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Sample records for matrix protein pxel

  1. Biofilm Matrix Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Jiunn N. C.; Yildiz, Fitnat H.

    2015-01-01

    Proteinaceous components of the biofilm matrix include secreted extracellular proteins, cell surface adhesins and protein subunits of cell appendages such as flagella and pili. Biofilm matrix proteins play diverse roles in biofilm formation and dissolution. They are involved in attaching cells to surfaces, stabilizing the biofilm matrix via interactions with exopolysaccharide and nucleic acid components, developing three-dimensional biofilm architectures, and dissolving biofilm matrix via enzymatic degradation of polysaccharides, proteins, and nucleic acids. In this chapter, we will review functions of matrix proteins in a selected set of microorganisms, studies of the matrix proteomes of Vibrio cholerae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and roles of outer membrane vesicles and of nucleoid-binding proteins in biofilm formation. PMID:26104709

  2. Matrix Gla protein in tumoral pathology.

    PubMed

    Gheorghe, Simona Roxana; Crăciun, Alexandra Mărioara

    2016-01-01

    Matrix Gla protein is a vitamin K-dependent protein secreted by chondrocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells. The presence of matrix Gla protein was reported in arterial and venous walls, lungs, kidney, uterus, heart, tooth cementum and eyes. Several studies identified matrix Gla protein in tumoral pathology. Until recently, it was thought to only have an inhibitory role of physiological and ectopic calcification. New studies demonstrated that it also has a role in physiological and pathological angiogenesis, as well as in tumorigenesis. The aim of this review is to report the latest findings related to the expression and clinical implications of matrix Gla protein in different types of cancer with an emphasis on cerebral tumors. PMID:27547048

  3. Matrix Gla protein in tumoral pathology

    PubMed Central

    GHEORGHE, SIMONA ROXANA; CRĂCIUN, ALEXANDRA MĂRIOARA

    2016-01-01

    Matrix Gla protein is a vitamin K-dependent protein secreted by chondrocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells. The presence of matrix Gla protein was reported in arterial and venous walls, lungs, kidney, uterus, heart, tooth cementum and eyes. Several studies identified matrix Gla protein in tumoral pathology. Until recently, it was thought to only have an inhibitory role of physiological and ectopic calcification. New studies demonstrated that it also has a role in physiological and pathological angiogenesis, as well as in tumorigenesis. The aim of this review is to report the latest findings related to the expression and clinical implications of matrix Gla protein in different types of cancer with an emphasis on cerebral tumors. PMID:27547048

  4. Dentin Matrix Proteins in Bone Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Ravindran, Sriram

    2016-01-01

    Dentin and bone are mineralized tissue matrices comprised of collagen fibrils and reinforced with oriented crystalline hydroxyapatite. Although both tissues perform different functionalities, they are assembled and orchestrated by mesenchymal cells that synthesize both collagenous and noncollagenous proteins albeit in different proportions. The dentin matrix proteins (DMPs) have been studied in great detail in recent years due to its inherent calcium binding properties in the extracellular matrix resulting in tissue calcification. Recent studies have shown that these proteins can serve both as intracellular signaling proteins leading to induction of stem cell differentiation and also function as nucleating proteins in the extracellular matrix. These properties make the DMPs attractive candidates for bone and dentin tissue regeneration. This chapter will provide an overview of the DMPs, their functionality and their proven and possible applications with respect to bone tissue engineering. PMID:26545748

  5. Ubiquitination of specific mitochondrial matrix proteins.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Gilad; Ziv, Tamar; Braten, Ori; Admon, Arie; Udasin, Ronald G; Ciechanover, Aaron

    2016-06-17

    Several protein quality control systems in bacteria and/or mitochondrial matrix from lower eukaryotes are absent in higher eukaryotes. These are transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA), The N-end rule ATP-dependent protease ClpAP, and two more ATP-dependent proteases, HslUV and ClpXP (in yeast). The lost proteases resemble the 26S proteasome and the role of tmRNA and the N-end rule in eukaryotic cytosol is performed by the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS). Therefore, we hypothesized that the UPS might have substituted these systems - at least partially - in the mitochondrial matrix of higher eukaryotes. Using three independent experimental approaches, we demonstrated the presence of ubiquitinated proteins in the matrix of isolated yeast mitochondria. First, we show that isolated mitochondria contain ubiquitin (Ub) conjugates, which remained intact after trypsin digestion. Second, we demonstrate that the mitochondrial soluble fraction contains Ub-conjugates, several of which were identified by mass spectrometry and are localized to the matrix. Third, using immunoaffinity enrichment by specific antibodies recognizing digested ubiquitinated peptides, we identified a group of Ub-modified matrix proteins. The modification was further substantiated by separation on SDS-PAGE and immunoblots. Last, we attempted to identify the ubiquitin ligase(s) involved, and identified Dma1p as a trypsin-resistant protein in our mitochondrial preparations. Taken together, these data suggest a yet undefined role for the UPS in regulation of the mitochondrial matrix proteins. PMID:27157140

  6. Localization of peroxisomal matrix proteins by photobleaching

    SciTech Connect

    Buch, Charlotta; Hunt, Mary C.; Alexson, Stefan E.H.; Hallberg, Einar

    2009-10-16

    The distribution of some enzymes between peroxisomes and cytosol, or a dual localization in both these compartments, can be difficult to reconcile. We have used photobleaching in live cells expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion proteins to show that imported bona fide peroxisomal matrix proteins are retained in the peroxisome. The high mobility of the GFP-fusion proteins in the cytosol and absence of peroxisomal escape makes it possible to eliminate the cytosolic fluorescence by photobleaching, to distinguish between exclusively cytosolic proteins and proteins that are also present at low levels in peroxisomes. Using this technique we found that GFP tagged bile acid-CoA:amino acid N-acyltransferase (BAAT) was exclusively localized in the cytosol in HeLa cells. We conclude that the cytosolic localization was due to its carboxyterminal non-consensus peroxisomal targeting signal (-SQL) since mutation of the -SQL to -SKL resulted in BAAT being efficiently imported into peroxisomes.

  7. Matrix Gla protein inhibition of tooth mineralization.

    PubMed

    Kaipatur, N R; Murshed, M; McKee, M D

    2008-09-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) mineralization is regulated by mineral ion availability, proteins, and other molecular determinants. To investigate protein regulation of mineralization in tooth dentin and cementum, and in alveolar bone, we expressed matrix Gla protein (MGP) ectopically in bones and teeth in mice, using an osteoblast/odontoblast-specific 2.3-kb Col1a1 promoter. Mandibles were analyzed by radiography, micro-computed tomography, light microscopy, histomorphometry, and transmission electron microscopy. While bone and tooth ECMs were established in the Col1a1-Mgp mice, extensive hypomineralization was observed, with values of unmineralized ECM from four- to eight-fold higher in dentin and alveolar bone when compared with that in wild-type tissues. Mineralization was virtually absent in tooth root dentin and cellular cementum, while crown dentin showed "breakthrough" areas of mineralization. Acellular cementum was lacking in Col1a1-Mgp teeth, and unmineralized osteodentin formed within the pulp. These results strengthen the view that bone and tooth mineralization is critically regulated by mineralization inhibitors. PMID:18719210

  8. Matrix Gla protein reinforces angiogenic resolution.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Bikram; Albig, Allan R

    2013-01-01

    Matrix Gla Protein (MGP) is an ECM molecule commonly associated with dysfunctions of large blood vessels such as arteriosclerosis and atherosclerosis. However, the exact role of MGP in the microvasculature is not clear. Utilizing a mouse MGP knockout model we found that MGP suppresses angiogenic sprouting from mouse aorta restricts microvascular density in cardiac and skeletal muscle, and is an endogenous inhibitor of tumor angiogenesis. Similarly, morpholino based knockdown of MGP in zebrafish embryos caused a progressive loss of luminal structures in intersegmental vessels, a phenotype reminiscent of Dll4/Notch inhibition. Accordingly, MGP suppressed Notch-dependent Hes-1 promoter activity and expression of Jagged1 mRNA relative to Dll4 mRNA. However, inhibition of BMP but not Notch or VEGF signaling reversed the excessive angiogenic sprouting phenotype of MGP knockout aortic rings suggesting that MGP may normally suppress angiogenic sprouting by blocking BMP signaling. Collectively, these results suggest that MGP is a multi-functional inhibitor of normal and abnormal angiogenesis that may function by coordinating with both Notch and BMP signaling pathways. PMID:23110920

  9. Vascular wall extracellular matrix proteins and vascular diseases

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Junyan; Shi, Guo-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular matrix proteins form the basic structure of blood vessels. Along with providing basic structural support to blood vessels, matrix proteins interact with different sets of vascular cells via cell surface integrin or non-integrin receptors. Such interactions induce vascular cell de novo synthesis of new matrix proteins during blood vessel development or remodeling. Under pathological conditions, vascular matrix proteins undergo proteolytic processing, yielding bioactive fragments to influence vascular wall matrix remodeling. Vascular cells also produce alternatively spliced variants that induce vascular cell production of different matrix proteins to interrupt matrix homeostasis, leading to increased blood vessel stiffness; vascular cell migration, proliferation, or death; or vascular wall leakage and rupture. Destruction of vascular matrix proteins leads to vascular cell or blood-borne leukocyte accumulation, proliferation, and neointima formation within the vascular wall; blood vessels prone to uncontrolled enlargement during blood flow diastole; tortuous vein development; and neovascularization from existing pathological tissue microvessels. Here we summarize discoveries related to blood vessel matrix proteins within the past decade from basic and clinical studies in humans and animals — from expression to cross-linking, assembly, and degradation under physiological and vascular pathological conditions, including atherosclerosis, aortic aneurysms, varicose veins, and hypertension. PMID:25045854

  10. A strategy to quantitate global phosphorylation of bone matrix proteins.

    PubMed

    Sroga, Grażyna E; Vashishth, Deepak

    2016-04-15

    Current studies of protein phosphorylation focus primarily on the importance of specific phosphoproteins and their landscapes of phosphorylation in the regulation of different cellular functions. However, global changes in phosphorylation of extracellular matrix phosphoproteins measured "in bulk" are equally important. For example, correct global phosphorylation of different bone matrix proteins is critical to healthy tissue biomineralization. To study changes of bone matrix global phosphorylation, we developed a strategy that combines a procedure for in vitro phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of fully mineralized bone in addition to quantitation of the global phosphorylation levels of bone matrix proteins. For the first time, we show that it is possible to enzymatically phosphorylate/dephosphorylate fully mineralized bone originating from either cadaveric human donors or laboratory animals (mice). Using our strategy, we detected the difference in the global phosphorylation levels of matrix proteins isolated from wild-type and osteopontin knockout mice. We also observed that the global phosphorylation levels of matrix proteins isolated from human cortical bone were lower than those isolated from trabecular bone. The developed strategy has the potential to open new avenues for studies on the global phosphorylation of bone matrix proteins and their role in biomineralization as well for other tissues/cells and protein-based materials. PMID:26851341

  11. Atomic resolution structure of Moloney murine leukemia virus matrix protein and its relationship to other retroviral matrix proteins.

    PubMed

    Riffel, Nico; Harlos, Karl; Iourin, Oleg; Rao, Zihe; Kingsman, Alan; Stuart, David; Fry, Elizabeth

    2002-12-01

    Matrix proteins associated with the viral membrane are important in the formation of the viral particle and in virus maturation. The 1.0 A crystal structure of the ecotropic Gammaretrovirus Moloney murine leukemia virus (M-MuLV) matrix protein reveals the conserved topology of other retroviral matrix proteins, despite undetectable sequence similarity. The N terminus (normally myristylated) is exposed and adjacent to a basic surface patch, features likely to contribute to membrane binding. The four proteins in the asymmetric unit make varied contacts. The M-MuLV matrix structure is intermediate, between those of the lentiviruses and other retroviruses. The protein fold appears to be maintained, in part, by the conservation of side chain packing, which may provide a useful tool for searching for weak distant similarities in proteins. PMID:12467570

  12. Gene evolution and functions of extracellular matrix proteins in teeth.

    PubMed

    Yoshizaki, Keigo; Yamada, Yoshihiko

    2013-03-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) not only provides physical support for tissues, but it is also critical for tissue development, homeostasis and disease. Over 300 ECM molecules have been defined as comprising the "core matrisome" in mammals through the analysis of whole genome sequences. During tooth development, the structure and functions of the ECM dynamically change. In the early stages, basement membranes (BMs) separate two cell layers of the dental epithelium and the mesenchyme. Later in the differentiation stages, the BM layer is replaced with the enamel matrix and the dentin matrix, which are secreted by ameloblasts and odontoblasts, respectively. The enamel matrix genes and the dentin matrix genes are each clustered in two closed regions located on human chromosome 4 (mouse chromosome 5), except for the gene coded for amelogenin, the major enamel matrix protein, which is located on the sex chromosomes. These genes for enamel and dentin matrix proteins are derived from a common ancestral gene, but as a result of evolution, they diverged in terms of their specific functions. These matrix proteins play important roles in cell adhesion, polarity, and differentiation and mineralization of enamel and dentin matrices. Mutations of these genes cause diseases such as odontogenesis imperfect (OI) and amelogenesis imperfect (AI). In this review, we discuss the recently defined terms matrisome and matrixome for ECMs, as well as focus on genes and functions of enamel and dentin matrix proteins. PMID:23539364

  13. Nipah virus matrix protein: expert hacker of cellular machines.

    PubMed

    Watkinson, Ruth E; Lee, Benhur

    2016-08-01

    Nipah virus (NiV, Henipavirus) is a highly lethal emergent zoonotic paramyxovirus responsible for repeated human outbreaks of encephalitis in South East Asia. There are no approved vaccines or treatments, thus improved understanding of NiV biology is imperative. NiV matrix protein recruits a plethora of cellular machinery to scaffold and coordinate virion budding. Intriguingly, matrix also hijacks cellular trafficking and ubiquitination pathways to facilitate transient nuclear localization. While the biological significance of matrix nuclear localization for an otherwise cytoplasmic virus remains enigmatic, the molecular details have begun to be characterized, and are conserved among matrix proteins from divergent paramyxoviruses. Matrix protein appropriation of cellular machinery will be discussed in terms of its early nuclear targeting and later role in virion assembly. PMID:27350027

  14. Adaptable Lipid Matrix Promotes Protein-Protein Association in Membranes.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, Andrey S; Polyansky, Anton A; Fleck, Markus; Volynsky, Pavel E; Efremov, Roman G

    2015-09-01

    The cell membrane is "stuffed" with proteins, whose transmembrane (TM) helical domains spontaneously associate to form functionally active complexes. For a number of membrane receptors, a modulation of TM domains' oligomerization has been shown to contribute to the development of severe pathological states, thus calling for detailed studies of the atomistic aspects of the process. Despite considerable progress achieved so far, several crucial questions still remain: How do the helices recognize each other in the membrane? What is the driving force of their association? Here, we assess the dimerization free energy of TM helices along with a careful consideration of the interplay between the structure and dynamics of protein and lipids using atomistic molecular dynamics simulations in the hydrated lipid bilayer for three different model systems - TM fragments of glycophorin A, polyalanine and polyleucine peptides. We observe that the membrane driven association of TM helices exhibits a prominent entropic character, which depends on the peptide sequence. Thus, a single TM peptide of a given composition induces strong and characteristic perturbations in the hydrophobic core of the bilayer, which may facilitate the initial "communication" between TM helices even at the distances of 20-30 Å. Upon tight helix-helix association, the immobilized lipids accommodate near the peripheral surfaces of the dimer, thus disturbing the packing of the surrounding. The dimerization free energy of the modeled peptides corresponds to the strength of their interactions with lipids inside the membrane being the lowest for glycophorin A and similarly higher for both homopolymers. We propose that the ability to accommodate lipid tails determines the dimerization strength of TM peptides and that the lipid matrix directly governs their association. PMID:26575933

  15. Polyether sulfone/hydroxyapatite mixed matrix membranes for protein purification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Junfen; Wu, Lishun

    2014-07-01

    This work proposes a novel approach for protein purification from solution using mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) comprising of hydroxyapatite (HAP) inside polyether sulfone (PES) matrix. The influence of HAP particle loading on membrane morphology is studied. The MMMs are further characterized concerning permeability and adsorption capacity. The MMMs show purification of protein via both diffusion as well as adsorption, and show the potential of using MMMs for improvements in protein purification techniques. The bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used as a model protein. The properties and structures of MMMs prepared by immersion phase separation process were characterized by pure water flux, BSA adsorption and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  16. Cardiac mitochondrial matrix and respiratory complex protein phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Covian, Raul

    2012-01-01

    It has become appreciated over the last several years that protein phosphorylation within the cardiac mitochondrial matrix and respiratory complexes is extensive. Given the importance of oxidative phosphorylation and the balance of energy metabolism in the heart, the potential regulatory effect of these classical signaling events on mitochondrial function is of interest. However, the functional impact of protein phosphorylation and the kinase/phosphatase system responsible for it are relatively unknown. Exceptions include the well-characterized pyruvate dehydrogenase and branched chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase regulatory system. The first task of this review is to update the current status of protein phosphorylation detection primarily in the matrix and evaluate evidence linking these events with enzymatic function or protein processing. To manage the scope of this effort, we have focused on the pathways involved in energy metabolism. The high sensitivity of modern methods of detecting protein phosphorylation and the low specificity of many kinases suggests that detection of protein phosphorylation sites without information on the mole fraction of phosphorylation is difficult to interpret, especially in metabolic enzymes, and is likely irrelevant to function. However, several systems including protein translocation, adenine nucleotide translocase, cytochrome c, and complex IV protein phosphorylation have been well correlated with enzymatic function along with the classical dehydrogenase systems. The second task is to review the current understanding of the kinase/phosphatase system within the matrix. Though it is clear that protein phosphorylation occurs within the matrix, based on 32P incorporation and quantitative mass spectrometry measures, the kinase/phosphatase system responsible for this process is ill-defined. An argument is presented that remnants of the much more labile bacterial protein phosphoryl transfer system may be present in the matrix and that the

  17. Dielectric relaxation in a protein matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, D.W.; Boxer, S.G.

    1992-06-25

    The dielectric relaxation of a sperm whale ApoMb-DANCA complex is measured by the fluorescence dynamic Stokes shift method. Emission energy increases with decreasing temperature, suggesting that the relaxation activation energies of the rate-limiting motions either depend on the conformational substrate or different types of protein motions with different frequencies participate in the reaction. Experimental data suggest that there may be relaxations on a scale of <100 ps. 61 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein enhances the vascularization of acellular nerves

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Wei-ling; Qiu, Long-hai; Lian, Jia-yan; Li, Jia-chun; Hu, Jun; Liu, Xiao-lin

    2016-01-01

    Vascularization of acellular nerves has been shown to contribute to nerve bridging. In this study, we used a 10-mm sciatic nerve defect model in rats to determine whether cartilage oligomeric matrix protein enhances the vascularization of injured acellular nerves. The rat nerve defects were treated with acellular nerve grafting (control group) alone or acellular nerve grafting combined with intraperitoneal injection of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (experimental group). As shown through two-dimensional imaging, the vessels began to invade into the acellular nerve graft from both anastomotic ends at day 7 post-operation, and gradually covered the entire graft at day 21. The vascular density, vascular area, and the velocity of revascularization in the experimental group were all higher than those in the control group. These results indicate that cartilage oligomeric matrix protein enhances the vascularization of acellular nerves. PMID:27127495

  19. Conformal Nanopatterning of Extracellular Matrix Proteins onto Topographically Complex Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yan; Jallerat, Quentin; Szymanski, John M.

    2015-01-01

    We report a method for conformal nanopatterning of extracellular matrix proteins onto engineered surfaces independent of underlying microtopography. This enables fibronectin, laminin, and other proteins to be applied to biomaterial surfaces in complex geometries inaccessible using traditional soft lithography techniques. Engineering combinatorial surfaces that integrate topographical and biochemical micropatterns enhances control of the biotic-abiotic interface, used here to understand cardiomyocyte response to competing physical and chemical cues in the microenvironment. PMID:25506720

  20. Matrix Gla Protein polymorphisms are associated with coronary artery calcification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Matrix Gla Protein (MGP) is a key regulator of vascular calcification. Genetic variation at the MGP locus could modulate the development of coronary artery calcification (CAC). We examined the cross-sectional association between MGP SNPs [rs1800802 (T-138C), rs1800801 (G-7A),and rs4236 (Ala102Thr)...

  1. Minor proteins and enzymes of the Drosophila eggshell matrix.

    PubMed

    Fakhouri, Mazen; Elalayli, Maggie; Sherling, Daniel; Hall, Jacklyn D; Miller, Eric; Sun, Xutong; Wells, Lance; LeMosy, Ellen K

    2006-05-01

    The Drosophila eggshell provides an in vivo model system for extracellular matrix assembly, in which programmed gene expression, cell migrations, extracellular protein trafficking, proteolytic processing, and cross-linking are all required to generate a multi-layered and regionally complex architecture. While abundant structural components of the eggshell are known and are being characterized, less is known about non-abundant structural, regulatory, and enzymatic components that are likely to play critical roles in eggshell assembly. We have used sensitive mass spectrometry-based analyses of fractionated eggshell matrices to validate six previously predicted eggshell proteins and to identify eleven novel components, and have characterized the expression patterns of many of their mRNAs. Among these are several putative structural or regulatory (non-enzymatic) proteins, most larger in mass than the major eggshell proteins and often showing preferential expression in follicle cells overlying specific structural features of the eggshell. Of particular note are the putative enzymes, some likely to be involved in matrix cross-linking (two yellow family members previously implicated in eggshell integrity, a heme peroxidase, and a small-molecule oxidoreductase) and others possibly involved in matrix proteolysis or adhesion (proteins related to cathepsins B and D). This work provides a framework for future molecular studies of eggshell assembly. PMID:16515779

  2. Expression, purification and crystallization of a lyssavirus matrix (M) protein

    SciTech Connect

    Assenberg, René; Delmas, Olivier; Graham, Stephen C.; Verma, Anil; Berrow, Nick; Stuart, David I.; Owens, Raymond J.; Bourhy, Hervé; Grimes, Jonathan M.

    2008-04-01

    The expression, purification and crystallization of the full-length matrix protein from three lyssaviruses is described. The matrix (M) proteins of lyssaviruses (family Rhabdoviridae) are crucial to viral morphogenesis as well as in modulating replication and transcription of the viral genome. To date, no high-resolution structural information has been obtained for full-length rhabdovirus M. Here, the cloning, expression and purification of the matrix proteins from three lyssaviruses, Lagos bat virus (LAG), Mokola virus and Thailand dog virus, are described. Crystals have been obtained for the full-length M protein from Lagos bat virus (LAG M). Successful crystallization depended on a number of factors, in particular the addition of an N-terminal SUMO fusion tag to increase protein solubility. Diffraction data have been recorded from crystals of native and selenomethionine-labelled LAG M to 2.75 and 3.0 Å resolution, respectively. Preliminary analysis indicates that these crystals belong to space group P6{sub 1}22 or P6{sub 5}22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 56.9–57.2, c = 187.9–188.6 Å, consistent with the presence of one molecule per asymmetric unit, and structure determination is currently in progress.

  3. Glycosylation of Dentin Matrix Protein 1 is critical for osteogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yao; Weng, Yuteng; Zhang, Chenyang; Liu, Yi; Kang, Chen; Liu, Zhongshuang; Jing, Bo; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Zuolin

    2015-01-01

    Proteoglycans play important roles in regulating osteogenesis. Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) is a highly expressed bone extracellular matrix protein that regulates both bone development and phosphate metabolism. After glycosylation, an N-terminal fragment of DMP1 protein was identified as a new proteoglycan (DMP1-PG) in bone matrix. In vitro investigations showed that Ser89 is the key glycosylation site in mouse DMP1. However, the specific role of DMP1 glycosylation is still not understood. In this study, a mutant DMP1 mouse model was developed in which the glycosylation site S89 was substituted with G89 (S89G-DMP1). The glycosylation level of DMP1 was down-regulated in the bone matrix of S89G-DMP1 mice. Compared with wild type mice, the long bones of S89G-DMP1 mice showed developmental changes, including the speed of bone remodeling and mineralization, the morphology and activities of osteocytes, and activities of both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. These findings indicate that glycosylation of DMP1 is a key posttranslational modification process during development and that DMP1-PG functions as an indispensable proteoglycan in osteogenesis. PMID:26634432

  4. Glycosylation of Dentin Matrix Protein 1 is critical for osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yao; Weng, Yuteng; Zhang, Chenyang; Liu, Yi; Kang, Chen; Liu, Zhongshuang; Jing, Bo; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Zuolin

    2015-01-01

    Proteoglycans play important roles in regulating osteogenesis. Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) is a highly expressed bone extracellular matrix protein that regulates both bone development and phosphate metabolism. After glycosylation, an N-terminal fragment of DMP1 protein was identified as a new proteoglycan (DMP1-PG) in bone matrix. In vitro investigations showed that Ser(89) is the key glycosylation site in mouse DMP1. However, the specific role of DMP1 glycosylation is still not understood. In this study, a mutant DMP1 mouse model was developed in which the glycosylation site S(89) was substituted with G(89) (S89G-DMP1). The glycosylation level of DMP1 was down-regulated in the bone matrix of S89G-DMP1 mice. Compared with wild type mice, the long bones of S89G-DMP1 mice showed developmental changes, including the speed of bone remodeling and mineralization, the morphology and activities of osteocytes, and activities of both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. These findings indicate that glycosylation of DMP1 is a key posttranslational modification process during development and that DMP1-PG functions as an indispensable proteoglycan in osteogenesis. PMID:26634432

  5. Proteins of insoluble matrix of avian (gallus gallus) eggshell.

    PubMed

    Miksík, Ivan; Eckhardt, Adam; Sedláková, Pavla; Mikulikova, Katerina

    2007-01-01

    The protein composition of the insoluble avian eggshell matrix was studied. The determination of these proteins insoluble in water (EDTA-insoluble) was carried out using enzymatic cleavage followed by a high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method. The influence of various enzymes on the protein splitting also was studied. The distribution of proteins depends on the type of layer (localization within the eggshell): ovocalyxin-32 was found mainly in the outer layer (the cuticle); ovocleidin-116 and 17 and ovocalyxin-36 were found throughout the whole eggshell, whereas ovalbumin was only found in the inner layer, the mammillary. The pigment (protoporphyrin IX) was mainly found in the cuticle and is incorporated into the protein network. PMID:17364661

  6. Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Pandit, Kusum; Ben-Yehudah, Ahmi; Chu, Yanxia; Richards, Thomas; Sciurba, Joshua; Myerburg, Michael; Zhang, Yingze; Parwani, Anil V.; Gibson, Kevin F.; Kaminski, Naftali

    2013-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive and life threatening disease with median survival of 2.5–3 years. The IPF lung is characterized by abnormal lung remodeling, epithelial cell hyperplasia, myofibroblast foci formation, and extracellular matrix deposition. Analysis of gene expression microarray data revealed that cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), a non-collagenous extracellular matrix protein is among the most significantly up-regulated genes (Fold change 13, p-value <0.05) in IPF lungs. This finding was confirmed at the mRNA level by nCounter® expression analysis in additional 115 IPF lungs and 154 control lungs as well as at the protein level by western blot analysis. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that COMP was expressed in dense fibrotic regions of IPF lungs and co-localized with vimentin and around pSMAD3 expressing cells. Stimulation of normal human lung fibroblasts with TGF-β1 induced an increase in COMP mRNA and protein expression. Silencing COMP in normal human lung fibroblasts significantly inhibited cell proliferation and negatively impacted the effects of TGF-β1 on COL1A1 and PAI1. COMP protein concentration measured by ELISA assay was significantly increased in serum of IPF patients compared to controls. Analysis of serum COMP concentrations in 23 patients who had prospective blood draws revealed that COMP levels increased in a time dependent fashion and correlated with declines in force vital capacity (FVC). Taken together, our results should encourage more research into the potential use of COMP as a biomarker for disease activity and TGF-β1 activity in patients with IPF. Hence, studies that explore modalities that affect COMP expression, alleviate extracellular matrix rigidity and lung restriction in IPF and interfere with the amplification of TGF-β1 signaling should be persuaded. PMID:24376648

  7. Pooled-matrix protein interaction screens using Barcode Fusion Genetics.

    PubMed

    Yachie, Nozomu; Petsalaki, Evangelia; Mellor, Joseph C; Weile, Jochen; Jacob, Yves; Verby, Marta; Ozturk, Sedide B; Li, Siyang; Cote, Atina G; Mosca, Roberto; Knapp, Jennifer J; Ko, Minjeong; Yu, Analyn; Gebbia, Marinella; Sahni, Nidhi; Yi, Song; Tyagi, Tanya; Sheykhkarimli, Dayag; Roth, Jonathan F; Wong, Cassandra; Musa, Louai; Snider, Jamie; Liu, Yi-Chun; Yu, Haiyuan; Braun, Pascal; Stagljar, Igor; Hao, Tong; Calderwood, Michael A; Pelletier, Laurence; Aloy, Patrick; Hill, David E; Vidal, Marc; Roth, Frederick P

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput binary protein interaction mapping is continuing to extend our understanding of cellular function and disease mechanisms. However, we remain one or two orders of magnitude away from a complete interaction map for humans and other major model organisms. Completion will require screening at substantially larger scales with many complementary assays, requiring further efficiency gains in proteome-scale interaction mapping. Here, we report Barcode Fusion Genetics-Yeast Two-Hybrid (BFG-Y2H), by which a full matrix of protein pairs can be screened in a single multiplexed strain pool. BFG-Y2H uses Cre recombination to fuse DNA barcodes from distinct plasmids, generating chimeric protein-pair barcodes that can be quantified via next-generation sequencing. We applied BFG-Y2H to four different matrices ranging in scale from ~25 K to 2.5 M protein pairs. The results show that BFG-Y2H increases the efficiency of protein matrix screening, with quality that is on par with state-of-the-art Y2H methods. PMID:27107012

  8. Thermal stability of matrix protein from Newcastle disease virus.

    PubMed

    Morán, Irene Sánchez; Cuadrado-Castano, Sara; Barroso, Isabel Muñoz; Kostetsky, Eduard Ya; Zhadan, Galina; Gómez, Javier; Shnyrov, Valery L; Villar, Enrique

    2013-10-01

    The thermal stability of the matrix protein (M protein) of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) has been investigated using high-sensitivity differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) at pH 7.4. The thermal folding/unfolding of M protein at this pH value is a reversible process involving a highly cooperative transition between folded and unfolded monomers with a transition temperature (Tm) of 63 °C, an unfolding enthalpy, ΔH(Tm), of 340 kcal mol(-1), and the difference in heat capacity between the native and denatured states of the protein, ΔCp, of 5.1 kcal K(-1) mol(-1). The heat capacity of the native state of the protein is in good agreement with the values calculated using a structure-based parameterization, whereas the calculated values for the hypothetical fully-unfolded state of the protein is higher than those determined experimentally. This difference between the heat capacity of denatured M protein and the heat capacity expected for an unstructured polypeptide of the same sequence, together with the data derived from the heat-induced changes in the steady-state fluorescence of the protein, indicates that the polypeptide chain maintains a significant amount of residual structure after thermal denaturation. PMID:23916643

  9. Role of matrix protein in cytopathogenesis of vesicular stomatitis virus.

    PubMed Central

    Blondel, D; Harmison, G G; Schubert, M

    1990-01-01

    The matrix (M) protein of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) plays an important structural role in viral assembly, and it also has a regulatory role in viral transcription. We demonstrate here that the M protein has an additional function. It causes visible cytopathic effects (CPE), as evidenced by the typical rounding of polygonal cells after VSV infection. We have analyzed a temperature-sensitive mutant of the M protein of VSV (tsG33) which is defective in viral assembly and which fails to cause morphological changes of the cells after infection at the nonpermissive temperature (40 degrees C). Interestingly, this defect in viral assembly as well as the CPE were reversible. Microinjection of antisense oligonucleotides which specifically inhibit M protein translation also inhibited the occurrence of CPE. Most importantly, when cells were transfected with a cDNA encoding the temperature-sensitive M protein of tsG33, no CPE was observed at the nonpermissive temperature. However, when these cells were shifted to the permissive temperature (32 degrees C), they rounded up and detached from the dish. These results demonstrate that M protein in the absence of the other viral proteins causes rounding of the cells, probably through a disorganization of the cytoskeleton. The absence of CPE at the nonpermissive temperature is correlated with an abnormal dotted staining pattern of M in these cells, suggesting that the mutant M protein may self-aggregate or associate with membranes rather than interact with cytoskeletal elements. Images PMID:2157054

  10. Molecular mechanisms mediating vascular calcification: role of matrix Gla protein.

    PubMed

    Proudfoot, Diane; Shanahan, Catherine M

    2006-10-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a higher incidence of vascular calcification and a greatly increased risk of cardiovascular death. The mechanisms involved in the accelerated vascular calcification observed in CKD have recently become clearer, leading to the hypothesis that a lack of natural inhibitors of calcification may trigger calcium deposition. One of these inhibitory factors, matrix Gla protein (MGP), is the focus of the present review. MGP, originally isolated from bone, is a vitamin K-dependent protein that is also highly expressed by vascular smooth muscle cells. MGP has been confirmed as a calcification-inhibitor in numerous studies; however, its mechanism of action is not completely understood. It potentially acts in several ways to regulate calcium deposition including: (i) binding calcium ions and crystals; (ii) antagonizing bone morphogenetic protein and altering cell differentiation; (iii) binding to extracellular matrix components; and (iv) regulating apoptosis. Its expression is regulated by several factors including retinoic acid, vitamin D and extracellular calcium ions, and a reduced form of vitamin K (KH2) is important in maintaining MGP in an active form. Therefore, strategies aimed at increasing its expression and activity may be beneficial in tipping the balance in favour of inhibition of calcification in CKD. PMID:17014561

  11. Expression of genes encoding extracellular matrix proteins: A macroarray study

    PubMed Central

    FUTYMA, KONRAD; MIOTŁA, PAWEŁ; RÓŻYŃSKA, KRYSTYNA; ZDUNEK, MAŁGORZATA; SEMCZUK, ANDRZEJ; RECHBERGER, TOMASZ; WOJCIEROWSKI, JACEK

    2014-01-01

    Endometrial cancer (EC) is one of the most common gynecological malignancies in Poland, with well-established risk factors. Genetic instability and molecular alterations responsible for endometrial carcinogenesis have been systematically investigated. The aim of the present study was to investigate, by means of cDNA macroarrays, the expression profiles of genes encoding extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in ECs. Tissue specimens were collected during surgical procedures from 40 patients with EC, and control tissue was collected from 9 patients with uterine leiomyomas. RNA was isolated and RT-PCR with radioisotope-labeled cDNA was performed. The levels of ECM protein gene expression in normal endometrial tissues were compared to the expression of these genes in EC specimens. Statistically significant differences in gene expression, stratified by clinical stage of the ECs, were detected for aggrecan, vitronectin, tenascin R, nidogen and two collagen proteins: type VIII chain α1 and type XI chain α2. All of these proteins were overexpressed in stage III endometrial carcinomas compared to levels in stage I and II uterine neoplasms. In conclusion, increased expression of genes encoding ECM proteins may play an important role in facilitating accelerated disease progression of human ECs. PMID:25231141

  12. Analysis of protein dynamics in the pericellular matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scrimgeour, Jan; Young, Dylan

    2015-03-01

    The pericellular matrix (PCM) is a low density, hydrated polymer coating that extends into the extracellular space from the surface of many living cells. The PCM controls access to cell and tissue surfaces, regulating a diverse set of processes from cell adhesion to protein transport and storage. The cell coat consists of a malleable backbone - the large polysaccharide hyaluronan (HA) - with its structure, its material properties, and its bio-functionality tuned by a diverse set of HA binding proteins. These proteins add charge, cross-links and growth factor-like ligands into the brush. Dynamic interactions between the HA and its binding proteins can be observed using single particle tracking in a fluorescence microscope. The resulting single molecule trajectories can contain evidence of site hoping, with the proteins dynamically moving between different states of motion as they bind and unbind from the HA. Here, we present an evaluation of hidden Markov models for the analysis of such multi-mobility trajectories. Simulated trajectories are used to probe the limits of this approach for molecular trajectories of limited length and the results are used to inform the design of particle tracking experiments.

  13. Extracellular matrix protein expression is brain region dependent.

    PubMed

    Dauth, Stephanie; Grevesse, Thomas; Pantazopoulos, Harry; Campbell, Patrick H; Maoz, Ben M; Berretta, Sabina; Parker, Kevin Kit

    2016-05-01

    In the brain, extracellular matrix (ECM) components form networks that contribute to structural and functional diversity. Maladaptive remodeling of ECM networks has been reported in neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders, suggesting that the brain microenvironment is a dynamic structure. A lack of quantitative information about ECM distribution in the brain hinders an understanding of region-specific ECM functions and the role of ECM in health and disease. We hypothesized that each ECM protein as well as specific ECM structures, such as perineuronal nets (PNNs) and interstitial matrix, are differentially distributed throughout the brain, contributing to the unique structure and function in the various regions of the brain. To test our hypothesis, we quantitatively analyzed the distribution, colocalization, and protein expression of aggrecan, brevican, and tenascin-R throughout the rat brain utilizing immunohistochemistry and mass spectrometry analysis and assessed the effect of aggrecan, brevican, and/or tenascin-R on neurite outgrowth in vitro. We focused on aggrecan, brevican, and tenascin-R as they are especially expressed in the mature brain, and have established roles in brain development, plasticity, and neurite outgrowth. The results revealed a differentiated distribution of all three proteins throughout the brain and indicated that their presence significantly reduces neurite outgrowth in a 3D in vitro environment. These results underline the importance of a unique and complex ECM distribution for brain physiology and suggest that encoding the distribution of distinct ECM proteins throughout the brain will aid in understanding their function in physiology and in turn assist in identifying their role in disease. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:1309-1336, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26780384

  14. Expression of bone matrix proteins in urolithiasis model rats.

    PubMed

    Yasui, T; Fujita, K; Sasaki, S; Sato, M; Sugimoto, M; Hirota, S; Kitamura, Y; Nomura, S; Kohri, K

    1999-08-01

    Urinary calcium stones are a pathological substance, and they show similarities to physiological mineralization and other pathological mineralizations. The expression of messenger (m) RNAs of osteopontin (OPN), matrix Gla protein (MGP), osteonectin (ON) and osteocalcin (OC) in bones and teeth has been described. We previously identified OPN as an important stone matrix protein. In addition, the spontaneous calcification of arteries and cartilage in mice lacking MGP was recently reported, a finding which indicates that MGP has a function as an inhibitor of mineralization. Here, we examined the mRNA expressions of OPN, MGP, ON, and OC in the kidneys of stone-forming model rats administered an oxalate precursor, ethylene glycol (EG) for up to 28 days. The Northern blotting showed that the mRNA expressions of OPN and MGP were markedly increased with the administration of EG, but their expression patterns differed. The OPN mRNA expression reached the maximal level at day 7 after the initiation of the EG treatment and showed no significant difference after 14 and 28 days, whereas the MGP mRNA expression rose gradually to day 28. The in situ hybridization demonstrated that the cell type expressing OPN mRNA was different from that expressing MGP. We suggest that OPN acts on calcification and MGP acts on suppression. PMID:10460895

  15. Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein Increases in Photodamaged Skin.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Masaki; Kawabata, Keigo; Kusaka-Kikushima, Ayumi; Sugiyama, Yoshinori; Mabuchi, Tomotaka; Takekoshi, Susumu; Miyasaka, Muneo; Ozawa, Akira; Sakai, Shingo

    2016-06-01

    Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) is a structural component of cartilage. Recent studies have described COMP as a pathogenic factor that promotes collagen deposition in fibrotic skin disorders such as scleroderma and keloid skin. Although collagen, a major dermis component, is thought to decrease in photoaged skin, recent reports have demonstrated the presence of tightly packed collagen fibrils with a structural resemblance to fibrosis in the papillary dermis of photoaged skin. Here we examined how photoaging damage relates to COMP expression and localization in photoaged skin. In situ hybridization revealed an increase in COMP-mRNA-positive cells with the progress of photoaging in preauricular skin (sun-exposed skin). The signal intensity of immunostaining for COMP increased with photoaging in not only the papillary dermis but also the reticular dermis affected by advancing solar elastosis. Immunoelectron microscopy detected the colocalization of COMP with both elastotic materials and collagen fibrils in photoaged skin. Ultraviolet light A irradiation of human dermal fibroblasts induced COMP expression at both the mRNA and protein levels. Ultraviolet light A-induced COMP expression was inhibited by an anti-transforming growth factor-β antibody or SB431542, an activin receptor-like kinase 5 inhibitor. These results suggest that the transforming growth factor-β-mediated upregulation of COMP expression may contribute to the modulation of dermal extracellular matrix in the photoaging process. PMID:26968261

  16. Characterization of the proteins comprising the integral matrix of Strongylocentrotus purpuratus embryonic spicules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killian, C. E.; Wilt, F. H.

    1996-01-01

    In the present study, we enumerate and characterize the proteins that comprise the integral spicule matrix of the Strongylocentrotus purpuratus embryo. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of [35S]methionine radiolabeled spicule matrix proteins reveals that there are 12 strongly radiolabeled spicule matrix proteins and approximately three dozen less strongly radiolabeled spicule matrix proteins. The majority of the proteins have acidic isoelectric points; however, there are several spicule matrix proteins that have more alkaline isoelectric points. Western blotting analysis indicates that SM50 is the spicule matrix protein with the most alkaline isoelectric point. In addition, two distinct SM30 proteins are identified in embryonic spicules, and they have apparent molecular masses of approximately 43 and 46 kDa. Comparisons between embryonic spicule matrix proteins and adult spine integral matrix proteins suggest that the embryonic 43-kDa SM30 protein is an embryonic isoform of SM30. An adult 49-kDa spine matrix protein is also identified as a possible adult isoform of SM30. Analysis of the SM30 amino acid sequences indicates that a portion of SM30 proteins is very similar to the carbohydrate recognition domain of C-type lectin proteins.

  17. NMR Structure of the Myristylated Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Matrix Protein

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Lola A.; Cox, Cassiah; Baptiste, Janae; Summers, Holly; Button, Ryan; Bahlow, Kennedy; Spurrier, Vaughn; Kyser, Jenna; Luttge, Benjamin G.; Kuo, Lillian; Freed, Eric O.; Summers, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Membrane targeting by the Gag proteins of the human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV types-1 and -2) is mediated by Gag’s N-terminally myristylated matrix (MA) domain and is dependent on cellular phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2]. To determine if other lentiviruses employ a similar membrane targeting mechanism, we initiated studies of the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), a widespread feline pathogen with potential utility for development of human therapeutics. Bacterial co-translational myristylation was facilitated by mutation of two amino acids near the amino-terminus of the protein (Q5A/G6S; myrMAQ5A/G6S). These substitutions did not affect virus assembly or release from transfected cells. NMR studies revealed that the myristyl group is buried within a hydrophobic pocket in a manner that is structurally similar to that observed for the myristylated HIV-1 protein. Comparisons with a recent crystal structure of the unmyristylated FIV protein [myr(-)MA] indicate that only small changes in helix orientation are required to accommodate the sequestered myr group. Depletion of PI(4,5)P2 from the plasma membrane of FIV-infected CRFK cells inhibited production of FIV particles, indicating that, like HIV, FIV hijacks the PI(4,5)P2 cellular signaling system to direct intracellular Gag trafficking during virus assembly. PMID:25941825

  18. The identification of matrix Gla protein in cartilage.

    PubMed

    Hale, J E; Fraser, J D; Price, P A

    1988-04-25

    The vitamin K-dependent bone protein matrix gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) protein (MGP) has been identified by radioimmunoassay in the guanidine extract of rat cartilage. MGP was present in all cartilages tested at levels comparable to the MGP level in bone. Western blot analysis indicated that the molecular weight of cartilage MGP is the same as bone MGP, and Northern blot analysis revealed that MGP mRNA from cartilage is the same size as the MGP mRNA from bone. The structurally related vitamin K-dependent protein bone Gla protein could not be detected in cartilage by radioimmunoassay or by Northern blot analysis. The discovery that MGP is synthesized by growth plate cartilage could provide an explanation for the excessive growth plate mineralization disorder seen in rats treated with the vitamin K antagonist warfarin and the punctate mineralization of the growth plate seen in infants whose mothers received warfarin in the first trimester of pregnancy (the fetal warfarin syndrome). Both disorders appear to be caused by the inactivation of a vitamin K-dependent mineralization inhibitor in cartilage, an inhibitor which we suggest is MGP. PMID:3258600

  19. NMR structure of the myristylated feline immunodeficiency virus matrix protein.

    PubMed

    Brown, Lola A; Cox, Cassiah; Baptiste, Janae; Summers, Holly; Button, Ryan; Bahlow, Kennedy; Spurrier, Vaughn; Kyser, Jenna; Luttge, Benjamin G; Kuo, Lillian; Freed, Eric O; Summers, Michael F

    2015-05-01

    Membrane targeting by the Gag proteins of the human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV types-1 and -2) is mediated by Gag's N-terminally myristylated matrix (MA) domain and is dependent on cellular phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2]. To determine if other lentiviruses employ a similar membrane targeting mechanism, we initiated studies of the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), a widespread feline pathogen with potential utility for development of human therapeutics. Bacterial co-translational myristylation was facilitated by mutation of two amino acids near the amino-terminus of the protein (Q5A/G6S; myrMAQ5A/G6S). These substitutions did not affect virus assembly or release from transfected cells. NMR studies revealed that the myristyl group is buried within a hydrophobic pocket in a manner that is structurally similar to that observed for the myristylated HIV-1 protein. Comparisons with a recent crystal structure of the unmyristylated FIV protein [myr(-)MA] indicate that only small changes in helix orientation are required to accommodate the sequestered myr group. Depletion of PI(4,5)P2 from the plasma membrane of FIV-infected CRFK cells inhibited production of FIV particles, indicating that, like HIV, FIV hijacks the PI(4,5)P2 cellular signaling system to direct intracellular Gag trafficking during virus assembly. PMID:25941825

  20. Extracellular matrix-associated proteins form an integral and dynamic system during Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm development

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weipeng; Sun, Jin; Ding, Wei; Lin, Jinshui; Tian, Renmao; Lu, Liang; Liu, Xiaofen; Shen, Xihui; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Though the essential role of extracellular matrix in biofilm development has been extensively documented, the function of matrix-associated proteins is elusive. Determining the dynamics of matrix-associated proteins would be a useful way to reveal their functions in biofilm development. Therefore, we applied iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics to evaluate matrix-associated proteins isolated from different phases of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC27853 biofilms. Among the identified 389 proteins, 54 changed their abundance significantly. The increased abundance of stress resistance and nutrient metabolism-related proteins over the period of biofilm development was consistent with the hypothesis that biofilm matrix forms micro-environments in which cells are optimally organized to resist stress and use available nutrients. Secreted proteins, including novel putative effectors of the type III secretion system were identified, suggesting that the dynamics of pathogenesis-related proteins in the matrix are associated with biofilm development. Interestingly, there was a good correlation between the abundance changes of matrix-associated proteins and their expression. Further analysis revealed complex interactions among these modulated proteins, and the mutation of selected proteins attenuated biofilm development. Collectively, this work presents the first dynamic picture of matrix-associated proteins during biofilm development, and provides evidences that the matrix-associated proteins may form an integral and well regulated system that contributes to stress resistance, nutrient acquisition, pathogenesis and the stability of the biofilm. PMID:26029669

  1. Association of ebola virus matrix protein VP40 with microtubules.

    PubMed

    Ruthel, Gordon; Demmin, Gretchen L; Kallstrom, George; Javid, Melodi P; Badie, Shirin S; Will, Amy B; Nelle, Timothy; Schokman, Rowena; Nguyen, Tam L; Carra, John H; Bavari, Sina; Aman, M Javad

    2005-04-01

    Viruses exploit a variety of cellular components to complete their life cycles, and it has become increasingly clear that use of host cell microtubules is a vital part of the infection process for many viruses. A variety of viral proteins have been identified that interact with microtubules, either directly or via a microtubule-associated motor protein. Here, we report that Ebola virus associates with microtubules via the matrix protein VP40. When transfected into mammalian cells, a fraction of VP40 colocalized with microtubule bundles and VP40 coimmunoprecipitated with tubulin. The degree of colocalization and microtubule bundling in cells was markedly intensified by truncation of the C terminus to a length of 317 amino acids. Further truncation to 308 or fewer amino acids abolished the association with microtubules. Both the full-length and the 317-amino-acid truncation mutant stabilized microtubules against depolymerization with nocodazole. Direct physical interaction between purified VP40 and tubulin proteins was demonstrated in vitro. A region of moderate homology to the tubulin binding motif of the microtubule-associated protein MAP2 was identified in VP40. Deleting this region resulted in loss of microtubule stabilization against drug-induced depolymerization. The presence of VP40-associated microtubules in cells continuously treated with nocodazole suggested that VP40 promotes tubulin polymerization. Using an in vitro polymerization assay, we demonstrated that VP40 directly enhances tubulin polymerization without any cellular mediators. These results suggest that microtubules may play an important role in the Ebola virus life cycle and potentially provide a novel target for therapeutic intervention against this highly pathogenic virus. PMID:15795257

  2. Structure of equine infectious anemia virus matrix protein.

    PubMed

    Hatanaka, Hideki; Iourin, Oleg; Rao, Zihe; Fry, Elizabeth; Kingsman, Alan; Stuart, David I

    2002-02-01

    The Gag polyprotein is key to the budding of retroviruses from host cells and is cleaved upon virion maturation, the N-terminal membrane-binding domain forming the matrix protein (MA). The 2.8-A resolution crystal structure of MA of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), a lentivirus, reveals that, despite showing no sequence similarity, more than half of the molecule can be superimposed on the MAs of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). However, unlike the structures formed by HIV-1 and SIV MAs, the oligomerization state observed is not trimeric. We discuss the potential of this molecule for membrane binding in the light of conformational differences between EIAV MA and HIV or SIV MA. PMID:11799182

  3. Structure of Equine Infectious Anemia Virus Matrix Protein

    PubMed Central

    Hatanaka, Hideki; Iourin, Oleg; Rao, Zihe; Fry, Elizabeth; Kingsman, Alan; Stuart, David I.

    2002-01-01

    The Gag polyprotein is key to the budding of retroviruses from host cells and is cleaved upon virion maturation, the N-terminal membrane-binding domain forming the matrix protein (MA). The 2.8-Å resolution crystal structure of MA of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), a lentivirus, reveals that, despite showing no sequence similarity, more than half of the molecule can be superimposed on the MAs of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). However, unlike the structures formed by HIV-1 and SIV MAs, the oligomerization state observed is not trimeric. We discuss the potential of this molecule for membrane binding in the light of conformational differences between EIAV MA and HIV or SIV MA. PMID:11799182

  4. Glycation of extracellular matrix proteins impairs migration of immune cells.

    PubMed

    Haucke, Elisa; Navarrete-Santos, Alexander; Simm, Andreas; Silber, Rolf-Edgar; Hofmann, Britt

    2014-01-01

    The immune response during aging and diabetes is disturbed and may be due to the altered migration of immune cells in an aged tissue. Our study should prove the hypothesis that age and diabetes-related advanced glycation end products (AGEs) have an impact on the migration and adhesion of human T-cells. To achieve our purpose, we used in vitro AGE-modified proteins (soluble albumin and fibronectin [FN]), as well as human collagen obtained from bypass graft. A Boyden chamber was used to study cell migration. Migrated Jurkat T-cells were analyzed by flow cytometry and cell adhesion by crystal violet staining. Actin polymerization was determined by phalloidin-Alexa-fluor 488-labeled antibody and fluorescence microscopy. We found that significantly fewer cells (50%, p = 0.003) migrated through methylglyoxal modified FN. The attachment to FN in the presence of AGE-bovine serum albumin (BSA) was also reduced (p < 0.05). In ex vivo experiments, isolated collagen from human vein graft material negatively affected the migration of the cells depending on the grade of AGE modification of the collagen. Collagen with a low AGE level reduced the cell migration by 30%, and collagen with a high AGE level by 60%. Interaction of the cells with an AGE-modified matrix, but not with soluble AGEs like BSA-AGE per se, was responsible for a disturbed migration. The reduced migration was accompanied by an impaired actin polymerization. We conclude that AGEs-modified matrix protein inhibits cell migration and adhesion of Jurkat T-cells. PMID:24635174

  5. The diversity of shell matrix proteins: genome-wide investigation of the pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Endo, Hirotoshi; Hashimoto, Naoki; Limura, Kurin; Isowa, Yukinobu; Kinoshita, Shigeharu; Kotaki, Tomohiro; Masaoka, Tetsuji; Miki, Takumi; Nakayama, Seiji; Nogawa, Chihiro; Notazawa, Atsuto; Ohmori, Fumito; Sarashina, Isao; Suzuki, Michio; Takagi, Ryousuke; Takahashi, Jun; Takeuchi, Takeshi; Yokoo, Naoki; Satoh, Nori; Toyohara, Haruhiko; Miyashita, Tomoyuki; Wada, Hiroshi; Samata, Tetsuro; Endo, Kazuyoshi; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Asakawa, Shuichi; Watabe, Shugo

    2013-10-01

    In molluscs, shell matrix proteins are associated with biomineralization, a biologically controlled process that involves nucleation and growth of calcium carbonate crystals. Identification and characterization of shell matrix proteins are important for better understanding of the adaptive radiation of a large variety of molluscs. We searched the draft genome sequence of the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata and annotated 30 different kinds of shell matrix proteins. Of these, we could identified Perlucin, ependymin-related protein and SPARC as common genes shared by bivalves and gastropods; however, most gastropod shell matrix proteins were not found in the P. fucata genome. Glycinerich proteins were conserved in the genus Pinctada. Another important finding with regard to these annotated genes was that numerous shell matrix proteins are encoded by more than one gene; e.g., three ACCBP-like proteins, three CaLPs, five chitin synthase-like proteins, two N16 proteins (pearlins), 10 N19 proteins, two nacreins, four Pifs, nine shematrins, two prismalin-14 proteins, and 21 tyrosinases. This diversity of shell matrix proteins may be implicated in the morphological diversity of mollusc shells. The annotated genes reported here can be searched in P. fucata gene models version 1.1 and genome assembly version 1.0 ( http://marinegenomics.oist.jp/pinctada_fucata ). These genes should provide a useful resource for studies of the genetic basis of biomineralization and evaluation of the role of shell matrix proteins as an evolutionary toolkit among the molluscs. PMID:24125645

  6. Expression of extracellular matrix proteins in adenomatoid odontogenic tumor.

    PubMed

    Modolo, Filipe; Biz, Michelle Tillmann; Martins, Marília Trierveiller; Machado de Sousa, Suzana Orsini; de Araújo, Ney Soares

    2010-03-01

    Altered expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) components has been reported in several pathologies; however, few ECM proteins have been evaluated in adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT). The aim of this study was to analyze the expression and distribution of the ECM proteoglycans: biglycan and decorin; and glycoproteins: osteonectin, osteopontin, bone sialoprotein and osteocalcin in the AOT. Three-micrometer sections from paraffin-embedded specimens were evaluated employing a streptavidin-biotin immunohistochemical method with the antibodies against the proteins previously cited. Only the osteonectin was expressed in the epithelial cells. The eosinophilic amorphous material and the connective tissue showed expression of all components studied. The calcification foci expressed only osteopontin. In conclusion, the low expression of the components studied in neoplastic epithelial cells suggests that the epithelial cells act probably as stimulators of the expression by the stroma, which in turn can act as agonist or antagonist of the tumor growth. These results suggest that the components studied probably have a key role in the biological behavior of the AOT. PMID:20070486

  7. Mitochondrial unfolded protein response controls matrix pre-RNA processing and translation.

    PubMed

    Münch, Christian; Harper, J Wade

    2016-06-30

    The mitochondrial matrix is unique in that it must integrate the folding and assembly of proteins derived from the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt) senses matrix protein misfolding and induces a program of nuclear gene expression, including mitochondrial chaperonins, to promote mitochondrial proteostasis. While misfolded mitochondrial-matrix-localized ornithine transcarbamylase induces chaperonin expression, our understanding of mammalian UPRmt is rudimentary, reflecting a lack of acute triggers for UPRmt activation. This limitation has prevented analysis of the cellular responses to matrix protein misfolding and the effects of UPRmt on mitochondrial translation to control protein folding loads. Here we combine pharmacological inhibitors of matrix-localized HSP90/TRAP1 (ref. 8) or LON protease, which promote chaperonin expression, with global transcriptional and proteomic analysis to reveal an extensive and acute response of human cells to UPRmt. This response encompasses widespread induction of nuclear genes, including matrix-localized proteins involved in folding, pre-RNA processing and translation. Functional studies revealed rapid but reversible translation inhibition in mitochondria occurring concurrently with defects in pre-RNA processing caused by transcriptional repression and LON-dependent turnover of the mitochondrial pre-RNA processing nuclease MRPP3 (ref. 10). This study reveals that acute mitochondrial protein folding stress activates both increased chaperone availability within the matrix and reduced matrix-localized protein synthesis through translational inhibition, and provides a framework for further dissection of mammalian UPRmt. PMID:27350246

  8. Photolytic Cross-Linking to Probe Protein-Protein and Protein-Matrix Interactions in Lyophilized Powders.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Lavanya K; Moorthy, Balakrishnan S; Topp, Elizabeth M

    2015-09-01

    Protein structure and local environment in lyophilized formulations were probed using high-resolution solid-state photolytic cross-linking with mass spectrometric analysis (ssPC-MS). In order to characterize structure and microenvironment, protein-protein, protein-excipient, and protein-water interactions in lyophilized powders were identified. Myoglobin (Mb) was derivatized in solution with the heterobifunctional probe succinimidyl 4,4'-azipentanoate (SDA) and the structural integrity of the labeled protein (Mb-SDA) confirmed using CD spectroscopy and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Mb-SDA was then formulated with and without excipients (raffinose, guanidine hydrochloride (Gdn HCl)) and lyophilized. The freeze-dried powder was irradiated with ultraviolet light at 365 nm for 30 min to produce cross-linked adducts that were analyzed at the intact protein level and after trypsin digestion. SDA-labeling produced Mb carrying up to five labels, as detected by LC-MS. Following lyophilization and irradiation, cross-linked peptide-peptide, peptide-water, and peptide-raffinose adducts were detected. The exposure of Mb side chains to the matrix was quantified based on the number of different peptide-peptide, peptide-water, and peptide-excipient adducts detected. In the absence of excipients, peptide-peptide adducts involving the CD, DE, and EF loops and helix H were common. In the raffinose formulation, peptide-peptide adducts were more distributed throughout the molecule. The Gdn HCl formulation showed more protein-protein and protein-water adducts than the other formulations, consistent with protein unfolding and increased matrix interactions. The results demonstrate that ssPC-MS can be used to distinguish excipient effects and characterize the local protein environment in lyophilized formulations with high resolution. PMID:26204425

  9. Progressive changes in the protein composition of the nuclear matrix during rat osteoblast differentiation.

    PubMed Central

    Dworetzky, S I; Fey, E G; Penman, S; Lian, J B; Stein, J L; Stein, G S

    1990-01-01

    Primary cultures of fetal rat calvarial osteoblasts undergo a developmental sequence with respect to the temporal expression of genes encoding osteoblast phenotypic markers. Based on previous suggestions that gene-nuclear matrix associations are involved in regulating cell- and tissue-specific gene expression, we investigated the protein composition of the nuclear matrix during this developmental sequence by using high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The nuclear matrix was isolated at times during a 4-week culture period that represent the three principal osteoblast phenotypic stages: proliferation, extracellular matrix (ECM) maturation, and mineralization. The most dramatic changes in the nuclear matrix protein patterns occurred during transitions from the proliferation to the ECM maturation stage and from ECM maturation to the mineralization period, with only minor variations in the profiles within each period. These stage-specific changes, corresponding to the major transition points in gene expression, indicate that the nuclear matrix proteins reflect the progressive differentiation of the bone cell phenotype. Subcultivation of primary cells delays mineralization, and a corresponding delay was observed for the nuclear matrix protein patterns. Thus, the sequential changes in protein composition of the nuclear matrix that occur during osteoblast differentiation represent distinct stage-specific markers for maturation of the osteoblast to an osteocytic cell in a bone-like mineralized ECM. These changes are consistent with a functional involvement of the nuclear matrix in mediating modifications of developmental gene expression. Images PMID:2352938

  10. mRNA expression and protein localization of dentin matrix protein 1 during dental root formation.

    PubMed

    Toyosawa, S; Okabayashi, K; Komori, T; Ijuhin, N

    2004-01-01

    Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) is an acidic phosphoprotein. DMP1 was initially detected in dentin and later in other mineralized tissues including cementum and bone, but the DMP1 expression pattern in tooth is still controversial. To determine the precise localization of DMP1 messenger RNA (mRNA) and the protein in the tooth, we performed in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical analyses using rat molars and incisors during various stages of root formation. During root dentin formation of molars, DMP1 mRNA was detected in root odontoblasts in parallel with mineralization of the dentin. However, the level of DMP1 mRNA expression in root odontoblasts decreased near the coronal part and was absent in coronal odontoblasts. DMP1 protein was localized along dentinal tubules and their branches in mineralized root dentin, and the distribution of DMP1 shifted from the end of dentinal tubules to the base of the tubules as dentin formation progressed. During the formation of the acellular cementum, DMP1 mRNA was detected in cementoblasts lining the acellular cementum where its protein was localized. During the formation of the cellular cementum, DMP1 mRNA was detected in cementocytes embedded in the cellular cementum but not in cementoblasts, and its protein was localized in the pericellular cementum of cementocytes including their processes. During dentin formation of incisors, DMP1 mRNA was detected in odontoblasts on the cementum-related dentin, where its protein was localized along dentinal tubules near the mineralization front. The localization of DMP1 mRNA and protein in dentin and cementum was related to their mineralization, suggesting that one of the functions of DMP1 may be involved in the mineralization of dentin and cementum during root formation. PMID:14751569

  11. Design of an Osteoinductive Extracellular Fibronectin Matrix Protein for Bone Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sujin; Lee, Dong-Sung; Choi, Ilsan; Pham, Le B. Hang; Jang, Jun-Hyeog

    2015-01-01

    Integrin-mediated cell-matrix interactions play an important role in osteogenesis. Here, we constructed a novel osteoinductive fibronectin matrix protein (oFN) for bone tissue engineering, designed to combine the integrin-binding modules from fibronectin (iFN) and a strong osteoinductive growth factor, bone morphogenetic protein-2. Compared with iFN, the purified oFN matrix protein caused a significant increase in cell adhesion and osteogenic differentiation of pre-osteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells (p < 0.05). PMID:25853265

  12. Porcine dentin matrix protein 1: gene structure, cDNA sequence, and expression in teeth

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung-Wook; Yamakoshi, Yasuo; Iwata, Takanori; Hu, Yuan Yuan; Zhang, Hengmin; Hu, Jan C.-C.; Simmer, James P.

    2015-01-01

    Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) is an acidic non-collagenous protein that is necessary for the proper biomineralization of bone, cartilage, cementum, dentin, and enamel. Dentin matrix protein 1 is highly phosphorylated and potentially glycosylated, but there is no experimental data identifying which specific amino acids are modified. For the purpose of facilitating the characterization of DMP1 from pig, which has the advantage of large developing teeth for obtaining protein in quantity and extensive structural information concerning other tooth matrix proteins, we characterized the porcine DMP1 cDNA and gene structure, raised anti-peptide immunoglobulins that are specific for porcine DMP1, and detected DMP1 protein in porcine tooth extracts and histological sections. Porcine DMP1 has 510 amino acids, including a 16-amino acid signal peptide. The deduced molecular weight of the secreted, unmodified protein is 53.5 kDa. The protein has 93 serines and 12 threonines in the appropriate context for phosphorylation, and four asparagines in a context suitable for glycosylation. Dentin matrix protein 1 protein bands with apparent molecular weights between 30 and 45 kDa were observed in partially purified dentin extracts. In developing teeth, immunohistochemistry localized DMP1 in odontoblasts and the dentinal tubules of mineralized dentin and in ameloblasts, but not in the enamel matrix. PMID:16460339

  13. The role of matrix proteins in the control of nacreous layer deposition during pearl formation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaojun; Li, Jiale; Xiang, Liang; Sun, Juan; Zheng, Guilan; Zhang, Guiyou; Wang, Hongzhong; Xie, Liping; Zhang, Rongqing

    2012-01-01

    To study the function of pearl oyster matrix proteins in nacreous layer biomineralization in vivo, we examined the deposition on pearl nuclei and the expression of matrix protein genes in the pearl sac during the early stage of pearl formation. We found that the process of pearl formation involves two consecutive stages: (i) irregular calcium carbonate (CaCO3) deposition on the bare nucleus and (ii) CaCO3 deposition that becomes more and more regular until the mature nacreous layer has formed on the nucleus. The low-expression level of matrix proteins in the pearl sac during periods of irregular CaCO3 deposition suggests that deposition may not be controlled by the organic matrix during this stage of the process. However, significant expression of matrix proteins in the pearl sac was detected by day 30–35 after implantation. On day 30, a thin layer of CaCO3, which we believe was amorphous CaCO3, covered large aragonites. By day 35, the nacreous layer had formed. The whole process is similar to that observed in shells, and the temporal expression of matrix protein genes indicated that their bioactivities were crucial for pearl development. Matrix proteins controlled the crystal phase, shape, size, nucleation and aggregation of CaCO3 crystals. PMID:21900328

  14. PEX5, the shuttling import receptor for peroxisomal matrix proteins, is a redox-sensitive protein.

    PubMed

    Apanasets, Oksana; Grou, Cláudia P; Van Veldhoven, Paul P; Brees, Chantal; Wang, Bo; Nordgren, Marcus; Dodt, Gabriele; Azevedo, Jorge E; Fransen, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Peroxisome maintenance depends on the import of nuclear-encoded proteins from the cytosol. The vast majority of these proteins is destined for the peroxisomal lumen and contains a C-terminal peroxisomal targeting signal, called PTS1. This targeting signal is recognized in the cytosol by the receptor PEX5. After docking at the peroxisomal membrane and release of the cargo into the organelle matrix, PEX5 is recycled to the cytosol through a process requiring monoubiquitination of an N-terminal, cytosolically exposed cysteine residue (Cys11 in the human protein). At present, the reason why a cysteine, and not a lysine residue, is the target of ubiquitination remains unclear. Here, we provide evidence that PTS1 protein import into human fibroblasts is a redox-sensitive process. We also demonstrate that Cys11 in human PEX5 functions as a redox switch that regulates PEX5 activity in response to intracellular oxidative stress. Finally, we show that exposure of human PEX5 to oxidized glutathione results in a ubiquitination-deficient PEX5 molecule, and that substitution of Cys11 by a lysine can counteract this effect. In summary, these findings reveal that the activity of PEX5, and hence PTS1 import, is controlled by the redox state of the cytosol. The potential physiological implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:24118911

  15. PathwayMatrix: visualizing binary relationships between proteins in biological pathways

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Molecular activation pathways are inherently complex, and understanding relations across many biochemical reactions and reaction types is difficult. Visualizing and analyzing a pathway is a challenge due to the network size and the diversity of relations between proteins and molecules. Results In this paper, we introduce PathwayMatrix, a visualization tool that presents the binary relations between proteins in the pathway via the use of an interactive adjacency matrix. We provide filtering, lensing, clustering, and brushing and linking capabilities in order to present relevant details about proteins within a pathway. Conclusions We evaluated PathwayMatrix by conducting a series of in-depth interviews with domain experts who provided positive feedback, leading us to believe that our visualization technique could be helpful for the larger community of researchers utilizing pathway visualizations. PathwayMatrix is freely available at https://github.com/CreativeCodingLab/PathwayMatrix. PMID:26361499

  16. Interplay of matrix stiffness and protein tethering in stem cell differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Jessica H.; Vincent, Ludovic G.; Fuhrmann, Alexander; Choi, Yu Suk; Hribar, Kolin C.; Taylor-Weiner, Hermes; Chen, Shaochen; Engler, Adam J.

    2014-10-01

    Stem cells regulate their fate by binding to, and contracting against, the extracellular matrix. Recently, it has been proposed that in addition to matrix stiffness and ligand type, the degree of coupling of fibrous protein to the surface of the underlying substrate, that is, tethering and matrix porosity, also regulates stem cell differentiation. By modulating substrate porosity without altering stiffness in polyacrylamide gels, we show that varying substrate porosity did not significantly change protein tethering, substrate deformations, or the osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stromal cells and marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells. Varying protein-substrate linker density up to 50-fold changed tethering, but did not affect osteogenesis, adipogenesis, surface-protein unfolding or underlying substrate deformations. Differentiation was also unaffected by the absence of protein tethering. Our findings imply that the stiffness of planar matrices regulates stem cell differentiation independently of protein tethering and porosity.

  17. Matrix Gla Protein polymorphism, but not concentrations, is associated with radiographic hand osteoarthritis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective. Factors associated with mineralization and osteophyte formation in osteoarthritis (OA) are incompletely understood. Genetic polymorphisms of matrix Gla protein (MGP), a mineralization inhibitor, have been associated clinically with conditions of abnormal calcification. We therefore evalua...

  18. Non-collagenous protein screening in the human chondrodysplasias: link proteins, cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), and fibromodulin.

    PubMed

    Stanescu, V; Do, T P; Chaminade, F; Maroteaux, P; Stanescu, R

    1994-05-15

    A gel-electrophoretic screening for link proteins, cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), and fibromodulin abnormalities was performed in fetuses, newborn infants, and children with various types of chondrodysplasia. Microdissected freeze-dried sections of upper tibial growth cartilage were extracted with 4M guanidinium chloride in the presence of proteolysis inhibitors. After dialysis against 8M urea, the extracts were submitted to stepwise ion-exchange chromatography to separate the large proteoglycans (aggrecans) from the other components. The latter were analyzed by gel electrophoresis, electrotransferred onto nitrocellulose membranes, and reacted with specific antibodies. Control samples from individuals with apparently normal growth were analyzed in the same runs. Two link protein bands with abnormal electrophoretic migration were found in a sporadic case of spondylometaphyseal dysplasia, Kozlowski type. Three link protein bands with the same migration as in the control samples were found in thanatophoric dysplasia, homozygous achondroplasia, achondrogenesis type II, hypochondrogenesis, Goldblatt syndrome, Desbuquois dysplasia, pseudoachondroplasia, and diastrophic dysplasia. In several pathologic cases with normal electrophoretic pattern of the link proteins, small link protein fragments appeared after reduction. The gel electrophoretic pattern of COMP was studied in thanatophoric dysplasia, diastrophic dysplasia, homozygous achondroplasia, fibrochondrogenesis, hypochondrogenesis, Goldblatt syndrome, and Kniest dysplasia. In all these cases the pattern was the same as in the control samples. The main band of fibromodulin had a normal migration rate in fibrochondrogenesis, Desbuquois dysplasia, Kniest dysplasia, and pseudoachondroplasia. It was delayed in diastrophic dysplasia. PMID:8030664

  19. Detecting protein-protein interactions with a novel matrix-based protein sequence representation and support vector machines.

    PubMed

    You, Zhu-Hong; Li, Jianqiang; Gao, Xin; He, Zhou; Zhu, Lin; Lei, Ying-Ke; Ji, Zhiwei

    2015-01-01

    Proteins and their interactions lie at the heart of most underlying biological processes. Consequently, correct detection of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) is of fundamental importance to understand the molecular mechanisms in biological systems. Although the convenience brought by high-throughput experiment in technological advances makes it possible to detect a large amount of PPIs, the data generated through these methods is unreliable and may not be completely inclusive of all possible PPIs. Targeting at this problem, this study develops a novel computational approach to effectively detect the protein interactions. This approach is proposed based on a novel matrix-based representation of protein sequence combined with the algorithm of support vector machine (SVM), which fully considers the sequence order and dipeptide information of the protein primary sequence. When performed on yeast PPIs datasets, the proposed method can reach 90.06% prediction accuracy with 94.37% specificity at the sensitivity of 85.74%, indicating that this predictor is a useful tool to predict PPIs. Achieved results also demonstrate that our approach can be a helpful supplement for the interactions that have been detected experimentally. PMID:26000305

  20. SP PROTEINS AND RUNX2 MEDIATE REGULATION OF MATRIX GLA PROTEIN (MGP) EXPRESSION BY PARATHYROID HORMONE

    PubMed Central

    Suttamanatwong, Supaporn; Jensen, Eric D; Shilling, Jody; Franceschi, Renny T.; Carlson, Ann E.; Mansky, Kim C.; Gopalakrishnan, Rajaram

    2009-01-01

    As part of its catabolic action in bone, parathyroid hormone (PTH) inhibits extracellular matrix mineralization. We previously showed that PTH dose-dependently induces matrix gla protein (MGP) expression in osteoblasts and this induction is at least partially responsible for PTH-mediated inhibition of mineralization. Recently, we identified PKA and ERK/MAPK as the key signaling pathways involved in PTH regulation of MGP expression. The goal of this study was to further characterize the mechanism by which PTH stimulates expression of MGP. Deletion analysis of the murine Mgp gene promoter identified a PTH-responsive region between -173 bp and -49 bp. Using gel-mobility shift assays we found that Sp1, Sp3 and Runx2 bind to distinct sites within this region. Mutation of either the Sp or the Runx2 site reduced MGP induction by PTH, while mutation of both sites completely abolished PTH responsiveness. Overexpression of Runx2 or Sp1 activated the Mgp reporter, while Sp3 was a dose-dependent repressor of MGP expression. Collectively, these data show that PTH regulates MGP gene transcription in osteoblasts through altered activities of Sp and Runx2 transcription factors. PMID:19306294

  1. Identification of a novel matrix protein contained in a protein aggregate associated with collagen in fish otoliths.

    PubMed

    Tohse, Hidekazu; Takagi, Yasuaki; Nagasawa, Hiromichi

    2008-05-01

    In the biomineralization processes, proteins are thought to control the polymorphism and morphology of the crystals by forming complexes of structural and mineral-associated proteins. To identify such proteins, we have searched for proteins that may form high-molecular-weight (HMW) aggregates in the matrix of fish otoliths that have aragonite and vaterite as their crystal polymorphs. By screening a cDNA library of the trout inner ear using an antiserum raised against whole otolith matrix, a novel protein, named otolith matrix macromolecule-64 (OMM-64), was identified. The protein was found to have a molecular mass of 64 kDa, and to contain two tandem repeats and a Glu-rich region. The structure of the protein and that of its DNA are similar to those of starmaker, a protein involved in the polymorphism control in the zebrafish otoliths [Söllner C, Burghammer M, Busch-Nentwich E, Berger J, Schwarz H, Riekel C & Nicolson T (2003) Science302, 282-286]. (45)Ca overlay analysis revealed that the Glu-rich region has calcium-binding activity. Combined analysis by western blotting and deglycosylation suggested that OMM-64 is present in an HMW aggregate with heparan sulfate chains. Histological observations revealed that OMM-64 is expressed specifically in otolith matrix-producing cells and deposited onto the otolith. Moreover, the HMW aggregate binds to the inner ear-specific short-chain collagen otolin-1, and the resulting complex forms ring-like structures in the otolith matrix. Overall, OMM-64, by forming a calcium-binding aggregate that binds to otolin-1 and forming matrix protein architectures, may be involved in the control of crystal morphology during otolith biomineralization. PMID:18410381

  2. Endoplasmic Reticulum Chaperone Protein GRP-78 Mediates Endocytosis of Dentin Matrix Protein 1*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Ravindran, Sriram; Narayanan, Karthikeyan; Eapen, Asha Sarah; Hao, Jianjun; Ramachandran, Amsaveni; Blond, Sylvie; George, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1), a phosphorylated protein present in the mineral phase of both vertebrates and invertebrates, is a key regulatory protein during biogenic formation of mineral deposits. Previously we showed that DMP1 is localized in the nuclear compartment of preosteoblasts and preodontoblasts. In the nucleus DMP1 might play an important role in the regulation of genes that control osteoblast or odontoblast differentiation. Here, we show that cellular uptake of DMP1 occurs through endocytosis. Interestingly, this process is initiated by DMP1 binding to the glucose-regulated protein-78 (GRP-78) localized on the plasma membrane of preodontoblast cells. Binding of DMP1 to GRP-78 receptor was determined to be specific and saturable with a binding dissociation constant KD = 85 nm. We further depict a road map for the endocytosed DMP1 and demonstrate that the internalization is mediated primarily by caveolae and that the vesicles containing DMP1 are routed to the nucleus along microtubules. Immunohistochemical analysis and binding studies performed with biotin-labeled DMP1 confirm spatial co-localization of DMP1 and GRP-78 in the preodontoblasts of a developing mouse molar. Co-localization of DMP1 with GRP-78 was also observed in T4-4 preodontoblast cells, dental pulp stem cells, and primary preodontoblasts. By small interfering RNA techniques, we demonstrate that the receptor for DMP1 is GRP-78. Therefore, binding of DMP1 with GRP-78 receptor might be an important mechanism by which DMP1 is internalized and transported to the nucleus during bone and tooth development. PMID:18757373

  3. The first minutes in the life of a peroxisomal matrix protein.

    PubMed

    Dias, Ana F; Francisco, Tânia; Rodrigues, Tony A; Grou, Cláudia P; Azevedo, Jorge E

    2016-05-01

    In the field of intracellular protein sorting, peroxisomes are most famous by their capacity to import oligomeric proteins. The data supporting this remarkable property are abundant and, understandably, have inspired a variety of hypothetical models on how newly synthesized (cytosolic) proteins reach the peroxisome matrix. However, there is also accumulating evidence suggesting that many peroxisomal oligomeric proteins actually arrive at the peroxisome still as monomers. In support of this idea, recent data suggest that PEX5, the shuttling receptor for peroxisomal matrix proteins, is also a chaperone/holdase, binding newly synthesized peroxisomal proteins in the cytosol and blocking their oligomerization. Here we review the data behind these two different perspectives and discuss their mechanistic implications on this protein sorting pathway. PMID:26408939

  4. Cross-reactive, linear B cell epitopes of the influenza virus matrix protein 1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: Evaluate antibody responses to the conserved influenza matrix protein. Background: Little is known about the B cell epitopes in conserved internal influenza proteins or their role in viral immunity and immunopathogenesis. Based on epitope information present in the Immune Epitope Database...

  5. Tumor matrix protein collagen XIα1 in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Raglow, Zoe; Thomas, Sufi M

    2015-01-01

    The extracellular matrix is increasingly recognized as an essential player in cancer development and progression. Collagens are one of the most important components of the extracellular matrix, and have themselves been implicated in many aspects of neoplastic transformation. Collagen XI is a minor collagen whose main physiologic function is to regulate the diameter of major collagen fibrils. The α1 chain of collagen XI (colXIα1), has known pathogenic roles in several musculoskeletal disorders. Recent research has highlighted the importance of colXIα1 in many types of cancer, including its roles in metastasis, angiogenesis, and drug resistance, as well as its potential utility in screening tests and as a therapeutic target. High levels of colXIα1 overexpression have been reported in multiple expression profile studies examining differences between cancerous and normal tissue, and between beginning and advanced stage cancer. Its expression has been linked to poor progression-free and overall survival. The consistency of this data across cancer types is particularly striking, including colorectal, ovarian, breast, head and neck, lung, and brain cancers. This review discusses the role of collagen XIα1 in cancer and its potential as a target for cancer therapy. PMID:25511741

  6. Yeast pex1 cells contain peroxisomal ghosts that import matrix proteins upon reintroduction of Pex1

    PubMed Central

    Knoops, Kèvin; de Boer, Rinse; Kram, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Pex1 and Pex6 are two AAA-ATPases that play a crucial role in peroxisome biogenesis. We have characterized the ultrastructure of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae peroxisome-deficient mutants pex1 and pex6 by various high-resolution electron microscopy techniques. We observed that the cells contained peroxisomal membrane remnants, which in ultrathin cross sections generally appeared as double membrane rings. Electron tomography revealed that these structures consisted of one continuous membrane, representing an empty, flattened vesicle, which folds into a cup shape. Immunocytochemistry revealed that these structures lack peroxisomal matrix proteins but are the sole sites of the major peroxisomal membrane proteins Pex2, Pex10, Pex11, Pex13, and Pex14. Upon reintroduction of Pex1 in Pex1-deficient cells, these peroxisomal membrane remnants (ghosts) rapidly incorporated peroxisomal matrix proteins and developed into peroxisomes. Our data support earlier views that Pex1 and Pex6 play a role in peroxisomal matrix protein import. PMID:26644511

  7. Differential label-free quantitative proteomic analysis of avian eggshell matrix and uterine fluid proteins associated with eggshell mechanical property.

    PubMed

    Sun, Congjiao; Xu, Guiyun; Yang, Ning

    2013-12-01

    Eggshell strength is a crucial economic trait for table egg production. During the process of eggshell formation, uncalcified eggs are bathed in uterine fluid that plays regulatory roles in eggshell calcification. In this study, a label-free MS-based protein quantification technology was used to detect differences in protein abundance between eggshell matrix from strong and weak eggs (shell matrix protein from strong eggshells and shell matrix protein from weak eggshells) and between the corresponding uterine fluids bathing strong and weak eggs (uterine fluid bathing strong eggs and uterine fluid bathing weak eggs) in a chicken population. Here, we reported the first global proteomic analysis of uterine fluid. A total of 577 and 466 proteins were identified in uterine fluid and eggshell matrix, respectively. Of 447 identified proteins in uterine fluid bathing strong eggs, up to 357 (80%) proteins were in common with proteins in uterine fluid bathing weak eggs. Similarly, up to 83% (328/396) of the proteins in shell matrix protein from strong eggshells were in common with the proteins in shell matrix protein from weak eggshells. The large amount of common proteins indicated that the difference in protein abundance should play essential roles in influencing eggshell strength. Ultimately, 15 proteins mainly relating to eggshell matrix specific proteins, calcium binding and transportation, protein folding and sorting, bone development or diseases, and thyroid hormone activity were considered to have closer association with the formation of strong eggshell. PMID:24151251

  8. Rhabdovirus Matrix Protein Structures Reveal a Novel Mode of Self-Association

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Stephen C.; Verma, Anil; Gholami, Alireza; Talbi, Chiraz; Owens, Raymond J.; Stuart, David I.; Grimes, Jonathan M.; Bourhy, Hervé

    2008-01-01

    The matrix (M) proteins of rhabdoviruses are multifunctional proteins essential for virus maturation and budding that also regulate the expression of viral and host proteins. We have solved the structures of M from the vesicular stomatitis virus serotype New Jersey (genus: Vesiculovirus) and from Lagos bat virus (genus: Lyssavirus), revealing that both share a common fold despite sharing no identifiable sequence homology. Strikingly, in both structures a stretch of residues from the otherwise-disordered N terminus of a crystallographically adjacent molecule is observed binding to a hydrophobic cavity on the surface of the protein, thereby forming non-covalent linear polymers of M in the crystals. While the overall topology of the interaction is conserved between the two structures, the molecular details of the interactions are completely different. The observed interactions provide a compelling model for the flexible self-assembly of the matrix protein during virion morphogenesis and may also modulate interactions with host proteins. PMID:19112510

  9. Rabies virus matrix protein induces apoptosis by targeting mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Zan, Jie; Liu, Juan; Zhou, Jian-Wei; Wang, Hai-Long; Mo, Kai-Kun; Yan, Yan; Xu, Yun-Bin; Liao, Min; Su, Shuo; Hu, Rong-Liang; Zhou, Ji-Yong

    2016-09-10

    Apoptosis, as an innate antiviral defense, not only functions to limit viral replication by eliminating infected cells, but also contribute to viral dissemination, particularly at the late stages of infection. A highly neurotropic CVS strain of rabies virus induces apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo. However, the detailed mechanism of CVS-mediated neuronal apoptosis is not entirely clear. Here, we show that CVS induces apoptosis through mitochondrial pathway by dissipating mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cytochrome c and AIF. CVS blocks Bax activation at the early stages of infection; while M protein partially targets mitochondria and induces mitochondrial apoptosis at the late stages of infection. The α-helix structure spanning 67-79 amino acids of M protein is essential for mitochondrial targeting and induction of apoptosis. These results suggest that CVS functions on mitochondria to regulate apoptosis at different stages of infection, so as to for viral replication and dissemination. PMID:27426727

  10. Isolation of a crystal matrix protein associated with calcium oxalate precipitation in vacuoles of specialized cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Xingxiang; Zhang, Dianzhong; Lynch-Holm, Valerie J; Okita, Thomas W; Franceschi, Vincent R

    2003-10-01

    The formation of calcium (Ca) oxalate crystals is considered to be a high-capacity mechanism for regulating Ca in many plants. Ca oxalate precipitation is not a stochastic process, suggesting the involvement of specific biochemical and cellular mechanisms. Microautoradiography of water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes) tissue exposed to 3H-glutamate showed incorporation into developing crystals, indicating potential acidic proteins associated with the crystals. Dissolution of crystals leaves behind a crystal-shaped matrix "ghost" that is capable of precipitation of Ca oxalate in the original crystal morphology. To assess whether this matrix has a protein component, purified crystals were isolated and analyzed for internal protein. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed the presence of one major polypeptide of about 55 kD and two minor species of 60 and 63 kD. Amino acid analysis indicates the matrix protein is relatively high in acidic amino acids, a feature consistent with its solubility in formic acid but not at neutral pH. 45Ca-binding assays demonstrated the matrix protein has a strong affinity for Ca. Immunocytochemical localization using antibody raised to the isolated protein showed that the matrix protein is specific to crystal-forming cells. Within the vacuole, the surface and internal structures of two morphologically distinct Ca oxalate crystals, raphide and druse, were labeled by the antimatrix protein serum, as were the surfaces of isolated crystals. These results demonstrate that a specific Ca-binding protein exists as an integral component of Ca oxalate crystals, which holds important implications with respect to regulation of crystal formation. PMID:14555781

  11. Degenerated human intervertebral discs contain autoantibodies against extracellular matrix proteins.

    PubMed

    Capossela, S; Schläfli, P; Bertolo, A; Janner, T; Stadler, B M; Pötzel, T; Baur, M; Stoyanov, J V

    2014-01-01

    Degeneration of intervertebral discs (IVDs) is associated with back pain and elevated levels of inflammatory cells. It has been hypothesised that discogenic pain is a direct result of vascular and neural ingrowth along annulus fissures, which may expose the avascular nucleus pulposus (NP) to the systemic circulation and induce an autoimmune reaction. In this study, we confirmed our previous observation of antibodies in human degenerated and post-traumatic IVDs cultured in vitro. We hypothesised that the presence of antibodies was due to an autoimmune reaction against specific proteins of the disc. Furthermore we identified antigens which possibly trigger an autoimmune response in degenerative disc diseases. We demonstrated that degenerated and post-traumatic IVDs contain IgG antibodies against typical extracellular proteins of the disc, particularly proteins of the NP. We identified IgGs against collagen type II and aggrecan, confirming an autoimmune reaction against the normally immune privileged NP. We also found specific IgGs against collagens types I and V, but not against collagen type III. In conclusion, this study confirmed the association between disc degeneration and autoimmunity, and may open the avenue for future studies on developing prognostic, diagnostic and therapy-monitoring markers for degenerative disc diseases. PMID:24706108

  12. Osteoblast fibronectin mRNA, protein synthesis, and matrix are unchanged after exposure to microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes-Fulford, M.; Gilbertson, V.

    1999-01-01

    The well-defined osteoblast line, MC3T3-E1 was used to examine fibronectin (FN) mRNA levels, protein synthesis, and extracellular FN matrix accumulation after growth activation in spaceflight. These osteoblasts produce FN extracellular matrix (ECM) known to regulate adhesion, differentiation, and function in adherent cells. Changes in bone ECM and osteoblast cell shape occur in spaceflight. To determine whether altered FN matrix is a factor in causing these changes in spaceflight, quiescent osteoblasts were launched into microgravity and were then sera activated with and without a 1-gravity field. Synthesis of FN mRNA, protein, and matrix were measured after activation in microgravity. FN mRNA synthesis is significantly reduced in microgravity (0-G) when compared to ground (GR) osteoblasts flown in a centrifuge simulating earth's gravity (1-G) field 2.5 h after activation. However, 27.5 h after activation there were no significant differences in mRNA synthesis. A small but significant reduction of FN protein was found in the 0-G samples 2.5 h after activation. Total FN protein 27.5 h after activation showed no significant difference between any of the gravity conditions, however, there was a fourfold increase in absolute amount of protein synthesized during the incubation. Using immunofluorescence, we found no significant differences in the amount or in the orientation of the FN matrix after 27.5 h in microgravity. These results demonstrate that FN is made by sera-activated osteoblasts even during exposure to microgravity. These data also suggest that after a total period of 43 h of spaceflight FN transcription, translation, or altered matrix assembly is not responsible for the altered cell shape or altered matrix formation of osteoblasts.

  13. Proteomic identification of novel proteins from the calcifying shell matrix of the Manila clam Venerupis philippinarum.

    PubMed

    Marie, Benjamin; Trinkler, Nolwenn; Zanella-Cleon, Isabelle; Guichard, Nathalie; Becchi, Michel; Paillard, Christine; Marin, Frédéric

    2011-10-01

    The shell of the Manila clam Venerupis philippinarum is composed of more than 99% calcium carbonate and of a small amount of organic matrix (around 0.2%). In this study, we developed one of the first proteomic approaches applied to mollusc shell in order to characterise the matrix proteins that are believed to be essential for the formation of the biomineral. The insoluble organic matrix, purified after demineralisation of the shell powder with cold acetic acid (5%), was digested with trypsin enzyme and then separated on nano-LC prior to nanospray/quadrupole time-of-flight analysis. MS/MS spectra were searched against the above 11,000 EST sequences available on the NCBI public database for Venerupis. Using this approach, we were able to identify partial or full-length sequence transcripts that encode for shell matrix proteins. These include three novel shell proteins whose sequences do not present any homologous proteins or already described domains, two putative protease inhibitor proteins containing Kazal-type domains, and a putative Ca(2+)-binding protein containing two EF-hand domains. Biomineral formation and evolutionary implications are discussed. PMID:21221694

  14. Angiopoietin-like 4 Interacts with Matrix Proteins to Modulate Wound Healing*

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Yan Yih; Pal, Mintu; Chong, Han Chung; Zhu, Pengcheng; Tan, Ming Jie; Punugu, Lakshmi; Tan, Chek Kun; Huang, Royston-Luke; Sze, Siu Kwan; Tang, Mark Boon Yang; Ding, Jeak Ling; Kersten, Sander; Tan, Nguan Soon

    2010-01-01

    A dynamic cell-matrix interaction is crucial for a rapid cellular response to changes in the environment. Appropriate cell behavior in response to the changing wound environment is required for efficient wound closure. However, the way in which wound keratinocytes modify the wound environment to coordinate with such cellular responses remains less studied. We demonstrated that angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) produced by wound keratinocytes coordinates cell-matrix communication. ANGPTL4 interacts with vitronectin and fibronectin in the wound bed, delaying their proteolytic degradation by metalloproteinases. This interaction does not interfere with integrin-matrix protein recognition and directly affects cell-matrix communication by altering the availability of intact matrix proteins. These interactions stimulate integrin- focal adhesion kinase, 14-3-3, and PKC-mediated signaling pathways essential for effective wound healing. The deficiency of ANGPTL4 in mice delays wound re-epithelialization. Further analysis revealed that cell migration was impaired in the ANGPTL4-deficient keratinocytes. Altogether, the findings provide molecular insight into a novel control of wound healing via ANGPTL4-dependent regulation of cell-matrix communication. Given the known role of ANGPTL4 in glucose and lipid homeostasis, it is a prime therapeutic candidate for the treatment of diabetic wounds. It also underscores the importance of cell-matrix communication during angiogenesis and cancer metastasis. PMID:20729546

  15. A substitution matrix for structural alphabet based on structural alignment of homologous proteins and its applications.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Manoj; Gowri, Venkataraman S; Srinivasan, Narayanaswamy; de Brevern, Alexandre G; Offmann, Bernard

    2006-10-01

    Analysis of protein structures based on backbone structural patterns known as structural alphabets have been shown to be very useful. Among them, a set of 16 pentapeptide structural motifs known as protein blocks (PBs) has been identified and upon which backbone model of most protein structures can be built. PBs allows simplification of 3D space onto 1D space in the form of sequence of PBs. Here, for the first time, substitution probabilities of PBs in a large number of aligned homologous protein structures have been studied and are expressed as a simplified 16 x 16 substitution matrix. The matrix was validated by benchmarking how well it can align sequences of PBs rather like amino acid alignment to identify structurally equivalent regions in closely or distantly related proteins using dynamic programming approach. The alignment results obtained are very comparable to well established structure comparison methods like DALI and STAMP. Other interesting applications of the matrix have been investigated. We first show that, in variable regions between two superimposed homologous proteins, one can distinguish between local conformational differences and rigid-body displacement of a conserved motif by comparing the PBs and their substitution scores. Second, we demonstrate, with the example of aspartic proteinases, that PBs can be efficiently used to detect the lobe/domain flexibility in the multidomain proteins. Lastly, using protein kinase as an example, we identify regions of conformational variations and rigid body movements in the enzyme as it is changed to the active state from an inactive state. PMID:16894618

  16. Regulatory effects of matrix protein variations on influenza virus growth.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, J; Toyoda, T; Nakayama, M; Ishihama, A

    1993-01-01

    Influenza virus A/WSN/33 forms large plaques (> 3 mm diameter) on MDCK cells whereas A/Aichi/2/68 forms only small plaques (< 1 mm diameter). Fast growing reassortants (AWM), isolated by mixed infection of MDCK cells with these two virus strains in the presence of anti-WSN antibodies, all carried the M gene from WSN. On MDCK cells, these reassortants produced progeny viruses as rapidly as did WSN, and the virus yield was as high as Aichi. The fast-growing reassortants overcame the growth inhibitory effect of lignins. Pulse-labeling experiments at various times after virus infection showed that the reassortant AWM started to synthesize viral proteins earlier than Aichi. Taken together, we conclude that upon infecting MDCK cells, the reassortant viruses advance rapidly into the growth cycle, thereby leading to an elevated level of progeny viruses in the early period of infection. Possible mechanisms of the M gene involvement in the determination of virus growth rate are discussed, in connection with multiple functions of the M proteins. PMID:8257290

  17. [Effect of fibronectin on the synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins in periodontal ligament cells].

    PubMed

    Wan, L; Wu, Z; Zhou, Y

    1996-11-01

    Immunofluorescence staining method and fluorescence spectrophotometry were used to study the synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins in periodontal ligament cells (PDL cells) when exogenous fibronectin (FN) existed. The results showed that the right amount of exogenous FN (0.044 mumol/l) could increase the amount of type I collagen and type III collagen in PDL cells (P < 0.01), inhibit the synthesis of FN itself (P < 0.01). It suggested that exogenous FN can effect the synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins so as to promote a new connective tissue attachment formation. PMID:9592289

  18. Differential expression of bone matrix regulatory proteins in human atherosclerotic plaques.

    PubMed

    Dhore, C R; Cleutjens, J P; Lutgens, E; Cleutjens, K B; Geusens, P P; Kitslaar, P J; Tordoir, J H; Spronk, H M; Vermeer, C; Daemen, M J

    2001-12-01

    In the present study, we examined the expression of regulators of bone formation and osteoclastogenesis in human atherosclerosis because accumulating evidence suggests that atherosclerotic calcification shares features with bone calcification. The most striking finding of this study was the constitutive immunoreactivity of matrix Gla protein, osteocalcin, and bone sialoprotein in nondiseased aortas and the absence of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2, BMP-4, osteopontin, and osteonectin in nondiseased aortas and early atherosclerotic lesions. When atherosclerotic plaques demonstrated calcification or bone formation, BMP-2, BMP-4, osteopontin, and osteonectin were upregulated. Interestingly, this upregulation was associated with a sustained immunoreactivity of matrix Gla protein, osteocalcin, and bone sialoprotein. The 2 modulators of osteoclastogenesis (osteoprotegerin [OPG] and its ligand, OPGL) were present in the nondiseased vessel wall and in early atherosclerotic lesions. In advanced calcified lesions, OPG was present in bone structures, whereas OPGL was only present in the extracellular matrix surrounding calcium deposits. The observed expression patterns suggest a tight regulation of the expression of bone matrix regulatory proteins during human atherogenesis. The expression pattern of both OPG and OPGL during atherogenesis might suggest a regulatory role of these proteins not only in osteoclastogenesis but also in atherosclerotic calcification. PMID:11742876

  19. A Protein Involved in the Assembly of an Extracellular Calcium Storage Matrix*

    PubMed Central

    Glazer, Lilah; Shechter, Assaf; Tom, Moshe; Yudkovski, Yana; Weil, Simy; Aflalo, Eliahu David; Pamuru, Ramachandra Reddy; Khalaila, Isam; Bentov, Shmuel; Berman, Amir; Sagi, Amir

    2010-01-01

    Gastroliths, the calcium storage organs of crustaceans, consist of chitin-protein-mineral complexes in which the mineral component is stabilized amorphous calcium carbonate. To date, only three proteins, GAP 65, gastrolith matrix protein (GAMP), and orchestin, have been identified in gastroliths. Here, we report a novel protein, GAP 10, isolated from the gastrolith of the crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus and specifically expressed in its gastrolith disc. The encoding gene was cloned by partial sequencing of the protein extracted from the gastrolith matrix. Based on an assembled microarray cDNA chip, GAP 10 transcripts were found to be highly (12-fold) up-regulated in premolt gastrolith disc and significantly down-regulated in the hypodermis at the same molt stage. The deduced protein sequence of GAP 10 lacks chitin-binding domains and does not show homology to known proteins in the GenBankTM data base. It does, however, have an amino acid composition that has similarity to proteins extracted from invertebrate and ascidian-calcified extracellular matrices. The GAP 10 sequence contains a predicted signal peptide and predicted phosphorylation sites. In addition, the protein is phosphorylated and exhibits calcium-binding ability. Repeated daily injections of GAP 10 double strand RNA to premolt C. quadricarinatus resulted in a prolonged premolt stage and in the development of gastroliths with irregularly rough surfaces. These findings suggest that GAP 10 may be involved in the assembly of the gastrolith chitin-protein-mineral complex, particularly in the deposition of amorphous calcium carbonate. PMID:20150428

  20. A protein involved in the assembly of an extracellular calcium storage matrix.

    PubMed

    Glazer, Lilah; Shechter, Assaf; Tom, Moshe; Yudkovski, Yana; Weil, Simy; Aflalo, Eliahu David; Pamuru, Ramachandra Reddy; Khalaila, Isam; Bentov, Shmuel; Berman, Amir; Sagi, Amir

    2010-04-23

    Gastroliths, the calcium storage organs of crustaceans, consist of chitin-protein-mineral complexes in which the mineral component is stabilized amorphous calcium carbonate. To date, only three proteins, GAP 65, gastrolith matrix protein (GAMP), and orchestin, have been identified in gastroliths. Here, we report a novel protein, GAP 10, isolated from the gastrolith of the crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus and specifically expressed in its gastrolith disc. The encoding gene was cloned by partial sequencing of the protein extracted from the gastrolith matrix. Based on an assembled microarray cDNA chip, GAP 10 transcripts were found to be highly (12-fold) up-regulated in premolt gastrolith disc and significantly down-regulated in the hypodermis at the same molt stage. The deduced protein sequence of GAP 10 lacks chitin-binding domains and does not show homology to known proteins in the GenBank data base. It does, however, have an amino acid composition that has similarity to proteins extracted from invertebrate and ascidian-calcified extracellular matrices. The GAP 10 sequence contains a predicted signal peptide and predicted phosphorylation sites. In addition, the protein is phosphorylated and exhibits calcium-binding ability. Repeated daily injections of GAP 10 double strand RNA to premolt C. quadricarinatus resulted in a prolonged premolt stage and in the development of gastroliths with irregularly rough surfaces. These findings suggest that GAP 10 may be involved in the assembly of the gastrolith chitin-protein-mineral complex, particularly in the deposition of amorphous calcium carbonate. PMID:20150428

  1. An Overview of the Medical Applications of Marine Skeletal Matrix Proteins.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M Azizur

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the medicinal potential of marine organisms has attracted increasing attention. This is due to their immense diversity and adaptation to unique ecological niches that has led to vast physiological and biochemical diversification. Among these organisms, marine calcifiers are an abundant source of novel proteins and chemical entities that can be used for drug discovery. Studies of the skeletal organic matrix proteins of marine calcifiers have focused on biomedical applications such as the identification of growth inducing proteins that can be used for bone regeneration, for example, 2/4 bone morphogenic proteins (BMP). Although a few reports on the functions of proteins derived from marine calcifiers can be found in the literature, marine calcifiers themselves remain an untapped source of proteins for the development of innovative pharmaceuticals. Following an overview of the current knowledge of skeletal organic matrix proteins from marine calcifiers, this review will focus on various aspects of marine skeletal protein research including sources, biosynthesis, structures, and possible strategies for chemical or physical modification. Special attention will be given to potential medical applications and recent discoveries of skeletal proteins and polysaccharides with biologically appealing characteristics. In addition, I will introduce an effective protocol for sample preparation and protein purification that includes isolation technology for biopolymers (of both soluble and insoluble organic matrices) from coralline algae. These algae are a widespread but poorly studied group of shallow marine calcifiers that have great potential for marine drug discovery. PMID:27626432

  2. Store-Operated Ca2+ Channels in Mesangial Cells Inhibit Matrix Protein Expression.

    PubMed

    Wu, Peiwen; Wang, Yanxia; Davis, Mark E; Zuckerman, Jonathan E; Chaudhari, Sarika; Begg, Malcolm; Ma, Rong

    2015-11-01

    Accumulation of extracellular matrix derived from glomerular mesangial cells is an early feature of diabetic nephropathy. Ca(2+) signals mediated by store-operated Ca(2+) channels regulate protein production in a variety of cell types. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of store-operated Ca(2+) channels in mesangial cells on extracellular matrix protein expression. In cultured human mesangial cells, activation of store-operated Ca(2+) channels by thapsigargin significantly decreased fibronectin protein expression and collagen IV mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner. Conversely, inhibition of the channels by 2-aminoethyl diphenylborinate significantly increased the expression of fibronectin and collagen IV. Similarly, overexpression of stromal interacting molecule 1 reduced, but knockdown of calcium release-activated calcium channel protein 1 (Orai1) increased fibronectin protein expression. Furthermore, 2-aminoethyl diphenylborinate significantly augmented angiotensin II-induced fibronectin protein expression, whereas thapsigargin abrogated high glucose- and TGF-β1-stimulated matrix protein expression. In vivo knockdown of Orai1 in mesangial cells of mice using a targeted nanoparticle siRNA delivery system resulted in increased expression of glomerular fibronectin and collagen IV, and mice showed significant mesangial expansion compared with controls. Similarly, in vivo knockdown of stromal interacting molecule 1 in mesangial cells by recombinant adeno-associated virus-encoded shRNA markedly increased collagen IV protein expression in renal cortex and caused mesangial expansion in rats. These results suggest that store-operated Ca(2+) channels in mesangial cells negatively regulate extracellular matrix protein expression in the kidney, which may serve as an endogenous renoprotective mechanism in diabetes. PMID:25788524

  3. Versatile Photocrosslinked Protein Hydrogel Matrix for Magnetic-Nanoparticle-Doping and Biomineralization.

    PubMed

    Ji, Fengying; Li, Shanpeng; Yang, Hai; Wang, Zhirui; Li, Aiwu

    2016-02-01

    A versatile template biomaterial was facilely obtained by ultraviolet (UV) photocrosslinking approach using protein molecules as building blocks. As-formed photocrosslinked protein hydrogel matrix (PPHM) was proved to be composed of covalently bound and dense packing protein molecules. Therefore, the PPHM was endowed with highly smooth topograghy with an average roughness of approximately 5 nm, and was self-supporting and flexible. The PPHM could be easily functionalized by doping Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles inside the protein hydrogel. Further, PPHM was experimentally demonstrated to be used as a applicable template for biomineralization. PMID:27433606

  4. Measles Virus Matrix Protein Inhibits Host Cell Transcription.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xuelian; Shahriari, Shadi; Li, Hong-Mei; Ghildyal, Reena

    2016-01-01

    Measles virus (MeV) is a highly contagious virus that still causes annual epidemics in developing countries despite the availability of a safe and effective vaccine. Additionally, importation from endemic countries causes frequent outbreaks in countries where it has been eliminated. The M protein of MeV plays a key role in virus assembly and cytopathogenesis; interestingly, M is localised in nucleus, cytoplasm and membranes of infected cells. We have used transient expression of M in transfected cells and in-cell transcription assays to show that only some MeV M localizes to the nucleus, in addition to cell membranes and the cytoplasm as previously described, and can inhibit cellular transcription via binding to nuclear factors. Additionally, MeV M was able to inhibit in vitro transcription in a dose-dependent manner. Importantly, a proportion of M is also localized to nucleus of MeV infected cells at early times in infection, correlating with inhibition of cellular transcription. Our data show, for the first time, that MeV M may play a role early in infection by inhibiting host cell transcription. PMID:27551716

  5. Measles Virus Matrix Protein Inhibits Host Cell Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xuelian; Shahriari, Shadi; Li, Hong-Mei; Ghildyal, Reena

    2016-01-01

    Measles virus (MeV) is a highly contagious virus that still causes annual epidemics in developing countries despite the availability of a safe and effective vaccine. Additionally, importation from endemic countries causes frequent outbreaks in countries where it has been eliminated. The M protein of MeV plays a key role in virus assembly and cytopathogenesis; interestingly, M is localised in nucleus, cytoplasm and membranes of infected cells. We have used transient expression of M in transfected cells and in-cell transcription assays to show that only some MeV M localizes to the nucleus, in addition to cell membranes and the cytoplasm as previously described, and can inhibit cellular transcription via binding to nuclear factors. Additionally, MeV M was able to inhibit in vitro transcription in a dose-dependent manner. Importantly, a proportion of M is also localized to nucleus of MeV infected cells at early times in infection, correlating with inhibition of cellular transcription. Our data show, for the first time, that MeV M may play a role early in infection by inhibiting host cell transcription. PMID:27551716

  6. LRPPRC is a mitochondrial matrix protein that is conserved in metazoans

    SciTech Connect

    Sterky, Fredrik H.; Ruzzenente, Benedetta; Gustafsson, Claes M.; Samuelsson, Tore; Larsson, Nils-Goeran

    2010-08-06

    Research highlights: {yields} LRPPRC orthologs are restricted to metazoans. {yields} LRPPRC is imported to the mitochondrial matrix. {yields} No evidence of nuclear isoform. -- Abstract: LRPPRC (also called LRP130) is an RNA-binding pentatricopeptide repeat protein. LRPPRC has been recognized as a mitochondrial protein, but has also been shown to regulate nuclear gene transcription and to bind specific RNA molecules in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. We here present a bioinformatic analysis of the LRPPRC primary sequence, which reveals that orthologs to the LRPPRC gene are restricted to metazoan cells and that all of the corresponding proteins contain mitochondrial targeting signals. To address the subcellular localization further, we have carefully analyzed LRPPRC in mammalian cells and identified a single isoform that is exclusively localized to mitochondria. The LRPPRC protein is imported to the mitochondrial matrix and its mitochondrial targeting sequence is cleaved upon entry.

  7. Conservation of Transit Peptide-Independent Protein Import into the Mitochondrial and Hydrogenosomal Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Sriram; Stölting, Jan; Zimorski, Verena; Rada, Petr; Tachezy, Jan; Martin, William F.; Gould, Sven B.

    2015-01-01

    The origin of protein import was a key step in the endosymbiotic acquisition of mitochondria. Though the main translocon of the mitochondrial outer membrane, TOM40, is ubiquitous among organelles of mitochondrial ancestry, the transit peptides, or N-terminal targeting sequences (NTSs), recognised by the TOM complex, are not. To better understand the nature of evolutionary conservation in mitochondrial protein import, we investigated the targeting behavior of Trichomonas vaginalis hydrogenosomal proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and vice versa. Hydrogenosomes import yeast mitochondrial proteins even in the absence of their native NTSs, but do not import yeast cytosolic proteins. Conversely, yeast mitochondria import hydrogenosomal proteins with and without their short NTSs. Conservation of an NTS-independent mitochondrial import route from excavates to opisthokonts indicates its presence in the eukaryote common ancestor. Mitochondrial protein import is known to entail electrophoresis of positively charged NTSs across the electrochemical gradient of the inner mitochondrial membrane. Our present findings indicate that mitochondrial transit peptides, which readily arise from random sequences, were initially selected as a signal for charge-dependent protein targeting specifically to the mitochondrial matrix. Evolutionary loss of the electron transport chain in hydrogenosomes and mitosomes lifted the selective constraints that maintain positive charge in NTSs, allowing first the NTS charge, and subsequently the NTS itself, to be lost. This resulted in NTS-independent matrix targeting, which is conserved across the evolutionary divide separating trichomonads and yeast, and which we propose is the ancestral state of mitochondrial protein import. PMID:26338186

  8. Matrix Gla Protein is Associated with Risk Factors for Atherosclerosis but not with Coronary Artery Calcification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives: Atherosclerotic coronary artery calcification (CAC) is associated with increased coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Matrix Gla Protein (MGP) is an inhibitor of calcification in vivo. However, little is known regarding the distribution of circulating MGP, and its associations with CHD...

  9. Immunolocalization of skeletal matrix proteins in tissue and mineral of the coral Stylophora pistillata

    PubMed Central

    Mass, Tali; Drake, Jeana L.; Peters, Esther C.; Jiang, Wenge; Falkowski, Paul G.

    2014-01-01

    The precipitation and assembly of calcium carbonate skeletons by stony corals is a precisely controlled process regulated by the secretion of an ECM. Recently, it has been reported that the proteome of the skeletal organic matrix (SOM) contains a group of coral acid-rich proteins as well as an assemblage of adhesion and structural proteins, which together, create a framework for the precipitation of aragonite. To date, we are aware of no report that has investigated the localization of individual SOM proteins in the skeleton. In particular, no data are available on the ultrastructural mapping of these proteins in the calcification site or the skeleton. This information is crucial to assessing the role of these proteins in biomineralization. Immunological techniques represent a valuable approach to localize a single component within a calcified skeleton. By using immunogold labeling and immunohistochemical assays, here we show the spatial arrangement of key matrix proteins in tissue and skeleton of the common zooxanthellate coral, Stylophora pistillata. To our knowledge, our results reveal for the first time that, at the nanoscale, skeletal proteins are embedded within the aragonite crystals in a highly ordered arrangement consistent with a diel calcification pattern. In the tissue, these proteins are not restricted to the calcifying epithelium, suggesting that they also play other roles in the coral’s metabolic pathways. PMID:25139990

  10. Immunolocalization of skeletal matrix proteins in tissue and mineral of the coral Stylophora pistillata.

    PubMed

    Mass, Tali; Drake, Jeana L; Peters, Esther C; Jiang, Wenge; Falkowski, Paul G

    2014-09-01

    The precipitation and assembly of calcium carbonate skeletons by stony corals is a precisely controlled process regulated by the secretion of an ECM. Recently, it has been reported that the proteome of the skeletal organic matrix (SOM) contains a group of coral acid-rich proteins as well as an assemblage of adhesion and structural proteins, which together, create a framework for the precipitation of aragonite. To date, we are aware of no report that has investigated the localization of individual SOM proteins in the skeleton. In particular, no data are available on the ultrastructural mapping of these proteins in the calcification site or the skeleton. This information is crucial to assessing the role of these proteins in biomineralization. Immunological techniques represent a valuable approach to localize a single component within a calcified skeleton. By using immunogold labeling and immunohistochemical assays, here we show the spatial arrangement of key matrix proteins in tissue and skeleton of the common zooxanthellate coral, Stylophora pistillata. To our knowledge, our results reveal for the first time that, at the nanoscale, skeletal proteins are embedded within the aragonite crystals in a highly ordered arrangement consistent with a diel calcification pattern. In the tissue, these proteins are not restricted to the calcifying epithelium, suggesting that they also play other roles in the coral's metabolic pathways. PMID:25139990

  11. Adhesion properties of Lactobacillus rhamnosus mucus-binding factor to mucin and extracellular matrix proteins.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Keita; Nakamata, Koichi; Ueno, Shintaro; Terao, Akari; Aryantini, Ni Putu Desy; Sujaya, I Nengah; Fukuda, Kenji; Urashima, Tadasu; Yamamoto, Yuji; Mukai, Takao

    2015-01-01

    We previously described potential probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains, isolated from fermented mare milk produced in Sumbawa Island, Indonesia, which showed high adhesion to porcine colonic mucin (PCM) and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Recently, mucus-binding factor (MBF) was found in the GG strain of L. rhamnosus as a mucin-binding protein. In this study, we assessed the ability of recombinant MBF protein from the FSMM22 strain, one of the isolates of L. rhamnosus from fermented Sumbawa mare milk, to adhere to PCM and ECM proteins by overlay dot blot and Biacore assays. MBF bound to PCM, laminin, collagen IV, and fibronectin with submicromolar dissociation constants. Adhesion of the FSMM22 mbf mutant strain to PCM and ECM proteins was significantly less than that of the wild-type strain. Collectively, these results suggested that MBF contribute to L. rhamnosus host colonization via mucin and ECM protein binding. PMID:25351253

  12. N-terminal specific conjugation of extracellular matrix proteins to 2-pyridinecarboxaldehyde functionalized polyacrylamide hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jessica P; Kassianidou, Elena; MacDonald, James I; Francis, Matthew B; Kumar, Sanjay

    2016-09-01

    Polyacrylamide hydrogels have been used extensively to study cell responses to the mechanical and biochemical properties of extracellular matrix substrates. A key step in fabricating these substrates is the conjugation of cell adhesion proteins to the polyacrylamide surfaces, which typically involves nonspecifically anchoring these proteins via side-chain functional groups. This can result in a loss of presentation control and altered bioactivity. Here, we describe a new functionalization strategy in which we anchor full-length extracellular matrix proteins to polyacrylamide substrates using 2-pyridinecarboxaldehyde, which can be co-polymerized into polyacrylamide gels and used to immobilize proteins by their N-termini. This one-step reaction proceeds under mild aqueous conditions and does not require additional reagents. We demonstrate that these substrates can readily conjugate to various extracellular matrix proteins, as well as promote cell adhesion and spreading. Notably, this chemistry supports the assembly and cellular remodeling of large collagen fibers, which is not observed using conventional side-chain amine-conjugation chemistry. PMID:27348850

  13. Molecular force probe measurement of antigen I/II-matrix protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Soell, Martine; Hemmerlé, Joseph; Hannig, Matthias; Haïkel, Youssef; Sano, Hidehiko; Selimovic, Denis

    2010-12-01

    Viridans streptococci possess a family of immunologically and structurally related cell-surface proteins, termed antigen I/II, which may function as adhesins and enable oral streptococci to adhere to saliva-coated surfaces and matrix proteins. Here we used atomic force microscopy in the molecular force mode to measure the specific interaction forces between antigen I/II and two matrix proteins, collagen and fibronectin. These matrix proteins provide important binding sites for adherence of oral streptococcal in dentinal caries and endocarditis, respectively. Antigen I/II-coated cantilever tips were brought into contact with collagen- or fibronectin-coated silica coverslips. For the protein I/II-fibronectin interaction experiments, the mean strength of the last ruptures was 216 pN, with most of the detachments located around 125 pN. In antigen I/II-collagen interaction experiments, the mean strength of the last rupture forces corresponded to 136 pN, with the most frequent unbinding force around 75 pN. Thus, our findings definitely suggest that, under the present experimental conditions, antigen I/II binds more strongly to fibronectin than to type I collagen. This might be of relevance for the attachment of viridians streptococci to surfaces exposed to strong hydrodynamic shearing forces under in vivo conditions. PMID:21083620

  14. Tetraspanin Proteins Regulate Membrane Type-1 Matrix Metalloproteinase-dependent Pericellular Proteolysis

    PubMed Central

    Lafleur, Marc A.; Xu, Daosong

    2009-01-01

    Membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) supports tumor cell invasion through extracellular matrix barriers containing fibrin, collagen, fibronectin, and other proteins. Here, we show that simultaneous knockdown of two or three members of the tetraspanin family (CD9, CD81, and TSPAN12) markedly decreases MT1-MMP proteolytic functions in cancer cells. Affected functions include fibronectin proteolysis, invasion and growth in three-dimensional fibrin and collagen gels, and MMP-2 activation. Tetraspanin proteins (CD9, CD81, and TSPAN2) selectively coimmunoprecipitate and colocalize with MT1-MMP. Although tetraspanins do not affect the initial biosynthesis of MT1-MMP, they do protect the newly synthesized protein from lysosomal degradation and support its delivery to the cell surface. Interfering with MT1-MMP-tetraspanin collaboration may be a useful therapeutic approach to limit cancer cell invasion and metastasis. PMID:19211836

  15. The Type II secretion system delivers matrix proteins for biofilm formation by Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Tanya L; Fong, Jiunn C; Rule, Chelsea; Rogers, Andrew; Yildiz, Fitnat H; Sandkvist, Maria

    2014-12-01

    Gram-negative bacteria have evolved several highly dedicated pathways for extracellular protein secretion, including the type II secretion (T2S) system. Since substrates secreted via the T2S system include both virulence factors and degradative enzymes, this secretion system is considered a major survival mechanism for pathogenic and environmental species. Previous analyses revealed that the T2S system mediates the export of ≥ 20 proteins in Vibrio cholerae, a human pathogen that is indigenous to the marine environment. Here we demonstrate a new role in biofilm formation for the V. cholerae T2S system, since wild-type V. cholerae was found to secrete the biofilm matrix proteins RbmC, RbmA, and Bap1 into the culture supernatant, while an isogenic T2S mutant could not. In agreement with this finding, the level of biofilm formation in a static microtiter assay was diminished in T2S mutants. Moreover, inactivation of the T2S system in a rugose V. cholerae strain prevented the development of colony corrugation and pellicle formation at the air-liquid interface. In contrast, extracellular secretion of the exopolysaccharide VPS, an essential component of the biofilm matrix, remained unaffected in the T2S mutants. Our results indicate that the T2S system provides a mechanism for the delivery of extracellular matrix proteins known to be important for biofilm formation by V. cholerae. Because the T2S system contributes to the pathogenicity of V. cholerae by secreting proteins such as cholera toxin and biofilm matrix proteins, elucidation of the molecular mechanism of T2S has the potential to lead to the development of novel preventions and therapies. PMID:25266381

  16. A Single Peroxisomal Targeting Signal Mediates Matrix Protein Import in Diatoms

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Nicola H.; Felsner, Gregor; Schramm, Frederic D.; Klingl, Andreas; Maier, Uwe-G.; Bolte, Kathrin

    2011-01-01

    Peroxisomes are single membrane bound compartments. They are thought to be present in almost all eukaryotic cells, although the bulk of our knowledge about peroxisomes has been generated from only a handful of model organisms. Peroxisomal matrix proteins are synthesized cytosolically and posttranslationally imported into the peroxisomal matrix. The import is generally thought to be mediated by two different targeting signals. These are respectively recognized by the two import receptor proteins Pex5 and Pex7, which facilitate transport across the peroxisomal membrane. Here, we show the first in vivo localization studies of peroxisomes in a representative organism of the ecologically relevant group of diatoms using fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. By expression of various homologous and heterologous fusion proteins we demonstrate that targeting of Phaeodactylum tricornutum peroxisomal matrix proteins is mediated only by PTS1 targeting signals, also for proteins that are in other systems imported via a PTS2 mode of action. Additional in silico analyses suggest this surprising finding may also apply to further diatoms. Our data suggest that loss of the PTS2 peroxisomal import signal is not reserved to Caenorhabditis elegans as a single exception, but has also occurred in evolutionary divergent organisms. Obviously, targeting switching from PTS2 to PTS1 across different major eukaryotic groups might have occurred for different reasons. Thus, our findings question the widespread assumption that import of peroxisomal matrix proteins is generally mediated by two different targeting signals. Our results implicate that there apparently must have been an event causing the loss of one targeting signal even in the group of diatoms. Different possibilities are discussed that indicate multiple reasons for the detected targeting switching from PTS2 to PTS1. PMID:21966495

  17. The Type II Secretion System Delivers Matrix Proteins for Biofilm Formation by Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Tanya L.; Fong, Jiunn C.; Rule, Chelsea; Rogers, Andrew; Yildiz, Fitnat H.

    2014-01-01

    Gram-negative bacteria have evolved several highly dedicated pathways for extracellular protein secretion, including the type II secretion (T2S) system. Since substrates secreted via the T2S system include both virulence factors and degradative enzymes, this secretion system is considered a major survival mechanism for pathogenic and environmental species. Previous analyses revealed that the T2S system mediates the export of ≥20 proteins in Vibrio cholerae, a human pathogen that is indigenous to the marine environment. Here we demonstrate a new role in biofilm formation for the V. cholerae T2S system, since wild-type V. cholerae was found to secrete the biofilm matrix proteins RbmC, RbmA, and Bap1 into the culture supernatant, while an isogenic T2S mutant could not. In agreement with this finding, the level of biofilm formation in a static microtiter assay was diminished in T2S mutants. Moreover, inactivation of the T2S system in a rugose V. cholerae strain prevented the development of colony corrugation and pellicle formation at the air-liquid interface. In contrast, extracellular secretion of the exopolysaccharide VPS, an essential component of the biofilm matrix, remained unaffected in the T2S mutants. Our results indicate that the T2S system provides a mechanism for the delivery of extracellular matrix proteins known to be important for biofilm formation by V. cholerae. Because the T2S system contributes to the pathogenicity of V. cholerae by secreting proteins such as cholera toxin and biofilm matrix proteins, elucidation of the molecular mechanism of T2S has the potential to lead to the development of novel preventions and therapies. PMID:25266381

  18. Matrix Gla Protein Binds to Fibronectin and Enhances Cell Attachment and Spreading on Fibronectin

    PubMed Central

    Nishimoto, Satoru Ken; Nishimoto, Miyako

    2014-01-01

    Background. Matrix Gla protein (MGP) is a vitamin K-dependent, extracellular matrix protein. MGP is a calcification inhibitor of arteries and cartilage. However MGP is synthesized in many tissues and is especially enriched in embryonic tissues and in cancer cells. The presence of MGP in those instances does not correlate well with the calcification inhibitory role. This study explores a potential mechanism for MGP to bind to matrix proteins and alter cell matrix interactions. Methods. To determine whether MGP influences cell behavior through interaction with fibronectin, we studied MGP binding to fibronectin, the effect of MGP on fibronectin mediated cell attachment and spreading and immunolocalized MGP and fibronectin. Results. First, MGP binds to fibronectin. The binding site for MGP is in a specific fibronectin fragment, called III1-C or anastellin. The binding site for fibronectin is in a MGP C-terminal peptide comprising amino acids 61–77. Second, MGP enhances cell attachment and cell spreading on fibronectin. MGP alone does not promote cell adhesion. Third, MGP is present in fibronectin-rich regions of tissue sections. Conclusions. MGP binds to fibronectin. The presence of MGP increased cell-fibronectin interactions. PMID:25210519

  19. Extracellular matrix interacts with interferon {alpha} protein: Retention and display of cytotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Kimiko; Kondoh, Atsushi; Narumi, Kenta; Yoshida, Teruhiko; Aoki, Kazunori

    2008-11-14

    We have been investigating the efficacy of an intratumoral interferon (IFN)-{alpha} gene transfer against solid cancers, and found that when the gene is transduced into the subcutaneous tumors, IFN-{alpha} concentration is markedly increased in the injected tumor but not in the serum. To explain this effective confinement of IFN-{alpha} to target tissues, we hypothesized that the extracellular matrix in the tumors interacts with IFN-{alpha}. In this study, a solid-phase-binding assay and immunoprecipitation demonstrated that the IFN-{alpha} binds directly to matrix proteins. Immunohistochemical staining showed a co-localization of IFN-{alpha} with pericellular fibronectin. In addition, matrix-bound IFN-{alpha} protein transduced intracellular signaling and potentiated its cytotoxic activity, suggesting that the retention of IFN-{alpha} protein on extracellular matrix is likely to play a role in its in vivo biological activity. The data suggest a therapeutic advantage of the intratumoral IFN-{alpha} gene transfer over the conventional parenteral therapy both in the safety and efficacy.

  20. Influence of lipids on the interfacial disposition of respiratory syncytical virus matrix protein.

    PubMed

    McPhee, Helen K; Carlisle, Jennifer L; Beeby, Andrew; Money, Victoria A; Watson, Scott M D; Yeo, R Paul; Sanderson, John M

    2011-01-01

    The propensity of a matrix protein from an enveloped virus of the Mononegavirales family to associate with lipids representative of the viral envelope has been determined using label-free methods, including tensiometry and Brewster angle microscopy on lipid films at the air-water interface and atomic force microscopy on monolayers transferred to OTS-treated silicon wafers. This has enabled factors that influence the disposition of the protein with respect to the lipid interface to be characterized. In the absence of sphingomyelin, respiratory syncytial virus matrix protein penetrates monolayers composed of mixtures of phosphocholines with phosphoethanolamines or cholesterol at the air-water interface. In ternary mixtures composed of sphingomyelin, 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, and cholesterol, the protein exhibits two separate behaviors: (1) peripheral association with the surface of sphingomyelin-rich domains and (2) penetration of sphingomyelin-poor domains. Prolonged incubation of the protein with mixtures of phosphocholines and phosphoethanolamines leads to the formation of helical protein assemblies of uniform diameter that demonstrate an inherent propensity of the protein to assemble into a filamentous form. PMID:21141948

  1. Nipah Virus Matrix Protein Influences Fusogenicity and Is Essential for Particle Infectivity and Stability

    PubMed Central

    Dietzel, Erik; Kolesnikova, Larissa; Sawatsky, Bevan; Heiner, Anja; Weis, Michael; Kobinger, Gary P.; Becker, Stephan; von Messling, Veronika

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Nipah virus (NiV) causes fatal encephalitic infections in humans. To characterize the role of the matrix (M) protein in the viral life cycle, we generated a reverse genetics system based on NiV strain Malaysia. Using an enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP)-expressing M protein-deleted NiV, we observed a slightly increased cell-cell fusion, slow replication kinetics, and significantly reduced peak titers compared to the parental virus. While increased amounts of viral proteins were found in the supernatant of cells infected with M-deleted NiV, the infectivity-to-particle ratio was more than 100-fold reduced, and the particles were less thermostable and of more irregular morphology. Taken together, our data demonstrate that the M protein is not absolutely required for the production of cell-free NiV but is necessary for proper assembly and release of stable infectious NiV particles. IMPORTANCE Henipaviruses cause a severe disease with high mortality in human patients. Therefore, these viruses can be studied only in biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) laboratories, making it more challenging to characterize their life cycle. Here we investigated the role of the Nipah virus matrix protein in virus-mediated cell-cell fusion and in the formation and release of newly produced particles. We found that even though low levels of infectious viruses are produced in the absence of the matrix protein, it is required for the release of highly infectious and stable particles. Fusogenicity of matrixless viruses was slightly enhanced, further demonstrating the critical role of this protein in different steps of Nipah virus spread. PMID:26676785

  2. Changes in matrix protein biochemistry and the expression of mRNA encoding matrix proteins and metalloproteinases in posterior tibialis tendinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Corps, Anthony N; Robinson, Andrew H N; Harrall, Rebecca L; Avery, Nicholas C; Curry, Valerie A; Hazleman, Brian L; Riley, Graham P

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Adult-acquired flat foot secondary to a dysfunctional posterior tibialis tendon (PTT) is often treated by surgical transfer of the flexor digitorum longus tendon (FDLT). In this study, the authors compared normal PTT, stage II dysfunctional PTT and replacement FDLT, aiming to define changes in collagen modification, glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and the expression of matrix and metalloproteinase mRNA. Methods Normal PTTs were obtained from patients with no history of tendon problems. Samples of dysfunctional PTT and replacement FDLT tissue were obtained from patients undergoing surgical reconstruction. Tissue samples were analysed for total collagen and GAG, pentosidine and collagen cross-links. Total RNA was assayed for mRNA encoding matrix proteins and metalloproteinases, using real-time reverse transcription PCR. Differences between clinical groups were assessed using non-parametric statistics. Results Dysfunctional PTT contained higher levels of GAG and lower levels of pentosidine than normal PTT or FDLT. In contrast, collagen in FDLT contained fewer ketoimine and more aldimine cross-links than either normal or dysfunctional PTT. mRNA encoding types I and III collagens, aggrecan, biglycan, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, -13 and -23, and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM)-12L each showed increased levels in dysfunctional PTT compared with either normal PTT or (except MMP-13) FDLT. In contrast, MMP-3 and ADAM with thrombospondin domain (ADAMTS)-5 mRNA were lower in both dysfunctional PTT and FDLT than in normal PTT, while ADAMTS-1 mRNA was lower in dysfunctional PTT than in FDLT. Conclusions Stage II dysfunctional PTT shows biochemical and molecular changes consistent with a chronic remodelling of the extracellular matrix, rather than rupture, while the replacement FDLT resembles normal PTT in many, but not all, parameters. PMID:22241901

  3. A Model Sea Urchin Spicule Matrix Protein Self-Associates To Form Mineral-Modifying Protein Hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Jain, Gaurav; Pendola, Martin; Rao, Ashit; Cölfen, Helmut; Evans, John Spencer

    2016-08-01

    In the purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, the formation and mineralization of fracture-resistant skeletal elements such as the embryonic spicule require the combinatorial participation of numerous spicule matrix proteins such as the SpSM30A-F isoforms. However, because of limited abundance, it has been difficult to pursue extensive biochemical studies of the SpSM30 proteins and deduce their role in spicule formation and mineralization. To circumvent these problems, we expressed a model recombinant spicule matrix protein, rSpSM30B/C, which possesses the key sequence attributes of isoforms "B" and "C". Our findings indicate that rSpSM30B/C is expressed in insect cells as a single polypeptide containing variations in glycosylation that create microheterogeneity in rSpSM30B/C molecular masses. These post-translational modifications incorporate O- and N-glycans and anionic mono- and bisialylated and mono- and bisulfated monosaccharides on the protein molecules and enhance its aggregation propensity. Bioinformatics and biophysical experiments confirm that rSpSM30B/C is an intrinsically disordered, aggregation-prone protein that forms porous protein hydrogels that control the in vitro mineralization process in three ways: (1) increase the time interval for prenucleation cluster formation and transiently stabilize an ACC polymorph, (2) promote and organize single-crystal calcite nanoparticles, and (3) promote faceted growth and create surface texturing of calcite crystals. These features are also common to mollusk shell nacre proteins, and we conclude that rSpSM30B/C is a spiculogenesis protein that exhibits traits found in other calcium carbonate mineral modification proteins. PMID:27426695

  4. The dynamic architecture of photoreceptor ribbon synapses: Cytoskeletal, extracellular matrix, and intramembrane proteins

    PubMed Central

    MERCER, AARON J.; THORESON, WALLACE B.

    2012-01-01

    Rod and cone photoreceptors possess ribbon synapses that assist in the transmission of graded light responses to second-order bipolar and horizontal cells of the vertebrate retina. Proper functioning of the synapse requires the juxtaposition of presynaptic release sites immediately adjacent to postsynaptic receptors. In this review, we focus on the synaptic, cytoskeletal, and extracellular matrix proteins that help to organize photoreceptor ribbon synapses in the outer plexiform layer. We examine the proteins that foster the clustering of release proteins, calcium channels, and synaptic vesicles in the presynaptic terminals of photoreceptors adjacent to their postsynaptic contacts. Although many proteins interact with one another in the presynaptic terminal and synaptic cleft, these protein–protein interactions do not create a static and immutable structure. Instead, photoreceptor ribbon synapses are remarkably dynamic, exhibiting structural changes on both rapid and slow time scales. PMID:22192503

  5. In-depth proteomic analysis of shell matrix proteins of Pinctada fucata

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chuang; Li, Shiguo; Kong, Jingjing; Liu, Yangjia; Wang, Tianpeng; Xie, Liping; Zhang, Rongqing

    2015-01-01

    The shells of pearl oysters, Pinctada fucata, are composed of calcite and aragonite and possess remarkable mechanical properties. These shells are formed under the regulation of macromolecules, especially shell matrix proteins (SMPs). Identification of diverse SMPs will lay a foundation for understanding biomineralization process. Here, we identified 72 unique SMPs using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis of proteins extracted from the shells of P. fucata combined with a draft genome. Of 72 SMPs, 17 SMPs are related to both the prismatic and nacreous layers. Moreover, according to the diverse domains found in the SMPs, we hypothesize that in addition to controlling CaCO3 crystallization and crystal organization, these proteins may potentially regulate the extracellular microenvironment and communicate between cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM). Immunohistological localization techniques identify the SMPs in the mantle, shells and synthetic calcite. Together, these proteomic data increase the repertoires of the shell matrix proteins in P. fucata and suggest that shell formation in P. fucata may involve tight regulation of cellular activities and the extracellular microenvironment. PMID:26608573

  6. Vesicular stomatitis virus matrix protein inhibits host cell-directed transcription of target genes in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Black, B L; Lyles, D S

    1992-01-01

    Infection by vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) results in a rapid inhibition of host cell transcription and translation. To determine whether the viral matrix (M) protein was involved in this inhibition of host cell gene expression, an M protein expression vector was cotransfected with a target gene vector, encoding the target gene, encoding chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT). Expression of M protein caused a decrease in CAT activity in a gene dosage-dependent manner, and inhibition was apparent by 12 h posttransfection. The inhibitory effect of M protein was quite potent. The level of M protein required for a 10-fold inhibition of CAT activity was less than 1% of the level of M protein produced during the sixth hour of VSV infection. Northern (RNA) analysis of cotransfected cells showed that expression of M protein caused a reduction in the steady-state level of the vector-encoded mRNAs. Expression of both CAT and M mRNAs was reduced in cells cotransfected with a plasmid encoding M protein, indicating that expression of small amounts of M protein from plasmid DNA inhibits further expression of both M and CAT mRNAs. Nuclear runoff transcription analysis demonstrated that expression of M protein inhibited transcription of the target genes. This is the first report of a viral gene product which is capable of inhibiting transcription in vivo in the absence of any other viral component. Images PMID:1318397

  7. Expression of extracellular matrix proteins in cervical squamous cell carcinoma--a clinicopathological study.

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, I; Davidson, B; Lerner-Geva, L; Gotlieb, W H; Ben-Baruch, G; Novikov, I; Kopolovic, J

    1998-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the intracellular and peritumoral expression of matrix proteins in squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix using immunohistochemistry. METHODS: 71 squamous cell carcinomas and 10 controls were stained for laminin, fibronectin, and collagen IV. Cytoplasmic staining in tumour cells and peritumoral deposition of matrix proteins were evaluated. The association between staining results and patient age, tumour stage, histological grade, and survival was studied. RESULTS: Positive cytoplasmic staining for laminin, fibronectin, and collagen IV was observed in 17 (23.9%), 27 (38%), and 10 (14.1%) cases, respectively. Staining for laminin was most pronounced in the invasive front of tumour islands, while for fibronectin and collagen IV it appeared to be diffuse. Peritumoral staining for laminin and collagen IV was detected in 12 cases (16.9%). Early stage (Ia1-Ia2) tumours were uniformly negative for all three proteins. Cytoplasmic staining for laminin correlated with positive staining for fibronectin and collagen IV, and with the presence of a peritumoral deposition of collagen IV and laminin. There was no correlation with any of the three markers between staining results and patient age, stage, grade, or survival. CONCLUSIONS: Expression of extracellular matrix proteins in some cervical squamous cell carcinomas might reflect the enhanced ability of these tumours to modify the peritumoral stroma. This ability seems to be absent in early stage tumours. The correlation between intracytoplasmic and peritumoral expression of matrix proteins supports the evidence of their synthesis by tumour cells. However, this property did not correlate with disease outcome in this study. Images PMID:10023343

  8. Identification of Biofilm Matrix-Associated Proteins from an Acid Mine Drainage Microbial Community ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Yongqin; D'haeseleer, Patrik; Dill, Brian D.; Shah, Manesh; VerBerkmoes, Nathan C.; Hettich, Robert L.; Banfield, Jillian F.; Thelen, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    In microbial communities, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), also called the extracellular matrix, provide the spatial organization and structural stability during biofilm development. One of the major components of EPS is protein, but it is not clear what specific functions these proteins contribute to the extracellular matrix or to microbial physiology. To investigate this in biofilms from an extremely acidic environment, we used shotgun proteomics analyses to identify proteins associated with EPS in biofilms at two developmental stages, designated DS1 and DS2. The proteome composition of the EPS was significantly different from that of the cell fraction, with more than 80% of the cellular proteins underrepresented or undetectable in EPS. In contrast, predicted periplasmic, outer membrane, and extracellular proteins were overrepresented by 3- to 7-fold in EPS. Also, EPS proteins were more basic by ∼2 pH units on average and about half the length. When categorized by predicted function, proteins involved in motility, defense, cell envelope, and unknown functions were enriched in EPS. Chaperones, such as histone-like DNA binding protein and cold shock protein, were overrepresented in EPS. Enzymes, such as protein peptidases, disulfide-isomerases, and those associated with cell wall and polysaccharide metabolism, were also detected. Two of these enzymes, identified as β-N-acetylhexosaminidase and cellulase, were confirmed in the EPS fraction by enzymatic activity assays. Compared to the differences between EPS and cellular fractions, the relative differences in the EPS proteomes between DS1 and DS2 were smaller and consistent with expected physiological changes during biofilm development. PMID:21685158

  9. Identification of Biofilm Matrix-Associated Proteins from an Acid Mine Drainage Microbial Community

    SciTech Connect

    Jiao, Yongqin; D'Haeseleer, Patrik M; Dill, Brian; Shah, Manesh B; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L; Banfield, Jillian F.; Thelen, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    In microbial communities, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), also called the extracellular matrix, provide the spatial organization and structural stability during biofilm development. One of the major components of EPS is protein, but it is not clear what specific functions these proteins contribute to the extracellular matrix or to microbial physiology. To investigate this in biofilms from an extremely acidic environment, we used shotgun proteomics analyses to identify proteins associated with EPS in biofilms at two developmental stages, designated DS1 and DS2. The proteome composition of the EPS was significantly different from that of the cell fraction, with more than 80% of the cellular proteins underrepresented or undetectable in EPS. In contrast, predicted periplasmic, outer membrane, and extracellular proteins were overrepresented by 3- to 7-fold in EPS. Also, EPS proteins were more basic by 2 pH units on average and about half the length. When categorized by predicted function, proteins involved in motility, defense, cell envelope, and unknown functions were enriched in EPS. Chaperones, such as histone-like DNA binding protein and cold shock protein, were overrepresented in EPS. Enzymes, such as protein peptidases, disulfide-isomerases, and those associated with cell wall and polysaccharide metabolism, were also detected. Two of these enzymes, identified as -N-acetylhexosaminidase and cellulase, were confirmed in the EPS fraction by enzymatic activity assays. Compared to the differences between EPS and cellular fractions, the relative differences in the EPS proteomes between DS1 and DS2 were smaller and consistent with expected physiological changes during biofilm development.

  10. Bioprocess monitoring: minimizing sample matrix effects for total protein quantification with bicinchoninic acid assay.

    PubMed

    Reichelt, Wieland N; Waldschitz, Daniel; Herwig, Christoph; Neutsch, Lukas

    2016-09-01

    Determining total protein content is a routine operation in many laboratories. Despite substantial work on assay optimization interferences, the widely used bicinchoninic acid (BCA) assay remains widely recognized for its robustness. Especially in the field of bioprocess engineering the inaccuracy caused by interfering substances remains hardly predictable and not well understood. Since the introduction of the assay, sample pre-treatment by trichloroacetic acid (TCA) precipitation has been indicated as necessary and sufficient to minimize interferences. However, the sample matrix in cultivation media is not only highly complex but also dynamically changing over process time in terms of qualitative and quantitative composition. A significant misestimation of the total protein concentration of bioprocess samples is often observed when following standard work-up schemes such as TCA precipitation, indicating that this step alone is not an adequate means to avoid measurement bias. Here, we propose a modification of the BCA assay, which is less influenced by sample complexity. The dynamically changing sample matrix composition of bioprocessing samples impairs the conventional approach of compensating for interfering substances via a static offset. Hence, we evaluated the use of a correction factor based on an internal spike measurement for the respective samples. Using protein spikes, the accuracy of the BCA protein quantification could be improved fivefold, taking the BCA protein quantification to a level of accuracy comparable to other, more expensive methods. This will allow reducing expensive iterations in bioprocess development to due inaccurate total protein analytics. PMID:27314233

  11. Release of matrix proteins from mitochondria to cytosol during the prereplicative phase of liver regeneration.

    PubMed

    Greco, M; Moro, L; Pellecchia, G; Di Pede, S; Guerrieri, F

    1998-05-01

    70% partial hepatectomy (PH) in the rat causes a release, into the cytosolic fraction, of mitochondrial matrix proteins, namely the mitochondrial isoform of aspartate aminotransferase (mAAT) and malate dehydrogenase (MDH), during the first 24 h after PH, when no growth of the residual liver is observed. After this time interval, the weight of the liver starts to increase and the normal weight is reached at 96 h after PH. This proliferative phase is characterized by a progressive recovery of the normal levels of intramitochondrial activities of mAAT and MDH. Mitochondria isolated at 24 h after PH show a membrane permeabilization to sucrose accompanied by a release of matrix enzymes; both are blocked by cyclosporin A. These results suggest an alteration of mitochondrial membrane integrity, during the prereplicative phase of liver regeneration, with the occurrence of an increased permeability that allows the passage into the cytosol of matrix enzymes. PMID:9607307

  12. Regulation of Extracellular Matrix Remodeling Proteins by Osteoblasts in Titanium Nanoparticle-Induced Aseptic Loosening Model.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jing; Hou, Yanhua; Fu, Na; Cai, Xiaoxiao; Li, Guo; Peng, Qiang; Lin, Yunfeng

    2015-10-01

    Titanium (Ti)-wear particles, formed at the bone-implant interface, are responsible for aseptic loosening, which is a main cause of total joint replacement failure. There have been many studies on Ti particle-induced function changes in mono-cultured osteoblasts and synovial cells. However, little is known on extracellular matrix remodeling displayed by osteoblasts when in coexistence with Synovial cells. To further mimic the bone-implant interface environment, we firstly established a nanoscaled-Ti particle-induced aseptic loosening system by co-culturing osteoblasts and Synovial cells. We then explored the impact of the Synovial cells on Ti particle-engulfed osteoblasts in the mimicked flamed niche. The matrix metalloproteinases and lysyl oxidases expression levels, two protein families which are critical in osseointegration, were examined under induction by tumor necrosis factor-alpha. It was found that the co-culture between the osteoblasts and Synovial cells markedly increased the migration and proliferation of the osteoblasts, even in the Ti-particle engulfed osteoblasts. Importantly, the Ti-particle engulfed osteoblasts, induced by TNF-alpha after the co-culture, enhanced the release of the matrix metalloproteinases and reduced the expressions of lysyl oxidases. The regulation of extracellular matrix remodeling at the protein level was further assessed by investigations on gene expression of the matrix metalloproteinases and lysyl oxidases, which also suggested that the regulation started at the genetic level. Our research work has therefore revealed the critical role of multi cell-type interactions in the extracellular matrix remodeling within the peri-prosthetic tissues, which provides new insights on aseptic loosening and brings new clues about incomplete osseointegration between the implantation materials and their surrounding bones. PMID:26502645

  13. Biofilm-specific extracellular matrix proteins of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Siva; Baum, Marc M.; Kerwin, James; Guerrero-Given, Debbie; Webster, Simon; Schaudinn, Christoph; VanderVelde, David; Webster, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), a human respiratory tract pathogen can form colony biofilms in vitro. Bacterial cells and the amorphous extracellular matrix (ECM) constituting the biofilm can be separated using sonication. The ECM from 24 hr and 96 hr NTHi biofilms contained polysaccharides and proteinaceous components as detected by NMR and FTIR spectroscopy. More conventional chemical assays on the biofilm ECM confirmed the presence of these components and also DNA. Proteomics revealed eighteen proteins present in biofilm ECM that were not detected in planktonic bacteria. One ECM protein was unique to 24 hr biofilms, two were found only in 96 hr biofilms, and fifteen were present in the ECM of both 24 hr and 96 hr NTHi biofilms. All proteins identified were either associated with bacterial membranes or were cytoplasmic proteins. Immunocytochemistry showed two of the identified proteins, a DNA-directed RNA polymerase and the outer membrane protein OMP P2, associated with bacteria and biofilm ECM. Identification of biofilm-specific proteins present in immature biofilms is an important step in understanding the in vitro process of NTHi biofilm formation. The presence of a cytoplasmic protein and a membrane protein in the biofilm ECM of immature NTHi biofilms suggests that bacterial cell lysis may be a feature of early biofilm formation. PMID:24942343

  14. Machine learning approaches for discrimination of Extracellular Matrix proteins using hybrid feature space.

    PubMed

    Ali, Farman; Hayat, Maqsood

    2016-08-21

    Extracellular Matrix (ECM) proteins are the vital type of proteins that are secreted by resident cells. ECM proteins perform several significant functions including adhesion, differentiation, cell migration and proliferation. In addition, ECM proteins regulate angiogenesis process, embryonic development, tumor growth and gene expression. Due to tremendous biological significance of the ECM proteins and rapidly increases of protein sequences in databases, it is indispensable to introduce a new high throughput computation model that can accurately identify ECM proteins. Various traditional models have been developed, but they are laborious and tedious. In this work, an effective and high throughput computational classification model is proposed for discrimination of ECM proteins. In this model, protein sequences are formulated using amino acid composition, pseudo amino acid composition (PseAAC) and di-peptide composition (DPC) techniques. Further, various combination of feature extraction techniques are fused to form hybrid feature spaces. Several classifiers were employed. Among these classifiers, K-Nearest Neighbor obtained outstanding performance in combination with the hybrid feature space of PseAAC and DPC. The obtained accuracy of our proposed model is 96.76%, which the highest success rate has been reported in the literature so far. PMID:27179459

  15. Interactions of normal and mutant vesicular stomatitis virus matrix proteins with the plasma membrane and nucleocapsids.

    PubMed Central

    Chong, L D; Rose, J K

    1994-01-01

    We demonstrated recently that a fraction of the matrix (M) protein of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) binds tightly to cellular membranes in vivo when expressed in the absence of other VSV proteins. This membrane-associated M protein was functional in binding purified VSV nucleocapsids in vitro. Here we show that the membrane-associated M protein is largely associated with a membrane fraction having the density of plasma membranes, indicating membrane specificity in the binding. In addition, we analyzed truncated forms of M protein to identify regions responsible for membrane association and nucleocapsid binding. Truncated M protein lacking the amino-terminal basic domain still associated with cellular membranes, although not as tightly as wild-type M protein, and could not bind nucleocapsids. In contrast, deletion of the carboxy-terminal 14 amino acids did not disrupt stable membrane association or nucleocapsid interaction. These results suggest that the amino terminus of M protein either interacts directly with membranes and nucleocapsids or stabilizes a conformation that is required for M protein to mediate both of these interactions. Images PMID:8254754

  16. Involvement of mitochondrial dynamics in the segregation of mitochondrial matrix proteins during stationary phase mitophagy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abeliovich, Hagai; Zarei, Mostafa; Rigbolt, Kristoffer T. G.; Youle, Richard J.; Dengjel, Joern

    2013-11-01

    Mitophagy, the autophagic degradation of mitochondria, is an important housekeeping function in eukaryotic cells, and defects in mitophagy correlate with ageing phenomena and with several neurodegenerative disorders. A central mechanistic question regarding mitophagy is whether mitochondria are consumed en masse, or whether an active process segregates defective molecules from functional ones within the mitochondrial network, thus allowing a more efficient culling mechanism. Here we combine a proteomic study with a molecular genetics and cell biology approach to determine whether such a segregation process occurs in yeast mitochondria. We find that different mitochondrial matrix proteins undergo mitophagic degradation at distinctly different rates, supporting the active segregation hypothesis. These differential degradation rates depend on mitochondrial dynamics, suggesting a mechanism coupling weak physical segregation with mitochondrial dynamics to achieve a distillation-like effect. In agreement, the rates of mitophagic degradation strongly correlate with the degree of physical segregation of specific matrix proteins.

  17. The kinesin KIF9 and reggie/flotillin proteins regulate matrix degradation by macrophage podosomes

    PubMed Central

    Cornfine, Susanne; Himmel, Mirko; Kopp, Petra; el Azzouzi, Karim; Wiesner, Christiane; Krüger, Marcus; Rudel, Thomas; Linder, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Podosomes are actin-based matrix contacts in a variety of cell types, most notably monocytic cells, and are characterized by their ability to lyse extracellular matrix material. Besides their dependence on actin regulation, podosomes are also influenced by microtubules and microtubule-dependent transport processes. Here we describe a novel role for KIF9, a previously little-characterized member of the kinesin motor family, in the regulation of podosomes in primary human macrophages. We find that small interfering RNA (siRNA)/short-hairpin RNA–induced knockdown of KIF9 significantly affects both numbers and matrix degradation of podosomes. Overexpression and microinjection experiments reveal that the unique C-terminal region of KIF9 is crucial for these effects, presumably through binding of specific interactors. Indeed, we further identify reggie-1/flotillin-2, a signaling mediator between intracellular vesicles and the cell periphery, as an interactor of the KIF9 C-terminus. Reggie-1 dynamically colocalizes with KIF9 in living cells, and, consistent with KIF9-mediated effects, siRNA-induced knockdown of reggies/flotillins significantly impairs matrix degradation by podosomes. In sum, we identify the kinesin KIF9 and reggie/flotillin proteins as novel regulators of macrophage podosomes and show that their interaction is critical for the matrix-degrading ability of these structures. PMID:21119006

  18. Cell density modulates growth, extracellular matrix, and protein synthesis of cultured rat mesangial cells.

    PubMed

    Wolthuis, A; Boes, A; Grond, J

    1993-10-01

    Mesangial cell (MC) hyperplasia and accumulation of extracellular matrix are hallmarks of chronic glomerular disease. The present in vitro study examined the effects of cell density on growth, extracellular matrix formation, and protein synthesis of cultured rat MCs. A negative linear relationship was found between initial plating density and DNA synthesis per cell after 24 hours incubation in medium with 10% fetal calf serum (range: 1 x 10(3) to 7 x 10(5) MCs/2cm2, r = 0.996, P < 0.001). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of the amount of fibronectin in the conditioned medium after 72 hours showed a negative relationship with increasing cell density. In contrast, the amount of cell-associated fibronectin increased to maximal values in confluent cultures, and no further increase was seen at supraconfluency. The relative collagen synthesis in the conditioned medium and cell layer--assessed by collagenase digestion after 5 hours [3H]proline pulse labeling--showed a similar pattern. Secreted collagen decreased with increasing cell density from 3.4% to 0.2% of total protein synthesis. In contrast, cell-associated collagen increased from 1.1% to 11.8% of newly synthesized protein until confluency followed by a decrease to 4.2% at supraconfluency. Specific immunoprecipitation of collagen types I, III, and IV revealed a significant (twofold) increase in collagen I synthesis per cell at confluency. Collagen III and IV synthesis was not affected by cell density. Specific protein expression in both the medium and cell layer were analyzed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (150 to 20 kd, pI 5.0 to 7.0) after 20 hours steady-state metabolic labeling with [35S]methionine. Supraconfluent MCs displayed overexpression of 10, underexpression of four, new expression of five, and changed mobility of three different intracellular proteins. Of interest was the overexpression of two proteins (89 kd, pI 5.31 and 72 kd, pI 5.32) that were identified by immunoblotting as

  19. Proton Channel Activity of Influenza A Virus Matrix Protein 2 Contributes to Autophagy Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Yizhong; Feng, Liqiang; Pan, Weiqi; Li, Liang; Wang, Qian; Li, Jiashun; Li, Na; Han, Ling; Zheng, Xuehua; Niu, Xuefeng; Sun, Caijun

    2015-01-01

    Influenza A virus infection can arrest autophagy, as evidenced by autophagosome accumulation in infected cells. Here, we report that this autophagosome accumulation can be inhibited by amantadine, an antiviral proton channel inhibitor, in amantadine-sensitive virus infected cells or cells expressing influenza A virus matrix protein 2 (M2). Thus, M2 proton channel activity plays a role in blocking the fusion of autophagosomes with lysosomes, which might be a key mechanism for arresting autophagy. PMID:26468520

  20. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of First Organic Matrix Protein from Sclerites of Red Coral, Corallium rubrum*

    PubMed Central

    Debreuil, Julien; Tambutté, Éric; Zoccola, Didier; Deleury, Emeline; Guigonis, Jean-Marie; Samson, Michel; Allemand, Denis; Tambutté, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    We report here for the first time the isolation and characterization of a protein from the organic matrix (OM) of the sclerites of the alcyonarian, Corallium rubrum. This protein named scleritin is one of the predominant proteins extracted from the EDTA-soluble fraction of the OM. The entire open reading frame (ORF) was obtained by comparing amino acid sequences from de novo mass spectrometry and Edman degradation with an expressed sequence tag library dataset of C. rubrum. Scleritin is a secreted basic phosphorylated protein which exhibits a short amino acid sequence of 135 amino acids and a signal peptide of 20 amino acids. From specific antibodies raised against peptide sequences of scleritin, we obtained immunolabeling of scleroblasts and OM of the sclerites which provides information on the biomineralization pathway in C. rubrum. PMID:22505718

  1. LRPPRC is a mitochondrial matrix protein that is conserved in metazoans.

    PubMed

    Sterky, Fredrik H; Ruzzenente, Benedetta; Gustafsson, Claes M; Samuelsson, Tore; Larsson, Nils-Göran

    2010-08-01

    LRPPRC (also called LRP130) is an RNA-binding pentatricopeptide repeat protein. LRPPRC has been recognized as a mitochondrial protein, but has also been shown to regulate nuclear gene transcription and to bind specific RNA molecules in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. We here present a bioinformatic analysis of the LRPPRC primary sequence, which reveals that orthologs to the LRPPRC gene are restricted to metazoan cells and that all of the corresponding proteins contain mitochondrial targeting signals. To address the subcellular localization further, we have carefully analyzed LRPPRC in mammalian cells and identified a single isoform that is exclusively localized to mitochondria. The LRPPRC protein is imported to the mitochondrial matrix and its mitochondrial targeting sequence is cleaved upon entry. PMID:20633537

  2. Elastin-like protein matrix reinforced with collagen microfibers for soft tissue repair.

    PubMed

    Caves, Jeffrey M; Cui, Wanxing; Wen, Jing; Kumar, Vivek A; Haller, Carolyn A; Chaikof, Elliot L

    2011-08-01

    Artificial composites designed to mimic the structure and properties of native extracellular matrix may lead to acellular materials for soft tissue repair and replacement, which display mechanical strength, stiffness, and resilience resembling native tissue. We describe the fabrication of thin lamellae consisting of continuous collagen microfiber embedded at controlled orientations and densities in a recombinant elastin-like protein polymer matrix. Multilamellar stacking affords flexible, protein-based composite sheets whose properties are dependent upon both the elastomeric matrix and collagen content and organization. Sheets are produced with properties that range over 13-fold in elongation to break (23-314%), six-fold in Young's modulus (5.3-33.1 MPa), and more than two-fold in tensile strength (1.85-4.08 MPa), exceeding that of a number of native human tissues, including urinary bladder, pulmonary artery, and aorta. A sheet approximating the mechanical response of human abdominal wall fascia is investigated as a fascial substitute for ventral hernia repair. Protein-based composite patches prevent hernia recurrence in Wistar rats over an 8-week period with new tissue formation and sustained structural integrity. PMID:21550111

  3. Elastin-like protein matrix reinforced with collagen microfibers for soft tissue repair

    PubMed Central

    Caves, Jeffrey M.; Cui, Wanxing; Wen, Jing; Kumar, Vivek A.; Haller, Carolyn A.; Chaikof, Elliot L.

    2011-01-01

    Artificial composites designed to mimic the structure and properties of native extracellular matrix may lead to acellular materials for soft tissue repair and replacement, which display mechanical strength, stiffness, and resilience resembling native tissue. We describe the fabrication of thin lamellae consisting of continuous collagen microfiber embedded at controlled orientations and densities in a recombinant elastin-like protein polymer matrix. Multilamellar stacking affords flexible, protein-based composite sheets whose properties are dependent upon both the elastomeric matrix and collagen content and organization. Sheets are produced with properties that range over 13-fold in elongation to break (23 – 314%), six-fold in Young’s modulus (5.3 to 33.1 MPa), and more than two-fold in tensile strength (1.85 to 4.08 MPa), exceeding that of a number of native human tissues, including urinary bladder, pulmonary artery, and aorta. A sheet approximating the mechanical response of human abdominal wall fascia is investigated as a fascial substitute for ventral hernia repair. Protein-based composite patches prevent hernia recurrence in Wistar rats over an 8-week period with new tissue formation and sustained structural integrity. PMID:21550111

  4. MVsCarta: A protein database of matrix vesicles to aid understanding of biomineralization.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yazhou; Xu, Quan; Luan, Jing; Hu, Shichang; Pan, Jianbo; Han, Jinxiang; Ji, Zhiliang

    2015-06-01

    Matrix vesicles (MVs) are membranous nanovesicles released by chondrocytes, osteoblasts, and odontoblasts. They play a critical role in modulating mineralization. Here, we present a manually curated database of MV proteins, namely MVsCara to provide comprehensive information on MVs of protein components. In the current version, the database contains 2,713 proteins of six organisms identified in bone, cartilage, tooth tissues, and cells capable of producing a mineralized bone matrix. The MVsCarta database is now freely assessed at http://bioinf.xmu.edu.cn/MVsCarta. The search and browse methods were developed for better retrieval of data. In addition, bioinformatic tools like Gene Ontology (GO) analysis, network visualization and protein-protein interaction analysis were implemented for a functional understanding of MVs components. Similar database hasn't been reported yet. We believe that this free web-based database might serve as a useful repository to elucidate the novel function and regulation of MVs during mineralization, and to stimulate the advancement of MV studies. PMID:26166372

  5. Chain and pore-blocking effects on matrix degradation in protein-loaded microgels.

    PubMed

    Widenbring, Ronja; Frenning, Göran; Malmsten, Martin

    2014-10-13

    Factors affecting matrix degradation in protein-loaded microgels were investigated for dextran-based microgels, the sugar-binding protein Concanavalin A (ConA), and the dextran-degrading enzyme Dextranase. For this system, effects of enzyme, protein, and glucose concentrations, as well as pH, were considered. Microgel network degradation was monitored by micromanipulator-assisted light microscopy, whereas enzyme and protein distributions were monitored by confocal microscopy. Results show that Dextranase-mediated microgel degradation increased with increasing enzyme concentration, whereas an increased ConA loading in the dextran microgels caused a concentration-dependent decrease in microgel degradation. In the presence of glucose, competitive release of microgel-bound ConA restored the microgel degradation observed in the absence of ConA. To clarify effects of mass transport limitations, microgel degradation was compared to that of non-cross-linked dextran, demonstrating that ConA limits enzyme substrate access in dextran microgels primarily through pore blocking and induction of pore shrinkage. The experimentally observed effects were qualitatively captured by a modified Michaelis-Menten approach for spherical symmetry, in which network blocking by ConA was included. Taken together, the results demonstrate that matrix degradation of protein-loaded microgels depends sensitively on a number of factors, which need to be considered in the use of microgels in biomedical applications. PMID:25144139

  6. Dipolar relaxation within the protein matrix of the green fluorescent protein: a red edge excitation shift study.

    PubMed

    Haldar, Sourav; Chattopadhyay, Amitabha

    2007-12-27

    The fluorophore in green fluorescent protein (GFP) is localized in a highly constrained environment, protected from the bulk solvent by the barrel-shaped protein matrix. We have used the wavelength-selective fluorescence approach (red edge excitation shift, REES) to monitor solvent (environment) dynamics around the fluorophore in enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under various conditions. Our results show that EGFP displays REES in buffer and glycerol, i.e., the fluorescence emission maxima exhibit a progressive shift toward the red edge, as the excitation wavelength is shifted toward the red edge of the absorption spectrum. Interestingly, EGFP displays REES when incorporated in reverse micelles of sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate (AOT), independent of the hydration state. We interpret the observed REES to the constrained environment experienced by the EGFP fluorophore in the rigid protein matrix, rather than to the dynamics of the bulk solvent. These results are supported by the temperature dependence of REES and characteristic wavelength-dependent changes in fluorescence anisotropy. PMID:18052368

  7. Mutagenesis analysis of the murine leukemia virus matrix protein: identification of regions important for membrane localization and intracellular transport.

    PubMed

    Soneoka, Y; Kingsman, S M; Kingsman, A J

    1997-07-01

    We have created two sets of substitution mutations in the Moloney murine leukemia virus (Mo-MuLV) matrix protein in order to identify domains involved in association with the plasma membrane and in incorporation of the viral envelope glycoproteins into virus particles. The first set of mutations was targeted at putative membrane-associating regions similar to those of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 matrix protein, which include a polybasic region at the N terminus of the Mo-MuLV matrix protein and two regions predicted to form beta strands. The second set of mutations was created within hydrophobic residues to test for the production of virus particles lacking envelope proteins, with the speculation of an involvement of the membrane-spanning region of the envelope protein in incorporation into virus particles. We have found that mutation of the N-terminal polybasic region redirected virus assembly to the cytoplasm, and we show that tryptophan residues may also play a significant role in the intracellular transport of the matrix protein. In total, 21 mutants of the Mo-MuLV matrix protein were produced, but we did not observe any mutant virus particles lacking the envelope glycoproteins, suggesting that a direct interaction between the Mo-MuLV matrix protein and envelope proteins either may not exist or may occur through multiple redundant interactions. PMID:9188629

  8. Regulation of protein glycosylation and sorting by the Golgi matrix proteins GRASP55/65

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Yi; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Nix, David B.; Katoh, Toshihiko; Aoki, Kazuhiro; Tiemeyer, Michael; Wang, Yanzhuang

    2013-01-01

    The Golgi receives the entire output of newly synthesized cargo from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), processes it in the stack largely through modification of bound oligosaccharides, and sorts it in the trans-Golgi network (TGN). GRASP65 and GRASP55, two proteins localized to the Golgi stack and early secretory pathway, mediate processes including Golgi stacking, Golgi ribbon linking, and unconventional secretion. Previously we have shown that GRASP depletion in cells disrupts Golgi stack formation. Here we report that knockdown of the GRASP proteins, alone or combined, accelerates protein trafficking through the Golgi membranes but also has striking negative effects on protein glycosylation and sorting. These effects are not caused by Golgi ribbon unlinking, unconventional secretion, or ER stress. We propose that GRASP55/65 are negative regulators of exocytic transport and that this slowdown helps to ensure more complete protein glycosylation in the Golgi stack and proper sorting at the TGN. PMID:23552074

  9. Matrix metalloproteinase-mediation of tumor targeting human recombinant tumor necrosis factor-α fusion protein.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hui; Shao, Xin; Zeng, Liang; Wang, Fa; Huang, Di-Nan; Hou, Gan

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to use genetic engineering in order to establish an efficient tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α fusion protein with low toxicity, which may be used to target tumors. Four types of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-mediated tumor targeting human recombinant TNF-α (rhTNF-α) fusion protein vectors were constructed. These were subsequently introduced into Escherichia coli. rhTNF-α fusion protein with a glutathione S-transferase (GST)-tag was purified using GST resin affinity chromatography, and GST-tags were digested using factor Xa. The cytotoxic effects of the fusion protein on L929 cells were determined using MTT assays. At a concentration of 1 pM, the GST-tagged fusion protein exerted no cytotoxic effects on the cells, compared with the negative control cells (P=0.975>0.05). However, at a concentration of 1000 pM, the deblocking fusion protein exerted greater cytotoxic effects on L929 cells, compared with positive control cells (P<0.05). Treatment with the fusion protein also induced cell apoptosis in the nasopharyngeal cancer cell line, CNE-2Z, which secretes high levels of MMP-1. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggested that MMP-mediated rhTNF-α fusion protein induces CNE-2Z cells apoptosis. rhTNF-α exhibits high efficacy and tumor cell targeting capability, with low toxicity effects on healthy cells. PMID:25891416

  10. Matrix Proteins of Nipah and Hendra Viruses Interact with Beta Subunits of AP-3 Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Weina; McCrory, Thomas S.; Khaw, Wei Young; Petzing, Stephanie; Myers, Terrell

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Paramyxoviruses and other negative-strand RNA viruses encode matrix proteins that coordinate the virus assembly process. The matrix proteins link the viral glycoproteins and the viral ribonucleoproteins at virus assembly sites and often recruit host machinery that facilitates the budding process. Using a co-affinity purification strategy, we have identified the beta subunit of the AP-3 adapter protein complex, AP3B1, as a binding partner for the M proteins of the zoonotic paramyxoviruses Nipah virus and Hendra virus. Binding function was localized to the serine-rich and acidic Hinge domain of AP3B1, and a 29-amino-acid Hinge-derived polypeptide was sufficient for M protein binding in coimmunoprecipitation assays. Virus-like particle (VLP) production assays were used to assess the relationship between AP3B1 binding and M protein function. We found that for both Nipah virus and Hendra virus, M protein expression in the absence of any other viral proteins led to the efficient production of VLPs in transfected cells, and this VLP production was potently inhibited upon overexpression of short M-binding polypeptides derived from the Hinge region of AP3B1. Both human and bat (Pteropus alecto) AP3B1-derived polypeptides were highly effective at inhibiting the production of VLPs. VLP production was also impaired through small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated depletion of AP3B1 from cells. These findings suggest that AP-3-directed trafficking processes are important for henipavirus particle production and identify a new host protein-virus protein binding interface that could become a useful target in future efforts to develop small molecule inhibitors to combat paramyxoviral infections. IMPORTANCE Henipaviruses cause deadly infections in humans, with a mortality rate of about 40%. Hendra virus outbreaks in Australia, all involving horses and some involving transmission to humans, have been a continuing problem. Nipah virus caused a large outbreak in Malaysia in 1998

  11. Identification of a fibronectin interaction site in the extracellular matrix protein ameloblastin.

    PubMed

    Beyeler, Michael; Schild, Christof; Lutz, Roman; Chiquet, Matthias; Trueb, Beat

    2010-04-15

    Mammalian teeth are composed of hydroxyapatite crystals that are embedded in a rich extracellular matrix. This matrix is produced by only two cell types, the mesenchymal odontoblasts and the ectodermal ameloblasts. Ameloblasts secrete the enamel proteins amelogenin, ameloblastin, enamelin and amelotin. Odontoblasts secrete collagen type I and several calcium-binding phosphoproteins including dentin sialophosphoprotein, dentin matrix protein, bone sialoprotein and osteopontin. The latter four proteins have recently been grouped in the family of the SIBLINGs (small integrin-binding ligand, N-linked glycoproteins) because they display similar gene structures and because they contain an RGD tripeptide sequence that binds to integrin receptors and thus mediates cell adhesion. We have prepared all the other tooth-specific proteins in recombinant form and examined whether they might also promote cell adhesion similar to the SIBLINGs. We found that only ameloblastin consistently mediated adhesion of osteoblastic and fibroblastic cells to plastic or titanium surfaces. The activity was dependent on the intact three-dimensional structure of ameloblastin and required de novo protein synthesis of the adhering cells. By deletion analysis and in vitro mutagenesis, the active site could be narrowed down to a sequence of 13 amino acid residues (VPIMDFADPQFPT) derived from exon 7 of the rat ameloblastin gene or exons 7-9 of the human gene. Kinetic studies and RNA interference experiments further demonstrated that this sequence does not directly bind to a cell surface receptor but that it interacts with cellular fibronectin, which in turn binds to integrin receptors. The identification of a fibronectin-binding domain in ameloblastin might permit interesting applications for dental implantology. Implants could be coated with peptides containing the active sequence, which in turn would recruit fibronectin from the patient's blood. The recruited fibronectin should then promote cell

  12. Calcium-Oxidant Signaling Network Regulates AMP-activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) Activation upon Matrix Deprivation*

    PubMed Central

    Sundararaman, Ananthalakshmy; Amirtham, Usha; Rangarajan, Annapoorni

    2016-01-01

    The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has recently been implicated in anoikis resistance. However, the molecular mechanisms that activate AMPK upon matrix detachment remain unexplored. In this study, we show that AMPK activation is a rapid and sustained phenomenon upon matrix deprivation, whereas re-attachment to the matrix leads to its dephosphorylation and inactivation. Because matrix detachment leads to loss of integrin signaling, we investigated whether integrin signaling negatively regulates AMPK activation. However, modulation of focal adhesion kinase or Src, the major downstream components of integrin signaling, failed to cause a corresponding change in AMPK signaling. Further investigations revealed that the upstream AMPK kinases liver kinase B1 (LKB1) and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase β (CaMKKβ) contribute to AMPK activation upon detachment. In LKB1-deficient cells, we found AMPK activation to be predominantly dependent on CaMKKβ. We observed no change in ATP levels under detached conditions at early time points suggesting that rapid AMPK activation upon detachment was not triggered by energy stress. We demonstrate that matrix deprivation leads to a spike in intracellular calcium as well as oxidant signaling, and both these intracellular messengers contribute to rapid AMPK activation upon detachment. We further show that endoplasmic reticulum calcium release-induced store-operated calcium entry contributes to intracellular calcium increase, leading to reactive oxygen species production, and AMPK activation. We additionally show that the LKB1/CaMKK-AMPK axis and intracellular calcium levels play a critical role in anchorage-independent cancer sphere formation. Thus, the Ca2+/reactive oxygen species-triggered LKB1/CaMKK-AMPK signaling cascade may provide a quick, adaptable switch to promote survival of metastasizing cancer cells. PMID:27226623

  13. Constitutive Nuclear Expression of Dentin Matrix Protein 1 Fails to Rescue the Dmp1-null Phenotype*

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shuxian; Zhang, Qi; Cao, Zhengguo; Lu, Yongbo; Zhang, Hua; Yan, Kevin; Liu, Ying; McKee, Marc D.; Qin, Chunlin; Chen, Zhi; Feng, Jian Q.

    2014-01-01

    Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) plays multiple roles in bone, tooth, phosphate homeostasis, kidney, salivary gland, reproductive cycles, and the development of cancer. In vitro studies have indicated two different biological mechanisms: 1) as a matrix protein, DMP1 interacts with αvβ3 integrin and activates MAP kinase signaling; and 2) DMP1 serves as a transcription co-factor. In vivo studies have demonstrated its key role in osteocytes. This study attempted to determine whether DMP1 functions as a transcription co-factor and regulates osteoblast functions. For gene expression comparisons using adenovirus constructs, we targeted the expression of DMP1 either to the nucleus only by replacing the endogenous signal peptide with a nuclear localization signal (NLS) sequence (referred to as NLSDMP1) or to the extracellular matrix as the WT type (referred to as SPDMP1) in MC3T3 osteoblasts. High levels of DMP1 in either form greatly increased osteogenic gene expression in an identical manner. However, the targeted NLSDMP1 transgene driven by a 3.6-kb rat Col 1α1 promoter in the nucleus of osteoblasts and osteocytes failed to rescue the phenotyope of Dmp1-null mice, whereas the SPDMP1 transgene rescued the rickets defect. These studies support the notion that DMP1 functions as an extracellular matrix protein, rather than as a transcription co-factor in vivo. We also show that DMP1 continues its expression in osteoblasts during postnatal development and that the deletion of Dmp1 leads to an increase in osteoblast proliferation. However, poor mineralization in the metaphysis indicates a critical role for DMP1 in both osteoblasts and osteocytes. PMID:24917674

  14. Tyrosine-rich acidic matrix protein (TRAMP) accelerates collagen fibril formation in vitro.

    PubMed

    MacBeath, J R; Shackleton, D R; Hulmes, D J

    1993-09-15

    Tyrosine-rich acidic matrix protein (TRAMP) is a recently discovered protein that co-purifies with porcine skin lysyl oxidase and is equivalent to the M(r) 22,000 extracellular matrix protein from bovine skin that co-purifies with dermatan sulfate proteoglycans (Cronshaw, A. D., MacBeath, J. R. E., Shackleton, D. R., Collins, J. F., Fothergill-Gilmore, L. A., and Hulmes, D. J. S. (1993) Matrix 13, 255-266; Neame, P. J., Choi, H. U., and Rosenberg, L. C. (1989) J. Biol. Chem. 264, 5474-5479). The effect of TRAMP on collagen fibril formation was studied in vitro by reconstitution of fibrils from lathyritic rat skin collagen I. Fibril formation was initiated by the warm start procedure, in which acidic collagen solutions and double strength neutral buffer, both preincubated separately at 34 degrees C, were mixed. When monitored by turbidimetry, TRAMP was found to accelerate collagen fibril formation. Acceleration occurred at sub-stoichiometric molar ratios of TRAMP collagen, and the presence of TRAMP stabilized the fibrils against low temperature dissociation. It was confirmed by centrifugation that the amount of fibrillar collagen formed in the presence of TRAMP was greater than in its absence. By SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and scanning densitometry, binding of TRAMP to collagen was detected that approached saturation with a molar ratio of TRAMP to collagen of approximately 1:2. Fibrils formed in the presence of TRAMP were normal when observed by electron microscopy, although fibril diameters were smaller than the controls. TRAMP was found to partially reverse the inhibitory effects of urea and increased ionic strength on the kinetics of fibril formation, although inhibition by glucose was unaffected. TRAMP also accelerated the assembly of pepsin-treated collagen, where the non-helical, telopeptide regions were partially removed. Acceleration of collagen fibril formation by TRAMP is discussed in the light of the known effects of other extracellular matrix

  15. Crosslinking of a Peritrophic Matrix Protein Protects Gut Epithelia from Bacterial Exotoxins

    PubMed Central

    Shibata, Toshio; Maki, Kouki; Hadano, Jinki; Fujikawa, Takumi; Kitazaki, Kazuki; Koshiba, Takumi; Kawabata, Shun-ichiro

    2015-01-01

    Transglutaminase (TG) catalyzes protein-protein crosslinking, which has important and diverse roles in vertebrates and invertebrates. Here we demonstrate that Drosophila TG crosslinks drosocrystallin, a peritrophic matrix protein, to form a stable fiber structure on the gut peritrophic matrix. RNA interference (RNAi) of the TG gene was highly lethal in flies and induced apoptosis of gut epithelial cells after oral infection with Pseudomonas entomophila. Moreover, AprA, a metalloprotease secreted by P. entomophila, digested non-crosslinked drosocrystallin fibers, but not drosocrystallin fibers crosslinked by TG. In vitro experiments using recombinant drosocrystallin and monalysin proteins demonstrated that monalysin, a pore-forming exotoxin of P. entomophila, was adsorbed on the crosslinked drosocrystallin fibers in the presence of P. entomophila culture supernatant. In addition, gut-specific TG-RNAi flies had a shorter lifespan than control flies after ingesting P. entomophila, whereas the lifespan after ingesting AprA-knockout P. entomophila was at control levels. We conclude that drosocrystallin fibers crosslinked by TG, but not non-crosslinked drosocrystallin fibers, form an important physical barrier against exotoxins of invading pathogenic microbes. PMID:26506243

  16. Analysis of matrix proteins of otolith in upside-down catfish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnishi, K.; Okamoto, N.; Takahashi, A.; Ohnishi, T.

    We have previously suggested that the calcium density of the otolith in upside-down swimming Synodontis nigriventris is lower than that in upside-up swimming Synodontis multipunctatus Biol Space Sci 2002 In this study we examined EDTA-soluble matrix proteins of otolith in the utricle of the catfish S nigriventris S multipunctatus and upside-up swimming Synodontis brichadi and goldfish Carassius auratus We detected two main bands about 55 kD and 80 kD with SDS-PAGE in the 3 species of the catfish In cntrast goldfish had the about 55 kD band alone The band of about 80 kD was consisted of two sub-bands a lighter and a heavier band A lighter band was observed in S brichadi and a heavier band was observed in S nigriventris S multipunctatus had the both bands Furthermore mass spectrometric analysis showed there were some proteins of molecular weight under 14 kD The molecular weights of the proteins were different among the fishes These results suggest that many different kinds of matrix protein may cause different degree of calcification in otolith formation

  17. Expression and purification of the matrix protein of Nipah virus in baculovirus insect cell system.

    PubMed

    Masoomi Dezfooli, Seyedehsara; Tan, Wen Siang; Tey, Beng Ti; Ooi, Chien Wei; Hussain, Siti Aslina

    2016-01-01

    Nipah virus (NiV) causes fatal respiratory illness and encephalitis in humans and animals. The matrix (M) protein of NiV plays an important role in the viral assembly and budding process. Thus, an access to the NiV M protein is vital to the design of viral antigens as diagnostic reagents. In this study, recombinant DNA technology was successfully adopted in the cloning and expression of NiV M protein. A recombinant expression cassette (baculovirus expression vector) was used to encode an N-terminally His-tagged NiV M protein in insect cells. A time-course study demonstrated that the highest yield of recombinant M protein (400-500 μg) was expressed from 107 infected cells 3 days after infection. A single-step purification method based on metal ion affinity chromatography was established to purify the NiV M protein, which successfully yielded a purity level of 95.67% and a purification factor of 3.39. The Western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed that the purified recombinant M protein (48 kDa) was antigenic and reacted strongly with the serum of a NiV infected pig. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:171-177, 2016. PMID:26519022

  18. Towards monitoring of protein purification by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Charlotte; Haebel, Sophie; Andersen, Svend Olav; Roepstorff, Peter

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate if Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization (MALDI) Mass Spectrometry (MS) can be used as a general method for monitoring protein purification procedures. With this aim, the compatibility of MALDI/MS with protein samples containing various buffers, salts and detergents commonly used in protein purification is examined. The pH value of the sample during the crystallization process is found to be the critical point. As long as the pH value is kept below 2 by the addition of sufficiently concentrated trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), spectra can be obtained from solutions containing high concentrations of buffer or salts and up to 0.2% of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Reference spectra can be obtained by MALDI/MS of proteins electroeluted from electrophoretic gels as demonstrated using 2D-PAGE and further specificity obtained by preparing mass spectrometric peptide maps from the eluate. The value of the concept is demonstrated by relating the proteins purified from an extract of meal worm cuticle proteins with 2D-PAGE of the total extract. Finally a general strategy for monitoring protein purification by MALDI/MS is outlined and discussed.

  19. Improved Success of Sparse Matrix Protein Crystallization Screening with Heterogeneous Nucleating Agents

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Anil S.; Robin, Gautier; Guncar, Gregor; Saunders, Neil F. W.; Newman, Janet; Martin, Jennifer L.; Kobe, Bostjan

    2007-01-01

    Background Crystallization is a major bottleneck in the process of macromolecular structure determination by X-ray crystallography. Successful crystallization requires the formation of nuclei and their subsequent growth to crystals of suitable size. Crystal growth generally occurs spontaneously in a supersaturated solution as a result of homogenous nucleation. However, in a typical sparse matrix screening experiment, precipitant and protein concentration are not sampled extensively, and supersaturation conditions suitable for nucleation are often missed. Methodology/Principal Findings We tested the effect of nine potential heterogenous nucleating agents on crystallization of ten test proteins in a sparse matrix screen. Several nucleating agents induced crystal formation under conditions where no crystallization occurred in the absence of the nucleating agent. Four nucleating agents: dried seaweed; horse hair; cellulose and hydroxyapatite, had a considerable overall positive effect on crystallization success. This effect was further enhanced when these nucleating agents were used in combination with each other. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that the addition of heterogeneous nucleating agents increases the chances of crystal formation when using sparse matrix screens. PMID:17971854

  20. Genetic analysis of phosphoprotein and matrix protein of rabies viruses isolated in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yuki; Okuda, Hiromi; Nakamura, Kana; Sato, Go; Itou, Takuya; Carvalho, Adolorata A B; Silva, Marlon V; Mota, Carla S; Ito, Fumio H; Sakai, Takeo

    2007-11-01

    To investigate the genetic characteristics of phosphoprotein (P) and matrix protein (M) genes of variable rabies virus (RV) prevalent in Brazil, the authors genetically characterized the P and M genes from 30 Brazilian RV field isolates. Phylogenetic analysis based on the P and M genes revealed the presence of six RV variants that consisted primarily of three insectivorous bats, the vampire bat, dog and fox in Brazil. Specific amino acid substitutions corresponding to these phylogenetic lineages were observed, with Asp(42) and Glu(62) in the P protein found to be characteristic of Brazilian chiroptera- and carnivora-related RVs, respectively. Amino acid sequence motifs predicted to associate with a viral function in the P and M proteins were conserved among Brazilian RV variants. PMID:18057829

  1. Soybean Hydrophobic Protein is Present in a Matrix Secreted by the Endocarp Epidermis during Seed Development

    PubMed Central

    Enstone, Daryl E.; Peterson, Carol A.; Gijzen, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Hydrophobic protein from soybean (HPS) is present in soybean dust and is an allergen (Gly m 1) that causes asthma in allergic individuals. Past studies have shown that HPS occurs on the seed surface. To determine the microscopic localization of HPS during seed development, monoclonal antibodies to HPS were used to visualize the protein by fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. Seed coat and endocarp sections were also examined for pectin, cellulose, callose, starch, and protein by histochemical staining. HPS is present in the endocarp epidermal cells at 18 to 28 days post anthesis. At later stages of seed development, HPS occurs in extracellular secretions that accumulate unevenly on the endocarp epidermis and seed surface. HPS is synthesized by the endocarp epidermis and deposited on the seed surface as part of a heterogeneous matrix. PMID:26455712

  2. Effects of Bone Matrix Proteins on Fracture and Fragility in Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Sroga, Grażyna E.

    2012-01-01

    Bone mineral density alone cannot reliably predict fracture risk in humans and laboratory animals. Therefore, other factors including the quality of organic bone matrix components and their interactions may be of crucial importance to understanding of fragility fractures. Emerging research evidence shows, that in addition to collagen, certain noncollagenous proteins (NCPs) play a significant role in the structural organization of bone and influence its mechanical properties. However, their contribution to bone strength still remains largely undefined. Collagen and NCPs undergo different post-translational modifications, which alter the quality of the extracellular matrix and the response of bone to mechanical load. The primary focus of this overview is on NCPs that, together with collagen, contribute to structural and mechanical properties of bone. Current information on several mechanisms through which some NCPs influence bone’s resistance to fracture, including the role of nonenzymatic glycation, is also presented. PMID:22535528

  3. The planar cell polarity protein VANGL2 coordinates remodeling of the extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Williams, B Blairanne; Mundell, Nathan; Dunlap, Julie; Jessen, Jason

    2012-07-01

    Understanding how planar cell polarity (PCP) is established, maintained, and coordinated in migrating cell populations is an important area of research with implications for both embryonic morphogenesis and tumor cell invasion. We recently reported that the PCP protein Vang-like 2 (VANGL2) regulates the endocytosis and cell surface level of membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MMP14 or MT1-MMP). Here, we further discuss these findings in terms of extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling, cell migration, and zebrafish gastrulation. We also demonstrate that VANGL2 function impacts the focal degradation of ECM by human cancer cells including the formation or stability of invadopodia. Together, our findings implicate MMP14 as a downstream effector of VANGL2 signaling and suggest a model whereby the regulation of pericellular proteolysis is a fundamental aspect of PCP in migrating cells. PMID:23060953

  4. The planar cell polarity protein VANGL2 coordinates remodeling of the extracellular matrix

    PubMed Central

    Williams, B. Blairanne; Mundell, Nathan; Dunlap, Julie; Jessen, Jason

    2012-01-01

    Understanding how planar cell polarity (PCP) is established, maintained, and coordinated in migrating cell populations is an important area of research with implications for both embryonic morphogenesis and tumor cell invasion. We recently reported that the PCP protein Vang-like 2 (VANGL2) regulates the endocytosis and cell surface level of membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MMP14 or MT1-MMP). Here, we further discuss these findings in terms of extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling, cell migration, and zebrafish gastrulation. We also demonstrate that VANGL2 function impacts the focal degradation of ECM by human cancer cells including the formation or stability of invadopodia. Together, our findings implicate MMP14 as a downstream effector of VANGL2 signaling and suggest a model whereby the regulation of pericellular proteolysis is a fundamental aspect of PCP in migrating cells. PMID:23060953

  5. Enrichment of Extracellular Matrix Proteins from Tissues and Digestion into Peptides for Mass Spectrometry Analysis.

    PubMed

    Naba, Alexandra; Clauser, Karl R; Hynes, Richard O

    2015-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a complex meshwork of cross-linked proteins that provides biophysical and biochemical cues that are major regulators of cell proliferation, survival, migration, etc. The ECM plays important roles in development and in diverse pathologies including cardio-vascular and musculo-skeletal diseases, fibrosis, and cancer. Thus, characterizing the composition of ECMs of normal and diseased tissues could lead to the identification of novel prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers and potential novel therapeutic targets. However, the very nature of ECM proteins (large in size, cross-linked and covalently bound, heavily glycosylated) has rendered biochemical analyses of ECMs challenging. To overcome this challenge, we developed a method to enrich ECMs from fresh or frozen tissues and tumors that takes advantage of the insolubility of ECM proteins. We describe here in detail the decellularization procedure that consists of sequential incubations in buffers of different pH and salt and detergent concentrations and that results in 1) the extraction of intracellular (cytosolic, nuclear, membrane and cytoskeletal) proteins and 2) the enrichment of ECM proteins. We then describe how to deglycosylate and digest ECM-enriched protein preparations into peptides for subsequent analysis by mass spectrometry. PMID:26273955

  6. In situ proteolysis of the Vibrio cholerae matrix protein RbmA promotes biofilm recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Daniel R.; Maestre-Reyna, Manuel; Lee, Gloria; Gerard, Harry; Wang, Andrew H.-J.; Watnick, Paula I.

    2015-01-01

    The estuarine gram-negative rod and human diarrheal pathogen Vibrio cholerae synthesizes a VPS exopolysaccharide-dependent biofilm matrix that allows it to form a 3D structure on surfaces. Proteins associated with the matrix include, RbmA, RbmC, and Bap1. RbmA, a protein whose crystallographic structure suggests two binding surfaces, associates with cells by means of a VPS-dependent mechanism and promotes biofilm cohesiveness and recruitment of cells to the biofilm. Here, we show that RbmA undergoes limited proteolysis within the biofilm. This proteolysis, which is carried out by the hemagglutinin/protease and accessory proteases, yields the 22-kDa C-terminal polypeptide RbmA*. RbmA* remains biofilm-associated. Unlike full-length RbmA, the association of RbmA* with cells is no longer VPS-dependent, likely due to an electropositive surface revealed by proteolysis. We provide evidence that this proteolysis event plays a role in recruitment of VPS− cells to the biofilm surface. Based on our findings, we propose that association of RbmA with the matrix reinforces the biofilm structure and leads to limited proteolysis of RbmA to RbmA*. RbmA*, in turn, promotes recruitment of cells that have not yet initiated VPS synthesis to the biofilm surface. The assignment of two functions to RbmA, separated by a proteolytic event that depends on matrix association, dictates an iterative cycle in which reinforcement of recently added biofilm layers precedes the recruitment of new VPS− cells to the biofilm. PMID:26240338

  7. Structure and expression of an unusually acidic matrix protein of pearl oyster shells.

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Daiki; Sarashina, Isao; Endo, Kazuyoshi

    2004-08-01

    We report identification and characterization of the unusually acidic molluscan shell matrix protein Aspein, which may have important roles in calcium carbonate biomineralization. The Aspein gene (aspein) encodes a sequence of 413 amino acids, including a high proportion of Asp (60.4%), Gly (16.0%), and Ser (13.2%), and the predicted isoelectric point is 1.45; this is the most acidic of all the molluscan shell matrix proteins sequenced so far, or probably even of all known proteins on earth. The main body of Aspein is occupied by (Asp)(2-10) sequences punctuated with Ser-Gly dipeptides. RT-PCR demonstrated that the transcript of aspein is expressed at the outer edge of the mantle, corresponding to the calcitic prismatic layer, but not at the inner part of the mantle, corresponding to the aragonitic nacreous layer. Our findings and previous in vitro experiments taken together suggest that Aspein is responsible for directed formation of calcite in the shell of the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata. PMID:15249213

  8. Response of Inflammatory Mediators, Extracellular Matrix Proteins and Stem and Progenitor Cells to Emphysema.

    PubMed

    Skurikhin, E G; Pakhomova, A V; Krupin, V A; Pershina, O V; Pan, E S; Ermolaeva, L A; Vaizova, O E; Rybalkina, O Yu; Dygai, A M

    2016-08-01

    Inflammation, extracellular matrix proteins (hydroxyproline, connective tissue growth factor, collagen, and fibronectin), stem and progenitor cells (multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells, Clara cells, angiogenesis, precursors, endothelial and epithelial cells) were studied in female C57Bl/6 mice with experimental elastase-induced emphysema. Diffuse emphysema reduced the number of endothelial (CD45(-)CD31(+)CD34(+)) and epithelial (CD45(-)CD117(+)CD49f(+)) cells, induced microcirculation disturbances, and decreased the area occupied by the connective tissue. Emphysematous changes in the lungs were accompanied by infiltration of the alveolar septa with macrophages and lymphocytes, increase in the serum and lung concentrations of transforming growth factor-β, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-5, IL-10, and IL-13, and lung concentration of IL-17. In the lungs, inflammation was associated with marked increase in the number of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells CD90(+)CD73(+)CD106(+)CD44(+)) and Clara cells (CD45(-)CD34(-)CD31(-)Sca1(+)) and overexpression of extracellular matrix proteins (hydroxyproline, connective tissue growth factor, collagen, fibronectin) and Clara cells protein. On the other hand, elastase reduced the number of angiogenic precursor cells (CD45(-)CD117(+)Flk1(+)). PMID:27591877

  9. The use of demineralized bone matrix in the repair of segmental defects. Augmentation with extracted matrix proteins and a comparison with autologous grafts.

    PubMed

    Bolander, M E; Balian, G

    1986-10-01

    A soluble protein component of bone, bone morphogenetic protein, and decalcified bone matrix have been shown to induce the formation of bone in extraosseous tissue. Clinical and animal studies investigating the use of these materials as bone grafts have shown radiographic and histological evidence of formation of bone, but the clinical usefulness of these grafts remains unknown. This study compared the healing processes when plasma-coated demineralized bone matrix and autologous cancellous bone were used to graft segmental defects of bone. A standard procedure was used to make a two-centimeter defect bilaterally in the ulna of forty-eight skeletally mature New Zealand White rabbits. In each rabbit, one ulnar defect was grafted with autologous citrated plasma-coated demineralized bone matrix while the other defect served as a control and was grafted with either autologous cancellous bone from the iliac crest, demineralized bone matrix, or demineralized bone matrix augmented with bone proteins that had been extracted with guanidinium hydrochloride. The ulnar defect was stabilized by the intact radius, and no supplemental device was necessary for fixation. To examine spontaneous healing in this model, one group of rabbits had a control defect that was not grafted. The grafts were periodically evaluated by radiographs, and twelve weeks after surgery the grafts were harvested and tested to failure in a standard torsion-test machine. The mechanical parameters were calculated, and histological examination of major fragments of the grafts was performed. The results of the radiographic and histological evaluation showed that all of the grafted ulnae healed, with fusion of the graft to the cut ends of the defect and reformation of approximately normal anatomy. No ungrafted ulnar defects healed. The results from the mechanical tests were evaluated by comparing the defect that was grafted with plasma-coated demineralized bone matrix with the control graft in each animal. These

  10. MAF1, a novel plant protein interacting with matrix attachment region binding protein MFP1, is located at the nuclear envelope.

    PubMed Central

    Gindullis, F; Peffer, N J; Meier, I

    1999-01-01

    The interaction of chromatin with the nuclear matrix via matrix attachment region (MAR) DNA is considered to be of fundamental importance for chromatin organization in all eukaryotic cells. MAR binding filament-like protein 1 (MFP1) from tomato is a novel plant protein that specifically binds to MAR DNA. Its filament protein-like structure makes it a likely candidate for a structural component of the nuclear matrix. MFP1 is located at nuclear matrix-associated, specklelike structures at the nuclear envelope. Here, we report the identification of a novel protein that specifically interacts with MFP1 in yeast two-hybrid and in vitro binding assays. MFP1 associated factor 1 (MAF1) is a small, soluble, serine/threonine-rich protein that is ubiquitously expressed and has no similarity to known proteins. MAF1, like MFP1, is located at the nuclear periphery and is a component of the nuclear matrix. These data suggest that MFP1 and MAF1 are in vivo interaction partners and that both proteins are components of a nuclear substructure, previously undescribed in plants, that connects the nuclear envelope and the internal nuclear matrix. PMID:10488241

  11. Planar cell polarity proteins differentially regulate extracellular matrix organization and assembly during zebrafish gastrulation.

    PubMed

    Dohn, Michael R; Mundell, Nathan A; Sawyer, Leah M; Dunlap, Julie A; Jessen, Jason R

    2013-11-01

    Zebrafish gastrulation cell movements occur in the context of dynamic changes in extracellular matrix (ECM) organization and require the concerted action of planar cell polarity (PCP) proteins that regulate cell elongation and mediolateral alignment. Data obtained using Xenopus laevis gastrulae have shown that integrin-fibronectin interactions underlie the formation of polarized cell protrusions necessary for PCP and have implicated PCP proteins themselves as regulators of ECM. By contrast, the relationship between establishment of PCP and ECM assembly/remodeling during zebrafish gastrulation is unclear. We previously showed that zebrafish embryos carrying a null mutation in the four-pass transmembrane PCP protein vang-like 2 (vangl2) exhibit increased matrix metalloproteinase activity and decreased immunolabeling of fibronectin. These data implicated for the first time a core PCP protein in the regulation of pericellular proteolysis of ECM substrates and raised the question of whether other zebrafish PCP proteins also impact ECM organization. In Drosophila melanogaster, the cytoplasmic PCP protein Prickle binds Van Gogh and regulates its function. Here we report that similar to vangl2, loss of zebrafish prickle1a decreases fibronectin protein levels in gastrula embryos. We further show that Prickle1a physically binds Vangl2 and regulates both the subcellular distribution and total protein level of Vangl2. These data suggest that the ability of Prickle1a to impact fibronectin organization is at least partly due to effects on Vangl2. In contrast to loss of either Vangl2 or Prickle1a function, we find that glypican4 (a Wnt co-receptor) and frizzled7 mutant gastrula embryos with disrupted non-canonical Wnt signaling exhibit the opposite phenotype, namely increased fibronectin assembly. Our data show that glypican4 mutants do not have decreased proteolysis of ECM substrates, but instead have increased cell surface cadherin protein expression and increased intercellular

  12. Dimerization of Matrix Protein Is Required for Budding of Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    PubMed Central

    Förster, Andreas; Maertens, Goedele N.; Farrell, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infects epithelial cells of the respiratory tract and is a major cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia in children and the elderly. The virus assembles and buds through the plasma membrane, forming elongated membrane filaments, but details of how this happens remain obscure. Oligomerization of the matrix protein (M) is a key step in the process of assembly and infectious virus production. In addition, it was suggested to affect the conformation of the fusion protein, the major current target for RSV antivirals, in the mature virus. The structure and assembly of M are thus key parameters in the RSV antiviral development strategy. The structure of RSV M was previously published as a monomer. Other paramyxovirus M proteins have been shown to dimerize, and biochemical data suggest that RSV M also dimerizes. Here, using size exclusion chromatography-multiangle laser light scattering, we show that the protein is dimeric in solution. We also crystallized M in two crystal forms and show that it assembles into equivalent dimers in both lattices. Dimerization interface mutations destabilize the M dimer in vitro. To assess the biological relevance of dimerization, we used confocal imaging to show that dimerization interface mutants of M fail to assemble into viral filaments on the plasma membrane. Additionally, budding and release of virus-like particles are prevented in M mutants that fail to form filaments. Importantly, we show that M is biologically active as a dimer and that the switch from M dimers to higher-order oligomers triggers viral filament assembly and virus production. IMPORTANCE Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most frequent cause of infantile bronchiolitis and pneumonia. The enormous burden of RSV makes it a major unmet target for a vaccine and antiviral drug therapy. Oligomerization of the matrix protein is a key step in the process of assembly and production of infectious virus, but the molecular

  13. Antibodies against distinct nuclear matrix proteins are characteristic for mixed connective tissue disease.

    PubMed Central

    Habets, W J; de Rooij, D J; Salden, M H; Verhagen, A P; van Eekelen, C A; van de Putte, L B; van Venrooij, W J

    1983-01-01

    Specific nuclear proteins, separated according to their molecular weight (mol. wt) by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and subsequently transferred to nitrocellulose sheets, are able to bind antibodies in sera from patients suffering from different types of connective tissue diseases. Antibodies against a characteristic set of nuclear protein antigens are found in sera from patients with mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD). Screening of 21 MCTD sera revealed a typical immunoblot pattern with major protein antigens of mol. wt 70,000 (20/21) (not identical with the Scl-70 antigen characteristic for scleroderma), mol. wt 31,000 (17/21), two proteins around mol. wt 23,000 (15/21) and two around mol. wt 19,000 (10/21). The 70,000, 23,000 and 19,000 antigens appeared to be rather insoluble nuclear proteins (i.e. components of the nuclear matrix). On behalf of their structural character they were present in nuclei from several types of cells but only in low amounts detectable in salt extracts of thymus acetone powder. The presence of antibodies directed against the mol. wt 70,000 antigen correlated strongly with the diagnosis of MCTD. This 70,000 antigen is not identical with the RNP antigen, a soluble ribonuclease sensitive ribonucleoprotein, since antibodies against nuclear RNP can be separated from anti-nuclear matrix antibodies by affinity chromatography using immobilized thymus salt extract. The distinct character of soluble nuclear RNP and structural nuclear matrix antigens is further supported by the fact that from 14 other anti-RNP sera obtained from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), only three contained antibodies against the mol. wt 70,000 protein. Since the immunoblot pattern obtained with MCTD sera mostly was clearly distinguishable from the patterns obtained with sera from patients with related connective tissue diseases our results suggest that the immunoblotting technique might be useful as a diagnostic tool and support the

  14. The Spindle Matrix Protein, Chromator, Is a Novel Tubulin Binding Protein That Can Interact with Both Microtubules and Free Tubulin

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Changfu; Wang, Chao; Li, Yeran; Ding, Yun; Rath, Uttama; Sengupta, Saheli; Girton, Jack; Johansen, Kristen M.; Johansen, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    The chromodomain protein, Chromator, is localized to chromosomes during interphase; however, during cell division together with other nuclear proteins Chromator redistributes to form a macro molecular spindle matrix complex that embeds the microtubule spindle apparatus. It has been demonstrated that the CTD of Chromator is sufficient for localization to the spindle matrix and that expression of this domain alone could partially rescue Chro mutant microtubule spindle defects. Furthermore, the presence of frayed and unstable microtubule spindles during mitosis after Chromator RNAi depletion in S2 cells indicated that Chromator may interact with microtubules. In this study using a variety of biochemical assays we have tested this hypothesis and show that Chromator not only has binding activity to microtubules with a Kd of 0.23 µM but also to free tubulin. Furthermore, we have mapped the interaction with microtubules to a relatively small stretch of 139 amino acids in the carboxy-terminal region of Chromator. This sequence is likely to contain a novel microtubule binding interface since database searches did not find any sequence matches with known microtubule binding motifs. PMID:25072297

  15. OmpL1 Is an Extracellular Matrix- and Plasminogen-Interacting Protein of Leptospira spp.

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Luis G. V.; Vieira, Monica L.; Kirchgatter, Karin; Alves, Ivy J.; de Morais, Zenaide M.; Vasconcellos, Silvio A.; Romero, Eliete C.

    2012-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonosis with multisystem involvement caused by pathogenic strains of the genus Leptospira. OmpL1 is an outer membrane protein of Leptospira spp. that is expressed during infection. In this work, we investigated novel features of this protein. We describe that OmpL1 is a novel leptospiral extracellular matrix (ECM)-binding protein and a plasminogen (PLG) receptor. The recombinant protein was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) Star/pLysS as inclusion bodies, refolded, and purified by metal-chelating chromatography. The protein presented a typical β-strand secondary structure, as evaluated by circular dichroism spectroscopy. The recombinant protein reacted with antibodies in serum samples from convalescent leptospirosis patients with a high specificity compared to serum samples from individuals with unrelated diseases. These data strengthen the usefulness of OmpL1 as a diagnostic marker of leptospirosis. The characterization of the immunogenicity of recombinant OmpL1 in inoculated BALB/c mice showed that the protein has the capacity to elicit humoral and cellular immune responses, as denoted by high antibody titers and the proliferation of lymphocytes. We demonstrate that OmpL1 has the ability to mediate attachment to laminin and plasma fibronectin, with KD (equilibrium dissociation constant) values of 2,099.93 ± 871.03 nM and 1,239.23 ± 506.85 nM, respectively. OmpL1 is also a PLG receptor, with a KD of 368.63 ± 121.23 nM, capable of generating enzymatically active plasmin. This is the first report that shows and characterizes OmpL1 as an ECM-interacting and a PLG-binding protein of Leptospira spp. that may play a role in bacterial pathogenesis when expressed during infection. PMID:22802342

  16. Protein-resistant polymer coatings obtained by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusen, L.; Mustaciosu, C.; Mitu, B.; Filipescu, M.; Dinescu, M.; Dinca, V.

    2013-08-01

    Adsorption of proteins and polysaccharides is known to facilitate microbial attachment and subsequent formation of biofilm on surfaces that ultimately results in its biofouling. Therefore, protein repellent modified surfaces are necessary to block the irreversible attachment of microorganisms. Within this context, the feasibility of using the Poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(ɛ-caprolactone) methyl ether (PEG-block-PCL Me) copolymer as potential protein-resistant coating was explored in this work. The films were deposited using Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE), a technique that allows good control of composition, thickness and homogeneity. The chemical and morphological characteristics of the films were examined using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), contact angle measurements and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The FTIR data demonstrates that the functional groups in the MAPLE-deposited films remain intact, especially for fluences below 0.5 J cm-2. Optical Microscopy and AFM images show that the homogeneity and the roughness of the coatings are related to both laser parameters (fluence, number of pulses) and target composition. Protein adsorption tests were performed on the PEG-block-PCL Me copolymer coated glass and on bare glass surface as a control. The results show that the presence of copolymer as coating significantly reduces the adsorption of proteins.

  17. Role of extracellular matrix proteins and their receptors in the development of the vertebrate neuromuscular junction.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Neha; Martin, Paul T

    2011-11-01

    The vertebrate neuromuscular junction (NMJ) remains the best-studied model for understanding the mechanisms involved in synaptogenesis, due to its relatively large size, its simplicity of patterning, and its unparalleled experimental accessibility. During neuromuscular development, each skeletal myofiber secretes and deposits around its extracellular surface an assemblage of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins that ultimately form a basal lamina. This is also the case at the NMJ, where the motor nerve contributes additional factors. Before most of the current molecular components were known, it was clear that the synaptic ECM of adult skeletal muscles was unique in composition and contained factors sufficient to induce the differentiation of both pre- and postsynaptic membranes. Biochemical, genetic, and microscopy studies have confirmed that agrin, laminin (221, 421, and 521), collagen IV (α3-α6), collagen XIII, perlecan, and the ColQ-bound form of acetylcholinesterase are all synaptic ECM proteins with important roles in neuromuscular development. The roles of their many potential receptors and/or binding proteins have been more difficult to assess at the genetic level due to the complexity of membrane interactions with these large proteins, but roles for MuSK-LRP4 in agrin signaling and for integrins, dystroglycan, and voltage-gated calcium channels in laminin-dependent phenotypes have been identified. Synaptic ECM proteins and their receptors are involved in almost all aspects of synaptic development, including synaptic initiation, topography, ultrastructure, maturation, stability, and transmission. PMID:21766463

  18. Two Overlapping Domains of a Lyssavirus Matrix Protein That Acts on Different Cell Death Pathways ▿

    PubMed Central

    Larrous, Florence; Gholami, Alireza; Mouhamad, Shahul; Estaquier, Jérôme; Bourhy, Hervé

    2010-01-01

    The lyssavirus matrix (M) protein induces apoptosis. The regions of the M protein that are essential for triggering cell death pathways are not yet clearly defined. We therefore compared the M proteins from two viruses that have contrasting characteristics in terms of cellular apoptosis: a genotype 3 lyssavirus, Mokola virus (MOK), and a genotype 1 rabies virus isolated from a dog from Thailand (THA). We identified a 20-amino-acid fragment (corresponding to positions 67 to 86) that retained the cell death activities of the full-length M protein from MOK via both the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) activity. We found that the amino acids at positions 77 and 81 have an essential role in triggering these two cell death pathways. Directed mutagenesis demonstrated that the amino acid at position 77 affects CcO activity, whereas the amino acid at position 81 affects TRAIL-dependent apoptosis. Mutations in the full-length M protein that compromised induction of either of these two pathways resulted in delayed apoptosis compared with the time to apoptosis for the nonmutated control. PMID:20631119

  19. Enhanced Photoelectrochemical Proximity Assay for Highly Selective Protein Detection in Biological Matrixes.

    PubMed

    Wen, Guangming; Ju, Huangxian

    2016-08-16

    This work proposes the first photoelectrochemical proximity assay (PECPA) method via the sensitization of CdTe quantum dots (QDs) on photoelectrochemical response of ITO/TiO2/CdS electrode for highly selective and sensitive detection of proteins. This detection was performed on a sensing interface formed via the hybridization of capture DNA immobilized on ITO/TiO2/CdS electrode with labeled antibody-DNA (DNA-Ab1). Upon the recognition of Ab1 to target protein, the immunocomplex of DNA-Ab1, target, and the detection antibody-DNA (DNA-Ab2) was formed, which led to the proximity hybridization of the DNA in DNA-Ab2, capture DNA, and signal DNA-CdTe QDs, and brought CdTe QDs to the ITO/TiO2/CdS electrode to produce a sensitized photocurrent. The photocurrent intensity increased with the increasing concentration of the specific target protein. Using insulin as a target, this sensitized method showed a detectable range of 10 fM to 10 nM and a detection limit of 3.0 fM without the need of a washing step. It possessed high selectivity and good accuracy for detection of proteins in biological matrixes. This method is extremely flexible and can be extended to varieties of protein targets. PMID:27464227

  20. Design and feasibility of active matrix flat panel detector using avalanche amorphous selenium for protein crystallography.

    PubMed

    Sultana, Afrin; Reznik, Alla; Karim, Karim S; Rowlands, J A

    2008-10-01

    Protein crystallography is the most important technique for resolving the three-dimensional atomic structure of protein by measuring the intensity of its x-ray diffraction pattern. This work proposes a large area flat panel detector for protein crystallography based on direct conversion x-ray detection technique using avalanche amorphous selenium (a-Se) as the high gain photoconductor, and active matrix readout using amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin film transistors. The detector employs avalanche multiplication phenomenon of a-Se to make the detector sensitive to each incident x ray. The advantages of the proposed detector over the existing imaging plate and charge coupled device detectors are large area, high dynamic range coupled to single x-ray detection capability, fast readout, high spatial resolution, and inexpensive manufacturing process. The optimal detector design parameters (such as detector size, pixel size, and thickness of a-Se layer), and operating parameters (such as electric field across the a-Se layer) are determined based on the requirements for protein crystallography application. The performance of the detector is evaluated in terms of readout time (<1 s), dynamic range (approximately 10(5)), and sensitivity (approximately 1 x-ray photon), thus validating the detector's efficacy for protein crystallography. PMID:18975678

  1. Matrix protein 2 of influenza A virus blocks autophagosome fusion with lysosomes

    PubMed Central

    Gannagé, Monique; Schmid, Dorothee; Albrecht, Randy; Dengjel, Jörn; Torossi, Tania; Rämer, Patrick C.; Lee, Monica; Strowig, Till; Arrey, Frida; Conenello, Gina; Pypaert, Marc; Andersen, Jens; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Münz, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Influenza A virus is an important human pathogen causing significant morbidity and mortality every year and threatening the human population with epidemics and pandemics. Therefore, it is important to understand the biology of this virus to develop strategies to control its pathogenicity. Here we demonstrate that live influenza A virus infection causes accumulation of autophagosomes by blocking their fusion with lysosomes. Matrix protein 2 is sufficient and necessary for this inhibition of autophagosome degradation. Macroautophagy inhibition compromises cell survival of influenza virus infected cells, but does not influence viral replication. We propose that influenza A virus, which also encodes pro-apoptotic proteins, is able to determine the death of its host cell by inducing apoptosis and blocking macroautophagy. PMID:19837376

  2. The extracellular matrix protein Del1 induces apoptosis via its epidermal growth factor motif.

    PubMed

    Kitano, Hisataka; Kokubun, Shinichiro; Hidai, Chiaki

    2010-03-19

    Mouse Del1 is an extracellular matrix protein mainly expressed in the developing embryo. Del1 has three EGF motifs and two discoidin domains. The second EGF motif reportedly contains an RGD sequence that binds to integrin receptors. Here, we provide evidence that Del1 protein induces cell death in vitro. Chromatin condensation and DNA laddering were observed, suggestive of apoptosis. The results of analysis using the TUNEL method and annexin V staining were also consistent with apoptosis. The apoptosis-inducing activity of Del1 could be mapped to the third EGF motif, which fitted the consensus sequence CX(D/N)XXXX(F/Y)XCXC, wherein the aspartic acid residue (D) could be beta-hydroxylated. As little as twenty-five picomolar of recombinant E3 could induce apoptosis. PMID:20171188

  3. Stabilization of amorphous calcium carbonate by phosphate rich organic matrix proteins and by single phosphoamino acids.

    PubMed

    Bentov, Shmuel; Weil, Simy; Glazer, Lilah; Sagi, Amir; Berman, Amir

    2010-08-01

    Stable amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) is a unique material produced naturally exclusively as a biomineral. It was demonstrated that proteins extracted from biogenic stable ACC induce and stabilize synthetic ACC in vitro. Polyphosphate molecules were similarly shown to induce amorphous calcium carbonate formation in vitro. Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that biogenic ACC induction and stabilization is mediated by the phosphorylated residues of phosphoproteins. We show that extracellular organic matrix extracted from gastroliths of the red claw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus induce stable ACC formation in vitro. The proteinaceous fraction of this organic matrix is highly phosphorylated and is incorporated into the ACC mineral phase during precipitation. We have identified the major phosphoproteins of the organic matrix and showed that they have high calcium binding capacity. Based on the above, in vitro precipitation experiments with single phosphoamino acids were performed, indicating that phosphoserine or phosphothreonine alone can induce the formation of highly stable ACC. The results indicate that phosphoproteins may play a major role in the control of ACC formation and stabilization and that their phosphoamino acid moieties are key components in this process. PMID:20416381

  4. Pattern of mineralization after regenerative periodontal therapy with enamel matrix proteins.

    PubMed

    Bosshardt, Dieter D; Sculean, Anton; Donos, Nikolaos; Lang, Niklaus P

    2006-05-01

    A derivative (EMD) of enamel matrix proteins (EMPs) is used for periodontal regeneration because EMPs are believed to induce the formation of acellular extrinsic fiber cementum (AEFC). Other reports, however, indicate that EMPs have osteogenic potential. The aim of this study was to characterize the nature of the tissue that forms on the root surface following application of EMD. Ten human teeth affected by periodontitis and scheduled for extraction were treated with EMD. Four to six weeks later, they were extracted and processed for analysis by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Immunocytochemistry with antibodies against bone sialoprotein (BSP) and osteopontin (OPN) was performed to determine the mineralization pattern. The newly formed tissues on the root were thick and contained embedded cells. Small mineralization foci were regularly seen, and large organic matrix patches were occasionally seen, but a distinct mineralization front was lacking. While labeling for BSP was always associated with small mineralization foci and large matrix patches, OPN labeling was seen inconsistently. It is concluded that tissues resembling either cellular intrinsic fiber cementum or a type of bone were observed. The mineralization pattern mostly resembled that found in bone, except for a few areas that exhibited a hitherto undescribed mineralization pattern. PMID:16674690

  5. Transglutaminase 2 interactions with extracellular matrix proteins as probed with celiac disease autoantibodies.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Inês; Stamnaes, Jorunn; Andersen, Jan Terje; Melino, Gerry; Iversen, Rasmus; Sollid, Ludvig M

    2015-06-01

    Transglutaminases have been implicated in various human diseases. A prominent example is the involvement of transglutaminase 2 (TG2) in the gluten-sensitive enteropathy celiac disease, where the enzyme is both the target of autoantibodies and responsible for the generation of immunogenic gluten epitopes. Here, we aimed to characterize the microenvironment of TG2 in the extracellular matrix (ECM) in order to gain insights into the antigenic structures that are recognized by autoantibodies in celiac disease. A panel of TG2-specific mAbs established from gut plasma cells of celiac disease patients was employed as probes to characterize the interactions between TG2 and ECM constituents. With immunofluorescence staining, microplate protein-binding and surface plasmon resonance assays, we found that the main epitope (epitope 1) recognized by TG2-specific gut plasma cells overlaps with the fibronectin (FN)-binding site of TG2. Furthermore, we found that the same TG2 amino acids that are involved in binding of epitope 1 mAbs are also important for efficient binding of FN. Notably, epitope 1 mAbs recognize TG2 in tissue sections, suggesting that some TG2 in the extracellular matrix has interaction partners in addition to FN. We demonstrate that collagen VI is a strong candidate, on the basis of its tissue expression pattern and ability to bind TG2. Collagen VI may thus serve as a matrix for deposition of TG2 in a context that can also be recognized by epitope 1-targeting autoantibodies. PMID:25808416

  6. The Role of Matrix Gla Protein in Ossification and Recovery of the Avian Growth Plate

    PubMed Central

    Dan, Harel; Simsa-Maziel, Stav; Reich, Adi; Sela-Donenfeld, Dalit; Monsonego-Ornan, Efrat

    2012-01-01

    Extracellular matrix mineralization is an essential physiologic process in bone, teeth, and hypertrophic cartilage. Matrix Gla protein (MGP), an inhibitor of mineralization, is expressed by chondrocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells to inhibit calcification of those soft tissues. Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD), a skeletal abnormality apparent as a plug of non-vascularized, non-mineralized, white opaque cartilage in the tibial growth plate of avian species can serve as a good model for studying process and genes involved in matrix mineralization and calcification. In this work, we studied the involvement of MGP in the development of TD, as well as in the processes of spontaneous and induced recovery from this syndrome. First, we found that during normal bone development, MGP is expressed in specific time and locations, starting from wide-spread expression in the yet un-ossified diaphysis during embryonic development, to specific expression in hypertrophic chondrocytes adjacent to the chondro-osseous junction and the secondary ossification center just prior to calcification. In addition, we show that MGP is not expressed in the impaired TD lesion, however when the lesion begins to heal, it strongly express MGP prior to its calcification. Moreover, we show that when calcification is inhibited, a gap is formed between the expression zones of MGP and BMP2 and that this gap is closed during the healing process. To conclude, we suggest that MGP, directly or through interaction with BMP2, plays a role as ossification regulator that acts prior to ossification, rather then simple inhibitor. PMID:22787455

  7. Sec24D-Dependent Transport of Extracellular Matrix Proteins Is Required for Zebrafish Skeletal Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sarmah, Swapnalee; Barrallo-Gimeno, Alejandro; Melville, David B.; Topczewski, Jacek; Solnica-Krezel, Lilianna; Knapik, Ela W.

    2010-01-01

    Protein transport from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to Golgi is primarily conducted by coated vesicular carriers such as COPII. Here, we describe zebrafish bulldog mutations that disrupt the function of the cargo adaptor Sec24D, an integral component of the COPII complex. We show that Sec24D is essential for secretion of cartilage matrix proteins, whereas the preceding development of craniofacial primordia and pre-chondrogenic condensations does not depend on this isoform. Bulldog chondrocytes fail to secrete type II collagen and matrilin to extracellular matrix (ECM), but membrane bound receptor β1-Integrin and Cadherins appear to leave ER in Sec24D-independent fashion. Consequently, Sec24D-deficient cells accumulate proteins in the distended ER, although a subset of ER compartments and Golgi complexes as visualized by electron microscopy and NBD C6-ceramide staining appear functional. Consistent with the backlog of proteins in the ER, chondrocytes activate the ER stress response machinery and significantly upregulate BiP transcription. Failure of ECM secretion hinders chondroblast intercalations thus resulting in small and malformed cartilages and severe craniofacial dysmorphology. This defect is specific to Sec24D mutants since knockdown of Sec24C, a close paralog of Sec24D, does not result in craniofacial cartilage dysmorphology. However, craniofacial development in double Sec24C/Sec24D-deficient animals is arrested earlier than in bulldog/sec24d, suggesting that Sec24C can compensate for loss of Sec24D at initial stages of chondrogenesis, but Sec24D is indispensable for chondrocyte maturation. Our study presents the first developmental perspective on Sec24D function and establishes Sec24D as a strong candidate for cartilage maintenance diseases and craniofacial birth defects. PMID:20442775

  8. Processing of the glycosomal matrix-protein import receptor PEX5 of Trypanosoma brucei

    SciTech Connect

    Gualdrón-López, Melisa; Michels, Paul A.M.

    2013-02-01

    Highlights: ► Most eukaryotic cells have a single gene for the peroxin PEX5. ► PEX5 is sensitive to in vitro proteolysis in distantly related organisms. ► TbPEX5 undergoes N-terminal truncation in vitro and possibly in vivo. ► Truncated TbPEX5 is still capable of binding PTS1-containing proteins. ► PEX5 truncation is physiologically relevant or an evolutionary conserved artifact. -- Abstract: Glycolysis in kinetoplastid protists such as Trypanosoma brucei is compartmentalized in peroxisome-like organelles called glycosomes. Glycosomal matrix-protein import involves a cytosolic receptor, PEX5, which recognizes the peroxisomal-targeting signal type 1 (PTS1) present at the C-terminus of the majority of matrix proteins. PEX5 appears generally susceptible to in vitro proteolytic processing. On western blots of T. brucei, two PEX5 forms are detected with apparent M{sub r} of 100 kDa and 72 kDa. 5′-RACE-PCR showed that TbPEX5 is encoded by a unique transcript that can be translated into a protein of maximally 72 kDa. However, recombinant PEX5 migrates aberrantly in SDS–PAGE with an apparent M{sub r} of 100 kDa, similarly as observed for the native peroxin. In vitro protease susceptibility analysis of native and {sup 35}S-labelled PEX5 showed truncation of the 100 kDa form at the N-terminal side by unknown parasite proteases, giving rise to the 72 kDa form which remains functional for PTS1 binding. The relevance of these observations is discussed.

  9. The Role of the Extracellular Matrix Protein Mindin in Airway Response to Environmental Airways Injury

    PubMed Central

    Frush, Sarah; Li, Zhuowei; Potts, Erin N.; Du, Wanglei; Eu, Jerry P.; Garantziotis, Stavros; He, You-Wen; Foster, W. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background: Our previous work demonstrated that the extracellular matrix protein mindin contributes to allergic airways disease. However, the role of mindin in nonallergic airways disease has not previously been explored. Objectives: We hypothesized that mindin would contribute to airways disease after inhalation of either lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or ozone. Methods: We exposed C57BL/6J and mindin-deficient (–/–) mice to aerosolized LPS (0.9 μg/m3 for 2.5 hr), saline, ozone (1 ppm for 3 hr), or filtered air (FA). All mice were evaluated 4 hr after LPS/saline 
exposure or 24 hr after ozone/FA exposure. We characterized the physiological and biological responses by analysis of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) with a computer-controlled small-animal ventilator (FlexiVent), inflammatory cellular recruitment, total protein in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), proinflammatory cytokine profiling, and ex vivo bronchial ring studies. Results: After inhalation of LPS, mindin–/– mice demonstrated significantly reduced total cell and neutrophil recruitment into the airspace compared with their wild-type counterparts. Mindin–/– mice also exhibited reduced proinflammatory cytokine production and lower AHR to methacholine challenge by FlexiVent. After inhalation of ozone, mice had no detectible differences in cellular inflammation or total BALF protein dependent on mindin. However, mindin–/– mice were protected from increased proinflammatory cytokine production and AHR compared with their C57BL/6J counterparts. After ozone exposure, bronchial rings derived from mindin–/– mice demonstrated reduced constriction in response to carbachol. Conclusions: These data demonstrate that the extracellular matrix protein mindin modifies the airway response to both LPS and ozone. Our data support a conserved role of mindin in production of proinflammatory cytokines and the development of AHR in two divergent models of reactive airways disease, as well as a role of

  10. An Investigation into the Protein Composition of the Teneral Glossina morsitans morsitans Peritrophic Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Clair; Belmonte, Rodrigo; Armstrong, Stuart D.; Molyneux, Gemma; Haines, Lee R.; Lehane, Michael J.; Wastling, Jonathan; Acosta-Serrano, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    Background Tsetse flies serve as biological vectors for several species of African trypanosomes. In order to survive, proliferate and establish a midgut infection, trypanosomes must cross the tsetse fly peritrophic matrix (PM), which is an acellular gut lining surrounding the blood meal. Crossing of this multi-layered structure occurs at least twice during parasite migration and development, but the mechanism of how trypanosomes do so is not understood. In order to better comprehend the molecular events surrounding trypanosome penetration of the tsetse PM, a mass spectrometry-based approach was applied to investigate the PM protein composition using Glossina morsitans morsitans as a model organism. Methods PMs from male teneral (young, unfed) flies were dissected, solubilised in urea/SDS buffer and the proteins precipitated with cold acetone/TCA. The PM proteins were either subjected to an in-solution tryptic digestion or fractionated on 1D SDS-PAGE, and the resulting bands digested using trypsin. The tryptic fragments from both preparations were purified and analysed by LC-MS/MS. Results Overall, nearly 300 proteins were identified from both analyses, several of those containing signature Chitin Binding Domains (CBD), including novel peritrophins and peritrophin-like glycoproteins, which are essential in maintaining PM architecture and may act as trypanosome adhesins. Furthermore, 27 proteins from the tsetse secondary endosymbiont, Sodalis glossinidius, were also identified, suggesting this bacterium is probably in close association with the tsetse PM. Conclusion To our knowledge this is the first report on the protein composition of teneral G. m. morsitans, an important vector of African trypanosomes. Further functional analyses of these proteins will lead to a better understanding of the tsetse physiology and may help identify potential molecular targets to block trypanosome development within the tsetse. PMID:24763256

  11. An Ensemble Method with Hybrid Features to Identify Extracellular Matrix Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Runtao; Zhang, Chengjin; Gao, Rui; Zhang, Lina

    2015-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a dynamic composite of secreted proteins that play important roles in numerous biological processes such as tissue morphogenesis, differentiation and homeostasis. Furthermore, various diseases are caused by the dysfunction of ECM proteins. Therefore, identifying these important ECM proteins may assist in understanding related biological processes and drug development. In view of the serious imbalance in the training dataset, a Random Forest-based ensemble method with hybrid features is developed in this paper to identify ECM proteins. Hybrid features are employed by incorporating sequence composition, physicochemical properties, evolutionary and structural information. The Information Gain Ratio and Incremental Feature Selection (IGR-IFS) methods are adopted to select the optimal features. Finally, the resulting predictor termed IECMP (Identify ECM Proteins) achieves an balanced accuracy of 86.4% using the 10-fold cross-validation on the training dataset, which is much higher than results obtained by other methods (ECMPRED: 71.0%, ECMPP: 77.8%). Moreover, when tested on a common independent dataset, our method also achieves significantly improved performance over ECMPP and ECMPRED. These results indicate that IECMP is an effective method for ECM protein prediction, which has a more balanced prediction capability for positive and negative samples. It is anticipated that the proposed method will provide significant information to fully decipher the molecular mechanisms of ECM-related biological processes and discover candidate drug targets. For public access, we develop a user-friendly web server for ECM protein identification that is freely accessible at http://iecmp.weka.cc. PMID:25680094

  12. Functional and antigenic domains of the matrix (M1) protein of influenza A virus.

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Z P; Pal, R; Fox, J W; Wagner, R R

    1987-01-01

    The membrane- and ribonucleocapsid (RNP)-binding domains of the matrix (M1) protein of influenza A virus (WSN strain) were partially mapped and characterized by reactivity with monoclonal antibodies (MAb) as well as by proteolytic cleavages and amino acid sequencing of the resulting peptides. Of two peptides formed by formic acid hydrolysis, a 9-kilodalton fragment at the amino-terminal third of the M1 protein was recognized by MAb M2-1C6 (to epitope 1), and a 15-kilodalton fragment at the carboxy-terminal two-thirds was recognized by MAb 289/4 (to epitope 2). Partial cleavage by staphylococcal V8 protease gave rise to a 16-kilodalton peptide, mapping to amino acid 8, which was recognized by MAbs to all three epitopes but rather weakly by MAb 904/6 to epitope 3. These studies suggest that epitope 1 of the M1 protein resides between amino acids 8 and 89, whereas epitopes 2 and possibly 3 are located between amino acids 89 and 141 or somewhat more carboxy distal. The intact M1 protein and its N-terminal 9- and 10-kilodalton peptides generated by formic acid or V8 protease cleavage, respectively, reconstituted with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine vesicles, but these N-terminal peptides had little effect on in vitro transcription of the RNP core. In sharp contrast, both intact M1 protein and the C-terminal 15-kilodalton formic acid fragment were able to inhibit viral transcription markedly. Moreover, MAb 289/4 (to epitope 2) reversed this inhibited transcription significantly. These studies suggest that the lipid-binding domain of the M1 protein is located within the amino-terminal third, whereas the site involved in the interaction of the M1 protein with RNP cores is located within the carboxy-terminal two-thirds. Images PMID:2433462

  13. Effects of extracellular matrix proteins on the growth of haematopoietic progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Celebi, Betül; Mantovani, Diego; Pineault, Nicolas

    2011-10-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) transplantation and haematological recovery are currently limited by the amount of haematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) present in each unit. HPCs and haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) normally interact with cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins present within the endosteal and vascular niches. Hence, we investigated whether coating of culture surfaces with ECM proteins normally present in the marrow microenvironment could benefit the ex vivo expansion of HPCs. Towards this, collagen types I and IV (COL I and IV), laminin (LN) and fibronectin (FN) were tested individually or as component of two ECM-mix complexes. Individually, ECM proteins had both common and unique properties on the growth and differentiation of UCB CD34+ cells; some ECM proteins favoured the differentiation of some lineages over that of others (e.g. FN for erythroids), some the expansion of HPCs (e.g. LN and megakaryocyte (MK) progenitor) while others had less effects. Next, two ECM-mix complexes were tested; the first one contained all four ECM proteins (4ECMp), while the second 'basement membrane-like structure' was without COL I (3ECMp). Removal of COL I led to strong reductions in cell growth and HPCs expansion. Interestingly, the 4ECMp-mix complex reproducibly increased CD34+ (1.3-fold) and CD41+ (1.2-fold) cell expansions at day 6 (P < 0.05) versus control, and induced greater myeloid progenitor expansion (P < 0.05) than 3ECMp. In conclusion, these results suggest that optimization of BM ECM protein complexes could provide a better environment for the ex vivo expansion of haematopoietic progenitors than individual ECM protein. PMID:21931196

  14. Integrin α2β1 Is a Receptor for the Cartilage Matrix Protein Chondroadherin

    PubMed Central

    Camper, Lisbet; Heinegård, Dick; Lundgren-Åkerlund, Evy

    1997-01-01

    Chondroadherin (the 36-kD protein) is a leucine-rich, cartilage matrix protein known to mediate adhesion of isolated chondrocytes. In the present study we investigated cell surface proteins involved in the interaction of cells with chondroadherin in cell adhesion and by affinity purification. Adhesion of bovine articular chondrocytes to chondroadherin-coated dishes was dependent on Mg2+ or Mn2+ but not Ca2+. Adhesion was partially inhibited by an antibody recognizing β1 integrin subunit. Chondroadherin-binding proteins from chondrocyte lysates were affinity purified on chondroadherin-Sepharose. The β1 integrin antibody immunoprecipitated two proteins with molecular mass ∼110 and 140 kD (nonreduced) from the EDTA-eluted material. These results indicate that a β1 integrin on chondrocytes interacts with chondroadherin. To identify the α integrin subunit(s) involved in interaction of cells with the protein, we affinity purified chondroadherin-binding membrane proteins from human fibroblasts. Immunoprecipitation of the EDTA-eluted material from the affinity column identified α2β1 as a chondroadherin-binding integrin. These results are in agreement with cell adhesion experiments where antibodies against the integrin subunit α2 partially inhibited adhesion of human fibroblast and human chondrocytes to chondroadherin. Since α2β1 also is a receptor for collagen type II, we tested the ability of different antibodies against the α2 subunit to inhibit adhesion of T47D cells to collagen type II and chondroadherin. The results suggested that adhesion to collagen type II and chondroadherin involves similar or nearby sites on the α2β1 integrin. Although α2β1 is a receptor for both collagen type II and chondroadherin, only adhesion of cells to collagen type II was found to mediate spreading. PMID:9281592

  15. Actin-associated protein palladin promotes tumor cell invasion by linking extracellular matrix degradation to cell cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    von Nandelstadh, Pernilla; Gucciardo, Erika; Lohi, Jouko; Li, Rui; Sugiyama, Nami; Carpen, Olli; Lehti, Kaisa

    2014-01-01

    Basal-like breast carcinomas, characterized by unfavorable prognosis and frequent metastases, are associated with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. During this process, cancer cells undergo cytoskeletal reorganization and up-regulate membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP; MMP14), which functions in actin-based pseudopods to drive invasion by extracellular matrix degradation. However, the mechanisms that couple matrix proteolysis to the actin cytoskeleton in cell invasion have remained unclear. On the basis of a yeast two-hybrid screen for the MT1-MMP cytoplasmic tail-binding proteins, we identify here a novel Src-regulated protein interaction between the dynamic cytoskeletal scaffold protein palladin and MT1-MMP. These proteins were coexpressed in invasive human basal-like breast carcinomas and corresponding cell lines, where they were associated in the same matrix contacting and degrading membrane complexes. The silencing and overexpression of the 90-kDa palladin isoform revealed the functional importance of the interaction with MT1-MMP in pericellular matrix degradation and mesenchymal tumor cell invasion, whereas in MT1-MMP–negative cells, palladin overexpression was insufficient for invasion. Moreover, this invasion was inhibited in a dominant-negative manner by an immunoglobulin domain–containing palladin fragment lacking the dynamic scaffold and Src-binding domains. These results identify a novel protein interaction that links matrix degradation to cytoskeletal dynamics and migration signaling in mesenchymal cell invasion. PMID:24989798

  16. Spaceflight has compartment- and gene-specific effects on mRNA levels for bone matrix proteins in rat femur

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, G. L.; Morey-Holton, E.; Turner, R. T.

    1998-01-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the possibility that the abnormal bone matrix produced during spaceflight may be associated with reduced expression of bone matrix protein genes. To test this possibility, we investigated the effects of a 14-day spaceflight (SLS-2 experiment) on steady-state mRNA levels for glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), osteocalcin, osteonectin, and prepro-alpha(1) subunit of type I collagen in the major bone compartments of rat femur. There were pronounced site-specific differences in the steady-state levels of expression of the mRNAs for the three bone matrix proteins and GAPDH in normal weight-bearing rats, and these relationships were altered after spaceflight. Specifically, spaceflight resulted in decreases in mRNA levels for GAPDH (decreased in proximal metaphysis), osteocalcin (decreased in proximal metaphysis), osteonectin (decreased in proximal and distal metaphysis), and collagen (decreased in proximal and distal metaphysis) compared with ground controls. There were no changes in mRNA levels for matrix proteins or GAPDH in the shaft and distal epiphysis. These results demonstrate that spaceflight leads to site- and gene-specific decreases in mRNA levels for bone matrix proteins. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that spaceflight-induced decreases in bone formation are caused by concomitant decreases in expression of genes for bone matrix proteins.

  17. Periostin is an extracellular matrix protein required for eruption of incisors in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Kii, Isao; Amizuka, Norio; Minqi, Li; Kitajima, Satoshi; Saga, Yumiko; Kudo, Akira . E-mail: akudo@bio.titech.ac.jp

    2006-04-14

    A characteristic tooth of rodents, the incisor continuously grows throughout life by the constant formation of dentin and enamel. Continuous eruption of the incisor is accompanied with formation of shear zone, in which the periodontal ligament is remodeled. Although the shear zone plays a role in the remodeling, its molecular biological aspect is barely understood. Here, we show that periostin is essential for formation of the shear zone. Periostin {sup -/-} mice showed an eruption disturbance of incisors. Histological observation revealed that deletion of periostin led to disappearance of the shear zone. Electron microscopy revealed that the disappearance of the shear zone resulted from a failure in digestion of collagen fibers in the periostin {sup -/-} mice. Furthermore, immunohistochemical analysis using anti-periostin antibodies demonstrated the restricted localization of periostin protein in the shear zone. Periostin is an extracellular matrix protein, and immunoelectron microscopy showed a close association of periostin with collagen fibrils in vivo. These results suggest that periostin functions in the remodeling of collagen matrix in the shear zone.

  18. Matrix-Gla protein promotes osteosarcoma lung metastasis and associates with poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Zandueta, Carolina; Ormazábal, Cristina; Perurena, Naiara; Martínez-Canarias, Susana; Zalacaín, Marta; Julián, Mikel San; Grigoriadis, Agamemnon E; Valencia, Karmele; Campos-Laborie, Francisco J; Rivas, Javier De Las; Vicent, Silvestre; Patiño-García, Ana; Lecanda, Fernando

    2016-08-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most prevalent osseous tumour in children and adolescents and, within this, lung metastases remain one of the factors associated with a dismal prognosis. At present, the genetic determinants driving pulmonary metastasis are poorly understood. We adopted a novel strategy using robust filtering analysis of transcriptomic profiling in tumour osteoblastic cell populations derived from human chemo-naive primary tumours displaying extreme phenotypes (indolent versus metastatic) to uncover predictors associated with metastasis and poor survival. We identified MGP, encoding matrix-Gla protein (MGP), a non-collagenous matrix protein previously associated with the inhibition of arterial calcification. Using different orthotopic models, we found that ectopic expression of Mgp in murine and human OS cells led to a marked increase in lung metastasis. This effect was independent of the carboxylation of glutamic acid residues required for its physiological role. Abrogation of Mgp prevented lung metastatic activity, an effect that was rescued by forced expression. Mgp levels dramatically altered endothelial adhesion, trans-endothelial migration in vitro and tumour cell extravasation ability in vivo. Furthermore, Mgp modulated metalloproteinase activities and TGFβ-induced Smad2/3 phosphorylation. In the clinical setting, OS patients who developed lung metastases had high serum levels of MGP at diagnosis. Thus, MGP represents a novel adverse prognostic factor and a potential therapeutic target in OS. Microarray datasets may be found at: http://bioinfow.dep.usal.es/osteosarcoma/ Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27172275

  19. Structural basis for ebolavirus matrix assembly and budding; protein plasticity allows multiple functions

    PubMed Central

    Bornholdt, Zachary A.; Noda, Takeshi; Abelson, Dafna M.; Halfmann, Peter; Wood, Malcolm; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Saphire, Erica Ollmann

    2014-01-01

    Summary Proteins, particularly viral proteins, can be multifunctional, but the mechanism(s) behind this trait are not fully understood. Here, we illustrate through multiple crystal structures, biochemistry and cellular microscopy that VP40 rearranges into different structures, each with a distinct function required for the ebolavirus life cycle. A butterfly-shaped VP40 dimer trafficks to the cellular membrane. There, electrostatic interactions trigger rearrangement of the polypeptide into a linear hexamer. These hexamers construct a multi-layered, filamentous matrix structure that is critical for budding and resembles tomograms of authentic virions. A third structure of VP40, formed by a different rearrangement, is not involved in virus assembly, but instead uniquely binds RNA to regulate viral transcription inside infected cells. These results provide a functional model for ebolavirus matrix assembly and the other roles of VP40 in the virus life cycle, and demonstrate how a single, wild-type, unmodified polypeptide can assemble into different structures for different functions. PMID:23953110

  20. Interaction of Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein/Thrombospondin 5 with Aggrecan*,S

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Faye Hui; Herndon, Mary E.; Patel, Nichlesh; Hecht, Jacqueline T.; Tuan, Rocky S.; Lawler, Jack

    2010-01-01

    Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein/thrombospondin 5 (COMP/TSP5) is a major component of the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the musculoskeletal system. Its importance is underscored by its association with several growth disorders. In this report, we investigated its interaction with aggrecan, a major component of cartilage ECM. We also tested a COMP/TSP5 mutant, designated MUT3 that accounts for 30% of human pseudoachon-droplasia cases, to determine if the mutation affects function. Using a solid-phase binding assay, we have shown that COMP/ TSP5 can bind aggrecan. This binding was decreased with MUT3, or when COMP/TSP5 was treated with EDTA, indicating the presence of a conformation-dependent aggrecan binding site. Soluble glycosaminoglycans(GAGs)partially inhibited binding, suggesting that the interaction was mediated in part through aggrecan GAG side chains. Using affinity co-electrophoresis, we showed that COMP/TSP5, in its calcium-replete conformation, bound to heparin, chondroitin sulfates, and heparan sulfate; this binding was reduced with EDTA treatment of COMP/TSP5. MUT3 showed weaker binding than calcium-repleted COMP/TSP5. Using recombinant COMP/TSP5 fragments, we found that the “signature domain” could bind to aggrecan, suggesting that this domain can mediate the interaction of COMP/TSP5 and aggrecan. In summary, our data indicate that COMP/TSP5 is an aggrecan-binding protein, and this interaction is regulated by the calcium-sensitive conformation of COMP/TSP5; interaction of COMP with aggrecan can be mediated through the GAG side chains on aggrecan and the “signature domain” of COMP/TSP5. Our results suggest that COMP/TSP5 may function to support matrix interactions in cartilage ECM. PMID:17588949

  1. Structure-function studies of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 matrix protein, p17.

    PubMed

    Cannon, P M; Matthews, S; Clark, N; Byles, E D; Iourin, O; Hockley, D J; Kingsman, S M; Kingsman, A J

    1997-05-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) matrix protein, p17, plays important roles in both the early and late stages of the viral life cycle. Using our previously determined solution structure of p17, we have undertaken a rational mutagenesis program aimed at mapping structure-function relationships within the molecule. Amino acids hypothesized to be important for p17 function were mutated and examined for effect in an infectious proviral clone of HIV-1. In parallel, we analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy the structure of recombinant p17 protein containing such substitutions. These analyses identified three classes of mutants that were defective in viral replication: (i) proteins containing substitutions at internal residues that grossly distorted the structure of recombinant p17 and prevented viral particle formation, (ii) mutations at putative p17 trimer interfaces that allowed correct folding of recombinant protein but produced virus that was defective in particle assembly, and (iii) substitution of basic residues in helix A that caused some relocation of virus assembly to intracellular locations and produced normally budded virions that were completely noninfectious. PMID:9094619

  2. Cell response to RGD density in cross-linked artificial extracellular matrix protein films.

    PubMed

    Liu, Julie C; Tirrell, David A

    2008-11-01

    This study examines the adhesion, spreading, and migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells on cross-linked films of artificial extracellular matrix (aECM) proteins. The aECM proteins described here were designed for application in small-diameter grafts and are composed of elastin-like structural repeats and fibronectin cell-binding domains. aECM-RGD contains the RGD sequence derived from fibronectin; the negative control protein aECM-RDG contains a scrambled cell-binding domain. The covalent attachment of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) to aECM substrates reduced nonspecific cell adhesion to aECM-RDG-PEG but did not preclude sequence-specific adhesion of endothelial cells to aECM-RGD-PEG. Variation in ligand density was accomplished by the mixing of aECM-RGD-PEG and aECM-RDG-PEG prior to cross-linking. Increasing the density of RGD domains in cross-linked films resulted in more robust cell adhesion and spreading but did not affect cell migration speed. Control of cell-binding domain density in aECM proteins can thus be used to modulate cell adhesion and spreading and will serve as an important design tool as these materials are further developed for use in surgery, tissue engineering, and regenerative medicine. PMID:18826275

  3. An improved mechanically durable electrophoresis gel matrix that is fully compatible with fluorescence-based protein detection technologies.

    PubMed

    Schulenberg, Birte; Arnold, Brad; Patton, Wayne F

    2003-07-01

    Unfortunately, conventional large-format polyacrylamide gels are mechanically fragile, often tearing during the subsequent manipulations required for visualization of the proteins. This problem is compounded when large-format two-dimensional gels are subjected to multiple staining procedures in order to detect different classes of proteins, such as total protein, phosphoproteins, and glycoproteins. A mechanically durable liquid polyacrylamide-based matrix has been developed that, upon polymerization, facilitates the handling of one-dimensional and two-dimensional gels. The matrix, referred to as Rhinohide liquid acrylamide, is stable as a refrigerated solution for up to one year, and forms a polymer-reinforced polyacrylamide gel suitable for electrophoresis, upon addition of catalysts. The matrix is superior to previously reported durable gel matrices in that it does not cause distortion of high-molecular-weight bands and does not suffer from other spot morphology artifacts, such as doubling of protein spots in the molecular weight dimension. The matrix is particularly valuable for the analysis of proteins applying multiple applications of fluorescent dyes, as required with serial staining of proteins for phosphorylation, glycosylation, and total protein expression, using Pro-Q Diamond phosphoprotein stain, Pro-Q Emerald glycoprotein stain and SYPRO Ruby protein gel stain, respectively. PMID:12872220

  4. Protein translocation channel of mitochondrial inner membrane and matrix-exposed import motor communicate via two-domain coupling protein

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Rupa; Gladkova, Christina; Mapa, Koyeli; Witte, Gregor; Mokranjac, Dejana

    2015-01-01

    The majority of mitochondrial proteins are targeted to mitochondria by N-terminal presequences and use the TIM23 complex for their translocation across the mitochondrial inner membrane. During import, translocation through the channel in the inner membrane is coupled to the ATP-dependent action of an Hsp70-based import motor at the matrix face. How these two processes are coordinated remained unclear. We show here that the two domain structure of Tim44 plays a central role in this process. The N-terminal domain of Tim44 interacts with the components of the import motor, whereas its C-terminal domain interacts with the translocation channel and is in contact with translocating proteins. Our data suggest that the translocation channel and the import motor of the TIM23 complex communicate through rearrangements of the two domains of Tim44 that are stimulated by translocating proteins. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11897.001 PMID:26714107

  5. The Bfp60 surface adhesin is an extracellular matrix and plasminogen protein interacting in Bacteroides fragilis

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira Ferreira, Eliane; Teixeira, Felipe; Cordeiro, Fabiana; Lobo, Leandro Araujo; Rocha, Edson R.; Smith, Jeffrey C.; Domingues, Regina M C P

    2014-01-01

    Plasminogen (Plg) is a highly abundant protein found in the plasma component of blood and is necessary for the degradation of fibrin, collagen, and other structural components of tissues. This fibrinolytic system is utilized by several pathogenic species of bacteria to manipulate the host plasminogen system and facilitate invasion of tissues during infection by modifying the activation of this process through the binding of Plg at their surface. Bacteroides fragilis is the most commonly isolated Gram-negative obligate anaerobe from human clinical infections, such as intra-abdominal abscesses and anaerobic bacteraemia. The ability of B. fragilis to convert plasminogen (Plg) into plasmin has been associated with an outer membrane protein named Bfp60. In this study, we characterized the function of Bfp60 protein in B. fragilis 638R by constructing the bfp60 defective strain and comparing its with that of the wild type regarding binding to laminin-1 (LMN-1) and activation of Plg into plasmin. Although the results showed in this study indicate that Bfp60 surface protein of B. fragilis is important for the recognition of LMN-1 and Plg activation, a significant slow activation of Plg into plasmin was observed in the mutant strain. For that reason, the possibility of another unidentified mechanism activating Plg is also present in B. fragilis can not be discarded. The results demonstrate that Bfp60 protein is responsible for the recognition of laminin and Plg-plasmin activation. Although the importance of this protein is still unclear in the pathogenicity of the species, it is accepted that since other pathogenic bacteria use this mechanism to disseminate through the extracellular matrix during the infection, it should also contribute to the virulence of B. fragilis. PMID:23850366

  6. Live-cell imaging of migrating cells expressing fluorescently-tagged proteins in a three-dimensional matrix.

    PubMed

    Shih, Wenting; Yamada, Soichiro

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally, cell migration has been studied on two-dimensional, stiff plastic surfaces. However, during important biological processes such as wound healing, tissue regeneration, and cancer metastasis, cells must navigate through complex, three-dimensional extracellular tissue. To better understand the mechanisms behind these biological processes, it is important to examine the roles of the proteins responsible for driving cell migration. Here, we outline a protocol to study the mechanisms of cell migration using the epithelial cell line (MDCK), and a three-dimensional, fibrous, self-polymerizing matrix as a model system. This optically clear extracellular matrix is easily amenable to live-cell imaging studies and better mimics the physiological, soft tissue environment. This report demonstrates a technique for directly visualizing protein localization and dynamics, and deformation of the surrounding three-dimensional matrix. Examination of protein localization and dynamics during cellular processes provides key insight into protein functions. Genetically encoded fluorescent tags provide a unique method for observing protein localization and dynamics. Using this technique, we can analyze the subcellular accumulation of key, force-generating cytoskeletal components in real-time as the cell maneuvers through the matrix. In addition, using multiple fluorescent tags with different wavelengths, we can examine the localization of multiple proteins simultaneously, thus allowing us to test, for example, whether different proteins have similar or divergent roles. Furthermore, the dynamics of fluorescently tagged proteins can be quantified using Fluorescent Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP) analysis. This measurement assays the protein mobility and how stably bound the proteins are to the cytoskeletal network. By combining live-cell imaging with the treatment of protein function inhibitors, we can examine in real-time the changes in the distribution of proteins and

  7. Symposium: Role of the extracellular matrix in mammary development. Regulation of milk protein and basement membrane gene expression: The influence of the extracellular matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Aggeler, J.; Park, C.S.; Bissell, M.J.

    1988-10-01

    Synthesis and secretion of milk proteins ({alpha}-casein, {beta}-casein, {gamma}-casein, and transferrin) by cultured primary mouse mammary epithelial cells is modulated by the extracellular matrix. In cells grown on released or floating type I collagen gels, mRNA for {beta}-casein and transferrin is increased as much as 30-fold over cells grown on plastic. Induction of {beta}-casein expression depends strongly on the presence of lactogenic hormones, especially prolactin, in the culture. When cells are plated onto partially purified reconstituted basement membrane, dramatic changes in morphology and milk protein gene expression are observed. Cells cultured on the matrix for 6 to 8 d in the presence of prolactin, insulin, and hydrocortisone form hollow spheres and duct-like structures that are completely surrounded by matrix. The cells lining these spheres appear actively secretory and are oriented with their apices facing the lumen. Hybridization experiments indicate that mRNA for {beta}-casein can be increased as much as 70-fold in these cultures. Because > 90% of the cultured cells synthesize immunoreactive {beta}-casein, as compared with only 40% of cells in the late pregnant gland, the matrix appears to be able to induce protein expression in previously silent cells. Synthesis of laminin and assembly of a mammary-specific basal lamina by cells cultured on different extracellular matrices also appears to depend on the presence of lactogenic hormones. These studies provide support for the concept of dynamic reciprocity in which complex interactions between extracellular matrix and the cellular cytoskeleton contribute to the induction and maintenance of tissue-specific gene expression in the mammary gland.

  8. Protein Modification by Deamidation Indicates Variations in Joint Extracellular Matrix Turnover*

    PubMed Central

    Catterall, Jonathan B.; Hsueh, Ming F.; Stabler, Thomas V.; McCudden, Christopher R.; Bolognesi, Michael; Zura, Robert; Jordan, Joanne M.; Renner, Jordan B.; Feng, Sheng; Kraus, Virginia B.

    2012-01-01

    As extracellular proteins age, they undergo and accumulate nonenzymatic post-translational modifications that cannot be repaired. We hypothesized that these could be used to systemically monitor loss of extracellular matrix due to chronic arthritic diseases such as osteoarthritis (OA). To test this, we predicted sites of deamidation in cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) and confirmed, by mass spectroscopy, the presence of deamidated (Asp64) and native (Asn64) COMP epitopes (mean 0.95% deamidated COMP (D-COMP) relative to native COMP) in cartilage. An Asp64, D-COMP-specific ELISA was developed using a newly created monoclonal antibody 6-1A12. In a joint replacement study, serum D-COMP (p = 0.017), but not total COMP (p = 0.5), declined significantly after replacement demonstrating a joint tissue source for D-COMP. In analyses of 450 participants from the Johnston County Osteoarthritis Project controlled for age, gender, and race, D-COMP was associated with radiographic hip (p < 0.0001) but not knee (p = 0.95) OA severity. In contrast, total COMP was associated with radiographic knee (p < 0.0001) but not hip (p = 0.47) OA severity. D-COMP was higher in soluble proteins extracted from hip cartilage proximal to OA lesions compared with remote from lesions (p = 0.007) or lesional and remote OA knee (p < 0.01) cartilage. Total COMP in cartilage did not vary by joint site or proximity to the lesion. This study demonstrates the presence of D-COMP in articular cartilage and the systemic circulation, and to our knowledge, it is the first biomarker to show specificity for a particular joint site. We believe that enrichment of deamidated epitope in hip OA cartilage indicates a lesser repair response of hip OA compared with knee OA cartilage. PMID:22179616

  9. Link Protein N-terminal Peptide Binds to Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) Type II Receptor and Drives Matrix Protein Expression in Rabbit Intervertebral Disc Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zili; Weitzmann, M. Neale; Sangadala, Sreedhara; Hutton, William C.; Yoon, S. Tim

    2013-01-01

    Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration and associated spinal disorders are leading sources of morbidity, and they can be responsible for chronic low back pain. Treatments for degenerative disc diseases continue to be a challenge. Intensive research is now focusing on promoting regeneration of degenerated discs by stimulating production of the disc matrix. Link protein N-terminal peptide (LPP) is a proteolytic fragment of link protein, an important cross-linker and stabilizer of the major structural components of cartilage, aggrecan and hyaluronan. In this study we investigated LPP action in rabbit primary intervertebral disc cells cultured ex vivo in a three-dimensional alginate matrix. Our data reveal that LPP promotes disc matrix production, which was evidenced by increased expression of the chondrocyte-specific transcription factor SOX9 and the extracellular matrix macromolecules aggrecan and collagen II. Using colocalization and pulldown studies we further document a noggin-insensitive direct peptide-protein association between LPP and BMP-RII. This association mediated Smad signaling that converges on BMP genes leading to expression of BMP-4 and BMP-7. Furthermore, through a cell-autonomous loop BMP-4 and BMP-7 intensified Smad1/5 signaling though a feedforward circuit involving BMP-RI, ultimately promoting expression of SOX9 and downstream aggrecan and collagen II genes. Our data define a complex regulatory signaling cascade initiated by LPP and suggest that LPP may be a useful therapeutic substitute for direct BMP administration to treat IVD degeneration and to ameliorate IVD-associated chronic low back pain. PMID:23940040

  10. Evidence for Ubiquitin-Regulated Nuclear and Subnuclear Trafficking among Paramyxovirinae Matrix Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Pentecost, Mickey; Vashisht, Ajay A.; Beaty, Shannon M.; Park, Arnold; Wang, Yao E.; Yun, Tatyana E; Freiberg, Alexander N.; Wohlschlegel, James A.; Lee, Benhur

    2015-01-01

    The paramyxovirus matrix (M) protein is a molecular scaffold required for viral morphogenesis and budding at the plasma membrane. Transient nuclear residence of some M proteins hints at non-structural roles. However, little is known regarding the mechanisms that regulate the nuclear sojourn. Previously, we found that the nuclear-cytoplasmic trafficking of Nipah virus M (NiV-M) is a prerequisite for budding, and is regulated by a bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLSbp), a leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES), and monoubiquitination of the K258 residue within the NLSbp itself (NLSbp-lysine). To define whether the sequence determinants of nuclear trafficking identified in NiV-M are common among other Paramyxovirinae M proteins, we generated the homologous NES and NLSbp-lysine mutations in M proteins from the five major Paramyxovirinae genera. Using quantitative 3D confocal microscopy, we determined that the NES and NLSbp-lysine are required for the efficient nuclear export of the M proteins of Nipah virus, Hendra virus, Sendai virus, and Mumps virus. Pharmacological depletion of free ubiquitin or mutation of the conserved NLSbp-lysine to an arginine, which inhibits M ubiquitination, also results in nuclear and nucleolar retention of these M proteins. Recombinant Sendai virus (rSeV-eGFP) bearing the NES or NLSbp-lysine M mutants rescued at similar efficiencies to wild type. However, foci of cells expressing the M mutants displayed marked fusogenicity in contrast to wild type, and infection did not spread. Recombinant Mumps virus (rMuV-eGFP) bearing the homologous mutations showed similar defects in viral morphogenesis. Finally, shotgun proteomics experiments indicated that the interactomes of Paramyxovirinae M proteins are significantly enriched for components of the nuclear pore complex, nuclear transport receptors, and nucleolar proteins. We then synthesize our functional and proteomics data to propose a working model for the ubiquitin-regulated nuclear

  11. Evidence for ubiquitin-regulated nuclear and subnuclear trafficking among Paramyxovirinae matrix proteins.

    PubMed

    Pentecost, Mickey; Vashisht, Ajay A; Lester, Talia; Voros, Tim; Beaty, Shannon M; Park, Arnold; Wang, Yao E; Yun, Tatyana E; Freiberg, Alexander N; Wohlschlegel, James A; Lee, Benhur

    2015-03-01

    The paramyxovirus matrix (M) protein is a molecular scaffold required for viral morphogenesis and budding at the plasma membrane. Transient nuclear residence of some M proteins hints at non-structural roles. However, little is known regarding the mechanisms that regulate the nuclear sojourn. Previously, we found that the nuclear-cytoplasmic trafficking of Nipah virus M (NiV-M) is a prerequisite for budding, and is regulated by a bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLSbp), a leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES), and monoubiquitination of the K258 residue within the NLSbp itself (NLSbp-lysine). To define whether the sequence determinants of nuclear trafficking identified in NiV-M are common among other Paramyxovirinae M proteins, we generated the homologous NES and NLSbp-lysine mutations in M proteins from the five major Paramyxovirinae genera. Using quantitative 3D confocal microscopy, we determined that the NES and NLSbp-lysine are required for the efficient nuclear export of the M proteins of Nipah virus, Hendra virus, Sendai virus, and Mumps virus. Pharmacological depletion of free ubiquitin or mutation of the conserved NLSbp-lysine to an arginine, which inhibits M ubiquitination, also results in nuclear and nucleolar retention of these M proteins. Recombinant Sendai virus (rSeV-eGFP) bearing the NES or NLSbp-lysine M mutants rescued at similar efficiencies to wild type. However, foci of cells expressing the M mutants displayed marked fusogenicity in contrast to wild type, and infection did not spread. Recombinant Mumps virus (rMuV-eGFP) bearing the homologous mutations showed similar defects in viral morphogenesis. Finally, shotgun proteomics experiments indicated that the interactomes of Paramyxovirinae M proteins are significantly enriched for components of the nuclear pore complex, nuclear transport receptors, and nucleolar proteins. We then synthesize our functional and proteomics data to propose a working model for the ubiquitin-regulated nuclear

  12. Protein functional properties prediction in sparsely-label PPI networks through regularized non-negative matrix factorization

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Predicting functional properties of proteins in protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks presents a challenging problem and has important implication in computational biology. Collective classification (CC) that utilizes both attribute features and relational information to jointly classify related proteins in PPI networks has been shown to be a powerful computational method for this problem setting. Enabling CC usually increases accuracy when given a fully-labeled PPI network with a large amount of labeled data. However, such labels can be difficult to obtain in many real-world PPI networks in which there are usually only a limited number of labeled proteins and there are a large amount of unlabeled proteins. In this case, most of the unlabeled proteins may not connected to the labeled ones, the supervision knowledge cannot be obtained effectively from local network connections. As a consequence, learning a CC model in sparsely-labeled PPI networks can lead to poor performance. Results We investigate a latent graph approach for finding an integration latent graph by exploiting various latent linkages and judiciously integrate the investigated linkages to link (separate) the proteins with similar (different) functions. We develop a regularized non-negative matrix factorization (RNMF) algorithm for CC to make protein functional properties prediction by utilizing various data sources that are available in this problem setting, including attribute features, latent graph, and unlabeled data information. In RNMF, a label matrix factorization term and a network regularization term are incorporated into the non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) objective function to seek a matrix factorization that respects the network structure and label information for classification prediction. Conclusion Experimental results on KDD Cup tasks predicting the localization and functions of proteins to yeast genes demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed RNMF method for

  13. Staphylococcus aureus Manganese Transport Protein C (MntC) Is an Extracellular Matrix- and Plasminogen-Binding Protein

    PubMed Central

    Salazar, Natália; Castiblanco-Valencia, Mónica Marcela; da Silva, Ludmila Bezerra; de Castro, Íris Arantes; Monaris, Denize; Masuda, Hana Paula; Barbosa, Angela Silva; Arêas, Ana Paula Mattos

    2014-01-01

    Infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus – particularly nosocomial infections - represent a great concern. Usually, the early stage of pathogenesis consists on asymptomatic nasopharynx colonization, which could result in dissemination to other mucosal niches or invasion of sterile sites, such as blood. This pathogenic route depends on scavenging of nutrients as well as binding to and disrupting extracellular matrix (ECM). Manganese transport protein C (MntC), a conserved manganese-binding protein, takes part in this infectious scenario as an ion-scavenging factor and surprisingly as an ECM and coagulation cascade binding protein, as revealed in this work. This study showed a marked ability of MntC to bind to several ECM and coagulation cascade components, including laminin, collagen type IV, cellular and plasma fibronectin, plasminogen and fibrinogen by ELISA. The MntC binding to plasminogen appears to be related to the presence of surface-exposed lysines, since previous incubation with an analogue of lysine residue, ε-aminocaproic acid, or increasing ionic strength affected the interaction between MntC and plasminogen. MntC-bound plasminogen was converted to active plasmin in the presence of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA). The newly released plasmin, in turn, acted in the cleavage of the α and β chains of fibrinogen. In conclusion, we describe a novel function for MntC that may help staphylococcal mucosal colonization and establishment of invasive disease, through the interaction with ECM and coagulation cascade host proteins. These data suggest that this potential virulence factor could be an adequate candidate to compose an anti-staphylococcal human vaccine formulation. PMID:25409527

  14. A Novel Acidic Matrix Protein, PfN44, Stabilizes Magnesium Calcite to Inhibit the Crystallization of Aragonite*

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Cong; Fang, Dong; Xu, Guangrui; Liang, Jian; Zhang, Guiyou; Wang, Hongzhong; Xie, Liping; Zhang, Rongqing

    2014-01-01

    Magnesium is widely used to control calcium carbonate deposition in the shell of pearl oysters. Matrix proteins in the shell are responsible for nucleation and growth of calcium carbonate crystals. However, there is no direct evidence supporting a connection between matrix proteins and magnesium. Here, we identified a novel acidic matrix protein named PfN44 that affected aragonite formation in the shell of the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata. Using immunogold labeling assays, we found PfN44 in both the nacreous and prismatic layers. In shell repair, PfN44 was repressed, whereas other matrix proteins were up-regulated. Disturbing the function of PfN44 by RNAi led to the deposition of porous nacreous tablets with overgrowth of crystals in the nacreous layer. By in vitro circular dichroism spectra and fluorescence quenching, we found that PfN44 bound to both calcium and magnesium with a stronger affinity for magnesium. During in vitro calcium carbonate crystallization and calcification of amorphous calcium carbonate, PfN44 regulated the magnesium content of crystalline carbonate polymorphs and stabilized magnesium calcite to inhibit aragonite deposition. Taken together, our results suggested that by stabilizing magnesium calcite to inhibit aragonite deposition, PfN44 participated in P. fucata shell formation. These observations extend our understanding of the connections between matrix proteins and magnesium. PMID:24302723

  15. Humoral and cellular immune responses to matrix protein of measles virus in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    PubMed Central

    Dhib-Jalbut, S; McFarland, H F; Mingioli, E S; Sever, J L; McFarlin, D E

    1988-01-01

    The immune response to matrix (M) protein of measles virus was examined in patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) and controls. Antibodies specific for M and nucleocapsid (NC) proteins in 11 serum and 8 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from patients with SSPE were quantitated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay by using affinity-purified measles virus proteins. Geometric mean anti-NC antibody titers were higher in the serum (6.58 +/- 0.98 [mean +/- standard deviation]) and CSF (4.38 +/- 0.74) of SSPE patients compared with controls. Anti-M antibodies were present in the serum and CSF of all SSPE samples tested but in titers lower than those of anti-NC antibodies. Geometric mean anti-M antibody titer was 3.35 +/- 0.53 in sera from patients with SSPE compared with 3.05 +/- 0.66 in sera from patients with other neurological diseases and 3.12 +/- 0.74 in sera from healthy individuals. Geometric mean anti-M antibody titer was 2.59 +/- 0.86 in the CSF of eight patients with SSPE compared with a mean less than 1.00 for patients with other neurological disease (controls). Intrathecal synthesis of anti-M or anti-NC antibodies was established in four patients with SSPE. The cellular immune responses to M, F, HA, and NC proteins were examined in four of the patients with SSPE by lymphoproliferation and were not significantly different from those in five healthy controls. The results demonstrate humoral and cellular immune responses to M protein in patients with SSPE and indicate that it is unlikely that a defect in the immune response to this virus component accounts for the disease process in the patients studied. Images PMID:3373575

  16. Heterotrimeric G Proteins Directly Regulate MMP14/Membrane Type-1 Matrix Metalloprotease

    PubMed Central

    Overland, Aaron C.; Insel, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Agonist stimulation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) can transactivate epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs), but the precise mechanisms for this transactivation have not been defined. Key to this process is the protease-mediated “shedding” of membrane-tethered ligands, which then activate EGFRs. The specific proteases and the events involved in GPCR-EGFR transactivation are not fully understood. We have tested the hypothesis that transactivation can occur by a membrane-delimited process: direct increase in the activity of membrane type-1 matrix metalloprotease (MMP14, MT1-MMP) by heterotrimeric G proteins, and in turn, the generation of heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF) and activation of EGFR. Using membranes prepared from adult rat cardiac myocytes and fibroblasts, we found that MMP14 activity is increased by angiotensin II, phenylephrine, GTP, and guanosine 5′-O-[γ-thio]triphosphate (GTPγS). MMP14 activation by GTPγS occurs in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, does not occur in response to GMP or adenosine 5′-[γ-thio]triphosphate (ATPγS), and is not blunted by inhibitors of Src, PKC, phospholipase C (PLC), PI3K, or soluble MMPs. This activation is specific to MMP14 as it is inhibited by a specific MMP14 peptide inhibitor and siRNA knockdown. MMP14 activation by GTPγS is pertussis toxin-sensitive. A role for heterotrimeric G protein βγ subunits was shown by using the Gβγ inhibitor gallein and the direct activation of recombinant MMP14 by purified βγ subunits. GTPγS-stimulated activation of MMP14 also results in membrane release of HB-EGF and the activation of EGFR. These results define a previously unrecognized, membrane-delimited mechanism for EGFR transactivation via direct G protein activation of MMP14 and identify MMP14 as a heterotrimeric G protein-regulated effector. PMID:25759388

  17. Critical roles for WDR72 in calcium transport and matrix protein removal during enamel maturation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shih-Kai; Hu, Yuanyuan; Yang, Jie; Smith, Charles E; Nunez, Stephanie M; Richardson, Amelia S; Pal, Soumya; Samann, Andrew C; Hu, Jan C-C; Simmer, James P

    2015-01-01

    Defects in WDR72 (WD repeat-containing protein 72) cause autosomal recessive hypomaturation amelogenesis imperfecta. We generated and characterized Wdr72-knockout/lacZ-knockin mice to investigate the role of WDR72 in enamel formation. In all analyses, enamel formed by Wdr72 heterozygous mice was indistinguishable from wild-type enamel. Without WDR72, enamel mineral density increased early during the maturation stage but soon arrested. The null enamel layer was only a tenth as hard as wild-type enamel and underwent rapid attrition following eruption. Despite the failure to further mineralize enamel deposited during the secretory stage, ectopic mineral formed on the enamel surface and penetrated into the overlying soft tissue. While the proteins in the enamel matrix were successfully degraded, the digestion products remained inside the enamel. Interactome analysis of WDR72 protein revealed potential interactions with clathrin-associated proteins and involvement in ameloblastic endocytosis. The maturation stage mandibular incisor enamel did not stain with methyl red, indicating that the enamel did not acidify beneath ruffle-ended ameloblasts. Attachment of maturation ameloblasts to the enamel layer was weakened, and SLC24A4, a critical ameloblast calcium transporter, did not localize appropriately along the ameloblast distal membrane. Fewer blood vessels were observed in the papillary layer supporting ameloblasts. Specific WDR72 expression by maturation stage ameloblasts explained the observation that enamel thickness and rod decussation (established during the secretory stage) are normal in the Wdr72 null mice. We conclude that WDR72 serves critical functions specifically during the maturation stage of amelogenesis and is required for both protein removal and enamel mineralization. PMID:26247047

  18. Nell1-deficient mice have reduced expression of extracellular matrix proteins causing cranial and vertebral defects

    SciTech Connect

    Desai, Jayashree; Shannon, Mark E.; Johnson, Mahlon D.; Ruff, David W.; Hughes, Lori A; Kerley, Marilyn K; Carpenter, D A; Johnson, Dabney K; Rinchik, Eugene M.; Culiat, Cymbeline T

    2006-01-01

    The mammalian Nell1 gene encodes a protein kinase C-b1 (PKC-b1) binding protein that belongs to a new class of cell-signaling molecules controlling cell growth and differentiation. Over-expression of Nell1 in the developing cranial sutures in both human and mouse induces craniosynostosis, the premature fusion of the growing cranial bone fronts. Here, we report the generation, positional cloning and characterization of Nell16R, a recessive, neonatal-lethal point mutation in the mouse Nell1 gene, induced by N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea. Nell16R has a T!A base change that converts a codon for cysteine into a premature stop codon [Cys(502)Ter], resulting in severe truncation of the predicted protein product and marked reduction in steady-state levels of the transcript. In addition to the expected alteration of cranial morphology, Nell16R mutants manifest skeletal defects in the vertebral column and ribcage, revealing a hitherto undefined role for Nell1 in signal transduction in endochondral ossification. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR assays of 219 genes showed an association between the loss of Nell1 function and reduced expression of genes for extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins critical for chondrogenesis and osteogenesis. Several affected genes are involved in the human cartilage disorder Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome and other disorders associated with spinal curvature anomalies. Nell16R mutant mice are a new tool for elucidating basic mechanisms in osteoblast and chrondrocyte differentiation in the developing skull and vertebral column and understanding how perturbations in the production of ECM proteins can lead to anomalies in these structures.

  19. NOTCH1 Regulates Matrix Gla Protein and Calcification Gene Networks in Human Valve Endothelium

    PubMed Central

    White, Mark P.; Theodoris, Christina V.; Liu, Lei; Collins, William J.; Blue, Kathleen W.; Lee, Joon Ho; Meng, Xianzhong; Robbins, Robert C.; Ivey, Kathryn N.; Srivastava, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    Valvular and vascular calcification are common causes of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Developing effective treatments requires understanding the molecular underpinnings of these processes. Shear stress is thought to play a role in inhibiting calcification. Furthermore, NOTCH1 regulates vascular and valvular endothelium, and human mutations in NOTCH1 can cause calcific aortic valve disease. Here, we determined the genome-wide impact of altering shear stress and NOTCH signaling on aortic valve endothelium. mRNA-sequencing of human aortic valve endothelial cells (HAVECs) with or without knockdown of NOTCH1, in the presence or absence of shear stress, revealed NOTCH1-dependency of the atherosclerosis-related gene connexin 40 (GJA5), and numerous repressors of endochondral ossification. Among these, Matrix GLA Protein (MGP) is highly expressed in aortic valve and vasculature, and inhibits soft tissue calcification by sequestering bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). Altering NOTCH1 levels affected MGP mRNA and protein in HAVECs. Furthermore, shear stress activated NOTCH signaling and MGP in a NOTCH1-dependent manner. NOTCH1 positively regulated endothelial MGP in vivo through specific binding motifs upstream of MGP. Our studies suggest that shear stress activates NOTCH1 in primary human aortic valve endothelial cells leading to downregulation of osteoblast-like gene networks that play a role in tissue calcification. PMID:25871831

  20. Multiplex matrix network analysis of protein complexes in the human TCR signalosome.

    PubMed

    Smith, Stephen E P; Neier, Steven C; Reed, Brendan K; Davis, Tessa R; Sinnwell, Jason P; Eckel-Passow, Jeanette E; Sciallis, Gabriel F; Wieland, Carilyn N; Torgerson, Rochelle R; Gil, Diana; Neuhauser, Claudia; Schrum, Adam G

    2016-01-01

    Multiprotein complexes transduce cellular signals through extensive interaction networks, but the ability to analyze these networks in cells from small clinical biopsies is limited. To address this, we applied an adaptable multiplex matrix system to physiologically relevant signaling protein complexes isolated from a cell line or from human patient samples. Focusing on the proximal T cell receptor (TCR) signalosome, we assessed 210 pairs of PiSCES (proteins in shared complexes detected by exposed surface epitopes). Upon stimulation of Jurkat cells with superantigen-loaded antigen-presenting cells, this system produced high-dimensional data that enabled visualization of network activity. A comprehensive analysis platform generated PiSCES biosignatures by applying unsupervised hierarchical clustering, principal component analysis, an adaptive nonparametric with empirical cutoff analysis, and weighted correlation network analysis. We generated PiSCES biosignatures from 4-mm skin punch biopsies from control patients or patients with the autoimmune skin disease alopecia areata. This analysis distinguished disease patients from the controls, detected enhanced basal TCR signaling in the autoimmune patients, and identified a potential signaling network signature that may be indicative of disease. Thus, generation of PiSCES biosignatures represents an approach that can provide information about the activity of protein signaling networks in samples including low-abundance primary cells from clinical biopsies. PMID:27485017

  1. Vitamin D represses dentin matrix protein 1 in cementoblasts and osteocytes.

    PubMed

    Nociti, F H; Foster, B L; Tran, A B; Dunn, D; Presland, R B; Wang, L; Bhattacharyya, N; Collins, M T; Somerman, M J

    2014-02-01

    Calcium and phosphorus homeostasis is achieved by interplay among hormones, including 1,25(OH)2D3 (1,25D), parathyroid hormone, and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), and their interactions with other proteins. For example, mutations in dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP-1) result in increased FGF23 and hypophosphatemic rickets. 1,25D is reported to modulate FGF23; thus, we hypothesized that 1,25D may be involved in modulating DMP-1 in an intermediary step. Murine cementoblasts (OCCM-30) and osteocyte-like cells (MLO-Y4 and MLO-A5), known to express DMP-1, were used to analyze effects of 1,25D on DMP-1 expression in vitro. DMP-1 mRNA levels decreased by 50% (p < .05) in the presence of 1,25D in all cell types, while use of a vitamin D receptor (VDR) agonist (EB1089) and antagonist (23S,25S)-DLAM-2P confirmed that VDR pathway activation was required for this response. Further analysis showed that histone deacetylase recruitment was necessary, but neither protein kinase A nor C pathways were required. In conclusion, our results support the hypothesis that 1,25D regulates DMP-1 expression through a VDR-dependent mechanism, possibly contributing to local changes in bone/tooth mineral homeostasis. PMID:24334408

  2. The neuronal extracellular matrix restricts distribution and internalization of aggregated Tau-protein.

    PubMed

    Suttkus, A; Holzer, M; Morawski, M; Arendt, T

    2016-01-28

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic degenerative disorder characterized by fibrillary aggregates of Aß and Tau-protein. Formation and progression of these pathological hallmarks throughout the brain follow a specific spatio-temporal pattern which provides the basis for neuropathological staging. Previously, we could demonstrate that cortical and subcortical neurons are less frequently affected by neurofibrillary degeneration if they are enwrapped by a specialized form of the hyaluronan-based extracellular matrix (ECM), the so called 'perineuronal net' (PN). PNs are composed of large aggregating chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans connected to a hyaluronan backbone, stabilized by link proteins and cross-linked via tenascin-R. Recently, PN-associated neurons were shown to be better protected against iron-induced neurodegeneration compared to neurons without PN, indicating a neuroprotective function. Here, we investigated the role of PNs in distribution and internalization of exogenous Tau-protein by using organotypic slice cultures of wildtype mice as well as mice lacking the ECM-components aggrecan, HAPLN1 or tenascin-R. We could demonstrate that PNs restrict both distribution and internalization of Tau. Accordingly, PN-ensheathed neurons were less frequently affected by Tau-internalization, than neurons without PN. Finally, the PNs as well as their three investigated components were shown to modulate the processes of distribution as well as internalization of Tau. PMID:26621125

  3. Products of dentin matrix protein-1 degradation by interleukin-1β-induced matrix metalloproteinase-3 promote proliferation of odontoblastic cells.

    PubMed

    Hase, Naoko; Ozeki, Nobuaki; Hiyama, Taiki; Yamaguchi, Hideyuki; Kawai, Rie; Kondo, Ayami; Nakata, Kazuhiko; Mogi, Makio

    2015-08-01

    We have previously reported that interleukin (IL)-1β induces matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3-regulated cell proliferation in mouse embryonic stem cell (ESC)-derived odontoblast-like cells, suggesting that MMP-3 plays a potentially unique physiological role in regeneration by odontoblast-like cells. MMPs are able to process virtually any component of the extracellular matrix, including collagen, laminin and bioactive molecules. Because odontoblasts produce dentin matrix protein-1 (DMP-1), we examined whether the degraded products of DMP-1 by MMP-3 contribute to enhanced proliferation in odontoblast-like cells. IL-1β increased mRNA and protein levels of odontoblastic marker proteins, including DMP-1, but not osteoblastic marker proteins, such as osteocalcin and osteopontin. The recombinant active form of MMP-3 could degrade DMP-1 protein but not osteocalcin and osteopontin in vitro. The exogenous degraded products of DMP-1 by MMP-3 resulted in increased proliferation of odontoblast-like cells in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment with a polyclonal antibody against DMP-1 suppressed IL-1β-induced cell proliferation to a basal level, but identical treatment had no effect on the IL-1β-induced increase in MMP-3 expression and activity. Treatment with siRNA against MMP-3 potently suppressed the IL-1β-induced increase in DMP-1 expression and suppressed cell proliferation (p < 0.05). Similarly, treatment with siRNAs against Wnt5a and Wnt5b suppressed the IL-1β-induced increase in DMP-1 expression and suppressed cell proliferation (p < 0.05). Rat KN-3 cells, representative of authentic odontoblasts, showed similar responses to the odontoblast-like cells. Taken together, our current study demonstrates the sequential involvement of Wnt5, MMP-3, DMP-1 expression, and DMP-1 degradation products by MMP-3, in effecting IL-1β-induced proliferation of ESC-derived odontoblast-like cells. PMID:26355224

  4. Amyloid β-Protein as a Substrate Interacts with Extracellular Matrix to Promote Neurite Outgrowth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Edward H.; Park, Lisa; Selkoe, Dennis J.

    1993-05-01

    Progressive deposition of amyloid β-protein (Aβ) in brain parenchyma and blood vessels is a characteristic feature of Alzheimer disease. Recent evidence suggests that addition of solubilized synthetic Aβ to medium may produce toxic or trophic effects on cultured hippocampal neurons. Because soluble Aβ may not accumulate in significant quantities in brain, we asked whether immobilized Aβ peptide as a substrate alters neurite outgrowth from cultured rat peripheral sensory neurons. This paradigm may closely mimic the conditions in Alzheimer disease brain tissue, in which neurites contact insoluble, extracellular aggregates of β-amyloid. We detected no detrimental effects of Aβ substrate on neurite outgrowth. Rather, Aβ in combination with low doses of laminin or fibronectin enhanced neurite out-growth from these neuronal explants. Our results suggest that insoluble Aβ in the cerebral neuropil may serve as a neurite-promoting matrix, perhaps explaining the apparent regenerative response of neurites observed around amyloid plaques in Alzheimer disease. Moreover, in concert with the recent discovery of Aβ production by cultured neurons, our data suggest that Aβ plays a normal physiological role in brain by complexing with the extracellular matrix.

  5. Role of the extracellular matrix protein thrombospondin in the early development of the mouse embryo

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    The distribution of the extracellular matrix protein thrombospondin (TSP) in cleavage to egg cylinder staged mouse embryos and its role in trophoblast outgrowth from cultured blastocysts were examined. TSP was present within the cytoplasm of unfertilized eggs; in fertilized one- to four-cell embryos; by the eight-cell stage, TSP was also densely deposited at cell-cell borders. In the blastocyst, although TSP was present in all three cell types; trophectoderm, endoderm, and inner cell mass (ICM), it was enriched in the ICM and at the surface of trophectoderm cells. Hatched blastocysts grown on matrix-coated coverslips formed extensive trophoblast outgrowths on TSP, grew slightly less avidly on laminin, or on a 140-kD fragment of TSP containing its COOH terminus and putative cell binding domains. There was little outgrowth on the NH2 terminus heparin-binding domain. Addition of anti-TSP antibodies (but not GRGDS) to blastocysts growing on TSP strikingly inhibited outgrowth. Consistent with its early appearance and presence in trophoblast cells during implantation, TSP may play an important role in the early events involved in mammalian embryogenesis. PMID:2277082

  6. Efficient combination of Wang-Landau and transition matrix Monte Carlo methods for protein simulations.

    PubMed

    Ghulghazaryan, Ruben G; Hayryan, Shura; Hu, Chin-Kun

    2007-02-01

    An efficient combination of the Wang-Landau and transition matrix Monte Carlo methods for protein and peptide simulations is described. At the initial stage of simulation the algorithm behaves like the Wang-Landau algorithm, allowing to sample the entire interval of energies, and at the later stages, it behaves like transition matrix Monte Carlo method and has significantly lower statistical errors. This combination allows to achieve fast convergence to the correct values of density of states. We propose that the violation of TTT identities may serve as a qualitative criterion to check the convergence of density of states. The simulation process can be parallelized by cutting the entire interval of simulation into subintervals. The violation of ergodicity in this case is discussed. We test the algorithm on a set of peptides of different lengths and observe good statistical convergent properties for the density of states. We believe that the method is of general nature and can be used for simulations of other systems with either discrete or continuous energy spectrum. PMID:17195159

  7. The interaction of Tamm-Horsfall protein with the extracellular matrix.

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, C; Brealey, R; Steele, J; Rook, G A

    1993-01-01

    Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP) is the major glycoprotein component of urine, yet its biological role remains obscure. Recent reports have suggested that a concanavalin A (Con A)-binding fraction of THP from pregnancy urine can bind the cytokines tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 (IL-1). In order to investigate this claim in relation to THP from normal adult urine we raised monoclonal antibodies to THP and sought THP/TNF-alpha interactions in three separate assay systems. We found no evidence that THP binds to TNF-alpha under physiological conditions, but we observed that it exerts a weak, probably not physiologically relevant, but reproducible inhibitory effect on the toxicity of TNF-alpha for monolayers of L929 cells, even when the cells are pretreated with the THP, and washed before addition of the cytokine. Since our preparations of THP do not interact directly with TNF-alpha we postulated an interaction with the cells themselves, or with their extracellular matrix. The THP was found by ELISA, immunoblotting and immunohistology, to bind to as yet unidentified components of the extracellular matrix in a manner dependent on cations, pH and carbohydrates. These data, considered in the light of the published amino acid sequence and biochemical properties, suggest that THP is a member of a structural glycoprotein family known to modulate cell adhesion. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8344699

  8. Enhanced release of bone morphogenetic proteins from demineralized bone matrix by gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Nak-Yun; Choi, Jong-il

    2015-06-01

    Gamma irradiation is a useful method for sterilizing demineralized bone matrix (DBM), but its effect on the osteoinductivity of DBM is still controversial. In this study, the osteoinductive activity of gamma-irradiated DBM was examined using a mouse myoblastic cell line (C2C12). DBM was extracted from adult bovine bone and was irradiated at a dose of 25 kGy using a 60cobalt gamma-irradiator. Cell proliferation with DBM was not affected by gamma-irradiation, but alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin productions were significantly increased in C2C12 cell groups treated with gamma-irradiated DBM. It was reasoned that bone morphogenetic proteins were more efficiently released from gamma-irradiated DBM than from the non-irradiated control. This result suggests the effectiveness of radiation sterilization of bone implants

  9. Nuclear matrix protein Matrin3 regulates alternative splicing and forms overlapping regulatory networks with PTB

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Miguel B; Attig, Jan; Bellora, Nicolás; König, Julian; Hallegger, Martina; Kayikci, Melis; Eyras, Eduardo; Ule, Jernej; Smith, Christopher WJ

    2015-01-01

    Matrin3 is an RNA- and DNA-binding nuclear matrix protein found to be associated with neural and muscular degenerative diseases. A number of possible functions of Matrin3 have been suggested, but no widespread role in RNA metabolism has yet been clearly demonstrated. We identified Matrin3 by its interaction with the second RRM domain of the splicing regulator PTB. Using a combination of RNAi knockdown, transcriptome profiling and iCLIP, we find that Matrin3 is a regulator of hundreds of alternative splicing events, principally acting as a splicing repressor with only a small proportion of targeted events being co-regulated by PTB. In contrast to other splicing regulators, Matrin3 binds to an extended region within repressed exons and flanking introns with no sharply defined peaks. The identification of this clear molecular function of Matrin3 should help to clarify the molecular pathology of ALS and other diseases caused by mutations of Matrin3. PMID:25599992

  10. Genetic control of immune responses to influenza A matrix 2 protein (M2).

    PubMed

    Misplon, Julia A; Lo, Chia-Yun; Gabbard, Jon D; Tompkins, S Mark; Epstein, Suzanne L

    2010-08-16

    Vaccines should protect genetically diverse populations. Therefore we tested the candidate "universal" influenza A matrix protein 2 (M2) vaccine in multiple mouse strains. Mice were primed with M2 DNA and boosted with M2 recombinant adenovirus (rAd). C57BL/6 (B6) mice developed no antibody or T-cell response to M2, while BALB/c responded strongly. CBA responses were intermediate. Both MHC and background genes influenced responsiveness. To improve low responses we immunized with adjuvanted peptide-carrier conjugates, or co-immunized with nucleoprotein (NP), which can augment T-cell help. The conjugate vaccine enhanced some outcomes but not others. Co-immunizing with NP improved outcomes over either NP or M2 immunizations alone. These results have implications for vaccination of genetically diverse populations. PMID:20600476

  11. Microseed matrix screening for optimization in protein crystallization: what have we learned?

    PubMed Central

    D’Arcy, Allan; Bergfors, Terese; Cowan-Jacob, Sandra W.; Marsh, May

    2014-01-01

    Protein crystals obtained in initial screens typically require optimization before they are of X-ray diffraction quality. Seeding is one such optimization method. In classical seeding experiments, the seed crystals are put into new, albeit similar, conditions. The past decade has seen the emergence of an alternative seeding strategy: microseed matrix screening (MMS). In this strategy, the seed crystals are transferred into conditions unrelated to the seed source. Examples of MMS applications from in-house projects and the literature include the generation of multiple crystal forms and different space groups, better diffracting crystals and crystallization of previously uncrystallizable targets. MMS can be implemented robotically, making it a viable option for drug-discovery programs. In conclusion, MMS is a simple, time- and cost-efficient optimization method that is applicable to many recalcitrant crystallization problems. PMID:25195878

  12. The Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus Matrix Protein PPXY Late Domain Drives the Production of Defective Interfering Particles

    PubMed Central

    Ziegler, Christopher M.; Eisenhauer, Philip; Bruce, Emily A.; Weir, Marion E.; King, Benjamin R.; Klaus, Joseph P.; Krementsov, Dimitry N.; Shirley, David J.; Ballif, Bryan A.; Botten, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Arenaviruses cause severe diseases in humans but establish asymptomatic, lifelong infections in rodent reservoirs. Persistently-infected rodents harbor high levels of defective interfering (DI) particles, which are thought to be important for establishing persistence and mitigating virus-induced cytopathic effect. Little is known about what drives the production of DI particles. We show that neither the PPXY late domain encoded within the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) matrix protein nor a functional endosomal sorting complex transport (ESCRT) pathway is absolutely required for the generation of standard infectious virus particles. In contrast, DI particle release critically requires the PPXY late domain and is ESCRT-dependent. Additionally, the terminal tyrosine in the PPXY motif is reversibly phosphorylated and our findings indicate that this posttranslational modification may regulate DI particle formation. Thus we have uncovered a new role for the PPXY late domain and a possible mechanism for its regulation. PMID:27010636

  13. Hypoxia and Extracellular Matrix Proteins Influence Angiogenesis and Lymphangiogenesis in Mouse Embryoid Bodies

    PubMed Central

    Foskett, Andrea M.; Ezekiel, Uthayashanker R.; Trzeciakowski, Jerome P.; Zawieja, David C.; Muthuchamy, Mariappan

    2011-01-01

    Regulatory mechanisms for angiogenesis are relatively well established compared to lymphangiogenesis. Few studies have shown that a combination of vascular endothelial growth factor VEGF-A/C with hypoxia or collagen matrix promotes lymphatic structures along with blood vessel development in mouse embryoid bodies (EB). In this study we tested the hypothesis that while hypoxia combined with prolonged VEGF-A/C treatment would induce early lymphangiogenesis in addition to angiogenesis in mouse EBs, under similar conditions specific extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins would promote lymphatic vessel-like structures over angiogenesis. EBs were subjected to four conditions and were maintained under normoxia and hypoxia (21% and 2.6% O2, respectively) with or without VEGF-A/C. Microarray analyses of normoxic and hypoxic EBs, and immunofluorescence data showed very low expression of early lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) markers, lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor 1 (LYVE1), and prospero-related homeobox 1 (Prox1) at early time points. Double immunofluorescence using MECA-32 and Prox1/LYVE1 demonstrated that combined hypoxia and VEGF-A/C treatment promoted formation of blood vessel-like structures, whereas only Prox1+/LYVE1+ LECs were detected in EBs at E22.5. Furthermore, EBs were grown on laminin or collagen-I coated plates and were subjected to the four treatments as described above. Results revealed that LECs in EBs at E36.5 attached better to collagen-I, resulting in an organized network of lymphatic vessel-like structures as compared to EBs grown on laminin. However, blood vessel-like structures were less favored under these same conditions. Collectively, our data demonstrate that hypoxia combined with growth factors promotes angiogenesis, whereas combination of these conditions with specific ECM proteins favors lymphangiogenesis processes in mouse EBs. PMID:22194726

  14. Orthogonal matrix factorization enables integrative analysis of multiple RNA binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Stražar, Martin; Žitnik, Marinka; Zupan, Blaž; Ule, Jernej; Curk, Tomaž

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: RNA binding proteins (RBPs) play important roles in post-transcriptional control of gene expression, including splicing, transport, polyadenylation and RNA stability. To model protein–RNA interactions by considering all available sources of information, it is necessary to integrate the rapidly growing RBP experimental data with the latest genome annotation, gene function, RNA sequence and structure. Such integration is possible by matrix factorization, where current approaches have an undesired tendency to identify only a small number of the strongest patterns with overlapping features. Because protein–RNA interactions are orchestrated by multiple factors, methods that identify discriminative patterns of varying strengths are needed. Results: We have developed an integrative orthogonality-regularized nonnegative matrix factorization (iONMF) to integrate multiple data sources and discover non-overlapping, class-specific RNA binding patterns of varying strengths. The orthogonality constraint halves the effective size of the factor model and outperforms other NMF models in predicting RBP interaction sites on RNA. We have integrated the largest data compendium to date, which includes 31 CLIP experiments on 19 RBPs involved in splicing (such as hnRNPs, U2AF2, ELAVL1, TDP-43 and FUS) and processing of 3’UTR (Ago, IGF2BP). We show that the integration of multiple data sources improves the predictive accuracy of retrieval of RNA binding sites. In our study the key predictive factors of protein–RNA interactions were the position of RNA structure and sequence motifs, RBP co-binding and gene region type. We report on a number of protein-specific patterns, many of which are consistent with experimentally determined properties of RBPs. Availability and implementation: The iONMF implementation and example datasets are available at https://github.com/mstrazar/ionmf. Contact: tomaz.curk@fri.uni-lj.si Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available

  15. Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein prevents vascular aging and vascular smooth muscle cells senescence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meili; Fu, Yi; Gao, Cheng; Jia, Yiting; Huang, Yaqian; Liu, Limei; Wang, Xian; Wang, Wengong; Kong, Wei

    2016-09-16

    Aging-related vascular dysfunction contributes to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), a vascular extracellular matrix protein, has been described as a negative regulatory factor for the vascular aging-related processes including atherosclerosis and vascular calcification. However, whether COMP is implicated in the process of vascular aging remains unclear. Here, we identified a novel function of COMP in preventing vascular aging and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) senescence. Firstly, vascular COMP expression was decreased in three different senescence-accelerated mouse models and was also declining with age. COMP(-/-) mice displayed elevated senescence-associated markers expression, including p53, p21 and p16, in the aortas compared with their wild type (WT) littermates. In accordance, COMP deficiency induced aging-related vascular dysfunction as evidenced by the significantly reduced phenylephrine-induced contraction and increased vascular stiffness as evaluated by pulse wave velocity. The aortic wall of COMP(-/-) mice was susceptible to senescence by displaying senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA β-gal) activity induced by periadventitial application of CaCl2 to the abdominal aorta. In vitro, COMP knockdown by small interfering (si) RNA led to the elevation of p53, p21 and p16 as well as SA β-gal activity in VSMCs after H2O2 stimulation. VSMCs isolated from COMP(-/-) mice showed elevated senescence-associated markers expression and supplement of COMP adenovirus to COMP-deficient VSMCs greatly rescued cellular senescence. Taken together, these findings revealed the essential role of COMP in retarding the development of vascular aging and VSMC senescence. PMID:27498005

  16. Human VE-Cadherin Fusion Protein as an Artificial Extracellular Matrix Enhancing the Proliferation and Differentiation Functions of Endothelial Cell.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ke; Shuai, Qizhi; Li, Xiaoning; Zhang, Yan; Gao, Chao; Cao, Lei; Hu, Feifei; Akaike, Toshihiro; Wang, Jian-xi; Gu, Zhongwei; Yang, Jun

    2016-03-14

    In an attempt to enhance endothelial cell capture and promote the vascularization of engineered tissue, we biosynthesized and characterized the recombinant fusion protein consisting of human vascular endothelial-cadherin extracellular domain and immunoglobulin IgG Fc region (hVE-cad-Fc) to serve as a bioartificial extracellular matrix. The hVE-cad-Fc protein naturally formed homodimers and was used to construct hVE-cad-Fc matrix by stably adsorbing on polystyrene plates. Atomic force microscop assay showed uniform hVE-cad-Fc distribution with nanorod topography. The hVE-cad-Fc matrix markedly promoted human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) adhesion and proliferation with fibroblastoid morphology. Additionally, the hVE-cad-Fc matrix improved HUVECs migration, vWF expression, and NO release, which are closely related to vascularization. Furthermore, the hVE-cad-Fc matrix activated endogenous VE-cadherin/β-catenin proteins and effectively triggered the intracellular signals such as F-actin stress fiber, p-FAK, AKT, and Bcl-2. Taken together, hVE-cad-Fc could be a promising bioartificial matrix to promote vascularization in tissue engineering. PMID:26859785

  17. Nuclear entry and nucleolar localization of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV) matrix protein occur early in infection and do not require other NDV proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Peeples, M E; Wang, C; Gupta, K C; Coleman, N

    1992-01-01

    A large proportion of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV) matrix (M) protein is found in the nuclei of infected chicken embryo cells. Kinetic analysis indicated that much of the M protein enters the nucleus early in infection, concentrating in discrete regions of the nucleus and remaining there throughout infection. The M protein was found in localized regions of the nuclei of a variety of cell lines infected with NDV. Immunostaining for both M protein and nucleolar antigens indicated that most of these regions represent nucleoli. Moreover, this nucleolar localization of the M protein was observed in chicken embryo cells infected with 11 different strains of NDV. Only the M protein of strain HP displayed a modified pattern, concentrating in the nucleolus early in infection but in the cytoplasm late in infection. M protein transiently expressed in COS-1 cells also localized to the nucleus and nucleolus, indicating that the M protein does not require other NDV proteins for this localization. Images PMID:1560547

  18. Biosynthesis of collagen and other matrix proteins by articular cartilage in experimental osteoarthrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Eyre, D R; McDevitt, C A; Billingham, M E; Muir, H

    1980-01-01

    Osteoarthrosis was induced in one knee joint of dogs by an established surgical procedure. Changes in the articular cartilage in the biosynthesis of collagen and other proteins were sought by radiochemical labelling in vivo, with the following findings. (1) Collagen synthesis was stimulated in all cartilage surfaces of the experimental joints at 2, 8 and 24 weeks after surgery. Systemic labelling with [3H]proline showed that over 10 times more collagen was being deposited per dry weight of experimental cartilage compared with control cartilage in the unoperated knee. (2) Type-II collagen was the radiolabelled product in all samples of experimental cartilage ranging in quality from undamaged to overtly fibrillated, and was the only collagen detected chemically in the matrix of osteoarthrotic cartilage from either dog or human joints. (3) Hydroxylysine glycosylation was examined in the newly synthesized cartilage collagen by labelling dog joints in vivo with [3H]lysine. In experimental knees the new collagen was less glycosylated than in controls. However, no difference in glycosylation of the total collagen in the tissues was observed by chemical analysis. (4) Over half the protein-bound tritium was extracted by 4 M-guanidinium chloride from control cartilage labelled with [3H]proline, compared with one-quarter or less from experimental cartilage. Two-thirds of the extracted tritium separated in the upper fraction on density-gradient centrifugation in CsCl under associative conditions. Much of this ran with a single protein band on sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis under reducing conditions. The identity of this protein was unknown, although it resembled serum albumin in mobility afte disulphide-bond cleavage. Images Fig. 3. PMID:7470037

  19. Expression of mutant cartilage oligomeric matrix protein in human chondrocytes induces the pseudoachondroplasia phenotype.

    PubMed

    Merritt, Thomas M; Alcorn, Joseph L; Haynes, Richard; Hecht, Jacqueline T

    2006-04-01

    Over 70 mutations in the cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), a large extracellular pentameric glycoprotein synthesized by chondrocytes, have been identified as causing two skeletal dysplasias: multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED/EDM1), and a dwarfing condition, pseudoachondroplasia (PSACH). These mutations induce misfolding of intracellular COMP, resulting in retention of the protein in the rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER) of chondrocytes. This accumulation of COMP in the rER creates the phenotypic enlarged rER cisternae in the cells, which is believed to compromise chondrocyte function and eventually cause cell death. To study the molecular mechanisms involved with the disease, we sought to develop an in vitro model that recapitulates the PSACH phenotype. Normal human chondrocytes were transfected with wildtype (wt-) COMP or with mutant COMP (D469del; mt-) recombinant adenoviruses and grown in a nonattachment redifferentiating culture system that provides an environment allowing formation of a differentiated chondrocyte nodule. Visualization of normal cells expressing COMP suggested the hallmarks of the PSACH phenotype. Mutant COMP expressed in normal cells was retained in enlarged rER cisternae, which also retained IX collagen (COL9) and matrilin-3 (MATN3). Although these proteins were secreted normally into the ECM of the wt-COMP nodules, reduced secretion of these proteins was observed in nodules composed of cells transfected with mt-COMP. The findings complement those found in chondrocytes from PSACH patient growth plates. This new model system allows for production of PSACH chondrocyte pathology in normal costochondral chondrocytes and can be used for future mechanistic and potential gene therapy studies. PMID:16514635

  20. Colocalisation of matrix metalloproteinase-9-mRNA and protein in human colorectal cancer stromal cells.

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Z. S.; Guillem, J. G.

    1996-01-01

    The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are perceived as essential for tumour invasion and metastases. The purpose of this study was to determine the expression and cellular localisation of the 92 kDa type IV collagenase (MMP-9) protein and mRNA in human colorectal cancer (CRC). In CRC and matched normal mucosa specimens from 26 CRC patients, Northern blot hybridisation and Western blot analyses provide convincing evidence that MMP-9 is expressed in greater quantities in CRC than in normal tissue. The MMP-9 tumour to normal mucosa fold-increase (T/N) was 9.7 +/- 7.1 (mean +/- s.d.) (P < 0.001) for RNA and 7.1 +/- 3.9 (P < 0.001) for protein. The sites of MMP-9 mRNA and protein synthesis were colocalised in tumour stroma by in situ hybridisation and immunohistochemistry in 26 CRC samples. Both MMP-9 mRNA and protein signals were strongest in the population of stromal cells concentrated at the tumour-stroma interface of an invading tumour. Furthermore, MMP-9-positive cells were identified as macrophages using an antimacrophage antibody (KP1) in serial sections from ten CRC samples. Given the persistent localisation of MMP-9-producing macrophages to the interphase between CRC and surrounding stroma, our observations suggest that MMP-9 production is controlled, in part, by tumour-stroma cell interactions. Further studies are needed to determine the in vivo regulation of MMP-9 production from infiltrating peritumour macrophages. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8883399

  1. Interaction of Glutaric Aciduria Type 1-Related glutaryl-CoA Dehydrogenase with Mitochondrial Matrix Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Schmiesing, Jessica; Schlüter, Hartmut; Ullrich, Kurt; Braulke, Thomas; Mühlhausen, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Glutaric aciduria type 1 (GA1) is an inherited neurometabolic disorder caused by mutations in the GCDH gene encoding glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase (GCDH), which forms homo- and heteromeric complexes in the mitochondrial matrix. GA1 patients are prone to the development of encephalopathic crises which lead to an irreversible disabling dystonic movement disorder. The clinical and biochemical manifestations of GA1 vary considerably and lack correlations to the genotype. Using an affinity chromatography approach we report here for the first time on the identification of mitochondrial proteins interacting directly with GCDH. Among others, dihydrolipoamide S-succinyltransferase (DLST) involved in the formation of glutaryl-CoA, and the β-subunit of the electron transfer flavoprotein (ETFB) serving as electron acceptor, were identified as GCDH binding partners. We have adapted the yellow fluorescent protein-based fragment complementation assay and visualized the oligomerization of GCDH as well as its direct interaction with DLST and ETFB in mitochondria of living cells. These data suggest that GCDH is a constituent of multimeric mitochondrial dehydrogenase complexes, and the characterization of their interrelated functions may provide new insights into the regulation of lysine oxidation and the pathophysiology of GA1. PMID:24498361

  2. The HIV matrix protein p17 induces hepatic lipid accumulation via modulation of nuclear receptor transcriptoma

    PubMed Central

    Renga, Barbara; Francisci, Daniela; Carino, Adriana; Marchianò, Silvia; Cipriani, Sabrina; Chiara Monti, Maria; Del Sordo, Rachele; Schiaroli, Elisabetta; Distrutti, Eleonora; Baldelli, Franco; Fiorucci, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Liver disease is the second most common cause of mortality in HIV-infected persons. Exactly how HIV infection per se affects liver disease progression is unknown. Here we have investigated mRNA expression of 49 nuclear hormone receptors (NRs) and 35 transcriptional coregulators in HepG2 cells upon stimulation with the HIV matrix protein p17. This viral protein regulated mRNA expression of some NRs among which LXRα and its transcriptional co-activator MED1 were highly induced at mRNA level. Dissection of p17 downstream intracellular pathway demonstrated that p17 mediated activation of Jak/STAT signaling is responsible for the promoter dependent activation of LXR. The treatment of both HepG2 as well as primary hepatocytes with HIV p17 results in the transcriptional activation of LXR target genes (SREBP1c and FAS) and lipid accumulation. These effects are lost in HepG2 cells pre-incubated with a serum from HIV positive person who underwent a vaccination with a p17 peptide as well as in HepG2 cells pre-incubated with the natural LXR antagonist gymnestrogenin. These results suggest that HIV p17 affects NRs and their related signal transduction thus contributing to the progression of liver disease in HIV infected patients. PMID:26469385

  3. Serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) decreases in rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with infliximab or etanercept

    PubMed Central

    Crnkic, Meliha; Månsson, Bengt; Larsson, Lotta; Geborek, Pierre; Heinegård, Dick; Saxne, Tore

    2003-01-01

    Changes in serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) were studied during a 6-month period from initiation of treatment of rheumatoid arthritis patients with either infliximab or etanercept, to elucidate whether the favourable results of tissue protection reported in clinical trials are corroborated by changing levels of circulating COMP. Rheumatoid arthritis patients commencing treatment with infliximab (N = 32) or etanercept (N = 17) were monitored in accordance with a structured protocol. Only patients who were not receiving glucocorticoids or who were on a stable dose of oral prednisolone (<10 mg daily) were included. Serum COMP was measured by a sandwich immunoassay based on two monoclonal antibodies against human COMP in samples obtained at treatment initiation and at 3 and 6 months. Serum COMP decreased at 3 months in both infliximab- and etanercept-treated patients (P < 0.001 and <0.005, respectively) and remained low at 6 months. There was no significant correlation between changes in or concentrations of serum COMP and serum C-reactive protein at any time point. A decrease in serum COMP was seen both in ACR20 responders (patients meeting the American College of Rheumatology criteria for 20% improvement) and in nonresponders. The pattern of changes of serum COMP, a marker for cartilage turnover, in these patient groups supports the interpretation that infliximab and etanercept have a joint protective effect. Serum COMP has potential as a useful marker for evaluating tissue effects of novel treatment modalities in rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:12823852

  4. Broad Spectrum Anti-Influenza Agents by Inhibiting Self-Association of Matrix Protein 1.

    PubMed

    Mosier, Philip D; Chiang, Meng-Jung; Lin, Zhengshi; Gao, Yamei; Althufairi, Bashayer; Zhou, Qibing; Musayev, Faik; Safo, Martin K; Xie, Hang; Desai, Umesh R

    2016-01-01

    The matrix protein 1 (M1) of influenza A virus (IAV) exists as a three-dimensional oligomeric structure in mature virions with high sequence conservation across different IAV subtypes, which makes it a potential broad spectrum antiviral target. We hypothesized that impairing self-association of M1 through a small molecule 'wedge', which avidly binds to an M1-M1 interface, would result in a completely new class of anti-influenza agents. To establish this proof-of-principle, we performed virtual screening on a library of >70,000 commercially available small molecules that resulted in several plausible 'wedges'. Biophysical studies showed that the best molecule bound the M1 protein potently and weakened M1-M1 self-association. Most importantly, the agent reduced the thickness of the M1 layer in mature virions and inhibited in ovo propagation of multiple IAV strains including H1N1, pandemic H1N1, H3N2 and H5N1, which supports the "wedge" hypothesis. These results demonstrate that M1 is a promising druggable target for the discovery of a completely new line of broad spectrum anti-IAV agents. PMID:27573445

  5. New strategies for characterizing ancient proteins using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrom, Peggy H.; Schall, Michael; Gandhi, Hasand; Shen, Tun-Li; Hauschka, Peter V.; Strahler, John R.; Gage, Douglas A.

    2000-03-01

    Structural characterization of ancient proteins is confounded by the small quantity of material remaining in fossils, difficulties in purification, and the inability to obtain sequence information by classical Edman degradation. We present a microbore reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (rpHPLC) method for partial purification of small quantities (picomoles) of the bone protein osteocalcin (OC) and subsequent characterization of this material by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). The presence of OC in the modern and ancient samples was suggested by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and radioimmunoassay (RIA). The SDS-PAGE of material isolated from 800 yr BP and 10,000 yr BP bones demonstrates a band consistent with the molecular weight of OC and the RIA indicated OC in concentrations of 0.2 to 450ng/mg of bone for samples between 800 and 53,000 yr BP. In modern samples, we demonstrate the use of MALDI-MS to confirm the molecular weight of intact OC and to sequence OC via peptide mass mapping and a novel derivatization approach with post-source decay analysis. MALDI-MS data for three ancient samples with RIA-confirmed osteocalcin (800 yr BP, 10,000 yr BP and 53,000 yr BP) indicate peaks with a molecular mass within the range of modern OC.

  6. The widely expressed extracellular matrix protein SMOC-2 promotes keratinocyte attachment and migration

    SciTech Connect

    Maier, Silke; Paulsson, Mats; Hartmann, Ursula

    2008-08-01

    SMOC-2 is a recently discovered member of the BM-40/SPARC/osteonectin family of extracellular multidomain proteins of so far unknown function. While we have shown earlier that the homologous protein SMOC-1 is associated with basement membranes, in this study we demonstrate that, in the mouse, SMOC-2 could be detected in a large number of non-basement membrane localizations, often showing a diffuse tissue distribution. A more distinct expression pattern was seen in skin where SMOC-2 is mainly present in the basal layers of the epidermis. Functionally, recombinant SMOC-2 stimulated attachment of primary epidermal cells as well as several epidermal-derived cell lines but had no effect on the attachment of non-epidermal cells. Inhibition experiments using blocking antibodies against individual integrin subunits allowed the identification of {alpha}v{beta}6 and {alpha}v{beta}1 integrins as important cellular receptors for SMOC-2. Cell attachment as well as the formation of focal adhesions could be attributed to the extracellular calcium-binding domain. The calcium-binding domain also stimulated migration, but not proliferation of keratinocyte-like HaCaT cells. We conclude that SMOC-2, like other members of the BM40/SPARC family, acts as a regulator of cell-matrix interactions.

  7. Broad Spectrum Anti-Influenza Agents by Inhibiting Self-Association of Matrix Protein 1

    PubMed Central

    Mosier, Philip D.; Chiang, Meng-Jung; Lin, Zhengshi; Gao, Yamei; Althufairi, Bashayer; Zhou, Qibing; Musayev, Faik; Safo, Martin K.; Xie, Hang; Desai, Umesh R.

    2016-01-01

    The matrix protein 1 (M1) of influenza A virus (IAV) exists as a three-dimensional oligomeric structure in mature virions with high sequence conservation across different IAV subtypes, which makes it a potential broad spectrum antiviral target. We hypothesized that impairing self-association of M1 through a small molecule ‘wedge’, which avidly binds to an M1-M1 interface, would result in a completely new class of anti-influenza agents. To establish this proof-of-principle, we performed virtual screening on a library of >70,000 commercially available small molecules that resulted in several plausible ‘wedges’. Biophysical studies showed that the best molecule bound the M1 protein potently and weakened M1-M1 self-association. Most importantly, the agent reduced the thickness of the M1 layer in mature virions and inhibited in ovo propagation of multiple IAV strains including H1N1, pandemic H1N1, H3N2 and H5N1, which supports the “wedge” hypothesis. These results demonstrate that M1 is a promising druggable target for the discovery of a completely new line of broad spectrum anti-IAV agents. PMID:27573445

  8. Mice lacking the extracellular matrix protein MAGP1 display delayed thrombotic occlusion following vessel injury

    PubMed Central

    Werneck, Claudio C.; Vicente, Cristina P.; Weinberg, Justin S.; Shifren, Adrian; Pierce, Richard A.; Broekelmann, Thomas J.; Tollefsen, Douglas M.

    2008-01-01

    Mice lacking the extracellular matrix protein microfibril-associated glycoprotein-1 (MAGP1) display delayed thrombotic occlusion of the carotid artery following injury as well as prolonged bleeding from a tail vein incision. Normal occlusion times were restored when recombinant MAGP1 was infused into deficient animals prior to vessel wounding. Blood coagulation was normal in these animals as assessed by activated partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin time. Platelet number was lower in MAGP1-deficient mice, but the platelets showed normal aggregation properties in response to various agonists. MAGP1 was not found in normal platelets or in the plasma of wild-type mice. In ligand blot assays, MAGP1 bound to fibronectin, fibrinogen, and von Willebrand factor, but von Willebrand factor was the only protein of the 3 that bound to MAGP1 in surface plasmon resonance studies. These findings show that MAGP1, a component of microfibrils and vascular elastic fibers, plays a role in hemostasis and thrombosis. PMID:18281502

  9. Shell matrix proteins of the clam, Mya truncata: Roles beyond shell formation through proteomic study.

    PubMed

    Arivalagan, Jaison; Marie, Benjamin; Sleight, Victoria A; Clark, Melody S; Berland, Sophie; Marie, Arul

    2016-06-01

    Mya truncata, a soft shell clam, is presented as a new model to study biomineralization through a proteomics approach. In this study, the shell and mantle tissue were analysed in order to retrieve knowledge about the secretion of shell matrix proteins (SMPs). Out of 67 and 127 shell and mantle proteins respectively, 16 were found in both shell and mantle. Bioinformatic analysis of SMP sequences for domain prediction revealed the presence of several new domains such as fucolectin tachylectin-4 pentraxin-1 (FTP), scavenger receptor, alpha-2-macroglobulin (α2 M), lipocalin and myosin tail along with previously reported SMP domains such as chitinase, carbonic anhydrase, tyrosinase, sushi, and chitin binding. Interestingly, these newly predicted domains are attributed with molecular functions other than biomineralization. These findings suggest that shells may not only act as protective armour from predatory action, but could also actively be related to other functions such as immunity. In this context, the roles of SMPs in biomineralization need to be looked in a new perspective. PMID:27068305

  10. Expression of p53 protein, Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus matrix protein, and surfactant protein in the lungs of sheep with pulmonary adenomatosis.

    PubMed

    İlhan, Fatma; Vural, Sevil A; Yıldırım, Serkan; Sözdutmaz, İbrahim; Alcigir, Mehmet E

    2016-05-01

    Ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA) is a naturally occurring cancer in sheep that is caused by the Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV). Because the pathologic and epidemiologic features of OPA are similar to those of bronchoalveolar carcinoma in humans, OPA is considered a useful animal model for pulmonary carcinogenesis. In this study, 3,512 lungs from various breeds of sheep were collected and macroscopically examined. OPA was identified in 30 sheep, and samples of these animals were further examined by histologic, immunohistochemical (p53 protein, surfactant protein A [SP-A], proliferating cell nuclear antigen [PCNA], JSRV matrix protein [MA]), and PCR methods. Papillary or acinar adenocarcinomas were detected microscopically in the affected areas. Immunoreactivity for p53 PAb240 was detected in 13 sheep, whereas p53 DO-1 was not detected in any of the OPA animals. PCNA immunoreactivity was recorded in 27 animals. SP-A and JSRV MA protein was immunopositive in all 30. JSRV proviral DNA was detected by PCR analysis in all of the lung samples collected from OPA animals. In addition, the pulmonary SP-A levels were increased in tumor cells. The results of this study suggest that PCNA and p53 protein expression may be useful indicators in monitoring malignancy of pulmonary tumors. PMID:27016721

  11. A Novel Matrix Protein Hic31 from the Prismatic Layer of Hyriopsis Cumingii Displays a Collagen-Like Structure

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Shaojian; Jin, Can; Li, Jiale

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we clone and characterize a novel matrix protein, hic31, from the mantle of Hyriopsis cumingii. The amino acid composition of hic31 consists of a high proportion of Glycine residues (26.67%). Tissue expression detection by RT-PCR indicates that hic31 is expressed specifically at the mantle edge. In situ hybridization results reveals strong signals from the dorsal epithelial cells of the outer fold at the mantle edge, and weak signals from inner epithelial cells of the same fold, indicating that hic31 is a prismatic-layer matrix protein. Although BLASTP results identify no shared homology with other shell-matrix proteins or any other known proteins, the hic31 tertiary structure is similar to that of collagen I, alpha 1 and alpha 2. It has been well proved that collagen forms the basic organic frameworks in way of collagen fibrils and minerals present within or outside of these fibrils. Therefore, hic31 might be a framework-matrix protein involved in the prismatic-layer biomineralization. Besides, the gene expression of hic31 increase in the early stages of pearl sac development, indicating that hic31 may play important roles in biomineralization of the pearl prismatic layer. PMID:26262686

  12. Extracellular matrix protein in calcified endoskeleton: a potential additive for crystal growth and design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azizur Rahman, M.; Fujimura, Hiroyuki; Shinjo, Ryuichi; Oomori, Tamotsu

    2011-06-01

    In this study, we demonstrate a key function of extracellular matrix proteins (ECMPs) on seed crystals, which are isolated from calcified endoskeletons of soft coral and contain only CaCO 3 without any living cells. This is the first report that an ECMP protein extracted from a marine organism could potentially influence in modifying the surface of a substrate for designing materials via crystallization. We previously studied with the ECMPs from a different type of soft coral ( Sinularia polydactyla) without introducing any seed crystals in the process , which showed different results. Thus, crystallization on the seed in the presence of ECMPs of present species is an important first step toward linking function to individual proteins from soft coral. For understanding this interesting phenomenon, in vitro crystallization was initiated in a supersaturated solution on seed particles of calcite (1 0 4) with and without ECMPs. No change in the crystal growth shape occurred without ECMPs present during the crystallization process. However, with ECMPs, the morphology and phase of the crystals in the crystallization process changed dramatically. Upon completion of crystallization with ECMPs, an attractive crystal morphology was found. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was utilized to observe the crystal morphologies on the seeds surface. The mineral phases of crystals nucleated by ECMPs on the seeds surface were examined by Raman spectroscopy. Although 50 mM Mg 2+ is influential in making aragonite in the crystallization process, the ECMPs significantly made calcite crystals even when 50 mM Mg 2+ was present in the process. Crystallization with the ECMP additive seems to be a technically attractive strategy to generate assembled micro crystals that could be used in crystals growth and design in the Pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries.

  13. Dentin Matrix Protein-1 Isoforms Promote Differential Cell Attachment and Migration*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    von Marschall, Zofia; Fisher, Larry W.

    2008-01-01

    Dentin matrix protein-1 (DMP1), bone sialoprotein (BSP), and osteopontin (OPN) are three SIBLINGs (small integrin-binding ligand, N-linked glycoproteins) co-expressed/secreted by skeletal and active ductal epithelial cells. Although etiological mechanisms remain unclear, DMP1 is the only one of these three genes currently known to have mutations resulting in human disease, and yet it remains the least studied. All three contain the highly conserved integrin-binding tripeptide, RGD, and experiments comparing the cell attachment and haptotactic migration-enhancing properties of DMP1 to BSP and OPN were performed using human skeletal (MG63 and primary dental pulp cells) and salivary gland (HSG) cells. Mutation of any SIBLING's RGD destroyed all attachment and migration activity. Using itsαVβ5 integrin, HSG cells attached to BSP but not to DMP1 or OPN. However, HSG cells could not migrate onto BSP in a modified Boyden chamber assay. Expression of αVβ3 integrin enhanced HSG attachment to DMP1 and OPN and promoted haptotactic migration onto all three proteins. Interchanging the first four coding exons or the conserved amino acids adjacent to the RGD of DMP1 with corresponding sequences of BSP did not enhance the ability of DMP1 to bindαVβ5. For αVβ3-expressing cells, intact DMP1, its BMP1-cleaved C-terminal fragment, and exon six lacking all post-translational modifications worked equally well but the proteoglycan isoform of DMP1 had greatly reduced ability for cell attachment and migration. The sequence specificity of the proposed BMP1-cleavage site of DMP1 was verified by mutation analysis. Direct comparison of the three proteins showed that cells discriminate among these SIBLINGs and among DMP1 isoforms. PMID:18819913

  14. Proteomic Analysis of Tendon Extracellular Matrix Reveals Disease Stage-specific Fragmentation and Differential Cleavage of COMP (Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein)*

    PubMed Central

    Dakin, Stephanie Georgina; Smith, Roger Kenneth Whealands; Heinegård, Dick; Önnerfjord, Patrik; Khabut, Areej; Dudhia, Jayesh

    2014-01-01

    During inflammatory processes the extracellular matrix (ECM) is extensively remodeled, and many of the constituent components are released as proteolytically cleaved fragments. These degradative processes are better documented for inflammatory joint diseases than tendinopathy even though the pathogenesis has many similarities. The aims of this study were to investigate the proteomic composition of injured tendons during early and late disease stages to identify disease-specific cleavage patterns of the ECM protein cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP). In addition to characterizing fragments released in naturally occurring disease, we hypothesized that stimulation of tendon explants with proinflammatory mediators in vitro would induce fragments of COMP analogous to natural disease. Therefore, normal tendon explants were stimulated with IL-1β and prostaglandin E2, and their effects on the release of COMP and its cleavage patterns were characterized. Analyses of injured tendons identified an altered proteomic composition of the ECM at all stages post injury, showing protein fragments that were specific to disease stage. IL-1β enhanced the proteolytic cleavage and release of COMP from tendon explants, whereas PGE2 had no catabolic effect. Of the cleavage fragments identified in early stage tendon disease, two fragments were generated by an IL-1-mediated mechanism. These fragments provide a platform for the development of neo-epitope assays specific to injury stage for tendon disease. PMID:24398684

  15. [Mineral phase and protein matrix status of rat bony tissue after a flight on the Kosmos-1129 biosatellite].

    PubMed

    Prokhonchukov, A A; Desiatnichenko, K S; Tigranian, R A; Komissarova, N A

    1982-01-01

    The major parameters of the mineral component and protein matrix of bones were investigated in 30 rats flown onboard Cosmos-1129. Postflight, the content of calcium decreased by 7.8%, that of phosphorus diminished by 11.8%, the Ca/P ratio increased by 5.9%, the content of collagen diminished by 14.7% and that of non-collagenous proteins by 45.7% and the content of sialic and hexuronic acids increased by 36.2% and 14.6%, respectively, as compared to the vivarium controls. The paper discusses the role of EDTA-and HCl-protein extracts, soluble and poorly soluble calcium fractions, protein-Ca-phosphate complex, sialic and hexuronic acids in the mechanism of calcium binding by the bone organic matrix. PMID:7070043

  16. [The nuclear matrix proteins (mol. mass 38 and 50 kDa) are transported by chromosomes in mitosis].

    PubMed

    Murasheva, M I; Chentsov, Iu S

    2010-01-01

    It was shown by immunofluorescence method that serum M68 and serum K43 from patients with autoimmune disease stain interphase nuclei and periphery of mitotic chromosomes of pig kidney cells. Western blotting reveals the polypeptide with mol. mass of 50 kDa in serum M68, and the polypeptide with mol. mass of 38 kDa in serum K43. In the nuclear protein matrix, the antibodies to protein with mol. mass of 38 kDa stained only nucleolar periphery, while the antibodies to the protein with mol. mass of 50 kDa stained both the nucleolar periphery and all the interphase nucleus. It shows that among all components of nuclear protein matrix (lamina, internuclear network, residual nucleoli) only nucleolar periphery contains the 38 kDa protein, while the 50 kDa protein is a part of residual nucleolar periphery and takes part in nuclear protein network formation. In the interphase cells, both proteins were in situ localized in the nuclei, but one of them with mol. mass of 50 kDa was in the form of small clearly outlined granules, while the other (38 kDa) was in the form of small bright granules against the background of diffusely stained nuclei. Both proteins were also revealed as continuous ring around nucleolar periphery. During all mitotic stages, the 50 kDa protein was seen on the chromosomal periphery as a cover, and the 38 kDa protein formed separate fragments and granules around them. After nuclear and chromosome decondensation induced by hypotonic treatment, both antibodies stain interphase nuclei in diffuse manner, but in mitotic cells they stained the surface of the swollen chromosomes. The polypeptide with mol. mass of 50 kDa maintained strong connection with chromosome periphery both in norm and under condition of decondensation induced by hypotonic treatment and at subsequent recondensation in isotonic medium. In contrast, the protein with mol. mass of 38 kDa partially lost the contact with a chromosome during recondensation appearing also in the form of granules in

  17. Leptospira interrogans induces uterine inflammatory responses and abnormal expression of extracellular matrix proteins in dogs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Gao, Xuejiao; Guo, Mengyao; Zhang, Wenlong; Song, Xiaojing; Wang, Tiancheng; Zhang, Zecai; Jiang, Haichao; Cao, Yongguo; Zhang, Naisheng

    2014-10-01

    Leptospira interrogans (L. interrogans), a worldwide zoonosis, infect humans and animals. In dogs, four syndromes caused by leptospirosis have been identified: icteric, hemorrhagic, uremic (Stuttgart disease) and reproductive (abortion and premature or weak pups), and also it caused inflammation. Extracellular matrix (ECM) is a complex mixture of matrix molecules that is crucial to the reproduction. Both inflammatory response and ECM are closed relative to reproductive. The aim of this study was to clarify how L. interrogans affected the uterus of dogs, by focusing on the inflammatory responses, and ECM expression in dogs uterine tissue infected by L. interrogans. In the present study, 27 dogs were divided into 3 groups, intrauterine infusion with L. interrogans, to make uterine infection, sterile EMJH, and normal saline as a control, respectively. The uteruses were removed by surgical operation in 10, 20, and 30 days, respectively. The methods of histopathological analysis, ELISA, Western blot and qPCR were used. The results showed that L. interrogans induced significantly inflammatory responses, which were characterized by inflammatory cellular infiltration and high expression levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in uterine tissue of these dogs. Furthermore, L. interrogans strongly down-regulated the expression of ECM (collagens (CL) IV, fibronectins (FN) and laminins (LN)) in mRNA and protein levels. These data indicated that strongly inflammatory responses, and abnormal regulation of ECM might contribute to the proliferation of dogs infected by L. interrogans. PMID:25153777

  18. Myristate Exposure in the HIV-1 Matrix Protein is Modulated by pH

    PubMed Central

    Fledderman, Emily L.; Fujii, Ken; Ghanam, Ruba H.; Waki, Kayoko; Prevelige, Peter E.; Freed, Eric O.; Saad, Jamil S.

    2010-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) encodes a polypeptide called Gag that is capable of forming virus-like particles (VLPs) in vitro in the absence of other cellular or viral constituents. During the late phase of HIV-1 infection, Gag polyproteins are transported to the plasma membrane (PM) for assembly. A combination of in vivo, in vitro and structural studies have shown that Gag targeting and assembly on the PM are mediated by specific interactions between the myristoylated matrix (myr(+)MA) domain of Gag and phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2). Exposure of the MA myristyl (myr) group is triggered by PI(4,5)P2 binding and is enhanced by factors that promote protein self-association. In the studies reported herein, we demonstrate that myr exposure in MA is modulated by pH. Our data show that deprotonation of the His89 imidazole ring in myr(+)MA destabilizes the salt bridge formed between His89(Hδ2) and Glu12(COO-), leading to tight sequestration of the myr group and a shift in the equilibrium from trimer to monomer. Furthermore, we show that oligomerization of a Gag-like construct containing matrix-capsid is also pH-dependent. Disruption of the His-Glu salt bridge by single amino acid substitutions greatly altered the myr-sequestered–myr-exposed equilibrium. In vivo intracellular localization data revealed that H89G mutation retargets Gag to intracellular compartments and severely inhibits virus production. Our findings reveal that the MA domain acts as a “pH sensor” in vitro, suggesting that the effect of pH on HIV-1 Gag targeting and binding to the PM warrants investigation. PMID:20886905

  19. Ameloblastin, an Extracellular Matrix Protein, Affects Long Bone Growth and Mineralization.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xuanyu; Fukumoto, Satoshi; Yamada, Yoshihiko; Evans, Carla A; Diekwisch, Thomas Gh; Luan, Xianghong

    2016-06-01

    Matrix molecules such as the enamel-related calcium-binding phosphoprotein ameloblastin (AMBN) are expressed in multiple tissues, including teeth, bones, and cartilage. Here we have asked whether AMBN is of functional importance for timely long bone development and, if so, how it exerts its function related to osteogenesis. Adolescent AMBN-deficient mice (AMBN(Δ5-6) ) suffered from a 33% to 38% reduction in femur length and an 8.4% shorter trunk spinal column when compared with WT controls, whereas there was no difference between adult animals. On a cellular level, AMBN truncation resulted in a shortened growth plate and a 41% to 49% reduction in the number of proliferating tibia chondrocytes and osteoblasts. Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) isolated from AMBN mutant mice displayed defects in proliferation and differentiation potential as well as cytoskeleton organization. Osteogenesis-related growth factors, such as insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and BMP7, were also significantly (46% to 73%) reduced in AMBN-deficient BMSCs. Addition of exogenous AMBN restored cytoskeleton structures in AMBN mutant BMSCs and resulted in a dramatic 400% to 600% increase in BMP2, BMP7, and Col1A expression. Block of RhoA diminished the effect of AMBN on osteogenic growth factor and matrix protein gene expression. Addition of exogenous BMP7 and IGF1 rescued the proliferation and differentiation potential of AMBN-deficient BMSCs. Confirming the effects of AMBN on long bone growth, back-crossing of mutant mice with full-length AMBN overexpressors resulted in a complete rescue of AMBN(Δ5-6) bone defects. Together, these data indicate that AMBN affects extracellular matrix production and cell adhesion properties in the long bone growth plate, resulting in altered cytoskeletal dynamics, increased osteogenesis-related gene expression, as well as osteoblast and chondrocyte proliferation. We propose that AMBN facilitates rapid long bone growth and an important growth spurt during the

  20. Copper Import into the Mitochondrial Matrix in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Is Mediated by Pic2, a Mitochondrial Carrier Family Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Vest, Katherine E.; Leary, Scot C.; Winge, Dennis R.; Cobine, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae must import copper into the mitochondrial matrix for eventual assembly of cytochrome c oxidase. This copper is bound to an anionic fluorescent molecule known as the copper ligand (CuL). Here, we identify for the first time a mitochondrial carrier family protein capable of importing copper into the matrix. In vitro transport of the CuL into the mitochondrial matrix was saturable and temperature-dependent. Strains with a deletion of PIC2 grew poorly on copper-deficient non-fermentable medium supplemented with silver and under respiratory conditions when challenged with a matrix-targeted copper competitor. Mitochondria from pic2Δ cells had lower total mitochondrial copper and exhibited a decreased capacity for copper uptake. Heterologous expression of Pic2 in Lactococcus lactis significantly enhanced CuL transport into these cells. Therefore, we propose a novel role for Pic2 in copper import into mitochondria. PMID:23846699

  1. Copper import into the mitochondrial matrix in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is mediated by Pic2, a mitochondrial carrier family protein.

    PubMed

    Vest, Katherine E; Leary, Scot C; Winge, Dennis R; Cobine, Paul A

    2013-08-16

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae must import copper into the mitochondrial matrix for eventual assembly of cytochrome c oxidase. This copper is bound to an anionic fluorescent molecule known as the copper ligand (CuL). Here, we identify for the first time a mitochondrial carrier family protein capable of importing copper into the matrix. In vitro transport of the CuL into the mitochondrial matrix was saturable and temperature-dependent. Strains with a deletion of PIC2 grew poorly on copper-deficient non-fermentable medium supplemented with silver and under respiratory conditions when challenged with a matrix-targeted copper competitor. Mitochondria from pic2Δ cells had lower total mitochondrial copper and exhibited a decreased capacity for copper uptake. Heterologous expression of Pic2 in Lactococcus lactis significantly enhanced CuL transport into these cells. Therefore, we propose a novel role for Pic2 in copper import into mitochondria. PMID:23846699

  2. Crystallization of bFGF-DNA Aptamer Complexes Using a Sparse Matrix Designed for Protein-Nucleic Acid Complexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannone, Jaime J.; Barnes, Cindy L.; Achari, Aniruddha; Kundrot, Craig E.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Sparse Matrix approach for obtaining lead crystallization conditions has proven to be very fruitful for the crystallization of proteins and nucleic acids. Here we report a Sparse Matrix developed specifically for the crystallization of protein-DNA complexes. This method is rapid and economical, typically requiring 2.5 mg of complex to test 48 conditions. The method was originally developed to crystallize basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) complexed with DNA sequences identified through in vitro selection, or SELEX, methods. Two DNA aptamers that bind with approximately nanomolar affinity and inhibit the angiogenic properties of bFGF were selected for co-crystallization. The Sparse Matrix produced lead crystallization conditions for both bFGF-DNA complexes.

  3. Differential expression of cardiac muscle mitochondrial matrix proteins in broilers from ascites-resistant and susceptible lines.

    PubMed

    Cisar, C R; Balog, J M; Anthony, N B; Donoghue, A M

    2005-05-01

    Ascites is a metabolic disorder of modern broilers that is distinguished by cardiopulmonary insufficiency in the face of intense oxygen demands of rapidly growing tissues. Broilers with ascites exhibit sustained elevation of pulmonary arterial pressure and right ventricular hypertrophy, the end result of which is heart failure. It has been shown that mitochondrial function is impaired in broilers with ascites. In the current study, mitochondrial matrix protein levels were compared between ascites-resistant line broilers and ascites-susceptible line broilers with and without ascites using two-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis. One hundred seventy-two protein spots were detected on the gels, and 9 of the spots were present at different levels in the 4 groups of broilers. These 9 protein spots were selected for identification by mass spectrometry. Two of the spots were found to contain single mitochondrial matrix proteins. Both mitochondrial matrix proteins, the dihydrolipoamide succinyltransferase component of the 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex and the alpha-subunit of mitochondrial trifunctional enzyme, were present at higher levels in ascites-resistant line broilers with ascites in the present study. The elevated levels of 2 key proteins in aerobic metabolism in ascites-resistant line broilers with ascites observed in the present study suggests that the mitochondria of broilers with this disease may respond inappropriately to hypoxia. PMID:15913181

  4. Circulating uncarboxylated matrix gla protein is associated with vitamin K nutritional status, but not coronary artery calcium, in older adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Matrix Gla protein (MGP) is a calcification inhibitor in vascular tissue. To function, MGP must be carboxylated by vitamin K. Evidence suggests that circulating uncarboxylated MGP (ucMGP) is elevated in diseased individuals with vascular calcification. The extent to which this reflects vitamin K’s r...

  5. Bap, a Biofilm Matrix Protein of Staphylococcus aureus Prevents Cellular Internalization through Binding to GP96 Host Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Valle, Jaione; Latasa, Cristina; Gil, Carmen; Toledo-Arana, Alejandro; Solano, Cristina; Penadés, José R.; Lasa, Iñigo

    2012-01-01

    The biofilm matrix, composed of exopolysaccharides, proteins, nucleic acids and lipids, plays a well-known role as a defence structure, protecting bacteria from the host immune system and antimicrobial therapy. However, little is known about its responsibility in the interaction of biofilm cells with host tissues. Staphylococcus aureus, a leading cause of biofilm-associated chronic infections, is able to develop a biofilm built on a proteinaceous Bap-mediated matrix. Here, we used the Bap protein as a model to investigate the role that components of the biofilm matrix play in the interaction of S. aureus with host cells. The results show that Bap promotes the adhesion but prevents the entry of S. aureus into epithelial cells. A broad analysis of potential interaction partners for Bap using ligand overlayer immunoblotting, immunoprecipitation with purified Bap and pull down with intact bacteria, identified a direct binding between Bap and Gp96/GRP94/Hsp90 protein. The interaction of Bap with Gp96 provokes a significant reduction in the capacity of S. aureus to invade epithelial cells by interfering with the fibronectin binding protein invasion pathway. Consistent with these results, Bap deficient bacteria displayed an enhanced capacity to invade mammary gland epithelial cells in a lactating mice mastitis model. Our observations begin to elucidate the mechanisms by which components of the biofilm matrix can facilitate the colonization of host tissues and the establishment of persistent infections. PMID:22876182

  6. A novel protein distance matrix based on the minimum arc-length between two amino-acid residues on the surface of a globular protein.

    PubMed

    Hall, Damien; Li, Songling; Yamashita, Kazuo; Azuma, Ryuzo; Carver, John A; Standley, Daron M

    2014-06-01

    We present a novel protein distance matrix based on the minimum line of arc between two points on the surface of a protein. Two methods for calculating this distance matrix are developed and contrasted. The first method, which we have called TOPOL, is an approximate rule based algorithm consisting of successive rounds of vector addition. The second method is adapted from the graph theoretic approach of Dijkstra. Both procedures are demonstrated using cytochrome c, a 12,500 Da protein, as a test case. In respect to computational speed and accuracy the TOPOL procedure compares favorably against the more complex method based on shortest path enumeration over a surface manifold grid. Some potential uses of the algorithmic approaches and calculated surface protein distance measurement are discussed. PMID:24589301

  7. Casein kinase II protein kinase is bound to lamina-matrix and phosphorylates lamin-like protein in isolated pea nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, H.; Roux, S. J.

    1992-01-01

    A casein kinase II (CK II)-like protein kinase was identified and partially isolated from a purified envelope-matrix fraction of pea (Pisum sativum L.) nuclei. When [gamma-32P]ATP was directly added to the envelope-matrix preparation, the three most heavily labeled protein bands had molecular masses near 71, 48, and 46 kDa. Protein kinases were removed from the preparation by sequential extraction with Triton X-100, EGTA, 0.3 M NaCl, and a pH 10.5 buffer, but an active kinase still remained bound to the remaining lamina-matrix fraction after these treatments. This kinase had properties resembling CK II kinases previously characterized from animal and plant sources: it preferred casein as an artificial substrate, could use GTP as efficiently as ATP as the phosphoryl donor, was stimulated by spermine, was calcium independent, and had a catalytic subunit of 36 kDa. Some animal and plant CK II kinases have regulatory subunits near 29 kDa, and a lamina-matrix-bound protein of this molecular mass was recognized on immunoblot by anti-Drosophila CK II polyclonal antibodies. Also found associated with the envelope-matrix fraction of pea nuclei were p34cdc2-like and Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinases, but their properties could not account for the protein kinase activity bound to the lamina. The 71-kDa substrate of the CK II-like kinase was lamin A-like, both in its molecular mass and in its cross-reactivity with anti-intermediate filament antibodies. Lamin phosphorylation is considered a crucial early step in the entry of cells into mitosis, so lamina-bound CK II kinases may be important control points for cellular proliferation.

  8. Not All Inner Ears are the Same: Otolith Matrix Proteins in the Inner Ear of Sub-Adult Cichlid Fish, Oreochromis Mossambicus, Reveal Insights Into the Biomineralization Process.

    PubMed

    Weigele, Jochen; Franz-Odendaal, Tamara A; Hilbig, Reinhard

    2016-02-01

    The fish ear stones (otoliths) consist mainly of calcium carbonate and have lower amounts of a proteinous matrix. This matrix consists of macromolecules, which directly control the biomineralization process. We analyzed the composition of this proteinous matrix by mass spectrometry in a shotgun approach. For this purpose, an enhanced protein purification technique was developed that excludes any potential contamination of proteins from body fluids. Using this method we identified eight proteins in the inner ear of Oreochromis mossambicus. These include the common otolith matrix proteins (OMP-1, otolin-1, neuroserpin, SPARC and otoconin), and three proteins (alpha tectorin, otogelin and transferrin) not previously localized to the otoliths. Moreover, we were able to exclude the occurrence of two matrix proteins (starmaker and pre-cerebellin-like protein) known from other fish species. In further analyses, we show that the absence of the OMP starmaker corresponds to calcitic otoliths and that pre-cerebellin-like protein is not present at any stage during the development of the otoliths of the inner ear. This study shows O. mossambicus does not have all of the known otolith proteins indicating that the matrix proteins in the inner ear of fish are not the same across species. Further functional studies of the novel proteins we identified during otolith development are required. PMID:26559654

  9. Transcriptional Factor DLX3 Promotes the Gene Expression of Enamel Matrix Proteins during Amelogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhichun; Tian, Hua; Lv, Ping; Wang, Weiping; Jia, Zhuqing; Wang, Sainan; Zhou, Chunyan; Gao, Xuejun

    2015-01-01

    Mutation of distal-less homeobox 3 (DLX3) is responsible for human tricho-dento-osseous syndrome (TDO) with amelogenesis imperfecta, indicating a crucial role of DLX3 in amelogenesis. However, the expression pattern of DLX3 and its specific function in amelogenesis remain largely unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of DLX3 on enamel matrix protein (EMP) genes. By immunohistochemistry assays of mouse tooth germs, stronger immunostaining of DLX3 protein was identified in ameloblasts in the secretory stage than in the pre-secretory and maturation stages, and the same pattern was found for Dlx3 mRNA using Realtime PCR. In a mouse ameloblast cell lineage, forced expression of DLX3 up-regulated the expression of the EMP genes Amelx, Enam, Klk4, and Odam, whereas knockdown of DLX3 down-regulated these four EMP genes. Further, bioinformatics, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and luciferase assays revealed that DLX3 transactivated Enam, Amelx, and Odam through direct binding to their enhancer regions. Particularly, over-expression of mutant-DLX3 (c.571_574delGGGG, responsible for TDO) inhibited the activation function of DLX3 on expression levels and promoter activities of the Enam, Amelx, and Odam genes. Together, our data show that DLX3 promotes the expression of the EMP genes Amelx, Enam, Klk4, and Odam in amelogenesis, while mutant-DLX3 disrupts this regulatory function, thus providing insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the enamel defects of TDO disease. PMID:25815730

  10. Transcriptional factor DLX3 promotes the gene expression of enamel matrix proteins during amelogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhichun; Tian, Hua; Lv, Ping; Wang, Weiping; Jia, Zhuqing; Wang, Sainan; Zhou, Chunyan; Gao, Xuejun

    2015-01-01

    Mutation of distal-less homeobox 3 (DLX3) is responsible for human tricho-dento-osseous syndrome (TDO) with amelogenesis imperfecta, indicating a crucial role of DLX3 in amelogenesis. However, the expression pattern of DLX3 and its specific function in amelogenesis remain largely unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of DLX3 on enamel matrix protein (EMP) genes. By immunohistochemistry assays of mouse tooth germs, stronger immunostaining of DLX3 protein was identified in ameloblasts in the secretory stage than in the pre-secretory and maturation stages, and the same pattern was found for Dlx3 mRNA using Realtime PCR. In a mouse ameloblast cell lineage, forced expression of DLX3 up-regulated the expression of the EMP genes Amelx, Enam, Klk4, and Odam, whereas knockdown of DLX3 down-regulated these four EMP genes. Further, bioinformatics, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and luciferase assays revealed that DLX3 transactivated Enam, Amelx, and Odam through direct binding to their enhancer regions. Particularly, over-expression of mutant-DLX3 (c.571_574delGGGG, responsible for TDO) inhibited the activation function of DLX3 on expression levels and promoter activities of the Enam, Amelx, and Odam genes. Together, our data show that DLX3 promotes the expression of the EMP genes Amelx, Enam, Klk4, and Odam in amelogenesis, while mutant-DLX3 disrupts this regulatory function, thus providing insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the enamel defects of TDO disease. PMID:25815730

  11. Spatial Expression of Otolith Matrix Protein-1 and Otolin-1 in Normally and Kinetotically Swimming Fish.

    PubMed

    Weigele, Jochen; Franz-Odendaal, Tamara A; Hilbig, Reinhard

    2015-10-01

    Kinetosis (motion sickness) has been repeatedly shown to affect some fish of a given clutch following the transition from 1g to microgravity or from hypergravity to 1g. This susceptibility to kinetosis may be correlated with irregular inner ear otolith growth. Otoliths are mainly composed of calcium carbonate and matrix proteins, which play an important role in the process of otolith mineralization. Here, we examine the morphology of otoliths and the expression pattern of the major otolith proteins OMP-1 and otolin-1 in a series of hypergravity experiments. In the utricle, OMP-1 is present in centripetal (medial) and centrifugal (lateral) regions of the meshwork area. In the saccule, OMP-1 was expressed within a dorsal and a ventral narrow band of the meshwork area opposite to the periphery of the sulcus acusticus. In normal animals, the spatial expression pattern of OMP-1 reaches more posteriorly in the centrifugal aspect and is considerably broader in the centripetal portion of the utricle compared to kinetotic animals. However, otolin-1 was not expressed in the utricule. In the saccule, no differences were observed for either gene when comparing normal and kinetotically behaving fish. The difference in the utricular OMP-1 expression pattern between normally and kinetotically swimming fish indicates a different otolith morphology and thus a different geometry of the otoliths resting on the corresponding sensory maculae. As the utricle is the endorgan responsible for sensing gravity, the aberrant morphology of the utricular otoliths, based on OMP-1 expression, likely leads to the observed kinetotic behavior. PMID:26096990

  12. Synthesis of dental matrix proteins and viability of odontoblast-like cells irradiated with blue LED.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Juliana Rosa Luiz; Turrioni, Ana Paula Silveira; Basso, Fernanda Gonçalves; de Souza Costa, Carlos Alberto; Hebling, Josimeri

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of irradiation with light-emitting diode (LED; 455 nm) on the viability and synthesis of dentin matrix proteins by odontoblast-like cells, MDPC-23 cells were cultivated (10(4) cells/cm(2)) in 24-well culture plates. After 12 h incubation in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM), the cells were submitted to nutritional restriction by means of reducing the concentration of fetal bovine serum (FBS) for an additional 12 h. Cells were irradiated one single time with one of the following energy densities (EDs): 0.5, 2, 4, 10, or 15 J/cm(2) and irradiance fixed at 20 mW/cm(2). Non-irradiated cells served as control. After 72 h, cells were evaluated with regard to viability (methylthiazol tetrazolium technique (MTT)), mineralization nodule (MN) formation, total protein (TP) production, alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP), and collagen synthesis (Sircol), n = 8. The data were submitted to Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests (p > 0.05). There was no statistical difference between the viability of cells irradiated or not (control), for all the EDs. However, an increase in TP was observed for all the EDs when compared with the control group. A reduced ALP activity was seen in all irradiated groups, except for the ED of 0.5 J/cm(2), which did not differ from the control. There was no difference between the irradiated groups and control regarding collagen synthesis, with the exception of the ED of 10 J/cm(2), which inhibited this cell function. Significant reduction in MN occurred only for the EDs of 0.5 and 2 J/cm(2). The single irradiation with blue LED (455 nm), irradiance of 20 mW/cm(2), and energy densities ranging from 0.5 to 15 J/cm(2) exerted no effective biostimulatory capacity on odontoblast-like cells. PMID:26873499

  13. Peptides of Matrix Gla Protein Inhibit Nucleation and Growth of Hydroxyapatite and Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate Crystals

    PubMed Central

    Goiko, Maria; Dierolf, Joshua; Gleberzon, Jared S.; Liao, Yinyin; Grohe, Bernd; Goldberg, Harvey A.; de Bruyn, John R.; Hunter, Graeme K.

    2013-01-01

    Matrix Gla protein (MGP) is a phosphorylated and γ-carboxylated protein that has been shown to prevent the deposition of hydroxyapatite crystals in the walls of blood vessels. MGP is also expressed in kidney and may inhibit the formation of kidney stones, which mainly consist of another crystalline phase, calcium oxalate monohydrate. To determine the mechanism by which MGP prevents soft-tissue calcification, we have synthesized peptides corresponding to the phosphorylated and γ-carboxylated sequences of human MGP in both post-translationally modified and non-modified forms. The effects of these peptides on hydroxyapatite formation and calcium oxalate crystallization were quantified using dynamic light scattering and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Peptides YGlapS (MGP1-14: YγEpSHEpSMEpSYELNP), YEpS (YEpSHEpSMEpSYELNP), YGlaS (YγESHESMESYELNP) and SK-Gla (MGP43-56: SKPVHγELNRγEACDD) inhibited formation of hydroxyapatite in order of potency YGlapS > YEpS > YGlaS > SK-Gla. The effects of YGlapS, YEpS and YGlaS on hydroxyapatite formation were on both crystal nucleation and growth; the effect of SK-Gla was on nucleation. YGlapS and YEpS significantly inhibited the growth of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals, while simultaneously promoting the formation of calcium oxalate dihydrate. The effects of these phosphopeptides on calcium oxalate monohydrate formation were on growth of crystals rather than nucleation. We have shown that the use of dynamic light scattering allows inhibitors of hydroxyapatite nucleation and growth to be distinguished. We have also demonstrated for the first time that MGP peptides inhibit the formation of calcium oxalate monohydrate. Based on the latter finding, we propose that MGP function not only to prevent blood-vessel calcification but also to inhibit stone formation in kidney. PMID:24265810

  14. Production of the virus-like particles of nipah virus matrix protein in Pichia pastoris as diagnostic reagents.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Narcisse Ms; Ho, Kok Lian; Tey, Beng Ti; Tan, Chon Seng; Shafee, Norazizah; Tan, Wen Siang

    2016-07-01

    The matrix (M) protein of Nipah virus (NiV) is a peripheral protein that plays a vital role in the envelopment of nucleocapsid protein and acts as a bridge between the viral surface and the nucleocapsid proteins. The M protein is also proven to play an important role in production of virus-like particles (VLPs) and is essential for assembly and budding of NiV particles. The recombinant M protein produced in Escherichia coli assembled into VLPs in the absence of the viral surface proteins. However, the E. coli produced VLPs are smaller than the native virus particles. Therefore, the aims of this study were to produce NiV M protein in Pichia pastoris, to examine the structure of the VLPs formed, and to assess the potential of the VLPs as a diagnostic reagent. The M protein was successfully expressed in P. pastoris and was detected with anti-myc antibody using Western blotting. The VLPs formed by the recombinant M protein were purified with sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and Immobilized Metal Affinity Chromatography (IMAC). Immunogold staining and transmission electron microscopy confirmed that the M protein assembled into VLPs as large as 200 nm. ELISA revealed that the NiV M protein produced in P. pastoris reacted strongly with positive NiV sera demonstrating its potential as a diagnostic reagent. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:1038-1045, 2016. PMID:27088434

  15. Silk-elastin-like protein polymer matrix for intraoperative delivery of an oncolytic vaccinia virus

    PubMed Central

    Price, Daniel L.; Li, Pingdong; Chen, Chun-Hao; Wong, Danni; Yu, Zhenkun; Chen, Nanhai G.; Yu, Yong A.; Szalay, Aladar A.; Cappello, Joseph; Fong, Yuman; Wong, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Oncolytic viral efficacy may be limited by the penetration of the virus into tumors. This may be enhanced by intraoperative application of virus immediately after surgical resection. Methods Oncolytic vaccinia virus GLV-1h68 was delivered in silk-elastin-like protein polymer (SELP) in vitro and in vivo in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell line 8505c in nude mice. Results GLV-1h68 in SELP infected and lysed anaplastic thyroid cancer cells in vitro equally as effectively as in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), and at 1 week retains a thousand fold greater infectious plaque-forming units. In surgical resection models of residual tumor, GLV-1h68 in SELP improves tumor control and shows increased viral β-galactosidase expression as compared to PBS. Conclusion The use of SELP matrix for intraoperative oncolytic viral delivery protects infectious viral particles from degradation, facilitates sustained viral delivery and transgene expression, and improves tumor control. Such optimization of methods of oncolytic viral delivery may enhance therapeutic outcomes. PMID:25244076

  16. Nanoscale viscoelasticity of extracellular matrix proteins in soft tissues: A multiscale approach.

    PubMed

    Miri, Amir K; Heris, Hossein K; Mongeau, Luc; Javid, Farhad

    2014-02-01

    It is hypothesized that the bulk viscoelasticity of soft tissues is determined by two length-scale-dependent mechanisms: the time-dependent response of the extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins at the nanometer scale and the biophysical interactions between the ECM solid structure and interstitial fluid at the micrometer scale. The latter is governed by poroelasticity theory assuming free motion of the interstitial fluid within the porous ECM structure. In a recent study (Heris, H.K., Miri, A.K., Tripathy, U., Barthelat, F., Mongeau, L., 2013. J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater.), atomic force microscopy was used to measure the response of porcine vocal folds to a creep loading and a 50-nm sinusoidal oscillation. A constitutive model was calibrated and verified using a finite element model to accurately predict the nanoscale viscoelastic moduli of ECM. A generally good correlation was obtained between the predicted variation of the viscoelastic moduli with depth and that of hyaluronic acids in vocal fold tissue. We conclude that hyaluronic acids may regulate vocal fold viscoelasticity. The proposed methodology offers a characterization tool for biomaterials used in vocal fold augmentations. PMID:24317493

  17. Nanoscale Viscoelasticity of Extracellular Matrix Proteins in Soft Tissues: a Multiscale Approach

    PubMed Central

    Miri, Amir K.; Heris, Hossein K.; Mongeau, Luc; Javid, Farhad

    2013-01-01

    We propose that the bulk viscoelasticity of soft tissues results from two length-scale-dependent mechanisms: the time-dependent response of extracellular matrix proteins (ECM) at the nanometer scale and the biophysical interactions between the ECM solid structure and interstitial fluid at the micrometer scale. The latter was modeled using the poroelasticity theory with an assumption of free motion of the interstitial fluid within the porous ECM structure. Following a recent study (Heris, H.K., Miri, A.K., Tripathy, U., Barthelat, F., Mongeau, L., 2013. Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials), atomic force microscopy was used to perform creep loading and 50-nm sinusoidal oscillations on porcine vocal folds. The proposed model was calibrated by a finite element model to accurately predict the nanoscale viscoelastic moduli of ECM. A linear correlation was observed between the in-depth distribution of the viscoelastic moduli and that of hyaluronic acids in the vocal fold tissue. We conclude that hyaluronic acids may regulate the vocal fold viscoelasticity at nanoscale. The proposed methodology offers a characterization tool for biomaterials used in vocal fold augmentations. PMID:24317493

  18. Adolescent binge ethanol treatment alters adult brain regional volumes, cortical extracellular matrix protein and behavioral flexibility

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Leon Garland; Liu, Wen; Oguz, Ipek; Styner, Martin; Crews, Fulton T.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents binge drink more than any other age group, increasing risk of disrupting the development of the frontal cortex. We hypothesized that adolescent binge drinking would lead to persistent alterations in adulthood. In this study, we modeled adolescent weekend underage binge-drinking, using adolescent mice (post-natal days [P] 28–37). The adolescent intermittent binge ethanol (AIE) treatment includes 6 binge intragastric doses of ethanol in an intermittent pattern across adolescence. Assessments were conducted in adulthood following extended abstinence to determine if there were persistent changes in adults. Reversal learning, open field and other behavioral assessments as well as brain structure using magnetic imaging and immunohistochemistry were determined. We found AIE did not impact adult Barnes Maze learning. However, AIE did cause reversal learning deficits in adults. AIE also caused structural changes in the adult brain. AIE was associated with adulthood volume enlargements in specific brain regions without changes in total brain volume. Enlarged regions included the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC, 4%), cerebellum (4.5%), thalamus (2%), internal capsule (10%) and genu of the corpus callosum (7%). The enlarged OFC volume in adults after AIE is consistent with previous imaging studies in human adolescents. AIE treatment was associated with significant increases in the expression of several extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in the adult OFC including WFA (55%), Brevican (32%), Neurocan (105%), Tenacin-C (25%), and HABP (5%). These findings are consistent with AIE causing persistent changes in brain structure that could contribute to a lack of behavioral flexibility. PMID:24275185

  19. Upregulation of cardiac matrix Gla protein expression in response to hypertrophic stimuli.

    PubMed

    Mustonen, Erja; Pohjolainen, Virva; Aro, Jani; Pikkarainen, Sampsa; Leskinen, Hanna; Ruskoaho, Heikki; Rysä, Jaana

    2009-01-01

    Matrix Gla protein (MGP) expression is increased in cardiac hypertrophy, but the precise mechanisms regulating its expression are unknown. Here we characterized the effect of pressure overload and myocardial infarction in vivo as well as mechanical stretch and hypertrophic agonists in vitro on MGP expression. When angiotensin II (Ang II) was administered by osmotic minipumps, left ventricular (LV) MGP mRNA levels increased significantly from 6 h to 2 weeks, whereas intravenous arginine(8)-vasopressin increased LV MGP mRNA levels within 4 h. During post-infarction remodeling process, MGP mRNA levels were elevated at 24 h (1.3-fold, p<0.05) and the maximal increase was observed at 4 weeks (2.8-fold, p<0.01). Ang II increased MGP mRNA levels 20% (p<0.05) in neonatal rat cardiac myocytes and 40% (p<0.05) in cardiac fibroblasts, whereas endothelin-1 decreased MGP mRNA levels 30% (p<0.01) in myocytes and had no effect in fibroblasts. Cyclic mechanical stretch resulted in reduction of MGP gene expression in both cardiac myocytes and fibroblasts. These results demonstrate that MGP is rapidly upregulated in response to cardiac overload well before the development of LV hypertrophy and post-infarction remodeling process. Our results also suggest that Ang II may be involved in mediating load-induced activation of MGP expression. PMID:19919401

  20. Ultrastructural immunolocalization of dentin matrix protein 1 on Sharpey's fibers in monkey tooth cementum.

    PubMed

    Sawada, T; Ishikawa, T; Shintani, S; Yanagisawa, T

    2012-07-01

    Despite the importance of dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) in the formation of mineralized tissue, including dentinogenesis and osteogenesis, its precise role in cementogenesis remains to be clarified fully. The purpose of our study was to demonstrate the ultrastructural immunolocalization of DMP1 in monkey molar tooth cementum. Japanese Macaca fuscata monkeys were fixed by perfusion. The upper molar teeth and accompanying periodontium then were dissected and demineralized with EDTA. Cryosections were obtained, incubated in anti-DMP1 polyclonal antibody, and processed by immunoperoxidase and immunogold labeling. Intense immunoperoxidase staining for DMP1 was observed in acellular extrinsic fiber cementum, particularly in Sharpey's fibers. Cementocyte lacunae with canaliculi showed DMP1 staining in the apical region of the tooth root. Electron immunomicroscopy revealed the close proximity of DMP1 to collagen fibrils in Sharpey's fibers at the mineralization front. Intense immunogold labeling was localized on the walls of the cementocyte lacunae in cellular cementum. These results should contribute to better understanding of the role of DMP1, not only in Sharpey's fiber biomineralization, but also in the maintenance of the cementocyte lacunar space in cementum. PMID:22435407

  1. Neural cell alignment by patterning gradients of the extracellular matrix protein laminin

    PubMed Central

    Chelli, Beatrice; Barbalinardo, Marianna; Valle, Francesco; Greco, Pierpaolo; Bystrenova, Eva; Bianchi, Michele; Biscarini, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Anisotropic orientation and accurate positioning of neural cells is achieved by patterning stripes of the extracellular matrix protein laminin on the surface of polystyrene tissue culture dishes by micromoulding in capillaries (MIMICs). Laminin concentration decreases from the entrance of the channels in contact with the reservoir towards the end. Immunofluorescence analysis of laminin shows a decreasing gradient of concentration along the longitudinal direction of the stripes. The explanation is the superposition of diffusion and convection of the solute, the former dominating at length scales near the entrance (characteristic length around 50 μm), the latter further away (length scale in excess of 900 μm). These length scales are independent of the channel width explored from about 15 to 45 μm. Neural cells are randomly seeded and selectively adhere to the pattern, leaving the unpatterned areas depleted even upon 6 days of incubation. Cell alignment was assessed by the orientation of the long axis of the 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole-stained nuclei. Samples on patterned the laminin area exhibit a large orientational order parameter. As control, cells on the unpatterned laminin film exhibit no preferential orientation. This implies that the anisotropy of laminin stripes is an effective chemical stimulus for cell recruiting and alignment. PMID:24501672

  2. Immunity against heterosubtypic influenza virus induced by adenovirus and MVA expressing nucleoprotein and matrix protein-1.

    PubMed

    Lambe, Teresa; Carey, John B; Li, Yuanyuan; Spencer, Alexandra J; van Laarhoven, Arjan; Mullarkey, Caitlin E; Vrdoljak, Anto; Moore, Anne C; Gilbert, Sarah C

    2013-01-01

    Alternate prime/boost vaccination regimens employing recombinant replication-deficient adenovirus or MVA, expressing Influenza A virus nucleoprotein and matrix protein 1, induced antigen-specific T cell responses in intradermally (ID) vaccinated mice; with the strongest responses resulting from Ad/MVA immunization. In BALB/C mice the immunodominant response was shifted from the previously identified immunodominant epitope to a novel epitope when the antigen was derived from A/Panama/2007/1999 rather than A/PR/8. Alternate immunization routes did not affect the magnitude of antigen-specific systemic IFN-γ response, but higher CD8(+) T-cell IFN-γ immune responses were seen in the bronchoalveolar lavage following intransal (IN) boosting after intramuscular (IM) priming, whilst higher splenic antigen-specific CD8(+) T cell IFN-γ was seen following IM boosting. Partial protection against heterologous influenza virus challenge was achieved following either IM/IM or IM/IN but not ID/ID immunization. These data may be of relevance for the design of optimal immunization regimens for human influenza vaccines, especially for influenza-naïve infants. PMID:23485942

  3. Matrix protein 2 vaccination and protection against influenza viruses, including subtype H5N1.

    PubMed

    Tompkins, Stephen Mark; Zhao, Zi-Shan; Lo, Chia-Yun; Misplon, Julia A; Liu, Teresa; Ye, Zhiping; Hogan, Robert J; Wu, Zhengqi; Benton, Kimberly A; Tumpey, Terrence M; Epstein, Suzanne L

    2007-03-01

    Changes in influenza viruses require regular reformulation of strain-specific influenza vaccines. Vaccines based on conserved antigens provide broader protection. Influenza matrix protein 2 (M2) is highly conserved across influenza A subtypes. To evaluate its efficacy as a vaccine candidate, we vaccinated mice with M2 peptide of a widely shared consensus sequence. This vaccination induced antibodies that cross-reacted with divergent M2 peptide from an H5N1 subtype. A DNA vaccine expressing full-length consensus-sequence M2 (M2-DNA) induced M2-specific antibody responses and protected against challenge with lethal influenza. Mice primed with M2-DNA and then boosted with recombinant adenovirus expressing M2 (M2-Ad) had enhanced antibody responses that crossreacted with human and avian M2 sequences and produced T-cell responses. This M2 prime-boost vaccination conferred broad protection against challenge with lethal influenza A, including an H5N1 strain. Vaccination with M2, with key sequences represented, may provide broad protection against influenza A. PMID:17552096

  4. A case of anti-nuclear matrix protein 2 antibody positive myopathy associated with lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Shin; Unoda, Ki-Ichi; Nakajima, Hideto; Ikeda, Soichiro; Hamaguchi, Yasuhito; Kimura, Fumiharu

    2016-08-31

    Myositis-specific autoantibodies (MSAs) are associated with myositis. Anti-nuclear matrix protein 2 (NXP-2) antibody was recently identified as a major MSA and was observed mostly in juvenile dermatomyositis. We report the case of a 44-year-old man who presented with myopathy with anti-NXP-2 antibody and large cell carcinoma of the lung. He was hospitalized because of myalgia and edema of limbs. Neurological examination revealed mild proximal-dominant weakness in all four extremities, and laboratory studies showed elevated creatine kinase level (6,432 IU/l). Needle electromyography showed myogenic patterns. MRI of the lower limbs demonstrated inflammatory lesions in the thighs. Biopsied specimen from the left quadriceps femoris muscle showed mild mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate surrounding muscle fibres but no fiber necrosis. He was diagnosed with myopathy based on neurological examinations and clinical symptoms. His chest X-ray and CT showed tumor shadow on the right upper lung field, but CT didn't indicate the findings of interstitial lung disease. This was surgically removed, and a histological diagnosis of non-small cell lung cancer was suspected. He was also treated with definitive chemoradiotherapy before and after operation. His symptoms of myopathy promptly remitted with the preoperative chemotherapy. His serum analysis was positive for the anti-NXP-2. Further investigation and experience of MSAs are necessary to evaluate the therapeutic strategy against cancer-associated myopathy/myositis. PMID:27477574

  5. Novel extracellular matrix for cell sheet recovery using genetically engineered elastin-like protein.

    PubMed

    Mie, Masayasu; Mizushima, Yasunori; Kobatake, Eiry

    2008-07-01

    Elastin-like peptides (ELPs) sequences are repeats of the pentapeptide GVGVP, and they have the ability to coaggregate reversibly, depending on the temperature. By exploiting this characteristic, a novel extracellular matrix protein (ECM) containing ELP was developed genetically to harvest a cell sheet from a culture dish. One of the ELP constructs, G288, consisted of 288 repeats of the sequence GVGVGP (G); it was attached to a hydrophobic dish surface. Next, cells with the sequence His-G36RG36, which has a His tag and an RGD sequence (R) that promotes attachment of the cell between the G36 sequences, consisted of 36 repeats of the sequence GVGVP, were added to the dish. After these cells became confluent, the temperature was changed to 20 degrees C in order to reverse the coaggregation. At this temperature, cells could be detached from the dish as a cell sheet. This genetically engineering method for construction of thermoresponsive ECM would be suitable to modify ECM with further functional domains. PMID:18161837

  6. Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein in monitoring and prognostication of osteoarthritis and its utility in drug development

    PubMed Central

    Das, Bibhu R.; Roy, Arnab; Khan, Faisal R.

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a major public concern as it is one of the leading causes of morbidity and lays a huge medical and economic burden on health resources. Early detection of OA has been a clinical challenge as early signs of joint inflammation are often not evidently identifiable on routine radiographic images. This presents a dire unmet medical need for a biomarker, which could detect early signs of joint inflammation much before irreversible joint damage and radiographic changes set in. Besides, the treatment of OA has remained mainly symptomatic. A disease modifying OA drug (DMOAD), which can act as targeted anti-OA therapy has not been able to receive regulatory approval yet. The clinical development of a DMAOD too warrants the need of a biomarker; which can act as a surrogate clinical endpoint used to monitor therapeutic efficacy and to validate a clinically meaningful change within the restricted time frame of a clinical study. In this regard, the current review focuses on cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), a potential OA biomarker which has shown significant clinical promise as a tool for early detection, therapeutic monitoring, prognostication and drug development for OA. This brief review is pivoted around the findings of selected relevant publications from PubMed indexed journals. PMID:25657896

  7. Immunolocalization of dentin matrix protein-1 in human primary teeth treated with different pulp capping materials.

    PubMed

    Lourenço Neto, Natalino; Marques, Nádia C T; Fernandes, Ana Paula; Rodini, Camila O; Sakai, Vivien T; Abdo, Ruy Cesar C; Machado, Maria Aparecida A M; Santos, Carlos F; Oliveira, Thais M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunolocalization of dentin matrix protein (DMP)-1 in human primary teeth treated with different pulp capping materials. Twenty-five primary molars were divided into the following groups: formocresol (FC), calcium hydroxide (CH), mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), corticosteroid/antibiotic solution + CH (O + CH), and Portland cement (PC), and all received conventional pulpotomy treatment. The teeth at the regular exfoliation period were extracted for histological analysis and immunolocalization of DMP-1. Statistical analysis was performed using the χ(2) test (p < 0.05). Histological analysis revealed statistically significant differences in the comparison among the groups through the use of a score system regarding the presence of hard tissue barrier, odontoblastic layer, and internal resorption, but not regarding pulp calcification. Immunohistochemical analysis showed immunostaining for DMP-1 in groups CH, MTA, O + CH, and PC. Internal resorption was observed in the groups FC and CH. MTA and PC showed pulp repair without inflammation and with the presence of hard tissue barrier. DMP-1 immunostaining was higher for MTA and PC, confirming the reparative and bioinductive capacity of these materials. PMID:25678029

  8. Matrix Gla Protein Polymorphisms are Associated with Coronary Artery Calcification in Men

    PubMed Central

    Crosier, Michael D.; Booth, Sarah L.; Peter, Inga; Dawson-Hughes, Bess; Price, Paul A.; O’Donnell, Christopher J.; Hoffmann, Udo; Williamson, Matthew K.; Ordovas, Jose M.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Matrix Gla protein (MGP) is a key regulator of vascular calcification. Genetic variation at the MGP locus could modulate the development of coronary artery calcification (CAC). Our aim was to examine the cross-sectional association between MGP single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) [rs1800802 (T-138C), rs1800801 (G-7A), and rs4236 (Ala102Thr)] and CAC. CAC was measured by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), in older men and women of European descent, (n = 386; 60 to 80 y of age). Serum MGP was measured by radioimmunoassay. Linear, Tobit and Ordinal regression analyses all revealed that in men, homozygous carriers of the minor allele of rs1800802 , rs1800801 , or rs4236 (minor allele frequency: 21, 38, and 40%, respectively) were associated with a decreased quantity of CAC, relative to major allele carriers. This association was not found in women. Although genetic variation in MGP was associated with serum MGP concentrations, there were no associations between serum MGP and CAC. The results of this study suggest a role for MGP genetic variants in coronary atherosclerosis among men that is not reflected in serum MGP concentrations. PMID:19352064

  9. The Extracellular Matrix Protein Brevican Limits Time-Dependent Enhancement of Cocaine Conditioned Place Preference.

    PubMed

    Lubbers, Bart R; Matos, Mariana R; Horn, Annemarie; Visser, Esther; Van der Loo, Rolinka C; Gouwenberg, Yvonne; Meerhoff, Gideon F; Frischknecht, Renato; Seidenbecher, Constanze I; Smit, August B; Spijker, Sabine; van den Oever, Michel C

    2016-06-01

    Cocaine-associated environmental cues sustain relapse vulnerability by reactivating long-lasting memories of cocaine reward. During periods of abstinence, responding to cocaine cues can time-dependently intensify a phenomenon referred to as 'incubation of cocaine craving'. Here, we investigated the role of the extracellular matrix protein brevican in recent (1 day after training) and remote (3 weeks after training) expression of cocaine conditioned place preference (CPP). Wild-type and Brevican heterozygous knock-out mice, which express brevican at ~50% of wild-type levels, received three cocaine-context pairings using a relatively low dose of cocaine (5 mg/kg). In a drug-free CPP test, heterozygous mice showed enhanced preference for the cocaine-associated context at the remote time point compared with the recent time point. This progressive increase was not observed in wild-type mice and it did not generalize to contextual-fear memory. Virally mediated overexpression of brevican levels in the hippocampus, but not medial prefrontal cortex, of heterozygous mice prevented the progressive increase in cocaine CPP, but only when overexpression was induced before conditioning. Post-conditioning overexpression of brevican did not affect remote cocaine CPP, suggesting that brevican limited the increase in remote CPP by altering neuro-adaptive mechanisms during cocaine conditioning. We provide causal evidence that hippocampal brevican levels control time-dependent enhancement of cocaine CPP during abstinence, pointing to a novel substrate that regulates incubation of responding to cocaine-associated cues. PMID:26711251

  10. Nuclear matrix binding protein SMAR1 regulates T-cell differentiation and allergic airway disease.

    PubMed

    Chemmannur, S V; Badhwar, A J; Mirlekar, B; Malonia, S K; Gupta, M; Wadhwa, N; Bopanna, R; Mabalirajan, U; Majumdar, S; Ghosh, B; Chattopadhyay, S

    2015-11-01

    Asthma is a complex airway allergic disease involving the interplay of various cell types, cytokines, and transcriptional factors. Though many factors contribute to disease etiology, the molecular control of disease phenotype and responsiveness is not well understood. Here we report an essential role of the matrix attachment region (MAR)-binding protein SMAR1 in regulating immune response during allergic airway disease. Conditional knockout of SMAR1 in T cells rendered the mice resistant to eosinophilic airway inflammation against ovalbumin (OVA) allergen with low immunoglobulin E (IgE) and interleukin-5 (IL-5) levels. Moreover, a lower IgE/IgG2a ratio and higher interferon-γ (IFN-γ) response suggested aberrant skewing of T-cell differentiation toward type 1 helper T cell (Th1) response. We show that SMAR1 functions as a negative regulator of Th1 and Th17 differentiation by interacting with two potential and similar MAR regions present on the promoters of T-bet and IL-17. Thus, we present SMAR1 as a regulator of T-cell differentiation that favors the establishment of Th2 cells by modulating Th1 and Th17 responses. PMID:25736456

  11. Haemophilus influenzae P4 Interacts With Extracellular Matrix Proteins Promoting Adhesion and Serum Resistance.

    PubMed

    Su, Yu-Ching; Mukherjee, Oindrilla; Singh, Birendra; Hallgren, Oskar; Westergren-Thorsson, Gunilla; Hood, Derek; Riesbeck, Kristian

    2016-01-15

    Interaction with the extracellular matrix (ECM) is one of the successful colonization strategies employed by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). Here we identified Haemophilus lipoprotein e (P4) as a receptor for ECM proteins. Purified recombinant P4 displayed a high binding affinity for laminin (Kd = 9.26 nM) and fibronectin (Kd = 10.19 nM), but slightly less to vitronectin (Kd = 16.51 nM). A P4-deficient NTHi mutant showed a significantly decreased binding to these ECM components. Vitronectin acquisition conferred serum resistance to both P4-expressing NTHi and Escherichia coli transformants. P4-mediated bacterial adherence to pharynx, type II alveolar, and bronchial epithelial cells was mainly attributed to fibronectin. Importantly, a significantly reduced bacterial infection was observed in the middle ear of the Junbo mouse model when NTHi was devoid of P4. In conclusion, our data provide new insight into the role of P4 as an important factor for Haemophilus colonization and subsequent respiratory tract infection. PMID:26153407

  12. Detection of Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein Using a Quartz Crystal Microbalance

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shih-Han; Shen, Chi-Yen; Weng, Ting-Chan; Lin, Pin-Hsuan; Yang, Jia-Jyun; Chen, I-Fen; Kuo, Shyh-Ming; Chang, Shwu-Jen; Tu, Yuan-Kun; Kao, Yu-Hsien; Hung, Chih-Hsin

    2010-01-01

    Current methods for diagnosing early stage osteoarthritis (OA) based on the magnetic resonance imaging and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods are specific, but require specialized laboratory facilities and highly trained personal to obtain a definitive result. In this work, a user friendly and non-invasive quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) immunosensor method has been developed to detect Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein (COMP) for early stage OA diagnosis. This QCM immunosensor was fabricated to immobilize COMP antibodies utilizing the self-assembled monolayer technique. The surface properties of the immunosensor were characterized by its FTIR and electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS). The feasibility study was based on urine samples obtained from 41 volunteers. Experiments were carried out in a flow system and the reproducibility of the electrodes was evaluated by the impedance measured by EIS. Its potential dynamically monitored the immunoreaction processes and could increase the efficiency and sensitivity of COMP detection in laboratory-cultured preparations and clinical samples. The frequency responses of the QCM immunosensor changed from 6 kHz when testing 50 ng/mL COMP concentration. The linear regression equation of frequency shift and COMP concentration was determined as: y = 0.0872 x + 1.2138 (R2 = 0.9957). The COMP in urine was also determined by both QCM and EIS for comparison. A highly sensitive, user friendly and cost effective analytical method for the early stage OA diagnosis has thus been successfully developed. PMID:22163547

  13. Enhanced cell attachment using a novel cell culture surface presenting functional domains from extracellular matrix proteins

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, M. J.; Phillips, S. R.; Shah, D. S.H.; Athey, D.; Lakey, J. H.

    2008-01-01

    Many factors contribute to the creation and maintenance of a realistic environment for cell growth in vitro, e.g. the consistency of the growth medium, the addition of supplements, and the surface on which the cells grow. The nature of the surface on which cells are cultured plays an important role in their ability to attach, proliferate, migrate and function. Components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) are often used to coat glass or plastic surfaces to enhance cell attachment in vitro. Fragments of ECM molecules can be immobilised on surfaces in order to mimic the effects seen by whole molecules. In this study we evaluate the application of a novel technology for the immobilisation of functional domains of known ECM proteins in a controlled manner on a surface. By examining the adherence of cultured PC12 cells to alternative growth surfaces, we show that surfaces coated with motifs from collagen I, collagen IV, fibronectin and laminin can mimic surfaces coated with the corresponding whole molecules. Furthermore, we show that the adherence of cells can be controlled by modifying the hydropathic properties of the surface to either enhance or inhibit cell attachment. Collectively, these data demonstrate the application of a new technology to enable optimisation of cell growth in the tissue culture laboratory. PMID:19002844

  14. Neural differentiation regulated by biomimetic surfaces presenting motifs of extracellular matrix proteins.

    PubMed

    Cooke, M J; Zahir, T; Phillips, S R; Shah, D S H; Athey, D; Lakey, J H; Shoichet, M S; Przyborski, S A

    2010-06-01

    The interaction between cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM) is essential during development. To elucidate the function of ECM proteins on cell differentiation, we developed biomimetic surfaces that display specific ECM peptide motifs in a controlled manner. Presentation of ECM domains for collagen, fibronectin, and laminin influenced the formation of neurites by differentiating PC12 cells. The effect of these peptide sequences was also tested on the development of adult neural stem/progenitor cells. In this system, collagen I and fibronectin induced the formation of beta-III-tubulin positive cells, whereas collagen IV reduced such differentiation. Biomimetic surfaces composed of multiple peptide types enabled the combinatorial effects of various ECM motifs to be studied. Surfaces displaying combined motifs were often predictable as a result of the synergistic effects of ECM peptides studied in isolation. For example, the additive effects of fibronectin and laminin resulted in greater expression of beta-III-tubulin positive cells, whereas the negative effect of the collagen IV domain was canceled out by coexpression of collagen I. However, simultaneous expression of certain ECM domains was less predictable. These data highlight the complexity of the cellular response to combined ECM signals and the need to study the function of ECM domains individually and in combination. PMID:19653304

  15. Enhanced cell attachment using a novel cell culture surface presenting functional domains from extracellular matrix proteins.

    PubMed

    Cooke, M J; Phillips, S R; Shah, D S H; Athey, D; Lakey, J H; Przyborski, S A

    2008-02-01

    Many factors contribute to the creation and maintenance of a realistic environment for cell growth in vitro, e.g. the consistency of the growth medium, the addition of supplements, and the surface on which the cells grow. The nature of the surface on which cells are cultured plays an important role in their ability to attach, proliferate, migrate and function. Components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) are often used to coat glass or plastic surfaces to enhance cell attachment in vitro. Fragments of ECM molecules can be immobilised on surfaces in order to mimic the effects seen by whole molecules. In this study we evaluate the application of a novel technology for the immobilisation of functional domains of known ECM proteins in a controlled manner on a surface. By examining the adherence of cultured PC12 cells to alternative growth surfaces, we show that surfaces coated with motifs from collagen I, collagen IV, fibronectin and laminin can mimic surfaces coated with the corresponding whole molecules. Furthermore, we show that the adherence of cells can be controlled by modifying the hydropathic properties of the surface to either enhance or inhibit cell attachment. Collectively, these data demonstrate the application of a new technology to enable optimisation of cell growth in the tissue culture laboratory. PMID:19002844

  16. Ambulation speed and corresponding mechanics are associated with changes in serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein.

    PubMed

    Denning, W Matt; Becker Pardo, Michael; Winward, Jason G; Hunter, Iain; Ridge, Sarah; Hopkins, J Ty; Reese, C Shane; Parcell, Allen C; Seeley, Matthew K

    2016-02-01

    Because serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) has been used to reflect articular cartilage condition, we aimed to identify walking and running mechanics that are associated with changes in serum COMP. Eighteen subjects (9 male, 9 female; age=23 ± 2 yrs.; mass=68.3 ± 9.6 kg; height=1.70 ± 0.08 m) completed 4000 steps on an instrumented treadmill on three separate days. Each day corresponded to a different ambulation speed: slow (preferred walking speed), medium (+50% of slow), and fast (+100% of slow). Synchronized ground reaction force and video data were collected to evaluate walking mechanics. Blood samples were collected pre-, post-, 30-minute post-, and 60-minute post-ambulation to determine serum COMP concentration at these times. Serum COMP increased 29%, 18%, and 5% immediately post ambulation for the fast, medium, and slow sessions (p<0.01). When the speeds were pooled, peak ankle inversion, knee extension, knee abduction, hip flexion, hip extension, and hip abduction moment, and knee flexion angle at impact explained 61.4% of total variance in COMP concentration change (p<0.001). These results indicate that (1) certain joint mechanics are associated with acute change in serum COMP due to ambulation, and (2) increased ambulation speed increases serum COMP concentration. PMID:27004646

  17. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of proximal thread matrix protein 1 (PTMP1) from Mytilus galloprovincialis

    PubMed Central

    Suhre, Michael H.; Scheibel, Thomas; Steegborn, Clemens; Gertz, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    In order to deal with the dynamic ocean environment, blue mussels adhere to various surfaces via their collagenous byssal threads. PTMP1 (proximal thread matrix protein 1) is one identified matrix protein residing in the proximal thread and is capable of collagen binding. Its sequence comprises two von Willebrand factor type A-like repeats. In order to characterize the structure and domain architecture of PTMP1, recombinant protein was crystallized by vapour diffusion. The obtained crystals diffracted to 1.95 Å resolution and belonged to space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 62.0, b = 62.3, c = 122.6 Å, β = 102.2°. The Matthews coefficient suggested the presence of two monomers in the asymmetric unit and 48.3% solvent content. PMID:24915090

  18. miR-29c induction contributes to downregulation of vascular extracellular matrix proteins by glucocorticoids.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Tsai-Der; Pearce, William J; Khorram, Omid

    2015-07-15

    Maternal undernutrition increases maternal glucocorticoids (GCs) and alters microRNA expression in offspring. Given that the mechanisms of GC action on vascular development are not clear, this study examined the influence of GCs on microRNA 29c (miR-29c) and its predicted targets in primary rat aorta smooth muscle cells (RAOSMCs). Dexamethasone (Dex) and corticosterone (Cor) time-dependently increased miR-29c expression and reduced collagen type III (Col3A1), collagen type IV (Col4A5), elastin (ELN), and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) protein in RAOSMCs. These effects were blocked by mifepristone. These genes were also targeted by miR-29c, as confirmed by a significant decrease in luciferase reporter activity of Col3A1 (34%), Col4A5 (45%), ELN (17%), and MMP2 (28%). In cells transfected with reporter plasmids, including the 3'-untranslated region of genes targeted by miR-29c, treatment with Dex or Cor also resulted in decreases in luciferase activity. Gain or loss of function of miR-29c significantly altered mRNA expression of Col3A1 (26% and 26%, respectively), Col4A5 (28% and 32%, respectively), and MMP2 (24% and 14%, respectively) but did not affect ELN. Gain or loss of function of miR-29c also significantly altered protein levels of Col3A1 (51% and 16%, respectively), Col4A5 (56% and 22%, respectively), ELN (53% and 71%, respectively), and MMP2 (28% and 53%, respectively). Coincubation of anti-miR-29c with Dex or Cor partially attenuated the effects of these steroids on protein expression of Col3A1 (25% and 24%, respectively), Col4A5 (26% and 44%, respectively), ELN (31% and 55%, respectively), and MMP2 (46% and 26%, respectively) in RAOSMCs compared with anti-miR negative controls. Our results demonstrate that GCs regulate the expression of Col3A1, Col4A5, ELN, and MMP2, at least in part, through induction of miR-29c. PMID:26017148

  19. Human osteoblast-like cells respond to mechanical strain with increased bone matrix protein production independent of hormonal regulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harter, L. V.; Hruska, K. A.; Duncan, R. L.

    1995-01-01

    Exposure of osteosarcoma cell lines to chronic intermittent strain increases the activity of mechano-sensitive cation (SA-cat) channels. The impact of mechano-transduction on osteoblast function has not been well studied. We analyzed the expression and production of bone matrix proteins in human osteoblast-like osteosarcoma cells, OHS-4, in response to chronic intermittent mechanical strain. The OHS-4 cells exhibit type I collagen production, 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D-inducible osteocalcin, and mineralization of the extracellular matrix. The matrix protein message level was determined from total RNA isolated from cells exposed to 1-4 days of chronic intermittent strain. Northern analysis for type I collagen indicated that strain increased collagen message after 48 h. Immunofluorescent labeling of type I collagen demonstrated that secretion was also enhanced with mechanical strain. Osteopontin message levels were increased several-fold by the application of mechanical load in the absence of vitamin D, and the two stimuli together produced an additive effect. Osteocalcin secretion was also increased with cyclic strain. Osteocalcin levels were not detectable in vitamin D-untreated control cells. However, after 4 days of induced load, significant levels of osteocalcin were observed in the medium. With vitamin D present, osteocalcin levels were 4 times higher in the medium of strained cells compared to nonstrained controls. We conclude that mechanical strain of osteoblast-like cells is sufficient to increase the transcription and secretion of matrix proteins via mechano-transduction without hormonal induction.

  20. Ultrasound Technologies for the Spatial Patterning of Cells and Extracellular Matrix Proteins and the Vascularization of Engineered Tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garvin, Kelley A.

    Technological advancements in the field of tissue engineering could save the lives of thousands of organ transplant patients who die each year while waiting for donor organs. Currently, two of the primary challenges preventing tissue engineers from developing functional replacement tissues and organs are the need to recreate complex cell and extracellular microenvironments and to vascularize the tissue to maintain cell viability and function. Ultrasound is a form of mechanical energy that can noninvasively and nondestructively interact with tissues at the cell and protein level. In this thesis, novel ultrasound-based technologies were developed for the spatial patterning of cells and extracellular matrix proteins and the vascularization of three-dimensional engineered tissue constructs. Acoustic radiation forces associated with ultrasound standing wave fields were utilized to noninvasively control the spatial organization of cells and cell-bound extracellular matrix proteins within collagen-based engineered tissue. Additionally, ultrasound induced thermal mechanisms were exploited to site-specifically pattern various extracellular matrix collagen microstructures within a single engineered tissue construct. Finally, ultrasound standing wave field technology was used to promote the rapid and extensive vascularization of three-dimensional tissue constructs. As such, the ultrasound technologies developed in these studies have the potential to provide the field of tissue engineering with novel strategies to spatially pattern cells and extracellular matrix components and to vascularize engineered tissue, and thus, could advance the fabrication of functional replacement tissues and organs in the field of tissue engineering.

  1. Mueller-matrix mapping of biological tissues in differential diagnosis of optical anisotropy mechanisms of protein networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushenko, V. A.; Sidor, M. I.; Marchuk, Yu F.; Pashkovskaya, N. V.; Andreichuk, D. R.

    2015-03-01

    We report a model of Mueller-matrix description of optical anisotropy of protein networks in biological tissues with allowance for the linear birefringence and dichroism. The model is used to construct the reconstruction algorithms of coordinate distributions of phase shifts and the linear dichroism coefficient. In the statistical analysis of such distributions, we have found the objective criteria of differentiation between benign and malignant tissues of the female reproductive system. From the standpoint of evidence-based medicine, we have determined the operating characteristics (sensitivity, specificity and accuracy) of the Mueller-matrix reconstruction method of optical anisotropy parameters and demonstrated its effectiveness in the differentiation of benign and malignant tumours.

  2. Principles of hydrogen radical mediated peptide/protein fragmentation during matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Asakawa, Daiki

    2016-07-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization in-source decay (MALDI-ISD) is a very easy way to obtain large sequence tags and, thereby, reliable identification of peptides and proteins. Recently discovered new matrices have enhanced the MALDI-ISD yield and opened new research avenues. The use of reducing and oxidizing matrices for MALDI-ISD of peptides and proteins favors the production of fragmentation pathways involving "hydrogen-abundant" and "hydrogen-deficient" radical precursors, respectively. Since an oxidizing matrix provides information on peptide/protein sequences complementary to that obtained with a reducing matrix, MALDI-ISD employing both reducing and oxidizing matrices is a potentially useful strategy for de novo peptide sequencing. Moreover, a pseudo-MS(3) method provides sequence information about N- and C-terminus extremities in proteins and allows N- and C-terminal side fragments to be discriminated within the complex MALDI-ISD mass spectrum. The combination of high mass resolution of a Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) analyzer and the software suitable for MALDI-ISD facilitates the interpretation of MALDI-ISD mass spectra. A deeper understanding of the MALDI-ISD process is necessary to fully exploit this method. Thus, this review focuses first on the mechanisms underlying MALDI-ISD processes, followed by a discussion of MALDI-ISD applications in the field of proteomics. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., Mass Spec Rev 35:535-556, 2016. PMID:25286767

  3. Shotgun proteomics implicates extracellular matrix proteins and protease systems in neuronal development induced by astrocyte cholinergic stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Nadia H.; Costa, Lucio G.; Shaffer, Scott A; Goodlett, David R.; Guizzetti, Marina

    2009-01-01

    Astrocytes play an important role in neuronal development through the release of soluble factors that affect neuronal maturation. Shotgun proteomics followed by Gene Ontology analysis was used in this study to identify proteins present in the conditioned medium of primary rat astrocytes. 133 secreted proteins were identified, the majority of which were never before reported to be produced by astrocytes. Extracellular proteins were classified based on their biological and molecular functions; most of the identified proteins were involved in neuronal development. Semi-quantitative proteomic analysis was carried out to identify changes in the levels of proteins released by astrocytes after stimulation with the cholinergic agonist carbachol, as we have previously reported that carbachol-treated astrocytes elicit neuritogenesis in hippocampal neurons through the release of soluble factors. Carbachol up-regulated the secretion of 15 proteins and down-regulated the release of 17 proteins. Changes in the levels of four proteins involved in neuronal differentiation (thrombospondin-1, fibronectin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and plasminogen activator urokinase) were verified by Western blot or ELISA. In conclusion, this study identified a large number of proteins involved in neuronal development in the astrocyte secretome and implicated extracellular matrix proteins and protease systems in neuronal development induced by astrocyte cholinergic stimulation. PMID:19077055

  4. Dual matrix-based immobilized trypsin for complementary proteolytic digestion and fast proteomics analysis with higher protein sequence coverage.

    PubMed

    Fan, Chao; Shi, Zhaomei; Pan, Yiting; Song, Zifeng; Zhang, Wanjun; Zhao, Xinyuan; Tian, Fang; Peng, Bo; Qin, Weijie; Cai, Yun; Qian, Xiaohong

    2014-02-01

    In an age of whole-genome analysis, the mass spectrometry-based bottom-up strategy is now considered to be the most powerful method for in-depth proteomics analysis. As part of this strategy, highly efficient and complete proteolytic digestion of proteins into peptides is crucial for successful proteome profiling with deep coverage. To achieve this goal, prolonged digestion time and the use of multiple proteases have been adopted. The long digestion time required and tedious sample treatment steps severely limit the sample processing throughput. Though utilization of immobilized protease greatly reduces the digestion time, highly efficient proteolysis of extremely complex proteomic samples remains a challenging task. Here, we propose a dual matrix-based complementary digestion method using two types of immobilized trypsin with opposite matrix hydrophobicity prepared by attaching trypsin on hydrophobic or hydrophilic polymer-brush-modified nanoparticles. The polymer brushes on the nanoparticles serve as three-dimensional supports for a large amount of trypsin immobilization and lead to ultrafast and highly efficient protein digestion. More importantly, the two types of immobilized trypsin show high complementarity in protein digestion with only ∼60% overlap in peptide identification for yeast and membrane protein of mouse liver. Complementary digestion by applying these two types of immobilized trypsin together leads to obviously enhanced protein and peptide identification. Furthermore, the dual matrix-based complementary digestion shows particular advantage in the digestion of membrane proteins, as twice the number of identified peptides is obtained compared with solution digestion using free proteases, demonstrating its potential as a promising alternative to promote proteomics analysis with higher protein sequence coverage. PMID:24447065

  5. Role of HIV-1 matrix protein p17 variants in lymphoma pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Dolcetti, Riccardo; Giagulli, Cinzia; He, Wangxiao; Selleri, Marina; Caccuri, Francesca; Eyzaguirre, Lindsay M.; Mazzuca, Pietro; Corbellini, Silvia; Campilongo, Federica; Marsico, Stefania; Giombini, Emanuela; Muraro, Elena; Rozera, Gabriella; De Paoli, Paolo; Carbone, Antonino; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria; Ippolito, Giuseppe; Fiorentini, Simona; Blattner, William A.; Lu, Wuyuan; Gallo, Robert C.; Caruso, Arnaldo

    2015-01-01

    Although in decline after successful anti-HIV therapy, B-cell lymphomas are still elevated in HIV-1-seropositive (HIV+) persons, and the mechanisms are obscure. The HIV-1 matrix protein p17 persists in germinal centers long after HIV-1 drug suppression, and some p17 variants (vp17s) activate Akt signaling and promote growth of transformed B cells. Here we show that vp17s derived from four of five non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) tissues from HIV+ subjects display potent B-cell growth-promoting activity. They are characterized by amino acid insertions at position 117–118 (Ala–Ala) or 125–126 (Gly–Asn or Gly–Gln–Ala–Asn–Gln–Asn) among some other mutations throughout the sequence. Identical dominant vp17s are found in both tumor and plasma. Three of seven plasma samples from an independent set of NHL cases manifested multiple Ala insertions at position 117–118, and one with the Ala–Ala profile also promoted B-cell growth and activated Akt signaling. Ultradeep pyrosequencing showed that vp17s with C-terminal insertions are more frequently detected in plasma of HIV+ subjects with than without NHL. Insertion of Ala–Ala at position 117–118 into reference p17 (refp17) was sufficient to confer B-cell growth-promoting activity. In contrast, refp17 bearing the Gly–Asn insertion at position 125–126 did not, suggesting that mutations not restricted to the C terminus can also account for this activity. Biophysical analysis revealed that the Ala–Ala insertion mutant is destabilized compared with refp17, whereas the Gly–Asn form is stabilized. This finding provides an avenue for further exploration of structure function relationships and new treatment strategies in combating HIV-1–related NHL. PMID:26578780

  6. Calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis and expression of matrix GLA protein in the kidneys

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Aslam; Wang, Wei; Khan, Saeed R.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Polymorphism of the gene for matrix GLA protein (MGP), a calcification inhibitor, is associated with nephrolithiasis. However, experimental investigations of MGP role in stone pathogenesis are limited. We determined the effect of renal epithelial exposure to oxalate (Ox), calcium oxalate (CaOx) monohydrate (COM) or hydroxyapatite (HA) crystal on the expression of MGP. Methods MDCK cells in culture were exposed to 0.3, 0.5 or 1 mM Ox and 33, 66 or 133–150 μg/cm2 of COM/HA for 3–72 h. MGP expression and production were determined by Western blotting and densitometric analysis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed to determine MGP release into the medium. Hyperoxaluria was induced in male Sprague–Dawley rats by feeding hydroxyl-L-proline. Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect renal MGP expression. Results Exposure to Ox and crystals led to time- and concentration-dependent increase in expression of MGP in MDCK cells. Cellular response was quicker to crystal exposure than to the Ox, expression being significantly higher after 3-h exposure to COM or HA crystals and more than 6 h of exposure to Ox. MGP expression was increased in kidneys of hyperoxaluric rats particularly in renal peritubular vessels. Conclusion We demonstrate increased expression of MGP in renal tubular epithelial cells exposed to Ox or CaOx crystals as well as the HA crystals. The most significant finding of this study is the increased staining seen in renal peritubular vessels of the hyperoxaluric rats, indicating involvement of renal endothelial cells in the synthesis of MGP. PMID:23475213

  7. Candidate Cell and Matrix Interaction Domains on the Collagen Fibril, the Predominant Protein of Vertebrates

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, Shawn M.; Orgel, Joseph P.; Fertala, Andrzej; McAuliffe, Jon D.; Turner, Kevin R.; Di Lullo, Gloria A.; Chen, Steven; Antipova, Olga; Perumal, Shiamalee; Ala-Kokko, Leena; Forlinoi, Antonella; Cabral, Wayne A.; Barnes, Aileen M.; Marini, Joan C.; San Antonio, James D.

    2008-07-18

    Type I collagen, the predominant protein of vertebrates, polymerizes with type III and V collagens and non-collagenous molecules into large cable-like fibrils, yet how the fibril interacts with cells and other binding partners remains poorly understood. To help reveal insights into the collagen structure-function relationship, a data base was assembled including hundreds of type I collagen ligand binding sites and mutations on a two-dimensional model of the fibril. Visual examination of the distribution of functional sites, and statistical analysis of mutation distributions on the fibril suggest it is organized into two domains. The 'cell interaction domain' is proposed to regulate dynamic aspects of collagen biology, including integrin-mediated cell interactions and fibril remodeling. The 'matrix interaction domain' may assume a structural role, mediating collagen cross-linking, proteoglycan interactions, and tissue mineralization. Molecular modeling was used to superimpose the positions of functional sites and mutations from the two-dimensional fibril map onto a three-dimensional x-ray diffraction structure of the collagen microfibril in situ, indicating the existence of domains in the native fibril. Sequence searches revealed that major fibril domain elements are conserved in type I collagens through evolution and in the type II/XI collagen fibril predominant in cartilage. Moreover, the fibril domain model provides potential insights into the genotype-phenotype relationship for several classes of human connective tissue diseases, mechanisms of integrin clustering by fibrils, the polarity of fibril assembly, heterotypic fibril function, and connective tissue pathology in diabetes and aging.

  8. Desphospho-uncarboxylated matrix Gla protein is associated with increased aortic stiffness in a general population.

    PubMed

    Mayer, O; Seidlerová, J; Wohlfahrt, P; Filipovský, J; Vaněk, J; Cífková, R; Windrichová, J; Topolčan, O; Knapen, M H J; Drummen, N E A; Vermeer, C

    2016-07-01

    Matrix Gla protein (MGP), a natural inhibitor of calcification, strongly correlates with the extent of coronary calcification. Vitamin K is the essential cofactor for the activation of MGP. The nonphosphorylated-uncarboxylated isoform of MGP (dp-ucMGP) reflects the status of this vitamin. We investigated whether there is an association between dp-ucMGP and stiffness of elastic and muscular-type large arteries in a random sample from the general population. In a cross-sectional design, we analyzed 1087 subjects from the Czech post-MONICA study. Aortic and femoro-popliteal pulse wave velocities (PWVs) were measured using a Sphygmocor device. Dp-ucMGP concentrations were assessed in freshly frozen samples by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods using the InaKtif MGP iSYS pre-commercial kit developed by IDS and VitaK. Aortic PWV significantly (P<0.0001) increased across the dp-ucMGP quartiles. After adjustment for all potential confounders, aortic PWV independently correlated with dp-ucMGP (with beta coefficient (s.d.) 11.61 (5.38) and P-value=0.031). In a categorized manner, subjects in the top quartile of dp-ucMGP (⩾ 671 pmol l(-1)) had a higher risk of elevated aortic PWV, with corresponding adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) 1.73 (1.17-2.5). In contrast, no relation between dp-ucMGP and femoro-popliteal PWV was found. In conclusion, increased dp-ucMGP, which is a circulating biomarker of vitamin K status and vascular calcification, is independently associated with aortic stiffness, but not with stiffness of distal muscular-type arteries. PMID:26016598

  9. Matrix metalloproteinase-20 mediates dental enamel biomineralization by preventing protein occlusion inside apatite crystals.

    PubMed

    Prajapati, Saumya; Tao, Jinhui; Ruan, Qichao; De Yoreo, James J; Moradian-Oldak, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Reconstruction of enamel-like materials is a central topic of research in dentistry and material sciences. The importance of precise proteolytic mechanisms in amelogenesis to form a hard tissue with more than 95% mineral content has already been reported. A mutation in the Matrix Metalloproteinase-20 (MMP-20) gene results in hypomineralized enamel that is thin, disorganized and breaks from the underlying dentin. We hypothesized that the absence of MMP-20 during amelogenesis results in the occlusion of amelogenin in the enamel hydroxyapatite crystals. We used spectroscopy and electron microscopy techniques to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze occluded proteins within the isolated enamel crystals from MMP-20 null and Wild type (WT) mice. Our results showed that the isolated enamel crystals of MMP-20 null mice had more organic macromolecules occluded inside them than enamel crystals from the WT. The crystal lattice arrangements of MMP-20 null enamel crystals analyzed by High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) were found to be significantly different from those of the WT. Raman studies indicated that the crystallinity of the MMP-20 null enamel crystals was lower than that of the WT. In conclusion, we present a novel functional mechanism of MMP-20, specifically prevention of unwanted organic material entrapped in the forming enamel crystals, which occurs as the result of precise amelogenin cleavage. MMP-20 action guides the growth morphology of the forming hydroxyapatite crystals and enhances their crystallinity. Elucidating such molecular mechanisms can be applied in the design of novel biomaterials for future clinical applications in dental restoration or repair. PMID:26513418

  10. Antibacterial effect of an enamel matrix protein derivative on in vivo dental biofilm vitality.

    PubMed

    Arweiler, Nicole Birgit; Auschill, Thorsten Mathias; Donos, Nikolaos; Sculean, Anton

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of this observer-blind, randomised, five-cell crossover study was to examine the antibacterial efficacy of an enamel matrix protein derivative (EMD) on established supragingival plaque in vivo. Saline (NaCl) served as a negative control solution and chlorhexidine (CHX) as a positive one. Additionally, the propylene glycol alginate (PGA) vehicle and the 24% ethylenediaminetetra-acetate (EDTA) gel were tested. After professional oral prophylaxis, 14 volunteers refrained from all mechanical oral hygiene measures for the following 48 h to build up plaque. In randomised order, the following procedures were applied: (a) 10 ml of CHX (0.2%) or (b) 10 ml of NaCl were used as a mouthrinse for 1 min each. In the cases of (c) EMD (Emdogain), (d) PGA, or (e) 24% EDTA (PrefGel), 1 ml of each were applied with a syringe on the teeth. Two hours after application, plaque samples were taken from one upper and one lower molar, and the vitality of the biofilm microbiota was examined using the vital fluorescence technique. Biofilm vitality (VF%) was lower for EMD, PGA, and CHX by 19% ( P<0.0001), 22% ( P=0.001), and 35% ( P<0.0001), respectively, than in negative controls. The EDTA showed similar vitality values to NaCl and was therefore not able to affect the biofilm flora significantly. The EMD and PGA displayed significantly reduced biofilm vitality compared to negative controls, which, however, could not reach the effect of the positive control (0.2% CHX). The present results demonstrate for the first time a direct influence of EMD on the vitality of supragingival dental plaque in vivo. PMID:12483234

  11. AMP-activated protein kinase suppresses matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression in mouse embryonic fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Morizane, Yuki; Thanos, Aristomenis; Takeuchi, Kimio; Murakami, Yusuke; Kayama, Maki; Trichonas, George; Miller, Joan; Foretz, Marc; Viollet, Benoit; Vavvas, Demetrios G

    2011-05-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) plays a critical role in tissue remodeling under both physiological and pathological conditions. Although MMP-9 expression is low in most cells and is tightly controlled, the mechanism of its regulation is poorly understood. We utilized mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) that were nullizygous for the catalytic α subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which is a key regulator of energy homeostasis, to identify AMPK as a suppressor of MMP-9 expression. Total AMPKα deletion significantly elevated MMP-9 expression compared with wild-type (WT) MEFs, whereas single knock-out of the isoforms AMPKα1 and AMPKα2 caused minimal change in the level of MMP-9 expression. The suppressive role of AMPK on MMP-9 expression was mediated through both its activity and presence. The AMPK activators 5-amino-4-imidazole carboxamide riboside and A769662 suppressed MMP-9 expression in WT MEFs, and AMPK inhibition by the overexpression of dominant negative (DN) AMPKα elevated MMP-9 expression. However, in AMPKα(-/-) MEFs transduced with DN AMPKα, MMP-9 expression was suppressed. AMPKα(-/-) MEFs showed increased phosphorylation of IκBα, expression of IκBα mRNA, nuclear localization of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and DNA-binding activity of NF-κB compared with WT. Consistently, selective NF-κB inhibitors BMS345541 and SM7368 decreased MMP-9 expression in AMPKα(-/-) MEFs. Overall, our results suggest that both AMPKα isoforms suppress MMP-9 expression and that both the activity and presence of AMPKα contribute to its function as a regulator of MMP-9 expression by inhibiting the NF-κB pathway. PMID:21402702

  12. Maize toxin degrades peritrophic matrix proteins and stimulates compensatory transcriptome responses in fall armyworm midgut.

    PubMed

    Fescemyer, Howard W; Sandoya, Germán V; Gill, Torrence A; Ozkan, Seval; Marden, James H; Luthe, Dawn S

    2013-03-01

    Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying insect compensatory responses to plant defenses could lead to improved plant resistance to herbivores. The Mp708 inbred line of maize produces the maize insect resistant 1-cysteine protease (Mir1-CP) toxin. Reduced feeding and growth of fall armyworm larvae fed on Mp708 was previously linked to impairment of nutrient utilization and degradation of the midgut (MG) peritrophic matrix (PM) by Mir1-CP. Here we examine the biochemical and transcriptional responses of fall armyworm larvae to Mir1-CP. Insect Intestinal Mucin (IIM) was severely depleted from pure PMs treated in vitro with recombinant Mir1-CP. Larvae fed on Mp708 midwhorls excrete frass largely depleted of IIM. Cracks, fissures and increased porosity previously observed in the PM of larvae fed on Mp708 midwhorls could ensue when Mir1-CP degrades the IIM that cross-links chitin fibrils in the PM. Both targeted and global transcriptome analyses were performed to determine how complete dissolution of the structure and function of the PM is prevented, enabling larvae to continue growing in the presence of Mir1-CP. The MGs from fall armyworm fed on Mp708 upregulate expression of genes encoding proteins involved in PM production as an apparent compensation to replace the disrupted PM structure and restore appropriate counter-current MG gradients. Also, several families of digestive enzymes (endopeptidases, aminopeptidases, lipases, amylase) were more highly expressed in MGs from larvae fed on Mp708 than MGs from larvae fed on diets lacking Mir1-CP (artificial diet, midwhorls from Tx601 or B73 maize). Impaired growth of larvae fed on Mp708 probably results from metabolic costs associated with higher production of PM constituents and digestive enzymes in a compensatory attempt to maintain MG function. PMID:23306018

  13. Demineralized dentin matrix combined with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 in rabbit calvarial defects

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the osteogenic effects of demineralized dentin matrix (DDM) combined with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) in rabbit calvarial defects with DDM and anorganic bovine bone (ABB) combined with rhBMP-2. Materials and Methods Four round defects with 8-mm diameters were created in each rabbit calvaria. Each defect was treated with one of the following: 1) DDM, 2) ABB/rhBMP-2, or 3) DDM/rhBMP-2. The rhBMP-2 was combined with DDM and ABB according to a stepwise dry and dip lyophilizing protocol. Histological and microcomputed tomography (µCT) analyses were performed to measure the amount of bone formation and bone volume after 2- and 8-week healing intervals. Results Upon histological observation at two weeks, the DDM and ABB/rhBMP-2 groups showed osteoconductive bone formation, while the DDM/rhBMP-2 group showed osteoconductive and osteoinductive bone formation. New bone formation was higher in DDM/rhBMP-2, DDM and ABB decreasing order. The amounts of bone formation were very similar at two weeks; however, at eight weeks, the DDM/rhBMP-2 group showed a two-fold greater amount of bone formation compared to the DDM and ABB/rhBMP-2 groups. The µCT analysis showed markedly increased bone volume in the DDM/rhBMP-2 group at eight weeks compared with that of the DDM group. Notably, there was a slight decrease in bone volume in the ABB/rhBMP-2 group at eight weeks. There were no significant differences among the DDM, ABB/rhBMP-2, and DDM/rhBMP-2 groups at two or eight weeks. Conclusion Within the limitations of this study, DDM appears to be a suitable carrier for rhBMP-2 in orthotopic sites. PMID:27162749

  14. Extracellular matrix controls tubulin monomer levels in hepatocytes by regulating protein turnover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mooney, D. J.; Hansen, L. K.; Langer, R.; Vacanti, J. P.; Ingber, D. E.

    1994-01-01

    Cells have evolved an autoregulatory mechanism to dampen variations in the concentration of tubulin monomer that is available to polymerize into microtubules (MTs), a process that is known as tubulin autoregulation. However, thermodynamic analysis of MT polymerization predicts that the concentration of free tubulin monomer must vary if MTs are to remain stable under different mechanical loads that result from changes in cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM). To determine how these seemingly contradictory regulatory mechanisms coexist in cells, we measured changes in the masses of tubulin monomer and polymer that resulted from altering cell-ECM contacts. Primary rat hepatocytes were cultured in chemically defined medium on bacteriological petri dishes that were precoated with different densities of laminin (LM). Increasing the LM density from low to high (1-1000 ng/cm2), promoted cell spreading (average projected cell area increased from 1200 to 6000 microns2) and resulted in formation of a greatly extended MT network. Nevertheless, the steady-state mass of tubulin polymer was similar at 48 h, regardless of cell shape or ECM density. In contrast, round hepatocytes on low LM contained a threefold higher mass of tubulin monomer when compared with spread cells on high LM. Furthermore, similar results were obtained whether LM, fibronectin, or type I collagen were used for cell attachment. Tubulin autoregulation appeared to function normally in these cells because tubulin mRNA levels and protein synthetic rates were greatly depressed in round cells that contained the highest level of free tubulin monomer. However, the rate of tubulin protein degradation slowed, causing the tubulin half-life to increase from approximately 24 to 55 h as the LM density was lowered from high to low and cell rounding was promoted. These results indicate that the set-point for the tubulin monomer mass in hepatocytes can be regulated by altering the density of ECM contacts and

  15. Structural and Molecular Determinants of Membrane Binding by the HIV-1 Matrix Protein.

    PubMed

    Mercredi, Peter Y; Bucca, Nadine; Loeliger, Burk; Gaines, Christy R; Mehta, Mansi; Bhargava, Pallavi; Tedbury, Philip R; Charlier, Landry; Floquet, Nicolas; Muriaux, Delphine; Favard, Cyril; Sanders, Charles R; Freed, Eric O; Marchant, Jan; Summers, Michael F

    2016-04-24

    Assembly of HIV-1 particles is initiated by the trafficking of viral Gag polyproteins from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane, where they co-localize and bud to form immature particles. Membrane targeting is mediated by the N-terminally myristoylated matrix (MA) domain of Gag and is dependent on the plasma membrane marker phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2]. Recent studies revealed that PI(4,5)P2 molecules containing truncated acyl chains [tr-PI(4,5)P2] are capable of binding MA in an "extended lipid" conformation and promoting myristoyl exposure. Here we report that tr-PI(4,5)P2 molecules also readily bind to non-membrane proteins, including HIV-1 capsid, which prompted us to re-examine MA-PI(4,5)P2 interactions using native lipids and membrane mimetic liposomes and bicelles. Liposome binding trends observed using a recently developed NMR approach paralleled results of flotation assays, although the affinities measured under the equilibrium conditions of NMR experiments were significantly higher. Native PI(4,5)P2 enhanced MA binding to liposomes designed to mimic non-raft-like regions of the membrane, suggesting the possibility that binding of the protein to disordered domains may precede Gag association with, or nucleation of, rafts. Studies with bicelles revealed a subset of surface and myr-associated MA residues that are sensitive to native PI(4,5)P2, but cleft residues that interact with the 2'-acyl chains of tr-PI(4,5)P2 molecules in aqueous solution were insensitive to native PI(4,5)P2 in bicelles. Our findings call to question extended-lipid MA:membrane binding models, and instead support a model put forward from coarse-grained simulations indicating that binding is mediated predominantly by dynamic, electrostatic interactions between conserved basic residues of MA and multiple PI(4,5)P2 and phosphatidylserine molecules. PMID:26992353

  16. Identification of Proteins with Potential Osteogenic Activity Present in the Water-Soluble Matrix Proteins from Crassostrea gigas Nacre Using a Proteomic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Daniel V.; Silva, Tomé S.; Cordeiro, Odete D.; Cavaco, Sofia I.; Simes, Dina C.

    2012-01-01

    Nacre, when implanted in vivo in bones of dogs, sheep, mice, and humans, induces a biological response that includes integration and osteogenic activity on the host tissue that seems to be activated by a set of proteins present in the nacre water-soluble matrix (WSM). We describe here an experimental approach that can accurately identify the proteins present in the WSM of shell mollusk nacre. Four proteins (three gigasin-2 isoforms and a cystatin A2) were for the first time identified in WSM of Crassostrea gigas nacre using 2DE and LC-MS/MS for protein identification. These proteins are thought to be involved in bone remodeling processes and could be responsible for the biocompatibility shown between bone and nacre grafts. These results represent a contribution to the study of shell biomineralization process and opens new perspectives for the development of new nacre biomaterials for orthopedic applications. PMID:22666151

  17. Matrix-assisted laser-desorption-ionization mass spectrometry of proteins using a free-electron laser

    SciTech Connect

    Cramer, R.; Hillenkamp, F.; Haglund, R.

    1995-12-31

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) is one of the most promising techniques for spectral fingerprinting large molecules, such as proteins, oligonucleotides and carbohydrates. In the usual implementation of this technique, the analyte molecule is dissolved in an aromatic liquid matrix material which resonantly absorbs ultraviolet laser light. Resonant absorption by {pi}-{pi}* transitions volatilizes the matrix and initiates subsequent charge transfer to the analyte molecules, which are detected by time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Recent MALDI-MS studies with Er:YAG (2.94 {mu}m) and CO{sub 2}{sup 4} (9.4-10.6 {mu}m) lasers suggest that them is significant unexplored potential for mass spectrometry of macromolecules, including oligonucleotide, in the mid-infrared. Preliminary experiments show that it is possible to capitalize on the rich rovibronic absorption spectrum of virtually all organics to initiate resonant desorption in matrix material over the entire range of pH values. However, the mechanism of charge transfer is particularly problematic for infrared MALDI because of the low photon energy. In this paper, we report the results of MALI-MS studies on small proteins using the Vanderbilt FEL and several matrix materials. Proteins with masses up to roughly 6,000 amu were detected with high resolution in a linear time-of-flight mass spectrometer. By varying the pulse duration using a broadband Pockels cell, we have been able to compare the results of relatively long (5 {mu}s) and short (0.1 {mu}s) irradiation on the desorption and ionization processes. Compared to uv-MALDI spectra of identical analytes obtained with a nitrogen laser (337 nm) in the same time-of-flight spectrometer, the infrared results appear to show that the desorption and ionization process goes on over a somewhat longer time scale.

  18. The matrix proteins of neurovirulent subacute sclerosing panencephalitis virus and its acute measles virus progenitor are functionally different.

    PubMed Central

    Hirano, A; Wang, A H; Gombart, A F; Wong, T C

    1992-01-01

    Persistence of measles virus in the brains of patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is accompanied by changes in the viral matrix (M) protein. To understand the significance of these changes, cell culture and cell-free assays were developed to compare the functions of the M proteins of an SSPE virus Biken strain and its acute measles virus progenitor Nagahata strain. The Nagahata viral M protein is associated with the intracellular viral nucleocapsids and the plasma membrane, whereas the Biken viral M protein is localized mainly in the cytosol. The lack of M protein in the Biken viral nucleocapsids is due to a failure of the Biken M protein to bind to the viral nucleocapsids. The Biken M protein also fails to bind to the Nagahata viral nucleocapsids. Conversely, the Nagahata M protein can bind to the Biken viral nucleocapsids, although this association is not as stable at physiological salt concentration. These results offer concrete evidence that the M protein of an SSPE virus is functionally different from that of its progenitor acute measles virus. Images PMID:1528889

  19. Design and Construction of Artificial Extracellular Matrix (aECM) Proteins from Escherichia coli for Skin Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Low, Pearlie S J; Tjin, Monica S; Fong, Eileen

    2015-01-01

    Recombinant technology is a versatile platform to create novel artificial proteins with tunable properties. For the last decade, many artificial proteins that have incorporated functional domains derived from nature (or created de novo) have been reported. In particular, artificial extracellular matrix (aECM) proteins have been developed; these aECM proteins consist of biological domains taken from fibronectin, laminins and collagens and are combined with structural domains including elastin-like repeats, silk and collagen repeats. To date, aECM proteins have been widely investigated for applications in tissue engineering and wound repair. Recently, Tjin and coworkers developed integrin-specific aECM proteins designed for promoting human skin keratinocyte attachment and propagation. In their work, the aECM proteins incorporate cell binding domains taken from fibronectin, laminin-5 and collagen IV, as well as flanking elastin-like repeats. They demonstrated that the aECM proteins developed in their work were promising candidates for use as substrates in artificial skin. Here, we outline the design and construction of such aECM proteins as well as their purification process using the thermo-responsive characteristics of elastin. PMID:26132812

  20. Effects of aerobic exercise intervention on serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein levels and lymphocyte dna damage in obese elderly females

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Su Youn; Roh, Hee Tae

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the reported research was to investigate the effects of regular aerobic exercise on cartilage oligomeric matrix protein and oxidative DNA damage in obese, elderly females. [Subjects and Methods] Sixteen class I obese, elderly females, according to World Health Organization criteria, were randomly and equally assigned to a control group (n=8) or an exercise group (n=8). The exercise group participated in exercise sessions of 60 minutes per day, 3 days per week, for a period of 8 weeks. [Results] After aerobic exercise intervention, weight, body mass index, body fat, waist circumference, and DNA damage (Tail moment) were significantly decreased, compared with baseline values. In contrast, serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein levels were not significantly different among any groups or time-points. [Conclusion] Regular aerobic exercise may be effective for reducing obesity-induced high DNA damage levels in obese females, without causing the deformation or degradation of lower extremity articular cartilage. PMID:27390441

  1. Intracellularly Expressed Single-Domain Antibody against p15 Matrix Protein Prevents the Production of Porcine Retroviruses

    PubMed Central

    Dekker, Sylvia; Toussaint, Wendy; Panayotou, George; de Wit, Ton; Visser, Pim; Grosveld, Frank; Drabek, Dubravka

    2003-01-01

    The presence of porcine endogenous retroviruses presents a potential risk of transmission of infectious diseases (xenozoonosis) if tissues and organs from genetically modified pigs are to be used in xenotransplantation. Here, we report that intracellular expression of a llama single-domain antibody against p15, the matrix domain protein of the porcine endogenous retrovirus Gag polyprotein, blocks retrovirus production, providing the possibility of eliminating the risk of infection in xenotransplantation. PMID:14581550

  2. Azimuthally invariant Mueller-matrix mapping of biological tissue in differential diagnosis of mechanisms protein molecules networks an sotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushenko, V. A.; Gavrylyak, M. S.

    2013-09-01

    The optical model of polycrystalline networks of blood plasma proteins is suggested. The results of investigating the interrelation between the values of correlation (correlation area, asymmetry coefficient and autocorrelation function excess) and fractal (dispersion of logarithmic dependencies of power spectra) parameters are presented. They characterize the coordinate distributions of Mueller-matrixes elements of blood plasma smears and pathological state of the organism. The diagnostic criteria of breast cancer nascency are determined.

  3. Tadalafil Integrates Nitric Oxide-Hydrogen Sulfide Signaling to Inhibit High Glucose-induced Matrix Protein Synthesis in Podocytes*

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hak Joo; Feliers, Denis; Mariappan, Meenalakshmi M.; Sataranatarajan, Kavithalakshmi; Choudhury, Goutam Ghosh; Gorin, Yves; Kasinath, Balakuntalam S.

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes-induced kidney cell injury involves an increase in matrix protein expression that is only partly alleviated by current treatment, prompting a search for new modalities. We have previously shown that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) inhibits high glucose-induced protein synthesis in kidney podocytes. We tested whether tadalafil, a phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor used to treat erectile dysfunction, ameliorates high glucose stimulation of matrix proteins by generating H2S in podocytes. Tadalafil abrogated high glucose stimulation of global protein synthesis and matrix protein laminin γ1. Tadalafil inhibited high glucose-induced activation of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 and laminin γ1 accumulation in an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-dependent manner. Tadalafil increased AMPK phosphorylation by stimulating calcium-calmodulin kinase kinase β. Tadalafil rapidly increased the expression and activity of the H2S-generating enzyme cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) by promoting its translation. dl-Propargylglycine, a CSE inhibitor, and siRNA against CSE inhibited tadalafil-induced AMPK phosphorylation and abrogated the tadalafil effect on high glucose stimulation of laminin γ1. In tadalafil-treated podocytes, we examined the interaction between H2S and nitric oxide (NO). Nω-Nitro-l-arginine methyl ester and 1H-[1,2,4]-oxadiazolo-[4,3-a]-quinoxalin-1-one, inhibitors of NO synthase (NOS) and soluble guanylyl cyclase, respectively, abolished tadalafil induction of H2S and AMPK phosphorylation. Tadalafil rapidly augmented inducible NOS (iNOS) expression by increasing its mRNA, and siRNA for iNOS and 1400W, an iNOS blocker, inhibited tadalafil stimulation of CSE expression and AMPK phosphorylation. We conclude that tadalafil amelioration of high glucose stimulation of synthesis of proteins including matrix proteins in podocytes requires integration of the NO-H2S-AMPK axis leading to the inhibition of high glucose-induced mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1

  4. Extracellular Matrix Proteins, Alkaline Phosphatase and Pyrophosphate as Molecular Determinants of Bone, Tooth, Kidney and Vascular Calcification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKee, Marc D.

    2008-09-01

    Progress in biomineralization research in recent years has identified, characterized and described functions for key noncollagenous extracellular matrix proteins regulating crystal growth in the skeleton and dentition. Some of these same proteins expressed in soft tissues undergoing pathologic calcification also inhibit ectopic crystal growth. In addition to extracellular matrix proteins regulating matrix mineralization, the enzyme tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase—which is highly expressed by cells in mineralized tissues—cleaves pyrophosphate, an anionic small-molecule inhibitor of mineralization. Together with the required mineral ion availability necessary for crystal growth, these molecular determinants appear to function in limiting the spread of pathologic calcification seen in soft tissues such as blood vessels and kidneys. Osteopontin, in particular, is a potent calcification inhibitor that accumulates in mineralized tissues and in calcified deposits during vascular calcification and nephrolithiasis/urolithiasis. Additional research is required to establish the exact temporal sequence in which the molecular determinants of pathologic calcification appear relative to mineral crystal growth in different tissues, and to establish their relationship (if any) to the activation of osteogenic differentiation programs.

  5. A gastrolith protein serving a dual role in the formation of an amorphous mineral containing extracellular matrix

    PubMed Central

    Shechter, Assaf; Glazer, Lilah; Cheled, Shira; Mor, Eyal; Weil, Simy; Berman, Amir; Bentov, Shmuel; Aflalo, Eliahu D.; Khalaila, Isam; Sagi, Amir

    2008-01-01

    Despite the proclamation of Lowenstam and Weiner that crustaceans are the “champions of mineral mobilization and deposition of the animal kingdom,” relatively few proteins from the two main calcification sites in these animals, i.e., the exoskeleton and the transient calcium storage organs, have been identified, sequenced, and their roles elucidated. Here, a 65-kDa protein (GAP 65) from the gastrolith of the crayfish, Cherax quadricarinatus, is fully characterized and its function in the mineralization of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) of the extracellular matrix is demonstrated. GAP 65 is a negatively charged glycoprotein that possesses three predicted domains: a chitin-binding domain 2, a low-density lipoprotein receptor class A domain, and a polysaccharide deacetylase domain. Expression of GAP 65 was localized to columnar epithelial cells of the gastrolith disk during premolt. In vivo administration of GAP 65 dsRNA resulted in a significant reduction of GAP 65 transcript levels in the gastrolith disk. Such gene silencing also caused dramatic structural and morphological deformities in the chitinous-ACC extracellular matrix structure. ACC deposited in these gastroliths appeared to be sparsely packed with large elongated cavities compared with the normal gastrolith, where ACC is densely compacted. ACC spherules deposited in these gastroliths are significantly larger than normal. GAP 65, moreover, inhibited calcium carbonate crystallization in vitro and stabilized synthetic ACC. Thus, GAP 65 is the first protein shown to have dual function, involved both in extracellular matrix formation and in mineral deposition during biomineralization. PMID:18480260

  6. Expression of spicule matrix protein gene SM30 in embryonic and adult mineralized tissues of sea urchin Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitajima, T.; Tomita, M.; Killian, C. E.; Akasaka, K.; Wilt, F. H.

    1996-01-01

    We have isolated a cDNA clone for spicule matrix protein, SM30, from sea urchin Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus and have studied the expression of this gene in comparison with that of another spicule matrix protein gene, SM50. In cultured micromeres as well as in intact embryos transcripts of SM30 were first detectable around the onset of spicule formation and rapidly increased with the growth of spicules, which accompanied accumulation of glycosylated SM30 protein(s). When micromeres were cultured in the presence of Zn2+, spicule formation and SM30 expression were suppressed, while both events resumed concurrently after the removal of Zn2+ from the culture medium. Expression of SM50, in contrast, started before the appearance of spicules and was not sensitive to Zn2+. Differences were also observed in adult tissues; SM30 mRNA was detected in spines and tube feet but not in the test, while SM50 mRNA was apparent in all of these mineralized tissues at similar levels. These results strongly suggest that the SM30 gene is regulated by a different mechanism to that of the SM50 gene and that the products of these two genes are differently involved in sea urchin biomineralization. A possible role of SM30 protein in skeleton formation is discussed.

  7. A 3D-1D substitution matrix for protein fold recognition that includes predicted secondary structure of the sequence.

    PubMed

    Rice, D W; Eisenberg, D

    1997-04-11

    In protein fold recognition, a probe amino acid sequence is compared to a library of representative folds of known structure to identify a structural homolog. In cases where the probe and its homolog have clear sequence similarity, traditional residue substitution matrices have been used to predict the structural similarity. In cases where the probe is sequentially distant from its homolog, we have developed a (7 x 3 x 2 x 7 x 3) 3D-1D substitution matrix (called H3P2), calculated from a database of 119 structural pairs. Members of each pair share a similar fold, but have sequence identity less than 30%. Each probe sequence position is defined by one of seven residue classes and three secondary structure classes. Each homologous fold position is defined by one of seven residue classes, three secondary structure classes, and two burial classes. Thus the matrix is five-dimensional and contains 7 x 3 x 2 x 7 x 3 = 882 elements or 3D-1D scores. The first step in assigning a probe sequence to its homologous fold is the prediction of the three-state (helix, strand, coil) secondary structure of the probe; here we use the profile based neural network prediction of secondary structure (PHD) program. Then a dynamic programming algorithm uses the H3P2 matrix to align the probe sequence with structures in a representative fold library. To test the effectiveness of the H3P2 matrix a challenging, fold class diverse, and cross-validated benchmark assessment is used to compare the H3P2 matrix to the GONNET, PAM250, BLOSUM62 and a secondary structure only substitution matrix. For distantly related sequences the H3P2 matrix detects more homologous structures at higher reliabilities than do these other substitution matrices, based on sensitivity versus specificity plots (or SENS-SPEC plots). The added efficacy of the H3P2 matrix arises from its information on the statistical preferences for various sequence-structure environment combinations from very distantly related proteins. It

  8. Matrix Rigidity Activates Wnt Signaling through Down-regulation of Dickkopf-1 Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Barbolina, Maria V.; Liu, Yiuying; Gurler, Hilal; Kim, Mijung; Kajdacsy-Balla, Andre A.; Rooper, Lisa; Shepard, Jaclyn; Weiss, Michael; Shea, Lonnie D.; Penzes, Peter; Ravosa, Matthew J.; Stack, M. Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Cells respond to changes in the physical properties of the extracellular matrix with altered behavior and gene expression, highlighting the important role of the microenvironment in the regulation of cell function. In the current study, culture of epithelial ovarian cancer cells on three-dimensional collagen I gels led to a dramatic down-regulation of the Wnt signaling inhibitor dickkopf-1 with a concomitant increase in nuclear β-catenin and enhanced β-catenin/Tcf/Lef transcriptional activity. Increased three-dimensional collagen gel invasion was accompanied by transcriptional up-regulation of the membrane-tethered collagenase membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase, and an inverse relationship between dickkopf-1 and membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase was observed in human epithelial ovarian cancer specimens. Similar results were obtained in other tissue-invasive cells such as vascular endothelial cells, suggesting a novel mechanism for functional coupling of matrix adhesion with Wnt signaling. PMID:23152495

  9. A Proline-Rich Motif within the Matrix Protein of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus and Rabies Virus Interacts with WW Domains of Cellular Proteins: Implications for Viral Budding

    PubMed Central

    Harty, Ronald N.; Paragas, Jason; Sudol, Marius; Palese, Peter

    1999-01-01

    The matrix (M) protein of rhabdoviruses has been shown to play a key role in virus assembly and budding; however, the precise mechanism by which M mediates these processes remains unclear. We have associated a highly conserved, proline-rich motif (PPxY or PY motif, where P denotes proline, Y represents tyrosine, and x denotes any amino acid) of rhabdoviral M proteins with a possible role in budding mediated by the M protein. Point mutations that disrupt the PY motif of the M protein of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) have no obvious effect on membrane localization of M but instead lead to a decrease in the amount of M protein released from cells in a functional budding assay. Interestingly, the PPxY sequence within rhabdoviral M proteins is identical to that of the ligand which interacts with WW domains of cellular proteins. Indeed, results from two in vitro binding assays demonstrate that amino acids 17 through 33 and 29 through 44, which contain the PY motifs of VSV and rabies virus M proteins, respectively, mediate interactions with WW domains of specific cellular proteins. Point mutations that disrupt the consensus PY motif of VSV or rabies virus M protein result in a significant decrease in their ability to interact with the WW domains. These properties of the PY motif of rhabdovirus M proteins are strikingly analogous to those of the late (L) budding domain identified in the gag-specific protein p2b of Rous sarcoma virus. Thus, it is possible that rhabdoviruses may usurp host proteins to facilitate the budding process and that late stages in the budding process of rhabdoviruses and retroviruses may have features in common. PMID:10074141

  10. Molecular decay of enamel matrix protein genes in turtles and other edentulous amniotes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Secondary edentulism (toothlessness) has evolved on multiple occasions in amniotes including several mammalian lineages (pangolins, anteaters, baleen whales), birds, and turtles. All edentulous amniote clades have evolved from ancestors with enamel-capped teeth. Previous studies have documented the molecular decay of tooth-specific genes in edentulous mammals, all of which lost their teeth in the Cenozoic, and birds, which lost their teeth in the Cretaceous. By contrast with mammals and birds, tooth loss in turtles occurred in the Jurassic (201.6-145.5 Ma), providing an extended time window for tooth gene degradation in this clade. The release of the painted turtle and Chinese softshell turtle genomes provides an opportunity to recover the decayed remains of tooth-specific genes in Testudines. Results We queried available genomes of Testudines (Chrysemys picta [painted turtle], Pelodiscus sinensis [Chinese softshell turtle]), Aves (Anas platyrhynchos [duck], Gallus gallus [chicken], Meleagris gallopavo [turkey], Melopsittacus undulatus [budgerigar], Taeniopygia guttata [zebra finch]), and enamelless mammals (Orycteropus afer [aardvark], Choloepus hoffmanni [Hoffmann’s two-toed sloth], Dasypus novemcinctus [nine-banded armadillo]) for remnants of three enamel matrix protein (EMP) genes with putative enamel-specific functions. Remnants of the AMBN and ENAM genes were recovered in Chrysemys and retain their original synteny. Remnants of AMEL were recovered in both testudines, although there are no shared frameshifts. We also show that there are inactivated copies of AMBN, AMEL and ENAM in representatives of divergent avian lineages including Galloanserae, Passeriformes, and Psittaciformes, and that there are shared frameshift mutations in all three genes that predate the basal split in Neognathae. Among enamelless mammals, all three EMP genes exhibit inactivating mutations in Orycteropus and Choloepus. Conclusions Our results highlight the power of

  11. Biomechanics of fibrous proteins of the extracellular matrix studied by Brillouin scattering

    PubMed Central

    Palombo, Francesca; Winlove, C. Peter; Edginton, Ryan S.; Green, Ellen; Stone, Nick; Caponi, Silvia; Madami, Marco; Fioretto, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    Brillouin light scattering (BLS) spectroscopy is a technique that is able to detect thermally excited phonons within a material. The speed of propagation of these phonons can be determined from the magnitude of the Brillouin frequency shift between incident and scattered light, thereby providing a measure of the mechanical properties of the material in the gigahertz range. The mechanical properties of the extracellular matrices of biological tissues and their constituent biopolymers are important for normal tissue function and disturbances in these properties are widely implicated in disease. BLS offers the prospect of measuring mechanical properties on a microscopic scale in living tissues, thereby providing insights into structure–function relationships under normal and pathological conditions. In this study, we investigated BLS in collagen and elastin—the fibrous proteins of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Measurements were made on type I collagen in rat tail tendon, type II collagen in articular cartilage and nuchal ligament elastin. The dependence of the BLS spectrum on fibre orientation was investigated in a backscattering geometry using a reflective substrate. Two peaks, a bulk mode arising from phonon propagation along a quasi-radial direction to the fibre axis and a mode parallel to the surface, depending on sample orientation relative to the fibre axis, could be distinguished. The latter peak was fitted to a model of wave propagation through a hexagonally symmetric elastic solid, and the five components of the elasticity tensor were combined to give axial and transverse Young's, shear and bulk moduli of the fibres. These were 10.2, 8.3, 3.2 and 10.9 GPa, and 6.1, 5.3, 1.9 and 8 GPa for dehydrated type I collagen and elastin, respectively. The former values are close to those previously reported. A microfocused BLS approach was also applied providing selection of single fibres. The moduli of collagen and elastin are much higher than those measured at

  12. Biomechanics of fibrous proteins of the extracellular matrix studied by Brillouin scattering.

    PubMed

    Palombo, Francesca; Winlove, C Peter; Edginton, Ryan S; Green, Ellen; Stone, Nick; Caponi, Silvia; Madami, Marco; Fioretto, Daniele

    2014-12-01

    Brillouin light scattering (BLS) spectroscopy is a technique that is able to detect thermally excited phonons within a material. The speed of propagation of these phonons can be determined from the magnitude of the Brillouin frequency shift between incident and scattered light, thereby providing a measure of the mechanical properties of the material in the gigahertz range. The mechanical properties of the extracellular matrices of biological tissues and their constituent biopolymers are important for normal tissue function and disturbances in these properties are widely implicated in disease. BLS offers the prospect of measuring mechanical properties on a microscopic scale in living tissues, thereby providing insights into structure-function relationships under normal and pathological conditions. In this study, we investigated BLS in collagen and elastin-the fibrous proteins of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Measurements were made on type I collagen in rat tail tendon, type II collagen in articular cartilage and nuchal ligament elastin. The dependence of the BLS spectrum on fibre orientation was investigated in a backscattering geometry using a reflective substrate. Two peaks, a bulk mode arising from phonon propagation along a quasi-radial direction to the fibre axis and a mode parallel to the surface, depending on sample orientation relative to the fibre axis, could be distinguished. The latter peak was fitted to a model of wave propagation through a hexagonally symmetric elastic solid, and the five components of the elasticity tensor were combined to give axial and transverse Young's, shear and bulk moduli of the fibres. These were 10.2, 8.3, 3.2 and 10.9 GPa, and 6.1, 5.3, 1.9 and 8 GPa for dehydrated type I collagen and elastin, respectively. The former values are close to those previously reported. A microfocused BLS approach was also applied providing selection of single fibres. The moduli of collagen and elastin are much higher than those measured at lower

  13. Removal of sodium dodecyl sulfate from protein samples prior to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Puchades, M; Westman, A; Blennow, K; Davidsson, P

    1999-01-01

    Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is widely used for protein solubilization and for separation of proteins by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). However, SDS interferes with other techniques used for characterization of proteins, such as mass spectrometry (MS) and amino acid sequencing. In this paper, we have compared three procedures to remove SDS from proteins, including chloroform/methanol/water extraction (C/M/W), cold acetone extraction and desalting columns, in order to find a rapid and reproducible procedure that provides sufficient reduction of SDS and high recovery rates for proteins prior to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS). A 1000-fold reduction of SDS concentration and a protein recovery at approximately 50% were obtained with the C/M/W procedure. The cold acetone procedure gave a 100-fold reduction of SDS and a protein recovery of approximately 80%. By using desalting columns, the removal of SDS was 100-fold, with a protein recovery of nearly 50%. Both the C/M/W and the cold acetone methods provided sufficient reduction of SDS, high recovery rates of protein and allowed the acquisition of MALDI spectra. The use of n-octyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside in the protein sample preparation enhanced the MALDI signal for protein samples containing more than 2 10(-4)% SDS, after the C/M/W extraction. Following the cold acetone procedure, the use of n-octylglucoside was found to be necessary in order to obtain spectra, but they were of lower quality than those obtained with the C/M/W method, probably due to higher residual amounts of SDS. PMID:10209872

  14. Expression, purification and characterization of two truncated peste des petits ruminants virus matrix proteins in Escherichia coli, and production of polyclonal antibodies against this protein.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fuxiao; Wu, Xiaodong; Li, Lin; Liu, Zengshan; Wang, Zhiliang

    2013-09-01

    Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV), the etiological agent of peste des petits ruminants, is classified into the genus Morbillivirus in the family Paramyxoviridae. The PPRV matrix (M) gene is composed of 1483 base pairs, encoding a 335 amino acids M protein with a molecular weight of approximately 38kD. We have demonstrated previously that the full-length M protein was expressed at an extremely low level or not even expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). In this study, the M protein was split into two truncated forms to be successfully expressed in E. coli at a high level using the pET30a (+) vector, respectively, by analysis of SDS-PAGE, western blot and MALDI-TOF-MS. The optimization of culture conditions led us to perform the recombinant protein induction with 0.2mM IPTG at 28°C for 12h, whereby both proteins nevertheless were expressed in the insoluble form. Therefore, both His-tagged proteins were purified under the denaturing condition using a commercially available kit. Balb/c mice were immunized with the complex of purified proteins and then effectively produced polyclonal antibodies, which reached to a relatively high titer by the analysis of ELISA. The specificity of the prepared polyclonal antibodies was checked by western blot and immunofluorescence, revealing them with the desirable specificity against both non-denatured and denatured M proteins. PMID:23827209

  15. CEP215 is involved in the dynein-dependent accumulation of pericentriolar matrix proteins for spindle pole formation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seongju; Rhee, Kunsoo

    2010-02-15

    CEP 215 is a human orthologue of Drosophila centrosomin which is a core centrosome component for the pericentriolar matrix protein recruitment. Recent investigations revealed that CEP 215 is required for centrosome cohesion, centrosomal attachment of the gamma-TuRC, and microtubule dynamics. However, it remains obscure how CEP 215 functions for recruitment of the centrosomal proteins during the centrosome cycle. Here, we investigated a role of CEP 215 during mitosis. Knockdown of CEP 215 resulted in characteristic mitotic phenotypes, including monopolar spindle formation, a decrease in distance between the spindle pole pair, and detachment of the centrosomes from the spindle poles. We noticed that CEP 215 is critical for centrosomal localization of dynein throughout the cell cycle. As a consequence, the selective centrosomal proteins were not recruited to the centrosome properly. Finally, the centrosomal localization of CEP 215 also depends on the dynein-dynactin complex. Based on the results, we propose that CEP 215 regulates a dynein-dependent transport of the pericentriolar matrix proteins during the centrosome maturation. PMID:20139723

  16. A universal matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization cleavable cross-linker for protein structure analysis.

    PubMed

    Müller, Mathias Q; Zeiser, Johannes J; Dreiocker, Frank; Pich, Andreas; Schäfer, Mathias; Sinz, Andrea

    2011-01-15

    The concept of protein cross-linking in combination with mass spectrometry holds great promise to derive structural information on protein conformation and protein-protein interactions. We recently presented a dissociative amine-reactive cross-linker (NHS-BuUrBu-NHS) that is shown herein to be universally applicable to protein structure analysis under matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem mass spectrometric (MALDI-MS/MS) conditions, based on the examples of the peptides substance P, luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH), and the 32-kDa ligand-binding domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα). The characteristic fragment ion patterns and constant neutral losses of the cross-linker greatly simplify the identification of different cross-linked species from complex mixtures and drastically reduce the potential of identifying false-positive cross-links. Therefore, this cross-linker holds an enormous potential for deriving structural information of proteins and protein complexes in a highly automated fashion. PMID:21157862

  17. Matrix Metalloproteinase and G Protein Coupled Receptors: Co-conspirators in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Eck, Sarah M.; Blackburn, Jessica S.; Schmucker, Adam C.; Burrage, Peter S.; Brinckerhoff, Constance E.

    2009-01-01

    Similarities in the pathologies of autoimmune diseases and cancer have been noted for at least 30 years. Inflammatory cytokines and growth factors mediate cell proliferation, and proteinases, especially the collagenase, Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), contribute to disease progression by remodeling the extracellular matrix and modulating the microenvironment. This review focuses on two cancers (melanoma and breast) and on the autoimmune disorder, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and discusses the activated stromal cells found in these diseases. MMP-1 was originally thought to function only to degrade interstitial collagens, but recent studies have revealed novel roles for MMP-1 involving the G protein-coupled receptors: the chemokine receptor, CXCR-4, and Protease Activated Receptor-1 (PAR-1). Cooperativity between MMP-1 and CXCR4/SDF-1 signaling influences the behavior of activated fibroblasts in both RA and cancer. Further, MMP-1 is a vital part of an autocrine/paracrine MMP-1/PAR-1 signal transduction axis, a function that amplifies its potential to remodel the matrix and to modify cell behavior. Finally, new therapeutic agents directed at MMP-1 and G protein-coupled receptors are emerging. Even though these agents are more specific in their targets than past therapies, these targets are often shared between RA and cancer, underscoring fundamental similarities between autoimmune disorders and some cancers. PMID:19800199

  18. Nuclear Matrix protein SMAR1 represses HIV-1 LTR mediated transcription through chromatin remodeling

    SciTech Connect

    Sreenath, Kadreppa; Pavithra, Lakshminarasimhan; Singh, Sandeep; Sinha, Surajit; Dash, Prasanta K.; Siddappa, Nagadenahalli B.; Ranga, Udaykumar; Mitra, Debashis; Chattopadhyay, Samit

    2010-04-25

    Nuclear Matrix and MARs have been implicated in the transcriptional regulation of host as well as viral genes but their precise role in HIV-1 transcription remains unclear. Here, we show that > 98% of HIV sequences contain consensus MAR element in their promoter. We show that SMAR1 binds to the LTR MAR and reinforces transcriptional silencing by tethering the LTR MAR to nuclear matrix. SMAR1 associated HDAC1-mSin3 corepressor complex is dislodged from the LTR upon cellular activation by PMA/TNFalpha leading to an increase in the acetylation and a reduction in the trimethylation of histones, associated with the recruitment of RNA Polymerase II on the LTR. Overexpression of SMAR1 lead to reduction in LTR mediated transcription, both in a Tat dependent and independent manner, resulting in a decreased virion production. These results demonstrate the role of SMAR1 in regulating viral transcription by alternative compartmentalization of LTR between the nuclear matrix and chromatin.

  19. The matrix protein Fibulin-5 is at the interface of tissue stiffness and inflammation in fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Nakasaki, Manando; Hwang, Yongsung; Xie, Yun; Kataria, Sunny; Gund, Rupali; Hajam, Edries Y; Samuel, Rekha; George, Renu; Danda, Debashish; M J, Paul; Nakamura, Tomoyuki; Shen, Zhouxin; Briggs, Steve; Varghese, Shyni; Jamora, Colin

    2015-01-01

    Fibrosis is a pervasive disease in which the excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) compromises tissue function. Although the underlying mechanisms are mostly unknown, matrix stiffness is increasingly appreciated as a contributor to fibrosis rather than merely a manifestation of the disease. Here we show that the loss of Fibulin-5, an elastic fibre component, not only decreases tissue stiffness, but also diminishes the inflammatory response and abrogates the fibrotic phenotype in a mouse model of cutaneous fibrosis. Increasing matrix stiffness raises the inflammatory response above a threshold level, independent of TGF-β, to stimulate further ECM secretion from fibroblasts and advance the progression of fibrosis. These results suggest that Fibulin-5 may be a therapeutic target to short-circuit this profibrotic feedback loop. PMID:26469761

  20. The matrix protein Fibulin-5 is at the interface of tissue stiffness and inflammation in fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Nakasaki, Manando; Hwang, Yongsung; Xie, Yun; Kataria, Sunny; Gund, Rupali; Hajam, Edries Y.; Samuel, Rekha; George, Renu; Danda, Debashish; M.J., Paul; Nakamura, Tomoyuki; Shen, Zhouxin; Briggs, Steve; Varghese, Shyni; Jamora, Colin

    2015-01-01

    Fibrosis is a pervasive disease in which the excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) compromises tissue function. Although the underlying mechanisms are mostly unknown, matrix stiffness is increasingly appreciated as a contributor to fibrosis rather than merely a manifestation of the disease. Here we show that the loss of Fibulin-5, an elastic fibre component, not only decreases tissue stiffness, but also diminishes the inflammatory response and abrogates the fibrotic phenotype in a mouse model of cutaneous fibrosis. Increasing matrix stiffness raises the inflammatory response above a threshold level, independent of TGF-β, to stimulate further ECM secretion from fibroblasts and advance the progression of fibrosis. These results suggest that Fibulin-5 may be a therapeutic target to short-circuit this profibrotic feedback loop. PMID:26469761

  1. Structure and dynamics of Ebola virus matrix protein VP40 by a coarse-grained Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Ras; Farmer, Barry

    Ebola virus matrix protein VP40 (consisting of 326 residues) plays a critical role in viral assembly and its functions such as regulation of viral transcription, packaging, and budding of mature virions into the plasma membrane of infected cells. How does the protein VP40 go through structural evolution during the viral life cycle remains an open question? Using a coarse-grained Monte Carlo simulation we investigate the structural evolution of VP40 as a function of temperature with the input of a knowledge-based residue-residue interaction. A number local and global physical quantities (e.g. mobility profile, contact map, radius of gyration, structure factor) are analyzed with our large-scale simulations. Our preliminary data show that the structure of the protein evolves through different state with well-defined morphologies which can be identified and quantified via a detailed analysis of structure factor.

  2. Sequence-specific interaction between HIV-1 matrix protein and viral genomic RNA revealed by in vitro genetic selection.

    PubMed Central

    Purohit, P; Dupont, S; Stevenson, M; Green, M R

    2001-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type-1 matrix protein (HIV-1 MA) is a multifunctional structural protein synthesized as part of the Pr55 gag polyprotein. We have used in vitro genetic selection to identify an RNA consensus sequence that specifically interacts with MA (Kd = 5 x 10(-7) M). This 13-nt MA binding consensus sequence bears a high degree of homology (77%) to a region (nt 1433-1446) within the POL open reading frame of the HIV-1 genome (consensus sequence from 38 HIV-1 strains). Chemical interference experiments identified the nucleotides within the MA binding consensus sequence involved in direct contact with MA. We further demonstrate that this RNA-protein interaction is mediated through a stretch of basic amino acids within MA. Mutations that disrupt the interaction between MA and its RNA binding site within the HIV-1 genome resulted in a measurable decrease in viral replication. PMID:11345436

  3. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometry imaging and its development for plant protein imaging

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionisation (MALDI) mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) uses the power of high mass resolution time of flight (ToF) mass spectrometry coupled to the raster of lasers shots across the cut surface of tissues to provide new insights into the spatial distribution of biomolecules within biological tissues. The history of this technique in animals and plants is considered and the potential for analysis of proteins by this technique in plants is discussed. Protein biomarker identification from MALDI-MSI is a challenge and a number of different approaches to address this bottleneck are discussed. The technical considerations needed for MALDI-MSI are reviewed and these are presented alongside examples from our own work and a protocol for MALDI-MSI of proteins in plant samples. PMID:21726462

  4. On plate graphite supported sample processing for simultaneous lipid and protein identification by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Calvano, Cosima Damiana; van der Werf, Inez Dorothé; Sabbatini, Luigia; Palmisano, Francesco

    2015-05-01

    The simultaneous identification of lipids and proteins by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) after direct on-plate processing of micro-samples supported on colloidal graphite is demonstrated. Taking advantages of large surface area and thermal conductivity, graphite provided an ideal substrate for on-plate proteolysis and lipid extraction. Indeed proteins could be efficiently digested on-plate within 15 min, providing sequence coverages comparable to those obtained by conventional in-solution overnight digestion. Interestingly, detection of hydrophilic phosphorylated peptides could be easily achieved without any further enrichment step. Furthermore, lipids could be simultaneously extracted/identified without any additional treatment/processing step as demonstrated for model complex samples such as milk and egg. The present approach is simple, efficient, of large applicability and offers great promise for protein and lipid identification in very small samples. PMID:25770620

  5. Possible evidence of amide bond formation between sinapinic acid and lysine-containing bacterial proteins by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) at 355 nm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We previously reported the apparent formation of matrix adducts of 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxy-cinnamic acid (sinapinic acid or SA) via covalent attachment to disulfide bond-containing proteins (HdeA, HdeB and YbgS) from bacterial cell lysates ionized by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALD...

  6. Molecular energy dissipation in nanoscale networks of Dentin Matrix Protein 1 is strongly dependent on ion valence

    PubMed Central

    Adams, J; Fantner, G E; Fisher, L W; Hansma, P K

    2008-01-01

    The fracture resistance of biomineralized tissues such as bone, dentin, and abalone is greatly enhanced through the nanoscale interactions of stiff inorganic mineral components with soft organic adhesive components. A proper understanding of the interactions that occur within the organic component, and between the organic and inorganic components, is therefore critical for a complete understanding of the mechanics of these tissues. In this paper, we use Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) force spectroscopy and dynamic force spectroscopy to explore the effect of ionic interactions within a nanoscale system consisting of networks of Dentin Matrix Protein 1 (DMP1) (a component of both bone and dentin organic matrix), a mica surface, and an AFM tip. We find that DMP1 is capable of dissipating large amounts of energy through an ion-mediated mechanism, and that the effectiveness increases with increasing ion valence. PMID:18843380

  7. The Nuclear Matrix Protein Megator Regulates Stem Cell Asymmetric Division through the Mitotic Checkpoint Complex in Drosophila Testes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Singh, Shree Ram; Zeng, Xiankun; Zhao, Jiangsha; Hou, Steven X

    2015-12-01

    In adult Drosophila testis, asymmetric division of germline stem cells (GSCs) is specified by an oriented spindle and cortically localized adenomatous coli tumor suppressor homolog 2 (Apc2). However, the molecular mechanism underlying these events remains unclear. Here we identified Megator (Mtor), a nuclear matrix protein, which regulates GSC maintenance and asymmetric division through the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) complex. Loss of Mtor function results in Apc2 mis-localization, incorrect centrosome orientation, defective mitotic spindle formation, and abnormal chromosome segregation that lead to the eventual GSC loss. Expression of mitotic arrest-deficient-2 (Mad2) and monopolar spindle 1 (Mps1) of the SAC complex effectively rescued the GSC loss phenotype associated with loss of Mtor function. Collectively our results define a new role of the nuclear matrix-SAC axis in regulating stem cell maintenance and asymmetric division. PMID:26714316

  8. The Nuclear Matrix Protein Megator Regulates Stem Cell Asymmetric Division through the Mitotic Checkpoint Complex in Drosophila Testes

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Xiankun; Zhao, Jiangsha; Hou, Steven X.

    2015-01-01

    In adult Drosophila testis, asymmetric division of germline stem cells (GSCs) is specified by an oriented spindle and cortically localized adenomatous coli tumor suppressor homolog 2 (Apc2). However, the molecular mechanism underlying these events remains unclear. Here we identified Megator (Mtor), a nuclear matrix protein, which regulates GSC maintenance and asymmetric division through the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) complex. Loss of Mtor function results in Apc2 mis-localization, incorrect centrosome orientation, defective mitotic spindle formation, and abnormal chromosome segregation that lead to the eventual GSC loss. Expression of mitotic arrest-deficient-2 (Mad2) and monopolar spindle 1 (Mps1) of the SAC complex effectively rescued the GSC loss phenotype associated with loss of Mtor function. Collectively our results define a new role of the nuclear matrix-SAC axis in regulating stem cell maintenance and asymmetric division. PMID:26714316

  9. Healing of periodontal defects treated with enamel matrix proteins and root surface conditioning--an experimental study in dogs.

    PubMed

    Sakallioğlu, Umur; Açikgöz, Gökhan; Ayas, Bülent; Kirtiloğlu, Tuğrul; Sakallioğlu, Eser

    2004-05-01

    Application of enamel matrix proteins has been introduced as an alternative method for periodontal regenerative therapy. It is claimed that this approach provides periodontal regeneration by a biological approach, i.e. creating a matrix on the root surfaces that promotes cementum, periodontal ligament (PDL) and alveolar bone regeneration, thus mimicking the events occurring during tooth development. Although there have been numerous in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrating periodontal regeneration, acellular cementum formation and clinical outcomes via enamel matrix proteins usage, their effects on the healing pattern of soft and hard periodontal tissues are not well-established and compared with root conditioning alone. In the present study, the effects of Emdogain (Biora, Malmö, Sweden), an enamel matrix derivative mainly composed of enamel matrix proteins (test), on periodontal wound healing were evaluated and compared with root surface conditioning (performed with 36% orthophosphoric acid) alone (control) histopathologically and histomorphometrically by means of the soft and hard tissue profile of periodontium. An experimental periodontitis model performed at premolar teeth of four dogs were used in the study and the healing pattern of periodontal tissues was evaluated at days 7, 14, 21, 28 (one dog at each day), respectively. At day 7, soft tissue attachment evaluated by means of connective tissue and/or epithelial attachment to the root surfaces revealed higher connective tissue attachment rate in the test group and the amount of new connective tissue proliferation in the test group was significantly greater than the control group (p<0.01). New bone formation by osteoconduction initiated at day 14 in the test and control group. At day 21, the orientation of supra-alveolar and PDL fibers established, and new cementum formation observed in both groups. At day 28, although regenerated cementum was cellular in all of the roots in the control samples, an

  10. Improved analysis of membrane protein by PVDF-aided, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Yang; Liao, Hsin-Kai; Juo, Chiun-Gung; Chen, Shu-Hua; Chen, Yu-Ju

    2006-01-18

    Characterization of membrane proteins remains an analytical challenge because of difficulties associated with tedious isolation and purification. This study presents the utility of the polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membrane for direct sub-proteome profiling and membrane protein characterization by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). The hydrophobic adsorption of protein, particularly membrane proteins, on the PVDF surface enables efficient on-PVDF washing to remove high concentrations of detergents and salts, such as up to 5% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The enhanced spectrum quality for MALDI detection is particularly notable for high molecular weight proteins. By using on-PVDF washing prior to MALDI detection, we obtained protein profiles of the detergent-containing and detergent-insoluble membrane fractions from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath). Similar improvements of signal-to-noise ratios were shown on the MALDI spectra for proteins electroblotted from SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) onto the PVDF membrane. We have applied this strategy to obtain intact molecular weights of the particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) composed of three intrinsic membrane-bound proteins, PmoA, PmoB, and PmoC. Together with peptide sequencing by tandem mass spectrometry, post-translational modifications including N-terminal acetylation of PmoA and PmoC and alternative C-terminal truncation of PmoB were identified. The above results show that PVDF-aided MALDI-MS can be an effective approach for profiling and characterization of membrane proteins. PMID:17723354

  11. Effects of altered gravity on the expression of Calcium -binding and matrix proteins in the inner ear of developing fish following ∆g-expositions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilbig, Reinhard; Hendrik Anken, Ralf; Weigele, Jochen

    The results of the Foton-M3 mission (OmegaHab) give evidence that the otoliths of the fish form OmegaHab were larger as compared to the ground control. Additionally the shape (raphe) and morphology especially the mode of crystallization of the otoliths were affected during growth in weightlessness. The reason for these changes is assumed to originate from changes in the composition of the otolith matrix and Ca-binding proteins (OMP). The OMPs play an important role in controlling the crystallization process and additionally the morphology of crystals, determining the crystallpolymorph and the strength of the crystals. The matrix of otoliths is a complex functional structure containing several calcium-binding proteins, structural proteins and protease inhibitors. Furthermore it is composed of otolith matrix protein-1, Otolin, Otoconin, SPARC and Neuroserpin, which is a specific expression in the otolth matrix for chichlid fish. During embryonic development of the fish inner ear, these proteins show a spacial and temporal expression pattern. The formation of the inner ear -including otoliths and sensory cells -starting from the otocyst-anlage -can be subdivided in several major developmental stages e.g. the forming of the otic cavity (stage 7/8), the tetha cell or seeding stage (stage 8, 9), the development of the semicircular channels (stage 12), the transition to further daily growth (post stage15) and the development of the third otolith, asteriscus (stage 23). These developmental phases contain different constitutions or involvements of matrix proteins. We investigated the matrixprotein composition of the chichlid fish Oreochromis mossambicus and found that the otolith matrix differentiate between other fishes. In this case some matrix proteins seem to be uniform in fishes, other known matrix proteins are lacking and we have also references to new candidates for matrix proteins chichlids. In this case we investigated the expression of the matrix proteins otolith

  12. ADAMTSL-6 Is a Novel Extracellular Matrix Protein That Binds to Fibrillin-1 and Promotes Fibrillin-1 Fibril Formation*

    PubMed Central

    Tsutsui, Ko; Manabe, Ri-ichiroh; Yamada, Tomiko; Nakano, Itsuko; Oguri, Yasuko; Keene, Douglas R.; Sengle, Gerhard; Sakai, Lynn Y.; Sekiguchi, Kiyotoshi

    2010-01-01

    ADAMTS (A disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs)-like (ADAMTSL) proteins, a subgroup of the ADAMTS superfamily, share several domains with ADAMTS proteinases, including thrombospondin type I repeats, a cysteine-rich domain, and an ADAMTS spacer, but lack a catalytic domain. We identified two new members of ADAMTSL proteins, ADAMTSL-6α and -6β, that differ in their N-terminal amino acid sequences but have common C-terminal regions. When transfected into MG63 osteosarcoma cells, both isoforms were secreted and deposited into pericellular matrices, although ADAMTSL-6α, in contrast to -6β, was barely detectable in the conditioned medium. Immunolabeling at the light and electron microscopic levels showed their close association with fibrillin-1-rich microfibrils in elastic connective tissues. Surface plasmon resonance analyses demonstrated that ADAMTSL-6β binds to the N-terminal half of fibrillin-1 with a dissociation constant of ∼80 nm. When MG63 cells were transfected or exogenously supplemented with ADAMTSL-6, fibrillin-1 matrix assembly was promoted in the early but not the late stage of the assembly process. Furthermore, ADAMTSL-6 transgenic mice exhibited excessive fibrillin-1 fibril formation in tissues where ADAMTSL-6 was overexpressed. All together, these results indicated that ADAMTSL-6 is a novel microfibril-associated protein that binds directly to fibrillin-1 and promotes fibrillin-1 matrix assembly. PMID:19940141

  13. Factor H–Related Protein 5 Interacts with Pentraxin 3 and the Extracellular Matrix and Modulates Complement Activation

    PubMed Central

    Csincsi, Ádám I.; Kopp, Anne; Zöldi, Miklós; Bánlaki, Zsófia; Uzonyi, Barbara; Hebecker, Mario; Caesar, Joseph J. E.; Pickering, Matthew C.; Daigo, Kenji; Hamakubo, Takao; Lea, Susan M.; Goicoechea de Jorge, Elena

    2015-01-01

    The physiological roles of the factor H (FH)-related proteins are controversial and poorly understood. Based on genetic studies, FH-related protein 5 (CFHR5) is implicated in glomerular diseases, such as atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome, dense deposit disease, and CFHR5 nephropathy. CFHR5 was also identified in glomerular immune deposits at the protein level. For CFHR5, weak complement regulatory activity and competition for C3b binding with the plasma complement inhibitor FH have been reported, but its function remains elusive. In this study, we identify pentraxin 3 (PTX3) as a novel ligand of CFHR5. Binding of native CFHR5 to PTX3 was detected in human plasma and the interaction was characterized using recombinant proteins. The binding of PTX3 to CFHR5 is of ∼2-fold higher affinity compared with that of FH. CFHR5 dose-dependently inhibited FH binding to PTX3 and also to the monomeric, denatured form of the short pentraxin C–reactive protein. Binding of PTX3 to CFHR5 resulted in increased C1q binding. Additionally, CFHR5 bound to extracellular matrix in vitro in a dose-dependent manner and competed with FH for binding. Altogether, CFHR5 reduced FH binding and its cofactor activity on pentraxins and the extracellular matrix, while at the same time allowed for enhanced C1q binding. Furthermore, CFHR5 allowed formation of the alternative pathway C3 convertase and supported complement activation. Thus, CFHR5 may locally enhance complement activation via interference with the complement-inhibiting function of FH, by enhancement of C1q binding, and by activating complement, thereby contributing to glomerular disease. PMID:25855355

  14. Expression of Extracellular Matrix-Remodeling Proteins Is Altered in Vaginal Tissue of Premenopausal Women With Severe Pelvic Organ Prolapse

    PubMed Central

    Alarab, May; Kufaishi, Hala; Lye, Stephen; Drutz, Harold

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The molecular etiology of pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is complex and not well understood. We compared the expression/activity of extracellular matrix (ECM)-processing (procollagen I N-proteinase/ a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs [ADAMTS]-2,-3,-14) and ECM-degrading (matrix metalloproteinase [MMP]-1, -2, -7, -8, -9, -12) enzymes and their natural tissue inhibitors (tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase [TIMP]-1,-2,-3,-4) in vaginal tissues from premenopausal women with advanced POP (POP-Q stage ≥ 3) and asymptomatic controls (POP-Q = 0). Study Design: We sampled the anterior vaginal wall of 36 premenopausal women (17 patients with POP and 19 controls) undergoing total hysterectomy. Exclusion criteria include steroid therapy, malignancy, previous pelvic surgery, and connective tissue diseases. Total RNAs and proteins were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunoblotting, and Luminex assay; MMPs activity was analyzed by zymography and tissue localization by immunohistochemistry. Results: The MMP-2 gelatinase activity as well as expression of 58-kDa isoform of ADAMTS-2 was upregulated in patients with POP, irrespective of menstrual phase status, secretory or proliferative, when compared to controls (P < .05). The TIMP-1-4 gene and TIMP-1 protein expression were significantly (P < .05) reduced, whereas protein expression of MMP-12 (pro and active forms) was significantly increased in vaginal biopsies of patients with POP in the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle compared to corresponding controls. Analyses of MMP-12, TIMP-1, and ADAMTS-2 tissue immunostaining indicate similar localization in the vaginal specimens from control and patients with POP. Conclusion: Expression of ECM-remodeling proteins is altered in the vagina of premenopausal patients with severe POP. We speculate that dysregulation of MMP/TIMP complexes and ADAMTS-2 proteins may cause connective tissue defects, which result in weakened vaginal

  15. Yarrowia lipolytica Cells Mutant for the PEX24 Gene Encoding a Peroxisomal Membrane Peroxin Mislocalize Peroxisomal Proteins and Accumulate Membrane Structures Containing Both Peroxisomal Matrix and Membrane Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Yuen Yi C.; Rachubinski, Richard A.

    2002-01-01

    Peroxins are proteins required for peroxisome assembly and are encoded by the PEX genes. Functional complementation of the oleic acid–nonutilizing strain mut1-1 of the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica has identified the novel gene, PEX24. PEX24 encodes Pex24p, a protein of 550 amino acids (61,100 Da). Pex24p is an integral membrane protein of peroxisomes that exhibits high sequence homology to two hypothetical proteins encoded by the open reading frames YHR150W and YDR479C of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome. Pex24p is detectable in wild-type cells grown in glucose-containing medium, and its levels are significantly increased by incubation of cells in oleic acid–containing medium, the metabolism of which requires intact peroxisomes. pex24 mutants are compromised in the targeting of both matrix and membrane proteins to peroxisomes. Although pex24 mutants fail to assemble functional peroxisomes, they do harbor membrane structures that contain subsets of peroxisomal proteins. PMID:12181338

  16. The polybasic region is not essential for membrane binding of the matrix protein M1 of influenza virus

    SciTech Connect

    Thaa, Bastian; Herrmann, Andreas; Veit, Michael

    2009-01-05

    The matrix protein M1, the organizer of assembly of influenza virus, interacts with other virus components and with cellular membranes. It has been proposed that M1 binding to lipids is mediated by its polybasic region, but this could hitherto not been investigated in vivo since M1 accumulates in the nucleus of transfected cells. We have equipped M1 with nuclear export signals and showed that the constructs are bound to cellular membranes. Exchange of the complete polybasic region and of further hydrophobic amino acids in its vicinity did not prevent association of M1 with membranes. We therefore suppose that M1 probably interacts with membranes via multiple binding sites.

  17. The identification and functional characterization of WxL proteins from Enterococcus faecium reveal surface proteins involved in extracellular matrix interactions.

    PubMed

    Galloway-Peña, Jessica R; Liang, Xiaowen; Singh, Kavindra V; Yadav, Puja; Chang, Chungyu; La Rosa, Sabina Leanti; Shelburne, Samuel; Ton-That, Hung; Höök, Magnus; Murray, Barbara E

    2015-03-01

    The WxL domain recently has been identified as a novel cell wall binding domain found in numerous predicted proteins within multiple Gram-positive bacterial species. However, little is known about the function of proteins containing this novel domain. Here, we identify and characterize 6 Enterococcus faecium proteins containing the WxL domain which, by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and genomic analyses, are located in three similarly organized operons, deemed WxL loci A, B, and C. Western blotting, electron microscopy, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) determined that genes of WxL loci A and C encode antigenic, cell surface proteins exposed at higher levels in clinical isolates than in commensal isolates. Secondary structural analyses of locus A recombinant WxL domain-containing proteins found they are rich in β-sheet structure and disordered segments. Using Biacore analyses, we discovered that recombinant WxL proteins from locus A bind human extracellular matrix proteins, specifically type I collagen and fibronectin. Proteins encoded by locus A also were found to bind to each other, suggesting a novel cell surface complex. Furthermore, bile salt survival assays and animal models using a mutant from which all three WxL loci were deleted revealed the involvement of WxL operons in bile salt stress and endocarditis pathogenesis. In summary, these studies extend our understanding of proteins containing the WxL domain and their potential impact on colonization and virulence in E. faecium and possibly other Gram-positive bacterial species. PMID:25512313

  18. Identification and Characterization of a Novel 38.5-Kilodalton Cell Surface Protein of Staphylococcus aureus with Extended-Spectrum Binding Activity for Extracellular Matrix and Plasma Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Muzaffar; Becker, Karsten; von Eiff, Christof; Schrenzel, Jacques; Peters, Georg; Herrmann, Mathias

    2001-01-01

    The ability to attach to host ligands is a well-established pathogenic factor in invasive Staphylococcus aureus disease. In addition to the family of adhesive proteins bound to the cell wall via the sortase A (srtA) mechanism, secreted proteins such as the fibrinogen-binding protein Efb, the extracellular adhesion protein Eap, or coagulase have been found to interact with various extracellular host molecules. Here we describe a novel protein, the extracellular matrix protein-binding protein (Emp) initially identified in Western ligand blots as a 40-kDa protein due to its broad-spectrum recognition of fibronectin, fibrinogen, collagen, and vitronectin. Emp is expressed in the stationary growth phase and is closely associated with the cell surface and yet is extractable by sodium dodecyl sulfate. The conferring gene emp (1,023 nucleotides) encodes a signal peptide of 26 amino acids and a mature protein of a calculated molecular mass of 35.5 kDa. Using PCR, emp was demonstrated in all 240 S. aureus isolates of a defined clinical strain collection as well as in 6 S. aureus laboratory strains, whereas it is lacking in all 10 S. epidermidis strains tested. Construction of an allelic replacement mutant (mEmp50) revealed the absence of Emp in mEmp50, a significantly decreased adhesion of mEmp50 to immobilized fibronectin and fibrinogen, and restoration of these characteristics upon complementation of mEmp50. Emp expression was also demonstrable upon heterologous complementation of S. carnosus. rEmp expressed in Escherichia coli interacted with fibronectin, fibrinogen, and vitronectin in surface plasmon resonance experiments at a Kd of 21 nM, 91 nM, and 122 pM, respectively. In conclusion, the biologic characterization of Emp suggests that it is a member of the group of secreted S. aureus molecules that interact with an extended spectrum of host ligands and thereby contribute to S. aureus pathogenicity. PMID:11698365

  19. Heparin induces the expression of specific matrix proteins by human intestinal smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, D.L.; Perr, H.; Graham, M.F.; Diegelmann, R.F.

    1986-03-01

    Human intestinal smooth muscle (HISM) cells have recently been identified as the major cell type responsible for stricture formation in Crohn's disease. Heparin, a sulfated glycosaminoglycan, has been shown to be a key modulator of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) growth both in vivo and in vitro and to affect the phenotypic expression of proteins made by VSMC. Heparin has also been shown to effect the growth of HISM cells and in this report the authors demonstrate that heparin also has very specific effects on proteins released by HISM cells in vitro. Examination of the proteins in the culture medium of heparin-treated HISM cells observed at 3 time points following sparse plating and proliferation revealed an increase in /sup 35/S-methionine-labeled 200, 37, and 35 kd proteins. A transient effect on a 48 kd protein was observed in substrate-attached material left on the culture dish after the cells were removed with EGTA. No effects on intracellular labeled proteins could be demonstrated. The protein phenotype of HISM cells exposed to heparin appears very similar to that observed in VSMC. The release of specific proteins following exposure to heparin does not appear to be species specific. This response to heparin may reflect a significant influence of this glycosaminoglycan on the phenotypic expression of these cells.

  20. Protein crystallization with microseed matrix screening: application to human germline antibody Fabs

    SciTech Connect

    Obmolova, Galina Malia, Thomas J.; Teplyakov, Alexey; Sweet, Raymond W.; Gilliland, Gary L.

    2014-07-23

    The power of microseed matrix screening is demonstrated in the crystallization of a panel of antibody Fab fragments. The crystallization of 16 human antibody Fab fragments constructed from all pairs of four different heavy chains and four different light chains was enabled by employing microseed matrix screening (MMS). In initial screening, diffraction-quality crystals were obtained for only three Fabs, while many Fabs produced hits that required optimization. Application of MMS, using the initial screens and/or refinement screens, resulted in diffraction-quality crystals of these Fabs. Five Fabs that failed to give hits in the initial screen were crystallized by cross-seeding MMS followed by MMS optimization. The crystallization protocols and strategies that resulted in structure determination of all 16 Fabs are presented. These results illustrate the power of MMS and provide a basis for developing future strategies for macromolecular crystallization.

  1. Respiratory syncytial virus matrix protein induces lung epithelial cell cycle arrest through a p53 dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Bian, Tao; Gibbs, John D; Örvell, Claes; Imani, Farhad

    2012-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the major cause of viral respiratory infections in children. Our previous study showed that the RSV infection induced lung epithelial cell cycle arrest, which enhanced virus replication. To address the mechanism of RSV-induced cell cycle arrest, we examined the contribution of RSV-matrix (RSV-M) protein. In this report, we show that in both the A549 cell line and primary human bronchial epithelial (PHBE) cells, transfection with RSV-M protein caused the cells to proliferate at a slower rate than in control cells. The cell cycle analysis showed that RSV-M protein induced G1 phase arrest in A549 cells, and G1 and G2/M phase arrest in PHBE cells. Interestingly, RSV-M expression induced p53 and p21 accumulation and decreased phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein (Rb). Further, induction of cell cycle arrest by RSV-M was not observed in a p53-deficient epithelial cell line (H1299). However, cell cycle arrest was restored after transfection of p53 cDNA into H1299 cells. Taken together, these results indicate that RSV-M protein regulates lung epithelial cell cycle through a p53-dependent pathway, which enhances RSV replication. PMID:22662266

  2. Temperature and Food Influence Shell Growth and Mantle Gene Expression of Shell Matrix Proteins in the Pearl Oyster Pinctada margaritifera

    PubMed Central

    Joubert, Caroline; Linard, Clémentine; Le Moullac, Gilles; Soyez, Claude; Saulnier, Denis; Teaniniuraitemoana, Vaihiti; Ky, Chin Long; Gueguen, Yannick

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed the combined effect of microalgal concentration and temperature on the shell growth of the bivalve Pinctada margaritifera and the molecular mechanisms underlying this biomineralization process. Shell growth was measured after two months of rearing in experimental conditions, using calcein staining of the calcified structures. Molecular mechanisms were studied though the expression of 11 genes encoding proteins implicated in the biomineralization process, which was assessed in the mantle. We showed that shell growth is influenced by both microalgal concentration and temperature, and that these environmental factors also regulate the expression of most of the genes studied. Gene expression measurement of shell matrix protein thereby appears to be an appropriate indicator for the evaluation of the biomineralization activity in the pearl oyster P. margaritifera under varying environmental conditions. This study provides valuable information on the molecular mechanisms of mollusk shell growth and its environmental control. PMID:25121605

  3. Temperature and food influence shell growth and mantle gene expression of shell matrix proteins in the pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera.

    PubMed

    Joubert, Caroline; Linard, Clémentine; Le Moullac, Gilles; Soyez, Claude; Saulnier, Denis; Teaniniuraitemoana, Vaihiti; Ky, Chin Long; Gueguen, Yannick

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed the combined effect of microalgal concentration and temperature on the shell growth of the bivalve Pinctada margaritifera and the molecular mechanisms underlying this biomineralization process. Shell growth was measured after two months of rearing in experimental conditions, using calcein staining of the calcified structures. Molecular mechanisms were studied though the expression of 11 genes encoding proteins implicated in the biomineralization process, which was assessed in the mantle. We showed that shell growth is influenced by both microalgal concentration and temperature, and that these environmental factors also regulate the expression of most of the genes studied. Gene expression measurement of shell matrix protein thereby appears to be an appropriate indicator for the evaluation of the biomineralization activity in the pearl oyster P. margaritifera under varying environmental conditions. This study provides valuable information on the molecular mechanisms of mollusk shell growth and its environmental control. PMID:25121605

  4. Expression of cytoskeletal and matrix genes following exposure to ionizing radiation: Dose-rate effects and protein synthesis requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Woloschak, G.E. |; Felcher, P.; Chin-Mei Chang-Liu

    1995-06-01

    Experiments examined the effects of radiation dose-rate and protein synthesis inhibition expression of cytoskeletal and matrix elements in Syrian hamster embryo cells. Results demonstrated little effect of dose-rate for neutrons when comparing expression of {alpha}-tubulin and fibronectin genes. Cycloheximide repressed accumulation of {alpha}-tubulin-mRNA following exposure to high dose-rate neutrons or {gamma} rays. Cycloheximide did not affect accumulation of actin mRNA. Cycloheximide abrogated induction of fibronectin-mRNA which occurred following exposure to {gamma} rays and high dose-rate neutrons. These results suggest a role for labile proteins in the maintenance of {alpha}-tubulin and fibronectin mRNA accumulation following exposure to radiation. 24 refs., 3 tabs.

  5. Protein micro and nanoencapsulation within glycol-chitosan/Ca²+/alginate matrix by spray drying.

    PubMed

    Erdinc, B; Neufeld, R J

    2011-06-01

    Encapsulation of therapeutic peptides and proteins into polymeric micro and nanoparticulates has been proposed as a strategy to overcome limitations to oral protein administration. Particles having diameter less than 5 µm are able to be taken up by the M cells of Peyer's patches found in intestinal mucosa. Current formulation methodologies involve organic solvents and several time consuming steps. In this study, spray drying was investigated to produce protein loaded micro/nanoparticles, as it offers the potential for single step operation, producing dry active-loaded particles within the micro to nano-range. Spherical, smooth surfaced particles were produced from alginate/protein feed solutions. The effect of operational parameters on particle properties such as recovery, residual activity and particle size was studied using subtilisin as model protein. Particle recovery depended on the inlet temperature of the drying air, and mean particle size ranged from 2.2 to 4.5 µm, affected by the feed rate and the alginate concentration in the feed solution. Increase in alginate:protein ratio increased protein stability. Presence of 0.2 g trehalose/g particle increased the residual activity up to 90%. Glycol-chitosan-Ca(2+)alginate particles were produced in a single step operation, with resulting mean diameter of 3.5 μm. Particles showed fluorescein isothiocyanate labeled bovine serum albumin (BSA)-protein entrapment with increasing concentration toward the particle surface. Similar, limited release profiles of BSA, subtilisin and lysozyme were observed in gastric simulation, with ultimate full release of the proteins in gastrointestinal simulation. PMID:21449696

  6. Sequence analysis and expression of the M1 and M2 matrix protein genes of hirame rhabdovirus (HIRRV)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nishizawa, T.; Kurath, G.; Winton, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    We have cloned and sequenced a 2318 nucleotide region of the genomic RNA of hirame rhabdovirus (HIRRV), an important viral pathogen of Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. This region comprises approximately two-thirds of the 3' end of the nucleocapsid protein (N) gene and the complete matrix protein (M1 and M2) genes with the associated intergenic regions. The partial N gene sequence was 812 nucleotides in length with an open reading frame (ORF) that encoded the carboxyl-terminal 250 amino acids of the N protein. The M1 and M2 genes were 771 and 700 nucleotides in length, respectively, with ORFs encoding proteins of 227 and 193 amino acids. The M1 gene sequence contained an additional small ORF that could encode a highly basic, arginine-rich protein of 25 amino acids. Comparisons of the N, M1, and M2 gene sequences of HIRRV with the corresponding sequences of the fish rhabdoviruses, infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) or viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) indicated that HIRRV was more closely related to IHNV than to VHSV, but was clearly distinct from either. The putative consensus gene termination sequence for IHNV and VHSV, AGAYAG(A)(7), was present in the N-M1, M1-M2, and M2-G intergenic regions of HIRRV as were the putative transcription initiation sequences YGGCAC and AACA. An Escherichia coli expression system was used to produce recombinant proteins from the M1 and M2 genes of HIRRV. These were the same size as the authentic M1 and M2 proteins and reacted with anti-HIRRV rabbit serum in western blots. These reagents can be used for further study of the fish immune response and to test novel control methods.

  7. Protein crystal's shape and polymorphism prediction within the limits resulting from the exploration of the Miyazawa-Jernigan matrix.

    PubMed

    Siódmiak, Jacek

    2008-12-01

    A computer study of the prediction of the protein crystal's shape and polymorphism of crystal's structures within the limits resulting from the exploration of the Miyazawa-Jernigan matrix is presented. In this study, a coarse-graining procedure was applied to prepare a two-dimensional growth unit, where instead of full atom representation of the protein a two-type (hydrophobic-hydrophilic, HP) aminoacidal representation was used. The interaction energies between hydrophobic (E(HH)) aminoacids were chosen from the well-known HP-type models (E(HH)in[-4,-3,-2.3,-1]), whereas interaction energies between hydrophobic and hydrophilic aminoacids (E(HP)) as well as interaction energies between hydrophilic aminoacids (E(PP)) were chosen from the range: <-1,1>, but not all values from this range fulfiled limitations resulting from the exploration of the Miyazawa-Jernigan matrix. Exploring every positively vetted combinations of energy interactions a polymorphism of the unit cell was observed what led to the fact that different final crystal's shapes were obtained. PMID:18721848

  8. Structural role of the matrix protein of type D retroviruses in gag polyprotein stability and capsid assembly.

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, S S; Hunter, E

    1990-01-01

    To obtain a better understanding of the role of the gag gene-encoded matrix (MA) protein in the assembly and maturation of type D retroviruses, we have made five mutants with specific in-frame deletions within the p10-coding region by the use of oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis. The changes in the Gag polyprotein made by these mutations resulted in almost identical phenotypes. In cells expressing mutant genomes, the mutant Gag polyproteins were synthesized and modified with myristic acid in a normal manner. However, they were so unstable that the bulk of the newly synthesized polyproteins was degraded within 1 h without being processed into mature structural polypeptides. In contrast, wild-type polyproteins have a processing half-life of 3.0 to 3.5 h. The mutant Gag polyproteins were assembled with very low efficiency into capsids in the cytoplasm of the mutant-infected cells. Moreover, the few capsids that formed were neither released from nor accumulated in the cells. These results suggest that the matrix protein plays an important role in guiding the correct folding of the Gag polyprotein, which is presumably crucial for both stabilizing the molecule and facilitating the intermolecular interactions that occur during assembly of immature capsids. Images PMID:2200887

  9. The hyaluronan and proteoglycan link proteins: Organizers of the brain extracellular matrix and key molecules for neuronal function and plasticity.

    PubMed

    Oohashi, Toshitaka; Edamatsu, Midori; Bekku, Yoko; Carulli, Daniela

    2015-12-01

    The hyaluronan and proteoglycanbinding link protein (Hapln) is a key molecule in the formation and control of hyaluronan-based condensed perineuronal matrix in the adult brain. This review summarizes the recent advances in understanding the role of Haplns in the formation and control of two distinct types of perineuronal matrices, one for "classical" PNN and the other for the specialized extracellular matrix (ECM) at the node of Ranvier in the central nervous system (CNS). We introduce the structural components of each ECM organization including the basic concept of supramolecular structure named "HLT model". We furthermore summarize the developmental and physiological role of perineuronal ECMs from the studies of Haplns and related molecules. Finally, we also discuss the potential mechanism modulating PNNs in the adult CNS. This layer of organized matrices may exert a direct effect via core protein or sugar moiety from the structure or by acting as a binding site for biologically active molecules, which are important for neuronal plasticity and saltatory conduction. PMID:26387938

  10. The matrix protein CCN1 (CYR61) promotes proliferation, migration and tube formation of endothelial progenitor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Yang; Gao Yu; Wang, Hong; Huang Lan Qin Jun; Guo Ruiwei; Song Mingbao; Yu Shiyong; Chen Jianfei; Cui Bin; Gao Pan

    2008-10-15

    Neovascularization and re-endothelialization relies on circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), but their recruitment and angiogenic roles are subjected to regulation by the vascular microenvironment, which remains largely unknown. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of mature ECs and matrix protein CCN1 on the properties of EPCs. In a coculture system, effects of ECs on proliferation, migration and participation in tube-like formation of EPCs were evaluated, and functional assays were employed to identify the exact role of CCN1 in EPCs vitality and function. We demonstrated that ECs, as an indispensable part of the cellular milieu, significantly promoted the proliferation, migration and tube formation activities of EPCs, and more importantly, CCN1 was potentially involved in such effects of ECs. Expression of CCN1 in EPCs was significantly increased by serum, VEGF, ECs-cocultivation and ECs conditioned medium. Moreover, Ad-CCN1-mediated overexpression of CCN1 directly enhanced migration and tube formation of EPCs, whereas silencing of endogenous CCN1 in EPCs inhibits cell functions. Furthermore, CCN1 induced the expressions of chemokines and growth factors, such as MCP-1 and VEGF, suggesting a complex interaction between those proangiogenic factors. Our data suggest that matrix protein CCN1 may play an important role in microenvironment-mediated biological properties of EPCs.

  11. Inhibition of Newcastle disease virus replication by RNA interference targeting the matrix protein gene in chicken embryo fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Yin, Renfu; Ding, Zhuang; Liu, Xinxin; Mu, Lianzhi; Cong, Yanlong; Stoeger, Tobias

    2010-07-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) is an infectious viral disease of birds caused by the Newcastle disease virus (NDV), also known as avian paramyxovirus type 1 (AMPV-1), which leads to severe economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide. In this study, the application of RNA interference (RNAi) for inhibiting the replication of NDV in cell culture by targeting the viral matrix protein gene (M) is described. Two M-specific shRNA-expressing plasmid constructs, named pS(M641) and pS(M827), were evaluated for antiviral activity against the NDV strain NA-1 by cytopathic effects (CPE), virus titration and real-time RT-PCR. After 36h of infection, both pS(M641) and pS(M827) reduced virus titers by 79.4- and 31.6-fold, respectively, and they down-regulated mRNA expression levels of the matrix protein gene M by 94.6% and 84.8%, respectively, in chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cells, while only pS(M641) significantly decreased CPE, compared to the control group. These results indicated that the M gene 641 and 827 sites represent potential antiviral therapy targets, and RNAi targeting of the M gene could not only represent an effective treatment in Newcastle disease but also aid as a method for studying the replication of NDV. PMID:20171246

  12. Glucosepane is a major protein cross-link of the senescent human extracellular matrix. Relationship with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Sell, David R; Biemel, Klaus M; Reihl, Oliver; Lederer, Markus O; Strauch, Christopher M; Monnier, Vincent M

    2005-04-01

    The extracellular matrix in most tissues is characterized by progressive age-related stiffening and loss of proteolytic digestibility that are accelerated in diabetes and can be duplicated by the nonenzymatic reaction of reducing sugars and extracellular matrix proteins. However, most cross-links of the Maillard reaction described so far are present in quantities too low to account for these changes. Here we have determined in human skin and glomerular basement membrane (GBM) collagen the levels of the recently discovered lysine-arginine cross-links derived from glucose, methylglyoxal, glyoxal, and 3-deoxyglucosone, i.e. glucosepane, MODIC, GODIC, and DOGDIC, respectively. Insoluble preparations of skin collagen (n = 110) and glomerular basement membrane (GBM, n = 28) were enzymatically digested, and levels were measured by isotope dilution technique using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. In skin, all cross-links increased with age (p < 0.0001) except DOGDIC (p = 0.34). In nondiabetic controls, levels at 90 years were 2000, 30, and 15 pmol/mg for glucosepane, MODIC, and GODIC, respectively. Diabetes, but not renal failure, increased glucosepane to 5000 pmol/mg (p < 0.0001), and for all others, increased it to <60 pmol/mg (p < 0.01). In GBMs, glucosepane reached up to 500 pmol/mg of collagen and was increased in diabetes (p < 0.0001) but not old age. In conclusion, glucosepane is the single major cross-link of the senescent extracellular matrix discovered so far, accounting for up to >120 mole% of triple helical collagen modification in diabetes. Its presence in high quantities may contribute to a number of structural and cell matrix dysfunctions observed in aging and diabetes. PMID:15677467

  13. Dual Roles of the Lysine-Rich Matrix Protein (KRMP)-3 in Shell Formation of Pearl Oyster, Pinctada fucata

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Jian; Xu, Guangrui; Xie, Jun; Lee, Ilsun; Xiang, Liang; Wang, Hongzhong; Zhang, Guiyou; Xie, Liping; Zhang, Rongqing

    2015-01-01

    Matrix proteins play important roles in shell formation. Our group firstly isolated three cDNAs encoding lysine-rich matrix protein from Pinctada fucata in 2006. However, the functions of KRMPs are not fully understood. In addition, KRMPs contain two functional domains, the basic domain and the Gly/Tyr domain respectively. Based on the modular organization, the roles of their two domains were poorly characterized. Furthermore, KRMPs were then reported in other two species, P. maxima and P. margaritifera, which indicated that KRMPs might be very important for shell formation. In this study, the characterization and function of KRMP-3 and its two functional domains were studied in vitro through purification of recombinant glutathione S-transferase tagged KRMP-3 and two KRMP-3 deletion mutants. Western blot and immunofluorescence revealed that native KRMP-3 existed in the EDTA-insoluble matrix of the prismatic layer and was located in the organic sheet and the prismatic sheath. Recombinant KRMP-3 (rKRMP-3) bound tightly to chitin and this binding capacity was duo to the Gly/Tyr-rich region. rKRMP-3 inhibited the precipitation of CaCO3, affected the crystal morphology of calcite and inhibited the growth of aragonite in vitro, which was almost entirely attributed to the lysine-rich region. The results present direct evidence of the roles of KRMP-3 in shell biomineralization. The functional rBR region was found to participate in the growth control of crystals and the rGYR region was responsible to bind to chitin. PMID:26161976

  14. Identification and Imaging of Peptides and Proteins on Enterococcus faecalis Biofilms by Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Melvin Blaze, M. T.; Aydin, Berdan; Carlson, Ross; Hanley, Luke

    2013-01-01

    The heptapeptide ARHPHPH was identified from biofilms and planktonic cultures of two different strains of Enterococcus faecalis, V583 and ATCC 29212, using matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). ARHPHPH was also imaged at the boundary of cocultured, adjacent E. faecalis and Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) biofilms, appearing only on the E. faecalis side. ARHPHPH was proteolyzed from κ-casein, a component in the growth media, by E. faecalis microbes. Additionally, top down and bottom up proteomic approaches were combined to identify and spatially locate multiple proteins within intact E. faecalis V583 biofilms by MALDI-MS. The resultant tandem MS data were searched against the NCBInr E. faecalis V583 database to identify thirteen cytosolic and membrane proteins which have functional association with the cell surface. Two of these proteins, enolase and GAPDH, are glycolytic enzymes known to display multiple functions in bacterial virulence in related bacterial strains. This work illustrates a powerful approach for discovering and localizing multiple peptides and proteins within intact biofilms. PMID:22962657

  15. Influence of eggshell matrix proteins on the precipitation of calcium carbonate (CaCO 3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Hernández, A.; Vidal, M. L.; Gómez-Morales, J.; Rodríguez-Navarro, A. B.; Labas, V.; Gautron, J.; Nys, Y.; García Ruiz, J. M.

    2008-04-01

    To understand the role of eggshell organic matrix on the biomineralization process, we have tested the influence of different purified fractions of the eggshell organic matrix on calcium carbonate (CaCO 3) precipitation. Purification was carried out after successive anion-exchange chromatography, hydrophobic interaction chromatography and gel filtration chromatography of two different prepurified eggshell extracts (A) and (B); the purified fractions (named g, h, n and r) and ( c', g', i', k') respectively were diluted to 50 μg/ml before being tested in vitro and analysed by the sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) procedure and mass spectrometry. The precipitation experiments were carried out by the method of vapour diffusion on crystallization mushrooms. Each purified fraction showed a different effect on CaCO 3 precipitation. Some of them exhibited a strong inhibitory effect on nucleation, thus suppressing the precipitation of CaCO 3 almost totally while the others did not produce any notable effect. However, all fractions favoured the precipitation of calcite over the other CaCO 3 polymorphs. Additionally, all fractions modified in a different manner the size and morphology of the precipitated calcite crystals.

  16. Aortic Wall Extracellular Matrix Proteins Correlate with Syntax Score in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chiong, Terri; Cheow, Esther S. H.; Woo, Chin C.; Lin, Xiao Y.; Khin, Lay W.; Lee, Chuen N.; Hartman, Mikael; Sze, Siu K.; Sorokin, Vitaly A.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The SYNTAX score correlate with major cardiovascular events post-revascularization, although the histopathological basis is unclear. We aim to evaluate the association between syntax score and extracellular matrix histological characteristics of aortic punch tissue obtained during coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG). This analysis compares coronary artery bypass surgery patients with High and Low syntax score which were followed up for one year period. Methods and Results: Patients with High (score ≥ 33, (n=77)) and Low Syntax Scores (score ≤ 22, (n=71)) undergoing elective CABG were recruited prospectively. Baseline clinical characteristics and surgical risks were well matched. At 1 year, EMACCE (Sum of cardiovascular death, stroke, congestive cardiac failure, and limb, gut and myocardial ischemia) was significantly elevated in the High syntax group (P=0.022). Mass spectrometry (MS)-based quantitative iTRAQ proteomic results validated on independent cohort by immunohistochemistry (IHC) revealed that the High syntax group had significantly upraised Collagen I (P<0.0001) and Elastin (P<0.0001) content in ascending aortic wall. Conclusion: This study shows that aortic extracellular matrix (ECM) differ between High and Low syntax groups with up-regulation of Collagen I and Elastin level in High Syntax Score group. This identifies aortic punches collected during CABG as another biomarker source related with atherosclerosis severity and possible clinical outcome. PMID:27347220

  17. Physical properties of artificial extracellular matrix protein hydrogels prepared by thiol-maleimide chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenbin; Tirrell, David

    2013-03-01

    Using genetic engineering methods, telechelic proteins were designed from elastin- and fibronectin-derived repeating units and biosynthesized in E. coli. The telechelic proteins bear terminal thiols could either undergo chain-extension with bis-maleimide-functionalized poly(ethylene glycol) (MAL-PEG-MAL) or crosslinking with tetrakis-maleimide-functionalized 4-arm star PEG (star-PEG-MAL). The latter leads to protein-based hydrogels that are transparent, uniform, and highly extensible. The reaction kinetics ranges from several minutes to a few hours depending on the free-thiol content and the protein weight percentage. The mechanical properties of the gel depend on the protein content and the cross-linker concentration. It is also possible to further tune the mechanical properties by using a mixture of MAL-PEG-MAL and star-PEG-MAL for crosslinking. The water contents of the hydrogels are high, especially after swelling. The results suggest its promising application for cell encapsulation and 3D cell culture in tissue engineering.

  18. Controlling the spatial organization of cells and extracellular matrix proteins in engineered tissues using ultrasound standing wave fields

    PubMed Central

    Garvin, Kelley A.; Hocking, Denise C.; Dalecki, Diane

    2010-01-01

    Tissue engineering holds great potential for saving the lives of thousands of organ transplant patients who die each year while waiting for donor organs. However, to successfully fabricate tissues and organs in vitro, methodologies that recreate appropriate extracellular microenvironments to promote tissue regeneration are needed. In this study, we have developed an application of ultrasound standing wave field (USWF) technology to the field of tissue engineering. Acoustic radiation forces associated with USWF were used to non-invasively control the spatial distribution of mammalian cells and cell-bound extracellular matrix proteins within three-dimensional collagen-based engineered tissues. Cells were suspended in unpolymerized collagen solutions and were exposed to a continuous wave USWF, generated using a 1 MHz source, for 15 min at room temperature. Collagen polymerization occurred during USWF exposure resulting in the formation of three-dimensional collagen gels with distinct bands of aggregated cells. The density of cell bands was dependent on both the initial cell concentration and the pressure amplitude of the USWF. Importantly, USWF exposure did not decrease cell viability, but rather enhanced cell function. Alignment of cells into loosely clustered, planar cell bands significantly increased levels of cell-mediated collagen gel contraction and collagen fiber reorganization as compared to sham-exposed samples with a homogeneous cell distribution. Additionally, the extracellular matrix protein, fibronectin, was localized to cell banded areas by binding the protein to the cell surface prior to USWF exposure. By controlling cell and extracellular organization, this application of USWF technology is a promising approach for engineering tissues in vitro. PMID:20870341

  19. A mouse 3T6 fibroblast cell culture model for the study of normal and protein-engineered collagen synthesis and deposition into the extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Lamandé, S R; Bateman, J F

    1993-07-01

    Mouse 3T6 fibroblasts deposited an organized collagenous extracellular matrix during long-term culture in the presence of ascorbic acid. The matrix produced by the cells had a similar distribution of collagen types as the mouse dermal matrix, comprising predominantly type I with smaller amounts of types III and V collagens. By day 8 of culture more than 70% of the collagen in the 3T6 matrix was involved in covalent crosslinkages and required pepsin digestion for extraction. Incorporation of NaB3H4 into reducible crosslinks and aldehydes directly demonstrated the involvement of the alpha 1 (I)CB6 and alpha 2(I)CB3.5 in crosslinks. The pattern of reducible crosslinks in the in vitro 3T6 matrix was similar to that in mouse skin suggesting a comparable fibril organization. Processing of procollagen to collagen occurred efficiently throughout the culture period and the rate of collagen production was unaltered during 15 days of culture, indicating that the development of a collagenous matrix does not directly play a role in procollagen processing or biosynthetic regulation. The existence of a preformed matrix did however, increase the efficiency with which newly synthesised collagen was incorporated into the pericellular matrix. At day 0, when there was no measurable matrix present, 29% of the collagen synthesised was deposited, while by day 15, 88% of the collagen was laid down in the matrix. The development of this 3T6 culture system, where collagen is efficiently incorporated into an organized extracellular matrix, will facilitate detailed studies on matrix organization and regulation and provide a system in which protein-engineered mutant collagens can be expressed to determine their effects on the production of a functional extracellular matrix. PMID:8412990

  20. Redox Capacity of an Extracellular Matrix Protein Associated with Adhesion in Mytilus californianus.

    PubMed

    Nicklisch, Sascha C T; Spahn, Jamie E; Zhou, Hongjun; Gruian, Cristina M; Waite, J Herbert

    2016-04-01

    Adhesive mussel foot proteins (Mfps) rely in part on DOPA (3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-l-alanine) side chains to mediate attachment to mineral surfaces underwater. Oxidation of DOPA to Dopaquinone (Q) effectively abolishes the adsorption of Mfps to these surfaces. The thiol-rich mussel foot protein-6 (Mfp-6) rescues adhesion compromised by adventitious DOPA oxidation by reducing Q back to DOPA. The redox chemistry and kinetics of foot-extracted Mfp-6 were investigated by using a nonspecific chromogenic probe to equilibrate with the redox pool. Foot-extracted Mfp-6 has a reducing capacity of ~17 e(-) per protein; half of this comes from the cysteine residues, whereas the other half comes from other constituents, probably a cohort of four or five nonadhesive, redox-active DOPA residues in Mfp-6 with an anodic peak potential ~500 mV lower than that for oxidation of cysteine to cystine. At higher pH, DOPA redox reversibility is lost possibly due to Q scavenging by Cys thiolates. Analysis by one- and two-dimensional proton nuclear magnetic resonance identified a pronounced β-sheet structure with a hydrophobic core in foot-extracted Mfp-6 protein. The structure endows redox-active side chains in Mfp-6, i.e., cysteine and DOPA, with significant reducing power over a broad pH range, and this power is measurably diminished in recombinant Mfp-6. PMID:26998552

  1. Mussel adhesive protein provides cohesive matrix for collagen type-1α

    PubMed Central

    Martinez Rodriguez, Nadine R.; Das, Saurabh; Kaufman, Yair; Wei, Wei; Israelachvili, Jacob N.; Waite, J. Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the interactions between collagen and adhesive mussel foot proteins (mfps) can lead to improved medical and dental adhesives, particularly for collagen-rich tissues. Here we investigated interactions between collagen type-1, the most abundant loadbearing animal protein, and mussel foot protein-3 (mfp-3) using a quartz crystal microbalance and surface forces apparatus (SFA). Both hydrophilic and hydrophobic variants of mfp-3 were exploited to probe the nature of the interaction between the protein and collagen. Our chief findings are: 1) mfp-3 is an effective chaperone for tropocollagen adsorption to TiO2 and mica surfaces; 2) at pH 3, collagen addition between two mfp-3 films (Wc = 5.4 ± 0.2 mJ/m2) increased their cohesion by nearly 35%; 3) oxidation of Dopa in mfp-3 by periodate did not abolish the adhesion between collagen and mfp-3 films, and 4) collagen bridging between both hydrophilic and hydrophobic mfp-3 variant films is equally robust, suggesting that hydrophobic interactions play a minor role. Extensive H-bonding, π-cation and electrostatic interactions are more plausible to explain the reversible bridging of mfp-3 films by collagen. PMID:25770997

  2. Effects of fluoride on matrix proteins and their properties in rat secretory enamel.

    PubMed

    Aoba, T; Moreno, E C; Tanabe, T; Fukae, M

    1990-06-01

    This publication concerns the selective adsorption of rat enamel proteins onto hydroxyapatite, their solubility in aqueous solutions, and the effect that systemic fluoride has on these properties. The enamel proteins used as adsorbates were extracted in 0.5 mol/L acetic acid from the secretory enamel of the upper and lower incisors of SD rats (females, 200-220 g body weight). Equilibration of the proteins with hydroxyapatite was performed in two solutions: (i) 50 mmol/L acetate buffer at pH 6.0 and 0 degrees C, and (ii) 50 mmol/L Tris buffer containing 4 mol/L guanidine at pH 7.4 and room temperature. Enamel was dissected from animals, which were given either de-ionized water (control group) or water containing 25, 50, 75, or 100 ppm fluoride as NaF for four weeks. From these enamel samples, the proteins were extracted in sequence with 160 mmol/L NaCl and 3 mmol/L phosphate (pH 7.3), 50 mmol/L carbonate buffer (pH 10.8), and finally, with 0.5 mol/L acetic acid for dissolution of the enamel mineral. The F, Ca, and P contents of the various enamel samples were determined.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2162362

  3. Rapid evolution of pearl oyster shell matrix proteins with repetitive, low-complexity domains

    PubMed Central

    McDougall, Carmel; Aguilera, Felipe; Degnan, Bernard M.

    2013-01-01

    The lysine (K)-rich mantle protein (KRMP) and shematrin protein families are unique to the organic matrices of pearl oyster shells. Similar to other proteins that are constituents of tough, extracellular structures, such as spider silk, shematrins and KRMPs, contain repetitive, low-complexity domains (RLCDs). Comprehensive analysis of available gene sequences in three species of pearl oyster using BLAST and hidden Markov models reveal that both gene families have large memberships in these species. The shematrin gene family expanded before the speciation of these oysters, leading to a minimum of eight orthology groups. By contrast, KRMPs expanded primarily after speciation leading to species-specific gene repertoires. Regardless of their evolutionary history, the rapid evolution of shematrins and KRMPs appears to be the result of the intrinsic instability of repetitive sequences encoding the RLCDs, and the gain, loss and shuffling of other motifs. This mode of molecular evolution is likely to contribute to structural characteristics and evolvability of the pearl oyster shell. Based on these observations, we infer that analogous RLCD proteins throughout the animal kingdom also have the capacity to rapidly evolve and as a result change their structural properties. PMID:23427100

  4. Mussel adhesive protein provides cohesive matrix for collagen type-1α.

    PubMed

    Martinez Rodriguez, Nadine R; Das, Saurabh; Kaufman, Yair; Wei, Wei; Israelachvili, Jacob N; Waite, J Herbert

    2015-05-01

    Understanding the interactions between collagen and adhesive mussel foot proteins (mfps) can lead to improved medical and dental adhesives, particularly for collagen-rich tissues. Here we investigated interactions between collagen type-1, the most abundant load-bearing animal protein, and mussel foot protein-3 (mfp-3) using a quartz crystal microbalance and surface forces apparatus (SFA). Both hydrophilic and hydrophobic variants of mfp-3 were exploited to probe the nature of the interaction between the protein and collagen. Our chief findings are: 1) mfp-3 is an effective chaperone for tropocollagen adsorption to TiO2 and mica surfaces; 2) at pH 3, collagen addition between two mfp-3 films (Wc = 5.4 ± 0.2 mJ/m(2)) increased their cohesion by nearly 35%; 3) oxidation of Dopa in mfp-3 by periodate did not abolish the adhesion between collagen and mfp-3 films, and 4) collagen bridging between both hydrophilic and hydrophobic mfp-3 variant films is equally robust, suggesting that hydrophobic interactions play a minor role. Extensive H-bonding, π-cation and electrostatic interactions are more plausible to explain the reversible bridging of mfp-3 films by collagen. PMID:25770997

  5. Protein crystallization with microseed matrix screening: application to human germline antibody Fabs

    PubMed Central

    Obmolova, Galina; Malia, Thomas J.; Teplyakov, Alexey; Sweet, Raymond W.; Gilliland, Gary L.

    2014-01-01

    The crystallization of 16 human antibody Fab fragments constructed from all pairs of four different heavy chains and four different light chains was enabled by employing microseed matrix screening (MMS). In initial screening, diffraction-quality crystals were obtained for only three Fabs, while many Fabs produced hits that required optimization. Application of MMS, using the initial screens and/or refinement screens, resulted in diffraction-quality crystals of these Fabs. Five Fabs that failed to give hits in the initial screen were crystallized by cross-seeding MMS followed by MMS optimization. The crystallization protocols and strategies that resulted in structure determination of all 16 Fabs are presented. These results illustrate the power of MMS and provide a basis for developing future strategies for macromolecular crystallization. PMID:25084393

  6. Association of cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans of Schwann cells with extracellular matrix proteins.

    PubMed

    Carey, D J; Crumbling, D M; Stahl, R C; Evans, D M

    1990-11-25

    The terminal differentiation of Schwann cells is dependent on contact with basement membrane. The present study was undertaken to investigate the role of cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) in mediating Schwann cell responses to extracellular matrix contact. Phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C-releasable cell surface HSPGs purified from cultures of neonatal rat Schwann cells were subjected to affinity chromatography on immobilized laminin and fibronectin. Binding of the HSPG to both affinity matrices was observed. The strength of the association, however, was sensitive to the ionic strength of the buffer. In 0.1 M Tris-HCl, HSPG binding was essentially irreversible whereas in physiological ionic strength buffer (e.g. 0.142 M NaCl, 10 mM Tris), weaker binding was detected as a delay in elution of the HSPG from the affinity columns. Further studies of HSPG-laminin binding suggested that the binding was mediated by the glycosaminoglycan chains of the proteoglycans. Results of equilibrium gel filtration chromatography provided additional evidence for a reversible association of the HSPG and laminin with a Kd of approximately 1 x 10(-6) M. When Schwann cells were plated on plastic dishes coated with laminin, the cells attached and extended long slender processes. Inclusion of heparin, but not chondroitin sulfate, in the assay medium resulted in partial inhibition of process extension, but at concentrations of heparin which were higher than that needed to disrupt laminin-HSPG association in vitro. Addition of anti-integrin receptor antibodies resulted in more extensive inhibition of laminin-dependent process extension. Anti-integrin antibodies plus heparin essentially totally inhibited laminin-dependent process extension. These results demonstrate that cell surface HSPGs are capable of reversible association with extracellular matrix molecules and suggest that HSPG-laminin interactions play a role in laminin-dependent Schwann cell spreading. PMID

  7. Properties of proteins and the glassy matrix in maturation-defective mutant seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Wolkers, W F; Alberda, M; Koornneef, M; Léon-Kloosterziel, K M; Hoekstra, F A

    1998-10-01

    In situ Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy was used to study the heat stability of proteins and hydrogen bonding interactions in dry maturation-defective mutant seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana. alpha-Helical, turn and beta-sheet conformations were the major protein secondary structures in all of these seeds. On heating, intermolecular extended beta-sheet structures, typical of protein denaturation, were formed in abscisic acid-insensitive (abi3) and leafy cotyledon (lec) mutant seeds. Proteins in dry wild-type seeds did not denature up to 150 degrees C, but those in dry desiccation-sensitive, lec1-1, lec1-3 and abi3-5 seeds did at 68, 89 and 87 degrees C, respectively. In the desiccation-tolerant abi3-7 and abi3-1 seeds, denaturation commenced above 120 and 135 degrees C, respectively. Seeds of the aba1-1 abi3-1 double mutant showed signs of denaturation already upon drying. The molecular packing in the seeds was studied by observing the shift in the position of the OH-stretching vibration band with temperature. The maximal rate of change of this band with temperature was much higher in the desiccation-sensitive abi3-5, aba1-1 abi3-1, lec1-1, and lec1-3 mutant seeds than in the desiccation-tolerant wild-type, abi3-1, abi3-7, and lec2-1 seeds. We interpret this to mean that the molecular packing density is higher in dry desiccation-tolerant than in dry desiccation-sensitive seeds, which is associated with a higher or lower protein denaturation temperature, respectively. The results are discussed in relation to the physiological and biochemical characteristics of these mutant seeds. PMID:9839460

  8. A crayfish molar tooth protein with putative mineralized exoskeletal chitinous matrix properties.

    PubMed

    Tynyakov, Jenny; Bentov, Shmuel; Abehsera, Shai; Yehezkel, Galit; Roth, Ziv; Khalaila, Isam; Weil, Simy; Berman, Amir; Plaschkes, Inbar; Tom, Moshe; Aflalo, Eliahu D; Sagi, Amir

    2015-11-01

    Some crustaceans possess exoskeletons that are reinforced with calcium carbonate. In the crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus, the molar tooth, which is part of the mandibular exoskeleton, contains an unusual crystalline enamel-like apatite layer. As this layer resembles vertebrate enamel in composition and function, it offers an interesting example of convergent evolution. Unlike other parts of the crayfish exoskeleton, which is periodically shed and regenerated during the molt cycle, molar mineral deposition takes place during the pre-molt stage. The molar mineral composition transforms continuously from fluorapatite through amorphous calcium phosphate to amorphous calcium carbonate and is mounted on chitin. The process of crayfish molar formation is entirely extracellular and presumably controlled by proteins, lipids, polysaccharides, low-molecular weight molecules and calcium salts. We have identified a novel molar protein termed Cq-M15 from C. quadricarinatus and cloned its transcript from the molar-forming epithelium. Its transcript and differential expression were confirmed by a next-generation sequencing library. The predicted acidic pI of Cq-M15 suggests its possible involvement in mineral arrangement. Cq-M15 is expressed in several exoskeletal tissues at pre-molt and its silencing is lethal. Like other arthropod cuticular proteins, Cq-M15 possesses a chitin-binding Rebers-Riddiford domain, with a recombinant version of the protein found to bind chitin. Cq-M15 was also found to interact with calcium ions in a concentration-dependent manner. This latter property might make Cq-M15 useful for bone and dental regenerative efforts. We suggest that, in the molar tooth, this protein might be involved in calcium phosphate and/or carbonate precipitation. PMID:26385331

  9. Vesiculoviral matrix (M) protein occupies nucleic acid binding site at nucleoporin pair (Rae1∙Nup98)

    SciTech Connect

    Quan, Beili; Seo, Hyuk-Soo; Blobel, Günter; Ren, Yi

    2014-07-01

    mRNA export factor 1 (Rae1) and nucleoporin 98 (Nup98) are host cell targets for the matrix (M) protein of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). How Rae1 functions in mRNA export and how M protein targets both Rae1 and Nup98 are not understood at the molecular level. To obtain structural insights, we assembled a 1:1:1 complex of M•Rae1•Nup98 and established a crystal structure at 3.15-Å resolution. We found that the M protein contacts the Rae1•Nup98 heterodimer principally by two protrusions projecting from the globular domain of M like a finger and thumb. Both projections clamp to the side of the β-propeller of Rae1, with the finger also contacting Nup98. The most prominent feature of the finger is highly conserved Methionine 51 (Met51) with upstream and downstream acidic residues. The complementary surface on Rae1 displays a deep hydrophobic pocket, into which Met51 fastens like a bolt, and a groove of basic residues on either side, which bond to the acidic residues of the finger. Notably, the M protein competed for in vitro binding of various oligonucleotides to Rae1•Nup98. We localized this competing activity of M to its finger using a synthetic peptide. Collectively, our data suggest that Rae1 serves as a binding protein for the phosphate backbone of any nucleic acid and that the finger of M mimics this ligand. In the context of mRNA export, we propose that a given mRNA segment, after having been deproteinated by helicase, is transiently reproteinated by Nup98-tethered Rae1. We suggest that such repetitive cycles provide cytoplasmic stopover sites required for ratcheting mRNA across the nuclear pore.

  10. ProSMoS server: a pattern-based search using interaction matrix representation of protein structures.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shuoyong; Chitturi, Bhadrachalam; Grishin, Nick V

    2009-07-01

    Assessing structural similarity and defining common regions through comparison of protein spatial structures is an important task in functional and evolutionary studies of proteins. There are many servers that compare structures and define sub-structures in common between proteins through superposition and closeness of either coordinates or contacts. However, a natural way to analyze a structure for experts working on structure classification is to look for specific three-dimensional (3D) motifs and patterns instead of finding common features in two proteins. Such motifs can be described by the architecture and topology of major secondary structural elements (SSEs) without consideration of subtle differences in 3D coordinates. Despite the importance of motif-based structure searches, currently there is a shortage of servers to perform this task. Widely known TOPS does not fully address this problem, as it finds only topological match but does not take into account other important spatial properties, such as interactions and chirality. Here, we implemented our approach to protein structure pattern search (ProSMoS) as a web-server. ProSMoS converts 3D structure into an interaction matrix representation including the SSE types, handednesses of connections between SSEs, coordinates of SSE starts and ends, types of interactions between SSEs and beta-sheet definitions. For a user-defined structure pattern, ProSMoS lists all structures from a database that contain this pattern. ProSMoS server will be of interest to structural biologists who would like to analyze very general and distant structural similarities. The ProSMoS web server is available at: http://prodata.swmed.edu/ProSMoS/. PMID:19420061

  11. ProSMoS server: a pattern-based search using interaction matrix representation of protein structures

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Shuoyong; Chitturi, Bhadrachalam; Grishin, Nick V.

    2009-01-01

    Assessing structural similarity and defining common regions through comparison of protein spatial structures is an important task in functional and evolutionary studies of proteins. There are many servers that compare structures and define sub-structures in common between proteins through superposition and closeness of either coordinates or contacts. However, a natural way to analyze a structure for experts working on structure classification is to look for specific three-dimensional (3D) motifs and patterns instead of finding common features in two proteins. Such motifs can be described by the architecture and topology of major secondary structural elements (SSEs) without consideration of subtle differences in 3D coordinates. Despite the importance of motif-based structure searches, currently there is a shortage of servers to perform this task. Widely known TOPS does not fully address this problem, as it finds only topological match but does not take into account other important spatial properties, such as interactions and chirality. Here, we implemented our approach to protein structure pattern search (ProSMoS) as a web-server. ProSMoS converts 3D structure into an interaction matrix representation including the SSE types, handednesses of connections between SSEs, coordinates of SSE starts and ends, types of interactions between SSEs and β-sheet definitions. For a user-defined structure pattern, ProSMoS lists all structures from a database that contain this pattern. ProSMoS server will be of interest to structural biologists who would like to analyze very general and distant structural similarities. The ProSMoS web server is available at: http://prodata.swmed.edu/ProSMoS/. PMID:19420061

  12. Physiological Osmotic Induction of Leptospira interrogans Adhesion: LigA and LigB Bind Extracellular Matrix Proteins and Fibrinogen▿

    PubMed Central

    Choy, Henry A.; Kelley, Melissa M.; Chen, Tammy L.; Møller, Annette K.; Matsunaga, James; Haake, David A.

    2007-01-01

    Transmission of leptospirosis occurs through contact of mucous membranes and abraded skin with freshwater contaminated by pathogenic Leptospira spp. Exposure to physiological osmolarity induces leptospires to express high levels of the Lig surface proteins containing imperfect immunoglobulin-like repeats that are shared or differ between LigA and LigB. We report that osmotic induction of Lig is accompanied by 1.6- to 2.5-fold increases in leptospiral adhesion to immobilized extracellular matrix and plasma proteins, including collagens I and IV, laminin, and especially fibronectin and fibrinogen. Recombinant LigA-unique and LigB-unique repeat proteins bind to these same host ligands. We found that the avidity of LigB in binding fibronectin is comparable to that of the Staphylococcus aureus FnBPA D repeats. Both LigA- and LigB-unique repeats interact with the amino-terminal fibrin- and gelatin-binding domains of fibronectin, which are also recognized by fibronectin-binding proteins mediating the adhesion of other microbial pathogens. In contrast, repeats common to both LigA and LigB do not bind these host proteins, and nonrepeat sequences in the carboxy-terminal domain of LigB show only weak interaction with fibronectin and fibrinogen. A functional role for the binding activity of LigA and LigB is suggested by the ability of the recombinants to inhibit leptospiral adhesion to fibronectin by 28% and 21%, respectively. The binding of LigA and LigB to multiple ligands present in different tissues suggests that these adhesins may be involved in the initial colonization and dissemination stages of leptospirosis. The characterization of the Lig adhesin function should aid the design of Lig-based vaccines and serodiagnostic tests. PMID:17296754

  13. A novel mesoporous silica nanosphere matrix for the immobilization of proteins and their applications as electrochemical biosensor.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Qin, Xingzhang; Yang, Zhanjun; Qi, Huamei; Xu, Qin; Diao, Guowang

    2013-01-30

    A mesoporous silica nanoshpere (MSN) was proposed to modify glassy carbon electrode (GCE) for the immobilization of protein. Using glucose oxidase (GOD) as a model, direct electrochemistry of protein and biosensing at the MSN modified GCE was studied for the first time. The MNS had large surface area and offered a favorable microenvironment for facilitating the direct electron transfer between enzyme and electrode surface. Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry were used to examine the interaction between GOD and the MSN matrix. The results demonstrated that the immobilized enzyme on the MSN retained its native structure and bioactivity. In addition, the electrochemical reaction showed a surface controlled, reversible two-proton and two-electron transfer process with the apparent electron transfer rate constant of 3.96 s(-1). The MNS-based glucose biosensor exhibited the two linear ranges of 0.04-2.0 mM and 2.0-4.8 mM, a high sensitivity of 14.5 mA M(-1) cm(-2) and a low detection limit of 0.02 mM at signal-to-noise of 3. The proposed biosensor showed excellent selectivity, good reproducibility, acceptable stability and could be successfully applied in the reagentless detection of glucose in real samples at -0.45 V. The work displayed that mesoporous silica nanosphere provided a promising approach for immobilizing proteins and fabrication of excellent biosensors. PMID:23597897

  14. Growth-inhibiting extracellular matrix proteins also inhibit electrical activity by reducing calcium and increasing potassium conductances.

    PubMed

    Vargas, J; De-Miguel, F F

    2009-01-23

    Inhibitionof neurite sprouting and electrical activity by extracellular matrix (ECM) glycoproteins was studied during neurite regeneration by using anterior pagoda (AP) neurons of the leech. Adult isolated neurons were plated in culture inside ganglion capsules, which among many ECM proteins, contain a group of inhibitory peanut lectin- (PNA) binding glycoproteins. These proteins inhibit neurite production and contribute to the formation of a bipolar outgrowth pattern by AP neurons. Addition of PNA lectin to the culture medium to block the inhibitory effects of ECM glycoproteins induced an increase of neurite sprouting, the loss of the bipolar pattern, and also an increase in the amplitude and duration of action potentials evoked by intracellular current injection. PNA lectin had independent effects on neurite sprouting and electrical activity, since there was no correlation between the total neurite length and the amplitude of the action potentials. Moreover, action potentials were increased by the presence of PNA lectin even in neurons that did not grow. The changes induced by PNA lectin on the active conductances underlying the action potentials were estimated by quantitative model simulations. We predict that the increases in the amplitude and duration of the action potential induced by PNA lectin were due to an increase in a calcium conductance and a reduction in the delayed rectifier potassium conductance. Our results suggest that inhibitory ECM glycoproteins may use independent signaling pathways to inhibit neurite sprouting and electrical activity. These proteins affect the action potential by changing the proportion of inward and outward active conductances. PMID:18976697

  15. Studies of a nuclear matrix protein restricted to normal brain cells and lead-induced intranuclear inclusion bodies of kidney

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton, K.; Egle, P.; Redford, K.; Bigbee, J.

    1986-05-01

    A nuclear matrix protein, p32/6.3, with an unusual tissue distribution, has been identified. Protein from 21 tissues was surveyed by immunoprobing Western blots. In normal adult rats p32/6.3 is found only in grey matter from the cerebrum and the cerebellum, occurring in both neurons and astrocytes. Other brain cell types have not been examined. The protein appears to be developmentally regulated. It is detectable in the brain within a few days after birth and reaches adult levels within one to two weeks. Brain p32/6.3 has been found in all animals tested including rat, mouse, dog, cow, pig, chicken and human. This conservation indicates a fundamental role for p32/6.3 in the nucleus of brain cells. Possible functions for p32/6.3 may be indicated by a second novel occurrence. Chronic lead poisoning characteristically induces intranuclear inclusion bodies in the cells lining kidney proximal tubules. p32/6.3 is a major constituent of these inclusion bodies. They are also rich in lead and other metals including calcium, iron, zinc, copper and cadmium. These diverse observations suggest that p32/6.3 may have a role in metal homeostasis in the brain of normal animals.

  16. Online Matrix Removal Platform for Coupling Gel-Based Separations to Whole Protein Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ki Hun; Compton, Philip D.; Tran, John C.; Kelleher, Neil L.

    2015-01-01

    A fractionation method called gel-eluted liquid fraction entrapment electrophoresis (GELFrEE) has been used to dramatically increase the number of proteins identified in top-down proteomic workflows; however, the technique involves the use of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), a surfactant that interferes with electrospray ionization. Therefore, an efficient removal of SDS is absolutely required prior to mass analysis. Traditionally, methanol/chloroform precipitation and spin columns have been used, but they lack reproducibility and are difficult to automate. Therefore, we developed an in-line matrix removal platform to enable the direct analysis of samples containing SDS and salts. Only small molecules like SDS permeate a porous membrane and are removed in a manner similar to cross-flow filtration. With this device, near-complete removal of SDS is accomplished within 5 min and proteins are subsequently mobilized into a mass spectrometer. The new platform was optimized for the analysis of GELFrEE fractions enriched for histones extracted from human HeLa cells. All four core histones and their proteoforms were detected in a single spectrum by high-resolution mass spectrometry. The new method versus protein precipitation/resuspension showed 2- to 10-fold improved signal intensities, offering a clear path forward to improve proteome coverage and the efficiency of top-down proteomics. PMID:25836738

  17. Molecular cloning of matrix Gla protein: implications for substrate recognition by the vitamin K-dependent gamma-carboxylase.

    PubMed Central

    Price, P A; Fraser, J D; Metz-Virca, G

    1987-01-01

    Matrix Gla protein (MGP), a low molecular weight protein found in bone, dentin, and cartilage, contains 5 residues of the vitamin K-dependent amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla). We have used antibodies raised against MGP and oligonucleotide probes to screen a lambda gt11 cDNA library constructed from the rat osteosarcoma cells (line ROS 17/2) that had been pretreated with 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. By sequencing several cloned cDNAs, we established a 523-base-pair sequence that predicts an 84-residue mature MGP and a 19-residue hydrophobic signal peptide. The 84-residue mature rat MGP predicted from the cDNA sequence has an additional 5 residues at its C terminus (-Arg-Arg-Gly-Ala-Lys) not seen in the sequence of MGP isolated from bovine bone. The structure of rat MGP provides insight into the mechanisms by which the vitamin K-dependent gamma-carboxylase recognizes substrate. The present studies show that MGP, unlike other vitamin K-dependent proteins, lacks a propeptide. The absence of an MGP propeptide demonstrates that gamma-carboxylation and secretion of vitamin K-dependent proteins need not be linked to the presence of a propeptide or to its proteolytic removal. The propeptides of other vitamin K-dependent proteins are structurally homologous, and there is evidence that this homologous propeptide domain is important to substrate recognition by the gamma-carboxylase. Mature MGP has a sequence segment (residues 15-30) that is homologous to the propeptide of other vitamin K-dependent proteins and probably serves the same role in gamma-carboxylase recognition. Rat MGP also has a second sequence that has recently been identified in all known vitamin K-dependent vertebrate proteins, the invariant unit Glu-Xaa-Xaa-Xaa-Glu-Xaa-Cys (EXXXEXC). Since the glutamic residues in this unit are sites of gamma-carboxylation, it has been suggested that the EXXXEXC unit could allow the gamma-carboxylase to discriminate between substrate and product. The

  18. Fibronectin fragments alter matrix protein synthesis in cartilage tissue cultured in vitro.

    PubMed

    Xie, D; Hui, F; Homandberg, G A

    1993-11-15

    We reported earlier that fibronectin fragments (Fn-f) added to bovine articular cartilage cultured in serum-free culture causes marked protease expression with resultant proteoglycan (PG) degradation and release into the culture media. We have further characterized the effects of Fn-f by studies of the effects on proteoglycan, collagen, general protein, and DNA synthesis and reversibility of the cartilage damage. We report here that the most active Fn-f, a 29-kDa amino-terminal Fn-f, when added to a 1 microM concentration, depressed PG and general protein synthesis in cartilage by over 50% within 24 h, as measured by sulfate and methionine/cysteine incorporation, respectively. This same Fn-f decreased PG synthesis throughout the full thickness cartilage section as shown by autoradiography. PG and general protein synthesis were significantly depressed within 24 h by 29-kDa Fn-f concentrations as low as 10 nM. Synthesis rates were effected by 100-fold lower Fn-f concentrations than was induction of proteinases. Removal of the 29-kDa Fn-f allowed a gain to supernormal levels of PG and protein synthesis. Cartilage damaged to the extent of removal of over 50% of the total PG did not replace PG after over 4 weeks in 10% serum-Dulbecco's modified Eagle minimum with or without added TGF-b1 and rIGF-a. These data show that while the effects of Fn-f on elevating protease expression and depressing PG synthesis are reversible, the resultant cartilage damage is apparently irreversible in vitro. Therefore, if Fn-f-mediated cartilage damage occurs as part of cartilage disease processes, the pathologic effects would be quite significant. PMID:8239647

  19. A Novel Matrix for Immobilizing Protein: Supported Hybrid Nano C60-Lipid Membrane.

    PubMed

    He, Lulu; Yue, Qiulin; Zhang, Lele; Zhang, Xin

    2016-06-01

    Supported hybrid nano C60-lipid membrane based on cysteamine monolayer was made on gold electrode. Hemoglobin (Hb) could be immobilized in the membrane firmly because the membrane can supply a biological environment for Hb. The electrochemical behavior of Hb in the membrane was investigated by cyclic voltammetry. As a good electron mediator, C60 could make the electron transfer of the protein in hybrid C60-lipid membrane more accessible. PMID:27427649

  20. The extracellular matrix proteins laminin and fibronectin contain binding domains for human plasminogen and tissue plasminogen activator.

    PubMed

    Moser, T L; Enghild, J J; Pizzo, S V; Stack, M S

    1993-09-01

    This study describes the binding of plasminogen and tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) to the extracellular matrix proteins fibronectin and laminin. Plasminogen bound specifically and saturably to both fibronectin and laminin immobilized on microtiter wells, with Kd(app) values of 115 and 18 nM, respectively. Limited proteolysis by endoproteinase V8 coupled with ligand blotting analysis showed that both plasminogen and t-PA preferentially bind to a 55-kDa fibronectin fragment and a 38-kDa laminin fragment. Amino acid sequence analysis demonstrated that the 5-kDa fragment originates with the fibronectin amino terminus whereas the laminin fragment was derived from the carboxyl-terminal globular domain of the laminin A chain. Ligand blotting experiments using isolated plasminogen domains were also used to identify distinct regions of the plasminogen molecule involved in fibronectin and laminin binding. Solution phase fibronectin binding to immobilized plasminogen was mediated primarily via lysine binding site-dependent interactions with plasminogen kringles 1-4. Lysine binding site-dependent binding of soluble laminin to immobilized plasminogen kringles 1-5 as well as an additional lysine binding site-independent interaction between mini-plasminogen and the 38-kDa laminin A chain fragment were also observed. These studies demonstrate binding of plasminogen and tissue-type plasminogen activator to specific regions of the extracellular matrix glycoproteins laminin and fibronectin and provide further insight into the mechanism of regulation of plasminogen activation by components of the extracellular matrix. PMID:8360181

  1. Histopathological evaluation of the effects of variable extraoral dry times and enamel matrix proteins (enamel matrix derivatives) application on replanted dogs' teeth.

    PubMed

    Barbizam, Joao V B; Massarwa, Rasha; da Silva, Lea Assed Bezerra; da Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra; Nelson-Filho, Paulo; Consolaro, Alberto; Cohenca, Nestor

    2015-02-01

    The extra-alveolar dry period and storage medium in which the tooth was kept prior to replantation remain the critical factors affecting the survival and regeneration of the damaged periodontium. When the replantation is delayed, replacement root resorption is the most common complication following replantation of an avulsed tooth. The aim of this histological study was to evaluate the periodontal healing of replanted dogs' teeth after 20 min (short) and 60 min (long) extraoral dry time with and without the application of enamel matrix proteins. Eighty mature premolar roots (40 teeth) maxillary and mandibular premolars were extracted, the root canals were accessed, instrumented, and filled using a lateral condensation technique, and the access cavity was restored with amalgam. Each root was randomly assigned to one of experimental groups: Groups I and II: Roots were replanted after an extraoral dry time of 20 min. In group II, Emdogain(®) (Biora, Malmo, Sweden) was applied directly to the external root surface with complete coverage. Groups III and IV: Roots were replanted after an extraoral dry time of 60 min. In group IV, Emdogain(®) was applied to the whole external root surface before replantation. Roots that replanted within a total extraoral dry time of 10 min were used as negative controls, while those replanted after 90 min of extraoral dry time were assigned as positive controls. After 4 months, the dogs were euthanized, and the maxillary and mandibular processes were processed for histology and microscopically evaluated. Statistical analysis showed no significant differences (P = 0.1075) among the experimental groups. The results of this study show that 20 min of extraoral dry time is as detrimental to the PDL cells as 60 or 90 min of extraoral dry time, with avulsed dogs' teeth, even when replanted with an inductive material such as EMD. This study provides strong evidence in relation to the threshold of the extraoral dry time of avulsed teeth

  2. Downregulation of the Yes-Associated Protein Is Associated with Extracellular Matrix Disorders in Ascending Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haiyang; Jiang, Wenjian; Ren, Weihong; Guo, Dong; Guo, Jialong; Wang, Xiaolong; Liu, Yuyong; Lan, Feng; Du, Jie; Zhang, Hongjia

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that extracellular matrix (ECM) disorders lead to the apoptosis of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells (VSMCs), which impairs the aortic wall by reducing the generation of elastic fibers, and ultimately result in ascending aortic aneurysm. The critical role of the Yes-associated protein (YAP) has been elucidated in cardiac/SMC proliferation during cardiovascular development. However, the association of YAP expression and extracellular matrix disorders in ascending aortic aneurysms is not clear. Here, we present for the first time that the downregulation of YAP in VSMCs is associated with ECM disorders of the media in ascending aortic aneurysms. We found that aortic ECM deteriorated with increased apoptotic VSMCs. Moreover, expression of YAP was dramatically reduced in the aortic walls of patients with ascending aortic aneurysms, while the normal aortic samples exhibited abundant YAP in the VSMCs. These results suggest that downregulation of YAP leads to apoptosis of VSMCs, which are essential for the homeostasis of the aortic wall. The resultant ECM disorders affect aortic structure and function and contribute to the development of ascending aortic aneurysms. In summary, through assessment of clinical samples, we revealed the association between downregulation of YAP in VSMCs and the development of ascending aortic aneurysms, providing new insight into the pathogenesis of this disease. PMID:26904131

  3. Involvement of protein kinase C in phagocytosis of human retinal pigment epithelial cells and induction of matrix metalloproteinase secretion.

    PubMed

    Irschick, Eveline U; Haas, Gertrud; Troger, Josef; Ueberall, Florian; Huemer, Hartwig P

    2009-10-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) is involved in cell activation. We investigated PKC-mediated pathways and secretion of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in phagocytosis by human retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE). We used time-resolved fluorometry for europium-labeled microsphere uptake and gel zymography to assay the influence of PKC modulators. PKC inhibitors blocked phagocytosis by RPE. ARPE-19, a human RPE-cell line, showed reduced secretion of MMP-2, although MMP-9 secretion by PKC activation was conserved in both cell types, namely in the primary RPEs and in the RPE-cell line. Particle uptake by RPE cells requires activation of PKC; the use of PKC inhibitors as new anticancer drugs may possibly cause ocular side-effects. PMID:18641922

  4. Carbon nanospheres mediated delivery of nuclear matrix protein SMAR1 to direct experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Chemmannur, Sijo V; Bhagat, Prasad; Mirlekar, Bhalchandra; Paknikar, Kishore M; Chattopadhyay, Samit

    2016-01-01

    Owing to the suppression of immune responses and associated side effects, steroid based treatments for inflammatory encephalitis disease can be detrimental. Here, we demonstrate a novel carbon nanosphere (CNP) based treatment regime for encephalomyelitis in mice by exploiting the functional property of the nuclear matrix binding protein SMAR1. A truncated part of SMAR1 ie, the DNA binding domain was conjugated with hydrothermally synthesized CNPs. When administered intravenously, the conjugate suppressed experimental animal encephalomyelitis in T cell specific conditional SMAR1 knockout mice (SMAR−/−). Further, CNP-SMAR1 conjugate delayed the onset of the disease and reduced the demyelination significantly. There was a significant decrease in the production of IL-17 after re-stimulation with MOG. Altogether, our findings suggest a potential carbon nanomaterial based therapeutic intervention to combat Th17 mediated autoimmune diseases including experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. PMID:27274234

  5. Cloning and characterization of DNA complementary to the canine distemper virus mRNA encoding matrix, phosphoprotein, and nucleocapsid protein

    SciTech Connect

    Rozenblatt, S.; Eizenberg, O.; Englund, G.; Bellini, W.J.

    1985-02-01

    Double-stranded cDNA synthesized from total polyadenylate-containing mRNA, extracted from monkey kidney cells infected with canine distemper virus (CDV), has been cloned into the PstI site of Escherichia coli plasmid pBR322. Clones containing canine distemper virus DNA were identified by hybridization to a canine distemper virus-specific, /sup 32/P-labeled cDNA. Four specific clones containing different classes of sequences have been identified. The cloned plasmids contain inserts of 800 (clone 44-80), 960 (clone 74-16), 1700 (clone 364), and 950 (clone 40-9) base pairs. The sizes of the mRNA species complementary to these inserts are 1500, 1850, 1850 and 2500 nucleotides, respectively, as determined by the Northern technique. Three of the cloned DNA fragments were further identified as the reverse transcripts of the mRNA coding for the matrix, phosphoprotein, and nucleocapsid protein of CDV.

  6. Influence of prion strain on prion protein adsorption to soil in a competitive matrix.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Samuel E; Bartz, Jason C; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L

    2009-07-15

    It is likely that the soil environment serves as a stable reservoir of infectious chronic wasting disease (CWD) and scrapie prions, as well as a potential reservoir of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, or "mad cow" disease). Prion adsorption to soil may play an important role in prion mobility, proteolysis, and infectivity. Differences in PrP environmental fate are possible due to the strain- and species-dependent structure of PrP(Sc). Kinetic and isothermal studies of PrP adsorption to sand and two whole soils were conducted using HY and DY TME-infected hamster, uninfected hamster, and CWD-infected elk brain homogenates as competitive PrP sources. The role of the N-terminus in PrP adsorption was also investigated. We report strain and species differences in PrP adsorption to soil over time and as a function of aqueous concentration, indicating that the fate of prions in the environment may vary with the prion strain and species infected. Our data also provide evidence that the N-terminal region of PrP enhances adsorption to clay but may hinder adsorption to sand. PrP adsorption was maximal at an intermediate aqueous concentration, most likely due to the competitive brain homogenate matrix in which it enters the soil environment. PMID:19708348

  7. Extracellular matrix proteins expression profiling in chemoresistant variants of the A2780 ovarian cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Januchowski, Radosław; Zawierucha, Piotr; Ruciński, Marcin; Nowicki, Michał; Zabel, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death among gynaecological malignancies. Extracellular matrix (ECM) can affect drug resistance by preventing the penetration of the drug into cancer cells and increased resistance to apoptosis. This study demonstrates alterations in the expression levels of ECM components and related genes in cisplatin-, doxorubicin-, topotecan-, and paclitaxel-resistant variants of the A2780 ovarian cancer cell line. Affymetrix Gene Chip Human Genome Array Strips were used for hybridisations. The genes that had altered expression levels in drug-resistant sublines were selected and filtered by scatter plots. The genes that were up- or downregulated more than fivefold were selected and listed. Among the investigated genes, 28 genes were upregulated, 10 genes were downregulated, and two genes were down- or upregulated depending on the cell line. Between upregulated genes 12 were upregulated very significantly--over 20-fold. These genes included COL1A2, COL12A1, COL21A1, LOX, TGFBI, LAMB1, EFEMP1, GPC3, SDC2, MGP, MMP3, and TIMP3. Four genes were very significantly downregulated: COL11A1, LAMA2, GPC6, and LUM. The expression profiles of investigated genes provide a preliminary insight into the relationship between drug resistance and the expression of ECM components. Identifying correlations between investigated genes and drug resistance will require further analysis. PMID:24804215

  8. Extracellular Matrix Proteins Expression Profiling in Chemoresistant Variants of the A2780 Ovarian Cancer Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Januchowski, Radosław; Zawierucha, Piotr; Ruciński, Marcin; Nowicki, Michał; Zabel, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death among gynaecological malignancies. Extracellular matrix (ECM) can affect drug resistance by preventing the penetration of the drug into cancer cells and increased resistance to apoptosis. This study demonstrates alterations in the expression levels of ECM components and related genes in cisplatin-, doxorubicin-, topotecan-, and paclitaxel-resistant variants of the A2780 ovarian cancer cell line. Affymetrix Gene Chip Human Genome Array Strips were used for hybridisations. The genes that had altered expression levels in drug-resistant sublines were selected and filtered by scatter plots. The genes that were up- or downregulated more than fivefold were selected and listed. Among the investigated genes, 28 genes were upregulated, 10 genes were downregulated, and two genes were down- or upregulated depending on the cell line. Between upregulated genes 12 were upregulated very significantly—over 20-fold. These genes included COL1A2, COL12A1, COL21A1, LOX, TGFBI, LAMB1, EFEMP1, GPC3, SDC2, MGP, MMP3, and TIMP3. Four genes were very significantly downregulated: COL11A1, LAMA2, GPC6, and LUM. The expression profiles of investigated genes provide a preliminary insight into the relationship between drug resistance and the expression of ECM components. Identifying correlations between investigated genes and drug resistance will require further analysis. PMID:24804215

  9. Clinical significance of immunohistochemically detected extracellular matrix proteins and their spatial distribution in primary cancer.

    PubMed

    Čunderlíková, B

    2016-09-01

    Our understanding of cancer has evolved mainly from results of studies utilizing experimental models. Simplification inherent to in vitro cell culture models enabled potential ways of cell behaviour in response to various external stimuli to be described, but it has led also to disappointments in clinical trials, presumably due to the lack of crucial tissue components, including extracellular matrix (ECM). ECM and its role in healthy and diseased tissues are being explored extensively and significance of ECM for cell behaviour has been evidenced experimentally. Part of the information gathered in such research that is relevant for natural conditions of a human body can be identified by carefully designed analyses of human tissue samples. This review summarizes published information on clinical significance of ECM in cancer and examines whether effects of ECM on cell behaviour evidenced in vitro, could be supported by clinically based data acquired from analysis of tissue samples. Based on current approaches of clinical immunohistochemical analyses, impact of ECM components on tumour cell behaviour is vague. Except of traditionally considered limitations, other reasons may include lack of stratification of analyzed cases based on clinicopathologic parameters, inclusion of patients treated postoperatively by different treatments or neglecting complexity of interactions among tumour constituents. Nevertheless, reliable immunohistochemical studies represent a source of crucial information for design of tumour models comprising ECM corresponding to real clinical situation. Knowledge gathered from such immunohistochemical studies combined with achievements in tissue engineering hold promise for reversal of the unfavourable trends in the current translational oncologic research. PMID:27443915

  10. In vitro re-hardening of artificial enamel caries lesions using enamel matrix proteins or self-assembling peptides.

    PubMed

    Schmidlin, Patrick; Zobrist, Katja; Attin, Thomas; Wegehaupt, Florian

    2016-02-01

    Objectives To assess the re-hardening potential of enamel matrix derivatives (EMD) and self-assembling peptides in vitro, hypothesizing that these materials may increase the mineralization of artificial carious lesions and improve hardness profiles. Material and Methods Forty-eight enamel samples were prepared from extracted bovine lower central incisors. After embedding and polishing, nail varnish was applied, leaving a defined test area. One third of this area was covered with a flowable composite (non-demineralized control). The remaining area was demineralized in an acidic buffer solution for 18 d to simulate a carious lesion. Half the demineralized area was then covered with composite (demineralized control), while the last third was left open for three test and one control treatments: (A) Application of enamel-matrix proteins (EMD - lyophilized protein fractions dissolved in acetic acid, Straumann), (B) self-assembling peptides (SAP, Curodont), or (C) amine fluoride solution (Am-F, GABA) for 5 min each. Untreated samples (D) served as control. After treatment, samples were immersed in artificial saliva for four weeks (remineralization phase) and microhardness (Knoop) depth profiles (25-300 µm) were obtained at sections. Two-way ANOVA was calculated to determine differences between the areas (re-hardening or softening). Results Decalcification resulted in significant softening of the subsurface enamel in all groups (A-D). A significant re-hardening up to 125 µm was observed in the EMD and SAP groups. Conclusions This study showed that EMD and SAP were able to improve the hardness profiles when applied to deep demineralized artificial lesions. However, further research is needed to verify and improve this observed effect. PMID:27008255

  11. In vitro re-hardening of artificial enamel caries lesions using enamel matrix proteins or self-assembling peptides

    PubMed Central

    Schmidlin, Patrick; Zobrist, Katja; Attin, Thomas; Wegehaupt, Florian

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives To assess the re-hardening potential of enamel matrix derivatives (EMD) and self-assembling peptides in vitro, hypothesizing that these materials may increase the mineralization of artificial carious lesions and improve hardness profiles. Material and Methods Forty-eight enamel samples were prepared from extracted bovine lower central incisors. After embedding and polishing, nail varnish was applied, leaving a defined test area. One third of this area was covered with a flowable composite (non-demineralized control). The remaining area was demineralized in an acidic buffer solution for 18 d to simulate a carious lesion. Half the demineralized area was then covered with composite (demineralized control), while the last third was left open for three test and one control treatments: (A) Application of enamel-matrix proteins (EMD - lyophilized protein fractions dissolved in acetic acid, Straumann), (B) self-assembling peptides (SAP, Curodont), or (C) amine fluoride solution (Am-F, GABA) for 5 min each. Untreated samples (D) served as control. After treatment, samples were immersed in artificial saliva for four weeks (remineralization phase) and microhardness (Knoop) depth profiles (25-300 µm) were obtained at sections. Two-way ANOVA was calculated to determine differences between the areas (re-hardening or softening). Results Decalcification resulted in significant softening of the subsurface enamel in all groups (A-D). A significant re-hardening up to 125 µm was observed in the EMD and SAP groups. Conclusions This study showed that EMD and SAP were able to improve the hardness profiles when applied to deep demineralized artificial lesions. However, further research is needed to verify and improve this observed effect. PMID:27008255

  12. New Host Factors Important for Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Replication Revealed by a Novel Microfluidics Screen for Interactors of Matrix (M) Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Kipper, Sarit; Hamad, Samar; Caly, Leon; Avrahami, Dorit; Bacharach, Eran; Jans, David A.; Gerber, Doron; Bajorek, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Although human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia in infants and elderly worldwide, there is no licensed RSV vaccine or effective drug treatment available. The RSV Matrix protein plays key roles in virus life cycle, being found in the nucleus early in infection in a transcriptional inhibitory role, and later localizing in viral inclusion bodies before coordinating viral assembly and budding at the plasma membrane. In this study, we used a novel, high throughput microfluidics platform and custom human open reading frame library to identify novel host cell binding partners of RSV matrix. Novel interactors identified included proteins involved in host transcription regulation, the innate immunity response, cytoskeletal regulation, membrane remodeling, and cellular trafficking. A number of these interactions were confirmed by immunoprecipitation and cellular colocalization approaches. Importantly, the physiological significance of matrix interaction with the actin-binding protein cofilin 1, caveolae protein Caveolin 2, and the zinc finger protein ZNF502 was confirmed. siRNA knockdown of the host protein levels resulted in reduced RSV virus production in infected cells. These results have important implications for future antiviral strategies aimed at targets of RSV matrix in the host cell. PMID:25556234

  13. Expression of SPARC like protein 1 (SPARCL1), extracellular matrix-associated protein is down regulated in gastric adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jakharia, Aniruddha; Borkakoty, Biswajyoti

    2016-01-01

    Background SPARC-like protein 1 (SPARCL1/Hevin), a member of the SPARC family is defined by the presence of a highly acidic domain-I, a follistatin-like domain, and an extracellular calcium (EC) binding domain. SPARCL1 has been shown to be down-regulated in many types of cancer and may serve as a negative regulator of cell growth and proliferation. Methods Both tumor and adjacent normal tissue were collected from patients with gastric adenocarcinoma. Monoclonal antibody developed against recombinant SPARCL1 was used to analyze the expression of SPARCL1 by immunohisto chemical and western blotting (WB) analysis. Results The expression of SPARCL1 was found to be significantly lower or negligible in gastric adenocarcinoma tissues in nearly all of the cases in comparison with adjacent normal tissue. This comparison was found to be independent of the patient’s age, sex, and stage of cancer. Conclusions We postulate that down regulation of SPARCL1 may be related to inactivation of its tumor suppressor functions and might play an important role in the development of gastric adenocarcinoma. PMID:27034797

  14. Crystallized N-terminal domain of influenza virus matrix protein M1 and method of determining and using same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luo, Ming (Inventor); Sha, Bingdong (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The matrix protein, M1, of influenza virus strain A/PR/8/34 has been purified from virions and crystallized. The crystals consist of a stable fragment (18 Kd) of the M1 protein. X-ray diffraction studies indicated that the crystals have a space group of P3.sub.t 21 or P3.sub.2 21. Vm calculations showed that there are two monomers in an asymmetric unit. A crystallized N-terminal domain of M1, wherein the N-terminal domain of M1 is crystallized such that the three dimensional structure of the crystallized N-terminal domain of M1 can be determined to a resolution of about 2.1 .ANG. or better, and wherein the three dimensional structure of the uncrystallized N-terminal domain of M1 cannot be determined to a resolution of about 2.1 .ANG. or better. A method of purifying M1 and a method of crystallizing M1. A method of using the three-dimensional crystal structure of M1 to screen for antiviral, influenza virus treating or preventing compounds. A method of using the three-dimensional crystal structure of M1 to screen for improved binding to or inhibition of influenza virus M1. The use of the three-dimensional crystal structure of the M1 protein of influenza virus in the manufacture of an inhibitor of influenza virus M1. The use of the three-dimensional crystal structure of the M1 protein of influenza virus in the screening of candidates for inhibition of influenza virus M1.

  15. Structural Analysis of Influenza A Virus Matrix Protein M1 and Its Self-Assemblies at Low pH

    PubMed Central

    Shtykova, Eleonora V.; Baratova, Lyudmila A.; Fedorova, Natalia V.; Radyukhin, Victor A.; Ksenofontov, Alexander L.; Volkov, Vladimir V.; Shishkov, Alexander V.; Dolgov, Alexey A.; Shilova, Liudmila A.; Batishchev, Oleg V.; Jeffries, Cy M.; Svergun, Dmitri I.

    2013-01-01

    Influenza A virus matrix protein M1 is one of the most important and abundant proteins in the virus particles broadly involved in essential processes of the viral life cycle. The absence of high-resolution data on the full-length M1 makes the structural investigation of the intact protein particularly important. We employed synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), analytical ultracentrifugation and atomic force microscopy (AFM) to study the structure of M1 at acidic pH. The low-resolution structural models built from the SAXS data reveal a structurally anisotropic M1 molecule consisting of a compact NM-fragment and an extended and partially flexible C-terminal domain. The M1 monomers co-exist in solution with a small fraction of large clusters that have a layered architecture similar to that observed in the authentic influenza virions. AFM analysis on a lipid-like negatively charged surface reveals that M1 forms ordered stripes correlating well with the clusters observed by SAXS. The free NM-domain is monomeric in acidic solution with the overall structure similar to that observed in previously determined crystal structures. The NM-domain does not spontaneously self assemble supporting the key role of the C-terminus of M1 in the formation of supramolecular structures. Our results suggest that the flexibility of the C-terminus is an essential feature, which may be responsible for the multi-functionality of the entire protein. In particular, this flexibility could allow M1 to structurally organise the viral membrane to maintain the integrity and the shape of the intact influenza virus. PMID:24358182

  16. Lung fibrotic tenascin-C upregulation is associated with other extracellular matrix proteins and induced by TGFβ1

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive parenchymal lung disease of unknown aetiology and poor prognosis, characterized by altered tissue repair and fibrosis. The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a critical component in regulating cellular homeostasis and appropriate wound healing. The aim of our study was to determine the expression profile of highlighted ECM proteins in IPF lungs. Methods ECM gene and protein expression was analyzed by cDNA microarrays, rt-PCR, immunohistochemistry and western-blot in lungs from idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP), categorized as chronic (cHP) and subacute (saHP), and healthy lung tissue. Primary fibroblast cultures from normal subjects and fibrotic patients were studied to evaluate tenascin-C (TNC) synthesis. Results A total of 20 ECM proteins were upregulated and 6 proteins downregulated in IPF. TNC was almost undetected in normal lungs and significantly upregulated in fibrotic lungs (IPF and cHP) compared to saHP. Furthermore, it was located specifically in the fibroblastic foci areas of the fibrotic lung with a subepithelial gradient pattern. TNC levels were correlated with fibroblastic foci content in cHP lungs. Versican and fibronectin glycoproteins were associated with TNC, mainly in fibroblastic foci of fibrotic lungs. Fibroblasts from IPF patients constitutively synthesized higher levels of TNC than normal fibroblasts. TNC and α-sma was induced by TGF-β1 in both fibrotic and normal fibroblasts. TNC treatment of normal and fibrotic fibroblasts induced a non-significant increased α-sma mRNA. Conclusions The difference in ECM glycoprotein content in interstitial lung diseases could contribute to the development of lung fibrosis. The increase of TNC in interstitial areas of fibrotic activity could play a key role in the altered wound healing. PMID:25064447

  17. Effects of estradiol on reduction of osteoarthritis in rabbits through effect on matrix metalloproteinase proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weiguo; Wang, Lin; Xu, Zhanwang; Yin, Yanxia; Su, Jun; Niu, Xiufeng; Cao, Xuecheng

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Osteoarthritis (OA), as a known degenerative joint disease, is the most common form of arthritis. In this study, we aimed to elucidate unclear pathogenesis of OA. Materials and Methods: Rabbit models of OA were established by the transection of the anterior cruciate ligament. Rabbits were randomly divided into three equal groups: the experimental group (OA modeling, treated with estradiol), the control group (OA modeling, treated with normal saline) and the normal group (without OA modeling). The glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and hyaluronan (HA) content of knee joint were collected and assayed. In addition, gene expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, MMP-13 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 were evaluated by real-time PCR and Western blot analysis. Results: Animal models were developed successfully. GAG and HA concentrations were significantly increased in the experimental and the normal group compared with the control group (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively). Significant increase of GAG level in 6, 9 and 12 week-samples were found in the experimental group compared with the control group (P<0.01). The expression level of MMP-1 and MMP-13 in the experimental group were lower than the control group (P<0.01), but still higher than those of the normal group (P<0.01). TIMP-1 expression level was found to be higher in the experimental group than that of the control and normal group (P<0.01). Conclusion: The results suggested the possible role of estradiol in the pathological process of OA via its effect on the MMPs. The results also implied the effect of estradiol intervention on OA. PMID:27114801

  18. Fixed charges in the gel matrix of sensor chips and dissociation in diffusion gradients influence the detection of fast protein-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Glaser, Ralf W; Schönherr, Roland; Heinemann, Stefan H

    2014-02-01

    In molecular interaction studies based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) measurements, the ligand is often immobilized in a thin carboxydextran gel matrix. Here we investigated the influence of the charged gel on the results of such SPR measurements. At physiological ionic strength, analytes with a net charge of more than about 5 are considerably enriched or depleted due to the Donnan potential under commonly applied experimental conditions. Below physiological ionic strength, enrichment was found to be even stronger than predicted by Donnan theory. The influence of the gel matrix on the apparent binding is prevented in competition experiments, in which SPR measurements are only used to discriminate between free and complexed analyte while the interaction between analyte and ligand is studied in solution. However, if the analyte-ligand interaction is very fast, thermodynamic equilibrium is disturbed near the interface where free analyte binds to the immobilized ligand due to mass transport limitation. Consequently, the soluble analyte-ligand complex dissociates, which results in an overestimation of free analyte. In experiments of calmodulin binding to fragments of the KCNH1 ion channel protein this mass-transport-induced dissociation led to a systematic underestimation of the affinity. We conclude that the insufficient discrimination between the true analyte-ligand binding and the complex interactions of the analyte with the gel phase may result in systematic errors. The theoretical framework for recognizing and avoiding such errors is provided. PMID:24342363

  19. Magnetic susceptibility tensor anisotropies for a lanthanide ion series in a fixed protein matrix.

    PubMed

    Bertini, I; Janik, M B; Lee, Y M; Luchinat, C; Rosato, A

    2001-05-01

    The full series of lanthanide ions (except the radioactive promethium and the S-state gadolinium) has been incorporated into the C-terminal calcium binding site of the dicalcium protein calbindin D(9k). A fairly constant coordination environment is maintained throughout the series. At variance with several lanthanide complexes with small chelating ligands investigated in the past, the large protein moiety provides a large number of NMR signals whose hyperfine shifts can be exclusively ascribed to pseudocontact shifts (PCS). The chemical shifts of 1H and 15N backbone and side chain amide NH groups were accurately measured through HSQC experiments. 1097 PCS were estimated from these by subtracting the diamagnetic contributions measured on HSQC spectra of either the 4f(0) lanthanum(III) or the 4f(14) lutetium(III) derivatives and used to define a quality factor for the structure. The differences in diamagnetic chemical shifts between the two diamagnetic blanks were relatively small, although some were not negligible especially for the nuclei closest to the metal center. These differences were used as a tolerance for the PCS. The magnetic susceptibility tensor anisotropies for each paramagnetic lanthanide ion were obtained as the result of the solution structure determination performed by using the NOEs of the cerium(III) derivative and the PCS of all lanthanides simultaneously. This set of reliable magnetic data permits an experimental assessment of Bleaney's theory relative to the magnetic properties for an extended series of lanthanide complexes in solution. All of the obtained tensors show some rhombicity, as could be expected from the lack of symmetry of the protein environment. The directions of the largest magnetic susceptibility component for Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Tb, Dy, and Ho and of the smallest magnetic susceptibility component for Eu, Er, Tm, and Yb were found to be all within 15 degrees from their average (within 20 degrees for Sm), confirming the essential

  20. Engineering of Self-Assembled Fibronectin Matrix Protein and Its Effects on Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Ye-Rang; Pham, Le B. Hang; Yoo, Yie-Ri; Lee, Sujin; Kim, Hae-Won; Jang, Jun-Hyeog

    2015-01-01

    Fibronectin (FN) contributes to cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation in various cell types. To enhance the activity of fibronectin at the sites of focal adhesion, we engineered a novel recombinant fibronectin (FNIII10) fragment connected to the peptide amphiphile sequence (PA), LLLLLLCCCGGDS. In this study, the effects of FNIII10-PA on rat mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs) were compared with those of FNIII10. FNIII10-PA showed the prominent protein adhesion activity. In addition, FNIII10-PA showed a significantly higher effect on adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation of rMSCs than FNIII10. Taken together, the FNIII10-containing self-assembled sequence enhanced rMSCs adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. PMID:26295389

  1. Enamel matrix proteins exhibit growth factor activity: A review of evidence at the cellular and molecular levels

    PubMed Central

    WYGANOWSKA-ŚWIĄTKOWSKA, MARZENA; URBANIAK, PAULINA; NOHAWICA, MICHAŁ MAREK; KOTWICKA, MAŁGORZATA; JANKUN, JERZY

    2015-01-01

    Enamel matrix derivative (EMD) is a commercially available protein extract, mainly comprising amelogenins. A number of other polypeptides have been identified in EMD, mostly growth factors, which promote cementogenesis and osteogenesis during the regeneration processes through the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation and activity; however, not all of their functions are clear. Enamel extracts have been proposed to have numerous activities such as bone morphogenetic protein- and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β)-like activity, and activities similar to those of insulin-like growth factor, fibroblast growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor and epidermal growth factor. These activities have been observed at the molecular and cellular levels and in numerous animal models. Furthermore, it has been suggested that EMD contains an unidentified biologically active factor that acts in combination with TGF-β1, and several studies have reported functional similarities between growth factors and TGF-β in cellular processes. The effects of enamel extracts on the cell cycle and biology are summarized and discussed in this review. PMID:26161150

  2. Expression of cytoskeletal and matrix genes following exposure to ionizing radiation: Dose-rate effects and protein synthesis requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Woloschak, G.E. |; Felcher, P.; Chang-Liu, Chin-Mei

    1993-12-31

    Experiments were designed to examine the effects of radiation dose-rate and of the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide on expression of cytoskeletal elements ({gamma}- and {beta}-actin and {alpha}-tubulin) and matrix elements (fibronectin) in Syrian hamster embryo cells. Results demonstrated little effect of dose-rate for JANUS fission-spectrum neutrons when comparing expression of either a-tubulin or fibronectin genes. Past work had already documented similar results for expression of actin transcripts. Cycloheximide, however, repressed accumulation of {alpha}-tubulin following exposure to high dose-rate neutrons or {gamma} rays; this did not occur following similar low dose-rate exposures. Cycloheximide did not affect accumulation of mRNA for actin genes. Cycloheximide abrogated the moderate induction of fibronectin-mRNA which occurred following exposure to {gamma} rays and high dose-rate neutrons. These results suggest a role for labile proteins in the maintenance of {alpha}-tubulin and fibronectin mRNA accumulation following exposure to ionizing radiation and that the cellular/molecular response to low dose-rate neutrons may be different from the response to high dose-rate neutrons.

  3. Expression of cytoskeletal and matrix genes following exposure to ionizing radiation: Dose-rate effects and protein synthesis requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Woloschak, G.E. |; Felcher, P.; Chang-Liu, Chin-Mei

    1992-12-31

    Experiments were designed to examine the effects of radiation dose-rate and of the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide on expression of cytoskeletal elements ({gamma}- and {beta}-actin and {alpha}-tubulin) and matrix elements (fibronectin) in Syrian hamster embryo cells. Past work from our laboratory had already demonstrated optimum time points and doses for examination of radiation effects on accumulation of specific transcripts. Our results here demonstrated little effect of dose-rate for JANUS fission spectrum neutrons when comparing expression of either {alpha}-tubulin or fibronectin genes. Past work had already documented similar results for expression of actin transcripts. Effects of cycloheximide, however, revealed several interesting and novel findings: (1) Cycloheximide repressed accumulation of {alpha}-tubulin following exposure to high dose-rate neutrons or {gamma} rays; this did not occur following similar low dose-rate exposure (2) Cycloheximide did not affect accumulation of mRNA for actin genes. Cycloheximide abrogated the moderate induction of fibronectin-mRNA which occurred following exposure to {gamma} rays and high dose-rate neutrons. These results suggest a role for labile proteins in the maintenance of {alpha}-tubulin and fibronectin mRNA accumulation following exposure to ionizing radiation. In addition, they suggest that the cellular/molecular response to low dose-rate neutrons may be different from the response to high dose-rate neutrons.

  4. Preparation and rebinding properties of protein-imprinted polysiloxane using mesoporous calcium silicate grafted non-woven polypropylene as matrix.

    PubMed

    Kan, Bohong; Feng, Lingzhi; Zhao, Kongyin; Wei, Junfu; Zhu, Dunwan; Zhang, Linhua; Ren, Qian

    2016-03-01

    Calcium silicate particle containing mesoporous SiO2 (CaSiO3@SiO2) was grafted on the surface of non-woven polypropylene. The PP non-woven grafted calcium silicate containing mesoporous SiO2 (PP-g-CaSiO3@SiO2) was used as the matrix to prepare bovine serum albumin (BSA) molecularly imprinted polysiloxane (MIP) by using silanes as the functional monomers and BSA as the template. PP non-woven grafted BSA-imprinted polysiloxane (PP-g-CaSiO3@SiO2 MIP) was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectometry (FTIR) and drilling string compensator (DSC). Influence factors on the rebinding capacity of the MIP were investigated, such as grafting degree, the pH in treating CaSiO3 and the type and proportion of silanes. The rebinding properties of BSA on PP-g-CaSiO3@SiO2 and MIP were investigated under different conditions. The results indicated that the rebinding capacity of MIP for BSA reached 56.32 mg/g, which was 2.65 times of NIP. The non-woven polypropylene grafted BSA-imprinted polysiloxane could recognize the template protein and the selectivity factor (β) was above 2.4 when using ovalbumin, hemoglobin and γ-globulin as control proteins. The PP-g-CaSiO3@SiO2 MIP has favorable reusability. PMID:25726930

  5. Sestrin 2 and AMPK Connect Hyperglycemia to Nox4-Dependent Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Uncoupling and Matrix Protein Expression

    PubMed Central

    Eid, Assaad A.; Lee, Doug-Yoon; Roman, Linda J.; Khazim, Khaled

    2013-01-01

    Mesangial matrix accumulation is an early feature of glomerular pathology in diabetes. Oxidative stress plays a critical role in hyperglycemia-induced glomerular injury. Here, we demonstrate that, in glomerular mesangial cells (MCs), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is uncoupled upon exposure to high glucose (HG), with enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decreased production of nitric oxide. Peroxynitrite mediates the effects of HG on eNOS dysfunction. HG upregulates Nox4 protein, and inhibition of Nox4 abrogates the increase in ROS and peroxynitrite generation, as well as the eNOS uncoupling triggered by HG, demonstrating that Nox4 functions upstream from eNOS. Importantly, this pathway contributes to HG-induced MC fibronectin accumulation. Nox4-mediated eNOS dysfunction was confirmed in glomeruli of a rat model of type 1 diabetes. Sestrin 2-dependent AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation attenuates HG-induced MC fibronectin synthesis through blockade of Nox4-dependent ROS and peroxynitrite generation, with subsequent eNOS uncoupling. We also find that HG negatively regulates sestrin 2 and AMPK, thereby promoting Nox4-mediated eNOS dysfunction and increased fibronectin. These data identify a protective function for sestrin 2/AMPK and potential targets for intervention to prevent fibrotic injury in diabetes. PMID:23816887

  6. Peptide-presenting two-dimensional protein matrix on supported lipid bilayers: an efficient platform for cell adhesion.

    PubMed

    Bérat, Rémi; Rémy-Zolghadry, Murielle; Gounou, Céline; Manigand, Claude; Tan, Sisareuth; Saltó, Carmen; Arenas, Ernest; Bordenave, Laurence; Brisson, Alain R

    2007-12-01

    Understanding and controlling cell adhesion to biomaterials and synthetic materials are important issues in basic research and applied sciences. Supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) functionalized with cell adhesion peptides linked to lipid molecules are popular platforms of cell adhesion. In this paper, an alternative approach of peptide presentation is presented in which peptides are stereo-selectively linked to proteins self-assembling in a rigid two-dimensional (2D) matrix on SLBs. Annexin-A5 (Anx5) was used as prototype protein for its known properties of forming stable and rigid 2D matrices on lipid surfaces. Two types of Anx5-peptide complexes, containing either a RGD or an IKVAV sequence, were synthesized. The authors show that both Anx5-peptide complexes present the same properties of binding and 2D organization on lipid surfaces as Anx5, when investigated by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring, atomic force microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy techniques. Anx5-RGD and Anx5-IKVAV 2D matrices were found to promote specific adhesion of human saphenous vein endothelial cells and mouse embryonic stem cells, respectively. The influence of the surface density of exposed peptides on cell adhesion was investigated, showing that cells attach to Anx5-peptide matrices when the average distance between peptides is smaller than about 60 nm. This cell adhesion platform provides control of the orientation and density of cell ligands, opening interesting possibilities for future applications. PMID:20408654

  7. Deficiency of the protein-tyrosine phosphatase DEP-1/PTPRJ promotes matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression in meningioma cells.

    PubMed

    Petermann, Astrid; Stampnik, Yvonn; Cui, Yan; Morrison, Helen; Pachow, Doreen; Kliese, Nadine; Mawrin, Christian; Böhmer, Frank-D

    2015-05-01

    Brain-invasive growth of a subset of meningiomas is associated with less favorable prognosis. The molecular mechanisms causing invasiveness are only partially understood, however, the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) has been identified as a contributing factor. We have previously found that loss of density enhanced phosphatase-1 (DEP-1, also designated PTPRJ), a transmembrane protein-tyrosine phosphatase, promotes meningioma cell motility and invasive growth in an orthotopic xenotransplantation model. We have now analyzed potential alterations of the expression of genes involved in motility control, caused by DEP-1 loss in meningioma cell lines. DEP-1 depleted cells exhibited increased expression of mRNA encoding MMP-9, and the growth factors EGF and FGF-2. The increase of MMP-9 expression in DEP-1 depleted cells was also readily detectable at the protein level by zymography. MMP-9 upregulation was sensitive to chemical inhibitors of growth factor signal transduction. Conversely, MMP-9 mRNA levels could be stimulated with growth factors (e.g. EGF) and inflammatory cytokines (e.g. TNFα). Increase of MMP-9 expression by DEP-1 depletion, or growth factor/cytokine stimulation qualitatively correlated with increased invasiveness in vitro scored as transmigration through matrigel-coated membranes. The studies suggest induction of MMP-9 expression promoted by DEP-1 deficiency, or potentially by growth factors and inflammatory cytokines, as a mechanism contributing to meningioma brain invasiveness. PMID:25672645

  8. Expression of cytoskeletal and matrix genes following exposure to ionizing radiation: Dose-rate effects and protein synthesis requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Woloschak, G.E. |; Felcher, P.; Chang-Liu, Chin-Mei

    1994-05-01

    Experiments were designed to examine the effects Of radiation dose-rate and of the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide on expression of cytoskeletal elements ({gamma}- and {beta}-actin and {alpha}-tubulin) and matrix elements (fibronectin) in Syrian hamster embryo cells. Past work from our laboratory had already demonstrated optimum time points and doses for examination of radiation effects on accumulation of specific transcripts. Our results here demonstrated little effect of dose-rate for JANUS fission spectrum neutrons when comparing expression of either {alpha}-tubulin or fibronectin genes. Past work had already documented similar results for expression of actin transcripts. Effects of cycloheximide revealed that cycloheximide repressed accumulation of {alpha}-tubulin following exposure to high dose-rate neutrons or {gamma} rays; this did not occur following similar low dose-rate exposure. (2) Cycloheximide did not affect accumulation of MRNA for actin genes; and that cycloheximide abrogated the moderate induction of fibronectin-mRNA which occurred following exposure to {gamma} rays and high dose-rate neutrons. These results suggest a role for labile proteins in the maintenance of {alpha}-tubulin and fibronectin MRNA accumulation following exposure to ionizing radiation. in addition, they suggest that the cellular/molecular response to low dose-rate neutrons may be different from the response to high dose-rate neutrons.

  9. Production of H5N1 Influenza Virus Matrix Protein 2 Ectodomain Protein Bodies in Tobacco Plants and in Insect Cells as a Candidate Universal Influenza Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Mbewana, Sandiswa; Mortimer, Elizabeth; Pêra, Francisco F. P. G.; Hitzeroth, Inga Isabel; Rybicki, Edward P.

    2015-01-01

    The spread of influenza A viruses is partially controlled and prevented by vaccination. The matrix protein 2 ectodomain (M2e) is the most conserved sequence in influenza A viruses, and is therefore a good potential target for a vaccine to protect against multiple virus subtypes. We explored the feasibility of an M2e-based universal influenza A vaccine candidate based on the highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus, H5N1. A synthetic M2e gene was human- and plant-codon optimized and fused in-frame with a sequence encoding the N-terminal proline-rich domain (Zera®) of the γ-zein protein of maize. Zera®M2e was expressed transiently in Nicotiana benthamiana and Sf21 baculovirus/insect cell expression systems, and Zera®M2e protein bodies (PBs) were successfully produced in both expression systems. The plant-produced Zera®M2e PBs were purified and injected into Balb/c mice. Western blot analysis using insect cell-produced Zera®M2e PBs and multiple tandem M2e sequences (5xM2e) fused with the avian influenza H5N1 transmembrane and cytosolic tail (5xM2e_tHA) confirmed the presence of M2e-specific antibodies in immunized mice sera. The immunogenicity of the Zera®M2e indicates that our plant-produced protein has potential as an inexpensive universal influenza A vaccine. PMID:26697423

  10. Production of H5N1 Influenza Virus Matrix Protein 2 Ectodomain Protein Bodies in Tobacco Plants and in Insect Cells as a Candidate Universal Influenza Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Mbewana, Sandiswa; Mortimer, Elizabeth; Pêra, Francisco F P G; Hitzeroth, Inga Isabel; Rybicki, Edward P

    2015-01-01

    The spread of influenza A viruses is partially controlled and prevented by vaccination. The matrix protein 2 ectodomain (M2e) is the most conserved sequence in influenza A viruses, and is therefore a good potential target for a vaccine to protect against multiple virus subtypes. We explored the feasibility of an M2e-based universal influenza A vaccine candidate based on the highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus, H5N1. A synthetic M2e gene was human- and plant-codon optimized and fused in-frame with a sequence encoding the N-terminal proline-rich domain (Zera(®)) of the γ-zein protein of maize. Zera(®)M2e was expressed transiently in Nicotiana benthamiana and Sf21 baculovirus/insect cell expression systems, and Zera(®)M2e protein bodies (PBs) were successfully produced in both expression systems. The plant-produced Zera(®)M2e PBs were purified and injected into Balb/c mice. Western blot analysis using insect cell-produced Zera(®)M2e PBs and multiple tandem M2e sequences (5xM2e) fused with the avian influenza H5N1 transmembrane and cytosolic tail (5xM2e_tHA) confirmed the presence of M2e-specific antibodies in immunized mice sera. The immunogenicity of the Zera(®)M2e indicates that our plant-produced protein has potential as an inexpensive universal influenza A vaccine. PMID:26697423

  11. AHM1, a novel type of nuclear matrix-localized, MAR binding protein with a single AT hook and a J domain-homologous region.

    PubMed

    Morisawa, G; Han-Yama, A; Moda, I; Tamai, A; Iwabuchi, M; Meshi, T

    2000-10-01

    Interactions between the nuclear matrix and special regions of chromosomal DNA called matrix attachment regions (MARs) have been implicated in various nuclear functions. We have identified a novel protein from wheat, AT hook-containing MAR binding protein1 (AHM1), that binds preferentially to MARs. A multidomain protein, AHM1 has the special combination of a J domain-homologous region and a Zn finger-like motif (a J-Z array) and an AT hook. For MAR binding, the AT hook at the C terminus was essential, and an internal portion containing the Zn finger-like motif was additionally required in vivo. AHM1 was found in the nuclear matrix fraction and was localized in the nucleoplasm. AHM1 fused to green fluorescent protein had a speckled distribution pattern inside the nucleus. AHM1 is most likely a nuclear matrix component that functions between intranuclear framework and MARs. J-Z arrays can be found in a group of (hypothetical) proteins in plants, which may share some functions, presumably to recruit specific Hsp70 partners as co-chaperones. PMID:11041885

  12. (E)-Propyl α-Cyano-4-Hydroxyl Cinnamylate: A High Sensitive and Salt Tolerant Matrix for Intact Protein Profiling by MALDI Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Sheng; Xiao, Zhaohui; Xiao, Chunsheng; Wang, Huixin; Wang, Bing; Li, Ying; Chen, Xuesi; Guo, Xinhua

    2016-04-01

    Low-abundance samples and salt interference are always of great challenges for the practical protein profiling by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). Herein, a series of carboxyl-esterified derivatives of α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA) were synthesized and evaluated as matrices for MALDI-MS analysis of protein. Among them, (E)-propyl α-cyano-4-hydroxyl cinnamylate (CHCA-C3) was found to exhibit excellent assay performance for intact proteins by improving the detection sensitivity 10 folds compared with the traditional matrices [i.e., super2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (superDHB), sinapic acid (SA), and CHCA]. In addition, CHCA-C3 was shown to have high tolerance to salts, the ion signal of myoglobin was readily detected even in the presence of urea (8 M), NH4HCO3 (2 M), and KH2PO4 (500 mM), meanwhile sample washability was robust. These achievements were mainly attributed to improved ablation ability and increased hydrophobicity or affinity of CHCA-C3 to proteins in comparison with hydrophilic matrixes, leading to more efficient ionization of analyte. Furthermore, direct analysis of proteins from crude egg white demonstrated that CHCA-C3 was a highly efficient matrix for the analysis of low-abundance proteins in complex biological samples. These outstanding performances indicate the tremendous potential use of CHCA-C3 in protein profiling by MALDI-MS.

  13. Role of Solvent on Protein-Matrix Coupling in MbCO Embedded in Water-Saccharide Systems: A Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy Study

    PubMed Central

    Giuffrida, Sergio; Cottone, Grazia; Cordone, Lorenzo

    2006-01-01

    Embedding protein in sugar systems of low water content enables one to investigate the protein dynamic-structure function in matrixes whose rigidity is modulated by varying the content of residual water. Accordingly, studying the dynamics and structure thermal evolution of a protein in sugar systems of different hydration constitutes a tool for disentangling solvent rigidity from temperature effects. Furthermore, studies performed using different sugars may give information on how the detailed composition of the surrounding solvent affects the internal protein dynamics and structural evolution. In this work, we compare Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurements (300–20 K) on MbCO embedded in trehalose, sucrose, maltose, raffinose, and glucose matrixes of different water content. At all the water contents investigated, the protein-solvent coupling was tighter in trehalose than in the other sugars, thus suggesting a molecular basis for the trehalose peculiarity. These results are in line with the observation that protein-matrix phase separation takes place in lysozyme-lactose, whereas it is absent in lysozyme-trehalose systems; indeed, these behaviors may respectively be due to the lack or presence of suitable water-mediated hydrogen-bond networks, which match the protein surface to the surroundings. The above processes might be at the basis of pattern recognition in crowded living systems; indeed, hydration shells structural and dynamic matching is first needed for successful come together of interacting biomolecules. PMID:16714349

  14. The Force Exerted by the Membrane Potential During Protein Import into the Mitochondrial Matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shariff, Karim; Ghosal, Sandip; Matouschek, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    The electrostatic force exerted on a targeting sequence by the electrical potential across the inner mitochondrial membrane is calculated and found to vary from 1.4 pN to 2.2 pN (per unit elementary charge) as the radius of the inner membrane pore (assumed aqueous) is varied from 12 to 6.5 Angstroms, its measured range. Since the pore is not very much wider than the distance between water molecules, the full shielding effect of water may not be present; the extreme case of a nonaqueous pore gives a force of 3.1 pN per unit charge, which represents an upper limit. When applied to mitochondrial import experiments on the protein harness, these results imply that a force of 11 plus or minus 4 pN is sufficient to catalyze the unfolding of harness during import. Comparison of these results with unfolding forces measured using atomic force microscopy suggests that the two are not inconsistent.

  15. The force exerted by the membrane potential during protein import into the mitochondrial matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shariff, Karim; Ghosal, Sandip; Matouschek, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    The force exerted on a targeting sequence by the electrical potential across the inner mitochondrial membrane is calculated on the basis of continuum electrostatics. The force is found to vary from 3.0 pN to 2.2 pN (per unit elementary charge) as the radius of the inner membrane pore (assumed aqueous) is varied from 6.5 to 12 A, its measured range. In the present model, the decrease in force with increasing pore width arises from the shielding effect of water. Since the pore is not very much wider than the distance between water molecules, the full shielding effect of water may not be present; the extreme case of a purely membranous pore without water gives a force of 3.2 pN per unit charge, which should represent an upper limit. When applied to mitochondrial import experiments on the protein barnase, these results imply that forces between 11 +/- 2 pN and 13.5 +/- 2.5 pN catalyze the unfolding of barnase in those experiments. A comparison of these results with unfolding forces measured using atomic force microscopy is made.

  16. The feelgood mutation in zebrafish dysregulates COPII-dependent secretion of select extracellular matrix proteins in skeletal morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Melville, David B.; Montero-Balaguer, Mercedes; Levic, Daniel S.; Bradley, Kevin; Smith, Jeffrey R.; Hatzopoulos, Antonis K.; Knapik, Ela W.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Craniofacial and skeletal dysmorphologies account for the majority of birth defects. A number of the disease phenotypes have been attributed to abnormal synthesis, maintenance and composition of extracellular matrix (ECM), yet the molecular and cellular mechanisms causing these ECM defects remain poorly understood. The zebrafish feelgood mutant manifests a severely malformed head skeleton and shortened body length due to defects in the maturation stage of chondrocyte development. In vivo analyses reveal a backlog of type II and type IV collagens in rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) similar to those found in coat protein II complex (COPII)-deficient cells. The feelgood mutation hinders collagen deposition in the ECM, but trafficking of small cargos and other large ECM proteins such as laminin to the extracellular space is unaffected. We demonstrate that the zebrafish feelgood mutation causes a single amino acid substitution within the DNA-binding domain of transcription factor Creb3l2. We show that Creb3l2 selectively regulates the expression of genes encoding distinct COPII proteins (sec23a, sec23b and sec24d) but find no evidence for its regulation of sec24c expression. Moreover, we did not detect activation of ER stress response genes despite intracellular accumulation of collagen and prominent skeletal defects. Promoter trans-activation assays show that the Creb3l2 feelgood variant is a hypomorphic allele that retains approximately 50% of its transcriptional activity. Transgenic rescue experiments of the feelgood phenotype restore craniofacial development, illustrating that a precise level of Creb3l2 transcriptional activity is essential for skeletogenesis. Our results indicate that Creb3l2 modulates the availability of COPII machinery in a tissue- and cargo-specific manner. These findings could lead to a better understanding of the etiology of human craniofacial and skeletal birth defects as well as adult-onset diseases that are linked to dysregulated

  17. Effects of specific antisera targeting peritrophic matrix-associated proteins in the sand fly vector Phlebotomus papatasi.

    PubMed

    Malta, Juliana; Martins, Gustavo Ferreira; Weng, Ju-Lin; Fernandes, Kenner Morais; Munford, Maximiliano Luis; Ramalho-Ortigão, Marcelo

    2016-07-01

    In many hematophagous insects, the peritrophic matrix (PM) is formed soon after a blood meal (PBM) to compartmentalize the food bolus. The PM is an important component of vector competence, functioning as a barrier to the development of many pathogens including parasites of the genus Leishmania transmitted by sand flies. PM morphology and permeability are associated with the proteins that are part of the PM scaffolding, including several peritrophins, and chitin fibers. Here, we assessed the effects of specific antisera targeting proteins thought to be an integral part of the PM scaffolding and its process of maturation and degradation. Phlebotomus papatasi sand flies were fed with red blood cells reconstituted with antisera targeting the chitinase PpChit1, and the peritrophin PpPer2. Sand fly midguts were dissected at different time points and processed for light microscopy (LM), confocal and transmission electron (TEM) microscopies (24, 42-46, 48 and 72h PBM), scanning electron (SEM) (48h PBM) and atomic force (AFM) (30h PBM) microscopies. TEM and WGA-FITC staining indicate PM degradation was significantly delayed following feeding of flies on anti-PpChit1. AFM analysis at 30h PBM point to an increase in roughness' amplitude of the PM of flies that fed on either anti-PpChit1 or anti-PpPer2. Collective, our data suggest that antibodies targeting PM-associated proteins affects the kinetics of PM maturation, delaying its degradation and disruption and are potential targets on transmission-blocking vaccines strategies. PMID:27012717

  18. Pioglitazone inhibits the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9, a protein involved in diabetes-associated wound healing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Huang, Xiaoyuan; Wang, Lingfeng

    2014-08-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is a protein involved in diabetes-associated wound healing. The present study aimed to determine whether pioglitazone, an agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor‑γ (PPAR-γ), inhibits the expression of MMP-9. HaCaT cells at a density of 6x105 cells/well were seeded into 6-well plates in medium and were cultured for 24 h. The cells were then treated with bovine serum albumin (BSA) only or advanced glycation end‑product (AGE)-BSA (50, 100, 200, 300 or 400 µg/ml), with or without pioglitazone (0.5 or 1 µM). The effects of AGE-BSA on cell viability were determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. The levels of MMP-9 secreted into the medium were detected by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The mRNA and protein levels were analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and western blot analysis, respectively. AGEs are able to increase the level of MMP-9 mRNA in HaCaT cells and the levels of MMP-9 protein secreted into the medium. Pioglitazone (0.5 or 1 µΜ) significantly inhibited the levels of MMP-9 in the treated HaCaT cells. Pioglitazone (0.5 or 1 µΜ) also suppressed the levels of MMP-9 in the cell culture medium. Pioglitazone at concentrations of 0.5 and 1 µΜ significantly suppressed the levels of MMP-9 mRNA to 20 or 8%, respectively. These results suggest that pioglitazone is able to effectively suppress the expression of MMP-9 via a transcriptional mechanism. PMID:24890117

  19. Brain-type creatine kinase BB-CK interacts with the Golgi Matrix Protein GM130 in early prophase.

    PubMed

    Bürklen, Tanja S; Hirschy, Alain; Wallimann, Theo

    2007-03-01

    Creatine kinase (CK) isoenzymes are essential for storing, buffering and intracellular transport of "energy-rich" phosphate compounds in tissues with fluctuating high energy demand such as muscle, brain and other tissues and cells where CK is expressed. In brain and many non-muscle cells, ubiquitous cytosolic "brain-type" BB-CK and ubiquitous mitochondrial CK (uMtCK) act as components of a phosphocreatine shuttle to maintain cellular energy pools and distribute energy flux. To date, still relatively little is known about direct coupling of functional dimeric BB-CK with other partner proteins or enzymes that are important for cell function. Using a global yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) screen with monomeric B-CK as bait and a representative brain cDNA library to search for interaction partners of B-CK with proteins of the brain, we repeatedly identified the cis-Golgi Matrix protein (GM130) as recurrent interacting partner of B-CK. Since HeLa cells also express both BB-CK and GM130, we subsequently used this cellular model system to verify and characterize the BB-CK-GM130 complex by GST-pulldown experiments, as well as by in vivo co-localization studies with confocal microscopy. Using dividing HeLa cells, we report here for the first time that GM130 and BB-CK co-localize specifically in a transient fashion during early prophase of mitosis, when GM130 plays an important role in Golgi fragmentation that starts also at early prophase. These data may shed new light on BB-CK function for energy provision for Golgi-fragmentation that is initiated by cell signalling cascades in the early phases of mitosis. PMID:17036164

  20. Quantitative serology assays for determination of antibody responses to Ebola virus glycoprotein and matrix protein in nonhuman primates and humans.

    PubMed

    Vu, Hong; Shulenin, Sergey; Grolla, Allen; Audet, Jonathan; He, Shihua; Kobinger, Gary; Unfer, Robert C; Warfield, Kelly L; Aman, M Javad; Holtsberg, Frederick W

    2016-02-01

    The West Africa Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak has reached unprecedented magnitude and caused worldwide concerns for the spread of this deadly virus. Recent findings in nonhuman primates (NHPs) demonstrate that antibodies can be protective against EVD. However, the role of antibody response in vaccine-mediated protection is not fully understood. To address these questions quantitative serology assays are needed for measurement of the antibody response to key Ebola virus (EBOV) proteins. Serology enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA's), using a reference detection antibody, were developed in order to standardize the quantitation of antibody levels in vaccinated NHPs or in humans exposed to EBOV or immunized with an EBOV vaccine. Critical reagents were generated to support the development of the serology ELISAs. Recombinant EBOV matrix protein (VP40) was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Two variants of the glycoprotein (GP), the ectodomain lacking the transmembrane domain (GPΔTM), and an engineered GP lacking the mucin-like domain (GPΔmuc) were expressed and purified from mammalian cell systems. Using these proteins, three ELISA methods were developed and optimized for reproducibility and robustness, including stability testing of critical reagents. The assay was used to determine the antibody response against VP40, GPΔTM, and GPΔmuc in a NHP vaccine study using EBOV virus-like particles (VLP) vaccine expressing GP, VP40 and the nucleoprotein. Additionally, these ELISAs were used to successfully detect antibody responses to VP40, GPΔTM and GPΔmuc in human sera from EBOV infected individuals. PMID:26681387

  1. Engineering of supramolecular photoactive protein architectures: the defined co-assembly of photosystem I and cytochrome c using a nanoscaled DNA-matrix.

    PubMed

    Stieger, Kai R; Ciornii, Dmitri; Kölsch, Adrian; Hejazi, Mahdi; Lokstein, Heiko; Feifel, Sven C; Zouni, Athina; Lisdat, Fred

    2016-05-19

    The engineering of renewable and sustainable protein-based light-to-energy converting systems is an emerging field of research. Here, we report on the development of supramolecular light-harvesting electrodes, consisting of the redox protein cytochrome c working as a molecular scaffold as well as a conductive wiring network and photosystem I as a photo-functional matrix element. Both proteins form complexes in solution, which in turn can be adsorbed on thiol-modified gold electrodes through a self-assembly mechanism. To overcome the limited stability of self-grown assemblies, DNA, a natural polyelectrolyte, is used as a further building block for the construction of a photo-active 3D architecture. DNA acts as a structural matrix element holding larger protein amounts and thus remarkably improving the maximum photocurrent and electrode stability. On investigating the photophysical properties, this system demonstrates that effective electron pathways have been created. PMID:27150202

  2. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Reduces Extracellular Matrix-Associated Protein Expression in Human Uterine Fibroid Cells1

    PubMed Central

    Halder, Sunil K.; Osteen, Kevin G.; Al-Hendy, Ayman

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Uterine fibroids (leiomyomas) are the most common benign tumors associated with excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM)-associated proteins that increase fibroid tumorigenicity. Herein, we determined the expression levels of vitamin D receptor (VDR) protein in human uterine fibroids and compared these levels to those in adjacent normal myometrium. Using Western blot analysis, we found that more than 60% of uterine fibroids analyzed (25 of 40) expressed low levels of VDR. We also found that the biologically active 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25[OH]2D3), which functions via binding to its nuclear VDR, induced VDR in a concentration-dependent manner and reduced ECM-associated fibrotic and proteoglycans expression in immortalized human uterine fibroid cell line (HuLM). At 1–10 nM concentrations, 1,25(OH)2D3 significantly induced (P < 0.05) nuclear VDR, which was further stimulated by higher concentrations of 1,25(OH)2D3 in HuLM cells. 1,25(OH)2D3 at 10 nM also significantly reduced (P < 0.05) the protein expression of ECM-associated collagen type 1, fibronectin, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in HuLM cells. We also found that 1,25(OH)2D3 reduced mRNA and protein expressions of proteoglycans such as fibromodulin, biglycan, and versican in HuLM cells. Moreover, the aberrant expression of structural smooth muscle actin fibers was reduced by 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment in a concentration-dependent manner in HuLM cells. Taken together, our results suggest that human uterine fibroids express reduced levels of VDR compared to the adjacent normal myometrium and that treatment with 1,25(OH)2D3 can potentially reduce the aberrant expression of major ECM-associated proteins in HuLM cells. Thus, 1,25(OH)2D3 might be an effective, safe, nonsurgical treatment option for human uterine fibroids. PMID:24174578

  3. Influenza matrix protein 2 alters CFTR expression and function through its ion channel activity

    PubMed Central

    Londino, James D.; Lazrak, Ahmed; Jurkuvenaite, Asta; Collawn, James F.; Noah, James W.

    2013-01-01

    The human cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a cyclic AMP-activated chloride (Cl−) channel in the lung epithelium that helps regulate the thickness and composition of the lung epithelial lining fluid. We investigated whether influenza M2 protein, a pH-activated proton (H+) channel that traffics to the plasma membrane of infected cells, altered CFTR expression and function. M2 decreased CFTR activity in 1) Xenopus oocytes injected with human CFTR, 2) epithelial cells (HEK-293) stably transfected with CFTR, and 3) human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE14o−) expressing native CFTR. This inhibition was partially reversed by an inhibitor of the ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1. Next we investigated whether the M2 inhibition of CFTR activity was due to an increase of secretory organelle pH by M2. Incubation of Xenopus oocytes expressing CFTR with ammonium chloride or concanamycin A, two agents that alkalinize the secretory pathway, inhibited CFTR activity in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment of M2- and CFTR-expressing oocytes with the M2 ion channel inhibitor amantadine prevented the loss in CFTR expression and activity; in addition, M2 mutants, lacking the ability to transport H+, did not alter CFTR activity in Xenopus oocytes and HEK cells. Expression of an M2 mutant retained in the endoplasmic reticulum also failed to alter CFTR activity. In summary, our data show that M2 decreases CFTR activity by increasing secretory organelle pH, which targets CFTR for destruction by the ubiquitin system. Alteration of CFTR activity has important consequences for fluid regulation and may potentially modify the immune response to viral infection. PMID:23457187

  4. Molecular Interaction Studies of HIV-1 Matrix Protein p17 and Heparin

    PubMed Central

    Bugatti, Antonella; Giagulli, Cinzia; Urbinati, Chiara; Caccuri, Francesca; Chiodelli, Paola; Oreste, Pasqua; Fiorentini, Simona; Orro, Alessandro; Milanesi, Luciano; D'Ursi, Pasqualina; Caruso, Arnaldo; Rusnati, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Once released by HIV+ cells, p17 binds heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) and CXCR1 on leukocytes causing their dysfunction. By exploiting an approach integrating computational modeling, site-directed mutagenesis of p17, chemical desulfation of heparin, and surface plasmon resonance, we characterized the interaction of p17 with heparin, a HSPG structural analog, and CXCR1. p17 binds to heparin with an affinity (Kd = 190 nm) that is similar to those of other heparin-binding viral proteins. Two stretches of basic amino acids (basic motifs) are present in p17 N and C termini. Neutralization (Arg→Ala substitution) of the N-terminal, but not of the C-terminal basic motif, causes the loss of p17 heparin-binding capacity. The N-terminal heparin-binding motif of p17 partially overlaps the CXCR1-binding domain. Accordingly, its neutralization prevents also p17 binding to the chemochine receptor. Competition experiments demonstrated that free heparin and heparan sulfate (HS), but not selectively 2-O-, 6-O-, and N-O desulfated heparins, prevent p17 binding to substrate-immobilized heparin, indicating that the sulfate groups of the glycosaminoglycan mediate p17 interaction. Evaluation of the p17 antagonist activity of a panel of biotechnological heparins derived by chemical sulfation of the Escherichia coli K5 polysaccharide revealed that the highly N,O-sulfated derivative prevents the binding of p17 to both heparin and CXCR1, thus inhibiting p17-driven chemotactic migration of human monocytes with an efficiency that is higher than those of heparin and HS. Here, we characterized at a molecular level the interaction of p17 with its cellular receptors, laying the basis for the development of heparin-mimicking p17 antagonists. PMID:23166320

  5. Roles of mitogen activated protein kinases and EGF receptor in arsenite-stimulated matrix metalloproteinase-9 production

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, Karen L.; Myers, Terrance Alix; Rosenberg, Martina; Chavez, Miquella; Hudson, Laurie G. . E-mail: lghudson@unm.edu

    2004-11-01

    The dermatotoxicity of arsenic is well established and epidemiological studies identify an increased incidence of keratinocytic tumors (basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma) associated with arsenic exposure. Little is known about the underlying mechanisms of arsenic-mediated skin carcinogenesis, but activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases and subsequent regulation of downstream target genes may contribute to tumor promotion and progression. In this study, we investigated activation of the extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) and the stress-associated kinase p38 by arsenite in HaCat cells, a spontaneously immortalized human keratinocyte cell line. Arsenite concentrations {>=}100 {mu}M stimulate rapid activation of p38 and ERK MAP kinases. However, upon extended exposure (24 h), persistent stimulation of p38 and ERK MAP kinases was detected at low micromolar concentrations of arsenite. Although ERK and p38 were activated with similar time and concentration dependence, the mechanism of activation differed for these two MAP kinases. ERK activation by arsenite was fully dependent on the catalytic activity of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor and partially dependent on Src-family kinase activity. In contrast, p38 activation was independent of EGF receptor or Src-family kinase activity. Arsenite-stimulated MAP kinase signal transduction resulted in increased production of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, an AP-1 regulated gene product. MMP-9 induction by arsenite was prevented when EGF receptor or MAP kinase signaling was inhibited. These studies indicate that EGF receptor activation is a component of arsenite-mediated signal transduction and gene expression in keratinocytes and that low micromolar concentrations of arsenite stimulate key signaling pathways upon extended exposure. Stimulation of MAP kinase cascades by arsenic and subsequent regulation of genes including c-fos, c-jun, and the matrix degrading proteases may play an important

  6. Engineering of supramolecular photoactive protein architectures: the defined co-assembly of photosystem I and cytochrome c using a nanoscaled DNA-matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stieger, Kai R.; Ciornii, Dmitri; Kölsch, Adrian; Hejazi, Mahdi; Lokstein, Heiko; Feifel, Sven C.; Zouni, Athina; Lisdat, Fred

    2016-05-01

    The engineering of renewable and sustainable protein-based light-to-energy converting systems is an emerging field of research. Here, we report on the development of supramolecular light-harvesting electrodes, consisting of the redox protein cytochrome c working as a molecular scaffold as well as a conductive wiring network and photosystem I as a photo-functional matrix element. Both proteins form complexes in solution, which in turn can be adsorbed on thiol-modified gold electrodes through a self-assembly mechanism. To overcome the limited stability of self-grown assemblies, DNA, a natural polyelectrolyte, is used as a further building block for the construction of a photo-active 3D architecture. DNA acts as a structural matrix element holding larger protein amounts and thus remarkably improving the maximum photocurrent and electrode stability. On investigating the photophysical properties, this system demonstrates that effective electron pathways have been created.The engineering of renewable and sustainable protein-based light-to-energy converting systems is an emerging field of research. Here, we report on the development of supramolecular light-harvesting electrodes, consisting of the redox protein cytochrome c working as a molecular scaffold as well as a conductive wiring network and photosystem I as a photo-functional matrix element. Both proteins form complexes in solution, which in turn can be adsorbed on thiol-modified gold electrodes through a self-assembly mechanism. To overcome the limited stability of self-grown assemblies, DNA, a natural polyelectrolyte, is used as a further building block for the construction of a photo-active 3D architecture. DNA acts as a structural matrix element holding larger protein amounts and thus remarkably improving the maximum photocurrent and electrode stability. On investigating the photophysical properties, this system demonstrates that effective electron pathways have been created. Electronic supplementary information

  7. Preferential Budding of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus from the Basolateral Surface of Polarized Epithelial Cells Is Not Solely Directed by Matrix Protein or Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Drokhlyansky, Eugene; Soh, Timothy K.

    2015-01-01

    Vesicular stomatitis virus has been shown to bud basolaterally, and the matrix protein, but not glycoprotein, was proposed to mediate this asymmetry. Using polarized T84 monolayers, we demonstrate that no single viral protein is sufficient for polarized budding. Particles are released from the apical and basolateral surfaces and are indistinguishable, indicating that there is no apical assembly defect. We propose that aspects of host cell polarity create a more efficient budding process at the basolateral surface. PMID:26339064

  8. Peroxisomal Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases Peroxin2 and Peroxin10 Have Distinct But Synergistic Roles in Matrix Protein Import and Peroxin5 Retrotranslocation in Arabidopsis1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Burkhart, Sarah E.; Kao, Yun-Ting; Bartel, Bonnie

    2014-01-01

    Peroxisomal matrix proteins carry peroxisomal targeting signals (PTSs), PTS1 or PTS2, and are imported into the organelle with the assistance of peroxin (PEX) proteins. From a microscopy-based screen to identify Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants defective in matrix protein degradation, we isolated unique mutations in PEX2 and PEX10, which encode ubiquitin-protein ligases anchored in the peroxisomal membrane. In yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), PEX2, PEX10, and a third ligase, PEX12, ubiquitinate a peroxisome matrix protein receptor, PEX5, allowing the PEX1 and PEX6 ATP-hydrolyzing enzymes to retrotranslocate PEX5 out of the membrane after cargo delivery. We found that the pex2-1 and pex10-2 Arabidopsis mutants exhibited defects in peroxisomal physiology and matrix protein import. Moreover, the pex2-1 pex10-2 double mutant exhibited severely impaired growth and synergistic physiological defects, suggesting that PEX2 and PEX10 function cooperatively in the wild type. The pex2-1 lesion restored the unusually low PEX5 levels in the pex6-1 mutant, implicating PEX2 in PEX5 degradation when retrotranslocation is impaired. PEX5 overexpression altered pex10-2 but not pex2-1 defects, suggesting that PEX10 facilitates PEX5 retrotranslocation from the peroxisomal membrane. Although the pex2-1 pex10-2 double mutant displayed severe import defects of both PTS1 and PTS2 proteins into peroxisomes, both pex2-1 and pex10-2 single mutants exhibited clear import defects of PTS1 proteins but apparently normal PTS2 import. A similar PTS1-specific pattern was observed in the pex4-1 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme mutant. Our results indicate that Arabidopsis PEX2 and PEX10 cooperate to support import of matrix proteins into plant peroxisomes and suggest that some PTS2 import can still occur when PEX5 retrotranslocation is slowed. PMID:25214533

  9. Quantitative proteomics provides new insights into chicken eggshell matrix protein functions during the primary events of mineralisation and the active calcification phase.

    PubMed

    Marie, Pauline; Labas, Valérie; Brionne, Aurélien; Harichaux, Grégoire; Hennequet-Antier, Christelle; Rodriguez-Navarro, Alejandro B; Nys, Yves; Gautron, Joël

    2015-08-01

    Eggshell is a bioceramic composed of 95% calcium carbonate mineral and 3.5% organic matrix. Its structural organisation is controlled by its organic matrix. We have used quantitative proteomics to study four key stages of shell mineralisation: 1) widespread deposition of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC), 2) ACC transformation into crystalline calcite aggregates, 3) formation of larger calcite crystal units and 4) development of a columnar structure with preferential calcite crystal orientation. This approach explored the distribution of 216 shell matrix proteins found at the four stages. Variations in abundance according to these calcification events were observed for 175 proteins. A putative function related to the mineralisation process was predicted by bioinformatics for 77 of them and was further characterised. We confirmed the important role of lysozyme, ovotransferrin, ovocleidin-17 and ovocleidin-116 for shell calcification process, characterised major calcium binding proteins (EDIL3, ALB, MFGE8, NUCB2), and described novel proteoglycans core proteins (GPC4, HAPLN3). We suggest that OVAL and OC-17 play a role in the stabilisation of ACC. Finally, we report proteins involved in the regulation of proteins driving the mineralisation. They correspond to numerous molecular chaperones including CLU, PPIB and OCX21, protease and protease inhibitors including OVM and CST3, and regulators of phosphorylation. PMID:26049031

  10. An extracellular matrix, calmodulin-binding protein from Dictyostelium with EGF-like repeats that enhance cell motility.

    PubMed

    Suarez, Andres; Huber, Robert J; Myre, Michael A; O'Day, Danton H

    2011-07-01

    CyrA is a novel cysteine-rich protein with four EGFL repeats that was isolated using the calmodulin (CaM) binding overlay technique (CaMBOT), suggesting it is a CaM-binding protein (CaMBP). The full-length 63kDa cyrA is cleaved into two major C-terminal fragments, cyrA-C45 and cyrA-C40. A putative CaM-binding domain was detected and both CaM-agarose binding and CaM immunoprecipitation verified that cyrA-C45 and cyrA-C40 each bind to CaM in both a Ca(2+)-dependent and -independent manner. cyrA-C45 was present continuously throughout growth and development but was secreted at high levels during the multicellular slug stage of Dictyostelium development. At this time, cyrA localizes to the extracellular matrix (ECM). ECM purification verified the presence of cyrA-C45. An 18 amino acid peptide (DdEGFL1) from the first EGFL repeat sequence of cyrA (EGFL1) that is present in both cyrA-C45 and -C40 enhances both random cell motility and cAMP-mediated chemotaxis. Here we reveal that the dose-dependent enhancement of motility by DdEGFL1 is related to the time of cell starvation. Addition of DdEGFL1 also inhibits cyrA proteolysis. The status of cyrA as an extracellular CaMBP was further clarified by the demonstration that CaM is secreted during development. Antagonism of CaM with W7 resulted in enhanced cyrA proteolysis suggesting a functional role for extracellular CaM in protecting CaMBPs from proteolysis. cyrA is the first extracellular CaMBP identified in Dictyostelium and since it is an ECM protein with EGF-like repeats that enhance cell motility and it likely also represents the first matricellular protein identified in a lower eukaryote. PMID:21402150

  11. Retrovirus-Specific Differences in Matrix and Nucleocapsid Protein-Nucleic Acid Interactions: Implications for Genomic RNA Packaging

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Meng; Grigsby, Iwen F.; Gorelick, Robert J.; Mansky, Louis M.

    2014-01-01

    Retroviral RNA encapsidation involves a recognition event between genomic RNA (gRNA) and one or more domains in Gag. In HIV-1, the nucleocapsid (NC) domain is involved in gRNA packaging and displays robust nucleic acid (NA) binding and chaperone functions. In comparison, NC of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1), a deltaretrovirus, displays weaker NA binding and chaperone activity. Mutation of conserved charged residues in the deltaretrovirus bovine leukemia virus (BLV) matrix (MA) and NC domains affects virus replication and gRNA packaging efficiency. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that the MA domain may generally contribute to NA binding and genome encapsidation in deltaretroviruses. Here, we examined the interaction between HTLV-2 and HIV-1 MA proteins and various NAs in vitro. HTLV-2 MA displays higher NA binding affinity and better chaperone activity than HIV-1 MA. HTLV-2 MA also binds NAs with higher affinity than HTLV-2 NC and displays more robust chaperone function. Mutation of two basic residues in HTLV-2 MA α-helix II, previously implicated in BLV gRNA packaging, reduces NA binding affinity. HTLV-2 MA binds with high affinity and specificity to RNA derived from the putative packaging signal of HTLV-2 relative to nonspecific NA. Furthermore, an HIV-1 MA triple mutant designed to mimic the basic character of HTLV-2 MA α-helix II dramatically improves binding affinity and chaperone activity of HIV-1 MA in vitro and restores RNA packaging to a ΔNC HIV-1 variant in cell-based assays. Taken together, these results are consistent with a role for deltaretrovirus MA proteins in viral RNA packaging. PMID:24227839

  12. A role for the Golgi matrix protein giantin in ciliogenesis through control of the localization of dynein-2

    PubMed Central

    Asante, David; MacCarthy-Morrogh, Lucy; Townley, Anna K.; Weiss, Matthew A.; Katayama, Kentaro; Palmer, Krysten J.; Suzuki, Hiroetsu; Westlake, Chris J.; Stephens, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The correct formation of primary cilia is central to the development and function of nearly all cells and tissues. Cilia grow from the mother centriole by extension of a microtubule core, the axoneme, which is then surrounded with a specialized ciliary membrane that is continuous with the plasma membrane. Intraflagellar transport moves particles along the length of the axoneme to direct assembly of the cilium and is also required for proper cilia function. The microtubule motor, cytoplasmic dynein-2 mediates retrograde transport along the axoneme from the tip to the base; dynein-2 is also required for some aspects of cilia formation. In most cells, the Golgi lies adjacent to the centrioles and key components of the cilia machinery localize to this organelle. Golgi-localized proteins have also been implicated in ciliogenesis and in intraflagellar transport. Here, we show that the transmembrane Golgi matrix protein giantin (GOLGB1) is required for ciliogenesis. We show that giantin is not required for the Rab11–Rabin8–Rab8 pathway that has been implicated in the early stages of ciliary membrane formation. Instead we find that suppression of giantin results in mis-localization of WDR34, the intermediate chain of dynein-2. Highly effective depletion of giantin or WDR34 leads to an inability of cells to form primary cilia. Partial depletion of giantin or of WDR34 leads to an increase in cilia length consistent with the concept that giantin acts through dynein-2. Our data implicate giantin in ciliogenesis through control of dynein-2 localization. PMID:24046448

  13. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization directed nano-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometric analysis for protein identification.

    PubMed

    Kast, Juergen; Parker, Carol E; van der Drift, Koen; Dial, J Michael; Milgram, Sharon L; Wilm, Matthias; Howell, Michael; Borchers, Christoph H

    2003-01-01

    In those cases where the information obtained by peptide mass fingerprinting or matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS/MS) is not sufficient for unambiguous protein identification, nano-electrospray ionization (nano-ESI) and/or electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) analysis must be performed. The sensitivity of nano-ESI/MS, however, is lower than that of MALDI-MS, especially at very low analyte concentrations and/or in the presence of contaminants, such as salt and detergents. Moreover, to perform ESI-MS/MS, the peptide masses of the precursor ions must be known. The approach described in this paper, MALDI-directed nano-ESI-MS/MS, makes use of information obtained from the more sensitive MALDI-MS experiments in order to direct subsequent nano-ESI-MS/MS experiments. Peptide molecular ions found in the MALDI-MS analysis are then selected, as their (+2) precursor ions, for nano-ESI-MS/MS sequencing, even though these ions cannot be detected in the ESI-MS spectra. This method, originally proposed by Tempst et al. (Anal. Chem. 2000, 72: 777-790), has been extended to provide better sensitivity and shorter analysis times; also, a comparison with liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) has been performed. These experiments, performed using quadrupole time-of-flight instruments equipped with commercially available nano-ESI sources, have allowed the unambiguous identification of in-gel digested proteins at levels below their ESI-MS detection limits, even in the presence of salts and detergents. PMID:12876682

  14. Involvement of platelet-derived growth factor receptor β in fibrosis through extracellular matrix protein production after ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Makihara, Noriko; Arimura, Koichi; Ago, Tetsuro; Tachibana, Masaki; Nishimura, Ataru; Nakamura, Kuniyuki; Matsuo, Ryu; Wakisaka, Yoshinobu; Kuroda, Junya; Sugimori, Hiroshi; Kamouchi, Masahiro; Kitazono, Takanari

    2015-02-01

    Fibrosis is concomitant with repair processes following injuries in the central nervous system (CNS). Pericytes are considered as an origin of fibrosis-forming cells in the CNS. Here, we examined whether platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRβ), a well-known indispensable molecule for migration, proliferation, and survival of pericytes, was involved in the production of extracellular matrix proteins, fibronectin and collagen type I, which is crucial for fibrosis after ischemic stroke. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated induction of PDGFRβ expression in vascular cells of peri-infarct areas at 3-7days in a mouse stroke model. The PDGFRβ-expressing cells extended from peri-infarct areas toward the ischemic core after day 7 while expressing fibronectin and collagen type I in the infarct areas. In contrast, desmin and α-smooth muscle actin, markers of pericytes, were only expressed in vascular cells. In PDGFRβ heterozygous knockout mice, the expression of fibronectin and collagen type I was attenuated at both mRNA and protein levels with an enlargement of the infarct volume after ischemic stroke compared with that in wild-type littermates. In cultured brain pericytes, the expression of PDGF-B, PDGFRβ, fibronectin, and collagen type I, but not desmin, was significantly increased by serum depletion (SD). The SD-induced upregulation of fibronectin and collagen type I was suppressed by SU11652, an inhibitor of PDGFRβ, while PDGF-B further increased the SD-induced upregulation. In conclusion, the expression level of PDGFRβ may be a crucial determinant of fibrosis after ischemic stroke. Moreover, PDGFRβ signaling participates in the production of fibronectin and collagen type I after ischemic stroke. PMID:25510317

  15. Matrix metalloproteinase proteolysis of the mycobacterial HSP65 protein as a potential source of immunogenic peptides in human tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Shiryaev, Sergey A; Cieplak, Piotr; Aleshin, Alexander E; Sun, Qing; Zhu, Wenhong; Motamedchaboki, Khatereh; Sloutsky, Alexander; Strongin, Alex Y

    2011-09-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the causative agent of human tuberculosis (TB). Mycobacterial secretory protein ESAT-6 induces matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 in epithelial cells neighboring infected macrophages. MMP-9 then enhances recruitment of uninfected macrophages, which contribute to nascent granuloma maturation and bacterial growth. Disruption of MMP-9 function attenuates granuloma formation and bacterial growth. The abundant mycobacterial 65 kDa heat shock protein (HSP65) chaperone is the major target for the immune response and a critical component in M. tuberculosis adhesion to macrophages. We hypothesized that HSP65 is susceptible to MMP-9 proteolysis and that the resulting HSP65 immunogenic peptides affect host adaptive immunity. To identify MMPs that cleave HSP65, we used MMP-2 and MMP-9 gelatinases, the simple hemopexin domain MMP-8, membrane-associated MMP-14, MMP-15, MMP-16 and MMP-24, and glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked MMP-17 and MMP-25. We determined both the relative cleavage efficiency of MMPs against the HSP65 substrate and the peptide sequence of the cleavage sites. Cleavage of the unstructured PAGHG474L C-terminal region initiates the degradation of HSP65 by MMPs. This initial cleavage destroys the substrate-binding capacity of the HSP65 chaperone. Multiple additional cleavages of the unfolded HSP65 then follow. MMP-2, MMP-8, MMP-14, MMP-15 and MMP-16, in addition to MMP-9, generate the known highly immunogenic N-terminal peptide of HSP65. Based on our biochemical data, we now suspect that MMP proteolysis of HSP65 in vivo, including MMP-9 proteolysis, also results in the abundant generation of the N-terminal immunogenic peptide and that this peptide, in addition to intact HSP65, contributes to the complex immunomodulatory interplay in the course of TB infection. PMID:21752195

  16. Role of the HIV-1 Matrix Protein in Gag Intracellular Trafficking and Targeting to the Plasma Membrane for Virus Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Ghanam, Ruba H.; Samal, Alexandra B.; Fernandez, Timothy F.; Saad, Jamil S.

    2012-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) encodes a polypeptide called Gag that is able to form virus-like particles in vitro in the absence of any cellular or viral constituents. During the late phase of the HIV-1 infection, Gag polyproteins are transported to the plasma membrane (PM) for assembly. In the past two decades, in vivo, in vitro, and structural studies have shown that Gag trafficking and targeting to the PM are orchestrated events that are dependent on multiple factors including cellular proteins and specific membrane lipids. The matrix (MA) domain of Gag has been the focus of these studies as it appears to be engaged in multiple intracellular interactions that are suggested to be critical for virus assembly and replication. The interaction between Gag and the PM is perhaps the most understood. It is now established that the ultimate localization of Gag on punctate sites on the PM is mediated by specific interactions between the MA domain of Gag and phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2], a minor lipid localized on the inner leaflet of the PM. Structure-based studies revealed that binding of PI(4,5)P2 to MA induces minor conformational changes, leading to exposure of the myristyl (myr) group. Exposure of the myr group is also triggered by binding of calmodulin, enhanced by factors that promote protein self-association like the capsid domain of Gag, and is modulated by pH. Despite the steady progress in defining both the viral and cellular determinants of retroviral assembly and release, Gag’s intracellular interactions and trafficking to its assembly sites in the infected cell are poorly understood. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the structural and functional role of MA in HIV replication. PMID:22363329

  17. Down Regulation of NO Signaling in Trypanosoma cruzi upon Parasite-Extracellular Matrix Interaction: Changes in Protein Modification by Nitrosylation and Nitration

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Milton; Soares, Chrislaine; Canuto, Gisele André Baptista; Tavares, Marina Franco Maggi; Colli, Walter; Alves, Maria Julia M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Adhesion of the Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigotes, the causative agent of Chagas' disease in humans, to components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) is an important step in host cell invasion. The signaling events triggered in the parasite upon binding to ECM are less explored and, to our knowledge, there is no data available regarding •NO signaling. Methodology/Principal Findings Trypomastigotes were incubated with ECM for different periods of time. Nitrated and S-nitrosylated proteins were analyzed by Western blotting using anti-nitrotyrosine and S-nitrosyl cysteine antibodies. At 2 h incubation time, a decrease in NO synthase activity, •NO, citrulline, arginine and cGMP concentrations, as well as the protein modifications levels have been observed in the parasite. The modified proteins were enriched by immunoprecipitation with anti-nitrotyrosine antibodies (nitrated proteins) or by the biotin switch method (S-nitrosylated proteins) and identified by MS/MS. The presence of both modifications was confirmed in proteins of interest by immunoblotting or immunoprecipitation. Conclusions/Significance For the first time it was shown that T. cruzi proteins are amenable to modifications by S-nitrosylation and nitration. When T. cruzi trypomastigotes are incubated with the extracellular matrix there is a general down regulation of these reactions, including a decrease in both NOS activity and cGMP concentration. Notwithstanding, some specific proteins, such as enolase or histones had, at least, their nitration levels increased. This suggests that post-translational modifications of T. cruzi proteins are not only a reflex of NOS activity, implying other mechanisms that circumvent a relatively low synthesis of •NO. In conclusion, the extracellular matrix, a cell surrounding layer of macromolecules that have to be trespassed by the parasite in order to be internalized into host cells, contributes to the modification of •NO signaling in the parasite

  18. Disrupted Endothelial Cell Layer and Exposed Extracellular Matrix Proteins Promote Capture of Late Outgrowth Endothelial Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mitrofan, Claudia-Gabriela; Appleby, Sarah L.; Morrell, Nicholas W.; Lever, Andrew M. L.

    2016-01-01

    Late outgrowth endothelial progenitor cells (LO-EPC) possess a high proliferative potential, differentiate into vascular endothelial cells (EC), and form networks, suggesting they play a role in vascular repair. However, due to their scarcity in the circulation there is a requirement for ex vivo expansion before they could provide a practical cell therapy and it is currently unclear if they would home and engraft to an injury site. Using an in vitro flow system we studied LO-EPC under simulated injury conditions including EC activation, ischaemia, disrupted EC integrity, and exposed basement membrane. Perfused LO-EPC adhered to discontinuous EC paracellularly at junctional regions between adjacent cells under shear stress 0.7 dyn/cm2. The interaction was not adhesion molecule-dependent and not enhanced by EC activation. LO-EPC expressed high levels of the VE-Cadherin which may explain these findings. Ischaemia reperfusion injury decreased the interaction with LO-EPC due to cell retraction. LO-EPC interacted with exposed extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, fibronectin and vitronectin. The interaction was mediated by integrins α5β3, αvβ1, and αvβ3. This study has demonstrated that an injured local environment presents sufficient adhesive signals to capture flow perfused LO-EPC in vitro and that LO-EPC have properties consistent with their potential role in vascular repair. PMID:27413378

  19. Novel Function of Extracellular Matrix Protein 1 in Suppressing Th17 Cell Development in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Su, Pan; Chen, Sheng; Zheng, Yu Han; Zhou, Hai Yan; Yan, Cheng Hua; Yu, Fang; Zhang, Ya Guang; He, Lan; Zhang, Yuan; Wang, Yanming; Wu, Lei; Wu, Xiaoai; Yu, Bingke; Ma, Li Yan; Yang, Zhiru; Wang, Jianhua; Zhao, Guixian; Zhu, Jinfang; Wu, Zhi-Ying; Sun, Bing

    2016-08-15

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the CNS characterized by demyelination and axonal damage. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a well-established animal model for human MS. Although Th17 cells are important for disease induction, Th2 cells are inhibitory in this process. In this article, we report the effect of a Th2 cell product, extracellular matrix protein 1 (ECM1), on the differentiation of Th17 cells and the development of EAE. Our results demonstrated that ECM1 administration from day 1 to day 7 following the EAE induction could ameliorate the Th17 cell responses and EAE development in vivo. Further study of the mechanism revealed that ECM1 could interact with αv integrin on dendritic cells and block the αv integrin-mediated activation of latent TGF-β, resulting in an inhibition of Th17 cell differentiation at an early stage of EAE induction. Furthermore, overexpression of ECM1 in vivo significantly inhibited the Th17 cell response and EAE induction in ECM1 transgenic mice. Overall, our work has identified a novel function of ECM1 in inhibiting Th17 cell differentiation in the EAE model, suggesting that ECM1 may have the potential to be used in clinical applications for understanding the pathogenesis of MS and its diagnosis. PMID:27316685

  20. Disrupted Endothelial Cell Layer and Exposed Extracellular Matrix Proteins Promote Capture of Late Outgrowth Endothelial Progenitor Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Mitrofan, Claudia-Gabriela; Appleby, Sarah L; Morrell, Nicholas W; Lever, Andrew M L

    2016-01-01

    Late outgrowth endothelial progenitor cells (LO-EPC) possess a high proliferative potential, differentiate into vascular endothelial cells (EC), and form networks, suggesting they play a role in vascular repair. However, due to their scarcity in the circulation there is a requirement for ex vivo expansion before they could provide a practical cell therapy and it is currently unclear if they would home and engraft to an injury site. Using an in vitro flow system we studied LO-EPC under simulated injury conditions including EC activation, ischaemia, disrupted EC integrity, and exposed basement membrane. Perfused LO-EPC adhered to discontinuous EC paracellularly at junctional regions between adjacent cells under shear stress 0.7 dyn/cm(2). The interaction was not adhesion molecule-dependent and not enhanced by EC activation. LO-EPC expressed high levels of the VE-Cadherin which may explain these findings. Ischaemia reperfusion injury decreased the interaction with LO-EPC due to cell retraction. LO-EPC interacted with exposed extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, fibronectin and vitronectin. The interaction was mediated by integrins α5β3, αvβ1, and αvβ3. This study has demonstrated that an injured local environment presents sufficient adhesive signals to capture flow perfused LO-EPC in vitro and that LO-EPC have properties consistent with their potential role in vascular repair. PMID:27413378

  1. Increased expression of platelet-derived growth factor A and collagenous matrix proteins in congenital multicystic renal dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Liapis, H; Yu, H; Flath, A; Steinhardt, G F

    1997-01-01

    The expression of platelet-derived growth factor A (PDGF-A), and its spatial and temporal relationship to interstitial collagens in kidneys with congenital multicystic dysplasia using in situ hybridization, have been examined. Seventeen dysplastic kidneys (16 weeks to 7 months) and 20 normal age-matched controls were used in the study. Increased PDGF-A mRNA was detected in dysplastic compared to normal kidneys in all age groups including extensively fibrotic postnatal kidneys. An abundant PDGF-A mRNA signal was seen within the epithelial cells of cystically dilated or dysplastic tubules and within interstitial fibroblasts and disorganized primitive mesenchyme. A comparable amount of PDGF-A protein was detected by Western blotting. Procollagen I and III mRNA were increased in fibroblasts surrounding cystic and dysplastic tubules. We conclude that tubular epithelial production of PDGF-A may induce collagenous matrix production by adjacent fibroblasts, while marked up-regulation of PDGF-A by interstitial cells may be responsible for sustainable fibrogenic effects in the fetal kidney contributing to renal maldevelopment. PMID:9200407

  2. Catalytic properties of endoxylanase fusion proteins from Neocallimastix frontalis and effect of immobilization onto metal-chelate matrix.

    PubMed

    Mesta, Laurent; Heyraud, Alain; Joseleau, Jean Paul; Coulet, Pierre R

    2003-03-20

    The production of hybrid enzymes with novel properties and the research for new methods for enzyme immobilization in bioreactors are of major interest in biotechnology. We report here the second part of a study concerning the improvement of the properties of the endoxylanase XYN3A4 from the anaerobic fungi Neocallimastix frontalis. The effects of gene fusion and immobilization on metal-chelate matrix are also compared for the reference enzymes XYN3, XYN3A, XYN4 used for the construction of the fusion protein XYN3A4. The influence of the metal ion in the immobilization process was first investigated and best immobilization yields were obtained with the Cu(II) ion whereas best coupling efficiencies were reached with the Ni(II) ion. It was also observed that XYN3, XYN3A and XYN34 had a lower rate of hydrolysis when immobilized on Ni(II)-IDA and more difficulties to accomodate small substrates than the soluble enzymes. Nevertheless, a major difference was noted during the hydrolysis of birchwood xylan and it appears that the reaction using the immobilized XYN3A4 chimeric enzyme leads to the accumulation of a specific product. PMID:12615394

  3. A Numerically Subdominant CD8 T Cell Response to Matrix Protein of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Controls Infection with Limited Immunopathology

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jie; Haddad, Elias K.; Marceau, Joshua; Morabito, Kaitlyn M.; Rao, Srinivas S.; Filali-Mouhim, Ali; Sekaly, Rafick-Pierre; Graham, Barney S.

    2016-01-01

    CD8 T cells are involved in pathogen clearance and infection-induced pathology in respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. Studying bulk responses masks the contribution of individual CD8 T cell subsets to protective immunity and immunopathology. In particular, the roles of subdominant responses that are potentially beneficial to the host are rarely appreciated when the focus is on magnitude instead of quality of response. Here, by evaluating CD8 T cell responses in CB6F1 hybrid mice, in which multiple epitopes are recognized, we found that a numerically subdominant CD8 T cell response against DbM187 epitope of the virus matrix protein expressed high avidity TCR and enhanced signaling pathways associated with CD8 T cell effector functions. Each DbM187 T effector cell lysed more infected targets on a per cell basis than the numerically dominant KdM282 T cells, and controlled virus replication more efficiently with less pulmonary inflammation and illness than the previously well-characterized KdM282 T cell response. Our data suggest that the clinical outcome of viral infections is determined by the integrated functional properties of a variety of responding CD8 T cells, and that the highest magnitude response may not necessarily be the best in terms of benefit to the host. Understanding how to induce highly efficient and functional T cells would inform strategies for designing vaccines intended to provide T cell-mediated immunity. PMID:26943673

  4. Clinical and Molecular Study of the Extracellular Matrix Protein 1 Gene in a Spanish Family with Lipoid Proteinosis

    PubMed Central

    Mondejar, Rufino; Garcia-Moreno, Jose Manuel; Rubio, Rocio; Solano, Francisca; Delgado, Mercedes; Garcia-Bravo, Begona; Rios-Martin, Juan Jose; Martinez-Mir, Amalia

    2014-01-01

    Background Lipoid proteinosis (LP) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a hoarse voice, variable scarring, and infiltration of the skin and mucosa. This disease is associated with mutations of the gene encoding extracellular matrix protein 1 (ECM1). Case Report This was a clinical and molecular study of a new case of LP with a severe phenotype. A 35-year-old female born to nonconsanguineous parents developed dermatological and extracutaneous symptoms in her 9th month of life. The neurological abnormalities of the disease began to appear at the age of 19 years. Computed tomography revealed cranial calcifications. Conclusions The diagnosis of LP was confirmed by histopathological findings and direct sequencing of ECM1. A new homozygous nonsense mutation was identified in exon 7 of ECM1, c.1076G>A (p.Trp359*). This mutation was not detected in 106 chromosomes of healthy individuals with a similar demographic origin. Microsatellite markers around ECM1 were used to construct the haplotype in both the parents and the patient. Reports on genotype-phenotype correlations in LP point to a milder phenotype in carriers of missense mutations in the Ecm1a isoform, whereas mutations in the Ecm1b isoform are thought to be associated with more severe phenotypes. The present findings in a Spanish patient carrying a truncating mutation in exon 7 revealed complete dermatological and neurological manifestations. PMID:24465266

  5. Transdifferentiation of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells into the Islet-Like Cells: the Role of Extracellular Matrix Proteins.

    PubMed

    Pokrywczynska, Marta; Lewandowska, Marzena Anna; Krzyzanowska, Sandra; Jundzill, Arkadiusz; Rasmus, Marta; Warda, Karolina; Gagat, Maciej; Deptula, Aleksander; Helmin-Basa, Anna; Holysz, Marcin; Nowacki, Maciej; Buchholz, Lukasz; Bodnar, Magdalena; Marszalek, Andrzej; Grzanka, Alina; Jozwicki, Wojciech; Michalkiewicz, Jacek; Drewa, Tomasz

    2015-10-01

    Pancreatic islet implantation has been recently shown to be an efficient method of treatment for type 1 diabetes. However, limited availability of donor islets reduces its use. Bone morrow would provide potentially unlimited source of stem cells for generation of insulin-producing cells. This study was performed to evaluate the influence of extracellular matrix proteins like collagen, laminin, and vitronectin on bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) transdifferentiation into islet-like cells (ILCs) in vitro. To our knowledge, this is the first report evaluating the importance of vitronectin in transdifferentiation of BM-MSCs into ILCs. Rat BM-MSCs were induced to ILCs using four-step protocol on plates coated with collagen type IV, laminin type I and vitronectin type I. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to detect gene expression related to pancreatic β cell development. The induced cells expressed islet-related genes including: neurogenin 3, neurogenic differentiation 1, paired box 4, NK homeobox factor 6.1, glucagon, insulin 1 and insulin 2. Laminin but not collagen type IV or vitronectin enhanced expression of insulin and promoted formation of islet-like structures in monolayer culture. Laminin triggered transdifferentiation of BM-MSCs into ILCs. PMID:25957583

  6. Data set for the proteomic inventory and quantitative analysis of chicken eggshell matrix proteins during the primary events of eggshell mineralization and the active growth phase of calcification.

    PubMed

    Marie, Pauline; Labas, Valérie; Brionne, Aurélien; Harichaux, Grégoire; Hennequet-Antier, Christelle; Rodriguez-Navarro, Alejandro B; Nys, Yves; Gautron, Joël

    2015-09-01

    Chicken eggshell is a biomineral composed of 95% calcite calcium carbonate mineral and of 3.5% organic matrix proteins. The assembly of mineral and its structural organization is controlled by its organic matrix. In a recent study [1], we have used quantitative proteomic, bioinformatic and functional analyses to explore the distribution of 216 eggshell matrix proteins at four key stages of shell mineralization defined as: (1) widespread deposition of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC), (2) ACC transformation into crystalline calcite aggregates, (3) formation of larger calcite crystal units and (4) rapid growth of calcite as columnar structure with preferential crystal orientation. The current article detailed the quantitative analysis performed at the four stages of shell mineralization to determine the proteins which are the most abundant. Additionally, we reported the enriched GO terms and described the presence of 35 antimicrobial proteins equally distributed at all stages to keep the egg free of bacteria and of 81 proteins, the function of which could not be ascribed. PMID:26306314

  7. Data set for the proteomic inventory and quantitative analysis of chicken eggshell matrix proteins during the primary events of eggshell mineralization and the active growth phase of calcification

    PubMed Central

    Marie, Pauline; Labas, Valérie; Brionne, Aurélien; Harichaux, Grégoire; Hennequet-Antier, Christelle; Rodriguez-Navarro, Alejandro B.; Nys, Yves; Gautron, Joël

    2015-01-01

    Chicken eggshell is a biomineral composed of 95% calcite calcium carbonate mineral and of 3.5% organic matrix proteins. The assembly of mineral and its structural organization is controlled by its organic matrix. In a recent study [1], we have used quantitative proteomic, bioinformatic and functional analyses to explore the distribution of 216 eggshell matrix proteins at four key stages of shell mineralization defined as: (1) widespread deposition of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC), (2) ACC transformation into crystalline calcite aggregates, (3) formation of larger calcite crystal units and (4) rapid growth of calcite as columnar structure with preferential crystal orientation. The current article detailed the quantitative analysis performed at the four stages of shell mineralization to determine the proteins which are the most abundant. Additionally, we reported the enriched GO terms and described the presence of 35 antimicrobial proteins equally distributed at all stages to keep the egg free of bacteria and of 81 proteins, the function of which could not be ascribed. PMID:26306314

  8. Characterization of the nuclear matrix targeting sequence (NMTS) of the BPV1 E8/E2 protein — the shortest known NMTS

    PubMed Central

    Sankovski, Eve; Karro, Kristiina; Sepp, Mari; Kurg, Reet; Ustav, Mart; Abroi, Aare

    2015-01-01

    Technological advantages in sequencing and proteomics have revealed the remarkable diversity of alternative protein isoforms. Typically, the localization and functions of these isoforms are unknown and cannot be predicted. Also the localization signals leading to particular subnuclear compartments have not been identified and thus, predicting alternative functions due to alternative subnuclear localization is limited only to very few subnuclear compartments. Knowledge of the localization and function of alternative protein isoforms allows for a greater understanding of cellular complexity. In this article, we characterize a short and well-defined signal targeting the bovine papillomavirus type 1 E8/E2 protein to the nuclear matrix. The targeting signal comprises the peptide coded by E8 ORF, which is spliced together with part of the E2 ORF to generate the E8/E2 mRNA. Localization to the nuclear matrix correlates well with the transcription repression activities of E8/E2; a single point mutation directs the E8/E2 protein into the nucleoplasm, and transcription repression activity is lost. Our data prove that adding as few as ˜10 amino acids by alternative transcription/alternative splicing drastically alters the function and subnuclear localization of proteins. To our knowledge, E8 is the shortest known nuclear matrix targeting signal. PMID:26218798

  9. Characterization of the nuclear matrix targeting sequence (NMTS) of the BPV1 E8/E2 protein--the shortest known NMTS.

    PubMed

    Sankovski, Eve; Karro, Kristiina; Sepp, Mari; Kurg, Reet; Ustav, Mart; Abroi, Aare

    2015-01-01

    Technological advantages in sequencing and proteomics have revealed the remarkable diversity of alternative protein isoforms. Typically, the localization and functions of these isoforms are unknown and cannot be predicted. Also the localization signals leading to particular subnuclear compartments have not been identified and thus, predicting alternative functions due to alternative subnuclear localization is limited only to very few subnuclear compartments. Knowledge of the localization and function of alternative protein isoforms allows for a greater understanding of cellular complexity. In this article, we characterize a short and well-defined signal targeting the bovine papillomavirus type 1 E8/E2 protein to the nuclear matrix. The targeting signal comprises the peptide coded by E8 ORF, which is spliced together with part of the E2 ORF to generate the E8/E2 mRNA. Localization to the nuclear matrix correlates well with the transcription repression activities of E8/E2; a single point mutation directs the E8/E2 protein into the nucleoplasm, and transcription repression activity is lost. Our data prove that adding as few as ˜10 amino acids by alternative transcription/alternative splicing drastically alters the function and subnuclear localization of proteins. To our knowledge, E8 is the shortest known nuclear matrix targeting signal. PMID:26218798

  10. Molecular parasitism in the Escherichia coli-Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus system: translocation of the matrix protein from the host to the parasite outer membrane.

    PubMed Central

    Guerrini, F; Romano, V; Valenzi, M; Di Giulio, M; Mupo, M R; Sacco, M

    1982-01-01

    During the intracellular maturation in Escherichia coli of the parasite Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus the outer membrane, major protein I of E. coli (i.e., the matrix protein) becomes associated with the outer membrane of the emerging parasite cells. The binding properties of this protein with the outer membrane of the host and of the parasite are identical. An analogous phenomenon also occurs during Bdellovibrio parasitism on Klebsiella pneumoniae and on Salmonella typhimurium. Possible roles for this scavenging action of Bdellovibrio, and similar phenomena in other parasitic systems, are discussed. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:6765198

  11. The HIV Matrix Protein p17 Subverts Nuclear Receptors Expression and Induces a STAT1-Dependent Proinflammatory Phenotype in Monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Renga, Barbara; Francisci, Daniela; D'Amore, Claudio; Schiaroli, Elisabetta; Mencarelli, Andrea; Cipriani, Sabrina

    2012-01-01

    Background Long-term remission of HIV-1 disease can be readily achieved by combinations of highly effective antiretroviral therapy (HAART). However, a residual persistent immune activation caused by circulating non infectious particles or viral proteins is observed under HAART and might contribute to an higher risk of non-AIDS pathologies and death in HIV infected persons. A sustained immune activation supports lipid dysmetabolism and increased risk for development of accelerated atehrosclerosis and ischemic complication in virologically suppressed HIV-infected persons receiving HAART. Aim While several HIV proteins have been iden