings of the two interacting configurations while the last depends on the interaction and is the replaceable component. Interaction blocks for relativistic operators and commonly used potentials were summarized in ready to use forms. A simple step by step procedure was prescribed generally for calculating antisymmetrized matrix elements of one and two particle operators.
A review of failure models for unidirectional ceramic matrix composites under monotonic loads
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tripp, David E.; Hemann, John H.; Gyekenyesi, John P.
1989-01-01
Ceramic matrix composites offer significant potential for improving the performance of turbine engines. In order to achieve their potential, however, improvements in design methodology are needed. In the past most components using structural ceramic matrix composites were designed by trial and error since the emphasis of feasibility demonstration minimized the development of mathematical models. To understand the key parameters controlling response and the mechanics of failure, the development of structural failure models is required. A review of short term failure models with potential for ceramic matrix composite laminates under monotonic loads is presented. Phenomenological, semi-empirical, shear-lag, fracture mechanics, damage mechanics, and statistical models for the fast fracture analysis of continuous fiber unidirectional ceramic matrix composites under monotonic loads are surveyed.
A review of failure models for ceramic matrix composite laminates under monotonic loads
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tripp, David E.; Hemann, John H.; Gyekenyesi, John P.
1989-01-01
Ceramic matrix composites offer significant potential for improving the performance of turbine engines. In order to achieve their potential, however, improvements in design methodology are needed. In the past most components using structural ceramic matrix composites were designed by trial and error since the emphasis of feasibility demonstration minimized the development of mathematical models. To understand the key parameters controlling response and the mechanics of failure, the development of structural failure models is required. A review of short term failure models with potential for ceramic matrix composite laminates under monotonic loads is presented. Phenomenological, semi-empirical, shear-lag, fracture mechanics, damage mechanics, and statistical models for the fast fracture analysis of continuous fiber unidirectional ceramic matrix composites under monotonic loads are surveyed.
Competitive formation of glasses and glass-matrix composites
Lu, Zhao Ping; Ma, D.; Liu, Chain T; Chang, Y. Austin
2007-01-01
By systematically investigating the effect of chemical composition on the competitive formation of glasses in various systems, we attempt to address two long-standing scientific puzzles upon metallic glasses, i.e., (i) which composition is the best for forming glasses and glass-matrix composites and (ii) what determines the easy glass-forming composition range in a given alloy system. Our findings have led to the construction of a qualitative microstructure selection map, which is useful for guiding the design of bulkier metallic glasses and glass-matrix composites. In addition, our analysis demonstrates that the classical kinetic treatment of glass formation is insufficient; to analyze glass formation properly, it is necessary to go beyond simple assumptions of single polymorphic solidification during crystallization.
Maximizing sparse matrix vector product performance in MIMD computers
McLay, R.T.; Kohli, H.S.; Swift, S.L.; Carey, G.F.
1994-12-31
A considerable component of the computational effort involved in conjugate gradient solution of structured sparse matrix systems is expended during the Matrix-Vector Product (MVP), and hence it is the focus of most efforts at improving performance. Such efforts are hindered on MIMD machines due to constraints on memory, cache and speed of memory-cpu data transfer. This paper describes a strategy for maximizing the performance of the local computations associated with the MVP. The method focuses on single stride memory access, and the efficient use of cache by pre-loading it with data that is re-used while bypassing it for other data. The algorithm is designed to behave optimally for varying grid sizes and number of unknowns per gridpoint. Results from an assembly language implementation of the strategy on the iPSC/860 show a significant improvement over the performance using FORTRAN.
Cellular Response to a Novel Fetal Acellular Collagen Matrix: Implications for Tissue Regeneration
Rennert, Robert C.; Garg, Ravi K.; Gurtner, Geoffrey C.
2013-01-01
Introduction. PriMatrix (TEI Biosciences Inc., Boston, MA, USA) is a novel acellular collagen matrix derived from fetal bovine dermis that is designed for use in partial- and full-thickness wounds. This study analyzes the cellular response to PriMatrix in vivo, as well as the ability of this matrix to facilitate normal tissue regeneration. Methods. Five by five mm squares of rehydrated PriMatrix were implanted in a subcutaneous fashion on the dorsum of wild-type mice. Implant site tissue was harvested for histology, immunohistochemistry (IHC), and flow cytometric analyses at multiple time points until day 28. Results. PriMatrix implants were found to go through a biological progression initiated by a transient infiltrate of inflammatory cells, followed by mesenchymal cell recruitment and vascular development. IHC analysis revealed that the majority of the implanted fetal dermal collagen fibers persisted through day 28 but underwent remodeling and cellular repopulation to form tissue with a density and morphology consistent with healthy dermis. Conclusions. PriMatrix implants undergo progressive in vivo remodeling, facilitating the regeneration of histologically normal tissue through a mild inflammatory and progenitor cell response. Regeneration of normal tissue is especially important in a wound environment, and these findings warrant further investigation of PriMatrix in this setting. PMID:23970899
Mathew, P.M.; Krueger, P.A.
1984-01-01
One of the concepts under development as a nuclear fuel waste isolation container is a thin-wall corrosion-resistant shell, supported internally by a cast metal matrix in which intact used fuel bundles are investigated. The integrity of the metal matrix can be influenced by metallurgical factors and by process parameters. Finite element solidification modelling and laboratory experiments with lead as an investment material have shown the influence of heat transfer parameters on matrix integrity. Controlled cooling of the container walls, for example, can be used to reduce the interaction time between the molten matrix, the fuel sheathing and the container wall, and achieve a void-free matrix. The results of the computer simulations have been used to design an improved casting system, based on controlled wall cooling, for investing nuclear fuel waste containers. Ultrasonic testing of bonds between some candidate container and metal matrix materials, in combination with the metallurgical characterization of the interface region, has allowed differentiation between bonded and unbonded regions. Matrix cracking near bonded interfaces was identified as a potential problem, which could limit the use of the ultrasonic scanning technique for matrix inspection. To produce a high quality interface with good chemical bonding, induction skin melting looks promising and is being further evaluated.
Submicrosecond rearrangeable nonblocking silicon-on-insulator thermo-optic 4x4 switch matrix.
Li, Yuntao; Yu, Jinzhong; Chen, Shaowu; Li, Yanping; Chen, Yuanyuan
2007-03-15
A rearrangeable nonblocking silicon-on-insulator-based thermo-optic 4x4 switch matrix is designed and fabricated. A spot-size converter is integrated to reduce the insertion loss, and a new driving circuit is designed to improve the response speed. The insertion loss is less than 10 dB, and the response time is 950 ns. PMID:17308574
Creep of plain weave polymer matrix composites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gupta, Abhishek
Polymer matrix composites are increasingly used in various industrial sectors to reduce structural weight and improve performance. Woven (also known as textile) composites are one class of polymer matrix composites with increasing market share mostly due to their lightweight, their flexibility to form into desired shape, their mechanical properties and toughness. Due to the viscoelasticity of the polymer matrix, time-dependent degradation in modulus (creep) and strength (creep rupture) are two of the major mechanical properties required by engineers to design a structure reliably when using these materials. Unfortunately, creep and creep rupture of woven composites have received little attention by the research community and thus, there is a dire need to generate additional knowledge and prediction models, given the increasing market share of woven composites in load bearing structural applications. Currently, available creep models are limited in scope and have not been validated for any loading orientation and time period beyond the experimental time window. In this thesis, an analytical creep model, namely the Modified Equivalent Laminate Model (MELM), was developed to predict tensile creep of plain weave composites for any orientation of the load with respect to the orientation of the fill and warp fibers, using creep of unidirectional composites. The ability of the model to predict creep for any orientation of the load is a "first" in this area. The model was validated using an extensive experimental involving the tensile creep of plain weave composites under varying loading orientation and service conditions. Plain weave epoxy (F263)/ carbon fiber (T300) composite, currently used in aerospace applications, was procured as fabrics from Hexcel Corporation. Creep tests were conducted under two loading conditions: on-axis loading (0°) and off-axis loading (45°). Constant load creep, in the temperature range of 80-240°C and stress range of 1-70% UTS of the
Instruments for Reading Direct-Marked Data-Matrix Symbols
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schramm, Harry F.; Corder, Eric L.
2006-01-01
Improved optoelectronic instruments (specially configured digital cameras) for reading direct-marked data-matrix symbols on the surfaces of optically reflective objects (including specularly reflective ones) are undergoing development. Data-matrix symbols are two-dimensional binary patterns that are used, like common bar codes, for automated identification of objects. The first data-matrix symbols were checkerboard-like patterns of black-and-white rectangles, typically existing in the forms of paint, ink, or detachable labels. The major advantage of direct marking (the marks are more durable than are painted or printed symbols or detachable labels) is offset by a major disadvantage (the marks generated by some marking methods do not provide sufficient contrast to be readable by optoelectronic instruments designed to read black-and-white data-matrix symbols). Heretofore, elaborate lighting, lensing, and software schemes have been tried in efforts to solve the contrast problem in direct-mark matrix- symbol readers. In comparison with prior readers based on those schemes, the readers now undergoing development are expected to be more effective while costing less. All of the prior direct-mark matrix-symbol readers are designed to be aimed perpendicularly to marked target surfaces, and they tolerate very little angular offset. However, the reader now undergoing development not only tolerates angular offset but depends on angular offset as a means of obtaining the needed contrast, as described below. The prototype reader (see Figure 1) includes an electronic camera in the form of a charge-coupled-device (CCD) image detector equipped with a telecentric lens. It also includes a source of collimated visible light and a source of collimated infrared light for illuminating a target. The visible and infrared illumination complement each other: the visible illumination is more useful for aiming the reader toward a target, while the infrared illumination is more useful for
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jacobs, James A.
1994-01-01
This learning module on composites such as polymer matrix, metal matrix, ceramic matrix, particulate, and laminar includes a design brief giving context, objectives, evaluation, student outcomes, and quiz. (SK)
Matrix evaluation of science objectives
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wessen, Randii R.
1994-01-01
The most fundamental objective of all robotic planetary spacecraft is to return science data. To accomplish this, a spacecraft is fabricated and built, software is planned and coded, and a ground system is designed and implemented. However, the quantitative analysis required to determine how the collection of science data drives ground system capabilities has received very little attention. This paper defines a process by which science objectives can be quantitatively evaluated. By applying it to the Cassini Mission to Saturn, this paper further illustrates the power of this technique. The results show which science objectives drive specific ground system capabilities. In addition, this process can assist system engineers and scientists in the selection of the science payload during pre-project mission planning; ground system designers during ground system development and implementation; and operations personnel during mission operations.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Anuar, Azad Athahiri; Rozubi, Norsayyidatina Che; Abdullah, Haslee Sharil
2015-01-01
The aims of this study were to develop and validate a MCC training module for trainee counselor based on MCC matrix model by Sue et al. (1992). This module encompassed five sub modules and 11 activities developed along the concepts and components of the MCC matrix model developed by Sue, Arredondo dan McDavis (1992). The design method used in this…
Detection of functional matrix metalloproteinases by zymography.
Hu, Xueyou; Beeton, Christine
2010-01-01
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc-containing endopeptidases. They degrade proteins by cleavage of peptide bonds. More than twenty MMPs have been identified and are separated into six groups based on their structure and substrate specificity (collagenases, gelatinases, membrane type [MT-MMP], stromelysins, matrilysins, and others). MMPs play a critical role in cell invasion, cartilage degradation, tissue remodeling, wound healing, and embryogenesis. They therefore participate in both normal processes and in the pathogenesis of many diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, cancer, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Here, we will focus on MMP-2 (gelatinase A, type IV collagenase), a widely expressed MMP. We will demonstrate how to detect MMP-2 in cell culture supernatants by zymography, a commonly used, simple, and yet very sensitive technique first described in 1980 by C. Heussen and E.B. Dowdle. This technique is semi-quantitative, it can therefore be used to determine MMP levels in test samples when known concentrations of recombinant MMP are loaded on the same gel. Solutions containing MMPs (e.g. cell culture supernatants, urine, or serum) are loaded onto a polyacrylamide gel containing sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS; to linearize the proteins) and gelatin (substrate for MMP-2). The sample buffer is designed to increase sample viscosity (to facilitate gel loading), provide a tracking dye (bromophenol blue; to monitor sample migration), provide denaturing molecules (to linearize proteins), and control the pH of the sample. Proteins are then allowed to migrate under an electric current in a running buffer designed to provide a constant migration rate. The distance of migration is inversely correlated with the molecular weight of the protein (small proteins move faster through the gel than large proteins do and therefore migrate further down the gel). After migration, the gel is placed in a renaturing buffer to allow proteins to regain their tertiary
Contact guidance induced organization of extracellular matrix.
Manwaring, Michael E; Walsh, Jennifer F; Tresco, Patrick A
2004-08-01
The scarring response following injury to the central nervous system disrupts the anatomical organization of nervous tissue posing a barrier to the regeneration of axons. In the present study, using materials with nanometer level surface features we examined whether matrix organization could be controlled by engineering meningeal cell asymmetry. Following 5 days in culture, the organization of meningeal cells along with their cytoskeletal elements and extracellular matrix proteins was evaluated. Meningeal cell morphology was markedly affected by nanometer level substrate topography. Cell alignment increased with increasing surface roughness. In addition, linear arrays of extracellular matrix were expressed that appeared related to cellular orientation. When cultured on substrates with topographical features of less than 10 nm neither cells nor their extracellular matrix showed organizational asymmetry. However, as oriented surface roughness increased, cellular and matrix asymmetrical organization became more pronounced reaching a threshold at 345 nm. These results suggest that biomaterial surface topography or other methods of altering the orientation of cells may be used to engineer orientation into the secreted extracellular matrix and as such may be a potential strategy for developing organized cell-derived matrix as a bridging material for nerve repair or other regenerative applications. PMID:15020137
Bone Matrix Turnover And Balance In Vitro
Flanagan, Barry; Nichols, George
1969-01-01
Labeled proline from incubation media has been shown to be incorporated into living bone matrix collagen in vitro. Hydroxyproline is released from fresh bone slices in similar systems in a characteristic curve against time. This hydroxyproline is derived from three distinct sources, each of which may be separately quantitated. Part of the total represents passive solubilization of matrix collagen, part is derived from new synthesis of soluble collagen occurring in vitro, and the remainder is released by cell-mediated resorptive action. The latter two processes are linear with time up to 8 hr; the former decays to zero at about 2 hr. Consequently, rates of collagen synthesis and of new collagen deposition and resorption can be quantitated simultaneously in the same system. The ability to measure these parameters of bone collagen metabolism provides methods both for the accurate evaluation of organic matrix resorption in vitro and for the accurate measurement of rates of collagen synthesis and collagen deposition. The application of the method is illustrated using parathyroid hormone and thyrocalcitonin. Parathyroid hormone diminishes collagen synthesis and stimulates collagen resorption. It reduces slightly the deposition of newly formed collagen in stable matrix. The net effect of these changes is to produce a marked negative balance. It does not significantly affect the solubility of matrix collagen. Thyrocalcitonin does not affect collagen synthesis or its deposition. It causes a marked fall in resorption rate. It has no effect on matrix collagen solubility. The net effect is to produce a marked positive balance of matrix collagen. Images PMID:5774102
A transilient matrix for moist convection
Romps, D.; Kuang, Z.
2011-08-15
A method is introduced for diagnosing a transilient matrix for moist convection. This transilient matrix quantifies the nonlocal transport of air by convective eddies: for every height z, it gives the distribution of starting heights z{prime} for the eddies that arrive at z. In a cloud-resolving simulation of deep convection, the transilient matrix shows that two-thirds of the subcloud air convecting into the free troposphere originates from within 100 m of the surface. This finding clarifies which initial height to use when calculating convective available potential energy from soundings of the tropical troposphere.
High-temperature polymer matrix composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Meador, Michael A.
1990-01-01
Polymers research at the NASA Lewis Research Center has produced high-temperature, easily processable resin systems, such as PMR-15. In addition, the Polymers Branch has investigated ways to improve the mechanical properties of polymers and the microcracking resistance of polymer matrix composites in response to industry need for new and improved aeropropulsion materials. Current and future research in the Polymers Branch is aimed at advancing the upper use temperature of polymer matrix composites to 700 F and beyond by developing new resins, by examining the use of fiber reinforcements other than graphite, and by developing coatings for polymer matrix composites to increase their oxidation resistance.
Anderson transition for Google matrix eigenstates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhirov, O. V.; Shepelyansky, D. L.
2015-10-01
We introduce a number of random matrix models describing the Google matrix G of directed networks. The properties of their spectra and eigenstates are analyzed by numerical matrix diagonalization. We show that for certain models it is possible to have an algebraic decay of PageRank vector with the exponent similar to real directed networks. At the same time the spectrum has no spectral gap and a broad distribution of eigenvalues in the complex plain. The eigenstates of G are characterized by the Anderson transition from localized to delocalized states and a mobility edge curve in the complex plane of eigenvalues.
Visual Matrix Clustering of Social Networks
Wong, Pak C.; Mackey, Patrick S.; Foote, Harlan P.; May, Richard A.
2013-07-01
The prevailing choices to graphically represent a social network in today’s literature are a node-link graph layout and an adjacency matrix. Both visualization techniques have unique strengths and weaknesses when applied to different domain applications. In this article, we focus our discussion on adjacency matrix and how to turn the matrix-based visualization technique from merely showing pairwise associations among network actors (or graph nodes) to depicting clusters of a social network. We also use node-link layouts to supplement the discussion.
Earthquake prediction decision and risk matrix
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zou, Qi-Jia
1993-08-01
The issuance of an earthquake prediction must cause widespread social responses. It is suggested and discussed in this paper that the comprehensive decision issue for earthquake prediction considering the factors of the social and economic cost. The method of matrix decision for earthquake prediction (MDEP) is proposed in this paper and it is based on the risk matrix. The goal of decision is that search the best manner issuing earthquake prediction so that minimize the total losses of economy. The establishment and calculation of the risk matrix is discussed, and the decision results taking account of economic factors and not considering the economic factors are compared by examples in this paper.
Random matrix approach to shareholding networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Souma, Wataru; Fujiwara, Yoshi; Aoyama, Hideaki
2004-12-01
A shareholding network is represented by a symmetrical adjacency matrix. The random matrix theoretical approach to this matrix shows that the spectrum follows a power law distribution, ρ(λ)∼|λ|, in the tail part. It is also shown that the degree distribution of this network follows a power law distribution, p(k)∼k, in the large degree range. The scaling law δ=2γ-1 is found in this network. The reason why this relation holds is attributed to the local tree-like structure of the shareholding network.
48 CFR 2152.370 - Use of the matrix.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Use of the matrix. 2152... CONTRACT CLAUSES Provision and Clause Matrix 2152.370 Use of the matrix. (a) The matrix in this section... clause is to be used only when the applicable conditions are met. FEGLI Program Clause Matrix Clause...
48 CFR 2152.370 - Use of the matrix.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Use of the matrix. 2152... CONTRACT CLAUSES Provision and Clause Matrix 2152.370 Use of the matrix. (a) The matrix in this section... clause is to be used only when the applicable conditions are met. FEGLI Program Clause Matrix Clause...
48 CFR 2152.370 - Use of the matrix.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Use of the matrix. 2152... CONTRACT CLAUSES Provision and Clause Matrix 2152.370 Use of the matrix. (a) The matrix in this section... clause is to be used only when the applicable conditions are met. FEGLI Program Clause Matrix Clause...
48 CFR 2152.370 - Use of the matrix.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Use of the matrix. 2152... CONTRACT CLAUSES Provision and Clause Matrix 2152.370 Use of the matrix. (a) The matrix in this section... clause is to be used only when the applicable conditions are met. FEGLI Program Clause Matrix Clause...
Imide modified epoxy matrix resins
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Scola, D. A.
1984-01-01
The results of a program designed to develop tough imide modified epoxy resins cured by bisimide amine (BIA) hardeners are described. State-of-the-art epoxides MY720 and DER383 were used, and four bismide amines were evaluated. These were the BIA's derived from the 6F anhydride (4,4'-(hexafluoroisopropylidene) bis(phthalic anhydride) and the diamines 3,3'-diaminodiphynyl sulfone, 4,4'-oxygianiline, 4,4'-methylene dianiline, and 1,12-dodecane diamine. A key intermediate, designated 6F anhydride, is required for the synthesis of the bisimide amines. Reaction parameters to synthesize a precursor to the 6F anhydride (6FHC) in high yields were investigated. The catalyst trifluoromethane sulfonic acid was studied. Although small scale runs yielded the 6FHC in 50 percent yield, efforts to ranslate these results to a larger scale synthesis gave the 6FHC in only 9 percent yield. Results show that the concept of using bisimide amine as curing agents to improve the toughness properties of epoxies is valid.
Taking correlations in GPS least squares adjustments into account with a diagonal covariance matrix
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kermarrec, Gaël; Schön, Steffen
2016-05-01
Based on the results of Luati and Proietti (Ann Inst Stat Math 63:673-686, 2011) on an equivalence for a certain class of polynomial regressions between the diagonally weighted least squares (DWLS) and the generalized least squares (GLS) estimator, an alternative way to take correlations into account thanks to a diagonal covariance matrix is presented. The equivalent covariance matrix is much easier to compute than a diagonalization of the covariance matrix via eigenvalue decomposition which also implies a change of the least squares equations. This condensed matrix, for use in the least squares adjustment, can be seen as a diagonal or reduced version of the original matrix, its elements being simply the sums of the rows elements of the weighting matrix. The least squares results obtained with the equivalent diagonal matrices and those given by the fully populated covariance matrix are mathematically strictly equivalent for the mean estimator in terms of estimate and its a priori cofactor matrix. It is shown that this equivalence can be empirically extended to further classes of design matrices such as those used in GPS positioning (single point positioning, precise point positioning or relative positioning with double differences). Applying this new model to simulated time series of correlated observations, a significant reduction of the coordinate differences compared with the solutions computed with the commonly used diagonal elevation-dependent model was reached for the GPS relative positioning with double differences, single point positioning as well as precise point positioning cases. The estimate differences between the equivalent and classical model with fully populated covariance matrix were below the mm for all simulated GPS cases and below the sub-mm for the relative positioning with double differences. These results were confirmed by analyzing real data. Consequently, the equivalent diagonal covariance matrices, compared with the often used elevation
Integrated optic vector-matrix multiplier
Watts, Michael R.
2011-09-27
A vector-matrix multiplier is disclosed which uses N different wavelengths of light that are modulated with amplitudes representing elements of an N.times.1 vector and combined to form an input wavelength-division multiplexed (WDM) light stream. The input WDM light stream is split into N streamlets from which each wavelength of the light is individually coupled out and modulated for a second time using an input signal representing elements of an M.times.N matrix, and is then coupled into an output waveguide for each streamlet to form an output WDM light stream which is detected to generate a product of the vector and matrix. The vector-matrix multiplier can be formed as an integrated optical circuit using either waveguide amplitude modulators or ring resonator amplitude modulators.
Matrix Models, Emergent Spacetime and Symmetry Breaking
Grosse, Harald; Steinacker, Harold; Lizzi, Fedele
2009-12-15
We discuss how a matrix model recently shown to describe emergent gravity may contain extra degrees of freedom which reproduce some characteristics of the standard model, in particular the breaking of symmetries and the correct quantum numbers of fermions.
Nuclear waste storage container with metal matrix
Sump, Kenneth R.
1978-01-01
The invention relates to a storage container for high-level waste having a metal matrix for the high-level waste, thereby providing greater impact strength for the waste container and increasing heat transfer properties.
Enter the matrix: shape, signal and superhighway.
Lund, Dane K; Cornelison, D D W
2013-09-01
Mammalian skeletal muscle is notable for both its highly ordered biophysical structure and its regenerative capacity following trauma. Critical to both of these features is the specialized muscle extracellular matrix, comprising both the multiple concentric sheaths of connective tissue surrounding structural units from single myofibers to whole muscles and the dense interstitial matrix that occupies the space between them. Extracellular matrix-dependent interactions affect all activities of the resident muscle stem cell population (the satellite cells), from maintenance of quiescence and stem cell potential to the regulation of proliferation and differentiation. This review focuses on the role of the extracellular matrix in muscle regeneration, with a particular emphasis on regulation of satellite-cell activity. PMID:23374506
Enzymatic activation of a matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor†
Major Jourden, Jody L.; Cohen, Seth M.
2010-01-01
Matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors (MMPi) possessing a glucose protecting group on the zinc-binding group (ZBG) show a dramatic increase in inhibitory activity upon cleavage by β-glucosidase. PMID:20449263
Matrix Gla protein in tumoral pathology.
Gheorghe, Simona Roxana; Crăciun, Alexandra Mărioara
2016-01-01
Matrix Gla protein is a vitamin K-dependent protein secreted by chondrocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells. The presence of matrix Gla protein was reported in arterial and venous walls, lungs, kidney, uterus, heart, tooth cementum and eyes. Several studies identified matrix Gla protein in tumoral pathology. Until recently, it was thought to only have an inhibitory role of physiological and ectopic calcification. New studies demonstrated that it also has a role in physiological and pathological angiogenesis, as well as in tumorigenesis. The aim of this review is to report the latest findings related to the expression and clinical implications of matrix Gla protein in different types of cancer with an emphasis on cerebral tumors. PMID:27547048
Matrix Gla protein in tumoral pathology
GHEORGHE, SIMONA ROXANA; CRĂCIUN, ALEXANDRA MĂRIOARA
2016-01-01
Matrix Gla protein is a vitamin K-dependent protein secreted by chondrocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells. The presence of matrix Gla protein was reported in arterial and venous walls, lungs, kidney, uterus, heart, tooth cementum and eyes. Several studies identified matrix Gla protein in tumoral pathology. Until recently, it was thought to only have an inhibitory role of physiological and ectopic calcification. New studies demonstrated that it also has a role in physiological and pathological angiogenesis, as well as in tumorigenesis. The aim of this review is to report the latest findings related to the expression and clinical implications of matrix Gla protein in different types of cancer with an emphasis on cerebral tumors. PMID:27547048
Ginsparg, P.
1991-01-01
These are introductory lectures for a general audience that give an overview of the subject of matrix models and their application to random surfaces, 2d gravity, and string theory. They are intentionally 1.5 years out of date.
Ginsparg, P.
1991-12-31
These are introductory lectures for a general audience that give an overview of the subject of matrix models and their application to random surfaces, 2d gravity, and string theory. They are intentionally 1.5 years out of date.
Sensitivity analysis of periodic matrix population models.
Caswell, Hal; Shyu, Esther
2012-12-01
Periodic matrix models are frequently used to describe cyclic temporal variation (seasonal or interannual) and to account for the operation of multiple processes (e.g., demography and dispersal) within a single projection interval. In either case, the models take the form of periodic matrix products. The perturbation analysis of periodic models must trace the effects of parameter changes, at each phase of the cycle, on output variables that are calculated over the entire cycle. Here, we apply matrix calculus to obtain the sensitivity and elasticity of scalar-, vector-, or matrix-valued output variables. We apply the method to linear models for periodic environments (including seasonal harvest models), to vec-permutation models in which individuals are classified by multiple criteria, and to nonlinear models including both immediate and delayed density dependence. The results can be used to evaluate management strategies and to study selection gradients in periodic environments. PMID:23316494
Matrix Models, Emergent Spacetime and Symmetry Breaking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grosse, Harald; Lizzi, Fedele; Steinacker, Harold
2009-12-01
We discuss how a matrix model recently shown to describe emergent gravity may contain extra degrees of freedom which reproduce some characteristics of the standard model, in particular the breaking of symmetries and the correct quantum numbers of fermions.
Celsian Glass-Ceramic Matrix Composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bansal, Narottam P.; Dicarlo, James A.
1996-01-01
Glass-ceramic matrix reinforced fiber composite materials developed for use in low dielectric applications, such as radomes. Materials strong and tough, exhibit low dielectric properties, and endure high temperatures.
Amyloid Structures as Biofilm Matrix Scaffolds.
Taglialegna, Agustina; Lasa, Iñigo; Valle, Jaione
2016-10-01
Recent insights into bacterial biofilm matrix structures have induced a paradigm shift toward the recognition of amyloid fibers as common building block structures that confer stability to the exopolysaccharide matrix. Here we describe the functional amyloid systems related to biofilm matrix formation in both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and recent knowledge regarding the interaction of amyloids with other biofilm matrix components such as extracellular DNA (eDNA) and the host immune system. In addition, we summarize the efforts to identify compounds that target amyloid fibers for therapeutic purposes and recent developments that take advantage of the amyloid structure to engineer amyloid fibers of bacterial biofilm matrices for biotechnological applications. PMID:27185827
Axial grading of inert matrix fuels
Recktenwald, G. D.; Deinert, M. R.
2012-07-01
Burning actinides in an inert matrix fuel to 750 MWd/kg IHM results in a significant reduction in transuranic isotopes. However, achieving this level of burnup in a standard light water reactor would require residence times that are twice that of uranium dioxide fuels. The reactivity of an inert matrix assembly at the end of life is less than 1/3 of its beginning of life reactivity leading to undesirable radial and axial power peaking in the reactor core. Here we show that axial grading of the inert matrix fuel rods can reduce peaking significantly. Monte Carlo simulations are used to model the assembly level power distributions in both ungraded and graded fuel rods. The results show that an axial grading of uranium dioxide and inert matrix fuels with erbium can reduces power peaking by more than 50% in the axial direction. The reduction in power peaking enables the core to operate at significantly higher power. (authors)
Metal matrix composites for sustainable lotus-effect surfaces.
Nosonovsky, Michael; Hejazi, Vahid; Nyong, Aniedi E; Rohatgi, Pradeep K
2011-12-01
The lotus effect involving roughness-induced superhydrophobicity is a way to design nonwetting, self-cleaning, omniphobic, icephobic, and antifouling surfaces. However, such surfaces require micropatterning, which is extremely vulnerable to even small wear rates. This limits the applicability of the lotus effects to situations when wear is practically absent. To design sustainable superhydrophobic surfaces, we suggest using metal matrix composites (MMCs) with hydrophobic reinforcement in the bulk of the material, rather than only at its surface. Such surfaces, if properly designed, provide roughness and heterogeneity needed for superhydrophobicity. In addition, they are sustainable, since when the surface layer is deteriorated and removed due to wear, hydrophobic reinforcement and roughness remains. We present a model and experimental data on wetting of MMCs. We also conducted selected experiments with graphite-reinforced MMCs and showed that the contact angle can be determined from the model. In order to decouple the effects of reinforcement and roughness, the experiments were conducted for initially smooth and etched matrix and composite materials. PMID:21999807
Fibre-Matrix Interaction in Soft Tissue
Guo, Zaoyang
2010-05-21
Although the mechanical behaviour of soft tissue has been extensively studied, the interaction between the collagen fibres and the ground matrix has not been well understood and is therefore ignored by most constitutive models of soft tissue. In this paper, the human annulus fibrosus is used as an example and the potential fibre-matrix interaction is identified by careful investigation of the experimental results of biaxial and uniaxial testing of the human annulus fibrosus. First, the uniaxial testing result of the HAF along the axial direction is analysed and it is shown that the mechanical behaviour of the ground matrix can be well simulated by the incompressible neo-Hookean model when the collagen fibres are all under contraction. If the collagen fibres are stretched, the response of the ground matrix can still be described by the incompressible neo-Hookean model, but the effective stiffness of the matrix depends on the fibre stretch ratio. This stiffness can be more than 10 times larger than the one obtained with collagen fibres under contraction. This phenomenon can only be explained by the fibre-matrix interaction. Furthermore, we find that the physical interpretation of this interaction includes the inhomogeneity of the soft tissue and the fibre orientation dispersion. The dependence of the tangent stiffness of the matrix on the first invariant of the deformation tensor can also be explained by the fibre orientation dispersion. The significant effect of the fibre-matrix interaction strain energy on mechanical behaviour of the soft tissue is also illustrated by comparing some simulation results.
Micromechanical Modeling of Woven Metal Matrix Composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy
1997-01-01
This report presents the results of an extensive micromechanical modeling effort for woven metal matrix composites. The model is employed to predict the mechanical response of 8-harness (8H) satin weave carbon/copper (C/Cu) composites. Experimental mechanical results for this novel high thermal conductivity material were recently reported by Bednarcyk et al. along with preliminary model results. The micromechanics model developed herein is based on an embedded approach. A micromechanics model for the local (micro-scale) behavior of the woven composite, the original method of cells (Aboudi), is embedded in a global (macro-scale) micromechanics model (the three-dimensional generalized method of cells (GMC-3D) (Aboudi). This approach allows representation of true repeating unit cells for woven metal matrix composites via GMC-3D, and representation of local effects, such as matrix plasticity, yarn porosity, and imperfect fiber-matrix bonding. In addition, the equations of GMC-3D were reformulated to significantly reduce the number of unknown quantities that characterize the deformation fields at the microlevel in order to make possible the analysis of actual microstructures of woven composites. The resulting micromechanical model (WCGMC) provides an intermediate level of geometric representation, versatility, and computational efficiency with respect to previous analytical and numerical models for woven composites, but surpasses all previous modeling work by allowing the mechanical response of a woven metal matrix composite, with an elastoplastic matrix, to be examined for the first time. WCGMC is employed to examine the effects of composite microstructure, porosity, residual stresses, and imperfect fiber-matrix bonding on the predicted mechanical response of 8H satin C/Cu. The previously reported experimental results are summarized, and the model predictions are compared to monotonic and cyclic tensile and shear test data. By considering appropriate levels of porosity
Cryogenic regenerator including sarancarbon heat conduction matrix
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jones, Jack A. (Inventor); Petrick, S. Walter (Inventor); Britcliffe, Michael J. (Inventor)
1989-01-01
A saran carbon matrix is employed to conduct heat through the heat storing volume of a cryogenic regenerator. When helium is adsorbed into the saran carbon matrix, the combination exhibits a volumetric specific heat much higher than previously used lead balls. A helium adsorbed saran regenerator should allow much lower refrigerator temperatures than those practically obtainable with lead based regenerators for regenerator type refrigeration systems.
Fuel cell with electrolyte matrix assembly
Kaufman, Arthur; Pudick, Sheldon; Wang, Chiu L.
1988-01-01
This invention is directed to a fuel cell employing a substantially immobilized electrolyte imbedded therein and having a laminated matrix assembly disposed between the electrodes of the cell for holding and distributing the electrolyte. The matrix assembly comprises a non-conducting fibrous material such as silicon carbide whiskers having a relatively large void-fraction and a layer of material having a relatively small void-fraction.
Application of Fuzzy Logic to Matrix FMECA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shankar, N. Ravi; Prabhu, B. S.
2001-04-01
A methodology combining the benefits of Fuzzy Logic and Matrix FMEA is presented in this paper. The presented methodology extends the risk prioritization beyond the conventional Risk Priority Number (RPN) method. Fuzzy logic is used to calculate the criticality rank. Also the matrix approach is improved further to develop a pictorial representation retaining all relevant qualitative and quantitative information of several FMEA elements relationships. The methodology presented is demonstrated by application to an illustrative example.
Nanophosphor composite scintillator with a liquid matrix
McKigney, Edward Allen; Burrell, Anthony Keiran; Bennett, Bryan L.; Cooke, David Wayne; Ott, Kevin Curtis; Bacrania, Minesh Kantilal; Del Sesto, Rico Emilio; Gilbertson, Robert David; Muenchausen, Ross Edward; McCleskey, Thomas Mark
2010-03-16
An improved nanophosphor scintillator liquid comprises nanophosphor particles in a liquid matrix. The nanophosphor particles are optionally surface modified with an organic ligand. The surface modified nanophosphor particle is essentially surface charge neutral, thereby preventing agglomeration of the nanophosphor particles during dispersion in a liquid scintillator matrix. The improved nanophosphor scintillator liquid may be used in any conventional liquid scintillator application, including in a radiation detector.
[Research on pericellular matrix properties for chondrcytes].
Han, Jun-liang; Duan, Wang-ping; Shi, Guang-hua; Yuan, Wei; Wei, Xiao-chun
2015-06-01
Pericellular matrix (PCM) is a narrow tissue region surrounding chondrocytes, which "chondron" with its enclosed cells. A number of studies suggested that PCM is rich in proteoglycans, collagen and fibronectin, and plays an important role in regulating microenvironment of chondrocytes. Direct measures of PCM properties through micropipette aspiration technique showed that PCM was different from mechanical property of chondrocytes and nature extracellular matrix. However, the function of PCM is not clear, and need further study. PMID:26255489
Whitby Mudstone, flow from matrix to fractures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Houben, Maartje; Hardebol, Nico; Barnhoorn, Auke; Boersma, Quinten; Peach, Colin; Bertotti, Giovanni; Drury, Martyn
2016-04-01
Fluid flow from matrix to well in shales would be faster if we account for the duality of the permeable medium considering a high permeable fracture network together with a tight matrix. To investigate how long and how far a gas molecule would have to travel through the matrix until it reaches an open connected fracture we investigated the permeability of the Whitby Mudstone (UK) matrix in combination with mapping the fracture network present in the current outcrops of the Whitby Mudstone at the Yorkshire coast. Matrix permeability was measured perpendicular to the bedding using a pressure step decay method on core samples and permeability values are in the microdarcy range. The natural fracture network present in the pavement shows a connected network with dominant NS and EW strikes, where the NS fractures are the main fracture set with an orthogonal fracture set EW. Fracture spacing relations in the pavements show that the average distance to the nearest fracture varies between 7 cm (EW) and 14 cm (NS), where 90% of the matrix is 30 cm away from the nearest fracture. By making some assumptions like; fracture network at depth is similar to what is exposed in the current pavements and open to flow, fracture network is at hydrostatic pressure at 3 km depth, overpressure between matrix and fractures is 10% and a matrix permeability perpendicular to the bedding of 0.1 microdarcy, we have calculated the time it takes for a gas molecule to travel to the nearest fracture. These input values give travel times up to 8 days for a distance of 14 cm. If the permeability is changed to 1 nanodarcy or 10 microdarcy travel times change to 2.2 years or 2 hours respectively.
Mechanisms balancing skeletal matrix synthesis and degradation.
Blair, Harry C; Zaidi, Mone; Schlesinger, Paul H
2002-01-01
Bone is regulated by evolutionarily conserved signals that balance continuous differentiation of bone matrix-producing cells against apoptosis and matrix removal. This is continued from embryogenesis, where the skeleton differentiates as a solid mass and is shaped into separate bones by cell death and proteolysis. The two major tissues of the skeleton are avascular cartilage, with an extracellular matrix based on type II collagen and hydrophilic proteoglycans, and bone, a stronger and lighter material based on oriented type I collagen and hydroxyapatite. Both differentiate from the same mesenchymal stem cells. This differentiation is regulated by a family of related signals centred on bone morphogenic proteins. Fibroblast growth factors, Indian hedgehog and parathyroid hormone-related protein are important in determining the type of matrix and the relation of skeletal and non-skeletal structures. Removal of mineralized matrix involves apoptosis of matrix cells and differentiation of acid-secreting cells (osteoclasts) from macrophage precursors. Key regulators of matrix removal are signals in the tumour-necrosis-factor family. Osteoclasts dissolve bone by isolating a region of the matrix and secreting HCl and proteinases at that site. Successive cycles of removal and replacement allow growth, repair and remodelling. The signals for bone turnover are predominantly cell-membrane-associated, allowing very specific spatial regulation. In addition to its support function, bone is a reservoir of Ca2+, PO3-(4) and OH-. Secondary modulation of mineral secretion and bone degradation are mediated by humoral signals, including parathyroid hormone and vitamin D, as well as the cytokines that also regulate the underlying cell differentiation. PMID:12023876
Ceramic matrix composites -- Advanced high-temperature structural materials
Lowden, R.A.; Ferber, M.K.; Hellmann, J.R.; Chawla, K.K.; DiPietro, S.G.
1995-10-01
This symposium on Ceramic Matrix Composites: Advanced High-Temperature Structural Materials was held at the 1994 MRS Fall Meeting in Boston, Massachusetts on November 28--December 2. The symposium was sponsored by the Department of Energy`s Office of Industrial Technology`s Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composites Program, the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, and NASA Lewis Research Center. Among the competing materials for advanced, high-temperature applications, ceramic matrix composites are leading candidates. The symposium was organized such that papers concerning constituents--fibers and matrices--were presented first, followed by composite processing, modeling of mechanical behavior, and thermomechanical testing. More stable reinforcements are necessary to enhance the performance and life of fiber-reinforced ceramic composites, and to ensure final acceptance of these materials for high-temperature applications. Encouraging results in the areas of polymer-derived SiC fibers and single crystal oxide filaments were given, suggesting composites with improved thermomechanical properties and stability will be realized in the near future. The significance of the fiber-matrix interface in the design and performance of these materials is evident. Numerous mechanical models to relate interface properties to composite behavior, and interpret test methods and data, were enthusiastically discussed. One issue of great concern for any advanced material for use in extreme environments is stability. This theme arose frequently throughout the symposium and was the topic of focus on the final day. Fifty nine papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.
Magnetic properties of iron cluster/chromium matrix nanocomposites.
Fischer, Arne; Kruk, Robert; Wang, Di; Hahn, Horst
2015-01-01
A custom-designed apparatus was used for the fine-tuned co-deposition of preformed Fe clusters into antiferromagnetic Cr matrices. Three series of samples with precisely defined cluster sizes, with accuracy to a few atoms, and controlled concentrations were fabricated, followed by a complete characterization of structure and magnetic performance. Relevant magnetic characteristics, reflecting the ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic coupling between Fe clusters and the Cr matrix, i.e., blocking temperature, coercivity field, and exchange bias were measured and their dependence on cluster size and cluster concentration in the matrix was analyzed. It is evident that the blocking temperatures are clearly affected by both the cluster size and their concentration in the Cr matrix. In contrast the coercivity shows hardly any dependence on size or inter-cluster distance. The exchange bias was found to be strongly sensitive to the cluster size but not to the inter-cluster distances. Therefore, it was concluded to be an effect that is purely localized at the interfaces. PMID:26171292
Magnetic properties of iron cluster/chromium matrix nanocomposites
Kruk, Robert; Wang, Di; Hahn, Horst
2015-01-01
Summary A custom-designed apparatus was used for the fine-tuned co-deposition of preformed Fe clusters into antiferromagnetic Cr matrices. Three series of samples with precisely defined cluster sizes, with accuracy to a few atoms, and controlled concentrations were fabricated, followed by a complete characterization of structure and magnetic performance. Relevant magnetic characteristics, reflecting the ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic coupling between Fe clusters and the Cr matrix, i.e., blocking temperature, coercivity field, and exchange bias were measured and their dependence on cluster size and cluster concentration in the matrix was analyzed. It is evident that the blocking temperatures are clearly affected by both the cluster size and their concentration in the Cr matrix. In contrast the coercivity shows hardly any dependence on size or inter-cluster distance. The exchange bias was found to be strongly sensitive to the cluster size but not to the inter-cluster distances. Therefore, it was concluded to be an effect that is purely localized at the interfaces. PMID:26171292
Probabilistic Micromechanics and Macromechanics for Ceramic Matrix Composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Mital, Subodh K.; Shah, Ashwin R.
1997-01-01
The properties of ceramic matrix composites (CMC's) are known to display a considerable amount of scatter due to variations in fiber/matrix properties, interphase properties, interphase bonding, amount of matrix voids, and many geometry- or fabrication-related parameters, such as ply thickness and ply orientation. This paper summarizes preliminary studies in which formal probabilistic descriptions of the material-behavior- and fabrication-related parameters were incorporated into micromechanics and macromechanics for CMC'S. In this process two existing methodologies, namely CMC micromechanics and macromechanics analysis and a fast probability integration (FPI) technique are synergistically coupled to obtain the probabilistic composite behavior or response. Preliminary results in the form of cumulative probability distributions and information on the probability sensitivities of the response to primitive variables for a unidirectional silicon carbide/reaction-bonded silicon nitride (SiC/RBSN) CMC are presented. The cumulative distribution functions are computed for composite moduli, thermal expansion coefficients, thermal conductivities, and longitudinal tensile strength at room temperature. The variations in the constituent properties that directly affect these composite properties are accounted for via assumed probabilistic distributions. Collectively, the results show that the present technique provides valuable information about the composite properties and sensitivity factors, which is useful to design or test engineers. Furthermore, the present methodology is computationally more efficient than a standard Monte-Carlo simulation technique; and the agreement between the two solutions is excellent, as shown via select examples.
Mathematical investigation of one-way transform matrix options.
Cooper, James Arlin
2006-01-01
One-way transforms have been used in weapon systems processors since the mid- to late-1970s in order to help recognize insertion of correct pre-arm information while maintaining abnormal-environment safety. Level-One, Level-Two, and Level-Three transforms have been designed. The Level-One and Level-Two transforms have been implemented in weapon systems, and both of these transforms are equivalent to matrix multiplication applied to the inserted information. The Level-Two transform, utilizing a 6 x 6 matrix, provided the basis for the ''System 2'' interface definition for Unique-Signal digital communication between aircraft and attached weapons. The investigation described in this report was carried out to find out if there were other size matrices that would be equivalent to the 6 x 6 Level-Two matrix. One reason for the investigation was to find out whether or not other dimensions were possible, and if so, to derive implementation options. Another important reason was to more fully explore the potential for inadvertent inversion. The results were that additional implementation methods were discovered, but no inversion weaknesses were revealed.
Extracellular Matrix Modulation: Optimizing Skin Care and Rejuvenation Procedures.
Widgerow, Alan D; Fabi, Sabrina G; Palestine, Roberta F; Rivkin, Alexander; Ortiz, Arisa; Bucay, Vivian W; Chiu, Annie; Naga, Lina; Emer, Jason; Chasan, Paul E
2016-04-01
Normal aging and photoaging of the skin are chronic processes that progress gradually. The extracellular matrix (ECM), constituting over 70% of the skin, is the central hub for repair and regeneration of the skin. As such, the ECM is the area where changes related to photodamage are most evident. Degradation of the ECM with fragmentation of proteins significantly affects cross talk and signaling between cells, the matrix, and its constituents. The accumulation of collagen fragments, amorphous elastin agglutinations, and abnormal cross-linkages between the collagen fragments impedes the ECM from its normal repair and regenerative capacity, which manifests as wrinkled, non-elastic skin. Similar to how the chronic wound healing process requires wound bed preparation before therapeutic intervention, treatment of chronic aging of the skin would likely benefit from a "skin bed preparation" to optimize the outcome of rejuvenation procedures and skin maintenance programs. This involves introducing agents that can combat stress-induced oxidation, proteasome dysfunction, and non-enzymatic cross linkages involved in glycation end products, to collectively modulate this damaged ECM, and upregulate neocollagenesis and elastin production. Agents of particular interest are matrikines, peptides originating from the fragmentation of matrix proteins that exhibit a wide range of biological activities. Peptides of this type (tripeptide and hexapeptide) are incorporated in ALASTIN™ Skin Nectar with TriHex™ technology (ALASTIN Skincare, Inc., Carlsbad, CA), which is designed to target ECM modulation with a goal of optimizing results following invasive and non-invasive dermal rejuvenating procedures. PMID:27050707
Sticky Matrix: Adhesion Mechanism of the Staphylococcal Polysaccharide Intercellular Adhesin.
Formosa-Dague, Cécile; Feuillie, Cécile; Beaussart, Audrey; Derclaye, Sylvie; Kucharíková, Soňa; Lasa, Iñigo; Van Dijck, Patrick; Dufrêne, Yves F
2016-03-22
The development of bacterial biofilms on surfaces leads to hospital-acquired infections that are difficult to fight. In Staphylococci, the cationic polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA) forms an extracellular matrix that connects the cells together during biofilm formation, but the molecular forces involved are unknown. Here, we use advanced force nanoscopy techniques to unravel the mechanism of PIA-mediated adhesion in a clinically relevant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strain. Nanoscale multiparametric imaging of the structure, adhesion, and elasticity of bacteria expressing PIA shows that the cells are surrounded by a soft and adhesive matrix of extracellular polymers. Cell surface softness and adhesion are dramatically reduced in mutant cells deficient for the synthesis of PIA or under unfavorable growth conditions. Single-cell force spectroscopy demonstrates that PIA promotes cell-cell adhesion via the multivalent electrostatic interaction with polyanionic teichoic acids on the S. aureus cell surface. This binding mechanism rationalizes, at the nanoscale, the well-known ability of PIA to strengthen intercellular adhesion in staphylococcal biofilms. Force nanoscopy offers promising prospects for understanding the fundamental forces in antibiotic-resistant biofilms and for designing anti-adhesion compounds targeting matrix polymers. PMID:26908275
Ubiquitination of specific mitochondrial matrix proteins.
Lehmann, Gilad; Ziv, Tamar; Braten, Ori; Admon, Arie; Udasin, Ronald G; Ciechanover, Aaron
2016-06-17
Several protein quality control systems in bacteria and/or mitochondrial matrix from lower eukaryotes are absent in higher eukaryotes. These are transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA), The N-end rule ATP-dependent protease ClpAP, and two more ATP-dependent proteases, HslUV and ClpXP (in yeast). The lost proteases resemble the 26S proteasome and the role of tmRNA and the N-end rule in eukaryotic cytosol is performed by the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS). Therefore, we hypothesized that the UPS might have substituted these systems - at least partially - in the mitochondrial matrix of higher eukaryotes. Using three independent experimental approaches, we demonstrated the presence of ubiquitinated proteins in the matrix of isolated yeast mitochondria. First, we show that isolated mitochondria contain ubiquitin (Ub) conjugates, which remained intact after trypsin digestion. Second, we demonstrate that the mitochondrial soluble fraction contains Ub-conjugates, several of which were identified by mass spectrometry and are localized to the matrix. Third, using immunoaffinity enrichment by specific antibodies recognizing digested ubiquitinated peptides, we identified a group of Ub-modified matrix proteins. The modification was further substantiated by separation on SDS-PAGE and immunoblots. Last, we attempted to identify the ubiquitin ligase(s) involved, and identified Dma1p as a trypsin-resistant protein in our mitochondrial preparations. Taken together, these data suggest a yet undefined role for the UPS in regulation of the mitochondrial matrix proteins. PMID:27157140
Pseudomonas biofilm matrix composition and niche biology
Mann, Ethan E.; Wozniak, Daniel J.
2014-01-01
Biofilms are a predominant form of growth for bacteria in the environment and in the clinic. Critical for biofilm development are adherence, proliferation, and dispersion phases. Each of these stages includes reinforcement by, or modulation of, the extracellular matrix. Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been a model organism for the study of biofilm formation. Additionally, other Pseudomonas species utilize biofilm formation during plant colonization and environmental persistence. Pseudomonads produce several biofilm matrix molecules, including polysaccharides, nucleic acids, and proteins. Accessory matrix components shown to aid biofilm formation and adaptability under varying conditions are also produced by pseudomonads. Adaptation facilitated by biofilm formation allows for selection of genetic variants with unique and distinguishable colony morphology. Examples include rugose small-colony variants and wrinkly spreaders (WS), which over produce Psl/Pel or cellulose, respectively, and mucoid bacteria that over produce alginate. The well-documented emergence of these variants suggests that pseudomonads take advantage of matrix-building subpopulations conferring specific benefits for the entire population. This review will focus on various polysaccharides as well as additional Pseudomonas biofilm matrix components. Discussions will center on structure–function relationships, regulation, and the role of individual matrix molecules in niche biology. PMID:22212072
Instructive Roles of Extracellular Matrix on Autophagy
Neill, Thomas; Schaefer, Liliana; Iozzo, Renato V.
2015-01-01
Autophagy plays an essential role in maintaining an intricate balance between nutrient demands and energetic requirements during normal homeostasis. Autophagy recycles metabolic substrates from nonspecific bulk degradation of proteins and excess or damaged organelles. Recent work posits an active and dynamic signaling role for extracellular matrix-evoked autophagic regulation, that is, allosteric and independent of prevailing nutrient conditions. Several candidates, representing a diverse repertoire of matrix constituents (decorin, collagen VI, laminin α2, endostatin, endorepellin, and kringle V), can modulate autophagic signaling pathways. Importantly, a novel principle indicates that matrix constituents can differentially modulate autophagic induction and repression via interaction with specific receptors. Most of the matrix-derived factors described here appear to control autophagy in a canonical manner but independent of nutrient deprivation. Because the molecular composition and structure of the extracellular matrix are dynamically remodeled during various physiological and pathological conditions, we propose that matrix-regulated autophagy is key for maintaining proper tissue homeostasis and disease prevention, such as cancer progression and muscular dystrophies. PMID:24976620
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smirnov, Andrey
2016-08-01
A torus action on a symplectic variety allows one to construct solutions to the quantum Yang-Baxter equations ( R-matrices). For a torus action on cotangent bundles over flag varieties the resulting R-matrices are the standard rational solutions of the Yang-Baxter equation, well known in the theory of quantum integrable systems. The torus action on the instanton moduli space leads to more complicated R-matrices, depending additionally on two equivariant parameters t 1 and t 2. In this paper we derive an explicit expression for the R-matrix associated with the instanton moduli space. We study its matrix elements and its Taylor expansion in the powers of the spectral parameter. Certain matrix elements of this R-matrix give a generating function for the characteristic classes of tautological bundles over the Hilbert schemes in terms of the bosonic cut-and-join operators. In particular we rederive from the R-matrix the well known Lehn's formula for the first Chern class. We explicitly compute the first several coefficients for the power series expansion of the R-matrix in the spectral parameter. These coefficients are represented by simple contour integrals of some symmetrized bosonic fields.
Temperature dependent nonlinear metal matrix laminae behavior
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barrett, D. J.; Buesking, K. W.
1986-01-01
An analytical method is described for computing the nonlinear thermal and mechanical response of laminated plates. The material model focuses upon the behavior of metal matrix materials by relating the nonlinear composite response to plasticity effects in the matrix. The foundation of the analysis is the unidirectional material model which is used to compute the instantaneous properties of the lamina based upon the properties of the fibers and matrix. The unidirectional model assumes that the fibers properties are constant with temperature and assumes that the matrix can be modelled as a temperature dependent, bilinear, kinematically hardening material. An incremental approach is used to compute average stresses in the fibers and matrix caused by arbitrary mechanical and thermal loads. The layer model is incorporated in an incremental laminated plate theory to compute the nonlinear response of laminated metal matrix composites of general orientation and stacking sequence. The report includes comparisons of the method with other analytical approaches and compares theoretical calculations with measured experimental material behavior. A section is included which describes the limitations of the material model.
Genetic Relationships Between Chondrules, Rims and Matrix
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huss, G. R.; Alexander, C. M. OD.; Palme, H.; Bland, P. A.; Wasson, J. T.
2004-01-01
The most primitive chondrites are composed of chondrules and chondrule fragments, various types of inclusions, discrete mineral grains, metal, sulfides, and fine-grained materials that occur as interchondrule matrix and as chondrule/inclusion rims. Understanding how these components are related is essential for understanding how chondrites and their constituents formed and were processed in the solar nebula. For example, were the first generations of chondrules formed by melting of matrix or matrix precursors? Did chondrule formation result in appreciable transfer of chondrule material into the matrix? Here, we consider three types of data: 1) compositional data for bulk chondrites and matrix, 2) mineralogical and textural information, and 3) the abundances and characteristics of presolar materials that reside in the matrix and rims. We use these data to evaluate the roles of evaporation and condensation, chondrule formation, mixing of different nebular components, and secondary processing both in the nebula and on the parent bodies. Our goal is to identify the things that are reasonably well established and to point out the areas that need additional work.
Matrix method for acoustic levitation simulation.
Andrade, Marco A B; Perez, Nicolas; Buiochi, Flavio; Adamowski, Julio C
2011-08-01
A matrix method is presented for simulating acoustic levitators. A typical acoustic levitator consists of an ultrasonic transducer and a reflector. The matrix method is used to determine the potential for acoustic radiation force that acts on a small sphere in the standing wave field produced by the levitator. The method is based on the Rayleigh integral and it takes into account the multiple reflections that occur between the transducer and the reflector. The potential for acoustic radiation force obtained by the matrix method is validated by comparing the matrix method results with those obtained by the finite element method when using an axisymmetric model of a single-axis acoustic levitator. After validation, the method is applied in the simulation of a noncontact manipulation system consisting of two 37.9-kHz Langevin-type transducers and a plane reflector. The manipulation system allows control of the horizontal position of a small levitated sphere from -6 mm to 6 mm, which is done by changing the phase difference between the two transducers. The horizontal position of the sphere predicted by the matrix method agrees with the horizontal positions measured experimentally with a charge-coupled device camera. The main advantage of the matrix method is that it allows simulation of non-symmetric acoustic levitators without requiring much computational effort. PMID:21859587
Laminated active matrix organic light-emitting devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Hongyu; Sun, Runguang
2008-02-01
Laminated active matrix organic light-emitting device (AMOLED) realizing top emission by using bottom-emitting organic light-emitting diode (OLED) structure was proposed. The multilayer structure of OLED deposited in the conventional sequence is not on the thin film transistor (TFT) backplane but on the OLED plane. The contact between the indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode of TFT backplane and metal cathode of OLED plane is implemented by using transfer electrode. The stringent pixel design for aperture ratio of the bottom-emitting AMOLED, as well as special technology for the top ITO electrode of top-emitting AMOLED, is unnecessary in the laminated AMOLED.
Boundary formulations for sensitivity analysis without matrix derivatives
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kane, J. H.; Guru Prasad, K.
1993-01-01
A new hybrid approach to continuum structural shape sensitivity analysis employing boundary element analysis (BEA) is presented. The approach uses iterative reanalysis to obviate the need to factor perturbed matrices in the determination of surface displacement and traction sensitivities via a univariate perturbation/finite difference (UPFD) step. The UPFD approach makes it possible to immediately reuse existing subroutines for computation of BEA matrix coefficients in the design sensitivity analysis process. The reanalysis technique computes economical response of univariately perturbed models without factoring perturbed matrices. The approach provides substantial computational economy without the burden of a large-scale reprogramming effort.
Parallel distance matrix computation for Matlab data mining
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Skurowski, Przemysław; Staniszewski, Michał
2016-06-01
The paper presents utility functions for computing of a distance matrix, which plays a crucial role in data mining. The goal in the design was to enable operating on relatively large datasets by overcoming basic shortcoming - computing time - with an interface easy to use. The presented solution is a set of functions, which were created with emphasis on practical applicability in real life. The proposed solution is presented along the theoretical background for the performance scaling. Furthermore, different approaches of the parallel computing are analyzed, including shared memory, which is uncommon in Matlab environment.
TRAC-P validation test matrix. Revision 1.0
Hughes, E.D.; Boyack, B.E.
1997-09-05
This document briefly describes the elements of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC`s) software quality assurance program leading to software (code) qualification and identifies a test matrix for qualifying Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC)-Pressurized Water Reactor Version (-P), or TRAC-P, to the NRC`s software quality assurance requirements. Code qualification is the outcome of several software life-cycle activities, specifically, (1) Requirements Definition, (2) Design, (3) Implementation, and (4) Qualification Testing. The major objective of this document is to define the TRAC-P Qualification Testing effort.
Emerging Applications of Ceramic and Metal Matrix Composites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krishnamoorthy, Divya; Ramolina, Dheeyana; Sandou, Sherleena
2012-07-01
Almost 500 papers were presented during the 43 sessions of the 27th Annual Cocoa Beach Conference & Exposition on Advanced Ceramics & Composites, which was organized by the Engineering Ceramics Division of the American Ceramic Society and sponsored by several federal agencies: NASA Glenn Research Center, the Army Research Office, the Department of Energy, and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research. Many of these papers focused on composites, both ceramic and metal matrix, and discussed mechanical behavior, design, fibers/interfaces, processing, and applications. Potential applications under development include components for armor, nuclear energy, and automobiles. A few of these applications have reached commercialization.
Covariance Matrix Estimation for the Cryo-EM Heterogeneity Problem*
Katsevich, E.; Katsevich, A.; Singer, A.
2015-01-01
In cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), a microscope generates a top view of a sample of randomly oriented copies of a molecule. The problem of single particle reconstruction (SPR) from cryo-EM is to use the resulting set of noisy two-dimensional projection images taken at unknown directions to reconstruct the three-dimensional (3D) structure of the molecule. In some situations, the molecule under examination exhibits structural variability, which poses a fundamental challenge in SPR. The heterogeneity problem is the task of mapping the space of conformational states of a molecule. It has been previously suggested that the leading eigenvectors of the covariance matrix of the 3D molecules can be used to solve the heterogeneity problem. Estimating the covariance matrix is challenging, since only projections of the molecules are observed, but not the molecules themselves. In this paper, we formulate a general problem of covariance estimation from noisy projections of samples. This problem has intimate connections with matrix completion problems and high-dimensional principal component analysis. We propose an estimator and prove its consistency. When there are finitely many heterogeneity classes, the spectrum of the estimated covariance matrix reveals the number of classes. The estimator can be found as the solution to a certain linear system. In the cryo-EM case, the linear operator to be inverted, which we term the projection covariance transform, is an important object in covariance estimation for tomographic problems involving structural variation. Inverting it involves applying a filter akin to the ramp filter in tomography. We design a basis in which this linear operator is sparse and thus can be tractably inverted despite its large size. We demonstrate via numerical experiments on synthetic datasets the robustness of our algorithm to high levels of noise. PMID:25699132
Stiffness matrix determination of composite materials using lamb wave group velocity measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Putkis, O.; Croxford, A. J.
2013-04-01
The use of Lamb waves in Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) and Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) is gaining popularity due to their ability to travel long distances without significant attenuation, therefore offering large area inspections with a small number of sensors. The design of a Lamb-wave-based NDE/SHM system for composite materials is more complicated than for metallic materials due to the directional dependence of Lamb wave propagation characteristics such as dispersion and group velocity. Propagation parameters can be theoretically predicted from known material properties, specifically the stiffness matrix and density. However, in practice it is difficult to obtain the stiffness matrix of a particular material or structure with high accuracy, hence introducing errors in theoretical predictions and inaccuracies in the resulting propagation parameters. Measured Lamb wave phase velocities can be used to infer the stiffness matrix, but the measurements are limited to the principal directions due to the steering effect (different propagation directions of phase and corresponding group velocities). This paper proposes determination of the stiffness matrix from the measured group velocities, which can be unambiguously measured in any direction. A highly anisotropic carbon-fibre-reinforced polymer plate is chosen for the study. The influence of different stiffness matrix elements on the directional group velocity profile is investigated. Thermodynamic Simulated Annealing (TSA) is used as a tool for inverse, multi variable inference of the stiffness matrix. A good estimation is achieved for particular matrix elements.
Biphasic response of cell invasion to matrix stiffness in 3-dimensional biopolymer networks
Lang, Nadine R.; Skodzek, Kai; Hurst, Sebastian; Mainka, Astrid; Steinwachs, Julian; Schneider, Julia; Aifantis, Katerina E.; Fabry, Ben
2015-01-01
When cells come in contact with an adhesive matrix, they begin to spread and migrate with a speed that depends on the stiffness of the extracellular matrix. On a flat surface, migration speed decreases with matrix stiffness mainly due to an increased stability of focal adhesions. In a 3-dimensional (3D) environment, cell migration is thought to be additionally impaired by the steric hindrance imposed by the surrounding matrix. For porous 3D biopolymer networks such as collagen gels, however, the effect of matrix stiffness on cell migration is difficult to separate from effects of matrix pore size and adhesive ligand density, and is therefore unknown. Here we used glutaraldehyde as a crosslinker to increase the stiffness of self-assembled collagen biopolymer networks independently of collagen concentration or pore size. Breast carcinoma cells were seeded onto the surface of 3D collagen gels, and the invasion depth was measured after 3 days of culture. Cell invasion in gels with pore sizes larger than 5 μm increased with higher gel stiffness, whereas invasion in gels with smaller pores decreased with higher gel stiffness. These data show that 3D cell invasion is enhanced by higher matrix stiffness, opposite to cell behavior in 2D, as long as the pore size does not fall below a critical value where it causes excessive steric hindrance. These findings may be important for optimizing the recellularization of soft tissue implants or for the design of 3D invasion models in cancer research. PMID:25462839
Multifunctional and stable bone mimic proteinaceous matrix for bone tissue engineering.
Won, Jong-Eun; Yun, Ye-Rang; Jang, Jun-Hyeog; Yang, Sung-Hee; Kim, Joong-Hyun; Chrzanowski, Wojciech; Wall, Ivan B; Knowles, Jonathan C; Kim, Hae-Won
2015-07-01
Biomaterial surface design with biomimetic proteins holds great promise for successful regeneration of tissues including bone. Here we report a novel proteinaceous hybrid matrix mimicking bone extracellular matrix that has multifunctional capacity to promote stem cell adhesion and osteogenesis with excellent stability. Osteocalcin-fibronectin fusion protein holding collagen binding domain was networked with fibrillar collagen, featuring bone extracellular matrix mimic, to provide multifunctional and structurally-stable biomatrices. The hybrid protein, integrated homogeneously with collagen fibrillar networks, preserved structural stability over a month. Biological efficacy of the hybrid matrix was proven onto tethered surface of biopolymer porous scaffolds. Mesenchymal stem cells quickly anchored to the hybrid matrix, forming focal adhesions, and substantially conformed to cytoskeletal extensions, benefited from the fibronectin adhesive domains. Cells achieved high proliferative capacity to reach confluence rapidly and switched to a mature and osteogenic phenotype more effectively, resulting in greater osteogenic matrix syntheses and mineralization, driven by the engineered osteocalcin. The hybrid biomimetic matrix significantly improved in vivo bone formation in calvarial defects over 6 weeks. Based on the series of stimulated biological responses in vitro and in vivo the novel hybrid proteinaceous composition will be potentially useful as stem cell interfacing matrices for osteogenesis and bone regeneration. PMID:25934278
Wavelet crosstalk matrix and its application to assessment of shift-variant imaging systems
Qi, Jinyi; Huesman, Ronald H.
2002-11-01
The objective assessment of image quality is essential for design of imaging systems. Barrett and Gifford [1] introduced the Fourier cross talk matrix. Because it is diagonal for continuous linear shift-invariant imaging systems, the Fourier cross talk matrix is a powerful technique for discrete imaging systems that are close to shift invariant. However, for a system that is intrinsically shift variant, Fourier techniques are not particularly effective. Because Fourier bases have no localization property, the shift-variance of the imaging system cannot be shown by the response of individual Fourier bases; rather, it is shown in the correlation between the Fourier coefficients. This makes the analysis and optimization quite difficult. In this paper, we introduce a wavelet cross talk matrix based on wavelet series expansions. The wavelet cross talk matrix allows simultaneous study of the imaging system in both the frequency and spatial domains. Hence it is well suited for shift variant systems. We compared the wavelet cross talk matrix with the Fourier cross talk matrix for several simulated imaging systems, namely the interior and exterior tomography problems, limited angle tomography, and a rectangular geometry positron emission tomograph. The results demonstrate the advantages of the wavelet cross talk matrix in analyzing shift-variant imaging systems.
Optical matrix-matrix multiplication method demonstrated by the use of a multifocus hololens
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, H. K.; Liang, Y.-Z.
1984-01-01
A method of optical matrix-matrix multiplication is presented. The feasibility of the method is also experimentally demonstrated by the use of a dichromated-gelatin multifocus holographic lens (hololens). With the specific values of matrices chosen, the average percentage error between the theoretical and experimental data of the elements of the output matrix of the multiplication of some specific pairs of 3 x 3 matrices is 0.4 percent, which corresponds to an 8-bit accuracy.
Inhibition of membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase at cell-matrix adhesions.
Takino, Takahisa; Saeki, Hiromi; Miyamori, Hisashi; Kudo, Tomoya; Sato, Hiroshi
2007-12-15
Membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) has been implicated in tumor invasion and metastasis. We previously reported that extracellular matrix degradation by MT1-MMP regulates cell migration via modulating sustained integrin-mediated signals. In this study, MT1-MMP-expressing cells were plated onto fibronectin-coated plates and monitored for cell-matrix adhesion formation and fibronectin degradation. The fibronectin was degraded and removed in line with the cell migration track. The migrating cells showed a polarized morphology and were in contact with the edge of fibronectin through the leading edge, in which cell-matrix adhesions are concentrated. Expression of MT1-MMP targeted to cell-matrix adhesions by fusing with the focal adhesion targeting (FAT) domain of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) promoted the initial fibronectin lysis at the cell periphery immediately after adhesion. These results suggest that fibronectin is degraded by MT1-MMP located at cell-matrix adhesions, which are concentrated at the leading edge of the migrating cells. To inhibit MT1-MMP at cell-matrix adhesion, the dominant negative form of MT1-MMP (MT1-Pex) was targeted to the cell-matrix adhesion by fusing with the FAT domain (MT1-Pex-FAT). MT1-Pex-FAT accumulated at cell-matrix adhesions and inhibited fibronectin degradation as well as FAK phosphorylation more effectively than parental MT1-Pex. MT1-Pex-FAT was also shown to suppress the invasion of tumor cells into three-dimensional collagen gel more strongly than MT1-Pex. These results suggest that MT1-MMP-mediated extracellular matrix lysis at cell-matrix adhesions induces the establishment of cell polarity, which facilitates cell-matrix adhesion turnover and subsequent cell migration. This model highlights the role of MT1-MMP at the leading edge of migrating cells. PMID:18089791
Imide modified epoxy matrix resins
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Scola, D. A.; Pater, R. H.
1981-01-01
High char yield epoxy using novel bisimide amines (BIA's) as curing agents with a state of the art epoxy resin was developed. Stoichiometric quantities of the epoxy resin and the BIA's were studied to determine the cure cycle required for preparation of resin specimens. The bisimide cured epoxies were designated IME's (imide modified epoxy). The physical, thermal and mechanical properties of these novel resins were determined. The levels of moisture absorption exhibited by the bisimide amine cured expoxies (IME's) were considerably lower than the state of the art epoxies. The strain-to-failure of the control resin system was improved 25% by replacement of DDS with 6F-DDS. Each BIA containing resin exhibited twice the char yield of the control resin MY 720/DDS. Graphite fiber reinforced control (C) and IME resins were fabricated and characterized. Two of the composite systems showed superior properties compared to the other Celion 6000/IME composite systems and state of the art graphite epoxy systems. The two systems exhibited excellent wet shear and flexural strengths and moduli at 300 and 350 F.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, W. S.
1988-01-01
Continuous fiber reinforced metal matrix composites (MMC) are projected for use in high temperature, stiffness critical parts that will be subjected to cyclic loadings. Depending on the relative fatigue behavior of the fiber and matrix, and the interface properties, the failure modes of MMC can be grouped into four catagories: (1) matrix dominated, (2) fiber dominated, (3) self-similar damage growth, and (4) fiber/matrix interfacial failures. These four types of damage are discussed and illustrated by examples. The emphasis is on the fatigue of unnotched laminates.
Auger analysis of a fiber/matrix interface in a ceramic matrix composite
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Honecy, Frank S.; Pepper, Stephen V.
1988-01-01
Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) depth profiling was used to characterize the fiber/matrix interface of an SiC fiber, reaction bonded Si3N4 matrix composite. Depth profiles of the as received double coated fiber revealed concentration oscillations which disappeared after annealing the fiber in the environment used to fabricate the composite. After the composite was fractured, the Auger depth profiles showed that failure occurred in neither the Beta-SiC fiber body nor in the Si3N4 matrix but, concurrently, at the fiber coating/matrix interface and within the fiber coating itself.
Experimental study on mechanical behavior of fiber/matrix interface in metal matrix composite
Wang, Q.; Chiang, F.P.
1994-12-31
The technique SIEM(Speckle Interferometry with Electron Microscopy) was employed to quantitatively measure the deformation on the fiber/matrix interface in SCS-6/Ti-6-4 composite at a microscale level. The displacement field within the fiber/matrix interphase zone was determined by in-situ observation with sensitivity of 0.003({micro}m). The macro-mechanical properties were compared with micro-mechanical behavior. It is shown that the strength in the interphase zone is weaker than the matrix tensile strength. The deformation process can be characterized by the uniform deformation, interface strain concentration and debond, and matrix plastic deformation.
Method of producing a hybrid matrix fiber composite
Deteresa, Steven J.; Lyon, Richard E.; Groves, Scott E.
2006-03-28
Hybrid matrix fiber composites having enhanced compressive performance as well as enhanced stiffness, toughness and durability suitable for compression-critical applications. The methods for producing the fiber composites using matrix hybridization. The hybrid matrix fiber composites comprised of two chemically or physically bonded matrix materials, whereas the first matrix materials are used to impregnate multi-filament fibers formed into ribbons and the second matrix material is placed around and between the fiber ribbons that are impregnated with the first matrix material and both matrix materials are cured and solidified.
INTEGRATED COI S200 - Hi-NiCalon FIBER WITH AN S200 MATRIX (POLYMER MATRIX COMPOSITE - PMC) / AETB 1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2003-01-01
INTEGRATED COI S200 - Hi-NiCalon FIBER WITH AN S200 MATRIX (POLYMER MATRIX COMPOSITE - PMC) / AETB 16 (FOAM CORE) / CARBON REINFORCED CYANOESTER (CERAMIC MATRIX COMPOSITE - CMC) HOT STRUCTURE, PANEL 884-1: SAMPLE 3
INTEGRATED COI S200 - Hi-NiCalon FIBER WITH AN S200 MATRIX (POLYMER MATRIX COMPOSITE - PMC) / AETB 1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2003-01-01
INTEGRATED COI S200 - Hi-NiCalon FIBER WITH AN S200 MATRIX (POLYMER MATRIX COMPOSITE - PMC) / AETB 16 (FOAM CORE) / CARBON REINFORCED CYANOESTER (CERAMIC MATRIX COMPOSITE - CMC) HOT STRUCTURE, PANEL 884-1: SAMPLE 1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Welhart, E. K.
1976-01-01
This design note presents typical mechanical properties tabulated from industrial and governmental agencies' test programs. All data are correlated to specific products and all of the best known products are presented. The data include six epoxies, eight polyimides and one polyquinoxaline matrix material. Bron and graphite are the fiber reinforcements. Included are forty-two summaries of advanced (resin matrix) composite programs in existence in the United States. It is concluded that the selection of appropriate matrices, the geometric manner in which the fibers are incorporated in the matrix and the durability of the bond between fiber and matrix establish the end properties of the composite material and the performance of the fabricated structure.
Mechanobiology of cell migration in the context of dynamic two-way cell-matrix interactions.
Kurniawan, Nicholas A; Chaudhuri, Parthiv Kant; Lim, Chwee Teck
2016-05-24
Migration of cells is integral in various physiological processes in all facets of life. These range from embryonic development, morphogenesis, and wound healing, to disease pathology such as cancer metastasis. While cell migratory behavior has been traditionally studied using simple assays on culture dishes, in recent years it has been increasingly realized that the physical, mechanical, and chemical aspects of the matrix are key determinants of the migration mechanism. In this paper, we will describe the mechanobiological changes that accompany the dynamic cell-matrix interactions during cell migration. Furthermore, we will review what is to date known about how these changes feed back to the dynamics and biomechanical properties of the cell and the matrix. Elucidating the role of these intimate cell-matrix interactions will provide not only a better multi-scale understanding of cell motility in its physiological context, but also a more holistic perspective for designing approaches to regulate cell behavior. PMID:26747513
Potential for use of a House of Quality Matrix technique in rehabilitation engineering.
Logan, G D; Radcliffe, D F
1997-03-01
This article describes a concept of using the House of Quality matrix tool to aid the process of designing customized seating. The work of a cross-function team in two seating clinics was videotaped. At a later date the information derived from the videotapes was analyzed using a House of Quality matrix. We were interested in the capacity of House of Quality to draw out customer requirements in a seating device and relate engineering requirements for manufacturing the seating. The scores for engineering features derived from the matrix were compared with the features the cross-function team treated with high priority and also the features which the team experienced most difficulty in satisfying as revealed in the video viewed. The matrix scores demonstrated the House of Quality's capacity to select key features 50% of the time. House of Quality was time-consuming to execute. Its application in everyday clinical settings is limited by this fact. PMID:9086391
Imide modified epoxy matrix resins
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Scola, D. A.
1982-01-01
Results of a program designed to develop tough imide modified epoxy (IME) resins cured by bisimide amine (BIA) hardeners are presented. State of the art epoxy resin, MY720, was used. Three aromatic bisimide amines and one aromatic aliphatic BIA were evaluated. BIA's derived from 6F anhydride (3,3 prime 4,4 prime-(hexafluoro isopropyl idene) bis (phthalic anhydride) and diamines, 3,3 prime-diam nodiphenyl sulfone (3,3 prime-DDS), 4,4 prime-diamino diphenyl sulfone (4,4 prime-DDS), 1.12-dodecane diamine (1,12-DDA) were used. BIA's were abbreviated 6F-3,3 prime-DDS, 6F-4,4 prime-DDS, 6F-3,3 prime-DDS-4,4 prime DDS, and 6F-3,3 prime-DDS-1,12-DDA corresponding to 6F anhydride and diamines mentioned. Epoxy resin and BIA's (MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS, MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS-4,4 prime-DDS, MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS-1,12-DDA and a 50:50 mixture of a BIA and parent diamine, MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS/3,3 prime-DDS, MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS-4,4 prime-DDS/3,3 prime-DDS, MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS-1,12-DDA/3,3 prime-DDS were studied to determine effect of structure and composition. Effect of the addition of two commercial epoxies, glyamine 200 and glyamine 100 on the properties of several formulations was evaluated. Bisimide amine cured epoxies were designated IME's (imide modified epoxy). Physical, thermal and mechanical properties of these resins were determined. Moisture absorption in boiling water exhibited by several of the IME's was considerably lower than the state of the art epoxies (from 3.2% for the control and state of the art to 2.0 wt% moisture absorption). Char yields are increased from 20% for control and state of the art epoxies to 40% for IME resins. Relative toughness characteristics of IME resins were measured by 10 deg off axis tensile tests of Celion 6000/IME composites. Results show that IME's containing 6F-3,3 prime-DDS or 6F-3,3 prime-DDS-1,12-DDA improved the "toughness" characteristics of composites by about 35% (tensile strength), about 35% (intralaminar shear
Space transportation vehicle design evaluation using saturated designs
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Unal, Resit
1993-01-01
An important objective in the preliminary design and evaluation of space transportation vehicles is to find the best values of design variables that optimize the performance characteristic (e.g. dry weight). For a given configuration, the vehicle performance can be determined by the use of complex sizing and performance evaluation computer programs. These complex computer programs utilize iterative algorithms and they are generally too expensive and/or difficult to use directly in multidisciplinary design optimization. An alternative is to use response surface methodology (RSM) and obtain quadratic polynomial approximations to the functional relationships between performance characteristics and design variables. In RSM, these approximation models are then used to determine optimum design parameter values and for rapid sensitivity studies. Constructing a second-order model requires that 'n' design parameters be studied at least at 3 levels (values) so that the coefficients in the model can be estimated. There, 3(n) factorial experiments (point designs or observations) may be necessary. For small values of 'n' such as two or three, this design works well. However, when a large number of design parameters are under study, the number of design points required for a full-factorial design may become excessive. Fortunately, these quadratic polynomial approximations can be obtained by selecting an efficient design matrix using central composite designs (CCD) from design of experiments theory. Each unique point design from the CCD matrix is then conducted using computerized analysis tools (e.g. POST, CONSIZ, etc.). In the next step, least squares regression analysis is used to calculate the quadratic polynomial coefficients from the data. However, in some multidisciplinary applications involving a large number of design variables and several disciplines, the computerized performance synthesis programs may get too time consuming and expensive to run even with the use of
METCAN-PC - METAL MATRIX COMPOSITE ANALYZER
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Murthy, P. L.
1994-01-01
High temperature metal matrix composites offer great potential for use in advanced aerospace structural applications. The realization of this potential however, requires concurrent developments in (1) a technology base for fabricating high temperature metal matrix composite structural components, (2) experimental techniques for measuring their thermal and mechanical characteristics, and (3) computational methods to predict their behavior. METCAN (METal matrix Composite ANalyzer) is a computer program developed to predict this behavior. METCAN can be used to computationally simulate the non-linear behavior of high temperature metal matrix composites (HT-MMC), thus allowing the potential payoff for the specific application to be assessed. It provides a comprehensive analysis of composite thermal and mechanical performance. METCAN treats material nonlinearity at the constituent (fiber, matrix, and interphase) level, where the behavior of each constituent is modeled accounting for time-temperature-stress dependence. The composite properties are synthesized from the constituent instantaneous properties by making use of composite micromechanics and macromechanics. Factors which affect the behavior of the composite properties include the fabrication process variables, the fiber and matrix properties, the bonding between the fiber and matrix and/or the properties of the interphase between the fiber and matrix. The METCAN simulation is performed as point-wise analysis and produces composite properties which are readily incorporated into a finite element code to perform a global structural analysis. After the global structural analysis is performed, METCAN decomposes the composite properties back into the localized response at the various levels of the simulation. At this point the constituent properties are updated and the next iteration in the analysis is initiated. This cyclic procedure is referred to as the integrated approach to metal matrix composite analysis. METCAN
Elongated Polyproline Motifs Facilitate Enamel Evolution through Matrix Subunit Compaction
Luan, Xianghong; Dangaria, Smit; Walker, Cameron; Allen, Michael; Kulkarni, Ashok; Gibson, Carolyn; Braatz, Richard; Liao, Xiubei; Diekwisch, Thomas G. H.
2009-01-01
Vertebrate body designs rely on hydroxyapatite as the principal mineral component of relatively light-weight, articulated endoskeletons and sophisticated tooth-bearing jaws, facilitating rapid movement and efficient predation. Biological mineralization and skeletal growth are frequently accomplished through proteins containing polyproline repeat elements. Through their well-defined yet mobile and flexible structure polyproline-rich proteins control mineral shape and contribute many other biological functions including Alzheimer's amyloid aggregation and prolamine plant storage. In the present study we have hypothesized that polyproline repeat proteins exert their control over biological events such as mineral growth, plaque aggregation, or viscous adhesion by altering the length of their central repeat domain, resulting in dramatic changes in supramolecular assembly dimensions. In order to test our hypothesis, we have used the vertebrate mineralization protein amelogenin as an exemplar and determined the biological effect of the four-fold increased polyproline tandem repeat length in the amphibian/mammalian transition. To study the effect of polyproline repeat length on matrix assembly, protein structure, and apatite crystal growth, we have measured supramolecular assembly dimensions in various vertebrates using atomic force microscopy, tested the effect of protein assemblies on crystal growth by electron microscopy, generated a transgenic mouse model to examine the effect of an abbreviated polyproline sequence on crystal growth, and determined the structure of polyproline repeat elements using 3D NMR. Our study shows that an increase in PXX/PXQ tandem repeat motif length results (i) in a compaction of protein matrix subunit dimensions, (ii) reduced conformational variability, (iii) an increase in polyproline II helices, and (iv) promotion of apatite crystal length. Together, these findings establish a direct relationship between polyproline tandem repeat fragment
Modeling mechanophore activation within a crosslinked glassy matrix
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Silberstein, Meredith N.; Min, Kyoungmin; Cremar, Lee D.; Degen, Cassandra M.; Martinez, Todd J.; Aluru, Narayana R.; White, Scott R.; Sottos, Nancy R.
2013-07-01
Mechanically induced reactivity is a promising means for designing self-reporting materials. Mechanically sensitive chemical groups called mechanophores are covalently linked into polymers in order to trigger specific chemical reactions upon mechanical loading. These mechanophores can be linked either within the backbone or as crosslinks between backbone segments. Mechanophore response is sensitive to both the matrix properties and placement within the matrix, providing two avenues for material design. A model framework is developed to describe reactivity of mechanophores located as crosslinks in a glassy polymer matrix. Simulations are conducted at the molecular and macromolecular scales in order to develop macroscale constitutive relations. The model is developed specifically for the case of spiropyran (SP) in lightly crosslinked polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). This optically trackable mechanophore (fluorescent when activated) allows the model to be assessed in terms of observed experimental behavior. The force modified potential energy surface (FMPES) framework is used in conjunction with ab initio steered molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of SP to determine the mechanophore kinetics. MD simulations of the crosslinked PMMA structure under shear deformation are used to determine the relationship between macroscale stress and local force on the crosslinks. A continuum model implemented in a finite element framework synthesizes these mechanochemical relations with the mechanical behavior. The continuum model with parameters taken directly from the FMPES and MD analyses under predicts stress-driven activation relative to experimental data. The continuum model, with the physically motivated modification of force fluctuations, provides an accurate prediction for monotonic loading across three decades of strain rate and creep loading, suggesting that the fundamental physics are captured.
Inelastic deformation of metal matrix composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lissenden, C. J.; Herakovich, C. T.; Pindera, M-J.
1993-01-01
A theoretical model capable of predicting the thermomechanical response of continuously reinforced metal matrix composite laminates subjected to multiaxial loading was developed. A micromechanical model is used in conjunction with nonlinear lamination theory to determine inelastic laminae response. Matrix viscoplasticity, residual stresses, and damage to the fiber/matrix interfacial zone are explicitly included in the model. The representative cell of the micromechanical model is considered to be in a state of generalized plane strain, enabling a quasi two-dimensional analysis to be performed. Constant strain finite elements are formulated with elastic-viscoplastic constitutive equations. Interfacial debonding is incorporated into the model through interface elements based on the interfacial debonding theory originally presented by Needleman, and modified by Tvergaard. Nonlinear interfacial constitutive equations relate interfacial tractions to displacement discontinuities at the interface. Theoretical predictions are compared with the results of an experimental program conducted on silicon carbide/titanium (SiC/Ti) unidirectional, (O4), and angle-ply, (+34)(sub s), tubular specimens. Multiaxial loading included increments of axial tension, compression, torque, and internal pressure. Loadings were chosen in an effort to distinguish inelastic deformation due to damage from matrix plasticity and separate time-dependent effects from time-independent effects. Results show that fiber/matrix debonding is nonuniform throughout the composite and is a major factor in the effective response. Also, significant creep behavior occurs at relatively low applied stress levels at room temperature.
Spark plasma sintering of aluminum matrix composites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yadav, Vineet
2011-12-01
Aluminum matrix composites make a distinct category of advanced engineering materials having superior properties over conventional aluminum alloys. Aluminum matrix composites exhibit high hardness, yield strength, and excellent wear and corrosion resistance. Due to these attractive properties, aluminum matrix composites materials have many structural applications in the automotive and the aerospace industries. In this thesis, efforts are made to process high strength aluminum matrix composites which can be useful in the applications of light weight and strong materials. Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) is a relatively novel process where powder mixture is consolidated under the simultaneous influence of uniaxial pressure and pulsed direct current. In this work, SPS was used to process aluminum matrix composites having three different reinforcements: multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), silicon carbide (SiC), and iron-based metallic glass (MG). In Al-CNT composites, significant improvement in micro-hardness, nano-hardness, and compressive yield strength was observed. The Al-CNT composites further exhibited improved wear resistance and lower friction coefficient due to strengthening and self-lubricating effects of CNTs. In Al-SiC and Al-MG composites, microstructure, densification, and tribological behaviors were also studied. Reinforcing MG and SiC also resulted in increase in micro-hardness and wear resistance.
Thermal stress effects in intermetallic matrix composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wright, P. K.; Sensmeier, M. D.; Kupperman, D. S.; Wadley, H. N. G.
1993-01-01
Intermetallic matrix composites develop residual stresses from the large thermal expansion mismatch (delta-alpha) between the fibers and matrix. This work was undertaken to: establish improved techniques to measure these thermal stresses in IMC's; determine residual stresses in a variety of IMC systems by experiments and modeling; and, determine the effect of residual stresses on selected mechanical properties of an IMC. X ray diffraction (XRD), neutron diffraction (ND), synchrotron XRD (SXRD), and ultrasonics (US) techniques for measuring thermal stresses in IMC were examined and ND was selected as the most promising technique. ND was demonstrated on a variety of IMC systems encompassing Ti- and Ni-base matrices, SiC, W, and Al2O3 fibers, and different fiber fractions (Vf). Experimental results on these systems agreed with predictions of a concentric cylinder model. In SiC/Ti-base systems, little yielding was found and stresses were controlled primarily by delta-alpha and Vf. In Ni-base matrix systems, yield strength of the matrix and Vf controlled stress levels. The longitudinal residual stresses in SCS-6/Ti-24Al-llNb composite were modified by thermomechanical processing. Increasing residual stress decreased ultimate tensile strength in agreement with model predictions. Fiber pushout strength showed an unexpected inverse correlation with residual stress. In-plane shear yield strength showed no dependence on residual stress. Higher levels of residual tension led to higher fatigue crack growth rates, as suggested by matrix mean stress effects.
Thermal shock resistance of ceramic matrix composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carper, D. M.; Nied, H. F.
1993-01-01
The experimental and analytical investigation of the thermal shock phenomena in ceramic matrix composites is detailed. The composite systems examined were oxide-based, consisting of an aluminosilicate matrix with either polycrystalline aluminosilicate or single crystal alumina fiber reinforcement. The program was divided into three technical tasks; baseline mechanical properties, thermal shock modeling, and thermal shock testing. The analytical investigation focused on the development of simple expressions for transient thermal stresses induced during thermal shock. The effect of various material parameters, including thermal conductivity, elastic modulus, and thermal expansion, were examined analytically for their effect on thermal shock performance. Using a simple maximum stress criteria for each constituent, it was observed that fiber fracture would occur only at the most extreme thermal shock conditions and that matrix fracture, splitting parallel to the reinforcing fiber, was to be expected for most practical cases. Thermal shock resistance for the two material systems was determined experimentally by subjecting plates to sudden changes in temperature on one surface while maintaining the opposite surface at a constant temperature. This temperature change was varied in severity (magnitude) and in number of shocks applied to a given sample. The results showed that for the most severe conditions examined that only surface matrix fracture was present with no observable fiber fracture. The impact of this damage on material performance was limited to the matrix dominated properties only. Specifically, compression strength was observed to decrease by as much as 50 percent from the measured baseline.
Transfer matrix representation for periodic planar media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parrinello, A.; Ghiringhelli, G. L.
2016-06-01
Sound transmission through infinite planar media characterized by in-plane periodicity is faced by exploiting the free wave propagation on the related unit cells. An appropriate through-thickness transfer matrix, relating a proper set of variables describing the acoustic field at the two external surfaces of the medium, is derived by manipulating the dynamic stiffness matrix related to a finite element model of the unit cell. The adoption of finite element models avoids analytical modeling or the simplification on geometry or materials. The obtained matrix is then used in a transfer matrix method context, making it possible to combine the periodic medium with layers of different nature and to treat both hard-wall and semi-infinite fluid termination conditions. A finite sequence of identical sub-layers through the thickness of the medium can be handled within the transfer matrix method, significantly decreasing the computational burden. Transfer matrices obtained by means of the proposed method are compared with analytical or equivalent models, in terms of sound transmission through barriers of different nature.
Estimating the Inertia Matrix of a Spacecraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Acikmese, Behcet; Keim, Jason; Shields, Joel
2007-01-01
A paper presents a method of utilizing some flight data, aboard a spacecraft that includes reaction wheels for attitude control, to estimate the inertia matrix of the spacecraft. The required data are digitized samples of (1) the spacecraft attitude in an inertial reference frame as measured, for example, by use of a star tracker and (2) speeds of rotation of the reaction wheels, the moments of inertia of which are deemed to be known. Starting from the classical equations for conservation of angular momentum of a rigid body, the inertia-matrix-estimation problem is formulated as a constrained least-squares minimization problem with explicit bounds on the inertia matrix incorporated as linear matrix inequalities. The explicit bounds reflect physical bounds on the inertia matrix and reduce the volume of data that must be processed to obtain a solution. The resulting minimization problem is a semidefinite optimization problem that can be solved efficiently, with guaranteed convergence to the global optimum, by use of readily available algorithms. In a test case involving a model attitude platform rotating on an air bearing, it is shown that, relative to a prior method, the present method produces better estimates from few data.
Calculus of continuous matrix product states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haegeman, Jutho; Cirac, J. Ignacio; Osborne, Tobias J.; Verstraete, Frank
2013-08-01
We discuss various properties of the variational class of continuous matrix product states, a class of Ansatz states for one-dimensional quantum fields that was recently introduced as the direct continuum limit of the highly successful class of matrix product states. We discuss both attributes of the physical states, e.g., by showing in detail how to compute expectation values, as well as properties intrinsic to the representation itself, such as the gauge freedom. We consider general translation noninvariant systems made of several particle species and derive certain regularity properties that need to be satisfied by the variational parameters. We also devote a section to the translation invariant setting in the thermodynamic limit and show how continuous matrix product states possess an intrinsic ultraviolet cutoff. Finally, we introduce a new set of states, which are tangent to the original set of continuous matrix product states. For the case of matrix product states, this construction has recently proven relevant in the development of new algorithms for studying time evolution and elementary excitations of quantum spin chains. We thus lay the foundation for similar developments for one-dimensional quantum fields.
Phylogenetic Stochastic Mapping Without Matrix Exponentiation
Irvahn, Jan; Minin, Vladimir N.
2014-01-01
Abstract Phylogenetic stochastic mapping is a method for reconstructing the history of trait changes on a phylogenetic tree relating species/organism carrying the trait. State-of-the-art methods assume that the trait evolves according to a continuous-time Markov chain (CTMC) and works well for small state spaces. The computations slow down considerably for larger state spaces (e.g., space of codons), because current methodology relies on exponentiating CTMC infinitesimal rate matrices—an operation whose computational complexity grows as the size of the CTMC state space cubed. In this work, we introduce a new approach, based on a CTMC technique called uniformization, which does not use matrix exponentiation for phylogenetic stochastic mapping. Our method is based on a new Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm that targets the distribution of trait histories conditional on the trait data observed at the tips of the tree. The computational complexity of our MCMC method grows as the size of the CTMC state space squared. Moreover, in contrast to competing matrix exponentiation methods, if the rate matrix is sparse, we can leverage this sparsity and increase the computational efficiency of our algorithm further. Using simulated data, we illustrate advantages of our MCMC algorithm and investigate how large the state space needs to be for our method to outperform matrix exponentiation approaches. We show that even on the moderately large state space of codons our MCMC method can be significantly faster than currently used matrix exponentiation methods. PMID:24918812
Tensile Properties of Polymeric Matrix Composites Subjected to Cryogenic Environments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Whitley, Karen S.; Gates, Thomas S.
2004-01-01
Polymer matrix composites (PMC s) have seen limited use as structural materials in cryogenic environments. One reason for the limited use of PMC s in cryogenic structures is a design philosophy that typically requires a large, validated database of material properties in order to ensure a reliable and defect free structure. It is the intent of this paper to provide an initial set of mechanical properties developed from experimental data of an advanced PMC (IM7/PETI-5) exposed to cryogenic temperatures and mechanical loading. The application of this data is to assist in the materials down-select and design of cryogenic fuel tanks for future reusable space vehicles. The details of the material system, test program, and experimental methods will be outlined. Tension modulus and strength were measured at room temperature, -196 C, and -269 C on five different laminates. These properties were also tested after aging at -186 C with and without loading applied. Microcracking was observed in one laminate.
D-MATRIX: A web tool for constructing weight matrix of conserved DNA motifs
Sen, Naresh; Mishra, Manoj; Khan, Feroz; Meena, Abha; Sharma, Ashok
2009-01-01
Despite considerable efforts to date, DNA motif prediction in whole genome remains a challenge for researchers. Currently the genome wide motif prediction tools required either direct pattern sequence (for single motif) or weight matrix (for multiple motifs). Although there are known motif pattern databases and tools for genome level prediction but no tool for weight matrix construction. Considering this, we developed a D-MATRIX tool which predicts the different types of weight matrix based on user defined aligned motif sequence set and motif width. For retrieval of known motif sequences user can access the commonly used databases such as TFD, RegulonDB, DBTBS, Transfac. DMATRIX program uses a simple statistical approach for weight matrix construction, which can be converted into different file formats according to user requirement. It provides the possibility to identify the conserved motifs in the coregulated genes or whole genome. As example, we successfully constructed the weight matrix of LexA transcription factor binding site with the help of known sosbox cisregulatory elements in Deinococcus radiodurans genome. The algorithm is implemented in C-Sharp and wrapped in ASP.Net to maintain a user friendly web interface. DMATRIX tool is accessible through the CIMAP domain network. Availability http://203.190.147.116/dmatrix/ PMID:19759861
Quaternion from rotation matrix. [four-parameter representation of coordinate transformation matrix
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shepperd, S. W.
1978-01-01
A quaternion is regarded as a four-parameter representation of a coordinate transformation matrix, where the four components of the quaternion are treated on an equal basis. This leads to a unified, compact, and singularity-free approach to determining the quaternion when the matrix is given.
Cache oblivious storage and access heuristics for blocked matrix-matrix multiplication
Bock, Nicolas; Rubensson, Emanuel H; Niklasson, Anders M N; Challacombe, Matt; Salek, Pawel
2008-01-01
The authors investigate effects of ordering in blocked matrix-matrix multiplication. They find that submatrices do not have to be stored contiguously in memory in order to achieve near optimal performance. They also find a good choice of execution order of submatrix operations can lead to a speedup of up to four times for small block sizes.
Electrolyte matrix for molten carbonate fuel cells
Huang, C.M.; Yuh, C.Y.
1999-02-09
A matrix is described for a carbonate electrolyte including a support material and an additive constituent having a relatively low melting temperature and a relatively high coefficient of thermal expansion. The additive constituent is from 3 to 45 weight percent of the matrix and is formed from raw particles whose diameter is in a range of 0.1 {micro}m to 20 {micro}m and whose aspect ratio is in a range of 1 to 50. High energy intensive milling is used to mix the support material and additive constituent during matrix formation. Also disclosed is the use of a further additive constituent comprising an alkaline earth containing material. The further additive is mixed with the support material using high energy intensive milling. 5 figs.
Electrolyte matrix for molten carbonate fuel cells
Huang, Chao M.; Yuh, Chao-Yi
1999-01-01
A matrix for a carbonate electrolyte including a support material and an additive constituent having a relatively low melting temperature and a relatively high coefficient of thermal expansion. The additive constituent is from 3 to 45 weight percent of the matrix and is formed from raw particles whose diameter is in a range of 0.1 .mu.m to 20 .mu.m and whose aspect ratio is in a range of 1 to 50. High energy intensive milling is used to mix the support material and additive constituent during matrix formation. Also disclosed is the use of a further additive constituent comprising an alkaline earth containing material. The further additive is mixed with the support material using high energy intensive milling.
Ethynylated aromatics as high temperature matrix resins
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hurwitz, F. I.
1987-01-01
Difunctional and trifunctional arylacetylenes were used as monomers to form thermoset matrix resin composites. Composites can be hot-pressed at 180 C to react 80 percent of the acetylene groups. Crosslinking is completed by postcuring at 350 C. The postcured resins are thermally stable to nominally 460 C in air. As a result of their high crosslink density, the matrix exhibits brittle failure when uniaxial composites are tested in tension. Failure of both uniaixial tensile and flexural specimens occurs in shear at the fiber-matrix interface. Tensile fracture stresses for 0-deg composites fabricated with 60 v/o Celion 6K graphite fiber were 827 MPa. The strain to failure was 0.5 percent. Composites fabricated with 8 harness satin Celion cloth (Fiberite 1133) and tested in tension also failed in shear at tensile stresses of 413 MPa.
Achondrogenesis type II, abnormalities of extracellular matrix.
Horton, W A; Machado, M A; Chou, J W; Campbell, D
1987-09-01
Immune and lectin histochemical and microchemical methods were employed to study growth cartilage from seven cases of achondrogenesis type II (Langer-Saldino). The normal architecture of the epiphyseal and growth plate cartilage was replaced by a morphologically heterogeneous tissue. Some areas were comprised of vascular canals surrounded by extensive fibrous tissue and enlarged cells that had the appearance and histochemical characteristics of hypertrophic chondrocytes. Other areas contained a mixture of cells ranging from small to the enlarged chondrocytes. The extracellular matrix in the latter areas was more abundant and had characteristics of both precartilage mesenchymal matrix and typical cartilage matrix; it contained types I and II collagen, cartilage proteoglycan, fibronectin, and peanut agglutinin binding glycoconjugate(s). Peptide mapping of cyanogen bromide cartilage collagen peptides revealed the presence of types I and II collagen. These observations could be explained by a defect in the biosynthesis of type II collagen or in chondrocyte differentiation. PMID:3309860
Google matrix analysis of directed networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ermann, Leonardo; Frahm, Klaus M.; Shepelyansky, Dima L.
2015-10-01
In the past decade modern societies have developed enormous communication and social networks. Their classification and information retrieval processing has become a formidable task for the society. Because of the rapid growth of the World Wide Web, and social and communication networks, new mathematical methods have been invented to characterize the properties of these networks in a more detailed and precise way. Various search engines extensively use such methods. It is highly important to develop new tools to classify and rank a massive amount of network information in a way that is adapted to internal network structures and characteristics. This review describes the Google matrix analysis of directed complex networks demonstrating its efficiency using various examples including the World Wide Web, Wikipedia, software architectures, world trade, social and citation networks, brain neural networks, DNA sequences, and Ulam networks. The analytical and numerical matrix methods used in this analysis originate from the fields of Markov chains, quantum chaos, and random matrix theory.
Radiative transfer model: matrix operator method.
Liu, Q; Ruprecht, E
1996-07-20
A radiative transfer model, the matrix operator method, is discussed here. The matrix operator method is applied to a plane-parallel atmosphere within three spectral ranges: the visible, the infrared, and the microwave. For a homogeneous layer with spherical scattering, the radiative transfer equation can be solved analytically. The vertically inhomogeneous atmosphere can be subdivided into a set of homogeneous layers. The solution of the radiative transfer equation for the vertically inhomogeneous atmosphere is obtained recurrently from the analytical solutions for the subdivided layers. As an example for the application of the matrix operator method, the effects of the cirrus and the stratocumulus clouds on the net radiation at the surface and at the top of the atmosphere are investigated. The relationship between the polarization in the microwave range and the rain rates is also studied. Copies of the FORTRAN program and the documentation of the FORTRAN program on a diskette are available. PMID:21102832
Propulsive matrix of a helical flagellum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, He-Peng; Liu, Bin; Bruce, Rodenborn; Harry, L. Swinney
2014-11-01
We study the propulsion matrix of bacterial flagella numerically using slender body theory and the regularized Stokeslet method in a biologically relevant parameter regime. All three independent elements of the matrix are measured by computing propulsive force and torque generated by a rotating flagellum, and the drag force on a translating flagellum. Numerical results are compared with the predictions of resistive force theory, which is often used to interpret micro-organism propulsion. Neglecting hydrodynamic interactions between different parts of a flagellum in resistive force theory leads to both qualitative and quantitative discrepancies between the theoretical prediction of resistive force theory and the numerical results. We improve the original theory by empirically incorporating the effects of hydrodynamic interactions and propose new expressions for propulsive matrix elements that are accurate over the parameter regime explored.
Enter the Matrix: Shape, Signal, and Superhighway
Lund, Dane K.; Cornelison, DDW
2013-01-01
Mammalian skeletal muscle is notable for both its highly ordered biophysical structure and its regenerative capacity following trauma. Critical to both of these features is the specialized muscle extracellular matrix (ECM), comprising both the multiple concentric sheaths of connective tissue surrounding structural units from single myofibers to whole muscles and the dense interstitial matrix that occupies the space between them. ECM-dependent interactions affect all activities of the resident muscle stem cell population, the satellite cell, from the maintenance of quiescence and stem cell potential to the regulation of proliferation and differentiation. This review will focus on the role of the extracellular matrix in muscle regeneration, with a particular emphasis on regulation of satellite cell activity. PMID:23374506
Dentin Matrix Proteins in Bone Tissue Engineering
Ravindran, Sriram
2016-01-01
Dentin and bone are mineralized tissue matrices comprised of collagen fibrils and reinforced with oriented crystalline hydroxyapatite. Although both tissues perform different functionalities, they are assembled and orchestrated by mesenchymal cells that synthesize both collagenous and noncollagenous proteins albeit in different proportions. The dentin matrix proteins (DMPs) have been studied in great detail in recent years due to its inherent calcium binding properties in the extracellular matrix resulting in tissue calcification. Recent studies have shown that these proteins can serve both as intracellular signaling proteins leading to induction of stem cell differentiation and also function as nucleating proteins in the extracellular matrix. These properties make the DMPs attractive candidates for bone and dentin tissue regeneration. This chapter will provide an overview of the DMPs, their functionality and their proven and possible applications with respect to bone tissue engineering. PMID:26545748
Improved high temperature resistant matrix resins
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chang, G. E.; Powell, S. H.; Jones, R. J.
1983-01-01
The objective was to develop organic matrix resins suitable for service at temperatures up to 644 K (700 F) and at air pressures up to 0.4 MPa (60 psia) for time durations of a minimum of 100 hours. Matrix resins capable of withstanding these extreme oxidative environmental conditions would lead to increased use of polymer matrix composites in aircraft engines and provide significant weight and cost savings. Six linear condensation, aromatic/heterocyclic polymers containing fluorinated and/or diphenyl linkages were synthesized. The thermo-oxidative stability of the resins was determined at 644 K and compressed air pressures up to 0.4 MPa. Two formulations, both containing perfluoroisopropylidene linkages in the polymer backbone structure, exhibited potential for 644 K service to meet the program objectives. Two other formulations could not be fabricated into compression molded zero defect specimens.
Phosphorylated silk fibroin matrix for methotrexate release.
Volkov, Vadim; Sárria, Marisa P; Gomes, Andreia C; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur
2015-01-01
Silk-based matrix was produced for delivery of a model anticancer drug, methotrexate (MTX). The calculation of net charge of silk fibroin and MTX was performed to better understand the electrostatic interactions during matrix formation upon casting. Silk fibroin films were cast at pH 7.2 and pH 3.5. Protein kinase A was used to prepare phosphorylated silk fibroin. The phosphorylation content of matrix was controlled by mixing at specific ratios the phosphorylated and unphosphorylated solutions. In vitro release profiling data suggest that the observed interactions are mainly structural and not electrostatical. The release of MTX is facilitated by use of proteolytic enzymes and higher pHs. The elevated β-sheet content and crystallinity of the acidified-cast fibroin solution seem not to favor drug retention. All the acquired data underline the prevalence of structural interactions over electrostatical interactions between methotrexate and silk fibroin. PMID:25435334
Nanomechanics of the Cartilage Extracellular Matrix
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Lin; Grodzinsky, Alan J.; Ortiz, Christine
2011-08-01
Cartilage is a hydrated biomacromolecular fiber composite located at the ends of long bones that enables proper joint lubrication, articulation, loading, and energy dissipation. Degradation of extracellular matrix molecular components and changes in their nanoscale structure greatly influence the macroscale behavior of the tissue and result in dysfunction with age, injury, and diseases such as osteoarthritis. Here, the application of the field of nanomechanics to cartilage is reviewed. Nanomechanics involves the measurement and prediction of nanoscale forces and displacements, intra- and intermolecular interactions, spatially varying mechanical properties, and other mechanical phenomena existing at small length scales. Experimental nanomechanics and theoretical nanomechanics have been applied to cartilage at varying levels of material complexity, e.g., nanoscale properties of intact tissue, the matrix associated with single cells, biomimetic molecular assemblies, and individual extracellular matrix biomolecules (such as aggrecan, collagen, and hyaluronan). These studies have contributed to establishing a fundamental mechanism-based understanding of native and engineered cartilage tissue function, quality, and pathology.
Ethynylated aromatics as high temperature matrix resins
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hurwitz, Frances I.
1986-01-01
Difunctional and trifunctional arylacetylenes were used as monomers to form thermoset matrix resin composites. Composites can be hot pressed at 180 C to react 80 percent of the acetylene groups. Crosslinking is completed by postcuring at 350 C. The postcured resins are thermally stable to nominally 460 C in air. As a result of their high crosslink density, the matrix exhibits brittle failure when unaxial composites are tested in tension. Failure of both uniaxial tensile and flexural specimens occurs in shear at the fiber matrix interface. Tensile fracture stresses for 0 deg composites fabricated with 60 v/o Celion 6K graphite fiber were 827 MPa. The strain to failure was 0.5 percent. Composites fabricated with 8 harness satin Celion cloth (Fiberite 1133) and tested in tension also failed in shear at tensile stresses of 413 MPa.
Decorin modulates matrix mineralization in vitro
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mochida, Yoshiyuki; Duarte, Wagner R.; Tanzawa, Hideki; Paschalis, Eleftherios P.; Yamauchi, Mitsuo
2003-01-01
Decorin (DCN), a member of small leucine-rich proteoglycans, is known to modulate collagen fibrillogenesis. In order to investigate the potential roles of DCN in collagen matrix mineralization, several stable osteoblastic cell clones expressing higher (sense-DCN, S-DCN) and lower (antisense-DCN, As-DCN) levels of DCN were generated and the mineralized nodules formed by these clones were characterized. In comparison with control cells, the onset of mineralization by S-DCN clones was significantly delayed; whereas it was markedly accelerated and the number of mineralized nodules was significantly increased in As-DCN clones. The timing of mineralization was inversely correlated with the level of DCN synthesis. In these clones, the patterns of cell proliferation and differentiation appeared unaffected. These results suggest that DCN may act as an inhibitor of collagen matrix mineralization, thus modulating the timing of matrix mineralization.