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Sample records for matt damon vitleb

  1. Obituary: Damon Paul Simonelli, 1959-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buratti, Bonnie Jean; Veverka, Joseph

    2005-12-01

    Damon Paul Simonelli died unexpectedly on 1 December 2004 after he collapsed of heart failure at his home near Pasadena, California. Damon led pioneering studies in the scientific exploration of the satellites of the Solar System with spacecraft. He was a longtime member of the AAS's Division for Planetary Sciences community. Only two weeks before his death he attended the 2004 DPS meeting in Louisville where he presented a paper on the surface roughness of Phoebe based on Cassini observations. Damon was born in the Bronx, New York, on 15 August 1959. His father, Aldo Simonelli (d. 1990), was a clarinetist for the New York City Opera Company, and his mother, Alice Kennard Simonelli, was a secretary. His parents met while they were both students at the Julliard School. Family history has it that Damon's mother was an opera student, but she ruined her voice after singing when she had the flu. By junior high school, Damon had become a master at convincing his mother to wake him up at 3 AM to watch televised moonwalks, and to allow the entire family to view Star Trek episodes at the dinner table. Damon graduated from the Bronx High School of Science in 1976, with a composition on the New York State Regents exam that mentioned the significance of bicentennial toilet bowl lids. In addition to placing great emphasis on humor, the Simonelli family valued education. Damon's younger sister Danelle graduated from Vassar College and has served many years as a U. S. Park Ranger at Liberty Island. Damon graduated with a BA summa cum laude in physics from Cornell in 1980, where he had begun working with Carl Sagan. Damon had painstakingly gone through all the Viking images to look for any possibility of sentient life on Mars (he didn't find any). Perhaps the arrival of data from the first great explorers of the outer Solar System - Voyagers 1 and 2 - convinced Damon to continue at Cornell with Joe Veverka. While at Cornell, Damon began his pioneering work on the use of

  2. Obituary: Damon Paul Simonelli, 1959-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buratti, Bonnie Jean; Veverka, Joseph

    2005-12-01

    Damon Paul Simonelli died unexpectedly on 1 December 2004 after he collapsed of heart failure at his home near Pasadena, California. Damon led pioneering studies in the scientific exploration of the satellites of the Solar System with spacecraft. He was a longtime member of the AAS's Division for Planetary Sciences community. Only two weeks before his death he attended the 2004 DPS meeting in Louisville where he presented a paper on the surface roughness of Phoebe based on Cassini observations. Damon was born in the Bronx, New York, on 15 August 1959. His father, Aldo Simonelli (d. 1990), was a clarinetist for the New York City Opera Company, and his mother, Alice Kennard Simonelli, was a secretary. His parents met while they were both students at the Julliard School. Family history has it that Damon's mother was an opera student, but she ruined her voice after singing when she had the flu. By junior high school, Damon had become a master at convincing his mother to wake him up at 3 AM to watch televised moonwalks, and to allow the entire family to view Star Trek episodes at the dinner table. Damon graduated from the Bronx High School of Science in 1976, with a composition on the New York State Regents exam that mentioned the significance of bicentennial toilet bowl lids. In addition to placing great emphasis on humor, the Simonelli family valued education. Damon's younger sister Danelle graduated from Vassar College and has served many years as a U. S. Park Ranger at Liberty Island. Damon graduated with a BA summa cum laude in physics from Cornell in 1980, where he had begun working with Carl Sagan. Damon had painstakingly gone through all the Viking images to look for any possibility of sentient life on Mars (he didn't find any). Perhaps the arrival of data from the first great explorers of the outer Solar System - Voyagers 1 and 2 - convinced Damon to continue at Cornell with Joe Veverka. While at Cornell, Damon began his pioneering work on the use of

  3. Geology of Damon Mound Salt Dome, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, E.W.

    1989-01-01

    Geological investigation of the stratigraphy, cap-rock characteristics, deformation and growth history, and growth rate of a shallow coastal diapir. Damon Mound salt dome, located in Brazoria County, has salt less than 600 feet and cap rock less than 100 feet below the surface; a quarry over the dome provides excellent exposures of cap rock as well as overlying Oligocene to Pleistocene strata. These conditions make it ideal as a case study for other coastal diapirs that lack bedrock exposures. Such investigations are important because salt domes are currently being considered by chemical waste disposal companies as possible storage and disposal sites. In this book, the author reviews previous research, presents additional data on the subsurface and surface geology at Damon Mound, and evaluates Oligocene to post-Pleistocene diapir growth.

  4. Cobalt distribution during copper matte smelting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kho, T. S.; Swinbourne, D. R.; Lehner, T.

    2006-04-01

    Many smelter operators subscribe to the “precautionary principle” and wish to understand the behavior of the metals and impurities during smelting, especially how they distribute between product and waste phases and whether these phases lead to environmental, health, or safety issues. In copper smelting, copper and other elements are partitioned between copper matte, iron silicate slag, and possibly the waste gas. Many copper concentrates contain small amounts of cobalt, a metal of considerable value but also of some environmental interest. In this work, the matte/slag distribution ratio (weight percent) of cobalt between copper matte (55 wt pct) and iron silicate slag was thermodynamically modeled and predicted to be approximately 5. Experiments were performed using synthetic matte and slag at 1250 °C under a low oxygen partial pressure and the distribution ratio was found to be 4.3, while between industrial matte and slag, the ratio was found to be 1.8. Both values are acceptably close to each other and to the predicted value, given the errors inherent in such measurements. The implications of these results for increasingly sustainable copper production are discussed.

  5. Microbiological leaching of copper from lead mattes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballester, A.; Gonzalez, F.; Blazquez, M. L.; Barril, M. A.

    1989-12-01

    The possibility of recovering copper from lead blast furnace mattes by bioleaching, using bacteria of the genus Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, has been studied. In this paper, the influence of certain variables on the dissolution rate and the adaptation period of the bacteria have been evaluated, including energy source, nutrient, type of matte, type of stirring, pulp density, and particle size. In addition, the influence of bioleaching for different periods of time, as a preparatory stage before chemical or biological leaching of the matte, was studied. The optimum conditions for recovery are achieved by way of the two-stage bioleaching process. The degradation of the solid caused by bacterial activity during the first stage is the reason for the high recovery during the second stage.

  6. Matt Rogers on AES Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, Matt

    2010-01-01

    The Department of Energy and AES Energy Storage recently agreed to a $17.1M conditional loan guarantee commitment. This project will develop the first battery-based energy storage system to provide a more stable and efficient electrical grid for New York State's high-voltage transmission network. Matt Rogers is the Senior Advisor to the Secretary for Recovery Act Implementation.

  7. Matt Rogers on AES Energy Storage

    ScienceCinema

    Rogers, Matt

    2013-05-29

    The Department of Energy and AES Energy Storage recently agreed to a $17.1M conditional loan guarantee commitment. This project will develop the first battery-based energy storage system to provide a more stable and efficient electrical grid for New York State's high-voltage transmission network. Matt Rogers is the Senior Advisor to the Secretary for Recovery Act Implementation.

  8. Do you do Damon®? What is the current evidence base underlying the philosophy of this appliance system?

    PubMed

    Wright, Natasha; Modarai, Faranak; Cobourne, Martyn T; Dibiase, Andrew T

    2011-09-01

    Self-ligating bracket systems are increasing in popularity amongst orthodontists. This reflects their high quality engineering, improved reliability and relative ease of use. However, it might also be related to claims of superior function made by the manufacturers of these appliances. In particular, the Damon(®) appliance system claims to offer significant advantages to both orthodontist and patient over conventional-ligation and other forms of self-ligated appliances. We have reviewed current literature relating to use of the Damon(®) appliance system. There is some evidence to suggest this appliance may lead to reductions in chairside time for the orthodontist, particularly those experienced with this system, in comparison to conventional-ligation. However, evidence that pain experience is reduced for the patient when using Damon(®) brackets is not conclusive. In the presence of identical archwire sequences, there is no evidence that Damon(®) brackets can align teeth faster or in a qualitatively differently manner, when compared with conventional-ligation. There is no high quality evidence that treatment with the Damon(®) appliance takes place more rapidly or leads to a superior occlusal or aesthetic result. Indeed, the best available evidence would suggest there is no difference in treatment outcome or time, at least in extraction cases. There is no evidence that treatment with the Damon(®) appliance is more stable. Claims relating to improved clinical performance of the Damon(®) appliance system are currently being made to orthodontists and patients that are not substantiated in the scientific literature. PMID:21875995

  9. [Determination of gold in copper matte and sintered copper material].

    PubMed

    Ge, Yu-wei; Xiao, Li-mei; Suo, Jin-ling; Wang, Cheng; Hu, Xiao-min; Zhao, Shu-yun

    2011-05-01

    Ore sample, pretreated at 650 degrees C, was decomposed with aqua regia. Gold in the sample solution was then pre-concentrated by adsorbing with polyurethane foam plastic, released with thiourea solution, and determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry and flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Based on the characteristic of the copper matte and sinter containing copper, the effects of sample dissolving condition, matrix effect and interference of coexisting elements were investigated. The accuracy, precision and detection limit were discussed. The results of test show that both of the two methods were suitable for determining the contents of gold in copper matte and sintered copper material. PMID:21800614

  10. Unexpected attraction of polarotactic water-leaving insects to matt black car surfaces: mattness of paintwork cannot eliminate the polarized light pollution of black cars.

    PubMed

    Blaho, Miklos; Herczeg, Tamas; Kriska, Gyorgy; Egri, Adam; Szaz, Denes; Farkas, Alexandra; Tarjanyi, Nikolett; Czinke, Laszlo; Barta, Andras; Horvath, Gabor

    2014-01-01

    The horizontally polarizing surface parts of shiny black cars (the reflection-polarization characteristics of which are similar to those of water surfaces) attract water-leaving polarotactic insects. Thus, shiny black cars are typical sources of polarized light pollution endangering water-leaving insects. A new fashion fad is to make car-bodies matt black or grey. Since rough (matt) surfaces depolarize the reflected light, one of the ways of reducing polarized light pollution is to make matt the concerned surface. Consequently, matt black/grey cars may not induce polarized light pollution, which would be an advantageous feature for environmental protection. To test this idea, we performed field experiments with horizontal shiny and matt black car-body surfaces laid on the ground. Using imaging polarimetry, in multiple-choice field experiments we investigated the attractiveness of these test surfaces to various water-leaving polarotactic insects and obtained the following results: (i) The attractiveness of black car-bodies to polarotactic insects depends in complex manner on the surface roughness (shiny, matt) and species (mayflies, dolichopodids, tabanids). (ii) Non-expectedly, the matt dark grey car finish is much more attractive to mayflies (being endangered and protected in many countries) than matt black finish. (iii) The polarized light pollution of shiny black cars usually cannot be reduced with the use of matt painting. On the basis of these, our two novel findings are that (a) matt car-paints are highly polarization reflecting, and (b) these matt paints are not suitable to repel polarotactic insects. Hence, the recent technology used to make matt the car-bodies cannot eliminate or even can enhance the attractiveness of black/grey cars to water-leaving insects. Thus, changing shiny black car painting to matt one is a disadvantageous fashion fad concerning the reduction of polarized light pollution of black vehicles. PMID:25076137

  11. Unexpected Attraction of Polarotactic Water-Leaving Insects to Matt Black Car Surfaces: Mattness of Paintwork Cannot Eliminate the Polarized Light Pollution of Black Cars

    PubMed Central

    Blaho, Miklos; Herczeg, Tamas; Kriska, Gyorgy; Egri, Adam; Szaz, Denes; Farkas, Alexandra; Tarjanyi, Nikolett; Czinke, Laszlo; Barta, Andras; Horvath, Gabor

    2014-01-01

    The horizontally polarizing surface parts of shiny black cars (the reflection-polarization characteristics of which are similar to those of water surfaces) attract water-leaving polarotactic insects. Thus, shiny black cars are typical sources of polarized light pollution endangering water-leaving insects. A new fashion fad is to make car-bodies matt black or grey. Since rough (matt) surfaces depolarize the reflected light, one of the ways of reducing polarized light pollution is to make matt the concerned surface. Consequently, matt black/grey cars may not induce polarized light pollution, which would be an advantageous feature for environmental protection. To test this idea, we performed field experiments with horizontal shiny and matt black car-body surfaces laid on the ground. Using imaging polarimetry, in multiple-choice field experiments we investigated the attractiveness of these test surfaces to various water-leaving polarotactic insects and obtained the following results: (i) The attractiveness of black car-bodies to polarotactic insects depends in complex manner on the surface roughness (shiny, matt) and species (mayflies, dolichopodids, tabanids). (ii) Non-expectedly, the matt dark grey car finish is much more attractive to mayflies (being endangered and protected in many countries) than matt black finish. (iii) The polarized light pollution of shiny black cars usually cannot be reduced with the use of matt painting. On the basis of these, our two novel findings are that (a) matt car-paints are highly polarization reflecting, and (b) these matt paints are not suitable to repel polarotactic insects. Hence, the recent technology used to make matt the car-bodies cannot eliminate or even can enhance the attractiveness of black/grey cars to water-leaving insects. Thus, changing shiny black car painting to matt one is a disadvantageous fashion fad concerning the reduction of polarized light pollution of black vehicles. PMID:25076137

  12. Generating Damon-Eshbach Spin Waves in Py using a Conducting Diffraction Grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sklenar, J.; Bhat, V. S.; Delong, L.; Ketterson, J. B.

    2012-02-01

    We have patterned silver hole arrays directly on top of uniform permalloy (Py) films. Typical Py and Ag film thicknesses are 25nm and 40 nm respectively; the holes in the Ag have a 500nm diameter and are patterned on a 1 micron lattice constant. We have measured resonant modes arising from a quasi-uniform microwave excitation field, applied in the plane of the sample, as a function of the in-plane external field and the in-plane field orientation relative to the principal axes of the array. Measurements were done using our broadband meanderline-based ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectrometer.ootnotetextC. C. Tsai, J. Choi, S. Cho, B. K. Sarma, C. Thompson, O. Chernyashevskyy, I. Nevirkovets, and J. B Ketterson, Rev. of Sci. Instr. 80, 023904 (2009). In addition to a uniform FMR mode we observe satellite modes that correspond to the Damon-Eshbach spin wavesootnotetextR. W. Damon and J. R. Eshbach J. Phys. Chem. Solids 19, 308 (1961). with wave vectors having Fourier components of the reciprocal lattice of the silver array. Hence, in an otherwise uniform magnetic film the silver array acts as a diffraction grating which excites spin waves with k 0 from the dynamic k 0 microwave magnetic field. The observed spin wave angular dispersion is in excellent agreement with a magnon dispersion relation for spin waves in a uniform film given by Kriesel et al.ootnotetextA. Kreisel, F. Sauli, L. Bartosch, and P. Kopietz, Eur. Phys. J. B 71, 59 (2009).

  13. Matt: local flexibility aids protein multiple structure alignment.

    PubMed

    Menke, Matthew; Berger, Bonnie; Cowen, Lenore

    2008-01-01

    Even when there is agreement on what measure a protein multiple structure alignment should be optimizing, finding the optimal alignment is computationally prohibitive. One approach used by many previous methods is aligned fragment pair chaining, where short structural fragments from all the proteins are aligned against each other optimally, and the final alignment chains these together in geometrically consistent ways. Ye and Godzik have recently suggested that adding geometric flexibility may help better model protein structures in a variety of contexts. We introduce the program Matt (Multiple Alignment with Translations and Twists), an aligned fragment pair chaining algorithm that, in intermediate steps, allows local flexibility between fragments: small translations and rotations are temporarily allowed to bring sets of aligned fragments closer, even if they are physically impossible under rigid body transformations. After a dynamic programming assembly guided by these "bent" alignments, geometric consistency is restored in the final step before the alignment is output. Matt is tested against other recent multiple protein structure alignment programs on the popular Homstrad and SABmark benchmark datasets. Matt's global performance is competitive with the other programs on Homstrad, but outperforms the other programs on SABmark, a benchmark of multiple structure alignments of proteins with more distant homology. On both datasets, Matt demonstrates an ability to better align the ends of alpha-helices and beta-strands, an important characteristic of any structure alignment program intended to help construct a structural template library for threading approaches to the inverse protein-folding problem. The related question of whether Matt alignments can be used to distinguish distantly homologous structure pairs from pairs of proteins that are not homologous is also considered. For this purpose, a p-value score based on the length of the common core and average root

  14. Resistance to Sliding in Clear and Metallic Damon 3 and Conventional Edgewise Brackets: an In vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Karim Soltani, Mohammad; Golfeshan, Farzaneh; Alizadeh, Yoones; Mehrzad, Jabraiel

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Frictional forces are considered as important counterforce to orthodontic tooth movement. It is claimed that self-ligating brackets reduce the frictional forces. Purpose The aim of this study was to compare the resistance to sliding in metallic and clear Damon brackets with the conventional brackets in a wet condition. Materials and Method The samples included 4 types of brackets; metallic and clear Damon brackets and metallic and clear conventional brackets (10 brackets in each group). In this study, stainless steel wires sized 0.019×0.025 were employed and the operator’s saliva was used to simulate the conditions of oral cavity. The tidy-modified design was used for simulation of sliding movement. The resistance to sliding and static frictional forces was measured by employing Testometric machine and load cell. Results The mean (±SD) of resistance to sliding was 194.88 (±26.65) and 226.62 (±39.9) g in the esthetic and metallic Damon brackets, while these values were 187.81(±27.84) and 191.17(±66.68) g for the clear and metallic conventional brackets, respectively. Static frictional forces were 206.4(±42.45) and 210.38(±15.89) g in the esthetic and metallic Damon brackets and 220.63(±49.29) and 215.13(±62.38) g in the clear and metallic conventional brackets. According to two-way ANOVA, no significant difference was observed between the two bracket materials (clear and metal) and the two types of bracket (self-ligating versus conventional) regarding resistance to sliding (p= 0.17 and p= 0.23, respectively) and static frictional forces (p= 0.55 and p= 0.96, respectively). Conclusion Neither the type of bracket materials nor their type of ligation made difference in resistance to sliding and static friction. PMID:26106630

  15. The Damon System and release of substance P in gingival crevicular fluid during orthodontic tooth movement in adults.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Masaru; Takizawa, Tsutomu; Nakajima, Ryo; Imamura, Ryuichi; Kasai, Kazutaka

    2009-01-01

    Metabolism by peptidases plays an important role in modulating the levels of biologically active neuropeptides. One of these neuropeptides, substance P (SP), a component of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF), may exponentiate the inflammatory process during orthodontic tooth movement. The aim of this study was to investigate the GCF levels of SP in patients using different bracket systems. Subjects were 10 patients (four males, six females; mean age, 25.1 ± 4.4 years) undergoing orthodontic movement (leveling) in the maxilla. Conventional brackets were placed on the left side, while the teeth on the right received self-ligating brackets. The teeth on the mandibular left side without any orthodontic attachments served as controls. GCF was sampled at 0, 1, 24, and 168 hours after initiation of treatment. Prevention of plaque-induced inflammation allowed assessment of the dynamics of mechanically stimulated SP levels in the GCF, which was determined using commercially enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA) kits. GCF levels of SP for the Damon System sites were significantly lower than for the teeth with conventional brackets at 24 hours. This result indicates that the Damon System inhibited an increase in the amount of SP in the GCF. Thus, the Damon System is useful to reduce the inflammation and pain resulting from orthodontic forces. PMID:19582258

  16. A semiclassical approach to the matte black-body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez-Moreno, M. A.; González-Hernández, S.; Ares de Parga, G.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, a semiclassical approach is used to describe a kind of black-body which we will call a matte black-body. Although the frequency energy density of a black-body is deduced using a semiclassical method which includes the electromagnetic reaction force and the quantization of the energy, a phenomenological damping force, as in the explanation of the anomalous dispersion of some fluids, is considered in order to obtain the corresponding frequency energy density of the matte black-body. The concept of emissivity is incorporated into the new body in order to explain the experimental data of the radiation measured in the Earth’s atmosphere. The purpose of this article consists of showing students the applicability of semiclassical approaches in obtaining physical results.

  17. Metabolic rate in the whip-spider, Damon annulatipes (Arachnida: Amblypygi).

    PubMed

    Terblanche, John S; Klok, C Jaco; Marais, Elrike; Chown, Steven L

    2004-07-01

    Metabolic rate estimates as well as a measure of their repeatability and response to laboratory acclimation are provided for the amblypygid Damon annulatipes (Wood). This species (mean +/- S.E. mass: 640+/-66 mg) shows continuous gas exchange, as might be expected from its possession of book lungs, and at 21 degrees C has a metabolic rate of 30.22+/-2.87 microl CO2 h(-1) (approximately 229.6+/-21.8 microW, R.Q. = 0.72). The intraclass correlation coefficient (r=0.74-0.89) indicated substantial repeatability in metabolic rate which did not change with laboratory acclimation over a period of 2 weeks. By contrast, absolute metabolic rate declined by c. 16-33%, although this was not a consequence of changes in mass (which were non-significant over the same period). Rather, it appears that a reduction in overall stress or activity in the laboratory might have been responsible for the decline in mass-independent metabolic rate. At the intraspecific level, metabolic rate scaled as microW = 342 M(0.857), where mass is in grams. Metabolic rates of this species are in keeping with its sedentary behaviour such that for a given body size they are lower than those of most arthropods (spiders and insects), higher than the very sedentary ticks, and equivalent to scorpions. These findings have implications for the understanding of the evolution of metabolic rates in arthropods. PMID:15234624

  18. Human visual cortical responses to specular and matte motion flows

    PubMed Central

    Kam, Tae-Eui; Mannion, Damien J.; Lee, Seong-Whan; Doerschner, Katja; Kersten, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Determining the compositional properties of surfaces in the environment is an important visual capacity. One such property is specular reflectance, which encompasses the range from matte to shiny surfaces. Visual estimation of specular reflectance can be informed by characteristic motion profiles; a surface with a specular reflectance that is difficult to determine while static can be confidently disambiguated when set in motion. Here, we used fMRI to trace the sensitivity of human visual cortex to such motion cues, both with and without photometric cues to specular reflectance. Participants viewed rotating blob-like objects that were rendered as images (photometric) or dots (kinematic) with either matte-consistent or shiny-consistent specular reflectance profiles. We were unable to identify any areas in low and mid-level human visual cortex that responded preferentially to surface specular reflectance from motion. However, univariate and multivariate analyses identified several visual areas; V1, V2, V3, V3A/B, and hMT+, capable of differentiating shiny from matte surface flows. These results indicate that the machinery for extracting kinematic cues is present in human visual cortex, but the areas involved in integrating such information with the photometric cues necessary for surface specular reflectance remain unclear. PMID:26539100

  19. Thermodynamic simulation model of the isasmelt process for copper matte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagamori, M.; Errington, W. J.; Mackey, P. J.; Poggi, D.

    1994-12-01

    A computer model has been constructed to simulate thermodynamically the behavior of the minor elements Zn, Pb, As, Sb, and Bi as well as the major elements Cu, Fe, Si, O, and S in the Isasmelt process, producing copper matte. The model is based on the new concept that there are two independent reaction sites in a slag bath: one for fast oxidation and the other for slow reduction. The oxidizing reaction at the first site produces matte, magnetite-rich slag and gas from chalcopyritic concentrate and siliceous flux. The slag is then partially reduced with lump coal at a site removed from the first site. The oxidizing and reducing reactions are assumed to proceed under a separate set of equilibrium conditions. The process heat balance and thermodynamic distribution of the minor elements are united and expressed as functions of varying weights and compositions of concentrate, flux (silica, limestone), coal, oil, and oxygen-enriched air. The process chemistry was analyzed in terms of Fe3O4, FeO, and FeS activities, as well as SO2 partial pressure. The thermodynamic model explains well the minor element distributions observed in the 15 tons per hour pilot furnace, and it is used to project the optimal smelting conditions for the full-scale 100 tons per hour Isasmelt furnace.

  20. Direct observation of isolated Damon-Eshbach and backward volume spin-wave packets in ferromagnetic microstripes.

    PubMed

    Wessels, Philipp; Vogel, Andreas; Tödt, Jan-Niklas; Wieland, Marek; Meier, Guido; Drescher, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of isolated spin-wave packets is crucial for the understanding of magnetic transport phenomena and is particularly interesting for applications in spintronic and magnonic devices, where isolated spin-wave packets implement an information processing scheme with negligible residual heat loss. We have captured microscale magnetization dynamics of single spin-wave packets in metallic ferromagnets in space and time. Using an optically driven high-current picosecond pulse source in combination with time-resolved scanning Kerr microscopy probed by femtosecond laser pulses, we demonstrate phase-sensitive real-space observation of spin-wave packets in confined permalloy (Ni80Fe20) microstripes. Impulsive excitation permits extraction of the dynamical parameters, i.e. phase- and group velocities, frequencies and wave vectors. In addition to well-established Damon-Eshbach modes our study reveals waves with counterpropagating group- and phase-velocities. Such unusual spin-wave motion is expected for backward volume modes where the phase fronts approach the excitation volume rather than emerging out of it due to the negative slope of the dispersion relation. These modes are difficult to excite and observe directly but feature analogies to negative refractive index materials, thus enabling model studies of wave propagation inside metamaterials. PMID:26906113

  1. Direct observation of isolated Damon-Eshbach and backward volume spin-wave packets in ferromagnetic microstripes

    PubMed Central

    Wessels, Philipp; Vogel, Andreas; Tödt, Jan-Niklas; Wieland, Marek; Meier, Guido; Drescher, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of isolated spin-wave packets is crucial for the understanding of magnetic transport phenomena and is particularly interesting for applications in spintronic and magnonic devices, where isolated spin-wave packets implement an information processing scheme with negligible residual heat loss. We have captured microscale magnetization dynamics of single spin-wave packets in metallic ferromagnets in space and time. Using an optically driven high-current picosecond pulse source in combination with time-resolved scanning Kerr microscopy probed by femtosecond laser pulses, we demonstrate phase-sensitive real-space observation of spin-wave packets in confined permalloy (Ni80Fe20) microstripes. Impulsive excitation permits extraction of the dynamical parameters, i.e. phase- and group velocities, frequencies and wave vectors. In addition to well-established Damon-Eshbach modes our study reveals waves with counterpropagating group- and phase-velocities. Such unusual spin-wave motion is expected for backward volume modes where the phase fronts approach the excitation volume rather than emerging out of it due to the negative slope of the dispersion relation. These modes are difficult to excite and observe directly but feature analogies to negative refractive index materials, thus enabling model studies of wave propagation inside metamaterials. PMID:26906113

  2. Direct observation of isolated Damon-Eshbach and backward volume spin-wave packets in ferromagnetic microstripes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessels, Philipp; Vogel, Andreas; Tödt, Jan-Niklas; Wieland, Marek; Meier, Guido; Drescher, Markus

    2016-02-01

    The analysis of isolated spin-wave packets is crucial for the understanding of magnetic transport phenomena and is particularly interesting for applications in spintronic and magnonic devices, where isolated spin-wave packets implement an information processing scheme with negligible residual heat loss. We have captured microscale magnetization dynamics of single spin-wave packets in metallic ferromagnets in space and time. Using an optically driven high-current picosecond pulse source in combination with time-resolved scanning Kerr microscopy probed by femtosecond laser pulses, we demonstrate phase-sensitive real-space observation of spin-wave packets in confined permalloy (Ni80Fe20) microstripes. Impulsive excitation permits extraction of the dynamical parameters, i.e. phase- and group velocities, frequencies and wave vectors. In addition to well-established Damon-Eshbach modes our study reveals waves with counterpropagating group- and phase-velocities. Such unusual spin-wave motion is expected for backward volume modes where the phase fronts approach the excitation volume rather than emerging out of it due to the negative slope of the dispersion relation. These modes are difficult to excite and observe directly but feature analogies to negative refractive index materials, thus enabling model studies of wave propagation inside metamaterials.

  3. Thermodynamics for arsenic and antimony in copper matte converting—computer simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaubal, P. C.; Nagamori, M.

    1988-08-01

    Thermodynamic data for arsenic and antimony and their sulfide and oxide gases have been critically reviewed and compiled. The entropy values for AsS(g), SbS(g), and BiS(g) have been recalculated based on a statistical thermodynamic method. The standard heat of formation and entropy of As2O3(g) have been newly assessed to be △H{298/0} = -81,500 cal/mole and S{298/0} = 81.5 cal/deg/mole. Copper matte converting has been mathematically described using the stepwise equilibrium simulation technique together with quadratic approximations of oxygen and magnetite solubilities in molten mattes. A differential equation for the volatilization of arsenic and antimony has been derived and solved for successive reaction microsteps, whereby the volatilization, slagging, and alloying of the minor elements in copper matte converting have been examined as functions of reaction time and other process variables. Only the first (slag-making) stage of converting is responsible for the elimination of arsenic and antimony by volatilization. Arsenic volatilizes mainly as AsS(g) and AsO(g), with As2(g) also contributing when initial mattes are unusually rich in arsenic (above 0.5 pct arsenic). Antimony volatilizes chiefly as SbS(g), and the contributions of other gases such as SbO(g) and Sb(g) always remain negligibly low. The results of the stepwise equilibrium simulation compare favorably with the industrial operating data.

  4. Recovery of DNA from latent fingerprint tape lifts archived against matte acetate.

    PubMed

    Steadman, Shelly A; Hoofer, Steven R; Geering, Sarah C; King, Stephanie; Bennett, Marc A

    2015-05-01

    This study was driven by court order to examine methods to remove, extract, and STR-type potential DNA entrapped between latent fingerprint lifting tape and matte acetate that was collected from a 1977 crime scene. Results indicate that recovery of appreciable quantities of DNA is more challenging once adhesive is attached to matte acetate cards and even more difficult when fixed following black powder enhancement. STR amplification of extracts from entrapped fingermarks collected following the dusting/lifting procedure did not produce robust profiles, and extraneous peaks not expressed by print donors were detected for some samples. A hearing was set to argue whether there was DNA remaining to be tested, and if so, whether that DNA could be exculpatory in this postconviction matter. The studies herein provided the basis for the court's decision to not require the testing. PMID:25702951

  5. Distribution of Precious Metals (Ag, Au, Pd, Pt, and Rh) Between Copper Matte and Iron Silicate Slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avarmaa, Katri; Johto, Hannu; Taskinen, Pekka

    2016-02-01

    The distributions of precious metals (Ag, Au, Pd, Pt, and Rh) between copper matte and silica-saturated iron silicate slag were determined at 1523 K to 1623 K (1250 °C to 1350 °C), in controlled CO-CO2-SO2-Ar gas mixtures. The experiments were done in silica crucibles and a fixed partial pressure of sulfur dioxide for matte grades of 55, 65, and 75 wt pct Cu. High-temperature equilibration/quenching/electron probe X-ray microanalysis technique was used to obtain compositions of the equilibrated matte and slag. The technique was applied for the first time to the distributions of precious metals in simulated flash smelting conditions. The resolution of electron probe microanalysis became critical as the detection limits were insufficient to measure reliably the precious metals concentrations (except silver) in the slag. The distribution coefficient of silver, L m/s[Ag] = [wt pctAg in matte]/(wt pctAg in slag), was found to be between 200 and 300, which agrees well with the latest studies in the literature. For other precious metals, the minimum values of distribution coefficients were determined according to the detection limits in the slag. The values obtained were for gold and platinum >250, for palladium >1000, and for rhodium >900. The distribution coefficients of palladium, although locating above distribution coefficient of the detection limit, formed a clear dependency with a good repeatability as a function of the matte grade. It increased along with matte grade and was approximately 1000 at 50 pct Cu and 2000 to 3000 at 70 pct Cu. The precious metals replace metal in the matte structure and they are present as sulfides in the copper matte.

  6. Recovery Act update from Sr. Advisor Matt Rogers -- End of Obligations

    ScienceCinema

    Rogers, Matt

    2013-05-29

    Senior Advisor to the Secretary for Recovery Act Implementation Matt Rogers shares his thoughts as the Recovery Act reaches a critical milestone -- the end of the 2010 fiscal year and the last day to obligation contract and grant funding under the Recovery Act. For more information about the Recovery Act at the Department of Energy: http://www.energy.gov/recovery Follow the Department of Energy! http://facebook.com/energygov http://twitter.com/energy

  7. Recovery Act update from Sr. Advisor Matt Rogers -- End of Obligations

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, Matt

    2010-01-01

    Senior Advisor to the Secretary for Recovery Act Implementation Matt Rogers shares his thoughts as the Recovery Act reaches a critical milestone -- the end of the 2010 fiscal year and the last day to obligation contract and grant funding under the Recovery Act. For more information about the Recovery Act at the Department of Energy: http://www.energy.gov/recovery Follow the Department of Energy! http://facebook.com/energygov http://twitter.com/energy

  8. Thermodynamic modeling of lead distribution among matte, slag, and liquid copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degterov, Sergei A.; Pelton, Arthur D.

    1999-12-01

    Recently, a thermodynamic database was developed for the calculation of equilibria involved in the production of copper. The present study is concerned with the further development of the thermodynamic models and the database of model parameters for the matte, slag, and blister copper phases with a view to including Pb in the database and permitting calculations in the seven-component system Pb-Cu-Ca-Fe-Si-O-S. Thermodynamic and phase equilibrium data available in the literature are reviewed, critically assessed, and optimized with the modified quasi-chemical model. When used with the Gibbs energy minimization software and other databases of the FACT thermodynamic computing system, the database developed in the present study can be used for the calculation of matte-slag-copper-gas phase equilibria during copper smelting and converting. The distribution of lead among these phases can be computed. For example, the distribution of lead among matte, silica-saturated slag, and copper has been calculated at metal saturation, or under fixed partial pressure of SO2, and has been compared with the available experimental data. The Pb distributions among the equilibrium phases have been calculated under various conditions, which are difficult to study experimentally, such as at magnetite saturation or under various oxygen partial pressures and iron to silica ratios in the slag.

  9. Thermodynamics for arsenic and antimony in copper matte converting; Computer simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Chaubal, P.C. ); Nagamori, M. )

    1989-08-01

    In this paper thermodynamic data for arsenic and antimony and their sulfide and oxide gases have been critically reviewed and compiled. The entropy values for AsS(g), SbS(g), and BiS(g) have been recalculated based on a statistical thermodynamic method. The standard heat of formation and entropy of As/sub 2/O/sub 3/(g) have been newly assessed. Copper matte converting has been mathematically described using the stepwise equilibrium simulation technique together with quadratic approximations of oxygen and magnetite solubilities in molten mattes. A differential equation for the volatilization of arsenic and antimony has been solved for successive reaction microsteps whereby the volatilization, slagging, and alloying of the minor elements have been examined as functions of reaction time and other process variables. Only the first (slag-making) stage of converting is responsible for the elimination of arsenic and antimony by volatilization. Arsenic volatilizes mainly as AsS(g) and AsO(g), with As/sub 2/(g) also contributing when initial mattes are unusually rich in arsenic (above 0.5 pct arsenic). Antimony volatilizes chiefly as SbS(g), and the contributions of other gases such as SbO(g) and Sb(g) remain negligibly low. The results of the simulation compare favorably with industrial operating data.

  10. Effects of Some Additives on Copper Losses to Matte Smelting Slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusen, Aydin; Geveci, Ahmet; Topkaya, Yavuz Ali; Derin, Bora

    2016-02-01

    Copper is lost to slag between 0.7 and 2.3 wt.% during the industrial copper matte smelting stage. In the present study, the aim was to minimize these losses in the slag phase by adding some fluxing agents like CaO, B2O3 and calcium borate (namely colemanite—2CaO·3B2O3·5H2O). Eti Copper Inc. (EBI) flash furnace smelter slag containing 0.88 wt.%Cu and matte with the addition each of CaO, B2O3 and colemanite up to 10 wt.% of the total charge were melted in a silica crucible placed in a vertical tube furnace at 1250°C under nitrogen atmosphere for 2 h. The experimental results of matte-slag-flux mixtures showed that the addition of all additives up to 4 wt.% led to a gradual decrease of the copper content in the final slags. Beyond this value, the copper losses to slag increased markedly with the increasing CaO and B2O3 additions. On the other hand, the colemanite addition of more than 4 wt.% did not substantially affect the copper losses to slag.

  11. Recovery of critical metals from superalloy scrap by matte smelting and hydrometallurgical processing

    SciTech Connect

    Wuest, W.J.; Stateham, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that as part of the U.S. Bureau of Mines program to reduce the Nation's reliance on foreign supplies for critical metals, a procedure was devised to separate and recover critical metals from mixed and contaminated superalloy scrap. The process uses both pyrometallurigical and hydrometallurgical, methods to treat the scrap. The mixed scrap is converted to a matte containing 4 to 7 pct S by adding S directly to the molten metal. This matte is then granulated and ground to a minus 35-mesh particle size and leached with an HCl-Cl{sub 2} solution. This process takes essentially all the Ni, Co, Cr, Fe, Al, and Mo into solution in a 3-h leach, leaving W, Ta, Ti, and Nb (Cb) in the residue. The Mo is recovered from the chloride leach solution by solvent extraction and the Cr and Fe are recovered together by precipitation. The Ni and Co can be recovered individually by an existing solvent extraction-electrowinning process. The W is recovered by a caustic leach of oxidized Cl{sub 2} leach residue.

  12. Comment on "Technical Note: On the Matt-Shuttleworth approach to estimate crop water requirements" by Lhomme et al. (2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuttleworth, W. J.

    2014-05-01

    It is clear from Lhomme et al. (2014) that aspects of the explanation of the Matt-Shuttleworth approach can generate confusion. Presumably this is because the description in Shuttleworth (2006) was not sufficiently explicit and simple. This paper explains the logic behind the Matt-Shuttleworth approach clearly, simply and concisely. It shows how the Matt-Shuttleworth can be implemented using a few simple equations and provides access to ancillary calculation resources that can be used for such implementation. If the crop water requirement community decided that it is preferable to use the Penman-Monteith equation to estimate crop water requirements directly for all crops, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization could now update Irrigation and Drainage Paper 56 using the Matt-Shuttleworth approach by deriving tabulated values of surface resistance from Table 12 of Allen et al. (1998), with the estimation of crop evaporation then being directly made in a one-step calculation using an equation similar to that already recommended by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization for calculating reference crop evaporation.

  13. Comment on "Technical Note: On the Matt-Shuttleworth approach to estimate crop water requirements" by Lhomme et al. (2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuttleworth, W. J.

    2014-11-01

    It is clear from Lhomme et al. (2014) that aspects of the explanation of the Matt-Shuttleworth approach can generate confusion. Presumably this is because the description in Shuttleworth (2006) was not sufficiently explicit and simple. This paper explains the logic behind the Matt-Shuttleworth approach clearly, simply and concisely. It shows how the Matt-Shuttleworth can be implemented using a few simple equations and provides access to ancillary calculation resources that can be used for such implementation. If the crop water requirement community decided that it is preferable to use the Penman-Monteith equation to estimate crop water requirements directly for all crops, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization could now update Irrigation and Drainage Paper 56 using the Matt-Shuttleworth approach by deriving tabulated values of surface resistance from Table 12 of Allen et al. (1998), with the estimation of crop evaporation then being directly made in a one-step calculation using an equation similar to that already recommended by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization for calculating reference crop evaporation.

  14. ISACONVERT™—Continuous converting of nickel/PGM matte with calcium ferrite slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakker, M. L.; Nikolic, S.; Alvear, G. R. F.

    2011-05-01

    The ISASMELT™ process is a top submerged lance (TSL) bath smelting technology which has been developed and optimized over the last 25 years. By the end of 2011, the total installed capacity of the ISASMELT technology will exceed 9,000,000 tonnes per year of feed materials in copper and lead smelters around the world. Commercial plants, operating in Belgium and Germany, are also batch converting copper materials in ISASMELT furnaces. This TSL technology is equally effective for continuous converting processes, whereupon it is called ISACONVERT™. Xstrata Technology (XT) has recently patented a new ISACONVERT process for the continuous converting of nickel/platinum group metal (PGM) mattes using the calcium ferrite slag system. This paper outlines the development of this new process and presents a conceptual flowsheet for how it can be integrated into an existing nickel/PGM smelter.

  15. Substrate Shape Effect on the Sn Whisker Growth in the Electroplating Matte Sn System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Yee-Wen; Li, Chao-Kang; Tsou, Meng-Yu; Shao, Pei-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the substrate shape effect on the Cu substrates for Sn whisker growth has been investigated. A Cu foil, as a substrate, was bent to 90° by a universal testing machine. The matte Sn layers were electroplated on the Cu substrate under various current densities. Then, the samples were given heat treatment under various temperatures for 250 h. The results indicate that Sn whisker growth was promoted by the compression stress on the concave side and was restrained by the tension stress on the convex side. The increase of plating thickness in electroplating process offered the extensive residual stress to mitigate the Sn whisker growth. Increasing the aging temperatures also enhanced the thickness of the oxide layer. Thick oxide layers can prevent Sn whisker growth.

  16. A thermodynamic model of nickel smelting and direct high-grade nickel matte smelting processes: Part II. distribution behaviors of Ni, Cu, Co, Fe, As, Sb, and Bi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Pengfu; Neuschütz, Dieter

    2001-04-01

    A thermodynamic model has been developed to predict the distribution behavior of Ni, Cu, Co, Fe, S, As, Sb, and Bi in nickel smelting and direct high-grade nickel matte smelting processes. The model has been validated by numerous experimental data and industrial data with a wide range of operating conditions. The effect of operating conditions on the distributions of Ni, Cu, Co, As, Sb, and Bi among the gas, matte, and slag phases has been investigated. It was found that the distribution behavior of Ni, Co, Cu, As, Sb, and Bi in the nickel smelting furnace depends on process parameters such as the smelting temperature, matte grade, oxygen enrichment, Fe/SiO2 ratio in the slag, Cu/Ni ratio in charge, and oil/air ratio. The parameters also have an influence on the behavior of Fe3O4 in the slag.

  17. Recovery of critical metals from superalloy scrap by matte smelting and hydrometallurgical processing. Rept. of Investigations/1991

    SciTech Connect

    Hundley, G.L.; Davis, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Bureau of Mines program to reduce the Nation's reliance on foreign supplies for critical metals, a procedure was devised to separate and recover critical metals from mixed and contaminated superalloy scrap. The process uses both pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical methods to treat the scrap. The mixed scrap is converted to a matte containing 4 to 7 pct S by adding S directly to the molten metal. The matte is then granulated and ground to a minus 35-mesh particle size and leached with an HCl-Cl2 solution. The process takes essentially all the Ni, Co, Cr, Fe, Al, and Mo into solution in a 3-h leach, leaving W, Ta, Ti, and Nb (Cb) in the residue. The Mo is recovered from the chloride leach solution by solvent extraction, and the Cr and Fe are recovered together by precipitation. The Ni and Co can be recovered individually by an existing solvent extraction-electrowinning process. The W is recovered by a caustic leach of oxidized Cl2 leach residue.

  18. A thermodynamic model of nickel smelting and direct high-grade nickel matte smelting processes: Part I. Model development and validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Pengfu; Neuschütz, Dieter

    2001-04-01

    A thermodynamic model has been developed to predict the distribution behavior of Ni, Cu, Co, Fe, S, As, Sb, and Bi in the Outokumpu flash-smelting process, the Outokumpu direct high-grade matte smelting process, and the INCO flash-smelting process. In this model, as many as 16 elements (Ni, Cu, Co, Fe, As, Sb, Bi, S, O, Al, Ca, Mg, Si, N, C, and H) are considered, and two nickel sulfide species are used to allow for modeling of sulfur-deficient mattes. The compositions of the matte, slag, and gaseous phases in equilibrium are calculated using Gibbs free energies of formation and the activity coefficients of the components derived from the experimental data. The model predictions are compared with the known industrial data from the Kalgoorlie Nickel Smelter (Kalgoorlie, Australia), the Outokumpu Harjavalta Nickel Smelter (Harjavalta, Finland), the INCO Metals Company (Sudbury, Canada), and from a number of experimental data. An excellent agreement is obtained. It was found that the distribution behaviors of Ni, Co, Cu, Fe, S, As, Sb, and Bi in the nickel smelting furnace depend on process parameters such as the smelting temperature, matte grade, and partial pressure of oxygen in the process.

  19. A Phenomenological Perspective of Educating Students at the Matt Garcia Learning Center: Resiliency Development, Responsibility Development and Relationship Building Development Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Robert Anthony

    2013-01-01

    The professional educators of Matt Garcia Learning Center (MGLC) have undertaken a monumental task of providing education to students considered to be significantly at-risk in a public school of choice. These educators are focusing on quelling the "negative success trajectory" prevalent for each of the students of MGLC. Understanding the…

  20. Regeneration Patterns of European Oak Species (Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl., Quercus robur L.) in Dependence of Environment and Neighborhood

    PubMed Central

    Annighöfer, Peter; Beckschäfer, Philip; Vor, Torsten; Ammer, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Quercus robur L. (pedunculate oak) and Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl. (sessile oak) are two European oak species of great economic and ecological importance. Even though both oaks have wide ecological amplitudes of suitable growing conditions, forests dominated by oaks often fail to regenerate naturally. The regeneration performance of both oak species is assumed to be subject to a variety of variables that interact with one another in complex ways. The novel approach of this research was to study the effect of many ecological variables on the regeneration performance of both oak species together and identify key variables and interactions for different development stages of the oak regeneration on a large scale in the field. For this purpose, overstory and regeneration inventories were conducted in oak dominated forests throughout southern Germany and paired with data on browsing, soil, and light availability. The study was able to verify the assumption that the occurrence of oak regeneration depends on a set of variables and their interactions. Specifically, combinations of site and stand specific variables such as light availability, soil pH and iron content on the one hand, and basal area and species composition of the overstory on the other hand. Also browsing pressure was related to oak abundance. The results also show that the importance of variables and their combinations differs among the development stages of the regeneration. Light availability becomes more important during later development stages, whereas the number of oaks in the overstory is important during early development stages. We conclude that successful natural oak regeneration is more likely to be achieved on sites with lower fertility and requires constantly controlling overstory density. Initially sufficient mature oaks in the overstory should be ensured. In later stages, overstory density should be reduced continuously to meet the increasing light demand of oak seedlings and saplings

  1. Cleaning of a copper matte smelting slag from a water-jacket furnace by direct reduction of heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Maweja, Kasonde; Mukongo, Tshikele; Mutombo, Ilunga

    2009-05-30

    Cleaning experiments of a copper matte smelting slag from the water-jacket furnace was undertaken by direct reduction in a laboratory-scale electric furnace. The effects of coal-to-slag ratio, w, and the reduction time, t, were considered for two different coal/slag mixing procedures. In the first procedure, metallurgical coal was added to the molten slag, whereas in the second procedure, coal was premixed with the solid slag before charging into the furnace. The recovery of heavy metals (Cu, Co), and the fuming of Pb and Zn were investigated. Contamination of the metal phase by iron and the acidity index of the final slag were analysed as these may impede the economical viability of the process. The lower w value of 2.56% yielded a recovery rate of less than 60% for copper and less than 50% for cobalt, and around 70% for zinc. However, increasing w to 5% allowed the recovery of 70-90% for Cu, Co and Zn simultaneously after 30-60 min reduction of the molten slag. After reduction, the cleaned slags contained only small amounts of copper and cobalt (<0.4 wt%). Fuming of lead and zinc was efficient as the %Pb of the residual slag dropped to levels lower than 0.04% after 30 min of reduction. Ninety percent of the lead was removed from the initial slag and collected in the dusts. The zinc content of the cleaned slags quickly dropped to between 1 and 3 wt% from the initial 8.2% after 30 min reduction for w value of 5 and after 60 min reduction for w value of 2.56. The dusts contained about 60% Zn and 10% Pb. Recovery of lead from fuming of the slag was higher than 90% in all the experimental conditions considered in this study. PMID:18848396

  2. Regeneration patterns of European oak species (Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl., Quercus robur L.) in dependence of environment and neighborhood.

    PubMed

    Annighöfer, Peter; Beckschäfer, Philip; Vor, Torsten; Ammer, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Quercus robur L. (pedunculate oak) and Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl. (sessile oak) are two European oak species of great economic and ecological importance. Even though both oaks have wide ecological amplitudes of suitable growing conditions, forests dominated by oaks often fail to regenerate naturally. The regeneration performance of both oak species is assumed to be subject to a variety of variables that interact with one another in complex ways. The novel approach of this research was to study the effect of many ecological variables on the regeneration performance of both oak species together and identify key variables and interactions for different development stages of the oak regeneration on a large scale in the field. For this purpose, overstory and regeneration inventories were conducted in oak dominated forests throughout southern Germany and paired with data on browsing, soil, and light availability. The study was able to verify the assumption that the occurrence of oak regeneration depends on a set of variables and their interactions. Specifically, combinations of site and stand specific variables such as light availability, soil pH and iron content on the one hand, and basal area and species composition of the overstory on the other hand. Also browsing pressure was related to oak abundance. The results also show that the importance of variables and their combinations differs among the development stages of the regeneration. Light availability becomes more important during later development stages, whereas the number of oaks in the overstory is important during early development stages. We conclude that successful natural oak regeneration is more likely to be achieved on sites with lower fertility and requires constantly controlling overstory density. Initially sufficient mature oaks in the overstory should be ensured. In later stages, overstory density should be reduced continuously to meet the increasing light demand of oak seedlings and saplings

  3. Using “Sub-cement” to simulate the long-term fatigue response of cemented femoral stems in a cadaver model: could a novel pre-clinical screening test have caught the Exeter matte problem?

    PubMed Central

    Race, Amos; Miller, Mark A.; Mann, Kenneth A.

    2010-01-01

    Previously, we formulated cement with degraded fatigue properties (sub-cement) to simulate long-term fatigue in short-term cadaver tests. The present study determined the efficacy of sub-cement in a `pre-clinical' test of a design change with known clinical consequences: the “polished” to “matte” transition of the Exeter stem (revision rates were twice as high for matte stems). Contemporary stems were bead-blasted to give Ra=1micron (matte finish). Matte and polished stems were compared in cadaver pairs under stair-climbing loads (3 pairs size-1, 3 pairs size-3). Stem micromotion was monitored during loading. Post-test, transverse sections were examined for cement damage. Cyclic retroversion decreased for polished stems but increased for matte stems (p<0.0001). Implant size had a substantial effect: retroversion of (larger) size-3 stems was half that of size-1 stems and polished size-3 stems subsided 2½ times more than the others. Cement damage measures were similar and open through-cracks occurred around both stems of two pairs. Stem retroversion within the mantle resulted in stem-cement gaps of 50–150microns. Combining information on cyclic motion, cracks, and gaps, we concluded that this test `predicted' higher revision rates for matte stems (it also implied that polished size-3 stems might be superior to size-1). PMID:20476506

  4. Sulfurization of Fe-Ni-Cu-Co Alloy to Matte Phase by Carbothermic Reduction of Calcium Sulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Eui Hyuk; Nam, Chul Woo; Park, Kyung Ho; Park, Joo Hyun

    2016-04-01

    Calcium sulfate (CaSO4) is proposed as an alternative sulfur source to convert the Fe-Ni-Cu-Co alloy to the matte phase. Solid carbon was used as a reducing agent and the influence of oxide fluxes on the sulfurization efficiency at 1673 K (1400 °C) in a CO-CO2-SO2-Ar atmosphere was investigated. When CaSO4 was equilibrated with the Fe-Ni-Cu-Co alloy without any reducing agent, it was reduced by Fe in the liquid alloy, resulting in the formation of FeS. The sulfurization efficiency was about 56 pct, even though an excess amount of CaSO4 (gypsum equivalent, G eq = 1.7) was added. Adding solid carbon as the reducing agent significantly shortened the equilibration time from 36 to 3.5 hours and increased the sulfurization efficiency from 56 to 91 pct, even though the amount of carbon was lower than the theoretical equivalent for carbothermic reduction of CaSO4, viz. C eq = 0.7. Although CaS (not FeS) was formed as a primary reaction product, it continuously reacted with CaSO4, forming CaO-rich slag. Neither the carbothermic reduction time nor the sulfurization efficiency were affected by the addition of Al2O3 (-SiO2) fluxes, but the equilibration time fell to 2.5 hours with the addition of Al2O3-Fe2O3 flux because the former systems produced primarily calcium silicate and calcium aluminate, which have relatively high melting points, whereas the latter system produced calcium ferrite, which has a lower melting point. Consequently, calcium sulfate (waste gypsum) can replace expensive pure sulfur as a raw material in the sulfurization of Fe-Ni-Cu-Co alloy with small amounts of iron oxide (Fe2O3) as a flux material. The present results can be used to improve the recovery of rare metals, such as Ni and Co, from deep sea manganese nodules.

  5. Letter to the editor concerning the article "Effects of acoustic feedback training in elite-standard Para-Rowing" by Schaffert and Mattes (2015).

    PubMed

    Hill, Holger

    2015-01-01

    In a case study, Schaffert and Mattes reported the application of acoustic feedback (sonification) to optimise the time course of boat acceleration. The authors attributed an increased boat speed in the feedback condition to an optimised boat acceleration (mainly during the recovery phase). However, in rowing it is biomechanically impossible to increase the boat speed significantly by reducing the fluctuations in boat acceleration during the rowing cycle. To assess such a, potentially small, optimising effect experimentally, the confounding variables must be controlled very accurately (that is especially the propulsive forces must be kept constant between experimental conditions or the differences in propulsive forces between conditions must be much smaller than the effects on boat speed resulting from an optimised movement pattern). However, this was not controlled adequately by the authors. Instead, the presented boat acceleration data show that the increased boat speed under acoustic feedback was due to increased propulsive forces. PMID:25599117

  6. Hey Matt! There's a "Reason" We Write Like Every Day!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toussant, Molly

    2007-01-01

    Fifth grade teacher Molly Toussant realized with chagrin that she habitually mouthed her precepts about teaching writing in the same rote way she had recited the Apostles' Creed in Sunday school, and that her students had no idea why they had to write "like every day." So she wrote this explication in which she shows, with many examples, how her…

  7. Testing limits on matte surface color perception in three-dimensional scenes with complex light fields.

    PubMed

    Doerschner, K; Boyaci, H; Maloney, L T

    2007-12-01

    We investigated limits on the human visual system's ability to discount directional variation in complex lights field when estimating Lambertian surface color. Directional variation in the light field was represented in the frequency domain using spherical harmonics. The bidirectional reflectance distribution function of a Lambertian surface acts as a low-pass filter on directional variation in the light field. Consequently, the visual system needs to discount only the low-pass component of the incident light corresponding to the first nine terms of a spherical harmonics expansion [Basri, R., Jacobs, D. (2001). Lambertian reflectance and linear subspaces. In: International Conference on Computer Vision II, pp. 383-390; Ramamoorthi, R., Hanrahan, P., (2001). An efficient representation for irradiance environment maps. SIGGRAPH 01. New York: ACM Press, pp. 497-500] to accurately estimate surface color. We test experimentally whether the visual system discounts directional variation in the light field up to this physical limit. Our results are consistent with the claim that the visual system can compensate for all of the complexity in the light field that affects the appearance of Lambertian surfaces. PMID:18053846

  8. Testing Limits on Matte Surface Color Perception in Three-Dimensional Scenes with Complex Light Fields

    PubMed Central

    Doerschner, K.; Boyaci, H.; Maloney, L. T.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated limits on the human visual system’s ability to discount directional variation in complex lights field when estimating Lambertian surface color. Directional variation in the light field was represented in the frequency domain using spherical harmonics. The bidirectional reflectance distribution function of a Lambertian surface acts as a low-pass filter on directional variation in the light field. Consequently, the visual system needs to discount only the low-pass component of the incident light corresponding to the first nine terms of a spherical harmonics expansion (Basri & Jacobs, 2001; Ramamoorthi & Hanrahan, 2001) to accurately estimate surface color. We test experimentally whether the visual system discounts directional variation in the light field up to this physical limit. Our results are consistent with the claim that the visual system can compensate for all of the complexity in the light field that affects the appearance of Lambertian surfaces. PMID:18053846

  9. In Conversation with Sarah and Matt: Perspectives on Creating and Performing Original Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGillen, Christopher William

    2004-01-01

    This paper is the result of a research project that set out to document a group of adolescent musicians in a rural Australian secondary school as they wrote and performed their own music. The processes they developed are reflective of a cooperative approach to group composition where upwards of 21 students composed and "jammed" their way…

  10. Measured Nuclear Recoil Discrimination for HPGS, a Proposed Ton-Scale Dark Matte r Search in Room Temperature Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, C.; Barton, D.; Dion, M. P.; Esterline, J. H.; Howell, C. R.; Martoff, C. J.; Smith, P. F.; Tornow, W.

    2009-05-01

    The HPGS dark matter proposal is for a simple, room-temperature, ton-scale, 5-10 bar gas scintillation array with nuclear recoil discrimination by pulse-shape, aided by electric fields to suppress wall events. The first experimental confirmation of nuclear recoil discrimination by Xe gas scintillation pulse shape is reported here. Pulse shapes for γ- and x-rays, neutrons, and α particles were measured using highly purified Xe gas at 1-6 bar with a UV-sensitive photomultiplier. Nuclear recoil and α pulses were dominated by recombination scintillation with time constant 250 ns, while gamma and x-ray scintillation was completely contained within 15 ns. We will present detailed comparison of our nuclear recoil pulse shape discrimination to liquid Xe, and discuss the outlook for simpler and lower cost room temperature ton-scale dark matter detectors. (We heartily thank A. Bolotnikov for access to high-purity Xe in his lab at Brookhaven National Laboratory.)

  11. Signs of Drug Abuse and Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Download "I feel so helpless against his addiction." Matt's brother Stephen is addicted to meth. Matt wants to help Stephen, but he isn't sure how. Read Matt's story About the National Institute on Drug Abuse ( ...

  12. Authors' response to the letter to the editor: "Effects of acoustic feedback training in elite-standard Para-Rowing" by Schaffert and Mattes (2015).

    PubMed

    Schaffert, Nina; Mattes, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Our article in the Journal of Sports Sciences was designed to examine effects of auditory feedback on mean boat speed during on-water training of visually impaired athletes in elite-standard Para-Rowing. This aim is stated explicitly in the title, abstract, introduction and discussion section. The effects were analysed on the basis of a conservative approach to using inferential statistics by emphasising measures that communicate meaningful differences and effect sizes to help interpret the data's practical importance for sport competition. Biomechanical measurements have been combined with standardised questionnaires to assess the athletes' perceived experience during rowing with acoustic feedback. An application for high-performance rowing has already been used to successfully investigate the effects of acoustic feedback on the time structure of the rowing cycle during the recovery phase. In this response, we provide our comments to the concerns presented in the 'Letter to the Editor' along with a brief description of the issues that relate to research in high-performance sport. PMID:25599408

  13. Developmental Consistencies in Children's Socio-Moral Knowledge: Justice Reasoning and Altruistic Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blotner, Roberta; Bearison, David J.

    This study examined the relationship between moral reasoning and altruistic behavior in 120 boys, 4- to 11-years old. Subjects were administered Damon's Positive- Justice Interview, and were presented helping and sharing tasks under five behavioral conditions corresponding to Damon's justice levels. Findings supported cognitive- developmental…

  14. Building on Treacherous Ground: Sense-of-Purpose Research and Demarcating Problematic Purposes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddington, David I.

    2010-01-01

    Developmental psychologist Damon's (Damon, Menon, & Cotton Bronk, 2003) ongoing research program on youth purpose may have important practical implications for education. However, in the course of the development of this research, two fundamental conceptual questions have not yet been resolved satisfactorily: (a) How should "sense of purpose" be…

  15. A Diversity Visionary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Today's chief diversity officer could be tomorrow's university president, says Dr. Damon Williams. The author profiles Damon Williams who shines as sought-after expert on issues surrounding higher education inclusion. As head of a diversity division with an eight-figure budget at Wisconsin's flagship state university, Williams oversees four…

  16. 76 FR 21857 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-19

    ... Matt McGoogan, Protected Resources Division, NMFS, 501 W. Ocean Blvd., Suite 4200, Long Beach, CA 90802... . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Matt McGoogan at phone number (562) 980-4026 or e-mail:...

  17. Meth (Crank, Ice) Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... runs in some families. Addiction runs in ours." Matt's family has a history of addiction. He realizes ... may be more likely to become addicted. Read Matt's story About the National Institute on Drug Abuse ( ...

  18. 78 FR 37210 - Parker Knoll Hydro, LLC; Notice of Environmental Site Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ..., Parker Knoll Hydro, LLC., 975 South State Highway, Logan, UT 84321; (435) 752-2580. i. FERC Contact: Matt Buhyoff, matt.buhyoff@ferc.gov , (202) 502- 6824. j. This application is not ready for...

  19. Weight-Loss Surgery Sheds Pounds Long Term

    MedlinePlus

    ... for a very long time," said study researcher Matt Maciejewski. He's a professor of medicine at Duke ... have affected the results, the researchers noted. SOURCES: Matt Maciejewski, Ph.D., research career scientist, Durham Veterans ...

  20. 77 FR 46112 - Call for Nominations for Advisory Groups, Oregon/Washington

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ... CONTACT: Matt Christenson, BLM Oregon State Office, 333 Southwest 1st Avenue; Portland, Oregon 97204, or P.... Nominations should be sent to: Matt Christenson, Oregon State Office, BLM, 333 SW. First Avenue,...

  1. 77 FR 25999 - Wickiup Hydro Group, LLC; Oregon; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-02

    ..., 52 FR 47897), the Office of Energy Projects has reviewed Wickiup Hydro Group, LLC's application for..., contact Matt Cutlip by telephone at 503- 552-2762 or by email at matt.cutlip@ferc.gov . Dated: April...

  2. 75 FR 38992 - Meeting of the Department of Defense Military Family Readiness Council (MFRC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... Pentagon Conference Center entrance). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Matt Wiest, Office of the Deputy... attend may contact Mr. Matt Wiest at 571-256-1738 or e-mail FamilyReadinessCouncil@osd.mil no later...

  3. Does Addiction Run in Families?

    MedlinePlus

    ... runs in some families. Addiction runs in ours." Matt's family has a history of addiction. He realizes ... may be more likely to become addicted. Read Matt's story About the National Institute on Drug Abuse ( ...

  4. 77 FR 67359 - Wickiup Hydro Group, LLC, Oregon; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ..., 52 FR 47897), the Office of Energy Projects has reviewed Wickiup Hydro Group, LLC's application for..., contact Matt Cutlip by telephone at 503- 552-2762 or by email at matt.cutlip@ferc.gov . Dated: November...

  5. Get This Kid Out of Here!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sottile, Joseph J.

    1991-01-01

    Elementary school teacher describes his experience with Matt, an emotionally disturbed fourth grader. After Matt acknowledged that he felt nobody liked him, the teacher made a point of paying more attention to him, integrating him into the class, and emphasizing his strengths. Eventually, Matt improved, cooperated, and made friends. (SM)

  6. Molluscum contagiosum

    MedlinePlus

    ... papule. It may become raised to a pearly, flesh-colored nodule. The papule often has a dimple ... Damon IK. Other poxviruses that infect humans. In: Bennett JE, ... and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  7. Comparison of frictional resistance of esthetic and semi-esthetic self-ligating brackets

    PubMed Central

    Kannan, M. S.; Murali, R. V.; Kishorekumar, S.; Gnanashanmugam, K.; Jayanth, V.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The frictional resistance encountered during sliding mechanics has been well established in the orthodontic literature, and it consists of complex interactions between the bracket, archwire, and method of ligation the claim of reduced friction with self-ligating brackets is often cited as a primary advantage over conventional brackets. This study was done to compare and evaluate the frictional forces generated between fully esthetic brackets and semi-aesthetic self-ligating brackets, which are of passive form and SEM (scanning electron microscope) study of the Brackets after Frictional evaluation. Materials and Methods: Two types of self-ligating esthetic brackets, Damon clear (Ormco) made of fully ceramic and Opal (Ultradent Products, USA) and, Two types of self-ligating semi-esthetic brackets, Clarity SL (3M Unitek) and Damon 3 (Ormco) both of which are made of ceramic with metal slot. Arch wires with different dimensions and quality 17 × 25, 19 × 25 Titanium Molybdenum Alloy (TMA) and 17 × 25, 19 × 25 stainless steel that came from plain strands of wire were used for frictional comparison test. The brackets used in this study had 0.022 × 0.028 inch slot. Results: The statistical tests showed significantly smaller amount of kinetic frictional forces is generated by Damon 3 (semi-esthetic self-ligating brackets). For each wire used, Damon 3 displayed significantly lower frictional forces (P ≤ 0.05) than any of the self-ligating system, followed by Opal (fully esthetic self-ligating brackets) which generated smaller amount of frictional forces but relatively on the higher side when compared with Damon 3. Damon clear (fully esthetic self-ligating brackets) generated the maximum amount of kinetic forces with all types of wire dimensions and properties when compared to the other three types of self-ligating system. Clarity SL (semi-esthetic self-ligating brackets) generated smaller amount of frictional forces when compared with Damon clear and relatively

  8. Theory of unidirectional spin heat conveyer

    SciTech Connect

    Adachi, Hiroto Maekawa, Sadamichi

    2015-05-07

    We theoretically investigate the unidirectional spin heat conveyer effect recently reported in the literature that emerges from the Damon-Eshbach spin wave on the surface of a magnetic material. We develop a simple phenomenological theory for heat transfer dynamics in a coupled system of phonons and the Damon-Eshbach spin wave, and demonstrate that there arises a direction-selective heat flow as a result of the competition between an isotropic heat diffusion by phonons and a unidirectional heat drift by the spin wave. The phenomenological approach can account for the asymmetric local temperature distribution observed in the experiment.

  9. 75 FR 41896 - Colville Indian Plywood and Veneer Colville Tribal Enterprise Corporation Wood Products Division...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... FR 32223). At the request of the company and State Agency, the Department reviewed the certification... Richter Logging, Erb Corporation, Francis L. Seymour, Gene Matt Trucking, George Marchand, Havillah... General Contractor, Doran Richter Logging, Erb Corporation, Francis L. Seymour, Gene Matt Trucking,...

  10. 75 FR 41896 - Colville Indian Precision Pine, Colville Tribal Enterprise Corporation, Wood Products Division...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... Division, Omak, Washington. The notice was published in the Federal Register on June 7, 2010 (75 FR 32223... Logging, ERB Corporation, Francis L. Seymour, Gene Matt Trucking, George Marchand, Havillah Logging, Joe..., Doran Richter Logging, Erb Corporation, Francis L. Seymour, Gene Matt Trucking, George...

  11. 78 FR 22209 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ...'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect... Blvd., Room 663, Fort Worth, Texas 76137. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Matt Wilbanks, Aviation... Worth, Texas 76137; telephone (817) 222-5110; email matt.wilbanks@faa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY...

  12. Ten Things to Consider when Teaching Proof

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cirillo, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    As she sat in a high school geometry class and observed a beginning teacher, Matt (a pseudonym), teaching proof for the first time, the author was reminded of her own experiences in teaching formal proof to secondary school students. Matt seemed to struggle with some of the same challenges she encountered when she began teaching proof. For…

  13. Ethics in Physical Activity Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroll, Walter; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Four conference papers on ethics in physical activity research are presented: (1) "Ethical Issues in Human Research" (W. Kroll); (2) "Ethical Issues in Animal Research" (K. Matt); (3) "Oh What a Tangled Web We Have" (M. Safrit); and (4) "Ethical Issues in Conducting and Reporting Research: A Reaction to Kroll, Matt, and Safrit" (H. Zelaznik). (SM)

  14. 78 FR 44050 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation... Meacham Blvd., Room 663, Fort Worth, Texas 76137. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Matt Wilbanks, Aviation... Worth, Texas 76137; telephone (817) 222-5110; email matt.wilbanks@faa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY...

  15. Global Kids Organizing in the Global City: Generation of Social Capital in a Youth Organizing Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Jesús, Anthony; Oviedo, Sofia; Feliz, Scarlett

    2015-01-01

    Positive youth development and youth organizing are strengths-based approaches to the lives, needs, and contributions of young people (Damon & Gregory, 2003). These approaches privilege the voices of youth as they engage with issues in their communities and challenge institutions to respond. Few studies, however, have explored the role of…

  16. 75 FR 62518 - Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application Ready for....: 12717-002. c. Date filed: May 27, 2009. d. Applicant: Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC. e. Name of...). h. Applicant Contact: Damon Zdunich, Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC, 801 Oakland Avenue,...

  17. 75 FR 62516 - Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application Ready for....: 12626-002. c. Date filed: March 31, 2009. d. Applicant: Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC. e. Name of... Power Act, 16 U.S.C. 791 (a)-825(r). h. Applicant Contact: Damon Zdunich, Northern Illinois...

  18. Major Types of Soft Tissue Sarcomas in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... 253-8690 info@curesarcoma.org Follow @CureSarcoma on Twitter 11h Way to go, Damon and @happy2badad! #CureSarcoma ... to the extent permitted by law. Facebook Google+ Twitter LinkedIn YouTube © 2016 Sarcoma Foundation of America | All ...

  19. Self Concept in People with Williams Syndrome and Prader-Willi Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plesa-Skwerer, Daniela; Sullivan, Kate; Joffre, Kristen; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2004-01-01

    This study explored self concepts in matched groups of adolescents and adults with Williams syndrome (WS) and Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), using Damon and Hart's [Self-understanding in Childhood and Adolescence, Cambridge University Press, New York, 1988] semi-structured interview. The main findings were that the WS participants were more…

  20. Especially for High School Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, J. Emory

    1998-12-01

    Secondary School Feature Articles * Demonstrations of the Enormity of Avogadro's Number, by Damon Diemente, p 1565. * The Egg in the Bottle Revisited: Air Pressure and Amontons' Law (Charles' Law), by Louis H. Adcock, p 1567 * CD-ROM Spectroscope: A Simple and Inexpensive Tool for Classroom Demonstrations on Chemical Spectroscopy, by Fumitaka Wakabayashi, Kiyohito Hamada, Kozo Sone, p 1569 Environmental Chemistry Resources

  1. How Do We Teach What Is Right? Research and Issues in Ethical and Moral Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Constance M.

    1996-01-01

    Enhances understanding of values-education issues by addressing research on moral and ethical development. Presents Damon's tripartite distinction among moral reflection, moral emotion, and moral conduct--head, heart, and habit--to show moral development's complexity. Although promoting prosocial behavior is parents' responsibility, literature is…

  2. Parenting Styles as They Relate to Self-Esteem and Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigward, Timothy M.; And Others

    This study was conducted to examine the relationships between parental styles and the components of self-esteem that correspond to Damon and Hart's conceptualization of the self. Specifically, high levels of both parental control and parent acceptance were hypothesized to be positively related to self-esteem. Undergraduate students (N=225) rated…

  3. Volunteerism as Purpose: Examining the Long-Term Predictors of Continued Community Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Carolyn; Mueller, Conrad T.; Ogata, Sachiko

    2013-01-01

    This study frames continued long-term participation in community engagement activities as indicative of a sense of "purpose" as defined by Damon, Menon, and Cotton Bronk (2003). Using data from US-based National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we examined factors that predict whether students participating in civic engagement activities…

  4. "But What about Sharing?" Children's Literature and Moral Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krogh, Suzanne Lowell; Lamme, Linda Leonard

    1985-01-01

    Briefly states the stages of moral development in children (Damon 1977). Discusses ways in which children's literature dealing with social issues can help children reason about topics such as distributive justice. Identifies guidelines for related discussions and lists books and questions that stimulate discussion on sharing. (AS)

  5. The Development of Justice Conceptions and the Unavoidability of the Normative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristjansson, Kristjan

    2003-01-01

    Defines ways normative concerns enter into the design and interpretation of empirical research on children's development of justice conceptions. Emphasizes William Damon's stage theory of development. Suggests an alternative research program based on adjustments between the normative and the empirical. Argues this program must focus on children's…

  6. A Winning Combination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Frank J.

    2006-01-01

    Recently ranked among the 101 most influential minorities in sports by Sports Illustrated magazine, Damon Evans is the first Black athletic director in the history of the Southeastern Conference and one of the youngest athletic directors in the country. He oversees a $65 million budget and a program that includes 21 intercollegiate sports teams,…

  7. The World We Want

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handler, Philip

    1970-01-01

    This is the text of the Damon lecture which the author presented as the keynote address on the theme of the 1970 NSTA Annual Meeting. The great world problems of over-population, hunger, environmental pollution, and war and peace are discussed. The relationships between science, technology, and society are reviewed. The author asserts that…

  8. Exploring defocus matting: nonparametric acceleration, super-resolution, and off-center matting.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Neel; Matusik, Wojciech; Avidan, Shai; Pfister, Hanspeter; Freeman, William T

    2007-01-01

    Defocus matting is a fully automatic and passive method for pulling mattes from video captured with coaxial cameras that have different depths of field and planes of focus. Nonparametric sampling can accelerate the video-matting process from minutes to seconds per frame. In addition a super-resolution technique efficiently bridges the gap between mattes from high-resolution video cameras and those from low-resolution cameras. Off-center matting pulls mattes for an external high-resolution camera that doesn't share the same center of projection as the low-resolution cameras used to capture the defocus matting data. PMID:17388202

  9. Concentrated Livestock Production in the United States: Spatial Analysis of the Impacts on Human Health and the Environment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background Individuals in regular proximity to concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) may be at increased risk for adverse health outcomes due to occupational and environmental exposures including chemical and microbial contaminants in runoff, atmospheric particulate matt...

  10. Methods in mind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brookes, Matt; Singh, Krish

    2013-05-01

    Our ability to image the structure of the human brain is well established, but the technique of magnetoencephalograpy is now providing insights into how the mind actually functions, as Matt Brookes and Krish Singh explain.

  11. Comment on {open_quotes}Confirmation of the Sigma Meson{close_quote}{close_quote}

    SciTech Connect

    Harada, M.; Sannino, F.; Schechter, J.; Sannino, F.

    1997-02-01

    A Comment on the Letter by Nils A. Tornqvist and Matts Roos, Phys.Rev.Lett.{bold 76}, 1575 (1996). The authors of the Letter offer a Reply. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  12. Comment on {open_quote}{open_quote}Confirmation of the Sigma Meson{close_quote}{close_quote}

    SciTech Connect

    Isgur, N.; Speth, J.

    1996-09-01

    A Comment on the Letter by Nils A. T{umlt o}rnqvist and Matts Roos, Phys. Rev. Lett. {bold 76}, 1575 (1996). The authors of the Letter offer a Reply. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  13. 40 CFR 63.1549 - Recordkeeping and reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) through (b)(8) of this section. (1) Production records of the weight and lead content of lead products, copper matte, and copper speiss. (2) Records of the bag leak detection system output. (3)...

  14. 40 CFR 63.1549 - Recordkeeping and reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) through (b)(8) of this section. (1) Production records of the weight and lead content of lead products, copper matte, and copper speiss. (2) Records of the bag leak detection system output. (3)...

  15. The Endurance Bioenergy Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Laible, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Argonne biophysicist Dr. Philip Laible and Air Force Major Matt Michaud talks about he endurance bioenergy reactor—a device that contains bacteria that can convert energy from the sun into fuel molecules.

  16. EAGLE: galaxy evolution with the E-ELT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Chris; Morris, Simon; Swinbank, Mark; Cuby, Jean-Gabriel; Lehnert, Matthew; Puech, Mathieu

    2010-04-01

    Chris Evans, Simon Morris, Jean-Gabriel Cuby, Matt Lehnert, Mark Swinbank and Mathieu Puech describe an instrument that could bring distant galaxies and stellar populations within reach of the European Extremely Large Telescope.

  17. Recovery Act Milestones

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, Matt

    2009-01-01

    Every 100 days, the Department of Energy is held accountable for a progress report on the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. Update at 200 days, hosted by Matt Rogers, Senior Advisor to Secretary Steven Chu for Recovery Act Implementation.

  18. Sulfamethazine sorption to soil: vegetative management, pH, and dissolved organic matter effects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elucidating veterinary antibiotic (VA) interactions with soil is important for assessing and mitigating possible environmental hazards. Objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of vegetative management, soil physical and chemical properties, and manure-derived dissolved organic matte...

  19. Sustainable environmental nanotechnology using nanoparticle surface modification.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reactive nanomaterials used for environmental remediation require surface modification to make them mobile in the subsurface. Nanomaterials released into the environment inadvertently without an engineered surface coating will acquire one (e.g. adsorption of natural organic matt...

  20. NASA Now: Science as Inquiry: Microgravity Drop Tower

    NASA Video Gallery

    In this NASA Now program, Nancy Hall, a research scientist at NASA’s Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio, discusses the different ways gravity on Earth and microgravity in space affect matte...

  1. FINDING THE SOMETHING IN NOTHING.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Formless Infinity: Clinical Explorations of Matte Blanco and Bion. By Riccardo Lombardi. Translated by Karen Christenfeld, Gina Atkinson, Andrea Sabbadini, and Philip Slotkin. London/New York: Routledge, 2016. 282 pp. PMID:27428588

  2. REVIEW OF MATHEMATICAL MODELS FOR ESPS (ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATORS) AND COMPARISON OF THEIR SUCCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper examines several published mathematical models of electrostatic precipitator (ESP) performance--the Deutsch-Anderson, Matts-Ohnfeldt, Cooperman, Robinson, Southern Research, and Research Triangle Institute sectional models--and compares their predictions of ESP performa...

  3. Recovery Act Milestones

    ScienceCinema

    Rogers, Matt

    2013-05-29

    Every 100 days, the Department of Energy is held accountable for a progress report on the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. Update at 200 days, hosted by Matt Rogers, Senior Advisor to Secretary Steven Chu for Recovery Act Implementation.

  4. 78 FR 13873 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    ... Ends: 03/26/2013, Contact: Sandra Shelin 509-527-7265. Revision to FR Notice Published 12/21/2012... Ends: 04/01/2013, Contact: Matt Buhyoff 202-502- 6824. EIS No. 20130047, Draft EIS, NPS, FL,...

  5. 78 FR 51115 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    .... Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February...: Matt Wilbanks, Aviation Safety Engineer, Rotorcraft Certification Office, Rotorcraft Directorate, FAA, 2601 Meacham Blvd., Fort Worth, Texas 76137; telephone (817) 222-5110; email...

  6. 75 FR 80488 - Notice of Cancellation of Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed NextGen Project Near...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ... Register on July 27, 2007 (72 FR 41307). Public scoping meetings were held subsequent to the Notice of...: For further information on the cancellation of this EIS process, contact Matt Marsh, Upper...

  7. 77 FR 40893 - U.S. Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative Final Stakeholder Assessment and Multi...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-11

    ...) 254-5589, email matt.williams@onrr.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On February 24, 2012 (74 FR 11151... (77 FR 26315), Interior published a notice in the Federal Register announcing a public comment...

  8. 78 FR 29774 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Draft Revised Supplement to the Grizzly Bear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On March 22, 2013 we published a Federal Register notice (78 FR 17708) announcing the.... Matt Hogan, Acting Regional Director, Denver, Colorado. BILLING CODE 4310-55-P...

  9. 75 FR 40819 - Records Governing Off-the-Record Communications; Public Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-14

    ... off-the-record communications. Order No. 607 (64 FR 51222, September 22, 1999) requires Commission... Byron Dale Simon). \\4\\ Record of telephone call with Matt Maraglio of New York State Division of...

  10. 77 FR 11526 - Ken Willis; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... regulations, 18 CFR part 380 (Order No. 486, 52 FR 47897), the Office of Energy Projects has reviewed the... TTY, (202) 502-8659. Please contact Matt Buhyoff by telephone at (202) 502-6824 or by email at...

  11. 75 FR 71353 - Airworthiness Directives; Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. Various Models MU-2B Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-23

    ... Directive 2010-10-17, amendment 39-16296 (75 FR 34349), which supersedes Airworthiness Directive (AD) 2006...-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20590. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Matt...

  12. 77 FR 52320 - Notice of Cancellation of Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Interconnection of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ... the EIS in the Federal Register on November 27, 2009 (74 FR 62298), and started the EIS process. A... cancellation of this EIS process, contact Matt Marsh, NEPA Document Manager, Upper Great Plains Regional...

  13. Minimum 10-year Survival of Kerboull Cemented Stems According to Surface Finish

    PubMed Central

    Baqué, François; Lefevre, Nicolas; Kerboull, Marcel

    2008-01-01

    The optimal surface finish for a cemented THA stem is still debated. We hypothesized surface finish would influence survival of Kerboull cemented hip arthroplasties and a matte finish would have lower survival. We reviewed survival of 433 total hip arthroplasties in 395 patients: 284 consecutive patients (310 hips) were enrolled in a prospective, randomized study of polished (165 hips) or matte finish stems (145 hips) and compared to a historical series of satin stems (123 hips) in 111 patients. The satin and matte finish implants had similar geometry but the polished was quadrangular rather than oval. Finish roughnesses were: polished (radius, 0.04 μm), satin (radius, 0.9 μm), and matte (radius, 1.7 μm). The mean age of the patients at the time of the index arthroplasty was 63.6 years. The survival rate at 13 years, using radiographic loosening as the end point, was 97.3% ± 2.6% for polished stems, 97.1% ± 2.1% for satin stems, and 78.9% ± 5.8% for matte stems. The data suggest survival of Kerboull stems was higher with a polished or satin surface finish than with a matte finish. Level of Evidence: Level II, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:18196414

  14. 27. A black & white photograph, 7 1/2" x 10" ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. A black & white photograph, 7 1/2" x 10" on glossy paper. An aerial oblique of central Terre Haute. This view, taken looking north, shows the gas company building on the bottom margin, slightly right of center. On reverse, in black pencil, "Summer, 1965 Arnold-Damon Studio" and in blue ink cursive script, "Aerial Views 1974". Source: Indiana State University Archives. - John T. Beasley Building, 632 Cherry Street (between Sixth & Seventh Streets), Terre Haute, Vigo County, IN

  15. Perception of discomfort during initial orthodontic tooth alignment using a self-ligating or conventional bracket system: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Scott, Paul; Sherriff, Martyn; Dibiase, Andrew T; Cobourne, Martyn T

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the degree of discomfort experienced during the period of initial orthodontic tooth movement using Damon3 self-ligating and Synthesis conventional ligating pre-adjusted bracket systems. Sixty-two subjects were recruited from two centres (32 males and 30 females; mean age 16 years, 3 months) with lower incisor irregularity between 5 and 12 mm and a prescribed extraction pattern, including lower first premolar teeth. These subjects were randomly allocated for treatment with either bracket system. Fully ligated Damon3 0.014-inch Cu NiTi archwires were used for initial alignment in both groups. Following archwire insertion, the subjects were given a prepared discomfort diary to complete over the first week, recording discomfort by means of a 100 mm visual analogue scale at 4 hours, 24 hours, 3 days, and 1 week. The subjects also noted any self-prescribed analgesics that were taken during the period of observation. Data were analysed using repeated measures analysis of variance. There were no statistically significant differences in perceived discomfort levels between the two appliances; discomfort did not differ at the first time point and did not develop differently across subsequent measurement times. Overall, this investigation found no evidence to suggest that Damon3 self-ligating brackets are associated with less discomfort than conventional pre-adjusted brackets during initial tooth alignment, regardless of age or gender. PMID:18339656

  16. Correlation between frictional force and surface roughness of orthodontic archwires.

    PubMed

    Choi, Samjin; Hwang, Eun-Young; Park, Hun-Kuk; Park, Young-Guk

    2015-01-01

    Lateral force microscopy measures the lateral bending of the cantilever depending on the frictional force acting between the tip and surface. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the relationship between the surface roughness and frictional resistance of four archwire and bracket combinations consisting of the 0.016-inch NiTi and 0.019 × 0.025-inch stainless steel archwires interacting clinically with two representative self-ligating brackets, active-type Clippy-C(®) ceramic self-ligating brackets, and passive-type Damon(®) stainless steel self-ligating brackets, using the lateral force microscopy technique. A 0.016-inch NiTi archwire interacting with passive-type Damon(®) stainless steel self-ligating brackets showed the smoothest surface roughness and the lowest frictional resistance compared to other combinations. The archwires interacting with passive-type Damon(®) stainless steel self-ligating brackets showed significantly lower surface roughness and frictional resistance than those interacting with active-type Clippy-C(®) ceramic self-ligating brackets. The frictional force in the in vivo archwire and bracket system increased with increasing surface roughness of the archwire. This positive correlation suggests that surface roughness can be used as an evaluating marker for estimating the efficiency of orthodontic treatment, rather than the direct measurement of frictional force. PMID:26018223

  17. Test Generator for MATLAB Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, Joel

    2011-01-01

    MATLAB Automated Test Tool, version 3.0 (MATT 3.0) is a software package that provides automated tools that reduce the time needed for extensive testing of simulation models that have been constructed in the MATLAB programming language by use of the Simulink and Real-Time Workshop programs. MATT 3.0 runs on top of the MATLAB engine application-program interface to communicate with the Simulink engine. MATT 3.0 automatically generates source code from the models, generates custom input data for testing both the models and the source code, and generates graphs and other presentations that facilitate comparison of the outputs of the models and the source code for the same input data. Context-sensitive and fully searchable help is provided in HyperText Markup Language (HTML) format.

  18. Photo-magnonics: excitation of magnonic materials by femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muenzenberg, Markus

    2010-03-01

    Analogue the photonic crystals, a periodic modification of a magnetic material is prepared by forming an anti-dot lattice for spin waves. The resulting bands are generally complex in the magnetic case because of different dispersions along different magnetization directions (backward volume and Damon-Eshbach mode). They depend on the variation strength of the periodic magnetostatic potential. All-optical femtosecond laser experiments allow the excitation of spin-waves with comparable amplitudes as field pulse and resonance techniques today. It is a promising valuable alternative method to study spin-waves and their relaxation paths in a magnonic material. Laser pulses with a duration of 60 fs from a Ti:Sapphire regenerative laser system are used for optical excitation (pump pulse) as well as for the observation of the subsequent magnetic relaxation (probe pulse). The initial local single spin-flip excitation is subsequently decaying into spin waves lower in energy within the pico- and nanosecond regime over a wide spectral range. In focus of our investigation is the propagation and localization of dipolar surface modes (Damon-Eshbach) in thin Nickel and (low damped) CoFeB film cubic and hexagonal lattice structures. Their mode dispersion is measured by applying different magnetic fields which shift the energy of the mode and allows identifying them. We find well defined modes in the condensed state with a specific pronounced k-value determining the properties of the propagating spin wave. One example for a distinct modification of the magnonic periodic structure is a line defect that can function as a wave guide inside the magnonic gap region. An increased intensity of the Damon Eshbach mode by a factor of two is found in the wave guide region. A study of these wave guides will allow to specifically design the material properties, making magnonic materials the material of choice for advanced spin computing devices.

  19. Nickel Ion Release from Three Types of Nickel-titanium-based Orthodontic Archwires in the As-received State and After Oral Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Ramazanzadeh, Barat Ali; Ahrari, Farzaneh; Sabzevari, Berahman; Habibi, Samaneh

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. This study aimed to investigate release of nickel ion from three types of nickel-titanium-based wires in the as-received state and after immersion in a simulated oral environment. Materials and methods. Forty specimens from each of the single-strand NiTi (Rematitan "Lite"), multi-strand NiTi (SPEED Supercable) and Copper NiTi (Damon Copper NiTi) were selected. Twenty specimens from each type were used in the as-received state and the others were kept in deflected state at 37ºC for 2 months followed by autoclave sterilization. The as-received and recycled wire specimens were immersed in glass bottles containing 1.8 mL of artificial saliva for 28 days and the amount of nickel ion released into the electrolyte was determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results. The single-strand NiTi released the highest quantity of nickel ion in the as-received state and the multi-strand NiTi showed the highest ion release after oral simulation. The quantity of nickelion released from Damon Copper NiTi was the lowest in both conditions. Oral simulation followed by sterilization did not have a significant influence on nickel ion release from multi-strand NiTi and Damon Copper NiTi wires, but single-strand NiTi released statistically lower quantities of nickel ion after oral simulation. Conclusion. The multi-strand nature of Supercable did not enhance the potential of corrosion after immersion in the simulated oral environment. In vitro use of nickel-titanium-based archwires followed by sterilization did not significantly increase the amount of nickel ion released from these wires. PMID:25093049

  20. Generation of propagating backward volume spin waves by phase-sensitive mode conversion in two-dimensional microstructures

    SciTech Connect

    Braecher, T.; Sebastian, T.; Pirro, P.; Westermann, J.; Laegel, B.; Hillebrands, B.; Van de Wiele, B.; Vansteenkiste, A.

    2013-04-01

    We present the generation of propagating backward volume (BV) spin waves in a T shaped Ni{sub 81}Fe{sub 19} microstructure. These waves are created from counterpropagating Damon Eshbach spin waves, which are excited using microstrip antennas. By employing Brillouin light scattering microscopy, we show how the phase relation between the counterpropagating waves determines the mode generated in the center of the structure, and prove its propagation inside the longitudinally magnetized part of the T shaped microstructure. This gives access to the effective generation of backward volume spin waves with full control over the generated transverse mode.

  1. Optical characterization of display screens by speckle-contrast measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozo, Antonio M.; Castro, José J.; Rubiño, Manuel

    2012-10-01

    In recent years, the flat-panel display (FPD) technology has undergone great development. Currently, FPDs are present in many devices. A significant element in FPD manufacturing is the display front surface. Manufacturers sell FPDs with different types of front surface which can be matte (also called anti-glare) or glossy screens. Users who prefer glossy screens consider images shown in these types of displays to have more vivid colours compared with matte-screen displays. However, external light sources may cause unpleasant reflections on the glossy screens. These reflections can be reduced by a matte treatment in the front surface of FPDs. In this work, we present a method to characterize the front surface of FPDs using laser speckle patterns. We characterized three FPDs: a Samsung XL2370 LCD monitor of 23" with matte screen, a Toshiba Satellite A100 laptop of 15.4" with glossy screen, and a Papyre electronic book reader. The results show great differences in speckle contrast values for the three screens characterized and, therefore, this work shows the feasibility of this method for characterizing and comparing FPDs which have different types of front surfaces.

  2. Optical characterization of display screens by speckle patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozo, Antonio M.; Castro, José J.; Rubiño, Manuel

    2013-10-01

    In recent years, flat-panel display (FPD) technology has undergone great development, and now FPDs appear in many devices. A significant element in FPD manufacturing is the display front surface. Manufacturers sell FPDs with different types of front surfaces, which can be matte (also called anti-glare) or glossy screens. Users who prefer glossy screens consider these displays to show more vivid colors compared with matte-screen displays. However, on the glossy screens, external light sources may cause unpleasant reflections that can be reduced by a matte treatment in the front surface. In this work, we present a method to characterize FPD screens using laser-speckle patterns. We characterize three FPDs: a Samsung XL2370 LCD monitor of 23 in. with matte screen, a Toshiba Satellite A100 LCD laptop of 15.4 in. with glossy screen, and a Grammata Papyre 6.1 electronic book reader of 6 in. with ePaper screen (E-ink technology). The results show great differences in speckle-contrast values for the three screens characterized and, therefore, this work shows the feasibility of this method for characterizing and comparing FPDs that have different types of front surfaces.

  3. Phototaxis and polarotaxis hand in hand: night dispersal flight of aquatic insects distracted synergistically by light intensity and reflection polarization.

    PubMed

    Boda, Pál; Horváth, Gábor; Kriska, György; Blahó, Miklós; Csabai, Zoltán

    2014-05-01

    Based on an earlier observation in the field, we hypothesized that light intensity and horizontally polarized reflected light may strongly influence the flight behaviour of night-active aquatic insects. We assumed that phototaxis and polarotaxis together have a more harmful effect on the dispersal flight of these insects than they would have separately. We tested this hypothesis in a multiple-choice field experiment using horizontal test surfaces laid on the ground. We offered simultaneously the following visual stimuli for aerial aquatic insects: (1) lamplit matte black canvas inducing phototaxis alone, (2) unlit shiny black plastic sheet eliciting polarotaxis alone, (3) lamplit shiny black plastic sheet inducing simultaneously phototaxis and polarotaxis, and (4) unlit matte black canvas as a visually unattractive control. The unlit matte black canvas trapped only a negligible number (13) of water insects. The sum (16,432) of the total numbers of water beetles and bugs captured on the lamplit matte black canvas (7,922) and the unlit shiny black plastic sheet (8,510) was much smaller than the total catch (29,682) caught on the lamplit shiny black plastic sheet. This provides experimental evidence for the synergistic interaction of phototaxis (elicited by the unpolarized direct lamplight) and polarotaxis (induced by the strongly and horizontally polarized plastic-reflected light) in the investigated aquatic insects. Thus, horizontally polarizing artificial lamplit surfaces can function as an effective ecological trap due to this synergism of optical cues, especially in the urban environment. PMID:24671223

  4. Basic Media in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrell, John

    Intended as a guide to the use of different media for use in the classroom, this document demonstrates alternative approaches that may be taken to depicting and communicating images and concepts to others. Some basic tools and materials--including a ruler, matte knife, rubber cement, stapler, felt-tip pens, paint brushes, and lettering pens--are…

  5. Coal + Biomass → Liquids + Electricity (with CCS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this presentation, Matt Aitken applies the MARKet ALlocation energy system model to evaluate the market potential for a class of technologies that convert coal and biomass to liquid fuels and electricity (CBtLE), paired with carbon capture and storage (CCS). The technology is ...

  6. Parenting the Gifted: The Ongoing Riddle of Which Nurture is Best for What Nature: Parents Promoting Gifted Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haensly, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    Matt Ridley, an Oxford-trained zoologist and science writer whose latest book is "Nature via Nurture: Genes, Experience, and What Makes Us Human" (2003a), wrote such an impressively clear and fascinating piece on "What Makes You Who You Are" that the author decided to use it to introduce the continuing pursuit of "What do I do to best promote…

  7. Transparent Watercolor. Art Education: 6673.07.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenaway, Jean E.

    An introductory course designed to develop skills and techniques in transparent watercolor offers an exploration of a variety of techniques emphasizing drawing and composition and allowing the student to create and matt his own paintings. Students in grades 7 through 12 develop competencies in flat and graded wash and dry and stipple brush…

  8. Removing Obstacles to Easy Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiske, David

    1994-01-01

    Argues for changes in the way technical communicators design new documentation systems to accommodate readers with impaired vision, mental abilities, and motor control. Recommends use of larger type, careful choice of ink and paper color, use of matte-finish paper, thoughtful page and screen design, and use of contextual aids, priming strategies,…

  9. Effectiveness of the mark v chemical-biological mask worn over spectacles. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Luria, S.M.; Dougherty, J.H. Jr

    1983-07-06

    Leakage into the Mark V Chemical-Biological Mask was measured when it was worn over four different eyeglass frames, the Standard S-10 Navy issue, the Sampson P-3 gold wire and P-3 matte chrome frames, and the Army combat frame. Although there were great differences between frames, there was appreciable leakage with every frame.

  10. Zombie physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ornes, Stephen

    2016-05-01

    What makes for a fun student project that provides useful results, a journal publication and a high-profile conference talk? Stephen Ornes describes how Alex Alemi and Matt Bierbaum spiced up their learning by mixing statistical physics with their love of zombie tales.

  11. Microfilm Viewer Experiments. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reintjes, J. F.; And Others

    Two new designs for microfilm viewers are described. Both viewers are front projection viewers utilizing matte surface display screens. One viewer with an adjustable horizontal screen has a normal magnification rate and is mounted on a desk top. The other viewer has a high (4x) magnification rate in a mini-theater configuration with remote…

  12. CHARACTERIZATION OF EMISSIONS FROM BURNING INCENSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary objective of this study was to improve the characterization of particulate matter emissions from burning incense. Emissions of particulate matter were measured for 23 different types of incense using a cyclone/filter method. Emission rates for PM2.5 (particulate matte...

  13. A comet in the lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bland, Phil A.; Kearsley, Anton T.; Wozniakiewicz, P. J.; Burchell, M. J.; Gounelle, M.; Zolensky, M. E.; Genge, Matt J.

    2007-12-01

    What have Stardust samples told us about the early solar system? Phil A Bland, Anton T Kearsley, P J Wozniakiewicz, M J Burchell, M Gounelle, M E Zolensky and Matt J Genge have some of the answers - and a few more questions.

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF THE METAL FINISHING FACILITY RISK SCREENING TOOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Enhancement of the US Environmental Protection Agency's
    Metal Finishing Facility Risk Screening Tool (MFFRST)

    William M. Barrett Jr, Ph.D., P.E. , P.E.; Paul Harten, Ph.D.1, Matt Lorber , Charles Peck , and Steve Schwartz, P.E., Q.E.P.3

    Recently, the US Environ...

  15. LETTER TO THE EDITOR IN REBUTTAL TO "INFLUENCE OF GLYCEMIC INEX/LOAD ON GLYCEMIC RESPONSE, APPETITE, AND FOOD INTAKE IN HEALTHY HUMANS"

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In their recent article, Alfenas and Mattes(1) conclude that the glycemic index values (GI) of individual foods do not predict glycemic response (GR) to mixed meals, nor influence measures of hunger. Because the observed GR did not differ between diets, the lack of effect on appetite is not surprisi...

  16. Evaluation of Two Positional Candidate Genes on BTA14 for Association with Dry Matter Intake in Beef Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability to genetically select animals that require lower amounts of feed while achieving acceptable levels of production will result in substantial cost savings for cattle producers. The purpose of this study was to identify genes that may be responsible for differences among cattle in dry matte...

  17. NASA Now: Newton’s Laws of Motion: Ballistics

    NASA Video Gallery

    Newton’s Laws of Motion come to life every day in the Ballistics Impact Lab at NASA’s Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio! Aerospace engineer Matt Melis gives a tour of the three gas guns ...

  18. Parents Leading the Way.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Kathy Goetz

    1996-01-01

    This special issue of the Family Resource Coalition Report presents personal experiences and reflections regarding parent involvement and leadership in family support. Articles in this issue are: (1) "The Vaughn Family Center: It's My Story" (Jorge Lara and Matt Oppenheim); (2) "Asking the Right Questions is Key to Developing Parent Advocacy" (Luz…

  19. Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Volumetric Analysis: Novel Tools to Study Thyroid Hormone Disruption and Its Effect on White Matter Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    Humans and wildlife are exposed to environmental pollutants that have been shown to interfere with the thyroid hormone system and thus may affect brain development. Our goal was to expose pregnant rats to propylthiouracil (PTU) to measure the effects of a goitrogen on white matte...

  20. Examination of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Model Performance over the North American and European Domains

    EPA Science Inventory

    The CMAQ modeling system has been used to simulate the air quality for North America and Europe for the entire year of 2006 as part of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII) and the operational model performance of O3, fine particulate matte...

  1. Respiratory Deposition of Fine and Coarse Particles during Moderate Exercise

    EPA Science Inventory

    During exercise breathing patterns change by increasing ventilation rate and this has a direct impact on risk to exposure to ambient pollutants. Although the number of people increases participating in more active life styles, specific data for lung deposition of particulate matt...

  2. SHOOT BIOMASS AND ZINC/CADMIUM UPTAKE FOR HYPERACCUMULATOR AND NON-ACCUMULATOR THLASPI SPECIES IN RESPONSE TO GROWTH ON A ZINC-DEFICIENT CALCAREOUS SOIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, the Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator, Thlaspi caerulescens and a related non-accumulator, Thlaspi arvense, were used to study shoot growth (dry matter production) and Zn and Cd uptake from a severely Zn-deficient calcareous soil supplemented with increasing amounts of Zn and Cd. Shoot dry matte...

  3. 40 CFR 61.174 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... with § 61.172(c), the owner or operator shall use reference methods in 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, as... Arsenic Emissions From Primary Copper Smelters § 61.174 Test methods and procedures. (a) To determine... converter arsenic charging rate as follows: (1) Collect daily grab samples of copper matte and any...

  4. 40 CFR 61.174 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... with § 61.172(c), the owner or operator shall use reference methods in 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, as... Arsenic Emissions From Primary Copper Smelters § 61.174 Test methods and procedures. (a) To determine... converter arsenic charging rate as follows: (1) Collect daily grab samples of copper matte and any...

  5. 40 CFR 61.174 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... with § 61.172(c), the owner or operator shall use reference methods in 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, as... Arsenic Emissions From Primary Copper Smelters § 61.174 Test methods and procedures. (a) To determine... converter arsenic charging rate as follows: (1) Collect daily grab samples of copper matte and any...

  6. 40 CFR 61.174 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... with § 61.172(c), the owner or operator shall use reference methods in 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, as... Arsenic Emissions From Primary Copper Smelters § 61.174 Test methods and procedures. (a) To determine... converter arsenic charging rate as follows: (1) Collect daily grab samples of copper matte and any...

  7. 40 CFR 61.174 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... with § 61.172(c), the owner or operator shall use reference methods in 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, as... Arsenic Emissions From Primary Copper Smelters § 61.174 Test methods and procedures. (a) To determine... converter arsenic charging rate as follows: (1) Collect daily grab samples of copper matte and any...

  8. 75 FR 55816 - Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board Membership

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    .... William Hamel--Assistant Inspector General for Investigative Services. Charles Coe--Assistant Inspector... Number: (202) 619-3148. CIGIE Liaison--Sheri Denkensohn, (202) 205-9492 and Elise Stein, (202) 619-2686.... Johnson, (202) 254-4100. Charles K. Edwards--Deputy Inspector General. Matt Jadacki--Assistant...

  9. Phototaxis and polarotaxis hand in hand: night dispersal flight of aquatic insects distracted synergistically by light intensity and reflection polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boda, Pál; Horváth, Gábor; Kriska, György; Blahó, Miklós; Csabai, Zoltán

    2014-05-01

    Based on an earlier observation in the field, we hypothesized that light intensity and horizontally polarized reflected light may strongly influence the flight behaviour of night-active aquatic insects. We assumed that phototaxis and polarotaxis together have a more harmful effect on the dispersal flight of these insects than they would have separately. We tested this hypothesis in a multiple-choice field experiment using horizontal test surfaces laid on the ground. We offered simultaneously the following visual stimuli for aerial aquatic insects: (1) lamplit matte black canvas inducing phototaxis alone, (2) unlit shiny black plastic sheet eliciting polarotaxis alone, (3) lamplit shiny black plastic sheet inducing simultaneously phototaxis and polarotaxis, and (4) unlit matte black canvas as a visually unattractive control. The unlit matte black canvas trapped only a negligible number (13) of water insects. The sum (16,432) of the total numbers of water beetles and bugs captured on the lamplit matte black canvas (7,922) and the unlit shiny black plastic sheet (8,510) was much smaller than the total catch (29,682) caught on the lamplit shiny black plastic sheet. This provides experimental evidence for the synergistic interaction of phototaxis (elicited by the unpolarized direct lamplight) and polarotaxis (induced by the strongly and horizontally polarized plastic-reflected light) in the investigated aquatic insects. Thus, horizontally polarizing artificial lamplit surfaces can function as an effective ecological trap due to this synergism of optical cues, especially in the urban environment.

  10. 76 FR 35474 - Colville Indian Plywood and Veneer, Colville Tribal Enterprise Corporation Wood Products Division...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ... Notice was published in the Federal Register on June 7, 2010 (75 FR 32223). The certification was amended... certification was published in the Federal Register on July 19, 2010 (75 FR 41896-41897). At the request of the..., Gene Matt Trucking, George Marchand, Havillah Logging, Joe Peone, Joe Somday Logging, Jus'n...

  11. SEASONAL MODELING OF THE EXPORT OF POLLUTANTS FROM NORTH AMERICA USING THE MULTI-SCALE AIR QUALITY SIMULATION PLATFORM (MAQSIP)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Attention in recent years has focused on the trans-boundary transport of ozone and fine particulate matte between the United States and Mexico and Canada and across state boundaries in the United States. In a similar manner, but on a larger spatial scale, the export of pollutant...

  12. Choosing Advocacy. Occasional Paper Series 21

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matt, Megan; Morrison, Danielle

    2008-01-01

    Two articles comprise this publication. In "Beyond the Story-Book Ending: Literature for Young Children About Parental Estrangement and Loss," Megan Matt analyzes over 30 books for young children on the topics of abandonment, estrangement, divorce, and foster care. She observes that this loss might appear as an event within the story or as a fear…

  13. Gifted Asian American Adolescent Males: Portraits of Cultural Dilemmas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kao, Chen-yao; Hebert, Thomas P.

    2006-01-01

    Many gifted Asian American adolescent males face cultural issues that may impact their success. This article presents important cultural dilemmas faced by 2 gifted Asian American young men. Through a qualitative approach, the acculturation experiences of John and Matt, gifted Taiwanese, second generation immigrants, are described.…

  14. Educational Implications of the New Catechism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Alfred; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Seven catechetical theorists and practitioners (Alfred McBride, Berard L. Marthaler, Dan Keller, Mary Ann Johnston, Eileen Loughran, Matt Hayes, and Mike Carotta) discuss the significance of the new "Cathechism of the Catholic Church," which replaces the "Cathechism of the Council of Trent" -- the official catechism of the Catholic Church for the…

  15. Educating Homeless Children. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Sixth Congress, Second Session (Phoenix, Arizona, September 5, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

    This hearing before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce, House of Representatives, which was held in Phoenix, Arizona, focused on ensuring equal educational opportunities for homeless children. After an opening statement by the Honorable Matt Solomon, Subcommittee on Early…

  16. Ex-King of Campus Gossip Turns to Saving Web Reputations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Matt Ivester became notorious on campuses across the country in 2007 for publishing gossip--not about celebrities but about students--on Juicy-Campus, the Web site he created. The site was blocked by some colleges, banned by several student governments, and threatened with legal action by several students who claimed that defaming comments on the…

  17. Facilities Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bete, Tim, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    Presents responses from Matt McGovern, "School Planning and Management's" Maintenance and Operations columnist, on the issue of school facility maintenance. McGovern does not believe schools will ever likely meet acceptable levels of maintenance, nor use infrared thermography for assessing roofs, outsource all maintenance work, nor find a pressing…

  18. 75 FR 18084 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order 13132, Federalism. This interim rule involves no policies..., 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376. Sec. 65.4 0 2. The tables.... New Haven Town of Cheshire (09- October 15, 2009; The Honorable Matt Hall, February 19, 2010 090074...

  19. Intellectualist Aristotelian Character Education: An Outline and Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferkany, Matt; Creed, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Since its resurgence in the 1990s, character education has been subject to a bevy of common criticisms, including that it is didactic and crudely behaviorist; premised on a faulty trait psychology; victim-blaming; culturally imperialist, racist, religious, or ideologically conservative; and many other horrible things besides. Matt Ferkany and…

  20. 78 FR 39310 - Niobrara Confluence and Ponca Bluffs Conservation Areas, NE and SD; Draft Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ... 8, 2013, we published a Federal Register notice (78 FR 20942) announcing the availability of the... background and more information see our AprilS, 2013, notice (78 FR 20942). Document Availability Copies of..., 2013. Matt Hogan, Acting, Regional Director, Mountain Prairie Region, U.S. Fish And Wildlife...

  1. Participation Cartography: Blurring the Boundaries of Space, Autobiography, and Memory by Means of Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sotelo-Castro, Luis Carlos

    2010-01-01

    In this article, I focus on the empowering potential of a participatory practice that frames walking as integral to a performative, self-mapping, and aesthetic process. By discussing my experience as a participant in "Ere Be Dragons" (2007), a work by the artists collective Active Ingredient (Rachel Jacobs and Matt Watkins), I set out some new…

  2. "You Get Pushed Back": The Social Construction of Educational Success and Failure and Its Implications for Educational Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fassett, Deanna L.

    One of Matt Groening's popular cartoons offers two different perspectives regarding the purpose and value of formal education in America: "Bongo's" belief that a good education must consist of an engaging classroom environment and proper emotional, intellectual, and structural resources; and "Bongo's" father's belief that a good education is a…

  3. Graphing Inequalities, Connecting Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Switzer, J. Matt

    2014-01-01

    Students often have difficulty with graphing inequalities (see Filloy, Rojano, and Rubio 2002; Drijvers 2002), and J. Matt Switzer's students were no exception. Although students can produce graphs for simple inequalities, they often struggle when the format of the inequality is unfamiliar. Even when producing a correct graph of an…

  4. Making Connections through the Lens of Blue Man Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Pam

    2005-01-01

    The Blue Man Group began in 1988 when friends Matt Goldman, Phil Stanton, and Chris Wink all living in New York--voiced their increasing disgruntlement and boredom with urban life. With a gut feeling that creativity and a tribal-like community could prosper in their metropolitan environment, the friends decided to confront the issues rather than…

  5. Is It Possible for Teachers to Take Students beyond a Rudimentary Introduction to an Activity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This brief article presents student and professor responses to the question: Is it possible for teachers to take students beyond a rudimentary introduction to an activity? [Responses to this question were provided by Kevin Reilly, Terra Marjonen, Scott A. G. M. Crawford, Jason S. Whitworth, Brianne Mahoney, Erin Sereduk, Sam Thielen, Matt Lassen,…

  6. Academies and How to Beat Them: "Our Pits, Our Jobs, but Not Our Schools"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Matt

    2005-01-01

    The author of this paper, Matt Bailey, has taught for six years at Northcliffe School, Doncaster, where he is the NUT representative, and Head of Science. A member of the NUT's national working-party on academies, he outlines here the first successful campaign waged by a local community to thwart the imposition of a privately-run Academy in place…

  7. 78 FR 26715 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-08

    ... ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will... CONTACT: Matt Wilbanks, Aviation Safety Engineer, Rotorcraft Certification Office, Rotorcraft Directorate, FAA, 2601 Meacham Blvd., Fort Worth, Texas 76137; telephone (817) 222-5110; email...

  8. Making the Case for Primary Care and Mandated Suicide Prevention Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuber, Jennifer; Quinnett, Paul

    2013-01-01

    During its 2012 legislative session, Washington State passed ESHB 2366, otherwise known as the Matt Adler Suicide Assessment, Treatment, and Management Act of 2012. ESHB 2366 is a significant legislative achievement as it is the first law in the country to require certain health professionals to obtain continuing education in the assessment,…

  9. 75 FR 80293 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Model AS 350 B, BA, B1, B2, B3, and D, and Model...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ... (817) 222-5051, fax (817) 222-5961. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: This AD, Amendment 39-16487 (75 FR 65222... published on October 22, 2010 (75 FR 65222), on pages 65223 and 65224, Table 1 containing the part numbers... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: DOT/FAA Southwest Region, Matt Wilbanks, ASW-111, Aviation Safety...

  10. Special Class Placement - A Continuing Debate. Papers Presented at the Annual International Convention of the Council for Exceptional Children (48th, Chicago, Illinois, April 19-25, 1970).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Exceptional Children, Arlington, VA.

    The report of the proceedings of the 1970 convention of the Council for Exceptional Children includes papers on the arguments for and against special class placement. Discussions concern themselves with love of life, truth, and others by Matt Trippe, the efficacy of special placement for educable mentally handicapped children by John W. Kidd, and…

  11. 75 FR 40851 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993; Advanced Media...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-14

    ... pursuant to section 6(b) of the Act on June 29, 2000 (65 FR 40127). The last notification was filed with...(b) of the Act on May 6, 2010 (75 FR 24971). Patricia A. Brink, Deputy Director of Operations..., NJ; Cristiano Nuernberg (individual member), Cambridge, MA; Matt Pearcey (individual member),...

  12. 75 FR 43809 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. PA-28, PA-32, PA-34, and PA-44 Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ..., 2009 (74 FR 56138). The NPRM proposed to detect and correct any incorrectly assembled control wheel... 12866; 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... comment. Comment Issue No. 3: Date Range of Manufacturing Error M. Hefter, Barry Rogers, Matt...

  13. Educating "The Simpsons": Teaching Queer Representations in Contemporary Visual Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padva, Gilad

    2008-01-01

    This article analyzes queer representation in contemporary visual media and examines how the episode "Homer's Phobia" from Matt Groening's animation series "The Simpsons" can be used to deconstruct hetero- and homo-sexual codes of behavior, socialization, articulation, representation and visibility. The analysis is contextualized in the…

  14. Still Teaching for America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronholz, June

    2013-01-01

    In this article, June Kronholz talks to co-chief executives of Teach For America (TFA), Elisa Villanueva Beard and Matt Kramer about how TFA has managed to keep its forward momentum for almost 24 years. Four primary reasons are discussed: (1) Common Vision, Regional Innovation; (2) Data-Driven Improvement; (3) Global Reach; and (4) Stoking the…

  15. Investing in Futures: A New Compact for Public Higher Education. Luncheon Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Matthew

    2005-01-01

    On November 17, 2005, the Center for Educational Innovation-Public Education Association (CEI-PEA) had the honor of hosting Matthew Goldstein, Chancellor of the City University of New York (CUNY), as speaker at its luncheon series. Matt has spoken at a number of its luncheons since he took leadership of CUNY approximately six years ago and began…

  16. Redesigning Grading--Districtwide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsley, Matt

    2014-01-01

    In the first years of his career as a high school math teacher, Matt Townsley was bothered by the fact that his grades penalized students for not learning content quickly. A student could master every standard, but low quiz grades and homework assignments they didn't complete because they didn't understand would lower their final grade,…

  17. 77 FR 69847 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-21

    ... published on May, 16, 2012 (77 FR 29034) included a reduction in the reporting requirement related to..., 2012 (77 FR 29034). Form Number: CMS-10455 (OCN: 0938-New); Frequency: Occasionally; Affected Public... Matt Klischer at 410-786-7488. For all other issues call 410-786-1326.) 2. Type of...

  18. Good & Plenty: It Used to Be Hard to Find Good Graphic Novels for the K-4 Crowd. My, How Times Have Changed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Just a couple of years ago, it was tough to find good graphic novels for the K-4 crowd. Sure, there were some standout selections, such as Andy Runton's "Owly", Jimmy Gownley's "Amelia Rules!", and Jennifer and Matt Holm's "Babymouse", but they were lonely exceptions in a barren landscape. Things quickly changed when publishers realized that the…

  19. The History Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, Matt; Brady, Ann

    2005-01-01

    Matt Estes, a social studies teacher, mentions the main instructional goals for his students like understanding the importance of proper citation and attribution presenting the Machiavelli project that deals with the skills he wants his students to develop and the course material that must be covered. In addition, Ann Brady, a library media…

  20. Minimization of Copper Losses in Copper Smelting Slag During Electric Furnace Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coursol, Pascal; Cardona Valencia, Nubia; Mackey, Phillip; Bell, Stacy; Davis, Boyd

    2012-11-01

    In the quest to achieve the highest metal recovery during the smelting of copper concentrates, this study has evaluated the minimum level of soluble copper in iron-silicate slags. The experimental work was performed under slag-cleaning conditions for different levels of Fe in the matte and for a range of Fe/SiO2 ratios in the slag. All experiments were carried out under conditions where three phases were present (copper-matte-slag), which is the condition typically prevailing in many slag-cleaning electric furnaces. The %Fe in the electric furnace matte was varied between 0.5 wt.% and 11 wt.%, and two different Fe/SiO2 ratios in the slag were used (targeted values were 1.4 and 1.6). All experiments were performed at 1200°C. From thermodynamic considerations, from industrial experience, and from the results obtained in this study, the minimum soluble copper content in the electric furnace slag is expected to be near 0.55 wt.% Cu. This level does not account for a portion of the copper present as mechanically entrained matte/metal droplets. Taking this into account, the current authors believe an overall copper level in discard slag between 0.7 wt.% and 0.8 wt.% can be obtained with optimal operating conditions. For these conditions, the copper losses in the slag are roughly 75% as dissolved copper and 25% as entrained matte and copper. Such conditions include operating the electric furnace at metallic copper saturation, maintaining the %Fe in the electric furnace matte between 6 wt.% and 9 wt.%, not exceeding a slag temperature of 1250°C, and controlling the Fe/SiO2 ratio in the smelting furnace slag at ≤1.5. In addition, magnetite reduction needs to be performed efficiently during the slag-cleaning cycle so as to maintain a total magnetite content of ≤7 wt.% in the discard slag. The authors further consider that under exceptionally well-controlled conditions, a copper content in electric furnace discard slag between 0.55 wt.% and 0.7 wt.% can be obtained, by

  1. Non-reciprocity of dipole-exchange spin waves in thin ferromagnetic films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostylev, M.

    2013-02-01

    The non-reciprocity and asymmetry of the modal profiles for dipole-exchange spin waves have been investigated theoretically. We were interested in the most important case for applications: the waves propagating in in-plane magnetized ferromagnetic films at a right angle to the applied magnetic field. For large-magnetic moment ferromagnetic metallic films with typical thicknesses 10-60 nm which are largely considered promising for magnonic and spintronic applications, the contribution of exchange energy to the total magnetic energy is important; however, their dynamics is most often treated using the exchange-free Damon-Eschbach approach. In this work, we show that although this approach is valid for treatment of wave dispersion, it fails to properly describe such fundamental property of wave excitations as wave modal profiles. Namely we show that the fundamental mode of the dipole-exchange spectrum is localized at the film surface opposite to the surface of localization of the exchange-free Damon-Eshbach surface wave. This "anomalous" localization of the wave does not affect the non-reciprocity of spin wave excitation by microstrip and coplanar transducers but may be detected in other types of experiments.

  2. Comparative study of torque expression among active and passive self-ligating and conventional brackets

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Érika Mendonça Fernandes; Valarelli, Fabrício Pinelli; Fernandes, João Batista; Cançado, Rodrigo Hermont; de Freitas, Karina Maria Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to compare torque expression in active and passive self-ligating and conventional brackets. Methods: A total of 300 segments of stainless steel wire 0.019 x 0.025-in and six different brands of brackets (Damon 3MX, Portia, In-Ovation R, Bioquick, Roth SLI and Roth Max) were used. Torque moments were measured at 12°, 24°, 36° and 48°, using a wire torsion device associated with a universal testing machine. The data obtained were compared by analysis of variance followed by Tukey test for multiple comparisons. Regression analysis was performed by the least-squares method to generate the mathematical equation of the optimal curve for each brand of bracket. Results: Statistically significant differences were observed in the expression of torque among all evaluated bracket brands in all evaluated torsions (p < 0.05). It was found that Bioquick presented the lowest torque expression in all tested torsions; in contrast, Damon 3MX bracket presented the highest torque expression up to 36° torsion. Conclusions: The connection system between wire/bracket (active, passive self-ligating or conventional with elastic ligature) seems not to interfere in the final torque expression, the latter being probably dependent on the interaction between the wire and the bracket chosen for orthodontic mechanics. PMID:26691972

  3. Evaluation of Friction in Orthodontics Using Various Brackets and Archwire Combinations-An in Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sujeet; Hamsa P.R, Rani; Ahmed, Sameer; Prasanthma; Bhatnagar, Apoorva; Sidhu, Manreet; Shetty, Pramod

    2014-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to compare frictional resistance which was produced between conventional brackets (0.022 slot Otho-Organiser) and self ligating brackets (active Forestadent and passive Damon III) by using various arch wire combinations (0.016 Niti, 0.018 Niti, 0.017 x 0.025 SS and 0.019 x 0.025 SS). Methods: An experimental model which consisted of 5 aligned stainless steel 0.022-in brackets was used to assess frictional forces which were produced by SLBs (self ligating brackets) and CELs (conventional elastomeric ligatures) with use of 0.016 nickel titanium, 0.018 nickel titanium, 0.017 X 0.025”stainless steel and 0.019 X 0.025”stainless steel wires. Statistical analysis: One way ANOVA test was used to study the effect of the bracket type, wire alloy and section on frictional resistance test . Results: Conventional brackets produced highest levels of friction for all bracket/archwire combinations. Both Damon III and Forestadent brackets were found to produce significantly lower levels of friction when they were compared with elastomerically tied conventional brackets. Conclusion: SLBs are valid alternatives for low friction during sliding mechanics. PMID:24995241

  4. Evaluation of rotational control and forces generated during first-order archwire deflections: a comparison of self-ligating and conventional brackets.

    PubMed

    Pesce, Robert E; Uribe, Flavio; Janakiraman, Nandakumar; Neace, William P; Peterson, Donald R; Nanda, Ravindra

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the activation and deactivation forces generated during first-order archwire deflections when different sizes and types of NiTi wires are paired with conventional and self-ligating brackets (SLBs) and to evaluate the rotational control between these same archwire and bracket combinations. Four maxillary premolar SLBs (Damon 3MX, SmartClip, Carriere, and In-Ovation R) and one conventional twin bracket (Victory) were paired with seven archwires [0.014, 0.016, 0.018, 0.016 × 0.022 Ultra Therm (thermal A f 80-90°F), 0.016, 0.018 SPEED Supercable, and 0.017 × 0.025 Turbo]. A cantilever test design was used and 10 trials per bracket/archwire combination were performed. Load/deflection data were captured over 4 mm fi rst-order archwire deflections. Forces generated were compared across all bracket/archwire combinations. Among thermal archwires, for a given deflection, forces increased with increasing archwire size. Supercable archwires displayed less force than their same size thermal counterparts. The Turbo archwire generated force values in between those of 0.016 and 0.018 thermal archwires. Rotational control improved with increasing wire dimensions and for a given archwire size. Rotational control among brackets generally ranked as follows: In-Ovation R > SmartClip > Carriere and Damon 3MX. PMID:22045693

  5. Asperger through the looking glass: an exploratory study of self-understanding in people with Asperger's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Paul; Skirrow, Paul; Hare, Dougal Julian

    2012-05-01

    Hobson (Autism and the development of mind. Lawrence Erlbaum, Hove, UK 1993) has proposed that the cognitive and linguistic disabilities that characterise autism result from abnormalities in inter-subjective engagement during infancy, which in turn results in impaired reflective self-awareness. The aim of the present study was to test Hobson's hypothesis by examining self-understanding in Asperger's syndrome (AS) using Damon and Hart's (Self-understanding in childhood and adolescence. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1988) model of self-concept. Ten participants with Asperger's syndrome were compared with ten non AS controls using the Self-understanding Interview (Damon and Hart in Self-understanding in Childhood and Adolescence. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1988). The study found that the Asperger's group demonstrated impairment in the "self-as-object" and "self-as-subject" domains of the Self-understanding Interview, which supported Hobson's concept of an impaired capacity for self-awareness and self-reflection in people with ASD. The results are discussed with reference to previous research regarding the development of self-understanding in people with ASD. PMID:21647793

  6. Interface boundary conditions for dynamic magnetization and spin wave dynamics in a ferromagnetic layer with the interface Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Kostylev, M.

    2014-06-21

    In this work, we derive the interface exchange boundary conditions for the classical linear dynamics of magnetization in ferromagnetic layers with the interface Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (IDMI). We show that IDMI leads to pinning of dynamic magnetization at the interface. An unusual peculiarity of the IDMI-based pinning is that its scales as the spin-wave wave number. We incorporate these boundary conditions into an existing numerical model for the dynamics of the Damon-Eshbach spin wave in ferromagnetic films. IDMI affects the dispersion and the frequency non-reciprocity of the travelling Damon-Eshbach spin wave. For a broad range of film thicknesses L and wave numbers, the results of the numerical simulations of the spin wave dispersion are in a good agreement with a simple analytical expression, which shows that the contribution of IDMI to the dispersion scales as 1/L, similarly to the effect of other types of interfacial anisotropy. Suggestions to experimentalists how to detect the presence of IDMI in a spin wave experiment are given.

  7. Design of an Orthodontic Torque Simulator for Measurement of Bracket Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melenka, G. W.; Nobes, D. S.; Major, P. W.; Carey, J. P.

    2013-12-01

    The design and testing of an orthodontic torque simulator that reproduces the effect of archwire rotation on orthodontic brackets is described. This unique device is capable of simultaneously measuring the deformation and loads applied to an orthodontic bracket due to archwire rotation. Archwire rotation is used by orthodontists to correct the inclination of teeth within the mouth. This orthodontic torque simulator will provide knowledge of the deformation and loads applied to orthodontic bracket that will aide clinicians by describing the effect of archwire rotation on brackets. This will also impact that design on new archwirebracket systems by providing an assessment of performance. Deformation of the orthodontic bracket tie wings is measured using a digital image correlation process to measure elastic and plastic deformation. The magnitude of force and moments applied to the bracket though the archwire is also measured using a six-axis load cell. Initial tests have been performed on two orthodontic brackets of varying geometry to demonstrate the measurement capability of the orthodontic torque simulator. The demonstration experiment shows that a Damon Q bracket had a final plastic deformation after a single loading of 0.022 mm while the Speed bracket deformed 0.071 mm. This indicates that the Speed bracket plastically deforms 3.2 times more than the Damon Q bracket for similar magnitude of applied moment. The demonstration experiment demonstrates that bracket geometry affect the deformation of orthodontic brackets and this difference can be detected using the orthodontic torque simulator.

  8. Evaluation of the Friction of Self-Ligating and Conventional Bracket Systems

    PubMed Central

    Tecco, Simona; Di Iorio, Donato; Nucera, Riccardo; Di Bisceglie, Beatrice; Cordasco, Giancarlo; Festa, Felice

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This in vitro study evaluated the friction (F) generated by aligned stainless steel (SS) conventional brackets, self-ligating Damon MX© brackets (SDS Ormco, Glendora, California, USA), Time3© brackets (American Orthodontics, Sheboygan, Wisconsin, USA), Vision LP© brackets (American Orthodontics), and low-friction Slide© ligatures (Leone, Firenze, Italy) coupled with various SS, nickel-titanium (NiTi), and beta-titanium (TMA) archwires. Methods: All brackets had a 0.022-inch slot, and the orthodontic archwires were 0.014-inch, 0.016-inch, 0.014×0.025-inch, 0.018×0.025-inch, and 0.019×0.025-inch NiTi; 0.017×0.025-inch TMA; and 0.019×0.025-inch SS. Each bracket-archwire combination was tested 10 times. In the test, 10 brackets of the same group were mounted in alignment on a metal bar. The archwires moved through all the 10 brackets at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min (each run lasted approximately 5 min). The differences among 5 groups of brackets were analyzed through the Kruskal-Wallis test, and a Mann-Whitney test was calculated as post hoc analysis. The P value was set at 0.05. Results: Coupled with 0.014-inch NiTi and 0.016-inch NiTi, Victory Series© brackets generated the greatest F, while Damon MX© and Vision LP© brackets generated the lowest (P<.05); no significant differences were observed between Time3© brackets and Slide© ligatures. Coupled with all the rectangular archwires, Victory Series© brackets, Slide© ligatures, and Vision LP© self-ligating brackets generated significantly lower F than did Time3© and Damon MX© self-ligating brackets (P<.05). Conclusions: These findings suggest that self-ligating brackets are a family of brackets that, in vitro, can generate different levels of F when coupled with thin or thick, rectangular, or round archwires. Clinical conclusions based on our results are not possible due to the limitations of the experimental conditions. PMID:21769273

  9. Copper foils with gradient structure in thickness direction and different roughnesses on two surfaces fabricated by double rolling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xi-yong; Liu, Xue-feng; Zou, Wen-jiang; Xie, Jian-xin

    2013-12-01

    Copper foils with gradient structure in thickness direction and different roughnesses on two surfaces were fabricated by double rolling. The two surface morphologies of double-rolled copper foils are quite different, and the surface roughness values are 61 and 1095 nm, respectively. The roughness value of matt surface can meet the requirement for bonding the resin matrix with copper foils used for flexible printed circuit boards, thus may omit traditional roughening treatment; the microstructure of double-rolled copper foils demonstrates an obviously asymmetric gradient feature. From bright surface to matt surface in thickness direction, the average grain size first increases from 2.3 to 7.4 μm and then decreases to 3.6 μm; compared with conventional rolled copper foils, the double-rolled copper foils exhibit a remarkably increased bending fatigue life, and the increased range is about 16.2%.

  10. Failure Criterion For Isotropic Time Dependent Materials Which Accounts for Multi-Axial Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, D. E.; Anderson, G. L.; Macon, D. J.

    2003-01-01

    The Space Shuttle's Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) nozzle program has recently conducted testing to characterize the effects of multi-axial loading, temperature and time on the failure characteristics of TIGA321, EA913NA, EA946 (three filled epoxy adhesives). From the test data a "Multi-Axial, Temperature, and Time Dependent" or MATT failure criterion was developed. It is shown that this criterion simplifies, for constant load and constant load rate conditions, into a form that can be easily used for stress analysis. Failure for TIGA321 and EA913NA are characterized below their glass transition temperature. Failure for EA946 is characterized for conditions that pass through its glass transition. The MATT failure criterion is shown to be accurate for a wide range of conditions for these adhesives.

  11. Ceramic colorant from untreated iron ore residue.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Oscar Costa; Bernardin, Adriano Michael

    2012-09-30

    This work deals with the development of a ceramic colorant for glazes from an untreated iron ore residue. 6 mass% of the residue was added in suspensions (1.80 g/cm(3) density and 30s viscosity) of white, transparent and matte glazes, which were applied as thin layers (0.5mm) on engobeb and not fired ceramic tiles. The tiles were fired in laboratory roller kiln in a cycle of 35 min and maximum temperatures between 1050 and 1180°C. The residue and glazes were characterized by chemical (XRF) and thermal (DTA and optical dilatometry) analyses, and the glazed tiles by colorimetric and XRD analyses. The results showed that the colorant embedded in the transparent glaze results in a reddish glaze (like pine nut) suitable for the ceramic roof tile industry. For the matte and white glazes, the residue has changed the color of the tiles with temperature. PMID:22795839

  12. Spring Research Festival and NICBR Collaboration Winners Announced | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Carolynne Keenan, Contributing Writer, and Ashley DeVine, Staff Writer The winners of the 2014 Spring Research Festival (SRF), held May 7 and 8, were recognized on July 2, and included 20 NCI at Frederick researchers: Matthew Anderson, Victor Ayala, Matt Bess, Cristina Bergamaschi, Charlotte Choi, Rami Doueiri, Laura Guasch Pamies, Diana Haines, Saadia Iftikhar, Maria Kaltcheva, Wojciech Kasprzak, Balamurugan Kuppusamy, James Lautenberger, George Lountos, Megan Mounts, Uma Mudunuri, Martha Sklavos, Gloriana Shelton, Alex Sorum, and Shea Wright.

  13. Surface-Streamline Flow Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langston, L.; Boyle, M.

    1985-01-01

    Matrix of ink dots covers matte surface of polyester drafting film. Film placed against wind-tunnel wall. Layer of methyl salicylate (oil of wintergreen) sprayed over dotted area. Ink dot streaklines show several characteristics of flow, including primary saddle point of separations, primary horseshoe vortex and smaller vortex at cylinder/ endwall junction. Surface streamline flow visualization technique suitable for use in low-speed windtunnels or other low-speed gas flows.

  14. Recrystallization as a Growth Mechanism for Whiskers on Plastically Deformed Sn Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Jaewon; Kang, Sung K.; Lee, Jae-Ho; Kim, Keun-Soo; Lee, Hyuck Mo

    2015-10-01

    Sn whiskers are becoming a serious reliability issue in Pb-free electronic packaging applications. Sn whiskers are also observed in connector parts of electronics as well as on electroplated surface finishes. Sn whiskers found in connector parts are known to behave differently from the typical Sn whiskers reported on electroplated Sn surfaces. In this study, Sn whiskers on plastically deformed Sn-rich films were investigated to understand their growth behavior to establish mitigation strategies for Sn-rich films used in connectors. Therefore, a microhardness indentation technique was applied to plastically deform electroplated matte Sn samples, followed by temperature/humidity (T/H) testing (30°C, dry air). Each sample was examined by scanning electron microscopy at regular time intervals up to 4000 h. Various morphologies of Sn whiskers on plastically deformed matte Sn films were observed, and their growth statistics and kinetics are analyzed in terms of the plating conditions and plastic deformation by using transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and the focused ion-beam technique. Sn whiskers were observed on plastically deformed regions of thin (2- μm) and thick (10- μm) matte Sn films, regardless of the current density applied. Plastic deformation was found to promote whisker formation on matte Sn films. A high density of dislocations and newly formed fine Sn subgrains were observed in deformed grains. In addition, the recrystallized grains and Cu6Sn5 intermetallic compound grew further with increasing time. Finally, a growth mechanism for deformation-induced Sn whiskers is proposed based on a recrystallization model combined with the formation of Cu6Sn5.

  15. Overlays for classroom and optometric use.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, A

    1994-01-01

    Perceptual distortion of printed text can sometimes be reduced by placing upon the page a sheet of coloured plastic (overlay). The colour that best reduces the distortion differs from one individual to another and may need to be selected with precision. A set of overlays has been developed that samples the CIE UCS diagram systematically. The overlays are robust and have a matte finish. They can be combined in an intuitive way to provide a wide range of chromaticities. PMID:7512256

  16. Role of microstructure in caustic stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 690

    SciTech Connect

    Mertz, D.A.; Duda, P.T.; Pica, P.N.; Spahr, G.L.

    1995-12-31

    Alloy 690 has been selected for nuclear heat transport system tubing application in recent commercial reactor plants due to its resistance to multiple types of corrosion attack. Typical corn final heat treatments for this material are a mill-anneal (MA, approximately 1,070 C) to completely dissolve the carbides and develop the final grain structure plus a thermal treatment (TT, approximately 700 C) to precipitate carbides at the grain boundaries. Tubing with grain boundary carbides and no or few intragranular carbides has been found resistant to intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) in caustic environments. In this work, first, Alloy 690 plate was subjected to a variety of MA and MA-TT heat treatments to create microstructures of carbide-decorated grain boundaries and undecorated boundaries. Caustic IGSCC test results were consistent with tubing data. Second, experiments were conducted to understand the mechanism by which caustic-corrosion resistance is imparted to Alloy 690 by grain boundary carbides. Tubing with a fully-developed MA-TT carbide microstructure was strained and heat-treated to create a mixed microstructure of new grain boundaries with no carbide precipitate decoration, intermixed with intragranular carbide strings from prior grain boundaries. Caustic SCC performance of this material was identical to that of material with the MA-TT carbide-decorated grain boundaries. This work suggests that the fundamental cause of good IGSCC resistance of MA-TT Alloy 690 in caustic does not derive solely from grain boundary carbides. It is suggested that matrix strength, as measured by yield stress, could be a controlling factor.

  17. Too Sure Too Soon: When Choosing Should Wait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helkowski, Camille; Sheahan, Matt

    2004-01-01

    Matt Sheahan was an excellent college student. When he was in his sophomore year, he was on the dean's list and he found how easy it was for him to coast through college. By senior year, he had already had a radio show, a million friends, and credit cards he paid off at the end of each month. He was also one of the few people who came into college…

  18. Eight Is Enough

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Michelle

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author narrates her story as a job-market widow. In each of the last eight years, she has seen how her husband, Matt, has gone on the market in search of a tenure-track position in English. She describes their eight-year stretch on the academic job market as a harsh tutor, but it has taught them things about themselves, their…

  19. Youthwork as Modern Dance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krueger, Mark

    2004-01-01

    Nicole and Matt are working together at Nexus, a group home, with six youth: Cathie, Maria, Ramon, Ron, Cheryl, and Nick. Nexus is a two-story house in the center of a medium-sized city. It is an older building that has been decorated and enlivened with the youth's art and music. Their story is presented in this article to illustrate how youthwork…

  20. Recognizing blurred, nonfrontal, illumination, and expression variant partially occluded faces.

    PubMed

    Punnappurath, Abhijith; Rajagopalan, Ambasamudram Narayanan

    2016-09-01

    The focus of this paper is on the problem of recognizing faces across space-varying motion blur, changes in pose, illumination, and expression, as well as partial occlusion, when only a single image per subject is available in the gallery. We show how the blur, incurred due to relative motion between the camera and the subject during exposure, can be estimated from the alpha matte of pixels that straddle the boundary between the face and the background. We also devise a strategy to automatically generate the trimap required for matte estimation. Having computed the motion via the matte of the probe, we account for pose variations by synthesizing from the intensity image of the frontal gallery a face image that matches the pose of the probe. To handle illumination, expression variations, and partial occlusion, we model the probe as a linear combination of nine blurred illumination basis images in the synthesized nonfrontal pose, plus a sparse occlusion. We also advocate a recognition metric that capitalizes on the sparsity of the occluded pixels. The performance of our method is extensively validated on synthetic as well as real face data. PMID:27607514

  1. Infinite sets and double binds.

    PubMed

    Arden, M

    1984-01-01

    There have been many attempts to bring psychoanalytical theory up to date. This paper approaches the problem by discussing the work of Gregory Bateson and Ignacio Matte-Blanco, with particular reference to the use made by these authors of Russell's theory of logical types. Bateson's theory of the double bind and Matte-Blanco's bilogic are both based on concepts of logical typing. It is argued that the two theories can be linked by the idea that neurotic symptoms are based on category errors in thinking. Clinical material is presented from the analysis of a middle-aged woman. The intention is to demonstrate that the process of making interpretations can be thought of as revealing errors in thinking. Changes in the patient's inner world are then seen to be the result of clarifying childhood experiences based on category errors. Matte-Blanco's theory of bilogic and infinite experiences is a re-evaluation of the place of the primary process in mental life. It is suggested that a combination of bilogic and double bind theory provides a possibility of reformulating psychoanalytical theory. PMID:6544755

  2. Effects of surface reflectance on local second order shape estimation in dynamic scenes.

    PubMed

    Dövencioğlu, Dicle N; Wijntjes, Maarten W A; Ben-Shahar, Ohad; Doerschner, Katja

    2015-10-01

    In dynamic scenes, relative motion between the object, the observer, and/or the environment projects as dynamic visual information onto the retina (optic flow) that facilitates 3D shape perception. When the object is diffusely reflective, e.g. a matte painted surface, this optic flow is directly linked to object shape, a property found at the foundations of most traditional shape-from-motion (SfM) schemes. When the object is specular, the corresponding specular flow is related to shape curvature, a regime change that challenges the visual system to determine concurrently both the shape and the distortions of the (sometimes unknown) environment reflected from its surface. While human observers are able to judge the global 3D shape of most specular objects, shape-from-specular-flow (SFSF) is not veridical. In fact, recent studies have also shown systematic biases in the perceived motion of such objects. Here we focus on the perception of local shape from specular flow and compare it to that of matte-textured rotating objects. Observers judged local surface shape by adjusting a rotation and scale invariant shape index probe. Compared to shape judgments of static objects we find that object motion decreases intra-observer variability in local shape estimation. Moreover, object motion introduces systematic changes in perceived shape between matte-textured and specular conditions. Taken together, this study provides a new insight toward the contribution of motion and surface material to local shape perception. PMID:25645965

  3. Selective responses to specular surfaces in the macaque visual cortex revealed by fMRI.

    PubMed

    Okazawa, Gouki; Goda, Naokazu; Komatsu, Hidehiko

    2012-11-15

    The surface properties of objects, such as gloss, transparency and texture, provide important information about the material characteristics of objects in our visual environment. However, because there have been few reports on the neuronal responses to surface properties in primates, we still lack information about where and how surface properties are processed in the primate visual cortex. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the cortical responses to specular surfaces in the macaque visual cortex. Using computer graphics, we generated images of specular and matte objects and prepared scrambled images by locally randomizing the luminance phases of the images with specular and matte objects. In experiment 1, we contrasted the responses to specular images with those to matte and scrambled images. Activation was observed along the ventral visual pathway, including V1, V2, V3, V4 and the posterior inferior temporal (IT) cortex. In experiment 2, we manipulated the contrasts of images and found that the activation observed in these regions could not be explained solely by the global or local contrasts. These results suggest that image features related to specular surface are processed along the ventral visual pathway from V1 to specific regions in the IT cortex. This is consistent with previous human fMRI experiments that showed surface properties are processed in the ventral visual pathway. PMID:22885246

  4. A novel framework for automatic trimap generation using the Gestalt laws of grouping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Kabbany, Ahmad; Dubois, Eric

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we are concerned with unsupervised natural image matting. Due to the under-constrained nature of the problem, image matting algorithms are usually provided with user interactions, such as scribbles or trimaps. This is a very tedious task and may even become impractical for some applications. For unsupervised matte calculation, we can either adopt a technique that supports an unsupervised mode for alpha map calculation, or we may automate the process of acquiring user interactions provided for a matting algorithm. Our proposed technique contributes to both approaches and is based on spectral matting. The latter is the only technique in the literature that supports automatic matting but it suffers from critical limitations among which is the unreliable unsupervised operation. Stressing on that drawback, spectral matting may produce erroneous mattes in the absence of guiding scribbles or trimaps. Using the Gestalt laws of grouping, we propose a method that automatically produces more truthful mattes than spectral matting. In addition, it can be used to generate trimaps, eliminating the required user interactions and making it possible to harness the powers of matting techniques that are better than spectral matting but don't support unsupervised operation. The main contribution of this research is the introduction of the Gestalt laws of grouping to the matting problem.

  5. Variations in pore structure of reaction-bonded silicon nitride /RBSN/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danforth, S. C.; Richman, M. H.

    1979-01-01

    A discussion is presented relating the observed pore structures (sizes) to the reaction mechanisms in reaction-bonded silicon nitride (alpha- and beta-Si3N4) on the basis of information available from the literature. While the techniques for reducing the residual macroporosity are quite well-developed for reaction-bonded Si3N4 (RBSN), it is important to be aware of three other orders of magnitude for porosity present in RBSN as a result of the nitriding process itself, and how these types of nitridation-induced porosity can be controlled. For ease of description, these types of nitridation-induced porosity are called micropores, nanopores, and picopores in order of their decreasing size. A scanning electron micrograph is presented, showing nanopores isolated in the unreacted Si and picopores in the alpha-matte Si3N4. The assumption that an alpha-matte growth mechanism is active explains the occurrence of nanopores and their partial filling with alpha-Si3N4, leaving behind very fine-grained alpha-matte and picopores.

  6. Design options for a bunsen reactor.

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Robert Charles

    2013-10-01

    This work is being performed for Matt Channon Consulting as part of the Sandia National Laboratories New Mexico Small Business Assistance Program (NMSBA). Matt Channon Consulting has requested Sandia's assistance in the design of a chemical Bunsen reactor for the reaction of SO2, I2 and H2O to produce H2SO4 and HI with a SO2 feed rate to the reactor of 50 kg/hour. Based on this value, an assumed reactor efficiency of 33%, and kinetic data from the literature, a plug flow reactor approximately 1%E2%80%9D diameter and and 12 inches long would be needed to meet the specification of the project. Because the Bunsen reaction is exothermic, heat in the amount of approximately 128,000 kJ/hr would need to be removed using a cooling jacket placed around the tubular reactor. The available literature information on Bunsen reactor design and operation, certain support equipment needed for process operation and a design that meet the specification of Matt Channon Consulting are presented.

  7. Assessment of substratum effect on the distribution of two invasive Caulerpa (Chlorophyta) species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Infantes, Eduardo; Terrados, Jorge; Orfila, Alejandro

    2011-02-01

    Two-year monitoring of the invasive marine Chlorophyta Caulerpa taxifolia and Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea shows the great influence of substratum on their spatial distribution. The cover of C. taxifolia and C. racemosa was measured in shallow (<8 m) areas indicating that these species are more abundant in rocks with photophilic algae and in the dead matte of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica than in sand or inside the P. oceanica meadow. A short-term experiment comparing the persistence of C. taxifolia and C. racemosa planted either in a model of dead matte of P. oceanica or in sand shows that the persistence of these species was higher in the dead matte model than in sand. Correlative evidence suggests that C. taxifolia and C. racemosa tolerate near-bottom orbital velocities below 15 cm s -1 and that C. taxifolia cover declines at velocities above that value. These results contribute to understand the process of invasion of these Caulerpa species predicting which substrata would be more susceptible to be invaded and to the adoption of appropriate management strategies.

  8. The effects of surface gloss and roughness on color constancy for real 3-D objects.

    PubMed

    Granzier, Jeroen J M; Vergne, Romain; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2014-01-01

    Color constancy denotes the phenomenon that the appearance of an object remains fairly stable under changes in illumination and background color. Most of what we know about color constancy comes from experiments using flat, matte surfaces placed on a single plane under diffuse illumination simulated on a computer monitor. Here we investigate whether material properties (glossiness and roughness) have an effect on color constancy for real objects. Subjects matched the color and brightness of cylinders (painted red, green, or blue) illuminated by simulated daylight (D65) or by a reddish light with a Munsell color book illuminated by a tungsten lamp. The cylinders were either glossy or matte and either smooth or rough. The object was placed in front of a black background or a colored checkerboard. We found that color constancy was significantly higher for the glossy objects compared to the matte objects, and higher for the smooth objects compared to the rough objects. This was independent of the background. We conclude that material properties like glossiness and roughness can have significant effects on color constancy. PMID:24563527

  9. Brillouin light scattering study of spin waves in NiFe/Co exchange spring bilayer films

    SciTech Connect

    Haldar, Arabinda; Banerjee, Chandrima; Laha, Pinaki; Barman, Anjan

    2014-04-07

    Spin waves are investigated in Permalloy(Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20})/Cobalt(Co) exchange spring bilayer thin films using Brillouin light scattering (BLS) experiment. The magnetic hysteresis loops measured by magneto-optical Kerr effect show a monotonic decrease in coercivity of the bilayer films with increasing Py thickness. BLS study shows two distinct modes, which are modelled as Damon-Eshbach and perpendicular standing wave modes. Linewidths of the frequency peaks are found to increase significantly with decreasing Py layer thickness. Interfacial roughness causes to fluctuate exchange coupling at the nanoscale regimes and the effect is stronger for thinner Py films. A quantitative analysis of the magnon linewidths shows the presence of strong local exchange coupling field which is much larger compared to macroscopic exchange field.

  10. KSC-04PD-1776

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. United Space Alliance workers Dallas Lewis (left) and Damon Petty clean up hurricane debris inside the Thermal Protection System Facility (TPSF). Much of the roof was torn off by Hurricane Frances as it passed over Central Florida during the Labor Day weekend. Undamaged equipment has been moved to the RLV hangar at KSC. The TPSF, which creates the TPS tiles, blankets and all the internal thermal control systems for the Space Shuttles, is almost totally unserviceable at this time after losing approximately 35 percent of its roof. The maximum wind at the surface from Hurricane Frances was 94 mph from the northeast at 6:40 a.m. on Sunday, September 5. It was recorded at a weather tower located on the east shore of the Mosquito Lagoon near the Cape Canaveral National Seashore. The highest sustained wind at KSC was 68 mph.

  11. KSC-04PD-1777

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. United Space Alliance workers Dallas Lewis (left) and Damon Petty carry out equipment from the Thermal Protection System Facility (TPSF). The TPSF, which creates the TPS tiles, blankets and all the internal thermal control systems for the Space Shuttles, is almost totally unserviceable at this time after losing approximately 35 percent of its roof due to Hurricane Frances, which blew across Central Florida Sept. 4-5. Undamaged equipment is being moved to the RLV hangar at KSC. The maximum wind at the surface from Hurricane Frances was 94 mph from the northeast at 6:40 a.m. on Sunday, September 5. It was recorded at a weather tower located on the east shore of the Mosquito Lagoon near the Cape Canaveral National Seashore. The highest sustained wind at KSC was 68 mph.

  12. Theory of spin wave modes in tangentially magnetized thin cylindrical dots: A variational approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zivieri, R.; Stamps, R. L.

    2006-04-01

    We present a theoretical study of the quantized spin wave spectrum in tangentially magnetized cylindrical thin magnetic dots. Low-energy spin waves in magnetic dots may be subdivided into four families: Damon-Eshbach like, backward like, mixed, and end modes. Frequencies and mode profiles are found using a variational approach based on carefully chosen trial functions. The variational method has the advantage that it can be used for large dots that are not practical to treat using numerical finite-element methods. Results for small dots generated using the variational method compare well with micromagnetic results. The variational method is demonstrated with an analysis of data obtained from experimental Brillouin light scattering data from saturated thin cylindrical Permalloy dots. Our approach allows for the definition of parameters describing important contributions to the spin wave energies. As an example, we show that a variational parameter γ provides a measure of spin wave localization near the dot border for one class of modes.

  13. A scenario for magnonic spin-wave traps

    PubMed Central

    Busse, Frederik; Mansurova, Maria; Lenk, Benjamin; von der Ehe, Marvin; Münzenberg, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Spatially resolved measurements of the magnetization dynamics on a thin CoFeB film induced by an intense laser pump-pulse reveal that the frequencies of resulting spin-wave modes depend strongly on the distance to the pump center. This can be attributed to a laser generated temperature profile. We determine a shift of 0.5 GHz in the spin-wave frequency due to the spatial thermal profile induced by the femtosecond pump pulse that persists for up to one nanosecond. Similar experiments are presented for a magnonic crystal composed of a CoFeB-film based antidot lattice with a Damon Eshbach mode at the Brillouin zone boundary and its consequences are discussed. PMID:26279466

  14. A scenario for magnonic spin-wave traps.

    PubMed

    Busse, Frederik; Mansurova, Maria; Lenk, Benjamin; von der Ehe, Marvin; Münzenberg, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Spatially resolved measurements of the magnetization dynamics on a thin CoFeB film induced by an intense laser pump-pulse reveal that the frequencies of resulting spin-wave modes depend strongly on the distance to the pump center. This can be attributed to a laser generated temperature profile. We determine a shift of 0.5 GHz in the spin-wave frequency due to the spatial thermal profile induced by the femtosecond pump pulse that persists for up to one nanosecond. Similar experiments are presented for a magnonic crystal composed of a CoFeB-film based antidot lattice with a Damon Eshbach mode at the Brillouin zone boundary and its consequences are discussed. PMID:26279466

  15. Effect of anti-thyroxin autoantibodies on radioimmunoassay of free thyroxin in serum

    SciTech Connect

    Konishi, J.; Iida, Y.; Kousaka, T.; Ikekubo, K.; Nakagawa, T.; Torizuka, K.

    1982-06-01

    Serum thyroxin was nearly or completely undetectable by radioimmunoassay in an elderly patient with Graves' disease being treated with methimazole. Abnormal binding of thyroxin to antibodies of the IgG variety was shown, the association constant of the complex being 8.0 x 10/sup 8/ L/mol and the binding capacity 6.3 nmol/g of IgG. The effect of the antibody on results of radioimmunoassay of free thyroxin was studied with three commercial kits, two of which (Clinical Assays and Damon Diagnostics) gave essentially the same values as did equilibrium dialysis. The third (Amersham International) gave falsely high results because the /sup 125/I-labeled thyroxin derivative used in the kit was bound by the autoantibody.

  16. Interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction studied by time-resolved scanning Kerr microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Körner, H. S.; Stigloher, J.; Bauer, H. G.; Hata, H.; Taniguchi, T.; Moriyama, T.; Ono, T.; Back, C. H.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the influence of the interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) on the propagation of Damon-Eshbach spin waves in micrometer-sized Pt(2 nm)/Co(0.4 nm)/Py(5 nm)/MgO(5 nm) stripes. We use time-resolved scanning Kerr microscopy to image the spin waves excited by a microwave antenna and to directly access their dispersion. The presence of an interfacial DMI manifests itself in an asymmetry in the dispersion for counterpropagating spin waves which reverses sign upon reversal of the direction of the externally applied magnetic field. From this asymmetry we deduce the strength of the interfacial DMI. Micromagnetic simulations confirm that the observed difference in the wave numbers and the signature of the asymmetry are characteristic for the occurrence of an interfacial DMI at the Pt/Co interface and cannot be explained by the uniaxial perpendicular magnetic anisotropy field originating from the same interface.

  17. Femtosecond laser excitation of multiple spin waves and composition dependence of Gilbert damping in full-Heusler Co{sub 2}Fe{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}Al films

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Chuyuan; Li, Shufa; Lai, Tianshu E-mail: jhzhao@red.semi.ac.cn; Meng, Kangkang; Zhao, Jianhua E-mail: jhzhao@red.semi.ac.cn

    2013-12-02

    Spin-wave dynamics in 30 nm thick Co{sub 2}Fe{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}Al full-Heusler films is investigated using time-resolved magneto-optical polar Kerr spectroscopy under an external field perpendicular to films. Damon-Eshbach (DE) and the first-order perpendicular standing spin-wave (PSSW) modes are observed simultaneously in four samples with x = 0, 0.3, 0.7, and 1. The frequency of DE and PSSW modes does not apparently depend on composition x, but damping of DE mode significantly on x and reaches the minimum as x = 0.7. The efficient coherent excitation of DE spin wave exhibits the promising application of Co{sub 2}Fe{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 0.7}Al films in magnonic devices.

  18. Growth and spin-wave properties of thin Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} films on Si substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Stognij, A. I.; Novitskii, N. N.; Lutsev, L. V. Bursian, V. E.

    2015-07-14

    We describe synthesis of submicron Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} (YIG) films sputtered on Si substrates and present results of the investigation of ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) and spin waves in YIG/SiO{sub 2}/Si structures. It is found that decrease of the annealing time leads to essential reduction of the FMR linewidth ΔH and, consequently, to reduction of relaxation losses of spin waves. Spin-wave propagation in in-plane magnetized YIG/SiO{sub 2}/Si structures is studied. We observe the asymmetry of amplitude-frequency characteristics of the Damon-Eshbach spin waves caused by different localizations of spin waves at the free YIG surface and at the YIG/SiO{sub 2} interface. Growth of the generating microwave power leads to spin-wave instability and changes amplitude-frequency characteristics of spin waves.

  19. Comparative assessment of forces generated during simulated alignment with self-ligating and conventional brackets.

    PubMed

    Pandis, Nikolaos; Eliades, Theodore; Bourauel, Christoph

    2009-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to comparatively assess the magnitude and direction of forces and moments generated from different bracket systems, during the initial levelling and alignment stage of orthodontic treatment. Three types of brackets were used: Orthos2 (Ormco), Damon2 (Ormco), and In-Ovation R (GAC). The brackets were bonded on resin replicas models of a patient's crowded mandibular arch, and a 0.014 inch Damon archform CuNiTi (Ormco) wire was inserted. The model was mounted on the Orthodontic Measurement and Simulation System (OMSS) and six static measurements were taken at the initial crowded state per bracket for the lateral incisor, canine, and first premolar. A total of 10 repetitions were performed for each measurement, with new brackets and archwires used for each trial. The forces and moments generated were registered directly on the OMSS software and were statistically analyzed using a one-way analysis of variance separately for each dental arch location and force component. Group differences were further analyzed with Tukey's post hoc comparisons test at the 0.05 significance level. The lingually inclined, crowded lateral incisor presented an extrusive and buccal movement and showed the lowest force in the vertical direction, whereas the self-ligating group of brackets generated the highest force in the buccolingual direction. The moments applied by the three bracket systems followed the general trend shown for forces; in the vertical axis, the self-ligating brackets exerted lower forces than their conventional counterpart. This was modified in the buccolingual direction where, in most instances, the self-ligating appliances applied higher moments compared with the conventional bracket. In most cases, the magnitude of forces and moments ranged between 30-70 cN and 2-6 N mm, respectively. However, maximum forces and moments developed at the lateral incisor were almost four times higher than the average. PMID:19349418

  20. Influence of Friction Resistance on Expression of Superelastic Properties of Initial NiTi Wires in "Reduced Friction" and Conventional Bracket Systems.

    PubMed

    Reznikov, Natalie; Har-Zion, Gilad; Barkana, Idit; Abed, Yosef; Redlich, Meir

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of resistance to sliding on expression of superelastic properties of NiTi wires. Methods and Materials. A three-point bending test was performed for 0.014 NiTi wire engaged in self-ligating (Damon, SmartClip, In-Ovation) and conventional brackets (Victory) ligated with regular and reduced friction modules (Slide). The wire was deflected in the buccal direction and allowed to straighten. The maximum load, unloading plateau and unloading capacity were registered. Results. The lowest activation load was required in the active self-ligating group (In-Ovation 2.2 ± 0.4 N) and reduced friction module group (Victory/Slide 2.9 ± 0.4 N), followed by the passive self-ligating systems (Damon 3.6 ± 0.7 N, SmartClip 3.7 ± 0.4 N). Higher activation load was obtained in the conventionally ligated group (Victory/module 4.5 ± 0.4 N). Unloading plateau phase with the load magnitude ranging from 1.27 ± 0.4 N (In-Ovation) to 1.627 ± 0.4 N (Slide) was distinct in all groups but one (Victory). Conclusions. Higher friction at flanking points reduces the net force delivered by the wire. Unloading plateau phase of NiTi load-deflection curve disappears in the conventionally ligated group thus indicating to an incomplete expression of NiTi superelastic properties. A rigid passive bracket clip amplifies resistance to sliding in an active configuration and produces a permanent deflection of the wire. PMID:20981153

  1. A study of the frictional characteristics of four commercially available self-ligating bracket systems.

    PubMed

    Budd, Steven; Daskalogiannakis, John; Tompson, Bryan D

    2008-12-01

    The objective of this investigation was to assess and compare the in vitro tribological behaviour of four commercially available self-ligating bracket systems. The frictional characteristics of the Damon3, Speed, In-Ovation R, and Time2 bracket systems were studied using a jig that mimics the three-dimensional movements that occur during sliding mechanics. Each bracket system was tested on the following stainless steel archwires: 0.016 x 0.022, 0.019 x 0.025, 0.020 round, and 0.021 x 0.021 inch Speed D-wire. An Instron testing machine with a 50 N load cell was used to measure the frictional resistance for each bracket/tooth assembly. The crosshead speed was set at a constant rate of 1 mm/minute, and each typodont tooth was moved along a fixed wire segment for a distance of 8 mm. Descriptive statistical analysis for each bracket/archwire combination with regard to frictional resistance was performed with a two-way, balanced analysis of variance for bracket type and wire size. The Damon3 bracket consistently demonstrated the lowest frictional resistance to sliding, while the Speed bracket produced significantly (P < 0.001) more frictional resistance than the other brackets tested for any given archwire. The self-ligation design (passive versus active) appears to be the primary variable responsible for the frictional resistance generated by self-ligating brackets during translation. Passively ligated brackets produce less frictional resistance; however, this decreased friction may result in decreased control compared with actively ligated systems. PMID:18974067

  2. Investigation of Sn Whisker Growth in Electroplated Sn and Sn-Ag as a Function of Plating Variables and Storage Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Jaewon; Kang, Sung K.; Lee, Jae-Ho; Kim, Keun-Soo; Lee, Hyuck Mo

    2014-01-01

    Sn whiskers are becoming a serious reliability issue in Pb-free electronic packaging applications. Among the numerous Sn whisker mitigation strategies, minor alloying additions to Sn have been proven effective. In this study, several commercial Sn and Sn-Ag baths of low-whisker formulations are evaluated to develop optimum mitigation strategies for electroplated Sn and Sn-Ag. The effects of plating variables and storage conditions, including plating thickness and current density, on Sn whisker growth are investigated for matte Sn, matte Sn-Ag, and bright Sn-Ag electroplated on a Si substrate. Two different storage conditions are applied: an ambient condition (30°C, dry air) and a high-temperature/high-humidity condition (55°C, 85% relative humidity). Scanning electron microscopy is employed to record the Sn whisker growth history of each sample up to 4000 h. Transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and focused ion beam techniques are used to understand the microstructure, the formation of intermetallic compounds (IMCs), oxidation, the Sn whisker growth mechanism, and other features. In this study, it is found that whiskers are observed only under ambient conditions for both thin and thick samples regardless of the current density variations for matte Sn. However, whiskers are not observed on Sn-Ag-plated surfaces due to the equiaxed grains and fine Ag3Sn IMCs located at grain boundaries. In addition, Sn whiskers can be suppressed under the high-temperature/high-humidity conditions due to the random growth of IMCs and the formation of thick oxide layers.

  3. Dominant factors of the laser gettering of silicon wafers

    SciTech Connect

    Bokhan, Yu. I. E-mail: yuibokhan@gmail.com; Kamenkov, V. S.; Tolochko, N. K.

    2015-02-15

    The laser gettering of silicon wafers is experimentally investigated. The typical gettering parameters are considered. The surfaces of laser-treated silicon wafers are investigated by microscopy. When studying the effect of laser radiation on silicon wafers during gettering, a group of factors determining the conditions of interaction between the laser beam and silicon-wafer surface and affecting the final result of treatment are selected. The main factors determining the gettering efficiency are revealed. Limitations on the desired value of the getter-layer capacity on surfaces with insufficiently high cleanness (for example, ground or matte) are established.

  4. Optical characterization of OLED displays with touch screens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cropper, A. D.; Feldman, Rodney D.; Siwinski, Michael; Kilmer, Kathleen

    2002-02-01

    Brightness and color resolution, wider viewing angles, lower power consumption, and a thin aspect ratio are all well understood physical characteristics of organic light emitting diode (OLED) displays, an up-and-coming flat panel displays. Increasing numbers of applications of flat panel displays are being commercialized with touch screens. This paper will describe the optical characteristics of mating a touch screen with a full-color active matrix OLED display. We will quantify the OLED optical properties with respect to touch screens with matte finishes and anti-reflective topcoats, and with and without the use of a polarizer on the OLEDs top glass.

  5. Precise speed measurement using an interlaced scan image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Zhao

    2011-02-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel scheme for speed measurement of a moving object with translational motion. First, this scheme uses one interlaced scan CCD camera to obtain only one interlaced scan image of a moving object. The odd and even field images are extracted and resized. Second, image matte is applied in these two field images to extract the moving object's silhouettes. The distance between two centroids in the two silhouettes is then computed. Finally, the object's speed is calculated using the above distance and the camera imaging parameters. Simulation and real experiments prove that our scheme can fulfill the speed measurement for translational motion accurately.

  6. Experimental Investigation and Modeling of Copper Smelting Slags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starodub, Konstantin; Kuminova, Yaroslava; Dinsdale, Alan; Cheverikin, Vladimir; Filichkina, Vera; Saynazarov, Abdukahhar; Khvan, Alexandra; Kondratiev, Alex

    2016-07-01

    Effective extraction of copper from sulfide ores requires careful operation of a copper smelter, which in turn depends very much on chemistry of the feed and resulted slag and matte. For example, chemical composition of copper smelting slags has to be in a certain range to ensure that their properties are within specific limits. Disobeying these rules may lead to complications in smelting operation, poor quality of the copper products, and premature shutdown of the copper smelter. In the present paper the microstructure and phase composition of slags from the Almalyk copper flash smelter were investigated experimentally and then modeled thermodynamically to evaluate potential ways of improvement and optimization of the copper smelting process and its products. The slag samples were taken at different stages of the copper smelting process: on slag tapping, after slag transportation to a deposition site, and at the site. Experimental investigation included the XRD, XRF, and SEM techniques, which were also confirmed by the traditional wet chemistry analysis. Thermodynamic modeling was carried out using thermochemical software package MTDATA, which enables thermodynamic and physical properties of the matte, slag, and gas phases to be calculated in a wide range of temperatures, pressures, and chemical compositions. In addition, slag viscosities and corresponding matte settling rates were estimated using the modified Urbain and Utigard-Warczok models, and the Hadamard-Rybczynski equation, respectively. It was found that the copper content in the slags may vary significantly depending on the location of slag sampling. Cu was found to be present as sulfide particles, almost no Cu was found to be dissolved in the slag. Analysis of microstructure and phase composition showed that major phase found in the samples is fayalite, while other phases are complex spinels (based on magnetite), different sulfides, and a glass-like phase. Thermodynamic calculations demonstrated the

  7. Patient experience key in hospice refurb.

    PubMed

    Beach, Matt

    2015-03-01

    A major design and build scheme which has seen the inpatient unit at St. Luke's Hospice in Sheffield extended and refurbished to provide a more comfortable and homely environment, and bring the facilities up to the best 21st century standards, has benefited significantly from both high quality architecture and stakeholder commitment. The result, reports Matt Beach, associate at scheme architects, Race Cottam Associates, is an even better and 'more personal'environment for delivery of end-of-life-care at a facility that, as one patient puts it,'has something very rare and special about it'. PMID:26268027

  8. Ceramics with decorative aspect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voica, Cezara

    2009-08-01

    The last decades brought the development of bone china techniques used for producing the decorative articles. These products can be glazed with a transparent and thin glaze layer, even with more special (decorative) ones which gives new aesthetic aspect. The present article presents the results obtained after the studies performed for matte glazes for decorative bone china. As microcrystalization agent were used zinc oxide; the content of this oxide bring some changes of the basic glaze thus the chemical composition must be adjusted as the fluxes would present the desired properties after the heating process.

  9. The scale-up and design of pressure hydrometallurgical process plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, F.; Vardill, W. D.; Trytten, L.

    1999-09-01

    This article reviews more than 45 years of experience in the scale-up of pressure hydrometallurgical processes, from the pioneering collaboration between Sherritt and Chemical Construction Company to current process development by their successor, Dynatec Corporation. The evolution of test work is discussed, from traditional pilot-plant operations using semicommercial equipment to small scale or minipiloting with equipment several thousand times smaller than commercial units. Nickel, uranium, zinc, and gold processes have been developed and successfully implemented in worldwide operations treating a variety of feed materials, including concentrates, ores, and mattes. Data on test work duration and the ramp-up of commercial plants are presented.

  10. INTRODUCTION: Focus on Climate Engineering: Intentional Intervention in the Climate System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-12-01

    Geoengineering techniques for countering climate change have been receiving much press recently as a `Plan B' if a global deal to tackle climate change is not agreed at the COP15 negotiations in Copenhagen this December. However, the field is controversial as the methods may have unforeseen consequences, potentially making temperatures rise in some regions or reducing rainfall, and many aspects remain under-researched. This focus issue of Environmental Research Letters is a collection of research articles, invited by David Keith, University of Calgary, and Ken Caldeira, Carnegie Institution, that present and evaluate different methods for engineering the Earth's climate. Not only do the letters in this issue highlight various methods of climate engineering but they also detail the arguments for and against climate engineering as a concept. Further reading Focus on Geoengineering at http://environmentalresearchweb.org/cws/subject/tag=geoengineering IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science is an open-access proceedings service available at www.iop.org/EJ/journal/ees Focus on Climate Engineering: Intentional Intervention in the Climate System Contents Modification of cirrus clouds to reduce global warming David L Mitchell and William Finnegan Climate engineering and the risk of rapid climate change Andrew Ross and H Damon Matthews Researching geoengineering: should not or could not? Martin Bunzl Of mongooses and mitigation: ecological analogues to geoengineering H Damon Matthews and Sarah E Turner Toward ethical norms and institutions for climate engineering research David R Morrow, Robert E Kopp and Michael Oppenheimer On the possible use of geoengineering to moderate specific climate change impacts Michael C MacCracken The impact of geoengineering aerosols on stratospheric temperature and ozone P Heckendorn, D Weisenstein, S Fueglistaler, B P Luo, E Rozanov, M Schraner, L W Thomason and T Peter The fate of the Greenland Ice Sheet in a geoengineered

  11. Comparison of the superelasticity of different nickel-titanium orthodontic archwires and the loss of their properties by heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Bellini, Humberto; Moyano, Javier; Gil, Javier; Puigdollers, Andreu

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this work is to describe and compare mechanical properties of eight widely used nickel-titanium orthodontic wires under uniform testing conditions and to determine the influence of the heat treatments on the loss of the superelasticity. Ten archwires from two batches from eight different manufacturers were evaluated. A three-point bending test was performed, in accordance with ISO 15841:2006, on 80 round nickel-titanium archwire segments of 0.016 inch. To obtain a load-deflection curve, the centre of each segment was deflected to 3.1 mm and then unloaded until force became zero. On the unloading curve, deflection at the end of the plateau and forces delivered at that point, and at 3, 2, 1 and 0.5 mm of deflection, were recorded. Plateau slopes were calculated from 3 and from 2 mm of deflection. Data obtained were statistically analysed to determine inter-brand, intra-brand and inter-batch differences (P < 0.05). The results show that at 2 mm of deflection, maximum differential force exerted among brands [Nitinol SuperElastic (1.999N)-Sentalloy M (1.001 N)] was 0.998 N (102 gf). The Nitinol SuperElastic plateau slope (0.353 N/mm) was the only one that was statistically different from 2 mm of deflection, as compared with the other brand values (0.129-0.155 N/mm). Damon Optimal Force described the gentlest slope from 3 mm of deflection (0.230 N/mm) and one of the longest plateaus. Titanol and Orthonol showed the most notable intra-brand differences, whereas inter-batch variability was significant for Nitinol (Henry Schein), Euro Ni-Ti and Orthonol. Superelasticity degree and exerted forces differed significantly among brands. Superelasticity of Nitinol SuperElastic was not observed, while Damon Optimal Force and Proclinic Ni-Ti Superelástico (G&H) showed the most superelastic curves. Intra-brand and inter-batch differences were observed in some brands. In all cases, the heat treatment at 600 °C produces precipitation in the

  12. Lulwoana sp., a dark septate endophyte in roots of Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile seagrass.

    PubMed

    Torta, L; Lo Piccolo, S; Piazza, G; Burruano, S; Colombo, P; Ottonello, D; Perrone, R; Di Maida, G; Pirrotta, M; Tomasello, A; Calvo, S

    2015-03-01

    Posidonia oceanica is the most common, widespread and important monocotyledon seagrass in the Mediterranean Basin, and hosts a large biodiversity of species, including microorganisms with key roles in the marine environment. In this study, we ascertain the presence of a fungal endophyte in the roots of P. oceanica growing on different substrata (rock, sand and matte) in two Sicilian marine meadows. Staining techniques on root fragments and sections, in combination with microscope observations, were used to visualise the fungal presence and determine the percentage of fungal colonisation (FC) in this tissue. In root fragments, statistical analysis of the FC showed a higher mean in roots anchored on rock than on matte and sand. In root sections, an inter- and intracellular septate mycelium, producing intracellular microsclerotia, was detected from the rhizodermis to the vascular cylinder. Using isolation techniques, we obtained, from both sampling sites, sterile, slow-growing fungal colonies, dark in colour, with septate mycelium, belonging to the dark septate endophytes (DSEs). DNA sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region identified these colonies as Lulwoana sp. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Lulwoana sp. as DSE in roots of P. oceanica. Moreover, the highest fungal colonisation, detected in P. oceanica roots growing on rock, suggests that the presence of the DSE may help the host in several ways, particularly in capturing mineral nutrients through lytic activity. PMID:25262834

  13. Look but don't touch: Visual cues to surface structure drive somatosensory cortex.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hua-Chun; Welchman, Andrew E; Chang, Dorita H F; Di Luca, Massimiliano

    2016-03-01

    When planning interactions with nearby objects, our brain uses visual information to estimate shape, material composition, and surface structure before we come into contact with them. Here we analyse brain activations elicited by different types of visual appearance, measuring fMRI responses to objects that are glossy, matte, rough, or textured. In addition to activation in visual areas, we found that fMRI responses are evoked in the secondary somatosensory area (S2) when looking at glossy and rough surfaces. This activity could be reliably discriminated on the basis of tactile-related visual properties (gloss, rough, and matte), but importantly, other visual properties (i.e., coloured texture) did not substantially change fMRI activity. The activity could not be solely due to tactile imagination, as asking explicitly to imagine such surface properties did not lead to the same results. These findings suggest that visual cues to an object's surface properties evoke activity in neural circuits associated with tactile stimulation. This activation may reflect the a-priori probability of the physics of the interaction (i.e., the expectation of upcoming friction) that can be used to plan finger placement and grasp force. PMID:26778128

  14. Vulnerability of marine habitats to the invasive green alga Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea within a marine protected area.

    PubMed

    Katsanevakis, Stelios; Issaris, Yiannis; Poursanidis, Dimitris; Thessalou-Legaki, Maria

    2010-08-01

    The relative vulnerability of various habitat types to Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea invasion was investigated in the National Marine Park of Zakynthos (Ionian Sea, Greece). The density of C. racemosa fronds was modelled with generalized additive models for location, scale and shape (GAMLSS), based on an information theory approach. The species was present in as much as 33% of 748 randomly placed quadrats, which documents its aggressive establishment in the area. The probability of presence of the alga within randomly placed 20 x 20 cm quadrats was 83% on 'matte morte' (zones of fibrous remnants of a former Posidonia oceanica bed), 69% on rocky bottoms, 86% along the margins of P. oceanica meadows, 10% on sandy/muddy substrates, and 6% within P. oceanica meadows. The high frond density on 'matte morte' and rocky bottoms indicates their high vulnerability. The lowest frond density was observed within P. oceanica meadows. However, on the margins of P. oceanica meadows and within gaps in fragmented meadows relative high C. racemosa densities were observed. Such gaps within meadows represent spots of high vulnerability to C. racemosa invasion. PMID:20621771

  15. Look but don't touch: Visual cues to surface structure drive somatosensory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hua-Chun; Welchman, Andrew E.; Chang, Dorita H.F.; Di Luca, Massimiliano

    2016-01-01

    When planning interactions with nearby objects, our brain uses visual information to estimate shape, material composition, and surface structure before we come into contact with them. Here we analyse brain activations elicited by different types of visual appearance, measuring fMRI responses to objects that are glossy, matte, rough, or textured. In addition to activation in visual areas, we found that fMRI responses are evoked in the secondary somatosensory area (S2) when looking at glossy and rough surfaces. This activity could be reliably discriminated on the basis of tactile-related visual properties (gloss, rough, and matte), but importantly, other visual properties (i.e., coloured texture) did not substantially change fMRI activity. The activity could not be solely due to tactile imagination, as asking explicitly to imagine such surface properties did not lead to the same results. These findings suggest that visual cues to an object's surface properties evoke activity in neural circuits associated with tactile stimulation. This activation may reflect the a-priori probability of the physics of the interaction (i.e., the expectation of upcoming friction) that can be used to plan finger placement and grasp force. PMID:26778128

  16. Chemical resistance and cleanability of glazed surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hupa, Leena; Bergman, Roger; Fröberg, Linda; Vane-Tempest, Stina; Hupa, Mikko; Kronberg, Thomas; Pesonen-Leinonen, Eija; Sjöberg, Anna-Maija

    2005-06-01

    Adhesion of soil on glazed surfaces and their cleanability depends on chemical composition, phase composition, and roughness of the surface. The surface can be glossy consisting mainly of a smooth glassy phase. A matt and rough surface consists of a glassy phase and one or more crystalline phases. The origin and composition of the crystalline phases affect the chemical resistance and the cleanability of the surface. Fifteen experimental glossy and matt glazes were soaked in a slightly alkaline cleaning agent solution. The surfaces were spin-coated with sebum, i.e. a soil component typical for sanitary facilities. After wiping out the soil film in a controlled manner, the surface conditions and the soil left were evaluated with colour measurements, SEM/EDXA and COM. The results show that wollastonite-type crystals in the glaze surfaces were attacked in aqueous solutions containing typical cleaning agents. This corrosion led to significant decrease in the cleanability of the surface. The other crystal types observed, i.e. diopside and quartz crystals were not corroded, and the cleanability of glazes containing only these crystals was not changed in the cleaning agent exposures. Also the glassy phase was found to be attacked in some formulations leading to a somewhat decreased cleanability. The repeated soiling and cleaning procedures indicated that soil is accumulated on rough surfaces and surfaces which were clearly corroded by the cleaning agent.

  17. Investigation of Copper Losses to Synthetic Slag at Different Oxygen Partial Pressures in the Presence of Colemanite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusen, Aydın; Derin, Bora; Geveci, Ahmet; Topkaya, Yavuz Ali

    2016-05-01

    Copper losses to slag are crucial for copper matte smelting and converting stages. One factor affecting the copper losses to slag during these processes is partial pressure of oxygen. In this study, theoretical and experimental investigations of oxygen partial pressure effect on copper losses to fayalite type slag in the presence of colemanite were investigated. Theoretical considerations include liquidus temperatures and phase diagrams of the fayalite type slag calculated by the FactSage software program. In the experiments, a synthetic matte-slag (SM-SS) was produced by melting certain amounts of reagent grade Fe2O3-SiO2 and metallic Fe as starting materials. Experiments were carried out with SM-SS pair by the addition of calcined colemanite (from 0% to 6%) under various partial pressures of oxygen (10-7, 10-9, 10-11 atm) at 1250°C for 2 h. From the experimental results, it was found that the amount of copper in slag decreased slowly when colemanite was increased under all oxidizing atmospheres. The lowest copper content in synthetic slag was obtained as 0.38% after 6% colemanite addition.

  18. Sparse Coding for Alpha Matting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Jubin; Varnousfaderani, Ehsan Shahrian; Cholakkal, Hisham; Rajan, Deepu

    2016-07-01

    Existing color sampling based alpha matting methods use the compositing equation to estimate alpha at a pixel from pairs of foreground (F) and background (B) samples. The quality of the matte depends on the selected (F,B) pairs. In this paper, the matting problem is reinterpreted as a sparse coding of pixel features, wherein the sum of the codes gives the estimate of the alpha matte from a set of unpaired F and B samples. A non-parametric probabilistic segmentation provides a certainty measure on the pixel belonging to foreground or background, based on which a dictionary is formed for use in sparse coding. By removing the restriction to conform to (F,B) pairs, this method allows for better alpha estimation from multiple F and B samples. The same framework is extended to videos, where the requirement of temporal coherence is handled effectively. Here, the dictionary is formed by samples from multiple frames. A multi-frame graph model, as opposed to a single image as for image matting, is proposed that can be solved efficiently in closed form. Quantitative and qualitative evaluations on a benchmark dataset are provided to show that the proposed method outperforms current state-of-the-art in image and video matting.

  19. Effect of physical characteristics on bioleaching using indigenous acidophilic bacteria for recovering the valuable resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wi, D.; Kim, B.; Cho, K.; Choi, N.; Park, C.

    2011-12-01

    Bioleaching technology which is based on the ability of bacteria to transform solid compounds into soluble or extractable elements that can be recovered, has developed rapidly in recent decades for its advantages, such as mild reaction, low energy consumption, simple process, environmentally friendly and suitable for low-grade mine tailing and residues. This study investigated the bioleaching efficiency of copper matte under batch experimental conditions (various mineral particle size) using the indigenous acidophilic bacteria collected from acidic hot spring in Hatchnobaru, Japan. We conducted the batch experiments at three different mineral particle sizes: 0.06, 0.16 and 1.12mm. The results showed that the pH in the bacteria inoculating sample increased than initial condition, possibly due to buffer effects by phosphate ions in growth medium. After 22 days from incubation the leached accumulation content of Cu was 0.06 mm - 1,197 mg/L, 0.16 mm - 970 mg/L and 1.12 mm - 704 mg/L. Additionally, through SEM analysis we found of gypsum formed crystals which coated the copper matte surface 6 days after inoculation in 1.12mm case. This study informs basic knowledge when bacteria apply to eco-/economic resources utilization studies including the biomining and the recycling of mine waste system.

  20. Topographic characterization of glazed surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fröberg, Linda; Hupa, Leena

    2008-01-01

    Detailed characterization of surface microstructure, i.e. phase composition and surface geometry, has become an important criterion of glazed ceramics. Topographic characterization is an important parameter in, e.g. estimating the influence of additional films on the average roughness of a surface. Also, the microscaled and nanoscaled roughnesses correlate with the cleanability and the self-cleaning properties of the surfaces. In this work the surface geometry of several matte glazes were described by topography and roughness as given by whitelight confocal microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Different measuring parameters were compared to justify the usefulness of the techniques in giving a comprehensive description of the surface microstructure. The results suggest that confocal microscopy is well suited for giving reliable topographical parameters for matte surfaces with microscaled crystals in the surfaces. Atomic force microscopy was better suited for smooth surfaces or for describing the local topographic parameters of closely limited areas, e.g. the surroundings of separate crystals in the surface.

  1. Design fabrication and testing of ceramic solar absorber plates

    SciTech Connect

    Sisson, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of fabrication procedures on the thermal performance of various ceramic systems for active solar applications were investigated. A shale-based structural clay body was used as a standard. This body was also coated with silicon carbide, a glossy black glaze and a matte black glaze. Metal samples used included copper, aluminum and aluminum coated with a flat black paint. Experiments were performed using a solar test box linked to an automated data acquisition system. Temperatures of samples were recorded at 3 min. intervals for 4 h solar periods. An F-statistical analysis was performed on the resulting data and was correlated with total solar emittance, total solar reflectance and monochromatic reflectance as a function of incident wavelength. The information above was also utilized in developing a computer model used to simulate the performance of various materials in active solar testing. Results suggest that a structural clay body fired to maturity and coated with a matte black glaze could be commercially useful for applications requiring large quantities of heated water.

  2. Design fabrication and testing of a low cost ceramic collector panel. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Earl, W.A.; Johnson, P.F.; Sisson, J.C.

    1983-02-01

    The effects of fabrication procedures on the thermal performance of various ceramic systems for active solar applications were investigated. A shale-based structural clay body was used as a standard. This body was also coated with silicon carbide, a glossy black glaze and a matte black glaze. Metal samples used included copper, aluminum and aluminum coated with a flat black paint. Experiments were performed using a solar test box linked to an automated data acquisition system. Temperatures of samples were recorded at 3 min. intervals for 4 h solar periods. An F-statistical analysis was performed on the resulting data and was correlated with total solar emittance, total solar reflectance and monochromatic reflectance as a function of incident wavelength. The information above was also utilized in developing a computer model used to simulate the performance of various materials in active solar testing. Results suggest that a structural clay body fired to maturity and coated with a matte black glaze could be commercially useful for applications requiring large quantities of heated water.

  3. Magnonic crystals—Prospective structures for shaping spin waves in nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rychły, J.; Gruszecki, P.; Mruczkiewicz, M.; Kłos, J. W.; Mamica, S.; Krawczyk, M.

    2015-10-01

    We have investigated theoretically band structure of spin waves in magnonic crystals with periodicity in one- (1D), two- (2D) and three-dimensions (3D). We have solved Landau-Lifshitz equation with the use of plane wave method, finite element method in frequency domain and micromagnetic simulations in time domain to find the dynamics of spin waves and spectrum of their eigenmodes. The spin wave spectra were calculated in linear approximation. In this paper we show usefulness of these methods in calculations of various types of spin waves. We demonstrate the surface character of the Damon-Eshbach spin wave in 1D magnonic crystals and change of its surface localization with the band number and wavenumber in the first Brillouin zone. The surface property of the spin wave excitation is further exploited by covering plate of the magnonic crystal with conductor. The band structure in 2D magnonic crystals is complex due to additional spatial inhomogeneity introduced by the demagnetizing field. This modifies spin wave dispersion, makes the band structure of magnonic crystals strongly dependent on shape of the inclusions and type of the lattice. The inhomogeneity of the internal magnetic field becomes unimportant for magnonic crystals with small lattice constant, where exchange interactions dominate. For 3D magnonic crystals, characterized by small lattice constant, wide magnonic band gap is found. We show that the spatial distribution of different materials in magnonic crystals can be explored for tailored effective damping of spin waves.

  4. Frictional force released during sliding mechanics in nonconventional elastomerics and self-ligation: An in vitro comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Davender; Dua, Vinay; Mangla, Rajat; Solanki, Ravinder; Solanki, Monika; Sharma, Rekha

    2016-01-01

    Aim and Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate the frictional forces generated by five different orthodontic brackets when used in combination with stainless steel (SS), titanium molybdenum alloy (TMA), and nickel-titanium (NiTi) archwires in dry conditions at physiological temperature. Materials and Methods: Five different types of maxillary upper right side self-ligating brackets (SLBs) (Damon 3MX, Smart Clip and Carriere LX) and conventional SS brackets (Mini 2000, Optimum Series and Victory Series) with a slot size 0.022 inch were coupled with 0.016” NiTi and 0.019 × 0.025” SS/titanium molybdenum alloy (TMA) archwires. Tests were carried out for each group of the bracket-wire combination at physiological temperature and in the dry state. Frictional forces were measured by Instron universal testing machine. Results: SLB showed lower fictional values in comparison with elastic ligatures. Frictional force increased proportionally to the wire size; TMA and NiTi archwires presented higher frictional resistance than SS archwires. Conclusion: SS brackets tied with conventional ligatures produced high and low friction when ligated with SLBs with passive clip. PMID:27433047

  5. Three-dimensional deformation of orthodontic brackets

    PubMed Central

    Melenka, Garrett W; Nobes, David S; Major, Paul W

    2013-01-01

    Braces are used by orthodontists to correct the misalignment of teeth in the mouth. Archwire rotation is a particular procedure used to correct tooth inclination. Wire rotation can result in deformation to the orthodontic brackets, and an orthodontic torque simulator has been designed to examine this wire–bracket interaction. An optical technique has been employed to measure the deformation due to size and geometric constraints of the orthodontic brackets. Images of orthodontic brackets are collected using a stereo microscope and two charge-coupled device cameras, and deformation of orthodontic brackets is measured using a three-dimensional digital image correlation technique. The three-dimensional deformation of orthodontic brackets will be evaluated. The repeatability of the three-dimensional digital image correlation measurement method was evaluated by performing 30 archwire rotation tests using the same bracket and archwire. Finally, five Damon 3MX and five In-Ovation R self-ligating brackets will be compared using this technique to demonstrate the effect of archwire rotation on bracket design. PMID:23762201

  6. Coated Rectangular Composite Archwires: A Comparison Of Self-Ligating And Conventional Bracket Systems During Sliding Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, David Keith

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the resistance to sliding of coated rectangular fiber reinforced composite archwires using various brackets systems and second-order bracket angulations. Resistance to sliding was investigated for eight bracket systems: six self-ligating brackets (four passive and two passive-active) and two conventional brackets. A rectangular fiber reinforced composite archwire of 0.019 x 0.025-in dimension from BiomersRTM SimpliClear was drawn through a three-bracket model system at ten millimeters per minute for 2.5 millimeters. For each bracket, the resistance to sliding was measured at four bracket angulations (0°, 2.5°, 5°, and 10°) in a dry state at room temperature. The fiber reinforced composite archwire produced the lowest sliding resistance with the passive self-ligating bracket system (Damon DQ) at each bracket angulation tested. Overall, self-ligating bracket systems generated lower sliding resistance than conventionally ligated systems, and one passive/active self-ligating bracket system (In-Ovation-R). There was a significant increase in resistance to sliding as bracket angulation increased for all bracket systems tested. Microscopic analysis revealed increased perforation of the archwire coating material as bracket angulations were increased. Our findings show that the rectangular fiber reinforced composite archwire may be acceptable for sliding mechanics during the intermediate stages of orthodontic tooth movement, however more long-term studies are needed.

  7. Long-term stability of dentoalveolar, skeletal, and soft tissue changes after non-extraction treatment with a self-ligating system

    PubMed Central

    Basciftci, Faruk Ayhan; Akin, Mehmet; Bayram, Sinem

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the long-term effects of self-ligating brackets (SLBs) on transverse dimensions of arches and skeletal and soft tissues and to quantitatively evaluate the treatment outcome after non-extraction treatment with SLBs. Methods The sample consisted of 24 (18 female and six male) subjects, with a mean age of 14.23 ± 2.19 years, who received treatment with the Damon®3 appliances. Complete records including cephalometric radiographs and plaster models were obtained before treatment (T1), immediately after treatment (T2), six months after treatment (T3), and two years (T4) after treatment. Digital study models were generated. Twenty lateral cephalometric, six frontal cephalometric, and eight dental cast measurements were examined. The Peer Assessment Rating index was used to measure the treatment outcome. The Wilcoxon test was applied for statistical analysis of the changes. Results There were significant increases in all transverse dental cast measurements with active treatment. There was some significant relapse in the long term, particularly in maxillary width (p < 0.05). Statistically significant increases were found in nasal (p < 0.001), maxillary base, upper molar, lower intercanine, and antigonial (p < 0.05) widths in T1-T2. Lower incisors were proclined and protruded in T1-T2. Conclusions SLBs correct crowding by mechanisms involving incisor proclination and protrusion and expansion of the dental arches, without induction of clinically significant changes in hard and soft tissues of the face. PMID:24892025

  8. The Effect of an Acidic Food-Simulating Environment on the Shear Bond Strength of Self-Ligating Brackets with Different Base Designs

    PubMed Central

    Sheibaninia, Ahmad; Sepasi, Sepehr; Saghiri, Mohammad Ali; Sepasi, Setareh

    2014-01-01

    Aim. This study aims to evaluate the effect of acidic food simulant and (acetic acid 3%) on the shear bond strength (SBS) and adhesive remnant index (ARI) scores of one conventional and three different self-ligating brackets with different base designs. Materials and Methods. Freshly extracted first maxillary premolars (n = 160) were embedded in resin blocks. A conventional stainless steel bracket, Equilibrium 2, and three types of self-ligating brackets, Speed, In-Ovation R, and Damon 3MX, were bonded to teeth and exposed to distilled water (groups 1, 3, 5, and 7) or acetic acid 3% (groups 2, 4, 6, 8) for 12 weeks. SBS and ARI were calculated and statistical analysis was performed with the analysis of variance (SBS) or χ2 test (ARI) to compare values between the different groups. Results. Equilibrium 2 and In-Ovation R showed a significantly lower SBS in the acidic environment than in distilled water. Significant differences in ARI scores were found for Equilibrium 2 after immersion in an acidic environment, shifting from 0 in distilled water to 2 in an acidic environment. Conclusions. Equilibrium 2 and In-Ovation R brackets showed a significant decrease in SBS after a 12-week immersion in acetic acid 3%, although all groups showed clinically acceptable SBS. Equilibrium 2 showed significant differences in ARI scores when exposed to acetic acid 3%. PMID:25328524

  9. Dental plaque associated with self-ligating brackets during the initial phase of orthodontic treatment: A 3-month preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Anezi, Saud A

    2014-01-01

    Background: To compare changes in the amount and distribution of dental plaque associated with placement of elastomeric modules over a self-ligating bracket during orthodontic treatment and to relate these changes to the periodontal inflammation. Materials and Methods: A cross-arch randomization trial was carried out at Bristol Dental School, United Kingdom. Clinical measurements of periodontal inflammation and plaque accumulation and microbiological test were done on 24 patients aged 11-14 years [Mean (SD) age = 12.6 (1.01) years] wearing fixed appliances (Damon 2 brackets, Ormco, Orange, CA, USA) at the start and 3 months into fixed orthodontic treatment. Results: In the first 3 months of treatment there was no statistically significant difference in bleeding on probing between incisors with and without elastomeric modules (P = 0.125 and 0.508, respectively). The difference in plaque accumulation was not statistically significant (P = 0.78). The difference in probing depths between the incisors was not statistically significant (P = 0.84). The microbiological analysis showed no difference. Conclusions: Based on this preliminary 3 months study, elastomeric modules were not significantly associated with any increased risk during treatment when compared to self-ligating brackets. The longer term studies are needed to further confirm the findings of the present study. PMID:24987657

  10. Investigation of the unidirectional spin heat conveyer effect in a 200 nm thin Yttrium Iron Garnet film.

    PubMed

    Wid, Olga; Bauer, Jan; Müller, Alexander; Breitenstein, Otwin; Parkin, Stuart S P; Schmidt, Georg

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated the unidirectional spin wave heat conveyer effect in sub-micron thick yttrium iron garnet (YIG) films using lock-in thermography (LIT). Although the effect is small in thin layers this technique allows us to observe asymmetric heat transport by magnons which leads to asymmetric temperature profiles differing by several mK on both sides of the exciting antenna, respectively. Comparison of Damon-Eshbach and backward volume modes shows that the unidirectional heat flow is indeed due to non-reciprocal spin-waves. Because of the finite linewidth, small asymmetries can still be observed when only the uniform mode of ferromagnetic resonance is excited. The latter is of extreme importance for example when measuring the inverse spin-Hall effect because the temperature differences can result in thermovoltages at the contacts. Because of the non-reciprocity these thermovoltages reverse their sign with a reversal of the magnetic field which is typically deemed the signature of the inverse spin-Hall voltage. PMID:27311931

  11. The effect of an acidic food-simulating environment on the shear bond strength of self-ligating brackets with different base designs.

    PubMed

    Sheibaninia, Ahmad; Sepasi, Sepehr; Saghiri, Mohammad Ali; Sepasi, Setareh

    2014-01-01

    Aim. This study aims to evaluate the effect of acidic food simulant and (acetic acid 3%) on the shear bond strength (SBS) and adhesive remnant index (ARI) scores of one conventional and three different self-ligating brackets with different base designs. Materials and Methods. Freshly extracted first maxillary premolars (n = 160) were embedded in resin blocks. A conventional stainless steel bracket, Equilibrium 2, and three types of self-ligating brackets, Speed, In-Ovation R, and Damon 3MX, were bonded to teeth and exposed to distilled water (groups 1, 3, 5, and 7) or acetic acid 3% (groups 2, 4, 6, 8) for 12 weeks. SBS and ARI were calculated and statistical analysis was performed with the analysis of variance (SBS) or χ (2) test (ARI) to compare values between the different groups. Results. Equilibrium 2 and In-Ovation R showed a significantly lower SBS in the acidic environment than in distilled water. Significant differences in ARI scores were found for Equilibrium 2 after immersion in an acidic environment, shifting from 0 in distilled water to 2 in an acidic environment. Conclusions. Equilibrium 2 and In-Ovation R brackets showed a significant decrease in SBS after a 12-week immersion in acetic acid 3%, although all groups showed clinically acceptable SBS. Equilibrium 2 showed significant differences in ARI scores when exposed to acetic acid 3%. PMID:25328524

  12. Direct Observation of Interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya Interaction from Asymmetric Spin-wave Propagation in W/CoFeB/SiO2 Heterostructures Down to Sub-nanometer CoFeB Thickness.

    PubMed

    Chaurasiya, Avinash Kumar; Banerjee, Chandrima; Pan, Santanu; Sahoo, Sourav; Choudhury, Samiran; Sinha, Jaivardhan; Barman, Anjan

    2016-01-01

    Interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (IDMI) is important for its roles in stabilizing the skyrmionic lattice as well as soliton-like domain wall motion leading towards new generation spintronic devices. However, achievement and detection of IDMI is often hindered by various spurious effects. Here, we demonstrate the occurrence of IDMI originating primarily from W/CoFeB interface in technologically important W/CoFeB/SiO2 heterostructures using Brillouin light scattering technique. Due to the presence of IDMI, we observe asymmetry in the peak frequency and linewidth of the spin-wave spectra in the Damon-Eshbach (DE) geometry at finite k wave-vectors. The DMI constant is found to scale as the inverse of CoFeB thickness, over the whole studied thickness range, confirming the presence of IDMI in our system without any extrinsic effects. Importantly, the W/CoFeB interface shows no degradation down to sub-nanometer CoFeB thickness, which would be useful for devices that aim to use pronounced interface effects. PMID:27586260

  13. Direct Observation of Interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya Interaction from Asymmetric Spin-wave Propagation in W/CoFeB/SiO2 Heterostructures Down to Sub-nanometer CoFeB Thickness

    PubMed Central

    Chaurasiya, Avinash Kumar; Banerjee, Chandrima; Pan, Santanu; Sahoo, Sourav; Choudhury, Samiran; Sinha, Jaivardhan; Barman, Anjan

    2016-01-01

    Interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (IDMI) is important for its roles in stabilizing the skyrmionic lattice as well as soliton-like domain wall motion leading towards new generation spintronic devices. However, achievement and detection of IDMI is often hindered by various spurious effects. Here, we demonstrate the occurrence of IDMI originating primarily from W/CoFeB interface in technologically important W/CoFeB/SiO2 heterostructures using Brillouin light scattering technique. Due to the presence of IDMI, we observe asymmetry in the peak frequency and linewidth of the spin-wave spectra in the Damon-Eshbach (DE) geometry at finite k wave-vectors. The DMI constant is found to scale as the inverse of CoFeB thickness, over the whole studied thickness range, confirming the presence of IDMI in our system without any extrinsic effects. Importantly, the W/CoFeB interface shows no degradation down to sub-nanometer CoFeB thickness, which would be useful for devices that aim to use pronounced interface effects. PMID:27586260

  14. Bedrock geologic and joint trend map of the Pinardville quadrangle, Hillsborough County, New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burton, William C.; Armstrong, Thomas R.

    2013-01-01

    The bedrock geology of the Pinardville quadrangle includes the Massabesic Gneiss Complex, exposed in the core of a regional northeast-trending anticlinorium, and highly deformed metasedimentary rocks of the Rangeley Formation, exposed along the northwest limb of the anticlinorium. Both formations were subjected to high-grade metamorphism and partial melting: the Rangeley during the middle Paleozoic Acadian orogeny, and the Massabesic Gneiss Complex during both the Acadian and the late Paleozoic Alleghanian orogeny. Granitoids produced during these orogenies range in age from Devonian (Spaulding Tonalite) to Permian (granite at Damon Pond), each with associated pegmatite. In the latest Paleozoic the Massabesic Gneiss Complex was uplifted with respect to the Rangeley Formation along the ductile Powder Hill fault, which also had a left-lateral component. Uplift continued into the early Mesozoic, producing the 2-kilometer-wide Campbell Hill fault zone, which is marked by northwest-dipping normal faults and dilational map-scale quartz bodies. Rare, undeformed Jurassic diabase dikes cut all older lithologies and structures. A second map is a compilation of joint orientations measured at all outcrops in the quadrangle. There is a great diversity of strike trends, with northeast perhaps being the most predominant.

  15. Not Just Horsing Around: The Impact of Equine-Assisted Learning on Levels of Hope and Depression in At-Risk Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Frederick, Karen E; Ivey Hatz, Julie; Lanning, Beth

    2015-10-01

    Equine-assisted learning (EAL) is an experiential modality which utilizes horses to provide a unique learning experience for personal growth. Research by Damon et al. (Appl Dev Sci 7:119-128, 2003) suggests a positive relationship between hope and positive developmental trajectories. Hagen et al. (Am J Orthopsychiatr 75:211-219, 2005) showed hope to be a protective factor associated with adaptive functioning in at-risk youth. Ashby et al. (J Couns Dev 89:131-139, 2011) found a significant inverse relationship between hope and depression: as hope increases, depression decreases. The current study investigates the impact of a non-riding EAL curriculum entitled L.A.S.S.O. (Leading Adolescents to Successful School Outcomes) on levels of hope and depression in at-risk youth. The study uses an experimental design with longitudinal, repeated measures. Participants were randomly assigned to treatment and control groups. Participants in the treatment received 5 weeks of EAL, while participants in the control group received treatment as usual. Repeated measures ANOVA of participants' levels of hope and depression showed statistically significant improvements in the treatment group as compared with the control group. Even a brief (5-week) intervention of EAL had a positive impact on the lives and attitudes of at-risk adolescents, with increased levels of hope and decreased levels of depression. PMID:25698076

  16. Investigation of the unidirectional spin heat conveyer effect in a 200 nm thin Yttrium Iron Garnet film

    PubMed Central

    Wid, Olga; Bauer, Jan; Müller, Alexander; Breitenstein, Otwin; Parkin, Stuart S. P.; Schmidt, Georg

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated the unidirectional spin wave heat conveyer effect in sub-micron thick yttrium iron garnet (YIG) films using lock-in thermography (LIT). Although the effect is small in thin layers this technique allows us to observe asymmetric heat transport by magnons which leads to asymmetric temperature profiles differing by several mK on both sides of the exciting antenna, respectively. Comparison of Damon-Eshbach and backward volume modes shows that the unidirectional heat flow is indeed due to non-reciprocal spin-waves. Because of the finite linewidth, small asymmetries can still be observed when only the uniform mode of ferromagnetic resonance is excited. The latter is of extreme importance for example when measuring the inverse spin-Hall effect because the temperature differences can result in thermovoltages at the contacts. Because of the non-reciprocity these thermovoltages reverse their sign with a reversal of the magnetic field which is typically deemed the signature of the inverse spin-Hall voltage. PMID:27311931

  17. Gingival response in orthodontic patients: Comparative study between self-ligating and conventional brackets.

    PubMed

    Folco, Alejandra A; Benítez-Rogé, Sandra C; Iglesias, Marina; Calabrese, Diana; Pelizardi, Cristina; Rosa, Alcira; Brusca, Marisa I; Hecht, Pedro; Mateu, María E

    2014-01-01

    Orthodontic brackets contribute to the accumulation of bacterial plaque on tooth surfaces because they hinder oral hygiene. In contrast to conventional brackets, self-ligating brackets do not require additional parts to support the arches, thus improving dental hygiene. The aim of this study was to compare the gingival response in orthodontic patients wearing self-ligating or conventional brackets. A sample of 22 patients aged 16 to 30 years was divided into two groups: Group A, treated with selfligating brackets (Damon system) and Group B, treated with conventional brackets (Roth technique). The following were assessed during the treatment: Plaque Index (PI), Gingival Index (GI) and Probing Depth (PD), and sub-gingival samples were taken from teeth 14/24 for microbiological observation. No statistically significant difference was found between Groups A and B; p>0.05 (sign-ranked) or between PI, GI and PD at the different times (Friedman's Analysis of Variance), even though the indices were found to increase at 14 days, particularly for self-ligating brackets. The quantity and quality of microorganisms present were compatible with health on days 0, 28 and 56. As from day 14 there is a predominance of microbiota compatible with gingivitis in both groups. In the samples studied, orthodontic treatment increases bacterial plaque and inflammatory gingival response, but gingival-periodontal health can be maintained with adequate basic therapy. Self-ligating and conventional brackets produced similar gingival response. PMID:25560690

  18. Investigation of the unidirectional spin heat conveyer effect in a 200 nm thin Yttrium Iron Garnet film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wid, Olga; Bauer, Jan; Müller, Alexander; Breitenstein, Otwin; Parkin, Stuart S. P.; Schmidt, Georg

    2016-06-01

    We have investigated the unidirectional spin wave heat conveyer effect in sub-micron thick yttrium iron garnet (YIG) films using lock-in thermography (LIT). Although the effect is small in thin layers this technique allows us to observe asymmetric heat transport by magnons which leads to asymmetric temperature profiles differing by several mK on both sides of the exciting antenna, respectively. Comparison of Damon-Eshbach and backward volume modes shows that the unidirectional heat flow is indeed due to non-reciprocal spin-waves. Because of the finite linewidth, small asymmetries can still be observed when only the uniform mode of ferromagnetic resonance is excited. The latter is of extreme importance for example when measuring the inverse spin-Hall effect because the temperature differences can result in thermovoltages at the contacts. Because of the non-reciprocity these thermovoltages reverse their sign with a reversal of the magnetic field which is typically deemed the signature of the inverse spin-Hall voltage.

  19. Much damage for little advantage: Field studies and morphodynamic modelling highlight the environmental impact of an apparently minor coastal mismanagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasagna, Roberta; Montefalcone, Monica; Albertelli, Giancarlo; Corradi, Nicola; Ferrari, Marco; Morri, Carla; Bianchi, Carlo Nike

    2011-09-01

    While coastal management activities have long been known to exert a strong influence on the health of marine ecosystems, neither scientists nor administrators have realized that small interventions may lead to disproportionately larger impacts. This study investigated the broad and long-lasting environmental consequences of the construction of an ill-planned, although small (only 12 m long) jetty for pleasure crafts on the hydrodynamic conditions and on the meadow of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica of an embayed cove in the Ligurian Sea (NW Mediterranean). There, P. oceanica used to develop on a high (>1.5 m) matte (a lignified terrace causing seafloor elevation) in which the leaves reach the surface and form a compact natural barrier to waves in front of the beach. Such a so-called 'fringing reef' of P. oceanica is today recognized of high ecological value and specific conservation efforts are required. The construction of the jetty implied the cutting of the matte, which directly destroyed part of the fringing reef. In addition, meadow mapping and sedimentological analyses coupled with morphodynamic modelling showed that the ecosystem of the whole cove had been greatly altered by the jetty. We used the geometric planform approach, a proper tool in the study of headland-controlled embayment, both to characterise the present situation of Prelo cove and to simulate the original one, before the jetty was built. In the long term, such a small jetty completely altered the configuration and the hydrodynamic conditions of the whole cove, splitting the original pocket beach into two smaller ones and creating strong rip-currents flowing seaward along the jetty. These rip-currents enhanced erosion of residual shallow portions of the meadow and further modified the sedimentary fluxes in shallow waters. A century after the construction of the jetty, an irreversible environmental damage has occurred, as the slow growing rate of P. oceanica implies that the high matte terrace

  20. Unique interactive projection display screen

    SciTech Connect

    Veligdan, J.T.

    1997-11-01

    Projection systems continue to be the best method to produce large (1 meter and larger) displays. However, in order to produce a large display, considerable volume is typically required. The Polyplanar Optic Display (POD) is a novel type of projection display screen, which for the first time, makes it possible to produce a large projection system that is self-contained and only inches thick. In addition, this display screen is matte black in appearance allowing it to be used in high ambient light conditions. This screen is also interactive and can be remotely controlled via an infrared optical pointer resulting in mouse-like control of the display. Furthermore, this display need not be flat since it can be made curved to wrap around a viewer as well as being flexible.

  1. Supervising the uncanny: the play within the play.

    PubMed

    Leader, Carol

    2015-11-01

    The writer offers a combined experience in analysis and the performing arts to explore uncanny aspects of the unconscious subtext of the patient's inner drama; subtext which can remain hidden from view in supervision. Freud and Jung's understanding of uncanny experience is considered together with a painting from medieval alchemy and Matte Blanco's conceptions concerning the symmetrical nature of unconscious process. Theatre and the work of the theatre director and actor in approaching the multidimensional aspects of a play are then introduced. Finally clinical case material from group supervision demonstrates how the 'theatre of therapy' and the work of the supervisory couple and group promote the emergence of a more authentic conscious asymmetrical response to the patient's 'script' that can break the 'spell' of the transference/countertransference relationship. This in turn brings meaning to the underlying and implicit 'stage directions' that the patient has been unconsciously communicating. PMID:26499298

  2. Improving results of a simple RGB model for cameras using estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinkauppi, J. Birgitta

    1999-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate if it is possible to use estimation techniques to reduce the difference between predicted and actual RGB values. Images and spectral reflectances of two classes of objects were used: matte, 2D (Munsell chips and Macbeth chart) and natural, 3D objects (faces). In the prediction phase, a simple RGB model was evaluated which takes into account only the spectral power distributions of the current and calibration illuminants, spectral reflectances of the objects, and the spectral response of the RGB camera in the calculations to avoid the complexity of modeling other possible factors affecting image formation. The results show that an estimation can make the prediction results closer to the actual values.

  3. Durum Wheat in Conventional and Organic Farming: Yield Amount and Pasta Quality in Southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Fagnano, Massimo; Fiorentino, Nunzio; D'Egidio, Maria Grazia; Quaranta, Fabrizio; Ritieni, Alberto; Ferracane, Rosalia; Raimondi, Giampaolo

    2012-01-01

    Five durum wheat cultivars were grown in a Mediterranean area (Southern Italy) under conventional and organic farming with the aim to evaluate agronomic, technological, sensory, and sanitary quality of grains and pasta. The cultivar Matt produced the best pasta quality under conventional cropping system, while the quality parameters evaluated were unsatisfactory under organic farming. The cultivar Saragolla showed the best yield amount and pasta quality in all the experimental conditions, thus proving to be the cultivar more adapt to organic farming. In all the tested experimental conditions, nivalenol (NIV) and deoxynivalenol (DON) occurrence was very low and the other mycotoxins evaluated were completely absent. These data confirm the low risk of mycotoxin contamination in the Mediterranean climate conditions. Finally, it has been possible to produce high-quality pasta in Southern Italy from durum wheat grown both in conventional and organic farming. PMID:22701377

  4. KSC-04PD-1059

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- In the Space Shuttle Main Engine Shop at KSC, the STS-114 crew poses for a photo in front of two of the main engines. Crew members, from left, are Mission Commander Eileen Collins, Mission Specialists Charles Camarda and Wendy Lawrence, Pilot James Kelly, and Mission Specialists Andrew Thomas and Soichi Noguchi, who represents the Japanese Aerospace and Exploration Agency. Behind them are Dan Hausman (director, Product Support, Boeing), Dan Sweety (manager, Safety & Mission Assurance, Boeing) and Matt McClelland (team manager, Tech Ops, Boeing). The STS-114 mission is Logistics Flight 1, which is scheduled to deliver supplies and equipment plus the external stowage platform to the International Space Station.

  5. ToF-SIMS imaging: a valuable chemical microscopy technique for paper and paper coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fardim, Pedro; Holmbom, Bjarne

    2005-08-01

    The distribution of papermaking chemicals on the surface of various uncoated and coated papers was investigated by ToF-SIMS, FE-SEM, EDS, and XPS. Four paper samples, two office papers, one matte-coated and one traditionally coated paperboard were investigated with the aim of evaluation of chemical microscopy methods for examination of morphological and chemical heterogeneities on paper surfaces. Distribution of fillers, pigment particles, size, optical brightener, latex and other paper and coating components was assessed. Application of Au-Pd treatment on paper and coating surfaces prior to ToF-SIMS imaging increased the secondary ion counts for the region of low intensity peaks and improved the chemical mapping of papermaking and coating chemicals. ToF-SIMS imaging is shown to be a valuable and promising technique for chemical microscopy of paper surfaces.

  6. KSC-04PD-1784

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. In the RLV hangar at KSC, United Space Alliance workers Matt Carter (left) and Mike Sherman set up racks to hold equipment removed from the hurricane-ravaged Thermal Protection System Facility (TPSF). The facility, which creates the TPS tiles, blankets and all the internal thermal control systems for the Space Shuttles, is almost totally unserviceable at this time after losing approximately 35 percent of its roof due to Hurricane Frances, which blew across Central Florida Sept. 4-5. The maximum wind at the surface from Hurricane Frances was 94 mph from the northeast at 6:40 a.m. on Sunday, September 5. It was recorded at a weather tower located on the east shore of the Mosquito Lagoon near the Cape Canaveral National Seashore. The highest sustained wind at KSC was 68 mph.

  7. NASA DEVELOP students

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA DEVELOP students at Stennis Space Center recently held a midterm review with George Crozier, who serves as a science adviser to the team. The team also was joined by Jamie Favors of the Mobile (Ala.) County Health Department DEVELOP Team; Cheri Miller, the team's NASA adviser; and Kenton Ross, a team science adviser. Students participating in the meeting included: Lauren Childs, Jason Jones, Maddie Brozen, Matt Batina, Jenn Frey, Angie Maki and Aaron Brooks. The primary purpose of the meeting was to update Crozier on the status of the team's work for the summer 2008 term and discuss plans for the fiscal year 2009 project proposal. This included discussion of a possible project to study the effects of hurricanes on the Florida panhandle. DEVELOP is a NASA-sponsored, student-led, student-run program focused on developing projects to help communities.

  8. Cerberus Fossae, Elysium, Mars: A source for lava and water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plescia, J.B.

    2003-01-01

    Cerberus Fossae, a long fracture system in the southeastern part of Elysium, has acted as a conduit for the release of both lava and water onto the surface. The southeastern portion of the fracture system localized volcanic vents having varying morphology. In addition, low shields occur elsewhere on the Cerberus plains. Three locations where the release of water has occurred have been identified along the northwest (Athabasca and Grjota' Vallis) and southeast (Rahway Vallis) portions of the fossae. Water was released both catastrophically and noncatastrophically from these locations. A fluvial system that extends more than 2500 km has formed beginning at the lower flank of the Elysium rise across the Cerberus plains and out through Matte Vallis into Amazonis Planitia. The timing of the events is Late Amazonian. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Preparing for Harvesting Radioisotopes from FRIB

    SciTech Connect

    Lapi, Suzanne

    2015-11-30

    In the second quarter of this grant, work has progressed smoothly at all three collaborating institutions. We have recently completed our first experiment at the NSCL under this grant successfully, where 79Kr was collected by cryotrapping from our water target apparatus. The three PI’s, one undergraduate (Boone Marois), two graduate students (Stacy Queern and Matt Scott) and one post-doc (Aranh Pen) were assisted by Dave Morrissey at the NSCL to perform this experiment. The experiment also provided the opportunity for a collaboration meeting of the PI’s to discuss future work on this proposal. Significant progress has been made on both novel radiochemical separations technology at the University of Missouri, and validating a radiochemical separation procedure for 48V at Washington University. The only change in the work-scope of the original proposal is the transition of the Washington University PI to the University of Alabama at Birmingham.

  10. Etching Behavior of Aluminum Alloy Extrusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Hanliang

    2014-11-01

    The etching treatment is an important process step in influencing the surface quality of anodized aluminum alloy extrusions. The aim of etching is to produce a homogeneously matte surface. However, in the etching process, further surface imperfections can be generated on the extrusion surface due to uneven materials loss from different microstructural components. These surface imperfections formed prior to anodizing can significantly influence the surface quality of the final anodized extrusion products. In this article, various factors that influence the materials loss during alkaline etching of aluminum alloy extrusions are investigated. The influencing variables considered include etching process parameters, Fe-rich particles, Mg-Si precipitates, and extrusion profiles. This study provides a basis for improving the surface quality in industrial extrusion products by optimizing various process parameters.

  11. Mineral resources of Peru's ancient societies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, W.E.

    2003-01-01

    Northern Peru has an exceptionally rich archaeological heritage that includes metalwork, ceramics and textiles. The success of at least a half-dozen pre-Columbian societies dating back 3,000 years and subsequent Spanish colonization in the 1400s has rested on the effective use of northern Peru's abundant resources. In the summer of 2000, my son Matt and I learned about that connection firsthand by volunteering at the Santa Rita B archaeological site in the Chao Valley near Trujillo in northern Peru. Riding donkey-back through the Andes and talking with local people, we got our hands dirty in the rich archaeology and geology of the area. We were able to correlate mineral occurrences to their various roles in society - opening a window into the region's fascinating past. From construction to metallurgy, pre-Columbian societies flourished and advanced because of their understanding and use of the available mineral resources.

  12. Extending the life of water-cooled copper cooling fingers for furnace refractories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plascencia, Gabriel; Utigard, Torstein A.; Plascencia, Gabriel; Jaramillo, David

    2005-10-01

    To extend the service life of refractory linings in high-temperature furnaces, it is becoming common to embed copper cooling devices in the lining. These devices extract enough heat from the hearth of the furnace to freeze a protective thin layer of slag onto the surface of the lining. However, the cooling devices may lose their efficiency over time. It is believed that high-temperature oxidation of copper is responsible for the loss in heat-extraction capacity. To test coolers under severe conditions, immersion tests were carried out in molten matte and slag of laboratory-scale cooling elements protected by various means. A composite cooler was developed that consists of a copper core shielded by a Cu-4 wt.% Al alloy sheet. Although the rate of heat extraction is not as high as that of the un-alloyed copper, this cooler still extracts heat at a very high rate.

  13. ‘Proto-rivalry’: how the binocular brain identifies gloss

    PubMed Central

    Muryy, Alexander A.; Welchman, Andrew E.

    2016-01-01

    Visually identifying glossy surfaces can be crucial for survival (e.g. ice patches on a road), yet estimating gloss is computationally challenging for both human and machine vision. Here, we demonstrate that human gloss perception exploits some surprisingly simple binocular fusion signals, which are likely available early in the visual cortex. In particular, we show that the unusual disparity gradients and vertical offsets produced by reflections create distinctive ‘proto-rivalrous’ (barely fusible) image regions that are a critical indicator of gloss. We find that manipulating the gradients and vertical components of binocular disparities yields predictable changes in material appearance. Removing or occluding proto-rivalrous signals makes surfaces look matte, while artificially adding such signals to images makes them appear glossy. This suggests that the human visual system has internalized the idiosyncratic binocular fusion characteristics of glossy surfaces, providing a straightforward means of estimating surface attributes using low-level image signals. PMID:27170713

  14. KSC-05PD-0121

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. Matt Scott, with United Space Alliance, lifts the final Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) panel into position for installation on orbiter Discoverys left wing. The leading edges of each of an orbiters wings have 22 RCC panels. They are light gray and made entirely of carbon composite material, which protect the orbiter during re-entry. The molded components are approximately 0.25- to 0.5-inch thick and capable of withstanding temperatures up to 3,220 degrees F. Following the Columbia accident in February 2002, which was caused by a breach in an RCC panel that allowed hot gases into the vehicle, each panel on Discovery was removed and thoroughly inspected before final reinstallation. Discovery is the designated orbiter to fly on the Return to Flight mission STS-114, the first Space Shuttle to launch since the accident. The launch window for the mission is May 12 to June 3, 2005.

  15. Polyplanar optic display for cockpit application

    SciTech Connect

    Veligdan, J.; Biscardi, C.; Brewster, C.; DeSanto, L.; Freibott, W.

    1998-04-01

    The Polyplanar Optical Display (POD) is a high contrast display screen being developed for cockpit applications. This display screen is 2 inches thick and has a matte black face which allows for high contrast images. The prototype being developed is a form, fit and functional replacement display for the B-52 aircraft which uses a monochrome ten-inch display. The new display uses a long lifetime, (10,000 hour), 200 mW green solid-state laser (532 nm) as its optical source. In order to produce real-time video, the laser light is being modulated by a Digital Light Processing (DLP{trademark}) chip manufactured by Texas Instruments, Inc. A variable astigmatic focusing system is used to produce a stigmatic image on the viewing face of the POD. In addition to the optical design and speckle reduction, the authors discuss the electronic interfacing to the DLP{trademark} chip, the opto-mechanical design and viewing angle characteristics.

  16. Laser-driven polyplanar optic display

    SciTech Connect

    Veligdan, J.T.; Biscardi, C.; Brewster, C.; DeSanto, L.; Beiser, L.

    1998-01-01

    The Polyplanar Optical Display (POD) is a unique display screen which can be used with any projection source. This display screen is 2 inches thick and has a matte-black face which allows for high contrast images. The prototype being developed is a form, fit and functional replacement display for the B-52 aircraft which uses a monochrome ten-inch display. The new display uses a 200 milliwatt green solid-state laser (532 nm) as its optical source. In order to produce real-time video, the laser light is being modulated by a Digital Light Processing (DLP) chip manufactured by Texas Instruments, Inc. A variable astigmatic focusing system is used to produce a stigmatic image on the viewing face of the POD. In addition to the optical design, the authors discuss the DLP chip, the optomechanical design and viewing angle characteristics.

  17. Polyplanar optic display

    SciTech Connect

    Veligdan, J.; Biscardi, C.; Brewster, C.; DeSanto, L.; Beiser, L.

    1997-07-01

    The Polyplanar Optical Display (POD) is a unique display screen which can be used with any projection source. This display screen is 2 inches thick and has a matte black face which allows for high contrast images. The prototype being developed is a form, fit and functional replacement display for the B-52 aircraft which uses a monochrome ten-inch display. The new display uses a 100 milliwatt green solid state laser (532 nm) as its optical source. In order to produce real-time video, the laser light is being modulated by a Digital Light Processing (DLP{trademark}) chip manufactured by Texas Instruments, Inc. A variable astigmatic focusing system is used to produce a stigmatic image on the viewing face of the POD. In addition to the optical design, the authors discuss the electronic interfacing to the DLP{trademark} chip, the opto-mechanical design and viewing angle characteristics.

  18. Characterization of silicon nitride particles synthesized in an atmospheric-pressure convection-stabilized arc

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Yl; Kong, P.; Pfender, E. )

    1989-03-01

    Silicon nitride powders were synthesized in an atmospheric-pressure convection-stabilized arc using silicon and ammonia as reactants. The morphology and particle size distributions of the silicon nitride particles were characterized by SEM, TEM, and electron diffraction analyses. The silicon nitride particles collected in the plasma reactor were formed by either gas-condensed phase reactions or chemical vapor reactions. The morphologies of the particles formed by gas-condensed phase reactions consisted of {beta}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} prisms, {alpha}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} matte, {alpha}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} needles, and spaghetti-like whiskers. For the homogeneously nucleated particles, the morphologies included dendrites, needles, platelets, and amorphous particles. Most of the particles formed were aggregates with particle size distributions ranging from 500 to 1,500 {angstrom} depending on the location of injection of the reactants.

  19. KSC-03PD-1146

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- United Space Alliance technician Matt Boonstra works on a main landing gear door mounting fixture in the Launch Equipment Shop. The fixture is being used to support the Columbia mishap investigation. A simulated orbiter wing and several test panels, along with sections of Space Shuttle orbiter Enterprise (OV-101), will be transferred to the Southwest Research Institute for testing after Thermal Protection System (TPS) tile installation on them is complete. The testing has been requested by the Columbia Accident Investigation Board. For this initiative, sections of Enterprise were borrowed from the Smithsonian Institution's Air and Space Museum where the orbiter is being stored at the Washington Dulles International Airport. Enterprise was the first orbiter built in the Shuttle fleet and was used to conduct the Approach and Landing Test Program before the first powered Shuttle flight.

  20. The influence of nitrogen in stemflow and precipitation on epiphytic bryophytes, Isothecium myosuroides Brid., Dicranum scoparium Hewd. and Thuidium tamariscinum (Hewd.) Schimp of Atlantic oakwoods.

    PubMed

    Leith, I D; Mitchell, R J; Truscott, A-M; Cape, J N; van Dijk, N; Smith, R I; Fowler, D; Sutton, M A

    2008-09-01

    The spatial relationship between the concentration and deposition of the major ions in precipitation and stemflow and their influence on the tissue nitrogen concentration of three epiphytic bryophytes on Quercus petraea (Matt) Liebl. and Q. robur L. was investigated at seven UK Atlantic oak woodland sites with a range of total N deposition of 55-250 mmol m(-2). The main driver of change in tissue N concentrations of three epiphytic bryophytes (Isothecium myosuroides Brid. (Eurhynchium myosuroides (Brid.) Schp.), Dicranum scoparium Hewd. and Thuidium tamariscinum (Hewd.) Schimp.) was total N deposition in stemflow, dominated by ammonium deposition. The three epiphytic species also showed strong relationships between tissue N concentration and total N deposition in rainfall but a poor correlation with total N ion concentration in rainfall. This study shows that epiphytic bryophytes utilise stemflow N and thus increase their risk from inputs of total N deposition compared to terricolous species at the same site. PMID:18343004

  1. 'Proto-rivalry': how the binocular brain identifies gloss.

    PubMed

    Muryy, Alexander A; Fleming, Roland W; Welchman, Andrew E

    2016-05-11

    Visually identifying glossy surfaces can be crucial for survival (e.g. ice patches on a road), yet estimating gloss is computationally challenging for both human and machine vision. Here, we demonstrate that human gloss perception exploits some surprisingly simple binocular fusion signals, which are likely available early in the visual cortex. In particular, we show that the unusual disparity gradients and vertical offsets produced by reflections create distinctive 'proto-rivalrous' (barely fusible) image regions that are a critical indicator of gloss. We find that manipulating the gradients and vertical components of binocular disparities yields predictable changes in material appearance. Removing or occluding proto-rivalrous signals makes surfaces look matte, while artificially adding such signals to images makes them appear glossy. This suggests that the human visual system has internalized the idiosyncratic binocular fusion characteristics of glossy surfaces, providing a straightforward means of estimating surface attributes using low-level image signals. PMID:27170713

  2. Photometric model of diffuse surfaces described as a distribution of interfaced Lambertian facets.

    PubMed

    Simonot, Lionel

    2009-10-20

    The Lambertian model for diffuse reflection is widely used for the sake of its simplicity. Nevertheless, this model is known to be inaccurate in describing a lot of real-world objects, including those that present a matte surface. To overcome this difficulty, we propose a photometric model where the surfaces are described as a distribution of facets where each facet consists of a flat interface on a Lambertian background. Compared to the Lambertian model, it includes two additional physical parameters: an interface roughness parameter and the ratio between the refractive indices of the background binder and of the upper medium. The Torrance-Sparrow model--distribution of strictly specular facets--and the Oren-Nayar model--distribution of strictly Lambertian facets--appear as special cases. PMID:19844317

  3. Highly siderophile elements were stripped from Earth's mantle by iron sulfide segregation.

    PubMed

    Rubie, David C; Laurenz, Vera; Jacobson, Seth A; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Palme, Herbert; Vogel, Antje K; Frost, Daniel J

    2016-09-01

    Highly siderophile elements (HSEs) are strongly depleted in the bulk silicate Earth (BSE) but are present in near-chondritic relative abundances. The conventional explanation is that the HSEs were stripped from the mantle by the segregation of metal during core formation but were added back in near-chondritic proportions by late accretion, after core formation had ceased. Here we show that metal-silicate equilibration and segregation during Earth's core formation actually increased HSE mantle concentrations because HSE partition coefficients are relatively low at the high pressures of core formation within Earth. The pervasive exsolution and segregation of iron sulfide liquid from silicate liquid (the "Hadean matte") stripped magma oceans of HSEs during cooling and crystallization, before late accretion, and resulted in slightly suprachondritic palladium/iridium and ruthenium/iridium ratios. PMID:27609889

  4. Nuclear and Non-Ionizing Energy-Loss of Electrons with Low and Relativistic Energies in Materials and Space Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boschini, M. J.; Consolandi, C.; Gervasi, M.; Giani, S.; Grandi, D.; Ivanchenko, V.; Nieminem, P.; Pensotti, S.; Rancoita, P. G.; Tacconi, M.

    2012-08-01

    The treatment of the electron-nucleus interaction based on the Matt differential cross section was extended to account for effects due to screened Coulomb potentials, finite sizes and finite rest masses of nuclei for electrons above 200keV and up to ultra high energies. This treatment allows one to determine both the total and differential cross sections, thus, subsequently to calculate the resulting nuclear and non-ionizing stopping powers. Above a few hundreds of MeV, neglecting the effect due to finite rest masses of recoil nuclei the stopping power and NIEL result to be largely underestimated. While, above a few tens of MeV, the finite size ofthe nuclear target prevents a further large increase of stopping powers which approach almost constant values.

  5. Converting practices at the stillwater precious metals smelter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roset, Greg K.; Matousek, Jan W.; Marcantonio, Paul J.

    1992-04-01

    At the Stillwater Mining Company's precious metals smelter in Columbus, Montana, flotation concentrates containing copper, nickel, and platinum-group metals are smelted in a submerged-arc electric furnace. The matte, containing 30% copper plus nickel, is granulated, dried, remelted in a top-blown rotary converter, and blown with oxygen to "white metal" containing approximately 75% copper plus nickel and 2.5% precious metals. For the first month of converter operation (July 1990), conventional fluxing with quartz was practiced. An excessive number of slag foams and heavy accretion formation at the mouth of the converter led to a switch to lime fluxing as a replacement for silica. This resulted in eliminating slag foams and decreasing accretion build-up. It is believed that the Stillwater works is the only commercial smelter in the world following this practice.

  6. Diel activity and variability in habitat use of white sea bream in a temperate marine protected area.

    PubMed

    Di Lorenzo, Manfredi; Fernández, Tomás Vega; Badalamenti, Fabio; Guidetti, Paolo; Starr, Richard M; Giacalone, Vincenzo Maximiliano; Di Franco, Antonio; D'Anna, Giovanni

    2016-05-01

    Fish populations are often comprised of individuals that use habitats and associated resources in different ways. We placed sonic transmitters in, and tracked movements of, white sea bream (Diplodus sargus sargus) in the no-take zone of a Mediterranean marine protected area: the Torre Guaceto marine protected area, (Adriatic Sea, Italy). Tagged fish displayed three types of diel activity patterns in three different habitats: sand, rocky reefs and "matte" of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica. Individuals were more active during the day than at night. Overall, white sea bream displayed a remarkable behavioural plasticity in habitat use. Our results indicate that the observed behavioural plasticity in the marine protected area could be the result of multiple ecological and environmental drivers such as size, sex and increased intra-specific competition. Our findings support the view that habitat diversity helps support high densities of fishes. PMID:26922044

  7. GLOBE Hydrology Workshop SEIP program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Matt Krigbaum (left), a teacher at Mitchell Elementary in Ann Arbor, Mich., pours water from the Pearl River into a turbidity tube to measure the river's light penetration. Krigbaum, along with Lois Williams, principal at Elizabeth Courville Elementary in Detroit, Mich.; and Carolyn Martin and Arlene Wittmer, teachers at Elizabeth Courville Elementary; conducted the experiment during a GLOBE (Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment) hydrology workshop. GLOBE is a worldwide, hands-on science education program in which teachers can become certified to implement the program at their schools after taking hydrology, land cover/biology, atmosphere/climate and soil protocol workshops. Twelve teachers from across the country attended the recent weeklong GLOBE training at SSC, offered through its Educator Resource Center and the NASA Explorer Schools program. All workshops are free and offer continuing education units.

  8. Winnicott on Jung: destruction, creativity and the unrepressed unconscious.

    PubMed

    Meredith-Owen, William

    2011-02-01

    This paper considers Winnicott's critique of Jung, principally expressed in his review of Memories, Dreams, Reflections, which asserts that Jung's creative contribution to analysis was constrained by his failure to integrate his 'primitive destructive impulses', subsequent to inadequate early containment. It is argued that although Winnicott's diagnosis illuminates Jung's shadow, particularly his constraints vis-à-vis the repressed Freudian unconscious, it fails to appreciate the efficacy of the compensatory containment Jung found in the collective unconscious. This enigmatic relationship between destruction and creativity-so central to late Winnicott-is illuminated by Matte Blanco's bi-logic, and further explored in relation to William Blake. Winnicott's personal resolution through his Jung-inspired 'splitting headache' dream of destruction-previously considered in this Journal by Morey (2005) and Sedgwick (2008)-is given particular attention. PMID:21241294

  9. Sweetened beverages and health: current state of scientific understandings.

    PubMed

    Rippe, James M; Saltzman, Edward

    2013-01-01

    This article summarizes the presentations from the "Sweetened Beverages and Health: Current State of Scientific Understandings" symposium held at the ASN Annual Meeting in Boston, MA on April 23, 2013. The metabolic and health effects of sugar-sweetened beverages were discussed from a variety of points of view by 5 different presenters. Dr. David Allison drew a distinction between conjecture and proof related to sweetened beverages and obesity. Dr. Richard Mattes discussed differences between solid and liquid calories. Dr. Miguel Alonso-Alonso reviewed potential contributions of functional neuroimaging, particularly as they relate to whether sugar is potentially "addictive." Dr. Kimber Stanhope discussed work related to experiments comparing fructose to glucose. Dr. James Rippe presented evidence from randomized controlled trials from his research organization showing no differences among high-fructose corn syrup, sucrose, glucose, or fructose at normal human consumption amounts. PMID:24038246

  10. A PARMELA model of the CEBAF injector valid over a wide range of beam parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Yuhong Zhang; Kevin Beard; Jay Benesch; Yu-Chiu Chao; Arne Freyberger; Joseph Grames; Reza Kazimi; Geoffrey Krafft; Rui Li; Nikolitsa Merminga; Benard Poelker; Byung Yunn

    2004-07-01

    A PARMELA model of the CEBAF injector valid over a wide range of beam parameters Yuhong Zhang, Kevin Beard, Jay Benesch, Yu-Chiu Chao, Arne Freyberger, Joseph Grames, Reza Kazimi, Geoff Krafft, Rui Li, Lia Merminga, Matt Poelker, Michael Tiefenback, Byung Yunn Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 USA An earlier PARMELA model of the Jefferson Lab CEBAF photoinjector was recently revised. The initial phase space distribution of an electron bunch was determined by measuring spot size and pulselength of the driver laser and by beam emittance measurements. The improved model has been used for simulations of the simultaneous delivery of the Hall A beam required for a hypernuclear experiment, and the Hall C beam required for the G0 parity violation experiment.

  11. The Spectral And Photometric Imaging Receiver For Herschel (spire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Bernhard; Lu, N.; Schwartz, A.; Shupe, D.; Xu, K.; Zhang, L.

    2007-05-01

    SPIRE is one of three instruments to be carried on the European Space Agency's Herschel Space Observatory (formerly called FIRST). We are describing the instrument which is designed for observations at far infrared and submillimetre wavelengths and its scientific potential. SPIRE features an imaging photometer with passbands around 250, 350 and 500 microns, and an imaging Fourier transform spectrometer covering the wavelength range between 194 and 672 microns. The instrument is being developed by a consortium of European and American scientists, led by PI Professor Matt Griffin at the Physics and Astronomy Department of Cardiff University (UK). The US is playing a crucial role in SPIRE by delivering its detector arrays, consisting of so-called "Spider Web Bolometers" developed by SPIRE Co-I Jamie Bock at JPL.

  12. Pilot ejection, parachute, and helicopter crash injuries.

    PubMed

    McBratney, Colleen M; Rush, Stephen; Kharod, Chetan U

    2014-01-01

    USAF Pararescuemen (PJs) respond to downed aircrew as a fundamental mission for personnel recovery (PR), one of the Air Force's core functions. In addition to responding to these in Military settings, the PJs from the 212 Rescue Squadron routinely respond to small plane crashes in remote regions of Alaska. While there is a paucity of information on the latter, there have been articles detailing injuries sustained from helicopter crashes and while ejecting or parachuting from fixed wing aircraft. The following represents a new chapter added to the Pararescue Medical Operations Handbook, Sixth Edition (2014, editors Matt Wolf, MD, and Stephen Rush, MD, in press). It was designed to be a quick reference for PJs and their Special Operations flight surgeons to help with understanding of mechanism of injury with regard to pilot ejection, parachute, and helicopter accident injuries. It outlines the nature of the injuries sustained in such mishaps and provides an epidemiologic framework from which to approach the problem. PMID:25399374

  13. Reflected Sunlight Reduction and Characterization for a Deep-Space Optical Receiver Antenna (DSORA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clymer, B. D.

    1990-01-01

    A baffle system for the elimination of first-order specular and diffuse reflection of sunlight from the sunshade of a deep-space optical receiver telescope is presented. This baffle system consists of rings of 0.5cm blades spaced 2.5 cm apart on the walls of GO hexagonal sunshade tubes that combine to form the telescope sunshade. The shadow cast by the blades, walls, and rims of the tubes prevent all first-order reflections of direct sunlight from reaching the primary mirror of the telescope. A reflection model of the sunshade without baffles is also presented for comparison. Since manufacturers of absorbing surfaces do not measure data near grazing incidence, the reflection properties at anticipated angles of incidence must be characterized. A description of reflection from matte surfaces in term of bidirectional reflection distribution function (BRDF) is presented along with a discussion of measuring BRDF near grazing incidence.

  14. High field superconductor development and understanding project, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Larbalestier, David C.; Lee, Peter J.

    2009-07-15

    Over 25 years the Applied Superconductivity Center at the University of Wisconsin-Madison provided a vital technical resource to the High Energy Physics community covering development in superconducting strand for HEP accelerator magnet development. In particular the work of the group has been to develop the next generation of high field superconductors for high field application. Grad students Mike Naus, Chad Fischer, Arno Godeke and Matt Jewell improved our understanding of the microstructure and microchemistry of Nb3Sn and their impact on the physical and mechanical properties. The success of this work has led to the continued funding of this work at the ASC after it moved to the NHMFL and also to direct funding from BNL for some aspects of Nb3Sn cable evaluation.

  15. Targeting accurate object extraction from an image: a comprehensive study of natural image matting.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qingsong; Shao, Ling; Li, Xuelong; Wang, Lei

    2015-02-01

    With the development of digital multimedia technologies, image matting has gained increasing interests from both academic and industrial communities. The purpose of image matting is to precisely extract the foreground objects with arbitrary shapes from an image or a video frame for further editing. It is generally known that image matting is inherently an ill-posed problem because we need to output three images out of only one input image. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive survey of the existing image matting algorithms and evaluate their performance. In addition to the blue screen matting, we systematically divide all existing natural image matting methods into four categories: 1) color sampling-based; 2) propagation-based; 3) combination of sampling-based and propagation-based; and 4) learning-based approaches. Sampling-based methods assume that the foreground and background colors of an unknown pixel can be explicitly estimated by examining nearby pixels. Propagation-based methods are instead based on the assumption that foreground and background colors are locally smooth. Learning-based methods treat the matting process as a supervised or semisupervised learning problem. Via the learning process, users can construct a linear or nonlinear model between the alpha mattes and the image colors using a training set to estimate the alpha matte of an unknown pixel without any assumption about the characteristics of the testing image. With three benchmark data sets, the various matting algorithms are evaluated and compared using several metrics to demonstrate the strengths and weaknesses of each method both quantitatively and qualitatively. Finally, we conclude this paper by outlining the research trends and suggesting a number of promising directions for future development. PMID:25423658

  16. The NGST Yardstick Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) Feasibility Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenhouse, M. A.; NGST ISIM Team

    1999-05-01

    The Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) is a distributed system consisting of a cryogenic instrument module that is integrated with the Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA) and science processors, software, and other electronics located in the Space Support Module (SSM). The ISIM system provides structure, environment, and data handling for several modular science instruments as well as several components of the OTA optics train. An ISIM baseline design and feasibility study is ongoing at GSFC. This pre-Phase A design was developed for integration with the Yardstick NGST architecture and packaging in a 5 m class EELV fairing. The goals of this study are to: [1] demonstrate mission science feasibility, [2] assess ISIM engineering and cost feasibility, [3] identify ISIM technology challenge areas,and [4] enable smart customer procurement of the NGST. In depth results from this work beyond those displayed here can be found at: http://www701.gsfc.nasa.gov/isim/isim.htm The flight ISIM will be developed by a GSFC led IPT that includes members from the STScI and, during Phase A/B, will grow to include the NGST Prime Contractor, and science instrument development teams from European, Canadian , and US science communities. Science instruments will be competitively procured from the science community, and will be integrated into the ISIM by GSFC. The flight qualified ISIM will then be delivered by GSFC to the NGST Prime Contractor for observatory level integration. At the start of NGST Phase A (Spring 1999), two competing prime contractors will begin development of separate NGST architectures, and the ISIM IPT will develop two ISIM designs corresponding to these architectures. Down selection to a single design will occur during mid 2001. The ISIM team welcomes science community feedback. Contact the IPT lead: Matt Greenhouse: matt@stars.gsfc.nasa.gov.

  17. Influence of high ambient illuminance and display luminance on readability and subjective preference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Moor, Katrien; Andrén, Börje; Guo, Yi; Brunnström, Kjell; Wang, Kun; Drott, Anton; Hermann, David S.

    2015-03-01

    Many devices, such as tablets, smartphones, notebooks, fixed and portable navigation systems are used on a (nearly) daily basis, both in in- and outdoor environments. It is often argued that contextual factors, such as the ambient illuminance in relation to characteristics of the display (e.g., surface treatment, screen reflectance, display luminance …) may have a strong influence on the use of such devices and corresponding user experiences. However, the current understanding of these influence factors is still rather limited. In this work, we therefore focus in particular on the impact of lighting and display luminance on readability, visual performance, subjective experience and preference. A controlled lab study (N=18) with a within-subjects design was performed to evaluate two car displays (one glossy and one matte display) in conditions that simulate bright outdoor lighting conditions. Four ambient luminance levels and three display luminance settings were combined into 7 experimental conditions. More concretely, we investigated for each display: (1) whether and how readability and visual performance varied with the different combinations of ambient luminance and display luminance and (2) whether and how they influenced the subjective experience (through self-reported valence, annoyance, visual fatigue) and preference. The results indicate a limited, yet negative influence of increased ambient luminance and reduced contrast on visual performance and readability for both displays. Similarly, we found that the self-reported valence decreases and annoyance and visual fatigue increase as the contrast ratio decreases and ambient luminance increases. Overall, the impact is clearer for the matte display than for the glossy display.

  18. PREFACE: Theory, Modelling and Computational methods for Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migliorato, Max; Probert, Matt

    2010-04-01

    These conference proceedings contain the written papers of the contributions presented at the 2nd International Conference on: Theory, Modelling and Computational methods for Semiconductors. The conference was held at the St Williams College, York, UK on 13th-15th Jan 2010. The previous conference in this series took place in 2008 at the University of Manchester, UK. The scope of this conference embraces modelling, theory and the use of sophisticated computational tools in Semiconductor science and technology, where there is a substantial potential for time saving in R&D. The development of high speed computer architectures is finally allowing the routine use of accurate methods for calculating the structural, thermodynamic, vibrational and electronic properties of semiconductors and their heterostructures. This workshop ran for three days, with the objective of bringing together UK and international leading experts in the field of theory of group IV, III-V and II-VI semiconductors together with postdocs and students in the early stages of their careers. The first day focused on providing an introduction and overview of this vast field, aimed particularly at students at this influential point in their careers. We would like to thank all participants for their contribution to the conference programme and these proceedings. We would also like to acknowledge the financial support from the Institute of Physics (Computational Physics group and Semiconductor Physics group), the UK Car-Parrinello Consortium, Accelrys (distributors of Materials Studio) and Quantumwise (distributors of Atomistix). The Editors Acknowledgements Conference Organising Committee: Dr Matt Probert (University of York) and Dr Max Migliorato (University of Manchester) Programme Committee: Dr Marco Califano (University of Leeds), Dr Jacob Gavartin (Accelrys Ltd, Cambridge), Dr Stanko Tomic (STFC Daresbury Laboratory), Dr Gabi Slavcheva (Imperial College London) Proceedings edited and compiled by Dr

  19. Goniometric and colorimetric properties of paints and varnish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iacomussi, P.; Radis, M.; Rossi, G.

    2015-03-01

    The spectral reflectance of different samples of three different hues, (red, green, blue) with four different protective varnishes was measured in 8/d condition and with a goniometer equipped with a spectrometer. The samples are representative of hue and varnishes typically used in works of arts, the characterization was performed to test how the different gloss finishing induced by transparent varnishes affect the spatial distribution of the luminance coefficient in typical lighting arrangements for exposition of works of art. Nowadays the most used transparent protective varnishes are matt or glossy, natural or synthetic. The choice within them is usually made looking at mechanical, chemical (also in term of removal) and protective properties. Varnishes optical properties investigation on saturation and gloss alteration of the perceived artifacts are not usually investigated. Expected results of this research include: analysis of influences on color appearance of protective varnish according to the condition of illumination and observation, suggestion of new additional criteria for varnish selection and lighting set up exposition and reliability of 8/d measurements condition, that is a typical measurement set-up of portable instruments. Our results showed that natural varnishes are more able to change the gloss of the surfaces than synthetic ones, because the shape and intensity of the specular peak for glossy and matt natural varnish are very different. Both synthetic and natural varnishes have different behaviors at 30° or 60° light incidences: at 30° of incidence all samples have smaller variations, while at 60° of incidence the variations are larger, and for some samples the achromatic point is reached.

  20. Butterfly wing coloration studied with a novel imaging scatterometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavenga, Doekele

    2010-03-01

    Animal coloration functions for display or camouflage. Notably insects provide numerous examples of a rich variety of the applied optical mechanisms. For instance, many butterflies feature a distinct dichromatism, that is, the wing coloration of the male and the female differ substantially. The male Brimstone, Gonepteryx rhamni, has yellow wings that are strongly UV iridescent, but the female has white wings with low reflectance in the UV and a high reflectance in the visible wavelength range. In the Small White cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae crucivora, the wing reflectance of the male is low in the UV and high at visible wavelengths, whereas the wing reflectance of the female is higher in the UV and lower in the visible. Pierid butterflies apply nanosized, strongly scattering beads to achieve their bright coloration. The male Pipevine Swallowtail butterfly, Battus philenor, has dorsal wings with scales functioning as thin film gratings that exhibit polarized iridescence; the dorsal wings of the female are matte black. The polarized iridescence probably functions in intraspecific, sexual signaling, as has been demonstrated in Heliconius butterflies. An example of camouflage is the Green Hairstreak butterfly, Callophrys rubi, where photonic crystal domains exist in the ventral wing scales, resulting in a matte green color that well matches the color of plant leaves. The spectral reflection and polarization characteristics of biological tissues can be rapidly and with unprecedented detail assessed with a novel imaging scatterometer-spectrophotometer, built around an elliptical mirror [1]. Examples of butterfly and damselfly wings, bird feathers, and beetle cuticle will be presented. [4pt] [1] D.G. Stavenga, H.L. Leertouwer, P. Pirih, M.F. Wehling, Optics Express 17, 193-202 (2009)

  1. Linkage between canopy water storage and drop size distributions of leaf drips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanko, Kazuki; Watanabe, Ai; Hotta, Norifumi; Suzuki, Masakazu

    2013-04-01

    Differences in drop size distribution (DSD) of leaf drips among tree species have been estimated and physically interpreted to clarify the leaf drip generation process. Leaf drip generation experiments for nine species were conducted in an indoor location without foliage vibration using an automatic mist spray. Broad-leaved species produced a similar DSD among species whose leaves had a matte surface and a second similar DSD among species whose leaves had a coated surface. The matte broad leaves produced a larger and wider range of DSDs than the coated broad leaves. Coated coniferous needles had a wider range of DSDs than the coated broad leaves and different DSDs were observed for different species. The species with shorter dense needles generated a larger DSD. The leaf drip diameter was calculated through the estimation of a state of equilibrium of a hanging drop on the leaves based on physical theory. The calculations indicated that the maximum diameter of leaf drips was determined by the contact angle, and the range of DSDs was determined by the variation in contact length and the contact diameter at the hanging points. The results revealed that leaf drip DSD changed due to variations in leaf hydrophobicity, leaf roughness, leaf geometry and leaf inclination among the different tree species. This study allows the modelization of throughfall DSD. Furthermore, it indicates the possibility of interpreting canopy water processes from canopy water storage to drainage through the contact angle and leaf drip DSD. The part of this study is published in Nanko et al. (2013, Agric. Forest. Meteorol. 169, 74-84).

  2. Initial yield to depth relation for water wells drilled into crystalline bedrock - Pinardville quadrangle, New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drew, L.J.; Schuenemeyer, J.H.; Amstrong, T.R.; Sutphin, D.M.

    2001-01-01

    A model is proposed to explain the statistical relations between the mean initial water well yields from eight time increments from 1984 to 1998 for wells drilled into the crystalline bedrock aquifer system in the Pinardville area of southern New Hampshire and the type of bedrock, mean well depth, and mean well elevation. Statistical analyses show that the mean total yield of drilling increments is positively correlated with mean total well depth and mean well elevation. In addition, the mean total well yield varies with rock type from a minimum of 46.9 L/min (12.4 gpm) in the Damon Pond granite to a maximum of 74.5 L/min (19.7 gpm) in the Permian pegmatite and granite unit. Across the eight drilling increments that comprise 211 wells each, the percentages of very low-yield wells (1.9 L/min [0.5 gpm] or less) and high-yield wells (151.4 L/min [40 gpm] or more) increased, and those of intermediate-yield wells decreased. As housing development progressed during the 1984 to 1998 interval, the mean depth of the wells and their elevations increased, and the mix of percentages of the bedrock types drilled changed markedly. The proposed model uses a feed-forward mechanism to explain the interaction between the increasing mean elevation, mean well depth, and percentages of very low-yielding wells and the mean well yield. The increasing percentages of very low-yielding wells through time and the economics of the housing market may control the system that forces the mean well depths, percentages of high-yield wells, and mean well yields to increase. The reason for the increasing percentages of very low-yield wells is uncertain, but the explanation is believed to involve the complex structural geology and tectonic history of the Pinardville quadrangle.

  3. The effect of perturbations on resistance to sliding in second-order moments comparing two different bracket types.

    PubMed

    Wong, Justin K; Romanyk, Dan L; Toogood, Roger W; Heo, Giseon; Carey, Jason P; Major, Paul W

    2014-01-01

    Orthodontic literature has shown all ligation methods to behave similarly in the clinical situation; however, the reasoning behind this still requires further investigation. A novel frictional device able to measure forces at the level of the bracket along with a custom perturbation device was used to investigate the effect of perturbations on resistance to sliding (RS) using conventional and passive ligated brackets. 150 3M Victory Series twins (0.022 slot) and 150 Damon Q brackets (0.022 slot) were tested using an 0.018 x 0.025 stainless steel wire for RS. There were 5 test groups consisting of equal numbers (n=30) representing combinations of high and low amplitude and frequency of perturbations along with a control. Second order angulation tested ranged from 0 to 6 degrees. Results for conventional brackets in the presence of perturbations at 0 degrees showed there was a statistically significant reduction (P<0.001) in RS when compared to controls. At 6 degrees, this difference (P<0.001) was seen in both high perturbation groups and one of the low perturbation groups. For passive ligated brackets, no statistically significant difference between groups was seen at 0 degrees. However, at 6 degrees high perturbation groups both resulted in statistically significant (P<0.001) reductions in RS when compared to controls. From this study it was concluded that passive ligated brackets have a lower RS when compared to conventional ligated brackets under all test conditions and angulations. Also, amplitude of perturbations has a larger role than frequency in reduction of RS values. PMID:25395993

  4. Initial yield to depth relation for water wells drilled into crystalline bedrock--Pinardville quadrangle, New Hampshire.

    PubMed

    Drew, L J; Schuenemeyer, J H; Armstrong, T R; Sutphin, D M

    2001-01-01

    A model is proposed to explain the statistical relations between the mean initial water well yields from eight time increments from 1984 to 1998 for wells drilled into the crystalline bedrock aquifer system in the Pinardville area of southern New Hampshire and the type of bedrock, mean well depth, and mean well elevation. Statistical analyses show that the mean total yield of drilling increments is positively correlated with mean total well depth and mean well elevation. In addition, the mean total well yield varies with rock type from a minimum of 46.9 L/min (12.4 gpm) in the Damon Pond granite to a maximum of 74.5 L/min (19.7 gpm) in the Permian pegmatite and granite unit. Across the eight drilling increments that comprise 211 wells each, the percentages of very low-yield wells (1.9 L/min [0.5 gpm] or less) and high-yield wells (151.4 L/min [40 gpm] or more) increased, and those of intermediate-yield wells decreased. As housing development progressed during the 1984 to 1998 interval, the mean depth of the wells and their elevations increased, and the mix of percentages of the bedrock types drilled changed markedly. The proposed model uses a feed-forward mechanism to explain the interaction between the increasing mean elevation, mean well depth, and percentages of very low-yielding wells and the mean well yield. The increasing percentages of very low-yielding wells through time and the economics of the housing market may control the system that forces the mean well depths, percentages of high-yield wells, and mean well yields to increase. The reason for the increasing percentages of very low-yield wells is uncertain, but the explanation is believed to involve the complex structural geology and tectonic history of the Pinardville quadrangle. PMID:11554245

  5. Interview with James Bradner. Interviewed by Hannah Coaker.

    PubMed

    Bradner, James E

    2013-08-01

    James E Bradner is an Assistant Professor in Medicine at Harvard Medical School (MA, USA) as well as a Staff Physician in the Division of Hematologic Malignancies at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (MA, USA). The present research focus of the Bradner laboratory concerns the discovery and optimization of prototype drugs targeting cancer gene regulation. The clinical objective of the Bradner group is to deliver novel therapeutics for human clinical investigation in hematologic diseases. Bradner's awards and honors include the Damon Runyon-Rachleff Innovation Award, the Smith Family Award for Excellence in Biomedical Research, the Dunkin' Donuts Rising Star Award and the HMS Distinguished Excellence in Teaching Award. He is a member of the American Society of Clinical Investigation, the American Society of Hematology, the American Chemical Society and the American Association of Cancer Research. His recent research has been published in Nature, Cell, Nature Chemical Biology and the Journal of the American Chemical Society. He has authored more than 20 US Patent applications, licensed to five pharmaceutical companies, and is a scientific founder of Acetylon Pharmaceuticals, SHAPE Pharmaceuticals, Tensha Therapeutics and Syros Pharmaceuticals. Bradner received his AB from Harvard University, his MD from the University of Chicago (IL, USA) and a MMS from Harvard Medical School. He completed his postgraduate training in Internal Medicine at Brigham & Women's Hospital (MA, USA), followed by a fellowship in Medical Oncology and Hematology at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute. Following additional post-doctoral training in Chemistry at Harvard University and the Broad Institute (MA, USA) with Professor Stuart Schreiber, Bradner joined the research faculty of Dana-Farber in 2008. Interview conducted by Hannah Coaker, Assistant Commissioning Editor. PMID:23919548

  6. Randomized controlled clinical trial of oral health-related quality of life in patients wearing conventional and self-ligating brackets

    PubMed Central

    Mansor, Noorhanizar; Saub, Roslan

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this randomized controlled clinical trial was to compare oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of patients treated with conventional, active self-ligating (ASL), and passive self-ligating (PSL) brackets in different therapeutic phases. Methods Sixty patients (mean age 18.3 years; 29 males and 31 females) requiring orthodontic treatment were randomly and equally assigned to receive conventional (Victory Series), ASL (In-Ovation R), or PSL (Damon 3MX) brackets. OHRQoL was measured with a self-administered modified 16-item Malaysian version of the Oral Health Impact Profile for immediate (soon after the visit) and late (just before the subsequent visit) assessments of the bonding and activation phases. Data were analyzed with the Kruskal-Wallis and chi-square tests. Results The PSL and ASL groups showed more immediate and late impacts in the bonding phase, respectively; the conventional group was affected in both the assessments. The first activation phase had similar impacts in the groups. After the second activation, the conventional group showed more immediate impacts, whereas the PSL and ASL groups had more late impacts. The commonly affected domains were "physical disability," "functional limitation," "physical pain," and "psychological discomfort." No significant differences in the prevalence and severity of immediate and late impacts on OHRQoL of the patients were noted in any therapeutic phase. Conclusions No bracket system seems to ensure superior OHRQoL. This information could be useful for explaining the therapeutic phases, especially the initial one, and selecting the optimal bracket system based on the patient's preference. PMID:25133131

  7. The effect of perturbations on resistance to sliding in second-order moments comparing two different bracket types

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Justin K; Romanyk, Dan L; Toogood, Roger W; Heo, Giseon; Carey, Jason P

    2014-01-01

    Orthodontic literature has shown all ligation methods to behave similarly in the clinical situation; however, the reasoning behind this still requires further investigation. A novel frictional device able to measure forces at the level of the bracket along with a custom perturbation device was used to investigate the effect of perturbations on resistance to sliding (RS) using conventional and passive ligated brackets. 150 3M Victory Series twins (0.022 slot) and 150 Damon Q brackets (0.022 slot) were tested using an 0.018 x 0.025 stainless steel wire for RS. There were 5 test groups consisting of equal numbers (n=30) representing combinations of high and low amplitude and frequency of perturbations along with a control. Second order angulation tested ranged from 0 to 6 degrees. Results for conventional brackets in the presence of perturbations at 0 degrees showed there was a statistically significant reduction (P<0.001) in RS when compared to controls. At 6 degrees, this difference (P<0.001) was seen in both high perturbation groups and one of the low perturbation groups. For passive ligated brackets, no statistically significant difference between groups was seen at 0 degrees. However, at 6 degrees high perturbation groups both resulted in statistically significant (P<0.001) reductions in RS when compared to controls. From this study it was concluded that passive ligated brackets have a lower RS when compared to conventional ligated brackets under all test conditions and angulations. Also, amplitude of perturbations has a larger role than frequency in reduction of RS values. PMID:25395993

  8. Does the bracket–ligature combination affect the amount of orthodontic space closure over three months? A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Henry; Collins, Jill; Tinsley, David; Sandler, Jonathan; Benson, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of bracket–ligature combination on the amount of orthodontic space closure over three months. Design: Randomized clinical trial with three parallel groups. Setting: A hospital orthodontic department (Chesterfield Royal Hospital, UK). Participants: Forty-five patients requiring upper first premolar extractions. Methods: Informed consent was obtained and participants were randomly allocated into one of three groups: (1) conventional pre-adjusted edgewise brackets and elastomeric ligatures; (2) conventional pre-adjusted edgewise brackets and Super Slick® low friction elastomeric ligatures; (3) Damon 3MX® passive self-ligating brackets. Space closure was undertaken on 0·019×0·025-inch stainless steel archwires with nickel–titanium coil springs. Participants were recalled at four weekly intervals. Upper alginate impressions were taken at each visit (maximum three). The primary outcome measure was the mean amount of space closure in a 3-month period. Results: A one-way ANOVA was undertaken [dependent variable: mean space closure (mm); independent variable: group allocation]. The amount of space closure was very similar between the three groups (1 mm per 28 days); however, there was a wide variation in the rate of space closure between individuals. The differences in the amount of space closure over three months between the three groups was very small and non-significant (P = 0·718). Conclusion: The hypothesis that reducing friction by modifying the bracket/ligature interface increases the rate of space closure was not supported. The major determinant of orthodontic tooth movement is probably the individual patient response. PMID:23794696

  9. Brillouin light scattering investigation of the thickness dependence of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction in C o0.5F e0.5 ultrathin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belmeguenai, M.; Gabor, M. S.; Roussigné, Y.; Stashkevich, A.; Chérif, S. M.; Zighem, F.; Tiusan, C.

    2016-05-01

    C o0.5F e0.5 (CoFe) ultrathin films of various thicknesses (0.8 nm ≤tCoFe≤1.6 nm ) have been grown by sputtering on (001) MgO single crystal or Si/SiO2 substrates, using Pt as capping or buffer layers, respectively. The x-ray diffraction revealed an in-plane epitaxial (isotropic) growth of Pt on MgO (Si). Their magnetic properties have been studied by vibrating sample magnetometry and Brillouin light scattering (BLS) in the Damon-Eshbach geometry. Vibrating sample magnetometry characterizations show that films grown on MgO are in-plane magnetized, while films deposited on Si are perpendicularly magnetized for CoFe thickness below 1.4 nm. The BLS measurements reveal a pronounced nonreciprocal spin waves propagation, which increases with decreasing CoFe thickness. This nonreciprocity was attributed to an interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) induced by Pt interface with CoFe. Moreover, the DMI sign has been found to depend on the stacks order: it is positive (negative) for CoFe/Pt (Pt/CoFe). The effective thickness dependence of the DMI effective constant shows two regimes due to the degradation of the interfaces as the CoFe thickness decreases. We thus show that the magnetic dead layer should be taken into account to precisely determine the surface DMI constant Ds. Therefore, for the thickest samples, the surface DMI constants are nearly opposite: -1.27 and 1.32 pJ m-1 for Pt/CoFe and its reversed system, respectively.

  10. Planktonic foraminifera as bio-indicators for monitoring the climatic changes that have occurred over the past 2000 years in the southeastern Tyrrhenian Sea.

    PubMed

    Lirer, Fabrizio; Sprovieri, Mario; Vallefuoco, Mattia; Ferraro, Luciana; Pelosi, Nicola; Giordano, Laura; Capotondi, Lucilla

    2014-08-01

    A high-resolution integrated study has been performed in a super-expanded marine record (sedimentation rate spanning from 11 cm/100 years to 20 cm/100 years) from the continental shelf area of the southeastern Tyrrhenian Sea. Planktonic foraminiferal distribution illustrates 6 major environmental changes during the past 2000 years: (i) the Roman Period-Dark Age transition (from herbivorous-opportunistic to carnivorous species); (ii) the Dark Age-MCA transition (from carnivorous to herbivorous-opportunistic species); (iii) the Medieval Classic Anomaly-Little Ice Age transition (a further and definitive change from carnivorous to herbivorous-opportunistic species); (iv) the period during the Maunder event between approximately 1720 AD and 1740 AD (turnover from the carnivorous planktonic foraminifer Globigerinodes ruber to the herbivorous-opportunistic planktonic foraminifer Turborotalita quinqueloba); (v) the Industrial Period (dominance of herbivorous-opportunistic planktonic foraminifera); and (vi) the Modern Warm Period at approximately 1940 AD (the last turnover in favor of herbivorous-opportunistic planktonic foraminifers, associated with an increase in benthic foraminifera). Our studies lead us to link this latter feature to an anthropogenic impact associated with the damming of Sele River (Salerno Gulf) at 1934 AD, which induced a change in the sediment input with a strong decrease in coarse-grained fraction and a probable alteration in nutrient supply. The δ(18) OG. ruber record of the past 2000 years shows the alternation of warm/wet and cold/dry events related to the Roman Period, the Dark Age, the Medieval Classic Anomaly, the Little Ice Age, the Industrial Period and the Modern Warm Period. The 5 evident δ(18) OG. ruber oscillations (between approximately 1325 AD and 1940 AD) coincide with the 5 minima in the solar activity record (Wolf, Spörer, Maunder, Dalton and Damon events). PMID:24382193

  11. A Web-based Multi-user Interactive Visualization System For Large-Scale Computing Using Google Web Toolkit Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, R. M.; McLane, J. C.; Yuen, D. A.; Wang, S.

    2009-12-01

    We have created a web-based, interactive system for multi-user collaborative visualization of large data sets (on the order of terabytes) that allows users in geographically disparate locations to simultaneous and collectively visualize large data sets over the Internet. By leveraging asynchronous java and XML (AJAX) web development paradigms via the Google Web Toolkit (http://code.google.com/webtoolkit/), we are able to provide remote, web-based users a web portal to LCSE's (http://www.lcse.umn.edu) large-scale interactive visualization system already in place at the University of Minnesota that provides high resolution visualizations to the order of 15 million pixels by Megan Damon. In the current version of our software, we have implemented a new, highly extensible back-end framework built around HTTP "server push" technology to provide a rich collaborative environment and a smooth end-user experience. Furthermore, the web application is accessible via a variety of devices including netbooks, iPhones, and other web- and javascript-enabled cell phones. New features in the current version include: the ability for (1) users to launch multiple visualizations, (2) a user to invite one or more other users to view their visualization in real-time (multiple observers), (3) users to delegate control aspects of the visualization to others (multiple controllers) , and (4) engage in collaborative chat and instant messaging with other users within the user interface of the web application. We will explain choices made regarding implementation, overall system architecture and method of operation, and the benefits of an extensible, modular design. We will also discuss future goals, features, and our plans for increasing scalability of the system which includes a discussion of the benefits potentially afforded us by a migration of server-side components to the Google Application Engine (http://code.google.com/appengine/).

  12. The effects of composition and temperature on chalcophile and lithophile element partitioning into magmatic sulphides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiseeva, Ekaterina S.; Wood, Bernard J.

    2015-08-01

    during fractional crystallisation of magmas generated by 10% melting of depleted mantle provided the latter contains >100 ppm S and about 650 ppm Ce, 550 ppm Nd and 27.5 ppb Pb. Finally, we investigated the hypothesis that the pattern of chalcophile element abundances in the mantle was established by segregation of a late sulphide matte. Taking the elements Cu, Ag, Pb and Zn as examples we find that the Pb/Zn and Cu/Ag ratios of the mantle can, in principle, be explained by segregation of ∼0.4% sulphide matte to the core.

  13. Radiochromic film dosimetry: considerations on precision and accuracy for EBT2 and EBT3 type films.

    PubMed

    Dreindl, Ralf; Georg, Dietmar; Stock, Markus

    2014-05-01

    Gafchromic® EBT2 film is a widely used dosimetric tool for quality assurance in radiation therapy. In 2012 EBT3 was presented as a replacement for EBT2 films. The symmetric structure of EBT3 films to reduce face-up/down dependency as well as the inclusion of a matte film surface to frustrate Newton Ring artifacts present the most prominent improvements of EBT3 films. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of EBT3 films, to benchmark the films against the known EBT2-features and to evaluate the dosimetric behavior over a time period greater than 6 months. All films were irradiated to clinical photon beams (6 MV, 10 MV and 18 MV) on an Elekta Synergy Linac equipped with a Beam Modulator MLC in solid water phantom slabs. Film digitalization was done with a flatbed transparency scanner (Type Epson Expression 1680 Pro). MATLAB® was used for further statistical calculations and image processing. The investigations on post-irradiation darkening, film orientation, film uniformity and energy dependency resulted in negligible differences between EBT2 and EBT3 film. A minimal improvement in face-up/down dependence was found for EBT3. The matte film surface of EBT3 films turned out to be a practical feature as Newton rings could be eliminated completely. Considering long-term behavior (> 6 months) a shift of the calibration curve for EBT2 and EBT3 films due to changes in the dynamic response of the active component was observed. In conclusion, the new EBT3 film yields comparable results to its predecessor EBT2. The general advantages of radiochromic film dosimeters are completed by high film homogeneity, low energy dependence for the observed energy range and a minimized face-up/down dependence. EBT2 dosimetry-protocols can also be used for EBT3 films, but the inclusion of periodical recalibration-interval (e.g. once a quarter) is recommended for protocols of both film generations. PMID:24055395

  14. Prevalence and type of pain during conventional and self-ligating orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Tecco, Simona; D'Attilio, Michele; Tetè, Stefano; Festa, Felice

    2009-08-01

    This study investigated the prevalence and type of pain experienced during orthodontic treatment in 30 subjects (12 males, 18 females, aged 12-18 years) with crowding. Fifteen patients were treated with conventional brackets (Victory Series) and 15 with self-ligating brackets (Damon SL II). The first archwire for all patients was a 0.014 inch nickel-titanium (NiTi) archwire with a force of approximately 100 g. Conventional brackets were ligated with elastomeric modules. A visual analogue scale (VAS) was used daily to assess the intensity of pain; the use of pain medication was also reported in a specially designed daybook for a total period of 3 months. Pearson's chi-square was used to investigate the difference between groups in the frequency of pain experience, its nature, and the use of analgesia. Non-parametric statistics (Mann-Whitney U-test) were computed to compare pain intensity between the groups. To investigate reported pain assessments, Friedman's two-way analysis of variance was used and the differences were estimated using Wilcoxon's signed-rank test. The results showed that pain was reported for a period of 9 days after archwire insertion. Patients treated with self-ligating brackets reported the highest pain intensity on the day following placement of the first archwire (VAS mean = 42.6), while those treated with conventional brackets experienced the greatest pain intensity at placement of the first archwire (VAS mean = 52) and after the second orthodontic appointment (VAS mean = 59.6). Analgesics were used by 16.5 per cent of patients treated with self-ligating brackets and by 10 per cent of those treated with conventional brackets, most often during the first 2 days after archwire placement. Patients treated with conventional brackets reported significantly more 'constant' pain than those treated with self-ligating brackets who complained of 'chewing/biting' pain. Pain appears to be common during orthodontic treatment but perhaps less intense when

  15. IntCal04: A New Consensus Radiocarbon Calibration Dataset from 0-26 ka BP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimer, P. J.; Baillie, M. G.; Bard, E.; Beck, J. W.; Buck, C. E.; Blackwell, P. G.; Burr, G. S.; Cutler, K. B.; Damon, P. E.; Edwards, R. L.; Fairbanks, R. G.; Friedrich, M.; Guilderson, T. P.; Hogg, A. G.; Hughen, K. A.; Kromer, B.; McCormac, G.; Ramsey, C. B.; Reimer, R. W.; Remmele, S.; Southon, J. R.; Stuiver, M.; Taylor, F. W.; van der Plicht, J.; Weyhenmeyer, C. E.

    2003-12-01

    Because atmosphere 14C levels have not been constant through time, it is necessary to calibrate radiocarbon dates with known age radiocarbon datasets in order to compare paleorecords based on 14C ages and those based on other timescales. The need for a consensus calibration dataset was acknowledged by the radiocarbon community as a way of preventing confusion and the subjective use of selected datasets (1). Since then, radiocarbon calibration datasets have been developed by international collaborations and presented for ratification at the International Radiocarbon Conference (2-4). The IntCal04 Radiocarbon Calibration/Comparison Working Group has put together a dataset which incorporates existing and new measurements of tree-ring records, foraminifera from varved sediments, and corals that meet a strict set of acceptance criteria (5). Uncertainties for both the calendar time scale and the radiocarbon ages have been quantified and included in the dataset combination using a statistical technique based on the ideas of Christen and Nicholls (6) and Gomez Portugal Aguilar (7). The IntCal04 dataset, which covers the range of 0 to 26 ka BP, was presented for ratification at the 19th International Radiocarbon Conference in Wellington, New Zealand, in September, 2003. This paper will highlight the differences between IntCal98 and the new IntCal04 dataset and give an example showing the effect on the calibrated age for a Younger Dryas age sample. 1. J. Klein, J. C. Lerman, P. E. Damon, E. K. Ralph, Radiocarbon 24, 103-150 (1982). 2. M. Stuiver, Radiocarbon 28, R2-R2 (1986). 3. M. Stuiver et al., Radiocarbon 40, 1041-1083 (1998). 4. M. Stuiver, P. J. Reimer, Radiocarbon 35, 215-230 (1993). 5. P. J. Reimer et al., Radiocarbon 44, 653-661. (2002). 6. J. A. Christen, G. Nicholls, "Random-walk radiocarbon calibration." (Mathematics Department, University of Auckland, 2000). 7.D. G. P. Aguilar, C. D. Litton, A. O'Hagan, Radiocarbon 44, 195-212 (2002).

  16. Study of magnetostatic mode waves using scanning Kerr imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamaru, Shingo

    2005-07-01

    This dissertation discusses a technique developed to measure microscopic ferromagnetic resonance, and the results of the excitation and relaxation of magnetostatic mode waves (MSW) obtained by this technique. In this technique, named spatially resolved ferromagnetic resonance-scanning Kerr effect microscopy (SRFMR-SKEM), a sample under measurement is excited by a sinusoidal field in the microwave frequency range and the entire waveform of the magnetization response over one cycle is captured by an optical system identical to that used for time resolved scanning Kerr effect microscopy. This allows one to determine not only the amplitude but also the phase of the local precessional motion with optical diffraction limited spatial and picosecond timing resolution. Using this technique, magnetic excitation and relaxation in Permalloy thin films under various conditions were measured. In the first experiment, the uniform mode (Kittel mode) was excited. The phenomenological damping parameter showed an anomalous increase in the low bias field region. 2D mapped images of magnetization response suggest that the formation of multidomain structure and ripple domains are most likely to be responsible for this behavior. In the second experiment, decaying plane MSWs were observed from which the wave number and the decay length were determined. It was found that the extended Damon-Eshbach model which includes the effect of finite damping can be used explain the results. The third experiment showed a clear signature of mode quantization of MSWs excited in a confined geometry. Finally, the fourth experiment captured spatial propagation patterns of MSWs under various conditions. Experiments suggest that these patterns are diffraction patterns of MSWs. A theory for calculating the diffraction patterns of MSWs was presented in order to understand the observation results in the fourth experiment. In this theory, the Green's function for MSWs was first derived, then a convolution

  17. Cumulative Carbon and Anthropocene Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, D.; Pierrehumbert, R.; Solomon, S.

    2010-12-01

    Doney, Katharine Hayhoe, Isaac M. Held, Dennis P. Lettenmaier, David Lobell, Damon Matthews, Raymond Pierrehumbert, Marilyn Raphael, Richard Richels, Terry L. Root, Konrad Steffen, Claudia Tebaldi, and Gary W. Yohe. Reference: National Research Council, 2010, Climate Stabilization Targets: Emissions, Concentrations, and Impacts over Decades to Millennia, The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., 232 pp.

  18. Mechanism of Mineral Phase Reconstruction for Improving the Beneficiation of Copper and Iron from Copper Slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zhengqi; Zhu, Deqing; Pan, Jan; Zhang, Feng

    2016-08-01

    To maximize the recovery of iron and copper from copper slag, the modification process by adding a compound additive (a mixture of hematite, pyrite and manganous oxide) and optimizing the cooling of the slag was studied. The phase reconstruction mechanism of the slag modification process was revealed by thermodynamic calculations, x-ray diffraction, optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the synergy between the burnt lime and the compound additive promotes the generation of target minerals, such as magnetite and copper matte. In addition, the multifunctional compound additive is able to improve the fluidity of the molten slag, which facilitates the coalescence and growth of fine particles of the target minerals. As a result, the percentage of iron distributed in the form of magnetite increased from 32.9% to 65.1%, and that of the copper exiting in the form of metallic copper and copper sulfide simultaneously increased from 80.0% to 90.3%. Meanwhile, the grains of the target minerals in the modified slag grew markedly to a mean size of over 50 μm after slow cooling. Ultimately, the beneficiation efficiency of copper and iron was improved because of the ease with which the target minerals could be liberated.

  19. Memories of John N. Brady: scientist, mentor and friend.

    PubMed

    Pise-Masison, Cynthia A; Marriott, Susan J

    2009-01-01

    Friends and colleagues remember John N. Brady, Ph.D., Chief of the Virus Tumor Biology Section of the Laboratory of Cellular Oncology, who died much too young at the age of 57 on April 27, 2009 of colon cancer. John grew up in Illinois and received his Ph.D. with Dr. Richard Consigli at Kansas State University studying the molecular structure of polyomavirus. In 1984 John came to the National Institutes of Health as a Staff Fellow in the laboratory of Dr. Norman Salzman, Laboratory of Biology of Viruses NIAID, where he was among the first to analyze SV40 transcription using in vitro transcription systems and to analyze regulatory sequences for SV40 late transcription. He then trained with Dr. George Khoury in the Laboratory of Molecular Virology NCI, where he identified SV40 T-antigen as a transcriptional activator protein. His research interests grew to focus on the human retroviruses: human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), analyzing how interactions between these viruses and the host cell influence viral gene regulation, viral pathogenesis and viral transformation. His research also impacted the fields of eukaryotic gene regulation and tumor suppressor proteins. John is survived by his wife, Laraine, and two sons, Matt and Kevin. PMID:19454030

  20. Sensitivity of titanium brackets to the corrosive influence of fluoride-containing toothpaste and tea.

    PubMed

    Harzer, W; Schröter, A; Gedrange, T; Muschter, F

    2001-08-01

    Titanium brackets are used in orthodontic patients with an allergy to nickel and other specific substances. In recent studies, the corrosive properties of fluoride-containing toothpastes with different pH values were investigated. The present in vivo study tested how the surfaces of titanium brackets react to the corrosive influence of acidic fluoride-containing toothpaste during orthodontic treatment. Molar bands were placed on 18 orthodontic patients. In these same patients, titanium brackets were bonded on the left quadrants and stainless steel brackets on the right quadrants of the upper and lower arches. Fifteen patients used Gel Kam containing soluble tin fluoride (pH 3.2), whereas 3 used fluoride-free toothpaste. The brackets were removed for evaluation by light microscopy and scanning microscopy 5.5 to 7.0 months and 7.5 to 17 months after bonding. The quality and quantity of elements present were measured by scanning microscopy. Macroscopic evaluation showed the matte gray color of titanium brackets dominating over the silver gleam of the steel brackets. The plaque accumulation on titanium brackets is high because of the very rough surface. Pitting and crevices were observed in only 3 of the 165 brackets tested. The present in vivo investigation confirms the results of in vitro studies, but the changes are so minor that titanium brackets can safely be used for up to 18 months. Wing surfaces should be improved by modifying the manufacturing process. PMID:11510642

  1. Development of electron reflection suppression materials for improved thermionic energy converter performance using thin film deposition techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Islam, Mohammad; Inal, Osman T.; Luke, James R.

    2006-10-15

    Nonideal electrode surfaces cause significant degree of electron reflection from collector during thermionic converter operation. The effect of the collector surface structure on the converter performance was assessed through the development of several electron reflection suppression materials using various thin film deposition techniques. The double-diode probe method was used to compare the J-V characteristics of converters with polished and modified collector surfaces for emitter temperature and cesium vapor pressure in the ranges of 900-2000 K and 0.02-1.5 torr, respectively. The coadsorption of cesium and oxygen with respective partial vapor pressures of {approx}1.27 torr and a few microtorrs reduced the emitter work function to a minimum value of 0.99 eV. It was found that the collector surfaces with matte black appearance such as platinum black, voided nickel from radio-frequency plasma sputtering, and etched electroless Ni-P with craterlike pore morphology exhibited much better performance compared with polished collector surface. For these thin films, the increase in the maximum output voltage was up to 2.0 eV. For optimum performance with minimum work function and maximum saturation emission current density, the emitter temperature was in the range of 1100-1500 K, depending on the collector surface structure. The use of these materials in cylindrical converter design and/or in combination with hybrid mode triode configuration holds great potential in low and medium scale power generators for commercial use.

  2. Mitigation of Sn Whisker Growth by Small Bi Additions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Jung-Lae; Nagao, Shijo; Hamasaki, Kyoko; Tsujimoto, Masanobu; Sugahara, Tohru; Suganuma, Katsuaki

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the morphological development of electroplated matte Sn and Sn- xBi ( x = 0.5 wt.%, 1.0 wt.%, 2.0 wt.%) film surfaces was investigated under diverse testing conditions: 1-year room-temperature storage, high temperature and humidity (HTH), mechanical loading by indentation, and thermal cycling. These small Bi additions prevented Sn whisker formation; no whisker growth was observed on any Sn- xBi surface during either the room-temperature storage or HTH testing. In the indentation loading and thermal cycling tests, short (<5 μm) surface extrusions were occasionally observed, but only on x = 0.5 wt.% and 1.0 wt.% plated samples. In all test cases, Sn-2Bi plated samples exhibited excellent whisker mitigation, while pure Sn samples always generated many whiskers on the surface. We confirmed that the addition of Bi into Sn refined the grain size of the as-plated films and altered the columnar structure to form equiaxed grains. The storage conditions allowed the formation of intermetallic compounds between the plated layer and the substrate regardless of the Bi addition. However, the growth patterns became more uniform with increasing amounts of Bi. These microstructural improvements with Bi addition effectively released the internal stress from Sn plating, thus mitigating whisker formation on the surface under various environments.

  3. n-Type silicon photoelectrochemistry in methanol: Design of a 10.1% efficient semiconductor/liquid junction solar cell

    PubMed Central

    Gronet, Chris M.; Lewis, Nathan S.; Cogan, George; Gibbons, James

    1983-01-01

    n-Type Si electrodes in MeOH solvent with 0.2 M (1-hydroxyethyl)ferrocene, 0.5 mM (1-hydroxyethyl)ferricenium, and 1.0 M LiClO4 exhibit air mass 2 conversion efficiencies of 10.1% for optical energy into electricity. We observe open-circuit voltages of 0.53 V and short-circuit quantum efficiencies for electron flow of nearly unity. The fill factor of the cell does not decline significantly with increases in light intensity, indicating substantial reduction in efficiency losses in MeOH solvent compared to previous nonaqueous n-Si systems. Matte etch texturing of the Si surface decreases surface reflectivity and increases photocurrent by 50% compared to shiny, polished Si samples. The high values of the open-circuit voltage observed are consistent with the presence of a thin oxide layer, as in a Schottky metal-insulator-semiconductor device, which yields decreased surface recombination and increased values of open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current. The n-Si system was shown to provide sustained photocurrent at air mass 2 levels (20 mA/cm2) for charge through the interface of >2,000 C/cm2. The n-Si/MeOH system represents a liquid junction cell that has exceeded the 10% barrier for conversion of optical energy into electricity. PMID:16593280

  4. Visual categorization of surface qualities of materials by capuchin monkeys and humans.

    PubMed

    Hiramatsu, Chihiro; Fujita, Kazuo

    2015-10-01

    Visually identifying and categorizing the material composition of objects before actually interacting with them is an important skill for operating smoothly and safely in the world. This ability is assumed to have been shaped by evolution; therefore, non-human animals should share similar categorization abilities. Little is known, however, about how non-human animals do this. We tested whether tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) were able to visually categorize images that represented nine different materials (metal, ceramic, glass, stone, bark, wood, leather, fabric, and fur), and we compared their performance with that of humans. Capuchins showed excellent categorization abilities for images of fur, which is a familiar material to captive monkeys. Humans showed a tendency to confuse material categories that resembled each other visually and/or semantically. Correlation analyses on reaction time showed that both species made correct choices rapidly in selecting glossy categories like metal and ceramic compared with matte categories like fabric and stone, which contain minute patterns. Overall, our results suggest that monkeys share similar perceptual tendencies with humans in visual categorization of material images to some extent and the potential to categorize materials frequently encountered in their daily lives by visual observation. PMID:26325391

  5. Surface differentiation by parametric modeling of infrared intensity scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aytac, Tayfun; Barshan, Billur

    2005-06-01

    We differentiate surfaces with different properties with simple low-cost IR emitters and detectors in a location-invariant manner. The intensity readings obtained with such sensors are highly dependent on the location and properties of the surface, which complicates the differentiation and localization process. Our approach, which models IR intensity scans parametrically, can distinguish different surfaces independent of their positions. Once the surface type is identified, its position (r,θ) can also be estimated. The method is verified experimentally with wood; Styrofoam packaging material; white painted matte wall; white and black cloth; and white, brown, and violet paper. A correct differentiation rate of 100% is achieved for six surfaces, and the surfaces are localized within absolute range and azimuth errors of 0.2 cm and 1.1 deg, respectively. The differentiation rate decreases to 86% for seven surfaces and to 73% for eight surfaces. The method demonstrated shows that simple IR sensors, when coupled with appropriate signal processing, can be used to recognize different types of surfaces in a location-invariant manner.

  6. Estimation of crop water requirements: extending the one-step approach to dual crop coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lhomme, J. P.; Boudhina, N.; Masmoudi, M. M.; Chehbouni, A.

    2015-07-01

    Crop water requirements are commonly estimated with the FAO-56 methodology based upon a two-step approach: first a reference evapotranspiration (ET0) is calculated from weather variables with the Penman-Monteith equation, then ET0 is multiplied by a tabulated crop-specific coefficient (Kc) to determine the water requirement (ETc) of a given crop under standard conditions. This method has been challenged to the benefit of a one-step approach, where crop evapotranspiration is directly calculated from a Penman-Monteith equation, its surface resistance replacing the crop coefficient. Whereas the transformation of the two-step approach into a one-step approach has been well documented when a single crop coefficient (Kc) is used, the case of dual crop coefficients (Kcb for the crop and Ke for the soil) has not been treated yet. The present paper examines this specific case. Using a full two-layer model as a reference, it is shown that the FAO-56 dual crop coefficient approach can be translated into a one-step approach based upon a modified combination equation. This equation has the basic form of the Penman-Monteith equation but its surface resistance is calculated as the parallel sum of a foliage resistance (replacing Kcb) and a soil surface resistance (replacing Ke). We also show that the foliage resistance, which depends on leaf stomatal resistance and leaf area, can be inferred from the basal crop coefficient (Kcb) in a way similar to the Matt-Shuttleworth method.

  7. Performance of painted plywood and cloth Nzi traps relative to Manitoba and greenhead traps for tabanids and stable flies.

    PubMed

    Mihok, Steve; Carlson, David A

    2007-04-01

    Experiments were conducted to adapt the cloth Nzi trap to a format suitable for fixed applications in biting fly sampling or control. Catches of tabanids [Tabanus L., Chrysops (Meigen), and Hybomitra Enderlein], and stable flies [Stomoxys calcitrans (L.)] in painted plywood traps were compared with those in standard phthalogen blue cloth traps, and in similarly painted cloth traps. The Manitoba horse fly trap and the Tabanus nigrovittatus Macquart "greenhead" box trap were used as additional standards during one tabanid season. Shiny features of traps reduced catches, e.g., paint on cloth instead of wood, or use of aluminum screening instead of netting. Nevertheless, appropriately painted plywood Nzi traps caught as many biting flies as did standard cloth Nzi traps, if paint finishes were matte, and with the use of phthalogen blue colorants. Nzi traps collected about the same tabanid fauna as the Manitoba and T. nigrovittatus traps, but with improved catches of Chrysops and Tabanus. Recommendations are provided on appropriate color matching, and selection of readily-available materials for trap construction. PMID:17461091

  8. Superconductivity from two dimensional interfaces: CuCl/Si, GaP/Si, ZnS/Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhim, S. H.; Saniz, R.; Freeman, A. J.

    2009-03-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) interfaces of hetero-bonded semiconductor superlattices are studied using the highly precise FLAPW ootnotetextWimmer, Krakauer, Weinert, and Freeman, Phys.Rev.B, 24, 864 (1981) method. The 2D system, of metal-insulator-metal, is one of the candidate geometries to realize the excitonic mechanism of superconductvity, ootnotetextV.L. Ginzburg, Sov. Phys. JETP 20,1549 (1965) where TC can be greatly enhanced over phonon mediation. Epitaxially grown CuCl on Si (111) was reported to exhibit an anomalous diamagnetic susceptibility at 60˜150 K. ootnotetextMattes and Foiles,Physica 135B, 139 (1985) For all superlattices, 2D metallicity was found at the interfaces due to charge transfer from the polarity mismatch, ootnotetextRhim, Saniz, Yu, Ye, and Freeman, Phys. Rev. B 76, 184505 (2007) as evidenced by their bands, Fermi surfaces, and charge densities. The TC, calculated within the crude RMTA and the McMillan-Hopfield formula, is 0.04˜4.4K for the CuCl/Si case, but vanishes for the other cases. To pursue the excitonic mechanism, we are determining the Kernel function K(φ), i.e. the average of the effective Coulomb interfaction, with q dependent dynamic screening. First results for CuCl/Si show K(φ) to be attractive for a certain energy range

  9. Inertial fusion features in degenerate plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    León, Pablo T.; Eliezer, Shalom; Piera, Mireia; Martínez-Val, José M.

    2005-04-01

    Very high plasma densities can be obtained at the end of the implosion phase in inertial fusion targets, particularly in the so-called fast-ignition scheme (Tabak et al., 1994; Mulser & Bauer, 2004), where a central hot spark is not needed at all. By properly tailoring the fuel compression stage, degenerate states can be reached (Azechi et al., 1991; Nakai et al., 1991; McCory, 1998). In that case, most of the relevant energy transfer mechanisms involving electrons are affected (Honrubia & Tikhonchuk, 2004; Bibi & Matte, 2004; Bibi et al., 2004). For instance, bremsstrahlung emission is highly suppressed (Eliezer et al., 2003). In fact, a low ignition-temperature regime appears at very high plasma densities, due to radiation leakage reduction (León et al., 2001). Stopping power and ion-electron coulomb collisions are also changed in this case, which are important mechanisms to trigger ignition by the incoming fast jet, and to launch the fusion wave from the igniting region into the colder, degenerate plasma. All these points are reviewed in this paper. Although degenerate states would not be easy to obtain by target implosion, they present a very interesting upper limit that deserves more attention in order to complete the understanding on the different domains for inertial confinement fusion.

  10. Gleaming and dull surface textures from photonic-crystal-type nanostructures in the butterfly Cyanophrys remus.

    PubMed

    Kertész, Krisztián; Bálint, Zsolt; Vértesy, Zofia; Márk, Géza I; Lousse, Virginie; Vigneron, Jean Pol; Rassart, Marie; Biró, László P

    2006-08-01

    Photonic-crystal-type nanostructures occurring in the scales of the butterfly Cyanophrys remus were investigated by optical and electron microscopy (scanning and transmission electron microscopy), reflectance measurements (specular, integrated, and goniometric), by fast Fourier transform analysis of micrographs, by modeling, and by numerical simulation of the measured reflectance data. By evaluating the collected data in a cross-correlated way, we show that the metallic blue dorsal coloration originates from scales which individually are photonic single crystals of 50 x 120 microm2 , while the matt pea-green coloration of the ventral side arises from the cumulative effect of randomly arranged, bright photonic crystallites (blue, green, and yellow) with typical diameters in the 3-10-mum range. Both structures are based on a very moderate refractive index contrast between air and chitin. Using a bleached specimen in which the pigment has decayed with time, we investigated the role of pigment in photonic-crystal material in the process of color generation. The possible biologic utility of the metallic blue (single-crystal) and dull green (polycrystal) textures both achieved with photonic crystals are briefly discussed. Potential applications in the field of colorants, flat panel displays, smart textiles, and smart papers are surveyed. PMID:17025487

  11. PASS2 database for the structure-based sequence alignment of distantly related SCOP domain superfamilies: update to version 5 and added features.

    PubMed

    Gandhimathi, Arumugam; Ghosh, Pritha; Hariharaputran, Sridhar; Mathew, Oommen K; Sowdhamini, R

    2016-01-01

    Structure-based sequence alignment is an essential step in assessing and analysing the relationship of distantly related proteins. PASS2 is a database that records such alignments for protein domain superfamilies and has been constantly updated periodically. This update of the PASS2 version, named as PASS2.5, directly corresponds to the SCOPe 2.04 release. All SCOPe structural domains that share less than 40% sequence identity, as defined by the ASTRAL compendium of protein structures, are included. The current version includes 1977 superfamilies and has been assembled utilizing the structure-based sequence alignment protocol. Such an alignment is obtained initially through MATT, followed by a refinement through the COMPARER program. The JOY program has been used for structural annotations of such alignments. In this update, we have automated the protocol and focused on inclusion of new features such as mapping of GO terms, absolutely conserved residues among the domains in a superfamily and inclusion of PDBs, that are absent in SCOPe 2.04, using the HMM profiles from the alignments of the superfamily members and are provided as a separate list. We have also implemented a more user-friendly manner of data presentation and options for downloading more features. PASS2.5 version is available at http://caps.ncbs.res.in/pass2/. PMID:26553811

  12. Additive manufacturing of tools for lapping glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Wesley B.

    2013-09-01

    Additive manufacturing technologies have the ability to directly produce parts with complex geometries without the need for secondary processes, tooling or fixtures. This ability was used to produce concave lapping tools with a VFlash 3D printer from 3D Systems. The lapping tools were first designed in Creo Parametric with a defined constant radius and radial groove pattern. The models were converted to stereolithography files which the VFlash used in building the parts, layer by layer, from a UV curable resin. The tools were rotated at 60 rpm and used with 120 grit and 220 grit silicon carbide lapping paste to lap 0.750" diameter fused silica workpieces. The samples developed a matte appearance on the lapped surface that started as a ring at the edge of the workpiece and expanded to the center. This indicated that as material was removed, the workpiece radius was beginning to match the tool radius. The workpieces were then cleaned and lapped on a second tool (with equivalent geometry) using a 3000 grit corundum aluminum oxide lapping paste, until a near specular surface was achieved. By using lapping tools that have been additively manufactured, fused silica workpieces can be lapped to approach a specified convex geometry. This approach may enable more rapid lapping of near net shape workpieces that minimize the material removal required by subsequent polishing. This research may also enable development of new lapping tool geometry and groove patterns for improved loose abrasive finishing.

  13. Memories of John N. Brady: scientist, mentor and friend

    PubMed Central

    Pise-Masison, Cynthia A; Marriott, Susan J

    2009-01-01

    Friends and colleagues remember John N. Brady, Ph.D., Chief of the Virus Tumor Biology Section of the Laboratory of Cellular Oncology, who died much too young at the age of 57 on April 27, 2009 of colon cancer. John grew up in Illinois and received his Ph.D. with Dr. Richard Consigli at Kansas State University studying the molecular structure of polyomavirus. In 1984 John came to the National Institutes of Health as a Staff Fellow in the laboratory of Dr. Norman Salzman, Laboratory of Biology of Viruses NIAID, where he was among the first to analyze SV40 transcription using in vitro transcription systems and to analyze regulatory sequences for SV40 late transcription. He then trained with Dr. George Khoury in the Laboratory of Molecular Virology NCI, where he identified SV40 T-antigen as a transcriptional activator protein. His research interests grew to focus on the human retroviruses: human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), analyzing how interactions between these viruses and the host cell influence viral gene regulation, viral pathogenesis and viral transformation. His research also impacted the fields of eukaryotic gene regulation and tumor suppressor proteins. John is survived by his wife, Laraine, and two sons, Matt and Kevin. PMID:19454030

  14. Effect of material perception on mode of color appearance.

    PubMed

    Kuriki, Ichiro

    2015-01-01

    The mode of color appearance (mode) is a concept suggesting that variations in a medium that emits, transmits, or reflects light can cause differences in color appearance. For example, the same light beams that appear brown (or gray) when reflected from a given object surface may appear orange (or white) when emitted from a light source. The present study investigated the relationships between material perception and perceived mode, especially in terms of luminosity. In the experiment, a rotating spheroid was presented with surrounds of various luminance levels. The surface texture of the spheroid was either matte gray (three surface reflectance levels) or one of two fabrics. The participants were asked to evaluate the luminosity (mode) and perceived reflectance of the object. The results show that the mode perception is clearly different from the lightness perception. The luminosity was fit with a linear function of the lightness scale in CIE (Commission Internationale de l'Éclairage) L* value of the object surface, unless the material of the surface was identifiable. To conclude, the luminosity (mode) perception can be strongly affected by the material percept, and the luminosity perception of the same object can vary when its surface property is ambiguous. PMID:26057547

  15. Ab initio Study of Transition metal binding to the Prion Protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Daniel L.; Singh, Rajiv R. P.; Pan, Jianping

    2004-03-01

    Fundamental understanding of the prion protein (PrP) is of critical public health importance in view of mad cow and chronic wasting diseases. In recent years, it has been shown that the normal form (PrP^c) binds copper^1), and the structure of the copper binding domain has been elaborated. Hypotheses about toxicity associated with binding of other metals (notably manganese) have been put forward, Accordingly, using the ab initio SIESTA density functional theory code^2), we calculated the binding energy E_B(M) of M-(PrP) complexes relative to initially uncomplexed M ions, with M=Cu,Ni,Zn,Mn and (PrP)^* the minimal binding domain. The binding energy trend is E_B(Ni)>E_B(Cu)>E_B(Zn)>E_B(Mn), consistent with recent experiments apart from the surprising stability of Ni. We will also present preliminary results for binding of initially complexed M ions. *-Supported by U.S. DOE, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Research 1) G.S. Jackson et al., Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (USA) 98, 8531 (2001). 2) P. Ordejón, et al., Phys. Rev. B53, R10441 (1996); J.M. Soler et al., J. Phys. Cond. Matt. 14, 2745 (2002).

  16. Polyplanar optical display electronics

    SciTech Connect

    DeSanto, L.; Biscardi, C.

    1997-07-01

    The Polyplanar Optical Display (POD) is a unique display screen which can be used with any projection source. The prototype ten inch display is two inches thick and has a matte black face which allows for high contrast images. The prototype being developed is a form, fit and functional replacement display for the B-52 aircraft which uses a monochrome ten-inch display. In order to achieve a long lifetime, the new display uses a 100 milliwatt green solid-state laser (10,000 hr. life) at 532 nm as its light source. To produce real-time video, the laser light is being modulated by a Digital Light Processing (DLP{trademark}) chip manufactured by Texas Instruments. In order to use the solid-state laser as the light source and also fit within the constraints of the B-52 display, the Digital Micromirror Device (DMD{trademark}) circuit board is removed from the Texas Instruments DLP light engine assembly. Due to the compact architecture of the projection system within the display chassis, the DMD{trademark} chip is operated remotely from the Texas Instruments circuit board. The authors discuss the operation of the DMD{trademark} divorced from the light engine and the interfacing of the DMD{trademark} board with various video formats (CVBS, Y/C or S-video and RGB) including the format specific to the B-52 aircraft. A brief discussion of the electronics required to drive the laser is also presented.

  17. High Energy Theory Workshops and Visitors at the Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, Aaron T.

    2013-04-01

    Asymmetric, thermal and non-thermal dark matter and its detection”. The first of these workshops (RG Flows) was held from September 17-21 with local organizers Henriette Elvang and Jim Liu, and external organizer Matt Headrick (Brandeis). There were a total of 40 participants, 27 of which were external. The conference website is http://www.umich.edu/~mctp/SciPrgPgs/events/2012/rgflows/, with slides available at http://www.umich.edu/~mctp/SciPrgPgs/events/ 2012/rgflows/sciprog.html. The second workshop (Light DM), was held April 15th-17th. It was especially timely as it coincided with the announcment of events seen by the CDMS collaboration consistent with a possible hint of a Light Dark Matter signal. The conference website is available at: http://www.umich. edu/~mctp/SciPrgPgs/events/2013/dm2013/ with slides available on-line at http://www.umich.edu/~mctp/SciPrgPgs/events/2013/dm2013/program. html.

  18. Spectral imaging using consumer-level devices and kernel-based regression.

    PubMed

    Heikkinen, Ville; Cámara, Clara; Hirvonen, Tapani; Penttinen, Niko

    2016-06-01

    Hyperspectral reflectance factor image estimations were performed in the 400-700 nm wavelength range using a portable consumer-level laptop display as an adjustable light source for a trichromatic camera. Targets of interest were ColorChecker Classic samples, Munsell Matte samples, geometrically challenging tempera icon paintings from the turn of the 20th century, and human hands. Measurements and simulations were performed using Nikon D80 RGB camera and Dell Vostro 2520 laptop screen as a light source. Estimations were performed without spectral characteristics of the devices and by emphasizing simplicity for training sets and estimation model optimization. Spectral and color error images are shown for the estimations using line-scanned hyperspectral images as the ground truth. Estimations were performed using kernel-based regression models via a first-degree inhomogeneous polynomial kernel and a Matérn kernel, where in the latter case the median heuristic approach for model optimization and link function for bounded estimation were evaluated. Results suggest modest requirements for a training set and show that all estimation models have markedly improved accuracy with respect to the DE00 color distance (up to 99% for paintings and hands) and the Pearson distance (up to 98% for paintings and 99% for hands) from a weak training set (Digital ColorChecker SG) case when small representative training data were used in the estimation. PMID:27409436

  19. Gleaming and dull surface textures from photonic-crystal-type nanostructures in the butterfly Cyanophrys remus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kertész, Krisztián; Bálint, Zsolt; Vértesy, Zofia; Márk, Géza I.; Lousse, Virginie; Vigneron, Jean Pol; Rassart, Marie; Biró, László P.

    2006-08-01

    Photonic-crystal-type nanostructures occurring in the scales of the butterfly Cyanophrys remus were investigated by optical and electron microscopy (scanning and transmission electron microscopy), reflectance measurements (specular, integrated, and goniometric), by fast Fourier transform analysis of micrographs, by modeling, and by numerical simulation of the measured reflectance data. By evaluating the collected data in a cross-correlated way, we show that the metallic blue dorsal coloration originates from scales which individually are photonic single crystals of 50×120μm2 , while the matt pea-green coloration of the ventral side arises from the cumulative effect of randomly arranged, bright photonic crystallites (blue, green, and yellow) with typical diameters in the 3-10-μm range. Both structures are based on a very moderate refractive index contrast between air and chitin. Using a bleached specimen in which the pigment has decayed with time, we investigated the role of pigment in photonic-crystal material in the process of color generation. The possible biologic utility of the metallic blue (single-crystal) and dull green (polycrystal) textures both achieved with photonic crystals are briefly discussed. Potential applications in the field of colorants, flat panel displays, smart textiles, and smart papers are surveyed.

  20. An under-active or over-active internal world? An exploration of parallel dynamics within psyche and soma, and the difficulty of internal regulation, in patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Driver, Christine

    2005-04-01

    This paper explores the dynamics brought into analytic work when there is a symmetric fusion between psyche and soma within the patient. It will consider how such a fusion may emerge from reverberations between physical constitution and a lack of maternal attunement, containment and reflective function. I will describe the work with a patient, Jane, who was diagnosed with Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME) during the course of her analysis. The dynamic of her physical symptoms within the analytic work, and the impact of her internal affects and internal 'objects' within the transference and countertransference, indicated a difficulty in finding an homeostatic balance resulting in overactivity and underactivity at both somatic and psychological levels. Using the clinical work with Jane this paper will also examine the interrelationship between mother-infant attachment, an inadequate internalized maternal reflective function, affect dysregulation, unconscious fusion, the lack of psyche-soma differentiation and the impact of the latter in relation to internal regulation systems, or lack of, in patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME). I will draw on similar work carried out by Holland (1997), Simpson (1997) and Simpson et al. (1997). The paper will also employ the concept of the reflective function (Fonagy 2001; Knox 2003), and consider Matte-Blanco's (1999) concepts of generalization and unconscious symmetry in relation to the patient's internal world. I go on to consider how analysis provides a point outside the 'fusion' that can enable the 'deadlock' to be broken. PMID:15817039

  1. Surface-state Mediated Interactions: Analytic and Numerical Results for 3 Adatoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyldgaard, Per; Einstein, T. L.

    2002-03-01

    When mediated by an isotropic Shockley surface-state band (e.g. on noble-metal (111) surfaces), indirect oscillatory electronic interactions between adsorbed atoms(TLE, in Handbook of Surf. Sci.) 1, ed. W. N. Unertl (Elsevier, 1996). are both strong and (in contrast to bulk-mediated interactions) slowly decaying with separation. Moreover, their simple analytical form(P. Hyldgaard and M. Persson, J. Phys.: Cond. Matt. 12), L13 (2000). has been observed experimentally.(J. Repp et al., PRL 85), 2981 (2000); K. Knorr et al., preprint. The s-wave phase shift needed for analysis is obtained from STM images of standing-wave patterns. The interaction of three adsorbed atoms is the sum of the 3 such pair energies plus a trio contribution from electrons traversing the perimeter, d, of the three-adatom cluster.^2,(T. L. Einstein, Surf. Sci. 84), L497 (1979). This trio contribution has a slightly weaker amplitude than the pair energy and a slightly faster asymptotic envelope decay, d-5/2. It also has a different but well-defined d-dependent oscillation period. The asymptotic description is compared with exact model calculations. It should be observable experimentally. http://www2.physics.umd.edu/ einstein/

  2. The MalT-dependent and malZ-encoded maltodextrin glucosidase of Escherichia coli can be converted into a dextrinyltransferase by a single mutation.

    PubMed

    Peist, R; Schneider-Fresenius, C; Boos, W

    1996-05-01

    malZ is a member of the mal regulon. It is controlled by MatT, the transcriptional activator of the maltose system. MalZ has been purified and identified as an enzyme hydrolyzing maltotriose and longer maltodextrins to glucose and maltose. MalZ is dispensable for growth on maltose or maltodextrins. Mutants lacking amylomaltase (encoded by malQ), the major maltose utilizing enzyme, cannot grow on maltose, maltotriose, or maltotetraose, despite the fact that they contain an effective transport system and MalZ. From such a malQ mutant a pseudorevertant was isolated that was able to grow on maltose. The suppressor mutation was mapped in malZ. The mutant gene was cloned. It contained a Trp to Cys exchange at position 292 of the deduced protein sequence. Surprisingly, the purified mutant enzyme was still unable to hydrolyze maltose as was the wild type enzyme, while both were able to release glucose from maltodextrins. However, the mutant enzyme had gained the ability to transfer dextrinyl moieties to glucose, maltose, and other maltodextrins. Thus, it had gained an activity associated with amylomaltase. It was the MalZ292-associated transferase reaction that allowed the utilization of maltose. In addition, we discovered that mutant and wild type enzyme alike were highly active as gamma-cyclodextrinases. PMID:8631875

  3. Weighted color and texture sample selection for image matting.

    PubMed

    Varnousfaderani, Ehsan Shahrian; Rajan, Deepu

    2013-11-01

    Color sampling based matting methods find the best known samples for foreground and background colors of unknown pixels. Such methods do not perform well if there is an overlap in the color distribution of foreground and background regions because color cannot distinguish between these regions and hence, the selected samples cannot reliably estimate the matte. Furthermore, current sampling based matting methods choose samples that are located around the boundaries of foreground and background regions. In this paper, we overcome these two problems. First, we propose texture as a feature that can complement color to improve matting by discriminating between known regions with similar colors. The contribution of texture and color is automatically estimated by analyzing the content of the image. Second, we combine local sampling with a global sampling scheme that prevents true foreground or background samples to be missed during the sample collection stage. An objective function containing color and texture components is optimized to choose the best foreground and background pair among a set of candidate pairs. Experiments are carried out on a benchmark data set and an independent evaluation of the results shows that the proposed method is ranked first among all other image matting methods. PMID:23807448

  4. Stem CO2 efflux in six co-occurring tree species: underlying factors and ecological implications.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Calcerrada, Jesús; López, Rosana; Salomón, Roberto; Gordaliza, Guillermo G; Valbuena-Carabaña, María; Oleksyn, Jacek; Gil, Luis

    2015-06-01

    Stem respiration plays a role in species coexistence and forest dynamics. Here we examined the intra- and inter-specific variability of stem CO2 efflux (E) in dominant and suppressed trees of six deciduous species in a mixed forest stand: Fagus sylvatica L., Quercus petraea [Matt.] Liebl, Quercus pyrenaica Willd., Prunus avium L., Sorbus aucuparia L. and Crataegus monogyna Jacq. We conducted measurements in late autumn. Within species, dominants had higher E per unit stem surface area (Es ) mainly because sapwood depth was higher than in suppressed trees. Across species, however, differences in Es corresponded with differences in the proportion of living parenchyma in sapwood and concentration of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC). Across species, Es was strongly and NSC marginally positively related with an index of drought tolerance, suggesting that slow growth of drought-tolerant trees is related to higher NSC concentration and Es . We conclude that, during the leafless period, E is indicative of maintenance respiration and is related with some ecological characteristics of the species, such as drought resistance; that sapwood depth is the main factor explaining variability in Es within species; and that the proportion of NSC in the sapwood is the main factor behind variability in Es among species. PMID:25292455

  5. Interfacial Modification for Enhanced Performance of OPV Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginley, David

    2010-03-01

    Organic Photovoltaics (OPV) represent a potentially low cost, scalable approach to produce renewable energy at near the Terrawatt scale. Their low temperature solution based processing potentially leads to cost/per watt well below 0.50. Over the last year OPV has seen a rapid evolution in efficiency to a now certified 7.9% for Solarmer. As important module efficiencies are nearing 4% supporting scalability. There is now a pretty clear pathway for developing acceptors and donors so as to achieve 10% or greater. One of the key questions remaining is that of the stability of OPV devices and the potential for their lifetime to be sufficient for commercial viability. Critical to this is both the intrinsic stability of the donor/acceptor phase separated mixture and the stability of the interfaces especially those between the inorganic and organic phases. We will report on a number of recent studies beginning to look at the mechanisms of degradation in OPV device structures and on their potential resolution through new materials, new device configurations and enhanced encapsulation. Current data indicates that there is no inherent instability in the bulk heterojunction and that solving the interfacial issues may lead to devices of sufficient stability for commercial viability.[4pt] In collaboration with Joseph Berry, Matthew Lloyd, Matt White, Nikos Kopidakis, Xerxes Steires, Ajaya Sigdel, Nicodemus Widjonarko, Matthew Reese and Sean Shaheen, and Dana Olsen, National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

  6. MatMix 1.0: Using optical mixing to probe visual material perception.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; de Ridder, Huib; Fleming, Roland W; Pont, Sylvia

    2016-04-01

    MatMix 1.0 is a novel material probe we developed for quantitatively measuring visual perception of materials. We implemented optical mixing of four canonical scattering modes, represented by photographs, as the basis of the probe. In order to account for a wide range of materials, velvety and glittery (asperity and meso-facet scattering) were included besides the common matte and glossy modes (diffuse and forward scattering). To test the probe, we conducted matching experiments in which inexperienced observers were instructed to adjust the modes of the probe to match its material to that of a test stimulus. Observers were well able to handle the probe and match the perceived materials. Results were robust across individuals, across combinations of materials, and across lighting conditions. We conclude that the approach via canonical scattering modes and optical mixing works well, although the image basis of our probe still needs to be optimized. We argue that the approach is intuitive, since it combines key image characteristics in a "painterly" approach. We discuss these characteristics and how we will optimize their representations. PMID:27089066

  7. An Improved Process for Precipitating Cyanide Ions from the Barren Solution at Different pHs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueroa, Gabriela V.; Parga, José R.; Valenzuela, Jesus L.; Vázquez, Victor; Valenzuela, Alejandro; Rodriguez, Mario

    2016-02-01

    In recent decades, the use of metal sulfides instead of hydroxide precipitation in hydrometallurgical processes has gained prominence. Some arguments for its preferential use are as follows: a high degree of metal removal at relatively low pH values, the sparingly soluble nature of sulfide precipitates, favorable dewatering characteristics, and the stability of the formed metal sulfides. The Merrill-Crowe zinc-precipitation process has been applied worldwide in a large number of operations for the recovery of gold and silver from cyanide solutions. However, in some larger plants, the quality of this precious precipitate is low because copper, zinc and especially lead are precipitated along with gold and silver. This results in higher consumption of zinc dust and flux during the smelting of the precipitate, the formation of the matte, and a shorter crucible life. The results show that pH has a significant effect on the removal efficiency of zinc and copper cyanide ions. The optimal pH range was determined to be 3-4, and the removal efficiency of zinc and copper cyanide ions was up to 99%.

  8. Simulations of Electron Transport in Laser Hot Spots

    SciTech Connect

    S. Brunner; E. Valeo

    2001-08-30

    Simulations of electron transport are carried out by solving the Fokker-Planck equation in the diffusive approximation. The system of a single laser hot spot, with open boundary conditions, is systematically studied by performing a scan over a wide range of the two relevant parameters: (1) Ratio of the stopping length over the width of the hot spot. (2) Relative importance of the heating through inverse Bremsstrahlung compared to the thermalization through self-collisions. As for uniform illumination [J.P. Matte et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 30 (1988) 1665], the bulk of the velocity distribution functions (VDFs) present a super-Gaussian dependence. However, as a result of spatial transport, the tails are observed to be well represented by a Maxwellian. A similar dependence of the distributions is also found for multiple hot spot systems. For its relevance with respect to stimulated Raman scattering, the linear Landau damping of the electron plasma wave is estimated for such VD Fs. Finally, the nonlinear Fokker-Planck simulations of the single laser hot spot system are also compared to the results obtained with the linear non-local hydrodynamic approach [A.V. Brantov et al., Phys. Plasmas 5 (1998) 2742], thus providing a quantitative limit to the latter method: The hydrodynamic approach presents more than 10% inaccuracy in the presence of temperature variations of the order delta T/T greater than or equal to 1%, and similar levels of deformation of the Gaussian shape of the Maxwellian background.

  9. KSC-05PD-0119

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. In the Orbiter Processing Facility, Matt Scott (left), with United Space Alliance, and Donald Wall (right), with NASA Quality Assurance, closely inspect the final Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) panel to be installed on orbiter Discoverys left wing. The leading edges of each of an orbiters wings have 22 RCC panels. They are light gray and made entirely of carbon composite material, which protect the orbiter during re-entry. The molded components are approximately 0.25- to 0.5- inch thick and capable of withstanding temperatures up to 3,220 degrees F. Following the Columbia accident in February 2002, which was caused by a breach in an RCC panel that allowed hot gases into the vehicle, each panel on Discovery was removed and thoroughly inspected before final reinstallation. Discovery is the designated orbiter to fly on the Return to Flight mission STS-114, the first Space Shuttle to launch since the accident. The launch window for the mission is May 12 to June 3, 2005.

  10. KSC-05PD-0123

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. In the Orbiter Processing Facility, Matt Scott (upper right), with United Space Alliance, fits the final Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) panel on orbiter Discoverys left wing. Helping to support the panel underneath is Alberto DeLoucas, also with United Space Alliance. The leading edges of each of an orbiters wings have 22 RCC panels. They are light gray and made entirely of carbon composite material, which protect the orbiter during re-entry. The molded components are approximately 0.25- to 0.5-inch thick and capable of withstanding temperatures up to 3,220 degrees F. Following the Columbia accident in February 2002, which was caused by a breach in an RCC panel that allowed hot gases into the vehicle, each panel on Discovery was removed and thoroughly inspected before final reinstallation. Discovery is the designated orbiter to fly on the Return to Flight mission STS-114, the first Space Shuttle to launch since the accident. The launch window for the mission is May 12 to June 3, 2005.

  11. KSC-05PD-0122

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. In the Orbiter Processing Facility, Matt Scott (upper right), with United Space Alliance, fits the final Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) panel on orbiter Discoverys left wing. Helping to support the panel underneath are Alberto DeLoucas (left) and Mel Romans, with United Space Alliance. The leading edges of each of an orbiters wings have 22 RCC panels. They are light gray and made entirely of carbon composite material, which protect the orbiter during re-entry. The molded components are approximately 0.25- to 0.5-inch thick and capable of withstanding temperatures up to 3,220 degrees F. Following the Columbia accident in February 2002, which was caused by a breach in an RCC panel that allowed hot gases into the vehicle, each panel on Discovery was removed and thoroughly inspected before final reinstallation. Discovery is the designated orbiter to fly on the Return to Flight mission STS-114, the first Space Shuttle to launch since the accident. The launch window for the mission is May 12 to June 3, 2005.

  12. KSC-05PD-0118

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. In the Orbiter Processing Facility, Matt Scott and Mel Romans (left and right), with United Space Alliance, closely inspect the final Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) panel to be installed on orbiter Discoverys left wing. The leading edges of each of an orbiters wings have 22 RCC panels. They are light gray and made entirely of carbon composite material, which protect the orbiter during re-entry. The molded components are approximately 0.25- to 0.5-inch thick and capable of withstanding temperatures up to 3,220 degrees F. Following the Columbia accident in February 2002, which was caused by a breach in an RCC panel that allowed hot gases into the vehicle, each panel on Discovery was removed and thoroughly inspected before final reinstallation. Discovery is the designated orbiter to fly on the Return to Flight mission STS-114, the first Space Shuttle to launch since the accident. The launch window for the mission is May 12 to June 3, 2005.

  13. Automatic Shadow Detection and Removal from a Single Image.

    PubMed

    Khan, Salman H; Bennamoun, Mohammed; Sohel, Ferdous; Togneri, Roberto

    2016-03-01

    We present a framework to automatically detect and remove shadows in real world scenes from a single image. Previous works on shadow detection put a lot of effort in designing shadow variant and invariant hand-crafted features. In contrast, our framework automatically learns the most relevant features in a supervised manner using multiple convolutional deep neural networks (ConvNets). The features are learned at the super-pixel level and along the dominant boundaries in the image. The predicted posteriors based on the learned features are fed to a conditional random field model to generate smooth shadow masks. Using the detected shadow masks, we propose a Bayesian formulation to accurately extract shadow matte and subsequently remove shadows. The Bayesian formulation is based on a novel model which accurately models the shadow generation process in the umbra and penumbra regions. The model parameters are efficiently estimated using an iterative optimization procedure. Our proposed framework consistently performed better than the state-of-the-art on all major shadow databases collected under a variety of conditions. PMID:27046489

  14. HUBBLE CAPTURES UNVEILING OF PLANETARY NEBULA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 image captures the infancy of the Stingray nebula (Hen-1357), the youngest known planetary nebula. In this image, the bright central star is in the middle of the green ring of gas. Its companion star is diagonally above it at 10 o'clock. A spur of gas (green) is forming a faint bridge to the companion star due to gravitational attraction. The image also shows a ring of gas (green) surrounding the central star, with bubbles of gas to the lower left and upper right of the ring. The wind of material propelled by radiation from the hot central star has created enough pressure to blow open holes in the ends of the bubbles, allowing gas to escape. The red curved lines represent bright gas that is heated by a 'shock' caused when the central star's wind hits the walls of the bubbles. The nebula is as large as 130 solar systems, but, at its distance of 18,000 light-years, it appears only as big as a dime viewed a mile away. The Stingray is located in the direction of the southern constellation Ara (the Altar). The colors shown are actual colors emitted by nitrogen (red), oxygen (green), and hydrogen (blue). The filters used were F658N ([N II]), F502N ([O III]), and F487N (H-beta). The observations were made in March 1996. Credit: Matt Bobrowsky, Orbital Sciences Corporation and NASA

  15. Ferromagnetic behavior of carbon nanospheres encapsulating silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caudillo, R.; Gao, X.; Escudero, R.; José-Yacaman, M.; Goodenough, J. B.

    2006-12-01

    We report on the structure and magnetic properties of a silver and carbon nanocomposite. The as-synthesized nanocomposite consists of a matte-black powder composed of Ag nanoparticles encapsulated in carbon nanospheres ( ˜10nm diameter) that are interconnected in necklace-like structures. Magnetic measurements of the Ag and C nanocomposite, in its powder form, showed weak ferromagnetic behavior up to at least room temperature with a coercive field of 389Oe at 2K and 103Oe at 300K , from which we estimate magnetic ordering up to 425K . However, pressing the Ag-C powder samples into tablets suppressed the ferromagnetism; the pressed samples instead exhibited diamagnetic behavior. Chemical analysis with EDS and trace metal analysis with ICP-MS indicated that there are no magnetic contaminants in the sample. Therefore, we attribute the ferromagnetism to the carbon nanospheres and propose a model for the observed magnetism. We also measured a pronounced peak in the magnetization between 50 and 90K that was completely suppressed when measurements were made upon cooling; we attribute this peak to a first-order spin reorientation.

  16. Light field constancy within natural scenes.

    PubMed

    Mury, Alexander A; Pont, Sylvia C; Koenderink, Jan J

    2007-10-10

    The structure of light fields of natural scenes is highly complex due to high frequencies in the radiance distribution function. However it is the low-order properties of light that determine the appearance of common matte materials. We describe the local light field in terms of spherical harmonics and analyze the qualitative properties and physical meaning of the low-order components. We take a first step in the further development of Gershun's classical work on the light field by extending his description beyond the 3D vector field, toward a more complete description of the illumination using tensors. We show that the three first components, namely, the monopole (density of light), the dipole (light vector), and the quadrupole (squash tensor) suffice to describe a wide range of qualitatively different light fields. In this paper we address a related issue, namely, the spatial properties of light fields within natural scenes. We want to find out to what extent local light fields change from point to point and how different orders behave. We found experimentally that the low-order components of the light field are rather constant over the scenes whereas high-order components are not. Using very simple models, we found a strong relationship between the low-order components and the geometrical layouts of the scenes. PMID:17932545

  17. Manipulating Representations.

    PubMed

    Recchia-Luciani, Angelo N M

    2012-04-01

    The present paper proposes a definition for the complex polysemic concepts of consciousness and awareness (in humans as well as in other species), and puts forward the idea of a progressive ontological development of consciousness from a state of 'childhood' awareness, in order to explain that humans are not only able to manipulate objects, but also their mental representations. The paper builds on the idea of qualia intended as entities posing regular invariant requests to neural processes, trough the permanence of different properties. The concept of semantic differential introduces the properties of metaphorical qualia as an exclusively human ability. Furthermore this paper proposes a classification of qualia, according to the models-with different levels of abstraction-they are implied in, in a taxonomic perspective. This, in turn, becomes a source of categorization of divergent representations, sign systems, and forms of intentionality, relying always on biological criteria. New emerging image-of-the-world-devices are proposed, whose qualia are likely to be only accessible to humans: emotional qualia, where emotion accounts for the invariant and dominant property; and the qualic self where continuity, combined with the oneness of the self, accounts for the invariant and dominant property. The concept of congruence between different domains in a metaphor introduces the possibility of a general evaluation of truth and falsity of all kinds of metaphorical constructs, while the work of Matte Blanco enables us to classify conscious versus unconscious metaphors, both in individuals and in social organizations. PMID:22347988

  18. First assessment of the Caulerpa racemosa (Caulerpales, Chlorophyta) invasion along the French Mediterranean coast.

    PubMed

    Ruitton, Sandrine; Javel, Fabrice; Culioli, Jean-Michel; Meinesz, Alexandre; Pergent, Gérard; Verlaque, Marc

    2005-10-01

    The introduced green alga Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea has been rapidly spreading in the Mediterranean Sea since 1990. It was first observed in France in 1997 (Marseilles). In early 2004, the stretch of the French Mediterranean coastline and the surface area affected by the invasion were estimated at about 83 km and 4014 ha, respectively. The depth range of colonized areas was usually 10-35 m depth. Shallow (0-10 m) and deep (down to 40 m) dense meadows were rarely observed. In contrast to the dead matte of Posidonia oceanica, which constituted the most widely colonized substratum, dense P. oceanica meadows and fine sand with large ripple-marks were not invaded. Few rocky areas were colonized and coarse sand bottoms were usually colonized below 20 m depth. All the colonized areas were exposed to human activities and more than 40% were fishing areas. Mild climate, suitable substrata, presence of vectors of dispersal and absence of efficient biological control make the French Mediterranean coast particularly vulnerable to the further spread of the alga. PMID:15893332

  19. Reproducing oil paint gloss in print for the purpose of creating reproductions of Old Masters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkhuizen, Willemijn S.; Lenseigne, Boris A. J.; Baar, Teun; Verhofstad, Wim; Tempelman, Erik; Geraedts, Jo M. P.; Dik, Joris

    2015-03-01

    In the field of Fine Art reproduction, 3D scanning plus 3D printing, combined with dedicated software, now allows to capture and reproduce the color and texture of oil paintings. However, for life-like reproduction of the material appearance of such paintings, the typical gloss and translucency must also be included, which is currently not the case. The aim of this paper is to elaborate on the challenges and results of capturing and reproducing oil paint gloss (next to texture and color) using a scanning and printing system. A sample was hand-made using oil paint and acrylic varnish, and its gloss was then reproduced. A gloss map of the painted sample was acquired using a high end DLSR camera and a simple acquisition protocol. Next, Océ High Resolution 3D printing technology was used to create samples with spatially varying gloss. For this, two different strategies were combined: (1) multilevel half-toning of the colors was used to reproduce matte color layers, and (2) varnish was half-toned on top in increasing coverage to recreate increasing gloss levels. This paper presents an overview of the state-of-the-art literature in gloss reproduction and perception, our process of reproduction as well as the visual evaluation of the quality of the created reproduction.

  20. Controlling colour-printed gloss by varnish-halftones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samadzadegan, Sepideh; Baar, Teun; Urban, Philipp; Ortiz Segovia, Maria V.; Blahová, Jana

    2015-03-01

    Printing appearance effects beyond colour - such as gloss - is an active research topic in the scope of multi-layer printing (2.5D or 3D printing). Such techniques may enable a perceptually more accurate reproduction of optical material properties and are required to avoid appearance related artefacts sometimes observed in regular colour printing - such as bronzing and differential gloss. In addition to technical challenges of printing such effects, a perceptual space that describes the related visual attributes is crucial; particularly to define perceptually meaningful tolerances and for appearance gamut mapping. In this paper, we focus on spatially-varying gloss created by varnish-halftones. This enables us to print specular gloss effects covering a large portion of the NCS gloss scale from full matte to high gloss. We then conduct a psychophysical experiment to find the relationship between measured specular gloss and a perceptually uniform gloss scale. Our results show that this relationship can be well described by a power function according to Stevens Power Law.

  1. The Development of Improved Risk Assessment Methods for Use in Industrial Environmental Management Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Manners, T.K.

    2006-07-01

    Industrial sites that store or use chemicals are controlled in the UK under the COMAH (Control Of Major Accident Hazards) Regulations 1999 [1] based on their holdings of 'Dangerous Substances'. The COMAH Regulations [1] came into force in 1999 and are the UK's response to the European Union's Seveso II Directive. The purpose of these Regulations [1] is to: - Identify Major Accident Hazards (MAH); - Ensure that control measures are in place to prevent a MAH; - Ensure that mitigatory measures are in place to limit effects if MAH do occur. The UK's Health and Safety Executive (HSE), and the Environment Agency (EA) jointly enforce the Regulations [1]. The fundamental requirement is given in the statement below, which is taken directly from the Regulations [1]. 'Every operator shall take all measures necessary to prevent major accidents and limit their consequences to persons and the environment'. This paper describes the development of a six-step screening methodology designed to identify Major Accidents To The Environment (MATTE) and improved consequence definitions that can be used in risk matrices to define the severity of an environmental fault. The method has been designed to be compatible with existing Environmental Management Systems (EMS) used in the chemical and nuclear industry. (authors)

  2. Converging Paradigms: A Reflection on Parallel Theoretical Developments in Psychoanalytic Metapsychology and Empirical Dream Research.

    PubMed

    Schmelowszky, Ágoston

    2016-08-01

    In the last decades one can perceive a striking parallelism between the shifting perspective of leading representatives of empirical dream research concerning their conceptualization of dreaming and the paradigm shift within clinically based psychoanalytic metapsychology with respect to its theory on the significance of dreaming. In metapsychology, dreaming becomes more and more a central metaphor of mental functioning in general. The theories of Klein, Bion, and Matte-Blanco can be considered as milestones of this paradigm shift. In empirical dream research, the competing theories of Hobson and of Solms respectively argued for and against the meaningfulness of the dream-work in the functioning of the mind. In the meantime, empirical data coming from various sources seemed to prove the significance of dream consciousness for the development and maintenance of adaptive waking consciousness. Metapsychological speculations and hypotheses based on empirical research data seem to point in the same direction, promising for contemporary psychoanalytic practice a more secure theoretical base. In this paper the author brings together these diverse theoretical developments and presents conclusions regarding psychoanalytic theory and technique, as well as proposing an outline of an empirical research plan for testing the specificity of psychoanalysis in developing dream formation. PMID:27500705

  3. Substitution and phase shift within the Posidonia oceanica seagrass meadows of NW Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montefalcone, M.; Morri, C.; Peirano, A.; Albertelli, G.; Bianchi, C. N.

    2007-10-01

    We investigated the conservation status and ecosystem substitution in six Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile meadows in 2002 along 300 km of the Ligurian coast (NW Mediterranean Sea). We studied the meadows by scuba transects and we compared the meadows state of health through in situ shoot density counts and computing the Conservation Index (CI), the latter measuring the proportional amount of dead matte relative to live P. oceanica. Both measures evidenced a generalised state of regression for most of the six meadows. We also reported the occurrence, within the meadows, of the other common Mediterranean seagrass Cymodocea nodosa, the Mediterranean green alga Caulerpa prolifera, and the invasive green algae Caulerpa taxifolia and Caulerpa racemosa. We measured the replacement of P. oceanica by these species using the Substitution Index (SI), related to the proportional cover of each substitutes. These were ranked in order of their colonisation potential with respect to P. oceanica. We identified and measured a community "phase shift" occurring within the Mediterranean seagrass meadows using a combined index, the Phase-Shift Index (PSI). The analysis of the three environmental indices (CI, SI and PSI) at regional scale allowed to introduce three "regional" ordinal scales to classify the conservation status, the degree of substitution and the level of phase shift in P. oceanica meadows.

  4. Skyrmion Flux Lattices in p,-wave Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qi; Toner, John; Belitz, Dietrich

    2007-03-01

    In p,-wave superconductors, topological excitations known as skyrmions are allowed, in addition to the usual vortices. In strongly type-II materials in an external magnetic field, a skyrmion flux lattice is expected to be energetically favored compared to a vortex flux lattice [1]. We analytically calculate the energy, magnetization curves (B(H)), and elasticity of skyrmion flux lattices in p,-wave superconductors near the lower critical field Hc1, and use these results with the Lindemann criterion to predict their melting curve [2]. In striking contrast to vortex flux lattices, which always melt at an external field H > Hc1, skyrmion flux lattices never melt near Hc1. This provides a simple and unambiguous test for the presence of skyrmions. In addition, the internal magnetic field distributions (which are measurable by muon spin rotation techniques [3]) of skyrmion and vortex lattices are very different. [1] A. Knigavko, B. Rosenstein, and Y.F. Chen, Phys. Rev. B 60, 550 (1999). [2] Qi Li, John Toner, and D. Belitz, cond-mat/0607391 [3] J.E. Sonier, J. Phys. Cond. Matt. 16, S4499 (2004)

  5. Tiny cells meet big questions: a closer look at bacterial cell biology

    PubMed Central

    Goley, Erin D.

    2013-01-01

    While studying actin assembly as a graduate student with Matt Welch at the University of California at Berkeley, my interest was piqued by reports of surprising observations in bacteria: the identification of numerous cytoskeletal proteins, actin homologues fulfilling spindle-like functions, and even the presence of membrane-bound organelles. Curiosity about these phenomena drew me to Lucy Shapiro's lab at Stanford University for my postdoctoral research. In the Shapiro lab, and now in my lab at Johns Hopkins, I have focused on investigating the mechanisms of bacterial cytokinesis. Spending time as both a eukaryotic cell biologist and a bacterial cell biologist has convinced me that bacterial cells present the same questions as eukaryotic cells: How are chromosomes organized and accurately segregated? How is force generated for cytokinesis? How is polarity established? How are signals transduced within and between cells? These problems are conceptually similar between eukaryotes and bacteria, although their solutions can differ significantly in specifics. In this Perspective, I provide a broad view of cell biological phenomena in bacteria, the technical challenges facing those of us who peer into bacterial cells, and areas of common ground as research in eukaryotic and bacterial cell biology moves forward. PMID:23580191

  6. Metamodeling and Optimization of a Blister Copper Two-Stage Production Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarosz, Piotr; Kusiak, Jan; Małecki, Stanisław; Morkisz, Paweł; Oprocha, Piotr; Pietrucha, Wojciech; Sztangret, Łukasz

    2016-04-01

    It is often difficult to estimate parameters for a two-stage production process of blister copper (containing 99.4 wt.% of Cu metal) as well as those for most industrial processes with high accuracy, which leads to problems related to process modeling and control. The first objective of this study was to model flash smelting and converting of Cu matte stages using three different techniques: artificial neural networks, support vector machines, and random forests, which utilized noisy technological data. Subsequently, more advanced models were applied to optimize the entire process (which was the second goal of this research). The obtained optimal solution was a Pareto-optimal one because the process consisted of two stages, making the optimization problem a multi-criteria one. A sequential optimization strategy was employed, which aimed for optimal control parameters consecutively for both stages. The obtained optimal output parameters for the first smelting stage were used as input parameters for the second converting stage. Finally, a search for another optimal set of control parameters for the second stage of a Kennecott-Outokumpu process was performed. The optimization process was modeled using a Monte-Carlo method, and both modeling parameters and computed optimal solutions are discussed.

  7. Familial Linkage between Neuropsychiatric Disorders and Intellectual Interests

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Benjamin C.; Wang, Samuel S.-H.

    2012-01-01

    From personality to neuropsychiatric disorders, individual differences in brain function are known to have a strong heritable component. Here we report that between close relatives, a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders covary strongly with intellectual interests. We surveyed an entire class of high-functioning young adults at an elite university for prospective major, familial incidence of neuropsychiatric disorders, and demographic and attitudinal questions. Students aspiring to technical majors (science/mathematics/engineering) were more likely than other students to report a sibling with an autism spectrum disorder (p = 0.037). Conversely, students interested in the humanities were more likely to report a family member with major depressive disorder (p = 8.8×10−4), bipolar disorder (p = 0.027), or substance abuse problems (p = 1.9×10−6). A combined PREdisposition for Subject MattEr (PRESUME) score based on these disorders was strongly predictive of subject matter interests (p = 9.6×10−8). Our results suggest that shared genetic (and perhaps environmental) factors may both predispose for heritable neuropsychiatric disorders and influence the development of intellectual interests. PMID:22291951

  8. Characterizing and Improving Distributed Intrusion Detection Systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Hurd, Steven A.; Proebstel, Elliot P.

    2007-11-01

    Due to ever-increasing quantities of information traversing networks, network administrators are developing greater reliance upon statistically sampled packet information as the source for their intrusion detection systems (IDS). Our research is aimed at understanding IDS performance when statistical packet sampling is used. Using the Snort IDS and a variety of data sets, we compared IDS results when an entire data set is used to the results when a statistically sampled subset of the data set is used. Generally speaking, IDS performance with statistically sampled information was shown to drop considerably even under fairly high sampling rates (such as 1:5). Characterizing and Improving Distributed Intrusion Detection Systems4AcknowledgementsThe authors wish to extend our gratitude to Matt Bishop and Chen-Nee Chuah of UC Davis for their guidance and support on this work. Our thanks are also extended to Jianning Mai of UC Davis and Tao Ye of Sprint Advanced Technology Labs for their generous assistance.We would also like to acknowledge our dataset sources, CRAWDAD and CAIDA, without which this work would not have been possible. Support for OC48 data collection is provided by DARPA, NSF, DHS, Cisco and CAIDA members.

  9. The gray-scale ink-jet printer: value in making hard copies of digital images.

    PubMed

    Combs, M J; Snell, J; Cail, W S; Maier, T; Buck, D A

    1995-01-01

    Referring physicians often are supplied with copies of images to illustrate a report of the findings of a radiologic study or so that the radiologist can retain the original images. The increasing costs of production, film, and recovery of chemicals have enhanced the requirement for a clean, low-cost dry printing process. An ink-jet gray-scale paper printer (Unitone, Scitex Medical Systems, Bedford, MA) can print high-quality (300 dots per inch [dpi]) images with an effective 10-bit gray scale range by using the Hertz continuous ink-jet method [1-3], which does not require the use of a darkroom or hazardous chemicals. Several types of media (matte paper, glossy paper, transparency film) with a printing area of 26.9 x 43.7 cm (10.6 x 17.4 inches) may be used. The consumables are approximately 50-70% less expensive than the cost of silver halide film, providing a cost advantage over film for referral and archival copies. The results of an initial evaluation of the ink-jet printer at our institution are reported here. PMID:7998544

  10. Recovery of reflection spectra in a multispectral imaging system with light emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Fauch, Laure; Nippolainen, Ervin; Teplov, Victor; Kamshilin, Alexei A

    2010-10-25

    Performance of recently proposed multispectral imaging system for fast acquisition of two dimensional distribution of reflectance spectrum is experimentally studied. The system operation is based on a subspace vector model in which any reflectance spectrum is described in the compressed form as a linear combination of few spectral functions. A key element of the proposed system is a light source which includes a set of light-emitting diodes with different central wavelengths. The light source provides illumination of the object by fast-switchable sequences of spectral bands whose energy distributions are proportional to mutually orthogonal spectral functions (calculated in-advance). Object illumination is synchronized with a monochrome digital camera. The system allows us fast acquisition of reflectance spectra in a compressed form with high spatial resolution. A model of the system calibration by using standard white matte sample is proposed. Reconstruction of the reflectance spectrum from the compressed data collected after illumination of selected color samples from the Munsell book by 7 mutually orthogonal spectral functions is demonstrated. Parameters of the system, which affect the accuracy of the spectrum reconstruction, are analyzed and discussed. PMID:21164681

  11. Do Wormholes Fix the Coupling Constants?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goradia, Shantilal

    2004-05-01

    If Newtonian gravitation is modified to use surface-to-surface separation between particles, it can have the strength of nuclear force between nucleons. This may be justified by possible existence of quantum wormholes in particles. All gravitational interactions would be between coupled wormholes, emitting 1/r graviton flux from their exit mouths as a function of the particle size, allowing the point-like treatment above. When the wormhole exit mouths are 1 Planck length apart, the resultant force is the known strong force coupling constant with an order of magnitude of 40 compared to the normal gravitational strength for nucleons. In addition to being mathematically simple, the above finding is consistent with observations of other coupling constants, Feynman's speculation of "transfusion" of two particles into spin 2 gravitons (published in 1962), Hawking radiation, big-bang theory abundance of quantum wormholes, wormhole theory fine-tuned by Kip S. Thorne and Matt Visser, and recent microscopic gravity measurements. It potentially leads to the holographic principle being promoted by Dr. G. t' Hooft, by naturally pointing out that the mass of the particles is proportional to their diameter squared.

  12. Environmental qualification of the MH-53J color multifunction display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malia, Timothy E.

    1996-05-01

    In early 1994, Loral Federal Systems Owego (LFS-O) was awarded the MH-53J Interactive Defensive Avionics System/Multi-Mission Advanced Tactical Terminal (IDAS/MATT) upgrade program as prime contractor. The MH-53J is a USAF special operations helicopter providing infiltration and exfiltration mission capability in a low-slow manner. One element the upgrade was a new digital map system (DMS), which consists of a 2 GB digital memory unit (DMU), a digital map computer (DMC) and a 6' by 8' color multi-function display (CMFD). Although the original specification was written for a CRT, Loral determined that an active matrix liquid crystal display (AMLCD) based solution would better achieve the mission goals. The display upgrade was not intended to be a development program, but LFS-O found that there were very few solutions available near term, and chose to develop the display in Owego, making it their first military AMLCD production program. The CMFD is based on a commercial liquid crystal display manufactured by Display Technologies Incorporated (DTI), a joint venture of IBM and Toshiba. In March of 1995, just nine months after the design started, LFS-O delivered the first CMFD for systems integration. In December 1995, LFS-O successfully completed the environmental qualification of the CMFD. The extensive testing unearthed several initial deficiencies in the thermal, vibration, humidity salt fog and EMI design. This paper discusses these challenges and how they were overcome to achieve compliance with the USAF requirements.

  13. Familial linkage between neuropsychiatric disorders and intellectual interests.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Benjamin C; Wang, Samuel S-H

    2012-01-01

    From personality to neuropsychiatric disorders, individual differences in brain function are known to have a strong heritable component. Here we report that between close relatives, a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders covary strongly with intellectual interests. We surveyed an entire class of high-functioning young adults at an elite university for prospective major, familial incidence of neuropsychiatric disorders, and demographic and attitudinal questions. Students aspiring to technical majors (science/mathematics/engineering) were more likely than other students to report a sibling with an autism spectrum disorder (p = 0.037). Conversely, students interested in the humanities were more likely to report a family member with major depressive disorder (p = 8.8×10(-4)), bipolar disorder (p = 0.027), or substance abuse problems (p = 1.9×10(-6)). A combined PREdisposition for Subject MattEr (PRESUME) score based on these disorders was strongly predictive of subject matter interests (p = 9.6×10(-8)). Our results suggest that shared genetic (and perhaps environmental) factors may both predispose for heritable neuropsychiatric disorders and influence the development of intellectual interests. PMID:22291951

  14. Enhanced quantum efficiency bialkali photo multiplier tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzoyan, Razmick; Goebel, Florian; Hose, Juergen; Hsu, Ching Cheng; Ninković, Jelena; Paneque, David; Rudert, Agnes; Teshima, Masahiro

    2007-03-01

    Currently, the classical PMTs with semitransparent bialkali photo cathode show peak quantum efficiency (QE) of ˜25-27%. Although the above-mentioned peak QE was achieved already ˜40 years ago, nevertheless one cannot report any significant increase since then. A couple of years ago we started a development program with the main PMT manufacturers Photonis, Electron Tubes and Hamamatsu, aiming to boost-up the peak QE of the (1-2)″ size bialkali PMTs. Today we want to report that our efforts were successful: all of the three above-mentioned companies succeeded to boost the peak QE of bialkali PMTs to the level of 30-35%. In this report, we want to show the QE measurements of different tubes and discuss the future prospects. For example, it shall be possible to use the diffuse-scattering matt lacquer coating technique in order to enhance further the QE. In our previous experience application of that coating provided ˜15% increase in QE for 1-1.5″ hemispherical tubes.

  15. Contextualising primate origins--an ecomorphological framework.

    PubMed

    Soligo, Christophe; Smaers, Jeroen B

    2016-04-01

    Ecomorphology - the characterisation of the adaptive relationship between an organism's morphology and its ecological role - has long been central to theories of the origin and early evolution of the primate order. This is exemplified by two of the most influential theories of primate origins: Matt Cartmill's Visual Predation Hypothesis, and Bob Sussman's Angiosperm Co-Evolution Hypothesis. However, the study of primate origins is constrained by the absence of data directly documenting the events under investigation, and has to rely instead on a fragmentary fossil record and the methodological assumptions inherent in phylogenetic comparative analyses of extant species. These constraints introduce particular challenges for inferring the ecomorphology of primate origins, as morphology and environmental context must first be inferred before the relationship between the two can be considered. Fossils can be integrated in comparative analyses and observations of extant model species and laboratory experiments of form-function relationships are critical for the functional interpretation of the morphology of extinct species. Recent developments have led to important advancements, including phylogenetic comparative methods based on more realistic models of evolution, and improved methods for the inference of clade divergence times, as well as an improved fossil record. This contribution will review current perspectives on the origin and early evolution of primates, paying particular attention to their phylogenetic (including cladistic relationships and character evolution) and environmental (including chronology, geography, and physical environments) contextualisation, before attempting an up-to-date ecomorphological synthesis of primate origins. PMID:26830706

  16. Jules Verne's Journey to the centre of the Earth: the secret of counterdepressive narratives.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Cardenas, Michel

    2005-12-01

    The author interprets Jules Verne's Journey to the centre of the Earth with the help of Matte Blanco's theoretical framework, which describes the principle of symmetry and the principle of generalization. The first states that, from the moment an element or a proposition becomes conscious, it coexists in the unconscious with its symmetrically opposite form. The second refers to the confusion of elements once they have been apprehended by thought as containing a common point; they are put into larger and larger groups which merge into an indivisible whole. Verne's novel is built on paired elements which become symmetrized (e.g. distinct minerals vs molten lava; scientific rationality vs madness; the living vs the dead, etc.). These elements in turn become confused with one another, thanks largely to the novel's atmosphere of oral incorporation. This allows the fusion between subject and object, and, in particular, between the orphaned hero and his dead (Earth) mother. The novel's narrative evolution through three stages (separation, fusion and de-fusion, which are paralleled by rational, irrational and rational thought) can thus be understood as a mourning process. Similar processes can be found in other literary works. PMID:16318945

  17. Diversity, ecological role and potential biotechnological applications of marine fungi associated to the seagrass Posidonia oceanica.

    PubMed

    Panno, Luigi; Bruno, Maurizio; Voyron, Samuele; Anastasi, Antonella; Gnavi, Giorgio; Miserere, Luca; Varese, Giovanna Cristina

    2013-09-25

    The marine environment is characterized by high salinity and exerts a strong selective pressure on the biota, favouring the development of halo-tolerant microorganisms. Part of this microbial diversity is made up of fungi, important organisms from ecological and biotechnological points of view. In this study, for the first time, the qualitative and quantitative composition of the mycoflora associated to leaves, rhizomes, roots and matte of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica was estimated. A total of 88 fungal taxa, mainly belonging to Ascomycota, were identified by morphological and molecular methods. The most represented genera were Penicillium, Cladosporium and Acremonium. Most of the species (70) were selectively associated with one district; only two species (Penicillium chrysogenum var. chrysogenum and P. janczewskii) were isolated from all the districts. Moreover the capability to produce laccases, peroxidases and tannases by 107 fungal isolated by the different districts of P. oceanica was carried out. These results show that the mycoflora associated to P. oceanica is very rich and characterized by fungi able to produce ligninolytic enzymes and tannases useful to degrade and detoxify lignocellulose residues in presence of high salt concentrations. These fungi, hence, may play important ecological roles in marine environments but can also be very useful in different biotechnological areas. PMID:23410985

  18. Metamodeling and Optimization of a Blister Copper Two-Stage Production Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarosz, Piotr; Kusiak, Jan; Małecki, Stanisław; Morkisz, Paweł; Oprocha, Piotr; Pietrucha, Wojciech; Sztangret, Łukasz

    2016-06-01

    It is often difficult to estimate parameters for a two-stage production process of blister copper (containing 99.4 wt.% of Cu metal) as well as those for most industrial processes with high accuracy, which leads to problems related to process modeling and control. The first objective of this study was to model flash smelting and converting of Cu matte stages using three different techniques: artificial neural networks, support vector machines, and random forests, which utilized noisy technological data. Subsequently, more advanced models were applied to optimize the entire process (which was the second goal of this research). The obtained optimal solution was a Pareto-optimal one because the process consisted of two stages, making the optimization problem a multi-criteria one. A sequential optimization strategy was employed, which aimed for optimal control parameters consecutively for both stages. The obtained optimal output parameters for the first smelting stage were used as input parameters for the second converting stage. Finally, a search for another optimal set of control parameters for the second stage of a Kennecott-Outokumpu process was performed. The optimization process was modeled using a Monte-Carlo method, and both modeling parameters and computed optimal solutions are discussed.

  19. Emergence: A Planetarium and Art Gallery Collaboration Between Artist, Astronomer, and Musician

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaver, J.; Waller, J. B.; Turner, M.

    2011-09-01

    We describe an unusual planetarium program and art gallery exhibition that premiered in Menasha, Wisconsin. Emergence combines fine art and improvisational music with astronomy and physics. The authors, Judith Baker Waller, John Beaver, and Matt Turner, are, respectively, artist, astronomer, and musician. All three acted as partners in planning and executing the final production. The overall goal of Emergence is to use art, music, and natural science each as a point of departure to learn about the others, and to explore the interaction between humans and the natural world and the differences and commonalities between art, science, and music. Of particular interest, the planetarium portion includes techniques that are, so far as we know, unique. Each night the show is different, the details chosen randomly, but always according to the same theoretical scheme. Various elements are parameterized, the show varying with time according to subroutines that dictate the overall pacing and look, but with details always chosen randomly according to prearranged probabilities. We believe that some of these techniques could be of interest to others who wish to explore the unique possibilities of the planetarium as educational performance space. We argue that this provides a useful format for collaborations between artist and scientist, as scientific content can be delivered in a way that is consistent with the concerns of the artist. We describe some of the approaches taken toward these ends in Emergence, and some of the lessons learned about the process of collaboration between a scientist, a visual artist and a performing artist.

  20. Growth cessation uncouples isotopic signals in leaves and tree rings of drought-exposed oak trees.

    PubMed

    Pflug, Ellen E; Siegwolf, R; Buchmann, N; Dobbertin, M; Kuster, T M; Günthardt-Goerg, M S; Arend, M

    2015-10-01

    An increase in temperature along with a decrease in summer precipitation in Central Europe will result in an increased frequency of drought events and gradually lead to a change in species composition in forest ecosystems. In the present study, young oaks (Quercus robur L. and Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl.) were transplanted into large mesocosms and exposed for 3 years to experimental warming and a drought treatment with yearly increasing intensities. Carbon and oxygen isotopic (δ(13)C and δ(18)O) patterns were analysed in leaf tissue and tree-ring cellulose and linked to leaf physiological measures and tree-ring growth. Warming had no effect on the isotopic patterns in leaves and tree rings, while drought increased δ(18)O and δ(13)C. Under severe drought, an unexpected isotopic pattern, with a decrease in δ(18)O, was observed in tree rings but not in leaves. This decrease in δ(18)O could not be explained by concurrent physiological analyses and is not supported by current physiological knowledge. Analysis of intra-annual tree-ring growth revealed a drought-induced growth cessation that interfered with the record of isotopic signals imprinted on recently formed leaf carbohydrates. This missing record indicates isotopic uncoupling of leaves and tree rings, which may have serious implications for the interpretation of tree-ring isotopes, particularly from trees that experienced growth-limiting stresses. PMID:26377873

  1. PASS2 database for the structure-based sequence alignment of distantly related SCOP domain superfamilies: update to version 5 and added features

    PubMed Central

    Gandhimathi, Arumugam; Ghosh, Pritha; Hariharaputran, Sridhar; Mathew, Oommen K.; Sowdhamini, R.

    2016-01-01

    Structure-based sequence alignment is an essential step in assessing and analysing the relationship of distantly related proteins. PASS2 is a database that records such alignments for protein domain superfamilies and has been constantly updated periodically. This update of the PASS2 version, named as PASS2.5, directly corresponds to the SCOPe 2.04 release. All SCOPe structural domains that share less than 40% sequence identity, as defined by the ASTRAL compendium of protein structures, are included. The current version includes 1977 superfamilies and has been assembled utilizing the structure-based sequence alignment protocol. Such an alignment is obtained initially through MATT, followed by a refinement through the COMPARER program. The JOY program has been used for structural annotations of such alignments. In this update, we have automated the protocol and focused on inclusion of new features such as mapping of GO terms, absolutely conserved residues among the domains in a superfamily and inclusion of PDBs, that are absent in SCOPe 2.04, using the HMM profiles from the alignments of the superfamily members and are provided as a separate list. We have also implemented a more user-friendly manner of data presentation and options for downloading more features. PASS2.5 version is available at http://caps.ncbs.res.in/pass2/. PMID:26553811

  2. Optimization of the polyplanar optical display electronics for a monochrome B-52 display

    SciTech Connect

    DeSanto, L.

    1998-04-01

    The Polyplanar Optical Display (POD) is a unique display screen which can be used with any projection source. The prototype ten-inch display is two inches thick and has a matte black face which allows for high contrast images. The prototype being developed is a form, fit and functional replacement display for the B-52 aircraft which uses a monochrome ten-inch display. In order to achieve a long lifetime, the new display uses a new 200 mW green solid-state laser (10,000 hr. life) at 532 nm as its light source. To produce real-time video, the laser light is being modulated by a Digital Light Processing (DLP{trademark}) chip manufactured by Texas Instruments (TI). In order to use the solid-state laser as the light source and also fit within the constraints of the B-52 display, the Digital Micromirror Device (DMD{trademark}) chip is operated remotely from the Texas Instruments circuit board. In order to achieve increased brightness a monochrome digitizing interface was investigated. The operation of the DMD{trademark} divorced from the light engine and the interfacing of the DMD{trademark} board with the RS-170 video format specific to the B-52 aircraft will be discussed, including the increased brightness of the monochrome digitizing interface. A brief description of the electronics required to drive the new 200 mW laser is also presented.

  3. Benthic community responses to macroalgae invasions in seagrass beds: Diversity, isotopic niche and food web structure at community level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deudero, S.; Box, A.; Vázquez-Luis, M.; Arroyo, N. L.

    2014-04-01

    Trophic paths between species are a useful tool for analysing the impact of species invasions of a biotic community. Species invasions produce changes at trophic level and diversity shifts by replacing native species with species of similar ecological niche. This study focused on the effects of macroalgal invasions on seagrass ecosystems. We conducted two - year bimonthly sampling of a pristine Posidonia oceanica seagrass meadow and dead matte colonized by three Caulerpa species bimonthly. The largest changes in faunal composition were found in meadows colonized by Caulerpa prolifera, where major differences in infaunal taxonomic distinctness were apparent. On the other hand, the infaunal community was quite similar between the two invasive Caulerpa species (Caulerpa taxifolia and Caulerpa racemosa). The isotopic niche based on the main trophic guilds established using stable isotope signatures at community level resulted in a highly compacted and 15N-enriched C. prolifera food web structure, indicating high overlap of food source utilization among faunal components, which is typical of degraded systems. Conversely, the P. oceanica ecosystem presented the most complex food web, while the influence of the 2 invasive species were similar. An attempt to reconstruct the food web at each vegetated habitat revealed high trophic linkages among the different trophic levels with a continuous transition among them by the various trophic guilds suggesting an adaptation response of the different organisms to the new habitat forming species.

  4. Environmental impact and potential utilization of historical Cu-Fe-Co slags.

    PubMed

    Veselská, Veronika; Majzlan, Juraj

    2016-04-01

    Historical slags from the past Fe and Cu-Co production were investigated in order to evaluate either their potential for utilization or their long-term environmental risk for unsupervised old smelting areas. Here, we studied ferrous slags produced during the recovery of Fe from siderite-Cu ores in Slovakia and two different types of non-ferrous slags produced during the recovery of Cu and Co from Kupferschiefer ores in Germany. The glassy character, rare occurrence of primary silicate phases, and the lack of secondary phases in Cu slags indicate their stability for a prolonged period of time. Electron microprobe analytical work showed that the metals and metalloids (Cu, Co, Fe, Zn, Pb, As) are largely encased in droplets of matte and metal alloys and remain protected by the glassy matrix with its low weathering rate. Fe and Co slags are composed of high-temperature silicates such as wollastonite, cristobalite, as well as olivine, feldspar, quartz, leucite, pyroxene, and pyroxenoids. The presence of secondary phases attests to a certain degree metal release owing to weathering. Assuming minimal contents of metals in slags after a treatment with dilute H2SO4, slags could be used as pozzolanas for addition to cement. PMID:26681328

  5. Polarized task lighting to reduce reflective glare in open-plan office cubicles.

    PubMed

    Japuntich, D A

    2001-10-01

    This ergonomic study deals with the common situation where a glossy document is placed between a viewer and an under-shelf task light source in a common open-plan office cubicle workstation. With a task lamp in front, when looking at a document a viewer sees two images, the document itself and specular glare, which is the reflected image of the light source. Specular glare or veiling reflection causes eye discomfort, makes it difficult to read a document and has been thought to contribute to eyestrain. This paper analyzes the application of polarized lighting for this specific situation. The use of a linear polarized light source helps to minimize specular glare by darkening the reflected image of the light source on the document. The performance and predictive optimization of the use of polarized lighting in this situation is investigated according to female and male viewer height demographics. Theoretical predictions and light measurement analysis of specular glare reduction are compared with empirical results from testing on a panel of humans on semi-gloss finish and matte finish papers. This study shows that with the right alteration of a polarized light source position, specular glare may be significantly reduced, and correlations exist between the theory, empirical measurements and the human response to specular glare reduction. PMID:11534794

  6. Stery-hand: A new device to support hand disinfection.

    PubMed

    Szilagyi, Laszlo; Lehotsky, Akos; Nagy, Melinda; Haidegger, Tamas; Benyo, Balazs; Benyo, Zoltan

    2010-01-01

    Incomplete disinfection can cause serious complications in surgical care. The teaching of effective hand washing is crucial in modern medical training. To support the objective evaluation of hand disinfection, we developed a compact, mobile device, relying on digital imaging and image processing. The hardware consists of a metal case with matte black interior, ultra-violet lighting and a digital camera. Image segmentation and clustering are performed on a regular notebook. The hand washing procedures performed with a soap mixed with UV-reflective powder. This results the skin showing bright under UV light only on the treated (sterile) surfaces. When the surgeon inserts its hands into the box, the camera placed on the top takes an image of the hand for evaluation. The software performs the segmentation and clustering automatically. First, the hand contour is determined from the green intensity channel of the recorded RGB image. Then, the pixels of the green channel belonging to the hand are partitioned to three clusters using a quick, histogram based fuzzy c-means algorithm. The optimal threshold between the intensities of clean and dirty areas is extracted using these clusters, while the final approximated percentage of the clean area is computed using a weighting formula. The main advantage of our device is the ability to obtain objective and comparable result on the quality of hand disinfection. It may find its best use in the clinical education and training. PMID:21096021

  7. Comparative Pollen Morphological Analysis and Its Systematic Implications on Three European Oak (Quercus L., Fagaceae) Species and Their Spontaneous Hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Danielewicz, Władysław; Bocianowski, Jan; Maliński, Tomasz; Janyszek, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Pollen morphology of three parental Quercus species (Q. robur L., Q. petraea (Matt) Liebl, Q. pubescens Willd.) and two spontaneous hybrids of these species (Q. ×calvescens Vuk. = Q. petraea × Q. pubescens and Q. ×rosacea Bechst. = Q. robur × Q. petraea) was investigated in this study. The pollen originated from 18 natural oak sites and 67 individuals (oak trees). Each individual was represented by 30 pollen grains. In total, 2010 pollen grains were measured. They were analysed for nine quantitative and four qualitative features. Pollen size and shape were important features to diagnosing Quercus parental species and hybrids. On the basis of exine ornamentation, it was possible to identify only Q. pubescens, while the remaining species and hybrids did not differ significantly with respect to this feature. The determination of the diagnostic value of endoaperture features requires further palynological studies. On the basis of pollen size and shape Q. robur × Q. petraea was clearly separated. Grouping of 67 oak trees on the basis of pollen grain features has shown that individuals from different as well as same taxa occurred in the same groups. Likewise, with respect to natural sites, oak trees originating from the same places as well as from geographically distant ones, grouped together. Pollen morphological features allow to distinguish a part of the studied Quercus taxa. Therefore, it can be used as an auxiliary feature in the taxonomy. PMID:27564015

  8. Effect of surface wettability on carbon nanotube water-based nanofluid droplet impingement heat transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Robert Gordon; Kahani, Mostafa; Karwa, Nitin; Wu, Alex; Lamb, Robert; Taylor, Robert; Rosengarten, Gary

    2014-07-01

    Recent studies into droplet impingement heat transfer have demonstrated that it has great potential for providing high heat flux cooling in areas such as thermal management of electronics. The wettability of the surface affects the flow dynamics of the impingement process and the resulting heat transfer. In this study, the effect of surface wettability on carbon nanotube water-based nanofluid droplet impingement heat transfer has been studied and compared with water. Superhydrophobic or hydrophilic coatings are applied on one face of monocrystalline silicon wafers (the drop impinges on this face) while the other face is painted matt black to permit infrared thermography. The silicon wafer is preheated to 40 °C and a single droplet impinges normally on the top facing coated surface of the monocrystalline silicon wafer. The inverse heat conduction problem has been solved using the measured black face temperature. For both the water and nanofluid droplets, the convective heat transfer coefficient reduces with the decrease in surface wettability. It is found that the nanofluid produce a significantly higher convective heat transfer coefficient during droplet impingement than water, with the enhancement increasing with increasing wettability.

  9. Modelling and simulation of effect of ultrasonic vibrations on machining of Ti6Al4V.

    PubMed

    Patil, Sandip; Joshi, Shashikant; Tewari, Asim; Joshi, Suhas S

    2014-02-01

    The titanium alloys cause high machining heat generation and consequent rapid wear of cutting tool edges during machining. The ultrasonic assisted turning (UAT) has been found to be very effective in machining of various materials; especially in the machining of "difficult-to-cut" material like Ti6Al4V. The present work is a comprehensive study involving 2D FE transient simulation of UAT in DEFORM framework and their experimental characterization. The simulation shows that UAT reduces the stress level on cutting tool during machining as compared to that of in continuous turning (CT) barring the penetration stage, wherein both tools are subjected to identical stress levels. There is a 40-45% reduction in cutting forces and about 48% reduction in cutting temperature in UAT over that of in CT. However, the reduction magnitude reduces with an increase in the cutting speed. The experimental analysis of UAT process shows that the surface roughness in UAT is lower than in CT, and the UATed surfaces have matte finish as against the glossy finish on the CTed surfaces. Microstructural observations of the chips and machined surfaces in both processes reveal that the intensity of thermal softening and shear band formation is reduced in UAT over that of in CT. PMID:24103362

  10. Coordination between growth, phenology and carbon storage in three coexisting deciduous tree species in a temperate forest.

    PubMed

    Klein, Tamir; Vitasse, Yann; Hoch, Günter

    2016-07-01

    In deciduous trees growing in temperate forests, bud break and growth in spring must rely on intrinsic carbon (C) reserves. Yet it is unclear whether growth and C storage occur simultaneously, and whether starch C in branches is sufficient for refoliation. To test in situ the relationships between growth, phenology and C utilization, we monitored stem growth, leaf phenology and stem and branch nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) dynamics in three deciduous species: Carpinus betulus L., Fagus sylvatica L. and Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl. To quantify the role of NSC in C investment into growth, a C balance approach was applied. Across the three species, >95% of branchlet starch was consumed during bud break, confirming the importance of C reserves for refoliation in spring. The C balance calculation showed that 90% of the C investment in foliage (7.0-10.5 kg tree(-1) and 5-17 times the C needed for annual stem growth) was explained by simultaneous branchlet starch degradation. Carbon reserves were recovered sooner than expected, after leaf expansion, in parallel with stem growth. Carpinus had earlier leaf phenology (by ∼25 days) but delayed cambial growth (by ∼15 days) than Fagus and Quercus, the result of a competitive strategy to flush early, while having lower NSC levels. PMID:27126226

  11. Lightness, brightness, and anchoring.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Barton L; Whitbread, Michael; de Silva, Chamila

    2014-01-01

    The majority of work in lightness perception has evaluated the perception of lightness using flat, matte, two-dimensional surfaces. In such contexts, the amount of light reaching the eye contains a conflated mixture of the illuminant and surface lightness. A fundamental puzzle of lightness perception is understanding how it is possible to experience achromatic surfaces as specific achromatic shades in the face of this ambiguity. It has been argued that the perception of lightness in such contexts implies that the visual system imposes an "anchoring rule" whereby a specific relative luminance (the highest) serves as a fixed point in the mapping of image luminance onto the lightness scale ("white"). We conducted a series of experiments to explicitly test this assertion in contexts where this mapping seemed most unlikely-namely, low-contrast images viewed in dim illumination. Our results provide evidence that the computational ambiguity in mapping luminance onto lightness is reflected in perceptual experience. The perception of the highest luminance in a two-dimensional Mondrian display varied monotonically with its brightness, ranging from midgray to white. Similar scaling occurred for the lowest luminance and, by implication, all other luminance values. We conclude that the conflation between brightness and lightness in two-dimensional Mondrian displays is reflected in perception and find no support for the claim that any specific relative luminance value acts as a fixed anchor point in this mapping function. PMID:25104828

  12. Pre-constancy Vision in Infants.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiale; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K; Motoyoshi, Isamu

    2015-12-21

    Our visual system can easily estimate the constant color and material of external objects despite dynamic changes in the retinal image across viewpoints and illuminations in natural scenes. It is commonly believed that this high-level visual function, called "perceptual constancy," is acquired through postnatal learning [1], building upon low-level functions that have developed earlier, such as image discrimination. However, we demonstrate here that before developing perceptual constancy, 3- to 4-month-old infants have a striking ability to discriminate slight image changes due to illumination that are not salient for adults. These young infants lose this ability after 5 months of age and then develop an ability to perceive distal surface properties (glossy or matte) at 7-8 months of age. Moreover, we identify the transition period between these two functions at 5-6 months of age, wherein infants show difficulty in both image and surface discrimination. These findings support the notion that acquiring perceptual constancy leads to a loss of sensitivity to variant information, which is negligible for constant surface material perception. We suggest that the immature visual system may initially directly access local image features and then develops a complementary constant neural representation of the properties of an object. PMID:26671667

  13. [ital In] [ital situ] infrared measurements of film and gas properties during the plasma deposition of amorphous hydrogenated silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, P.W. Jr.; Haigis, J.R. )

    1993-05-01

    This research has performed preliminary [ital in] [ital situ] Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) measurements during the plasma deposition of amorphous silicon ([ital a]-Si:H). Experiments demonstrate both gas phase and film measurements within a simple SiH[sub 4] plasma reactor using a specially modified FTIR spectrometer. Films are deposited on substrates of either gold (mirror finish) or stainless steel (matte finish). In particular, [ital in] [ital situ] emission/reflection FTIR of the film yields information about surface temperature, film thickness, and film composition. We have measured surface temperature to [plus minus]5 K and detected the onset of poor film growth at a thickness of 500--1000 A using the 2080 cm[sup [minus]1] absorption feature. A simple model for the reflectance of a film on a metal is employed to determine the thickness of the films. [ital In] [ital situ] emission/transmission FTIR of the plasma determines the gas composition and average gas temperature. Measurements show that the silane conversion is [similar to]11% within the plasma region for a typical deposition at 250 [degree]C and roughly doubles for a deposition at room temperature. The FTIR spectra show that most of this converted silane reappears as disilane (Si[sub 2]H[sub 6]). Before starting the plasma, the silane gas is [similar to]30 K cooler than the nominal substrate temperature of 250 [degree]C; starting the plasma raises the average temperature another 20 [degree]C.

  14. Detection of light transformations and concomitant changes in surface albedo

    PubMed Central

    Gerhard, Holly E.; Maloney, Laurence T.

    2010-01-01

    We report two experiments demonstrating that (1) observers are sensitive to information about changes in the light field not captured by local scene statistics and that (2) they can use this information to enhance detection of changes in surface albedo. Observers viewed scenes consisting of matte surfaces at many orientations illuminated by a collimated light source. All surfaces were achromatic, all lights neutral. In the first experiment, observers attempted to discriminate small changes in direction of the collimated light source (light transformations) from matched changes in the albedos of all surfaces (non-light transformations). Light changes and non-light changes shared the same local scene statistics and edge ratios, but the latter were not consistent with any change in direction to the collimated source. We found that observers could discriminate light changes as small as 5 degrees with sensitivity d′ > 1 and accurately judge the direction of change. In a second experiment, we measured observers' ability to detect a change in the surface albedo of an isolated surface patch during either a light change or a surface change. Observers were more accurate in detecting isolated albedo changes during light changes. Measures of sensitivity d′ were more than twice as great. PMID:20884599

  15. Micro Dot Patterning on the Light Guide Panel Using Powder Blasting

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Ho Su; Cho, Myeong Woo; Park, Dong Sam

    2008-01-01

    This study is to develop a micromachining technology for a light guide panel(LGP) mold, whereby micro dot patterns are formed on a LGP surface by a single injection process instead of existing screen printing processes. The micro powder blasting technique is applied to form micro dot patterns on the LGP mold surface. The optimal conditions for masking, laminating, exposure, and developing processes to form the micro dot patterns are first experimentally investigated. A LGP mold with masked micro patterns is then machined using the micro powder blasting method and the machinability of the micro dot patterns is verified. A prototype LGP is test- injected using the developed LGP mold and a shape analysis of the patterns and performance testing of the injected LGP are carried out. As an additional approach, matte finishing, a special surface treatment method, is applied to the mold surface to improve the light diffusion characteristics, uniformity and brightness of the LGP. The results of this study show that the applied powder blasting method can be successfully used to manufacture LGPs with micro patterns by just single injection using the developed mold and thereby replace existing screen printing methods.

  16. From Spintronics to CFD/ContractForDifferences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksoed, W. H.

    2015-11-01

    Involve the CFD/Computational Fluid Dynamics & HCCI/Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition - Marcine Frackowiak, dissertation, 2009, for CFD/Contract For Differences accompanied by ``One Man's Crusade to Exonerate Hydrogen for Hindenburg Disaster'' of Addison BAIN, APS News, v. 9, n.7 (July 2000) concludes ``ignition of the blaze'' are responsible to those May, 1937 Accidents. Spintronics their selves include active control & manipulation of spin degree of freedom ever denotes: the nano-obelisk of scanning electron microscopy of galliumnitride/GaN nanostructures-Yong-Hon Cho et al.:``Novel Photonic Device using core-shell nanostructures'', SPIE-newsroom,10.1117/2.1201503.005864. Herewith commercial activated carbon/C can be imaged directly using abberation-corrected transmission electron microscopy[PJF Harris et al.: ``Imaging the Atomic Structures of activated C'', J. Phys. Condens. Matt, 20 (2008) in fig b & c- images networks of hexagonal rings can be clearly be seen depicts equal etchings of 340 px Akhenaten, Nefertiti & their childrens. Incredible acknowledgments to Minister of Education & Culture RI 1998-1999 HE. Mr. Prof. Ir. WIRANTO ARISMUNANDAR, MSME.

  17. Talker-specific auditory imagery during reading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nygaard, Lynne C.; Duke, Jessica; Kawar, Kathleen; Queen, Jennifer S.

    2001-05-01

    The present experiment was designed to determine if auditory imagery during reading includes talker-specific characteristics such as speaking rate. Following Kosslyn and Matt (1977), participants were familiarized with two talkers during a brief prerecorded conversation. One talker spoke at a fast speaking rate and one spoke at a slow speaking rate. During familiarization, participants were taught to identify each talker by name. At test, participants were asked to read two passages and told that either the slow or fast talker wrote each passage. In one condition, participants were asked to read each passage aloud, and in a second condition, they were asked to read each passage silently. Participants pressed a key when they had completed reading the passage, and reading times were collected. Reading times were significantly slower when participants thought they were reading a passage written by the slow talker than when reading a passage written by the fast talker. However, the effects of speaking rate were only present in the reading-aloud condition. Additional experiments were conducted to investigate the role of attention to talker's voice during familiarization. These results suggest that readers may engage in auditory imagery while reading that preserves perceptual details of an author's voice.

  18. Comparative Pollen Morphological Analysis and Its Systematic Implications on Three European Oak (Quercus L., Fagaceae) Species and Their Spontaneous Hybrids.

    PubMed

    Wrońska-Pilarek, Dorota; Danielewicz, Władysław; Bocianowski, Jan; Maliński, Tomasz; Janyszek, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Pollen morphology of three parental Quercus species (Q. robur L., Q. petraea (Matt) Liebl, Q. pubescens Willd.) and two spontaneous hybrids of these species (Q. ×calvescens Vuk. = Q. petraea × Q. pubescens and Q. ×rosacea Bechst. = Q. robur × Q. petraea) was investigated in this study. The pollen originated from 18 natural oak sites and 67 individuals (oak trees). Each individual was represented by 30 pollen grains. In total, 2010 pollen grains were measured. They were analysed for nine quantitative and four qualitative features. Pollen size and shape were important features to diagnosing Quercus parental species and hybrids. On the basis of exine ornamentation, it was possible to identify only Q. pubescens, while the remaining species and hybrids did not differ significantly with respect to this feature. The determination of the diagnostic value of endoaperture features requires further palynological studies. On the basis of pollen size and shape Q. robur × Q. petraea was clearly separated. Grouping of 67 oak trees on the basis of pollen grain features has shown that individuals from different as well as same taxa occurred in the same groups. Likewise, with respect to natural sites, oak trees originating from the same places as well as from geographically distant ones, grouped together. Pollen morphological features allow to distinguish a part of the studied Quercus taxa. Therefore, it can be used as an auxiliary feature in the taxonomy. PMID:27564015

  19. Confinement Regime Transition, Spontaneous Rotation and Phase Velocity Inversion of Edge Modes*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Sanzo, C.; Coppi, B.; Landreman, M.

    2007-04-01

    The transition from the L-confinement regime to the H-regime is associated with the inversion of the phase velocity of collisional ballooningootnotetextCoppi, B., et. al., 33rd E.P.S. Plasma Conf., Paper O4.017 (2006) modes excited at the edge of the plasma column and driven by the pressure gradient. Electron-ion, ion-ion and ion-ion neutral collisions are involved in an essential way. The phase velocity inversion from the electron diamagnetic velocity direction (L-regime) to the ion's occurs when i-i collisions and i-n collisions begin to prevailootnotetextB. Coppi, MIT(LNS) Report HEP 06/12 and in Paper TH/P6-21, 2006 Intern. Fusion Energy Conf. (IAEA, Vienna) and is very similar to the one found originally,ootnotetextCoppi, B., H. Hendel, et al., Report MATT- 523 (P.P.P.L., 1967); Intern. Conf. on Phys. of Quiescent Plasmas (Frascati, 1967) in order to identify collisional electron drift modes in Q-machine experiments. The quality of confinement is associated with the effective rate of expulsion of angular momentum in the same direction as the mode phase velocity, toward the surrounding material wall, and rotation of the main plasma column resulting from recoil.ootnotetextCoppi, B., Nucl. Fusion 42, 1 (2002)*Sponsored in part by the U.S. D.O.E.

  20. Structural, Electronic and Vibrational Properties of Nax Si 136(0 < x < 24) Clathrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, Craig; Nenghabi, Emmanuel; Myles, Charles; Biswas, Koushik; Beekman, Matt; Nolas, George

    2011-03-01

    CRAIG HIGGINS, EMMANUEL NENGHA BI† , CHARLES W. MYLES, Texas Tech U.; KOUSHIK BISWAS, Oak Ridge National Lab; MATT BEEKMAN, U. of Oregon; GEORGE S. NOLAS, U. of South Florida - Na x Si 136 is a Type II clathrate with important thermoelectric properties. It's face-centered cubic lattice contains polyhedral ``cages'' of silicon atoms with Na atom ``guests'' in the cages. This material is very interesting because powder X-ray diffraction experiments 1 for differing Na content x have shown that, for increasing x in the range 0

  1. Correlation Between Accretion Theory and Spontaneous Rotation Experiments*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landreman, M.; Coppi, B.; di Sanzo, C.

    2007-11-01

    The main observations that are consistent with the accretion theory [1] of the spontaneous rotation phenomenon include: i) the reversal of the direction of rotation in the transition from the L- to the H confinement regime that is attributed, by the theory, to the inversion of the phase velocity direction of ballooning modes excited at the edge of the plasma column; ii) the propagation of angular momentum from the outer edge toward the center of the plasma column during the L-H transition; iii) the strong effects of the magnetic field topology of the outermost magnetic surfaces and of the edge plasma regimes on the magnitude and direction of the spontaneous rotation; and iv) the intrinsic connection between spontaneous rotation and the plasma transport properties. The transition in the phase velocity direction of the considered modes is related to that which led [2] to the first experimental identification of collisional drift modes by a (linear) Q-machine where the transition marked the switch-off and on of modes with different mode numbers. A quantitative analysis of the factors that enter the application of the theory to current experiments (e.g. Alcator C-Mod) is given and the developments that this involves are discussed. *Sponsored in part by the US D.O.E. and the N.S.F. [1] B. Coppi, Nucl. Fus. 42, 1 (2002) [2] B. Coppi, H. W. Hendel, et al, PPPL Report MATT-523 (1967)

  2. Obituary: David Q. Wark, 1918-2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillin, Larry Max

    2003-12-01

    the American Meteorological Society, the Lloyd V. Berkner Space Utilization Award from the American Astronautical Society, and the Robert M. Losey Award, from the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. David Quentin Wark was born on 25 March 1918, in Spokane, Washington. He was the fourth and last child of Percival Damon Wark and Clara Belle (née Mackey) Wark. In 1921 his family moved to Altadena and Pasadena, California, where he lived until 1939. He attended Altadena Elementary School, Edison Elementary School, Washington Junior High School, Pasadena High School, and Pasadena Junior College. From 1938 to 1939, and again in the summer of 1940, he worked for the Associated Press and David Lawrence to earn money to resume his education. In 1939, he entered the University of California, Berkeley, from which he graduated with a BA in Astronomy with honors in May 1941. From 1941 to 1942 he did graduate study in meteorology at the University of California, Los Angeles. He resumed graduate studies part time in 1948 at the University of California, Berkeley, while working full time at the U.S. Weather Bureau and graduated with a PhD in Astronomy in January 1959. He remembered those times as tough days driving back and forth to Berkeley and living in Half-Moon Bay. Dr. Wark's professional career began in 1942 at the U.S. Naval Observatory, where he served as a Naval Officer until 1946. He then went to work for the U.S. Weather Bureau. He spent the first three years of that period in Istres, France, Frankfurt and Munich, Germany, and Cairo Egypt. From 1949 through 1958 he served at the Aviation Weather Forecast Office in San Francisco. He then moved to the U.S. Weather Bureau Office in Suitland, Maryland, where he worked from November 1958 until 3 July 1999, when he officially retired. He actually retired from NOAA because during this time, he saw the U.S. Weather Bureau become part of ESSA which, in turn, became a part the National Oceanic and Atmospheric

  3. Nanoscale variations in 187Os isotopic composition and HSE systematics in a Bultfontein peridotite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wainwright, A. N.; Luguet, A.; Schreiber, A.; Fonseca, R. O. C.; Nowell, G. M.; Lorand, J.-P.; Wirth, R.; Janney, P. E.

    2016-08-01

    percolation. While the high solubility of HSE within sulphide mattes rules out early formation of the alloys from a S-undersaturated silicate melt and subsequent scavenging in a sulphide matte, the alignment of the Pt-Fe-alloy inclusions attests that they are exsolutions formed during the sub-solidus re-equilibration of the high temperature sulphide phases. The significant difference in 187Os/188Os composition between the included Pt-Fe-alloys and their BMS host can only be accounted for by different Re/Os. This suggests that the formation of Pt-Fe-alloy inclusions within a BMS can result in the fractionation of Re from Os. A survey experiment examining the partitioning of Re and Os confirmed this observation, with the Re/Os of the Pt-Fe-alloy inclusion up to ten times higher than the co-existing BMS. This fractionation implies that, when Re is present in the sulphide melt, the TRD ages of BMS containing alloy inclusions do not date the loss of Re due to partial melting, but rather its fractionation into the Pt-Fe-alloys. As such, BMS ages should be used with caution when dating ancient partial melting events.

  4. PREFACE: 3rd Workshop on Theory, Modelling and Computational Methods for Semiconductors (TMCSIII)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Califano, Marco; Migliorato, Max; Probert, Matt

    2012-05-01

    contributions also from representatives of renowned theoretical groups from many European countries (Spain, France, Ireland, Germany, Italy, Poland, Denmark, Sweden, Serbia, Greece, etc.), as well as Asia (India) and Africa (Algeria, Tunisia and South Africa). We would like to thank all participants for making this a very successful meeting and for their contribution to the conference programme and these proceedings. We would also like to acknowledge the financial support from the Institute of Physics (Computational Physics group and Semiconductor Physics group), and QuantumWise (distributors of Atomistix). The Editors Acknowledgments Conference Organising Committee: Marco Califano (University of Leeds) Max Migliorato (University of Manchester) Matt Probert (University of York) Programme Committee: Stewart Clark (University of Durham) Aldo Di Carlo (University of Rome 'Tor Vergata', Italy) Ben Hourahine (University of Strathclyde) Lev Kantorovich (King's College London) Risto Nieminen (Helsinki University of Technology, Finland) Eoin O'Reilly (Tyndall Institute Cork, Republic of Ireland) Mauro Pereira (Sheffield Hallam University) John Robertson (University of Cambridge) Mervin Roy (University of Leicester) Stanko Tomic (University of Salford) David Whittaker (University of Sheffield) The proceedings were edited and compiled by Marco Califano, Max Migliorato and Matt Probert.

  5. Correlation between the Palaeozoic structures from West Iberian and Grand Banks margins using inversion of magnetic anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Elsa A.; Miranda, J. M.; Luis, J. F.; Galdeano, A.

    2000-05-01

    The Ibero-Armorican Arc (IAA) is a huge geological structure of Pre-Cambrian origin, tightened during hercynian times and deeply affected by the opening of the Atlantic Ocean and the Bay of Biscay. Its remnants now lie in Iberia, north-western France and the Canadian Grand Banks margins. The qualitative correlation between these three blocks has been attempted by several authors (e.g. Lefort, J.P., 1980. Un 'Fit' structural de l'Atlantique Nord: arguments geologiques pour correler les marqueurs geophysiques reconnus sur les deux marges. Mar. Geol. 37, 355-369; Lefort, J.P., 1983. A new geophysical criterion to correlate the Acadian and Hercynian orogenies of Western Europe and Eastern America. Mem. Geol. Soc. Am. 158, 3-18; Galdeano, A., Miranda, J.M., Matte, P., Mouge, P., Rossignol, C., 1990. Aeromagnetic data: A tool for studying the Variscan arc of Western Europe and its correlation with transatlantic structures. Tectonophysics 177, 293-305) using magnetic anomalies, mainly because they seem to preserve the hercynian zonation, in spite of the strong thermal and mechanical processes that took place during rifting and ocean spreading. In this paper, we present a new contribution to the study of the IAA structure based on the processing of a compilation of magnetic data from Iberia and Grand Banks margins. To interpret the magnetic signature, a Fourier-domain-based inversion technique was applied, considering a layer with a constant thickness of 10 km, and taking into account only the induced field. The digital terrain model was derived from ETOPO5 (ETOPO5, 1986. Relief map of the earth's surface. EOS 67, 121) and TerrainBase (TerrainBase, 1995. In: Row III, L.W., Hastings, D.A., Dunbar, P.K. (Eds.), Worldwide Digital Terrain Data, Documentation Manual, CD-ROM Release 1.0. GEODAS-NGDC Key to Geophysical Records. Documentation N. 30, April) databases. The pseudo-susceptibility distribution obtained was repositioned for the 156.5 Ma epoch, using the Srivastava and

  6. Substantially higher prevalence of postoperative peri­prosthetic fractures in octogenarians with hip fractures operated with a cemented, polished tapered stem rather than an anatomic stem

    PubMed Central

    Mukka, Sebastian; Mellner, Carl; Knutsson, Björn; Sayed-Noor, Arkan; Sköldenberg, Olof

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Recent studies have demonstrated a high incidence of postoperative periprosthetic femoral fracture (PPF) in elderly patients treated with 2 commonly used cemented, polished tapered stems. We compared the prevalence and incidence rate of PPF in a consecutive cohort of octagenerians with femoral neck fractures (FNFs) treated with either a collarless, polished tapered (CPT) stem or an anatomic matte stem (Lubinus SP2). Patients and methods In a multicenter, prospective cohort study, we included 979 hips in patients aged 80 years and above (72% females, median age 86 (80–102) years) with a femoral neck fracture as indication for surgery. 69% of the patients were classified as ASA class 3 or 4. Hip-related complications and repeat surgery were assessed at a median follow-up of 20 (0–24) months postoperatively. Results 22 hips (2.2%) sustained a PPF at a median of 7 (0–22) months postoperatively; 14 (64%) were Vancouver B2 fractures. 7 of the 22 surgically treated fractures required revision surgery, mainly due to deep infection. The cumulative incidence of PPFs was 3.8% in the CPT group, as compared with 0.2% in the SP2 group (p < 0.001). The risk ratio (RR) was 16 (95% CI: 2–120) using the SP2 group as denominator. Interpretation The CPT stem was associated with a higher risk of PPF than the SP2 stem. We suggest that the tapered CPT stem should not be used for the treatment of femoral neck fractures in patients over 80 years. PMID:27045318

  7. Quantitative Evaluation of Surface Color of Tomato Fruits Cultivated in Remote Farm Using Digital Camera Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Atsushi; Suehara, Ken-Ichiro; Kameoka, Takaharu

    To measure the quantitative surface color information of agricultural products with the ambient information during cultivation, a color calibration method for digital camera images and a remote monitoring system of color imaging using the Web were developed. Single-lens reflex and web digital cameras were used for the image acquisitions. The tomato images through the post-ripening process were taken by the digital camera in both the standard image acquisition system and in the field conditions from the morning to evening. Several kinds of images were acquired with the standard RGB color chart set up just behind the tomato fruit on a black matte, and a color calibration was carried out. The influence of the sunlight could be experimentally eliminated, and the calibrated color information consistently agreed with the standard ones acquired in the system through the post-ripening process. Furthermore, the surface color change of the tomato on the tree in a greenhouse was remotely monitored during maturation using the digital cameras equipped with the Field Server. The acquired digital color images were sent from the Farm Station to the BIFE Laboratory of Mie University via VPN. The time behavior of the tomato surface color change during the maturing process could be measured using the color parameter calculated based on the obtained and calibrated color images along with the ambient atmospheric record. This study is a very important step in developing the surface color analysis for both the simple and rapid evaluation of the crop vigor in the field and to construct an ambient and networked remote monitoring system for food security, precision agriculture, and agricultural research.

  8. Direct measurement of laser cooling of Yb:YAG crystal at atmospheric pressure using a fiber Bragg grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares de Lima Filho, Elton; Nemova, Galina; Loranger, Sébastien; Kashyap, Raman

    2014-02-01

    Although Yb:YAG has been cooled in a vacuum environment1, we report for the first time an experimental demonstration of optical cooling at atmospheric pressure. A Yb:YAG crystal is supported on thin silica fibers, inside a matt-black chamber with air at atmospheric pressure, and pumped at 1029 nm in the pulsed and CW regimes. Direct measurement of the crystal surface temperature during pumping was made possible by using a low thermal-mass, transparent fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor. The FBG interrogation system has sufficient sensitivity to measure the background absorption of the sample to below 10-4 cm-1, and bulk cooling at a pump power as low as 17 mW. The dynamical measurement of the temperature allows the determination of the overall heat transfer coefficient of the sample in the air, of 22 W.m-2K-1. A temperature drop of 8.8 K from the chamber temperature is observed in the Yb:YAG crystal in air when pumped with 4.2 W at 1029 nm, close to 8.9 K observed in vacuum1. A background absorption αb = 2.9×10-4 cm-1 is estimated with a pump wavelength at 1550 nm. Simulations predict further cooling when the sample's cross sectional area and the pump power are optimized, including absorption saturation effects. The choice of an efficient geometry, the use of a readily available temperature sensor in less controlled environments should simplify implementation of laser cooling systems and the development of commercial devices.

  9. Can Infants Tell the Difference between Gold and Yellow?

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jiale; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K.

    2013-01-01

    There is a large literature focused on the color perception of matte surface. However, recent research showed that the component of surface specular reflection, such as glossiness, also affects categorical color perception. For instance, the color term “gold” was used to name high specular stimuli within a specific range of chromaticity, which overlaps with those of yellow and orange for low specular stimuli. In the present study, we investigated whether the component of surface specular reflectance affects the color perception of 5- to 8-month-old infants by using the preferential looking technique. In the first experiment, we conducted a simple test to determine whether infants perceive yellow and gold as the same color by comparing their preference for these colors over green. If the infants perceive yellow and gold as the same color, they would show similar preference scores over green. On the other hand, if infants show different preference scores over green, it indicates that infants do not perceive yellow and gold as the same color. Only the 7–8 month-old infants showed different preference scores for gold and yellow over green. This result indicates that the 7–8 month-old infants perceive gold and yellow as different colors. In Experiment 2, we eliminated the component of specular reflectance on the gold surface and presented it against green to infants. A similar preference score of yellow over green was obtained. This result suggests that the difference between the preference scores for gold and yellow over green in Experiment 1 was based on representations of glossiness. PMID:23840734

  10. Does Forest Continuity Enhance the Resilience of Trees to Environmental Change?

    PubMed Central

    von Oheimb, Goddert; Härdtle, Werner; Eckstein, Dieter; Engelke, Hans-Hermann; Hehnke, Timo; Wagner, Bettina; Fichtner, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    There is ample evidence that continuously existing forests and afforestations on previously agricultural land differ with regard to ecosystem functions and services such as carbon sequestration, nutrient cycling and biodiversity. However, no studies have so far been conducted on possible long-term (>100 years) impacts on tree growth caused by differences in the ecological continuity of forest stands. In the present study we analysed the variation in tree-ring width of sessile oak (Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl.) trees (mean age 115–136 years) due to different land-use histories (continuously existing forests, afforestations both on arable land and on heathland). We also analysed the relation of growth patterns to soil nutrient stores and to climatic parameters (temperature, precipitation). Tree rings formed between 1896 and 2005 were widest in trees afforested on arable land. This can be attributed to higher nitrogen and phosphorous availability and indicates that former fertilisation may continue to affect the nutritional status of forest soils for more than one century after those activities have ceased. Moreover, these trees responded more strongly to environmental changes – as shown by a higher mean sensitivity of the tree-ring widths – than trees of continuously existing forests. However, the impact of climatic parameters on the variability in tree-ring width was generally small, but trees on former arable land showed the highest susceptibility to annually changing climatic conditions. We assume that incompletely developed humus horizons as well as differences in the edaphon are responsible for the more sensitive response of oak trees of recent forests (former arable land and former heathland) to variation in environmental conditions. We conclude that forests characterised by a long ecological continuity may be better adapted to global change than recent forest ecosystems. PMID:25494042

  11. Spectroscopic characterisation of moonmilk deposits in Pozalagua tourist Cave (Karrantza, Basque Country, North of Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Arkarazo, I.; Angulo, M.; Zuloaga, O.; Usobiaga, A.; Madariaga, J. M.

    2007-12-01

    Composition of moonmilk deposits located in different zones of the tourist Dolomite Cave of Pozalagua (Karrantza, Basque Country, North of Spain) was established by Raman spectroscopy. The deposits were located in column bases and detached rocks near a gour full of water or a dripping zone. Hydromagnesite (Mg 5(CO 3) 4(OH) 2·4H 2O) with a strong Raman band at 1116 cm -1 and weaker ones at 1522vw, 1487vw, 1452vw, 756w, 727w, 466w, 434w, 371w, 327m, 291w, 258w, 247vw and 230 m cm -1 was found as the main component of the moonmilk. Aragonite is the unique calcium carbonate compound that sometimes composes the moonmilk but always together with the hydromagnesite. Among non-carbonate minerals, some nitrates (nitrocalcite, niter, nitromagnesite, nitratine and gwihabaite) and sulphates (arkanite) were also identified as minor compounds. Most of the deposits were matt white and pasty, but occasionally some samples appear greyish on the surface. In these samples, carbon particles were also found, apart from the above, and Raman shift changes were observed in the hydromagnesite spectra. Apart from the elements involved in the mentioned minerals, Si, Fe, Mn, Zn and Ti were identified by X-ray microfluorescence as trace elements and the results were correlated with mineral compositions found by Raman measurements. Furthermore, quantification of the soluble salts of moonmilk deposits was carried out by ionic chromatography and the results were chemometrically treated to find correlations among soluble ions and the composition of the mineral phases spectroscopically characterised.

  12. Vailulu'u Seamount, Samoa: Life and Death at the Edge of An Active Submarine Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vailulu'U Research Group, T.

    2005-12-01

    Exploration of Vailulu'u seamount (14°13'S; 169°04'W) by manned submersible, ROV, and surface ship revealed a new, 300m tall volcano that has grown in the summit crater in less than four years. This shows that Vailulu'u's eruption behavior is at this stage not predictable and continued growth could allow Vailulu'u to breach sea level within decades Several types of hydrothermal vents fill Vailulu'u crater with particulates that reduce visibility to less than a few meters in some regions. Hydrothermal solutions mix with seawater that enters the crater from its breaches to produce distinct biological habitats. Low temperature hydrothermal vents can produce Fe-oxide chimneys or up to one meter-thick microbial mats. Higher temperature vents (85°C) produce low salinity acidic fluids containing buoyant droplets of immiscible CO2. Low temperature hydrothermal vents at Nafanua summit (708m depth) support a thriving population of eels (Dysommia rusosa). The areas around the high temperature vents and the moat and remaining crater around the new volcano is almost devoid of any macroscopic life and is littered with fish, and mollusk carcasses that apparently died from exposure to hydrothermal fluid components in deeper crater waters. Acid- tolerant polychaetes adapt to this environment and feed near and on these carcasses. Vailulu'u presents a natural laboratory for the study of how seamounts and their volcanic systems interact with the hydrosphere to produce distinct biological habitats, and how marine life can adapt to these conditions or be trapped in a toxic volcanic system that leads to mass mortality. The Vailulu'u research team: Hubert Staudigel, Samantha Allen, Brad Bailey, Ed Baker, Sandra Brooke, Ryan Delaney, Blake English, Lisa Haucke, Stan Hart, John Helly, Ian Hudson, Matt Jackson, Daniel Jones, Alison Koleszar, Anthony Koppers, Jasper Konter, Laurent Montesi, Adele Pile, Ray Lee, Scott Mcbride, Julie Rumrill, Daniel Staudigel, Brad Tebo, Alexis Templeton

  13. Report Of The Cospar WG On "Future Of Space Astronomy"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubertini, Pietro; Space Astronomy*, Cospar WG on Future of

    2011-09-01

    The COSPAR President on April 20, 2010 appointed the "Future of Space Astronomy” Working Group under the aegis of Commission E, with the aim to analyze the difficult situation of space astronomy over the next two decades and recommend ways to improve the prospects. Having assessed the scientific needs and the current plans of the main space agencies worldwide, the WG has identified some major concerns about the lack of a secured future for Space Astronomy. In fact, astronomers today have access to an impressive set of space missions and ground-based observatories that gives them nearly continuous coverage of the electromagnetic spectrum from the gamma-ray to the radio regions. But the picture becomes concerning and critical in the next 10 - 15 years, when current space astronomy missions will have ended and new missions will be much less numerous. Astronomy is a difficult observational science requiring continuous and simultaneous access to the full electromagnetic spectrum to explore our complex Universe and to pursue answers to fundamental scientific questions. The history of space astronomy, especially the past three decades, has demonstrated clearly the importance and benefits of access to the gamma-ray, X-ray, UV-optical, near IR and far-IR spectrum from space. So far the only planned observatory class missions, proposed to NASA-ESA-JAXA are JWST (2018), WFIRST/EUCLID (2018-2020), Athena (ex IXO, 2022) and LISA. The latter two under re-scope in an ESA alone scenario with a cost <1B€. We will present the main WG outcome with a number of recommendations and, finally, suggest a road map for the next decades. *WG membership: Pietro Ubertini (Chair), Italy, Neil Gehrels (Co-Chair), USA, Ian Corbett (IAU liason), UK, Paolo De Bernardis, Italy, Marcos Machado, Argentina, Matt Griffin, UK, Michael Hauser, USA, Ravinder K. Manchanda, India, Nobuyuki Kawai, Japan, Shuang-Nan Zhang, China, Mikhail Pavlinsky, Russia

  14. Key characteristics of specular stereo

    PubMed Central

    Muryy, Alexander A.; Fleming, Roland W.; Welchman, Andrew E.

    2014-01-01

    Because specular reflection is view-dependent, shiny surfaces behave radically differently from matte, textured surfaces when viewed with two eyes. As a result, specular reflections pose substantial problems for binocular stereopsis. Here we use a combination of computer graphics and geometrical analysis to characterize the key respects in which specular stereo differs from standard stereo, to identify how and why the human visual system fails to reconstruct depths correctly from specular reflections. We describe rendering of stereoscopic images of specular surfaces in which the disparity information can be varied parametrically and independently of monocular appearance. Using the generated surfaces and images, we explain how stereo correspondence can be established with known and unknown surface geometry. We show that even with known geometry, stereo matching for specular surfaces is nontrivial because points in one eye may have zero, one, or multiple matches in the other eye. Matching features typically yield skew (nonintersecting) rays, leading to substantial ortho-epipolar components to the disparities, which makes deriving depth values from matches nontrivial. We suggest that the human visual system may base its depth estimates solely on the epipolar components of disparities while treating the ortho-epipolar components as a measure of the underlying reliability of the disparity signals. Reconstructing virtual surfaces according to these principles reveals that they are piece-wise smooth with very large discontinuities close to inflection points on the physical surface. Together, these distinctive characteristics lead to cues that the visual system could use to diagnose specular reflections from binocular information. PMID:25540263

  15. The GEO Water Strategy: Advances in Monitoring, Modeling, and Predicting Groundwater Variations at Regional to Local Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, N. L.; Heinrich, L.; Kukuri, N.; Plag, H.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Rodell, M.

    2012-12-01

    the mean are the height of an equivalent layer of water, ranging from -12 cm (deep red) to 12 cm (dark blue). Credit: NASA/Trent Schindler and Matt Rodell

  16. Expanding leaves of mature deciduous forest trees rapidly become autotrophic.

    PubMed

    Keel, Sonja G; Schädel, Christina

    2010-10-01

    Emerging leaves in evergreen tree species are supplied with carbon (C) from the previous year's foliage. In deciduous trees, no older leaves are present, and the early phase of leaf development must rely on C reserves from other tissues. How soon developing leaves become autotrophic and switch from being C sinks to sources has rarely been studied in mature forest trees, and simultaneous comparisons of species are scarce. Using a canopy crane and a simple (13)CO(2)-pulse-labelling technique, we demonstrate that young leaves of mature trees in three European deciduous species (Fagus sylvatica L., Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl., Tilia platyphyllos Scop.) start assimilating CO(2) at a very early stage of development (10-50% expanded). One month after labelling, all leaves were still strongly (13)C enriched, suggesting that recent photosynthates had been incorporated into slow turnover pools such as cellulose or lignin and thus had contributed to leaf growth. In line with previous studies performed at the same site, we found stronger incorporation of recent photosynthates into growing tissues of T. platyphyllos compared with F. sylvatica and Q. petraea. Non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) concentrations analysed for one of the three study species (F. sylvatica) showed that sugar and starch pools rapidly increased during leaf development, suggesting that newly developed leaves soon produce more NSC than can be used for growth. In conclusion, our findings indicate that expanding leaves of mature deciduous trees become C autonomous at an early stage of development despite the presence of vast amounts of mobile carbohydrate reserves. PMID:20688879

  17. Differential processing of binocular and monocular gloss cues in human visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Di Luca, Massimiliano; Ban, Hiroshi; Muryy, Alexander; Fleming, Roland W.

    2016-01-01

    The visual impression of an object's surface reflectance (“gloss”) relies on a range of visual cues, both monocular and binocular. Whereas previous imaging work has identified processing within ventral visual areas as important for monocular cues, little is known about cortical areas involved in processing binocular cues. Here, we used human functional MRI (fMRI) to test for brain areas selectively involved in the processing of binocular cues. We manipulated stereoscopic information to create four conditions that differed in their disparity structure and in the impression of surface gloss that they evoked. We performed multivoxel pattern analysis to find areas whose fMRI responses allow classes of stimuli to be distinguished based on their depth structure vs. material appearance. We show that higher dorsal areas play a role in processing binocular gloss information, in addition to known ventral areas involved in material processing, with ventral area lateral occipital responding to both object shape and surface material properties. Moreover, we tested for similarities between the representation of gloss from binocular cues and monocular cues. Specifically, we tested for transfer in the decoding performance of an algorithm trained on glossy vs. matte objects defined by either binocular or by monocular cues. We found transfer effects from monocular to binocular cues in dorsal visual area V3B/kinetic occipital (KO), suggesting a shared representation of the two cues in this area. These results indicate the involvement of mid- to high-level visual circuitry in the estimation of surface material properties, with V3B/KO potentially playing a role in integrating monocular and binocular cues. PMID:26912596

  18. Rock Moved by Mars Lander Arm, Stereo View

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The robotic arm on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander slid a rock out of the way during the mission's 117th Martian day (Sept. 22, 2008) to gain access to soil that had been underneath the rock.The lander's Surface Stereo Imager took the two images for this stereo view later the same day, showing the rock, called 'Headless,' after the arm pushed it about 40 centimeters (16 inches) from its previous location.

    'The rock ended up exactly where we intended it to,' said Matt Robinson of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, robotic arm flight software lead for the Phoenix team.

    The arm had enlarged the trench near Headless two days earlier in preparation for sliding the rock into the trench. The trench was dug to about 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) deep. The ground surface between the rock's prior position and the lip of the trench had a slope of about 3 degrees downward toward the trench. Headless is about the size and shape of a VHS videotape.

    The Phoenix science team sought to move the rock in order to study the soil and the depth to subsurface ice underneath where the rock had been.

    This left-eye and right-eye images for this stereo view were taken at about 12:30 p.m., local solar time on Mars. The scene appears three-dimensional when seen through blue-red glasses.The view is to the north northeast of the lander.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by JPL, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development was by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  19. Study on the effects of sample selection on spectral reflectance reconstruction based on the algorithm of compressive sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Leihong; Liang, Dong

    2016-01-01

    In order to solve the problem that reconstruction efficiency and precision is not high, in this paper different samples are selected to reconstruct spectral reflectance, and a new kind of spectral reflectance reconstruction method based on the algorithm of compressive sensing is provided. Four different color numbers of matte color cards such as the ColorChecker Color Rendition Chart and Color Checker SG, the copperplate paper spot color card of Panton, and the Munsell colors card are chosen as training samples, the spectral image is reconstructed respectively by the algorithm of compressive sensing and pseudo-inverse and Wiener, and the results are compared. These methods of spectral reconstruction are evaluated by root mean square error and color difference accuracy. The experiments show that the cumulative contribution rate and color difference of the Munsell colors card are better than those of the other three numbers of color cards in the same conditions of reconstruction, and the accuracy of the spectral reconstruction will be affected by the training sample of different numbers of color cards. The key technology of reconstruction means that the uniformity and representation of the training sample selection has important significance upon reconstruction. In this paper, the influence of the sample selection on the spectral image reconstruction is studied. The precision of the spectral reconstruction based on the algorithm of compressive sensing is higher than that of the traditional algorithm of spectral reconstruction. By the MATLAB simulation results, it can be seen that the spectral reconstruction precision and efficiency are affected by the different color numbers of the training sample.

  20. DYNAMICAL SPIN SUSCEPTIBILITY IN THE TD-LDA AND QSGW APPROXIMATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    SCHILFGAARDE, MARK VAN; KOTANI, TAKAO

    2012-10-15

    Abstract. This project was aimed at building the transverse dynamical spin susceptibility with the TD-LDA and the recently-developed Quasparticle Self-Consisent Approximations, which determines an optimum quasiparticle picture in a self-consistent manner within the GW approximation. Our main results were published into two papers, (J. Phys. Cond. Matt. 20, 95214 (2008), and Phys. Rev. B83, 060404(R) (2011). In the first paper we present spin wave dispersions for MnO, NiO, and -MnAs based on quasiparticle self-consistent GW approximation (QSGW). For MnO and NiO, QSGW results are in rather good agreement with experiments, in contrast to the LDA and LDA+U descriptions. For -MnAs, we find a collinear ferromagnetic ground state in QSGW, while this phase is unstable in the LDA. In the second, we apply TD-LDA to the CaFeAs2 the first attempt the first ab initio calculation of dynamical susceptibililty in a system with complex electronic structure Magnetic excitations in the striped phase of CaFe2As2 are studied as a function of local moment amplitude. We find a new kind of excitation: sharp resonances of Stoner-like (itinerant) excitations at energies comparable to the ´eel temperature, originating largely from a narrow band of Fe d states near the Fermi level, and coexisting with more conventional (localized) spin waves. Both kinds of excitations can show multiple branches, highlighting the inadequacy of a description based on a localized spin model.

  1. Intensity-Value Corrections for Integrating Sphere Measurements of Solid Samples Measured Behind Glass

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Timothy J.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Redding, Rebecca L.; Su, Yin-Fong; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Myers, Tanya L.; Stephan, Eric G.

    2014-11-01

    Accurate and calibrated directional-hemispherical reflectance spectra of solids are important for both in situ and remote sensing. Many solids are in the form of powders or granules and to measure their diffuse reflectance spectra in the laboratory, it is often necessary to place the samples behind a transparent medium such as glass for the ultraviolet (UV), visible, or near-infrared spectral regions. Using both experimental methods and a simple optical model, we demonstrate that glass (fused quartz in our case) leads to artifacts in the reflectance values. We report our observations that the measured reflectance values, for both hemispherical and diffuse reflectance, are distorted by the additional reflections arising at the air–quartz and sample–quartz interfaces. The values are dependent on the sample reflectance and are offset in intensity in the hemispherical case, leading to measured values up to ~6% too high for a 2% reflectance surface, ~3.8% too high for 10% reflecting surfaces, approximately correct for 40–60% diffuse-reflecting surfaces, and ~1.5% too low for 99% reflecting Spectralon® surfaces. For the case of diffuse-only reflectance, the measured values are uniformly too low due to the polished glass, with differences of nearly 6% for a 99% reflecting matte surface. The deviations arise from the added reflections from the quartz surfaces, as verified by both theory and experiment, and depend on sphere design. Finally, empirical correction factors were implemented into post-processing software to redress the artifact for hemispherical and diffuse reflectance data across the 300–2300 nm range.

  2. Spectral and temperature-dependent infrared emissivity measurements of painted metals for improved temperature estimation during laser damage testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, Sean M.; Keenan, Cameron; Marciniak, Michael A.; Perram, Glen P.

    2014-10-01

    A database of spectral and temperature-dependent emissivities was created for painted Al-alloy laser-damage-testing targets for the purpose of improving the uncertainty to which temperature on the front and back target surfaces may be estimated during laser-damage testing. Previous temperature estimates had been made by fitting an assumed gray-body radiance curve to the calibrated spectral radiance data collected from the back surface using a Telops Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (IFTS). In this work, temperature-dependent spectral emissivity measurements of the samples were made from room temperature to 500 °C using a Surface Optics Corp. SOC-100 Hemispherical Directional Reflectometer (HDR) with Nicolet FTS. Of particular interest was a high-temperature matte-black enamel paint used to coat the rear surfaces of the Al-alloy samples. The paint had been assumed to have a spectrally flat and temperatureinvariant emissivity. However, the data collected using the HDR showed both spectral variation and temperature dependence. The uncertainty in back-surface temperature estimation during laser-damage testing made using the measured emissivities was improved from greater than +10 °C to less than +5 °C for IFTS pixels away from the laser burn-through hole, where temperatures never exceeded those used in the SOC-100 HDR measurements. At beam center, where temperatures exceeded those used in the SOC-100 HDR, uncertainty in temperature estimates grew beyond those made assuming gray-body emissivity. Accurate temperature estimations during laser-damage testing are useful in informing a predictive model for future high-energy-laser weapon applications.

  3. Evaluation of the image quality of ink-jet printed paper copies of digital chest radiographs as compared with film: a receiver operating characteristic study.

    PubMed

    Lyttkens, K; Kirkhorn, T; Kehler, M; Andersson, B; Ebbesen, A; Hochbergs, P; Jarlman, O; Lindberg, C G; Holmer, N G

    1994-05-01

    Paper copies of digital radiographs printed with the continuous ink-jet technique have proved to be of a high enough quality for demonstration purposes. We present a study on the image quality of ink-jet printed paper copies of digital chest radiographs, based on receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Eighty-three digital radiographs of a chest phantom with simulated tumors in the mediastinum and right lung, derived from a computed radiography (CR) system were presented in two series of hard copies as ink-jet printed paper copies and as laser recorded film. The images, with a matrix of 1,760 x 2,140 pixels, were printed with a spatial resolution of 10 pixels/mm in the CR film recorder as well as in the ink-jet printer. On film, every image was recorded in two versions, one optimized for the mediastinum and one for the lungs. On paper, only one image was printed; this constituted an effort to optimize both the mediastinum and the lungs. The ink-jet printed images, printed on a matt coated paper, were viewed as on-sight images with reflected light. The examinations were reviewed by six radiologists, and ROC curves were constructed. No significant difference was found between the performance of film and that of ink-jet paper prints. Because the cost for a paper copy is only a tenth of that of film, remarkable cost reductions can be achieved by using the ink jet technique instead. Our results show that further quality studies of ink-jet printed images are worthwhile. PMID:8075185

  4. Multiple structure alignment with msTALI

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Multiple structure alignments have received increasing attention in recent years as an alternative to multiple sequence alignments. Although multiple structure alignment algorithms can potentially be applied to a number of problems, they have primarily been used for protein core identification. A method that is capable of solving a variety of problems using structure comparison is still absent. Here we introduce a program msTALI for aligning multiple protein structures. Our algorithm uses several informative features to guide its alignments: torsion angles, backbone Cα atom positions, secondary structure, residue type, surface accessibility, and properties of nearby atoms. The algorithm allows the user to weight the types of information used to generate the alignment, which expands its utility to a wide variety of problems. Results msTALI exhibits competitive results on 824 families from the Homstrad and SABmark databases when compared to Matt and Mustang. We also demonstrate success at building a database of protein cores using 341 randomly selected CATH domains and highlight the contribution of msTALI compared to the CATH classifications. Finally, we present an example applying msTALI to the problem of detecting hinges in a protein undergoing rigid-body motion. Conclusions msTALI is an effective algorithm for multiple structure alignment. In addition to its performance on standard comparison databases, it utilizes clear, informative features, allowing further customization for domain-specific applications. The C++ source code for msTALI is available for Linux on the web at http://ifestos.cse.sc.edu/mstali. PMID:22607234

  5. Rock Moved by Mars Lander Arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The robotic arm on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander slid a rock out of the way during the mission's 117th Martian day (Sept. 22, 2008) to gain access to soil that had been underneath the rock.The lander's Surface Stereo Imager took the two images for this stereo view later the same day, showing the rock, called 'Headless,' after the arm pushed it about 40 centimeters (16 inches) from its previous location.

    'The rock ended up exactly where we intended it to,' said Matt Robinson of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, robotic arm flight software lead for the Phoenix team.

    The arm had enlarged the trench near Headless two days earlier in preparation for sliding the rock into the trench. The trench was dug to about 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) deep. The ground surface between the rock's prior position and the lip of the trench had a slope of about 3 degrees downward toward the trench. Headless is about the size and shape of a VHS videotape.

    The Phoenix science team sought to move the rock in order to study the soil and the depth to subsurface ice underneath where the rock had been.

    This image was taken at about 12:30 p.m., local solar time on Mars. The view is to the north northeast of the lander.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by JPL, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development was by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  6. New technique for the determination of trace noble metal content in geological and process materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitkin, V. N.; Zayakina, S. B.; Anoshin, G. N.

    2003-02-01

    A new two-step sample preparation technique is proposed for the instrumental determination of trace quantities of noble metals (NM) in refractory geological and process materials. The decomposition procedure is based on the oxidizing fluorination of samples with subsequent sulfatization (OFS) of the sample melt or cake. Fluorination of samples is accomplished using a mixture of KHF 2+KBrF 4 or KHF 2+BrF 3 depending on the ratio of sample mass to oxidizing mixture. Both cakes and melts can result using this procedure. Sulfatization of resulting fluorides is completed using concentrated sulfuric acid heated to 550 °C. Validation studies using certified geostandard reference materials (GSO VP-2, ZH-3, Matte RTP, HO-1, SARM-7) have shown that the proposed method is fast, convenient and most often produces non-hygroscopic homogeneous residues suitable for analysis by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and atomic emission spectrometry (AES). Results obtained for NM concentrations in reference materials agreed with certified concentration ranges and results obtained using other methods of analysis. The OFS procedure combined with direct current plasma d.c. plasma AES achieved the following limits of detection (LOD) for the noble metals: Ag, Au, Pd, 1-2×10 -6; Pt, 5×10 -6; and Ru, Rh, Ir, Os, 1-3×10 -7 wt.%. Using graphite furnace AAS (GFAAS) combined extraction pre-concentration the following LODs for NMs were achieved: Pt, Ru, 1×10 -6; Pd, Rh, 1×10 -7; and Au, Ag, 1-2×10 -8 wt.%. The relative standard deviation for NM determinations ( Sr) was dependent on NM concentration and sample type, but commonly was in the range of 3-15% for d.c. plasma AES and 5-30% for GFAAS.

  7. Resistance of cyanobacterial fouling on architectural paint films to cleaning by water jet.

    PubMed

    Shirakawa, Marcia Aiko; Loh, Kai; John, Vanderley Moacir; Gaylarde, Christine Claire

    2012-04-01

    Mortar panels painted with three different white acrylic coatings were exposed to the environment in urban (São Paulo) and rural (Pirassununga) sites in Brazil for 7 years. After this time, all panels were almost equally discoloured, and paint detachment was observed to only a small degree. The biofilms were composed mainly of cyanobacteria and filamentous fungi, principal genera being Gloeocapsa and Chroococcidiopsis of the cyanobacteria, and Cladosporium and Alternaria of the fungi. Two of the three paints in Pirassununga became covered by a pink film that contained red-encapsulated Gloeocapsa and clay particles. The third, an 800% elastomeric matt formulation, became discoloured with a grey, only slightly pink, film, although the same cyanobacteria were present. The levels of paint detachments from all films in both locations were low, with rating range of 0-1 of a maximum 5 (100% detachment). After high-pressure water jetting, paint detachments increased at both locations, up to 2 in Pirassununga and 3 in São Paulo. Discoloration decreased; L*A*B* analysis of surface discoloration showed that ΔE (alteration in colour from the original paint film) changed from 28-39 before cleaning to 13-16 afterwards. The pink coloration was not entirely removed from Pirassununga samples, suggesting that cyanobacterial cells are difficult to detach, and microscopic analysis of the biofilms confirmed that Gloeocapsa was still present as the principal contaminant on all surfaces, with Chroococcidiopsis being present as the second most common. Almost no fungi were detected after water jet application. PMID:22215483

  8. Complex climate controls on 20th century oak growth in Central-West Germany.

    PubMed

    Friedrichs, Dagmar A; Büntgen, Ulf; Frank, David C; Esper, Jan; Neuwirth, Burkhard; Löffler, Jörg

    2009-01-01

    We analyze interannual to multi-decadal growth variations of 555 oak trees from Central-West Germany. A network of 13 pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) and 33 sessile oak (Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl.) site chronologies is compared with gridded temperature, precipitation, cloud-cover, vapor pressure and drought (i.e., Palmer Drought Severity Index, PDSI) fluctuations. A hierarchic cluster analysis identifies three groups for each oak species differentiated by ecologic settings. When high precipitation is primarily a characteristic for one Q. robur and one Q. petraea cluster, the other clusters are more differentiated by prevailing temperature conditions. Correlation analysis with precipitation and vapor pressure reveals statistically significant (P < or = 0.05) correlations for June (r = 0.51) and annual (r = 0.43) means. Growth of both species at dry sites correlates strongly with PDSI (r = 0.39, P < or = 0.05), and weakly with temperature and cloud-cover. In natural stands, Q. robur responds more strongly to water depletion than Q. petraea. Twenty-one-year moving correlations show positive significant growth response to both PDSI and precipitation throughout the 20th century, except for the 1940s - an anomalously warm decade during which all oak sites are characterized by an increased growth and an enhanced association with vapor pressure and temperature. We suggest that the wider oak rings that are exhibited during this period may be indicative of a nonlinear or threshold-induced growth response to drought and vapor pressure, and run counter to the general response of oak to drought and precipitation that normally would result in suppressed growth in a warmer and drier environment. As the wide rings are formed during the severe drought period of the 20th century, a complex model seems to be required to fully explain the widespread oak growth. Our results indicate uncertainty in estimates of future growth trends of Central European oak forests in a warming and

  9. Thermal Contact Conductance Analysis of Nitride and Carbonitride Thin Film Coatings for Thermal Interface Material Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramani, Shanmugan; Thing, Lee Yuan; Devarajan, Mutharasu

    2015-12-01

    In order to reduce and maintain the bond line thickness between substrate and LED package, solid thin film with good thermal conductivity is suggested as thermal interface material and the proposed film thickness is about less than 1 µ. The surface parameter such as roughness and hardness is a key factor which alters the contact conductance between the two matt surfaces. Consequently, filtered vacuum cathodic arc deposited nitride thin films (CrN, TiN, AlTiN, and TiCN) on copper substrate were tested for thermal interface material applications in electronic packaging. The thermal contact conductance of the prepared thin films was evaluated using surface properties such as microhardness and surface roughness. The results were verified with the theoretical model. The measured microhardness and surface roughness of CrN thin film are 17 GPa (low) and 0.768 µm (high), respectively. The measured thermal contact conductance of all thin films showed linear properties for applied pressure and very close to the values of theoretical model. High value in thermal contact conductance of about 256 W/m2 K was noticed with CrN thin film at 1100 kPa. The percentage of deviation for our measured contact conductance value from the theoretical model value was decreasing for the increased contact pressure and observed low value (7 pct) for CrN thin film at 1100 kPa. The thermal conductivity of all thin films was also calculated from the conductance model and observed high value (19.34 W/mK) with CrN thin film.

  10. Pharmacological inhibition of calpain-1 prevents red cell dehydration and reduces Gardos channel activity in a mouse model of sickle cell disease

    PubMed Central

    De Franceschi, Lucia; Franco, Robert S.; Bertoldi, Mariarita; Brugnara, Carlo; Matté, Alessandro; Siciliano, Angela; Wieschhaus, Adam J.; Chishti, Athar H.; Joiner, Clinton H.

    2013-01-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a globally distributed hereditary red blood cell (RBC) disorder. One of the hallmarks of SCD is the presence of circulating dense RBCs, which are important in SCD-related clinical manifestations. In human dense sickle cells, we found reduced calpastatin activity and protein expression compared to either healthy RBCs or unfractionated sickle cells, suggesting an imbalance between activator and inhibitor of calpain-1 in favor of activator in dense sickle cells. Calpain-1 is a nonlysosomal cysteine proteinase that modulates multiple cell functions through the selective cleavage of proteins. To investigate the relevance of this observation in vivo, we evaluated the effects of the orally active inhibitor of calpain-1, BDA-410 (30 mg/kg/d), on RBCs from SAD mice, a mouse model for SCD. In SAD mice, BDA-410 improved RBC morphology, reduced RBC density (D20; from 1106±0.001 to 1100±0.001 g/ml; P<0.05) and increased RBC-K+ content (from 364±10 to 429±12.3 mmol/kg Hb; P<0.05), markedly reduced the activity of the Ca2+-activated K+channel (Gardos channel), and decreased membrane association of peroxiredoxin-2. The inhibitory effect of calphostin C, a specific inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC), on the Gardos channel was eliminated after BDA-410 treatment, which suggests that calpain-1 inhibition affects the PKC-dependent fraction of the Gardos channel. BDA-410 prevented hypoxia-induced RBC dehydration and K+ loss in SAD mice. These data suggest a potential role of BDA-410 as a novel therapeutic agent for treatment of SCD.—De Franceschi, L., Franco, R. S., Bertoldi, M., Brugnara, C., Matté, A., Siciliano, A., Wieschhaus, A. J., Chishti, A. H., Joiner, C. H. Pharmacological inhibition of calpain-1 prevents red cell dehydration and reduces Gardos channel activity in a mouse model of sickle cell disease. PMID:23085996

  11. Energy Saving Method of Manufacturing Ceramic Products from Fiber Glass Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Michael J. Haun

    2005-07-15

    The U.S. fiber glass industry disposes of more than 260,000 tons of industrial fiber glass waste in landfills annually. New technology is needed to reprocess this industrial waste into useful products. A low-cost energy-saving method of manufacturing ceramic tile from fiber glass waste was developed. The technology is based on sintering fiber glass waste at 700-900 degrees C to produce products which traditionally require firing temperatures of >1200 degrees C, or glass-melting temperatures >1500 degrees C. The process also eliminates other energy intensive processing steps, including mining and transportation of raw materials, spray-drying to produce granulated powder, drying pressed tile, and glazing. The technology completely transforms fiber glass waste into a dense ceramic product, so that all future environmental problems in the handling and disposal of the fibers is eliminated. The processing steps were developed and optimized to produce glossy and matte surface finishes for wall and floor tile applications. High-quality prototype tile samples were processed for demonstration and tile standards testing. A Market Assessment confirmed the market potential for tile products produced by the technology. Manufacturing equipment trials were successfully conducted for each step of the process. An industrial demonstration plant was designed, including equipment and operating cost analysis. A fiber glass manufacturer was selected as an industrial partner to commercialize the technology. A technology development and licensing agreement was completed with the industrial partner. Haun labs will continue working to transfer the technology and assist the industrial partner with commercialization beyond the DOE project.

  12. A Case-Only Study of Vulnerability to Heat Wave–Related Mortality in New York City (2000–2011)

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Kazuhiko; Johnson, Sarah; Kinney, Patrick L.; Matte, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background As a result of climate change, the frequency of extreme temperature events is expected to increase, and such events are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Vulnerability patterns, and corresponding adaptation strategies, are most usefully conceptualized at a local level. Methods We used a case-only analysis to examine subject and neighborhood characteristics that modified the association between heat waves and mortality. All deaths of New York City residents from 2000 through 2011 were included in this analysis. Meteorological data were obtained from the National Climatic Data Center. Modifying characteristics were obtained from the death record and geographic data sets. Results A total of 234,042 adult deaths occurred during the warm season of our study period. Compared with other warm-season days, deaths during heat waves were more likely to occur in black (non-Hispanic) individuals than other race/ethnicities [odds ratio (OR) = 1.08; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.12], more likely to occur at home than in institutions and hospital settings (OR = 1.11; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.16), and more likely among those living in census tracts that received greater public assistance (OR = 1.05; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.09). Finally, deaths during heat waves were more likely among residents in areas of the city with higher relative daytime summer surface temperature and less likely among residents living in areas with more green space. Conclusion Mortality during heat waves varies widely within a city. Understanding which individuals and neighborhoods are most vulnerable can help guide local preparedness efforts. Citation Madrigano J, Ito K, Johnson S, Kinney PL, Matte T. 2015. A case-only study of vulnerability to heat wave–related mortality in New York City (2000–2011). Environ Health Perspect 123:672–678; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408178 PMID:25782056

  13. Differential processing of binocular and monocular gloss cues in human visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hua-Chun; Di Luca, Massimiliano; Ban, Hiroshi; Muryy, Alexander; Fleming, Roland W; Welchman, Andrew E

    2016-06-01

    The visual impression of an object's surface reflectance ("gloss") relies on a range of visual cues, both monocular and binocular. Whereas previous imaging work has identified processing within ventral visual areas as important for monocular cues, little is known about cortical areas involved in processing binocular cues. Here, we used human functional MRI (fMRI) to test for brain areas selectively involved in the processing of binocular cues. We manipulated stereoscopic information to create four conditions that differed in their disparity structure and in the impression of surface gloss that they evoked. We performed multivoxel pattern analysis to find areas whose fMRI responses allow classes of stimuli to be distinguished based on their depth structure vs. material appearance. We show that higher dorsal areas play a role in processing binocular gloss information, in addition to known ventral areas involved in material processing, with ventral area lateral occipital responding to both object shape and surface material properties. Moreover, we tested for similarities between the representation of gloss from binocular cues and monocular cues. Specifically, we tested for transfer in the decoding performance of an algorithm trained on glossy vs. matte objects defined by either binocular or by monocular cues. We found transfer effects from monocular to binocular cues in dorsal visual area V3B/kinetic occipital (KO), suggesting a shared representation of the two cues in this area. These results indicate the involvement of mid- to high-level visual circuitry in the estimation of surface material properties, with V3B/KO potentially playing a role in integrating monocular and binocular cues. PMID:26912596

  14. Substantially higher prevalence of postoperative peri-prosthetic fractures in octogenarians with hip fractures operated with a cemented, polished tapered stem rather than an anatomic stem.

    PubMed

    Mukka, Sebastian; Mellner, Carl; Knutsson, Björn; Sayed-Noor, Arkan; Sköldenberg, Olof

    2016-06-01

    Background and purpose - Recent studies have demonstrated a high incidence of postoperative periprosthetic femoral fracture (PPF) in elderly patients treated with 2 commonly used cemented, polished tapered stems. We compared the prevalence and incidence rate of PPF in a consecutive cohort of octagenerians with femoral neck fractures (FNFs) treated with either a collarless, polished tapered (CPT) stem or an anatomic matte stem (Lubinus SP2). Patients and methods - In a multicenter, prospective cohort study, we included 979 hips in patients aged 80 years and above (72% females, median age 86 (80-102) years) with a femoral neck fracture as indication for surgery. 69% of the patients were classified as ASA class 3 or 4. Hip-related complications and repeat surgery were assessed at a median follow-up of 20 (0-24) months postoperatively. Results - 22 hips (2.2%) sustained a PPF at a median of 7 (0-22) months postoperatively; 14 (64%) were Vancouver B2 fractures. 7 of the 22 surgically treated fractures required revision surgery, mainly due to deep infection. The cumulative incidence of PPFs was 3.8% in the CPT group, as compared with 0.2% in the SP2 group (p < 0.001). The risk ratio (RR) was 16 (95% CI: 2-120) using the SP2 group as denominator. Interpretation - The CPT stem was associated with a higher risk of PPF than the SP2 stem. We suggest that the tapered CPT stem should not be used for the treatment of femoral neck fractures in patients over 80 years. PMID:27045318

  15. Expression of IL-21 in rats with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Mao, J N; Shen, Y S; Luo, X Y; Zhi, Y L

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of interleukin (IL)-21 in rats with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Fifty adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: DSS, in which IBD was induced by giving the rats 7% DSS for seven days in their water, and a water control. Blood samples were collected and the concentration of IL-21 in serum was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Colon tissue of rats was examined by immunohistochemical staining. Rats in the DSS group were lethargic, with matte coat color and decreasing body weight. In the DSS group, brown loss stool appeared after four days, and blood appeared in the stool along with dark red hematocele in the intestinal cavity after ten days. Rats in the control group were active and body weight increased regularly. Their stool was black and granular and the color of the intestinal canal was pink. The original body weight of all rats in both groups was similar but seven days after induction of IBD, the weight of the DSS rats dropped significantly compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Serum IL-21 levels were 1.37 ± 0.43 pg/mL in the control group and 3.86 ± 1.27 pg/mL in the DSS group (P < 0.05). More IL-21 positive cells were detected in the intestinal mucosal epithelial cell layer and the lamina propria of the submucosa in the DSS group than in the control group. In conclusion, IL-21 is involved in the pathological process of IBD. PMID:26681227

  16. Ferromagnetic/Superconducting Multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bader, S. D.

    1998-03-01

    Although it is well known that magnetism influences superconductivity, the converse issue has been less well explored. Recent theoretical predictions for ferromagnetic/ superconducting/ ferromagnetic trilayers exhibiting interlayer magnetic coupling in the normal state indicate that the coupling should be suppressed below the superconducting transition temperature.(C.A. R. Sá de Melo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79), 1933 (1997); O. Sipr, B.L. Györffy, J. Phys. Cond. Matt. 7, 5239 (1995). To realize such a situation, a requirement (when the magnetic layers are thick) is that the superconducting layer thickness must simultaneously be less than the range over which the magnetic interlayer coupling decays, but greater than the superconducting coherence length. This introduces serious materials constraints. The present work describes initial explorations of three sputtered multilayer systems in an attempt to observe coupling of the ferromagnetic layers across a superconducting spacer:((a) J.E. Mattson, R.M. Osgood III, C.D. Potter, C.H. Sowers, and S.D. Bader, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15), 1774 (1997); (b) J.E. Mattson, C.D. Potter, M.J. Conover, C.H. Sowers, and S.D. Bader, Phys. Rev. B 55, 70 (1997), and (c) R.M. Osgood III, J.E. Pearson, C.H. Sowers, and S.D. Bader, submitted (1997). (a) Ni/Nb, (b) Fe_4N/NbN, and (c) GdN/NbN. In these systems we have retained thinner superconducting layers than had been achieved previously, but interlayer magnetic coupling is not observed even in the normal state. For Ni/Nb the interfacial Ni loses its moment, which also reduces the superconducting pair-breaking. GdN is an insulating ferromagnet, so itinerancy is sacrificed, and, probably as a result of this, no coupling is observed. Each system gives rise to interesting and anisotropic superconducting properties. Thus, although the goal remains elusive, our search highlights the challenges and opportunities.

  17. Intensity-value corrections for integrating sphere measurements of solid samples measured behind glass.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Timothy J; Bernacki, Bruce E; Redding, Rebecca L; Su, Yin-Fong; Brauer, Carolyn S; Myers, Tanya L; Stephan, Eric G

    2014-01-01

    Accurate and calibrated directional-hemispherical reflectance spectra of solids are important for both in situ and remote sensing. Many solids are in the form of powders or granules and to measure their diffuse reflectance spectra in the laboratory, it is often necessary to place the samples behind a transparent medium such as glass for the ultraviolet (UV), visible, or near-infrared spectral regions. Using both experimental methods and a simple optical model, we demonstrate that glass (fused quartz in our case) leads to artifacts in the reflectance values. We report our observations that the measured reflectance values, for both hemispherical and diffuse reflectance, are distorted by the additional reflections arising at the air-quartz and sample-quartz interfaces. The values are dependent on the sample reflectance and are offset in intensity in the hemispherical case, leading to measured values up to ~6% too high for a 2% reflectance surface, ~3.8% too high for 10% reflecting surfaces, approximately correct for 40-60% diffuse-reflecting surfaces, and ~1.5% too low for 99% reflecting Spectralon® surfaces. For the case of diffuse-only reflectance, the measured values are uniformly too low due to the polished glass, with differences of nearly 6% for a 99% reflecting matte surface. The deviations arise from the added reflections from the quartz surfaces, as verified by both theory and experiment, and depend on sphere design. Empirical correction factors were implemented into post-processing software to redress the artifact for hemispherical and diffuse reflectance data across the 300-2300 nm range. PMID:25280186

  18. Shock wave propagation in glow discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguly, B. N.

    1998-10-01

    The modification of acoustic shock wave propagation characteristics in a 25 cm long positive column low pressure (10 to 50 Torr), low current density (2 to 10 mA/cm^2) argon and N2 dc discharges have been measured by laser beam deflection technique. The simultaneous multi point shock velocity, dispersion and damping have been measured both inside and outside the glow discharge region. The local shock velocity is found to increase with the increased propagation path length through the discharge; for Mach number greater than 1.7 the upstream velocity exceeded the downstream velocity in contrast to the opposite behavior in neutral gas. The damping and dispersion are also dependent on the propagation distance. The recovery of the shock dispersion and damping in the post discharge region, for a given discharge condition, are functions of the initial Mach number. The optical measurement of the wall and the gas (rotational) temperatures suggest the observed shock features can not be solely explained by the gas heating in a self sustained discharge. The results are similar for both Ar and N2 discharges showing that vibrational excitation and relaxation are not essential^1. The explanation of the observed weak shock propagation properties in a glow discharge appears to require long range cooperative interactions that enhance heavy particle collisional energy transfer rates for the measured discharge conditions. Unlike collisional shock wave propagation in highly ionized plasmas^2,3, the exact energy coupling mechanism between the nonequilibrium weakly ionized plasma and shock is not understood. 1. A.I. Osipov and A.V. Uvarov, Sov. Phys. Usp. 35, 903 (1992) and other references there in. 2. M. Casanova, O. Larroche and J-P Matte, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2143 (1991). 3. M.C.M. van de Sanden, R. van den Bercken and D.C. Schram, Plasma Sources Sci.Technol. 3, 511 (1994).

  19. The Viscous Behavior of FeOt-Al2O3-SiO2 Copper Smelting Slags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyun-Shik; Park, Su Sang; Sohn, Il

    2011-08-01

    Understanding the viscous behavior of copper smelting slags is essential in increasing the process efficiency and obtaining the discrete separation between the matte and the slag. The viscosity of the FeOt-SiO2-Al2O3 copper smelting slags was measured in the current study using the rotating spindle method. The viscosity at a fixed Al2O3 concentration decreased with increasing Fe/SiO2 ratio because of the depolymerization of the molten slag by the network-modifying free oxygen ions (O2-) supplied by FeO. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analyses of the slag samples with increasing Fe/SiO2 ratio revealed that the amount of large silicate sheets decreased, whereas the amount of simpler silicate structures increased. Al2O3 additions to the ternary FeOt-SiO2-Al2O3 slag system at a fixed Fe/SiO2 ratio showed a characteristic V-shaped pattern, where initial additions decreased the viscosity, reached a minimum, and increased subsequently with higher Al2O3 content. The effect of Al2O3 was considered to be related to the amphoteric behavior of Al2O3, where Al2O3 initially behaves as a basic oxide and changes to an acidic oxide with variation in slag composition. Furthermore, Al2O3 additions also resulted in the high temperature phase change between fayalite/hercynite and the modification of the liquidus temperature with Al2O3 additions affecting the viscosity of the copper smelting slag.

  20. The Late Glacial Chronology from Lake Suigestu: A new approach to varve interpolation using frequency distributions of annual sub-layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlolaut, Gordon; Marshall, Michael; Brauer, Achim; Nakagawa, Takeshi; Lamb, Henry; Staff, Richard; Bronk Ramsey, Christopher; Brock, Fiona; Bryant, Charlotte; 2006 Project Members, Suigetsu

    2010-05-01

    by neighbouring sections or by subjective interpretation. Sedimentation rates are calculated from the independent varve counts and are then combined. The application of these sedimentation rates (combined and independent) to the raw counts yields a varve count synthesis as well as an error estimate for the age model. Comparison of the varve count synthesis with the Late Glacial radiocarbon dates calibrated using Intcal04 (Reimer et al. 2004) and Fairbanks et al. (2005) shows a good agreement between the chronologies. Reference: R.G. Fairbanks, R.A. Mortlock, T.-C. Chiu, L. Cao, A. Kaplan, T.P. Guilderson, T.W. Fairbanks, A.L. Bloom, P.M. Grootes, M.-J. Nadeau, (2005), Radiocarbon calibration curve spanning 0 to 50,000 years bp based on paired 230Th/234U/238U and 14C dates on pristine corals, Quaternary Science Reviews 24 H. Kitagawa, J. van der Plicht, (2000), Atmospheric radiocarbon calibration beyond 11,900 cal BP from Lake Suigetsu laminated sediments, Radiocarbon 42(3) P.J. Reimer, M.G.L. Baillie, E. Bard, A. Bayliss, J.W. Beck, C.J.H. Bertrand, P.G. Blackwell, C.E. Buck, G.S. Burr, K.B. Cutler, P.E. Damon, R.L. Edwards, R.G. Fairbanks, M. Friedrich, T.P. Guilderson, A.G. Hogg, K.A. Hughen, B. Kromer, G. McCormac, S. Manning, C. Bronk Ramsey, R.W. Reimer, S. Remmele, J.R. Southon, M. Stuiver, S. Talamo, F.W. Taylor, J. van der Plicht, C.E. Weyhenmeyer, (2004), IntCal04 terrestrial radiocarbon age calibration, 0-26 cal kyr bp, Radiocarbon 46(3) R.A. Staff, C. Bronk Ramsey, T. Nakagawa and Suigetsu 2006 Project members, (2009), A re-analysis of the Lake Suigetsu terrestrial radiocarbon calibration dataset, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B

  1. Especially for High School Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, J. Emory

    2000-01-01

    Ideas and Resources in This Issue This issue contains a broad spectrum of topics of potential interest to high school teachers, including chemical safety, history, demonstrations, laboratory activities, electrochemistry, small group learning, and instructional software. In his report on articles published recently in The Science Teacher, Steve Long includes annotated references from that journal, and also from JCE, that provide timely and practical information (pp 21-22). The chemical significance of several anniversaries that will occur in the year 2000 are discussed in an article by Paul Schatz (pp 11-14). Scientists and inventors mentioned include Dumas, Wöhler, Goodyear, Joliot-Curie, Krebs, Pauli, Kjeldahl, and Haworth. Several discoveries are also discussed, including development of the voltaic pile, the use of chlorine to purify water, and the discovery of element 97, berkelium. This is the fourth consecutive year that Schatz has written an anniversaries article (1-3). Although most readers probably do not plan to be teaching in the years 2097-3000, these articles can make a nice addition to your file of readily available historical information for use now in meeting NSES Content Standard G (4). In contrast to the short historical summaries, an in-depth account of the work of Herman Boerhaave is provided by Trinity School (NY) teacher Damon Diemente. You cannot recall having heard of Boerhaave? Diemente explains in detail how Boerhaave's scientific observations, imperfect though they were, contributed significantly to the understanding of temperature and heat by scientists who followed him. Chemical demonstrations attract the interest of most of us, and Kathy Thorsen discusses several that appeared in Chem 13 News during the past year (pp 18-20). Included are demonstrations relating to LeChâtelier's principle, electronegativity, and the synthesis and reactions of carbon monoxide. Ideas for investigating the hydrophobic nature of Magic Sand are given in JCE

  2. The effect of cyclical and severe heat stress on growth performance and metabolism in Afshari lambs.

    PubMed

    Mahjoubi, E; Yazdi, M Hossein; Aghaziarati, N; Noori, G R; Afsarian, O; Baumgard, L H

    2015-04-01

    The extent to which reduced feed intake contributes to decreased growth during heat stress (HS) in the ovine model is not clear. To evaluate the impact of decreased DMI on performance, we conducted an experiment on growing lambs experiencing a cyclical but extensive heat load. Sixteen intact male Afshari lambs (40.1 ± 1.9 kg) were used in a completely randomized design in 2 periods. In period 1, all 16 lambs were housed in thermal neutral (TN) conditions (22.2 ± 3.1°C and a temperature-humidity index [THI] of 67.9 ± 3.2) and fed at libitum for 8 d. In period 2 (P2), which lasted 9 d, 8 lambs were subjected to a cyclical HS condition (33.0 to 45.0°C and a THI of more than 80 at least for 24 h/d and more than 90 for 8 h/d). The other 8 lambs were maintained in TN conditions but pair-fed (pair-fed thermal neutral [PFTN]) to the HS lambs. During each period, DMI and water intake were measured daily. Respiration rate, rectal temperature, and skin temperature at the shoulder, rump, and front and rear leg were recorded at 0700 and 1400 h daily. Dry matte intake declined (17.5%; P < 0.01) in HS lambs and, by design, the temporal pattern and magnitude of reduced feed intake was similar in the PFTN controls. Water intake increased (19%; P < 0.05) during P2 in HS but not in the PFTN controls. Heat stress increased the 0700 and 1400 h skin temperature at the shoulder (5 and 9.2%), rump (6.2 and 10.3%), rear (6 and 9.2%), and front leg (6.5 and 9.8%) and respiratory rates (84 and 163% [P < 0.01]at 0700 and 1400 h, respectfully), but only the 1400 h rectal temperature was increased (P < 0.01; 0.65°C) in HS lambs. Neither environment nor period affected blood urea nitrogen and glucose concentrations. However, circulating NEFA and insulin were increased and declined (P < 0.01) in PFTN lambs, respectively, but neither variable was altered in the HS lambs. Growth was reduced in P2 for lambs in both treatments, but despite being on a similar reduced plane of nutrition, the HS

  3. Ambient Fine Particulate Matter, Nitrogen Dioxide, and Preterm Birth in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Sarah; Bobb, Jennifer F.; Ito, Kazuhiko; Savitz, David A.; Elston, Beth; Shmool, Jessie L.C.; Dominici, Francesca; Ross, Zev; Clougherty, Jane E.; Matte, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have suggested associations between air pollution and various birth outcomes, but the evidence for preterm birth is mixed. Objective: We aimed to assess the relationship between air pollution and preterm birth using 2008–2010 New York City (NYC) birth certificates linked to hospital records. Methods: We analyzed 258,294 singleton births with 22–42 completed weeks gestation to nonsmoking mothers. Exposures to ambient fine particles (PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) during the first, second, and cumulative third trimesters within 300 m of maternal address were estimated using data from the NYC Community Air Survey and regulatory monitors. We estimated the odds ratio (OR) of spontaneous preterm (gestation < 37 weeks) births for the first- and second-trimester exposures in a logistic mixed model, and the third-trimester cumulative exposures in a discrete time survival model, adjusting for maternal characteristics and delivery hospital. Spatial and temporal components of estimated exposures were also separately analyzed. Results: PM2.5 was not significantly associated with spontaneous preterm birth. NO2 in the second trimester was negatively associated with spontaneous preterm birth in the adjusted model (OR = 0.90; 95% CI: 0.83, 0.97 per 20 ppb). Neither pollutant was significantly associated with spontaneous preterm birth based on adjusted models of temporal exposures, whereas the spatial exposures showed significantly reduced odds ratios (OR = 0.80; 95% CI: 0.67, 0.96 per 10 μg/m3 PM2.5 and 0.88; 95% CI: 0.79, 0.98 per 20 ppb NO2). Without adjustment for hospital, these negative associations were stronger. Conclusion: Neither PM2.5 nor NO2 was positively associated with spontaneous preterm delivery in NYC. Delivery hospital was an important spatial confounder. Citation: Johnson S, Bobb JF, Ito K, Savitz DA, Elston B, Shmool JL, Dominici F, Ross Z, Clougherty JE, Matte T. 2016. Ambient fine particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, and

  4. Time-resolved infrared reflectance studies of the dehydration-induced transformation of uranyl nitrate hexahydrate to the trihydrate form

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Johnson, Timothy J.; Sweet, Lucas E.; Meier, David E.; Edward J. Mausolf; Kim, Eunja; Weck, Philippe F.; Buck, Edgar C.; Bruce K. McNamara

    2015-09-08

    Uranyl nitrate is a key species in the nuclear fuel cycle. However, this species is known to exist in different states of hydration, including the hexahydrate ([UO2(NO3)2(H2O)6] often called UNH), the trihydrate [UO2(NO3)2(H2O)3 or UNT], and in very dry environments the dihydrate form [UO2(NO3)2(H2O)2]. Their relative stabilities depend on both water vapor pressure and temperature. In the 1950s and 1960s, the different phases were studied by infrared transmission spectroscopy but were limited both by instrumental resolution and by the ability to prepare the samples for transmission. We have revisited this problem using time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy, which requires no sample preparationmore » and allows dynamic analysis while the sample is exposed to a flow of N2 gas. Samples of known hydration state were prepared and confirmed via X-ray diffraction patterns of known species. In reflectance mode the hexahydrate UO2(NO3)2(H2O)6 has a distinct uranyl asymmetric stretch band at 949.0 cm–1 that shifts to shorter wavelengths and broadens as the sample desiccates and recrystallizes to the trihydrate, first as a shoulder growing in on the blue edge but ultimately results in a doublet band with reflectance peaks at 966 and 957 cm–1. The data are consistent with transformation from UNH to UNT as UNT has two inequivalent UO22+ sites. The dehydration of UO2(NO3)2(H2O)6 to UO2(NO3)2(H2O)3 is both a structural and morphological change that has the lustrous lime green UO2(NO3)2(H2O)6 crystals changing to the matte greenish yellow of the trihydrate solid. As a result, the phase transformation and crystal structures were confirmed by density functional theory calculations and optical microscopy methods, both of which showed a transformation with two distinct sites for the uranyl cation in the trihydrate, with only one in the hexahydrate.« less

  5. An enhanced feature set for pattern recognition based contrast enhancement of contact-less captured latent fingerprints in digitized crime scene forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildebrandt, Mario; Kiltz, Stefan; Dittmann, Jana; Vielhauer, Claus

    2014-02-01

    In crime scene forensics latent fingerprints are found on various substrates. Nowadays primarily physical or chemical preprocessing techniques are applied for enhancing the visibility of the fingerprint trace. In order to avoid altering the trace it has been shown that contact-less sensors offer a non-destructive acquisition approach. Here, the exploitation of fingerprint or substrate properties and the utilization of signal processing techniques are an essential requirement to enhance the fingerprint visibility. However, especially the optimal sensory is often substrate-dependent. An enhanced generic pattern recognition based contrast enhancement approach for scans of a chromatic white light sensor is introduced in Hildebrandt et al.1 using statistical, structural and Benford's law2 features for blocks of 50 micron. This approach achieves very good results for latent fingerprints on cooperative, non-textured, smooth substrates. However, on textured and structured substrates the error rates are very high and the approach thus unsuitable for forensic use cases. We propose the extension of the feature set with semantic features derived from known Gabor filter based exemplar fingerprint enhancement techniques by suggesting an Epsilon-neighborhood of each block in order to achieve an improved accuracy (called fingerprint ridge orientation semantics). Furthermore, we use rotation invariant Hu moments as an extension of the structural features and two additional preprocessing methods (separate X- and Y Sobel operators). This results in a 408-dimensional feature space. In our experiments we investigate and report the recognition accuracy for eight substrates, each with ten latent fingerprints: white furniture surface, veneered plywood, brushed stainless steel, aluminum foil, "Golden-Oak" veneer, non-metallic matte car body finish, metallic car body finish and blued metal. In comparison to Hildebrandt et al.,1 our evaluation shows a significant reduction of the error rates

  6. Radiation damage effects in zircon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trachenko, Kostya; Dove, Martin; Salje, Ekhard

    2002-03-01

    Zircon, ZrSiO_4, is important for geology and geochronology, and has been proposed as a host material to immobilize highly radioactive materials from dismantled weapons and nuclear waste from power stations [1]. In these applications zircon is exposed to alpha-irradiation. Computer simulations have started to be employed to simulate radiation damage in zircon [2], but the origin and microscopic mechanisms of the most important structural changes in zircon - unit cell expansion and large macroscopic swelling at higher doses, strong shear deformation of the crystalline lattice, and polymerization of SiOn units [3], remain unknown. Here, we perform the molecular dynamics simulation of highly energetic recoils in zircon. Basing on the simulation results, we propose the simple picture of the density change in the damaged region that consists of the depleted and densified matter. We find that the experimentally observed structural changes originate from the interaction of the damaged region with the surrounding crystalline lattice: the shear of the lattice around the damaged region causes shear deformation and expansion of the unit cells. The polymers of connected SiOn polyhedra are most commonly present in the densified shell at the periphery of the damaged region. [1] R C Ewing et al, J. Mater. Res. 10, 243 (1995); W J Weber et al, B E Burakov et al, in Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management XIX, 25-32 and 33-40 (Plenum, New York, 1996); R C Ewing, et al in Crystalline Ceramics: Waste Forms for the Disposal of Weapons Plutonium, NATO Workshop Proceedings 65 (Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1996). [2] B Park et al, Phys. Rev. B, 64, 174108 (1-16) (2001); J P Crocombette and D Ghaleb, J. Nucl. Mater., 295, 167 (2001); K Trachenko et al, J. Appl. Phys., 87, 7702 (2000); K Trachenko et al, J. Phys.: Cond. Matt., 13, 1947 (2001). [3] T Murakami et al, Am. Min., 76, 1510 (1991); H D Holland and D Gottfried, Acta Cryst. 8, 291 (1955).; W J Weber, J. Am

  7. Angular momentum evolution during star and planetary system formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Claire L.; Greaves, Jane S.

    2014-01-01

    We focused on analysing the role played by protoplanetary disks in the evolution of angular momentum during star formation. If all the angular momentum contained within collapsing pre-stellar cores was conserved during their formation, proto-stars would reach rotation rates exceeding their break-up velocities before they reached the main sequence (Bodenheimer 1995). In order to avoid this occuring, methods by which proto-stars can lose angular momentum must exist. Angular momentum can be transferred from star to disk via stellar magnetic field lines through a process called magnetic braking (Camenzind 1990; Königl 1991). Alternatively, the stellar angular momentum can be lost from the star-disk system entirely via stellar- or disk-winds (e.g. Pelletier & Pudritz 1992; Matt & Pudritz 2005). The proportion of lost stellar angular momentum retained within the protoplanetary disk is important to studies of planetary system formation. If the bulk motion within the disk remains Keplerian, any increase of angular momentum in the disk causes an outward migration of disk material and an expansion of the disk. Therefore, an increase in disk angular momentum may cause a reduction in the disk surface density, often used to indicate the disk's ability to form planets. We made use of multi-wavelength data available in the literature to directly calculate the stellar and disk angular momenta for two nearby regions of star formation. Namely, these were the densely populated and highly irradiated Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC) and the comparitively sparse Taurus-Auriga region. Due to the limited size of the ONC dataset, we produced an average surface density profile for the region. We modelled the stars as solid body rotators due to their fully convective nature (Krishnamurthi et al. 1997) and assumed the disks are flat and undergo Keplerian rotation about the same rotation axis as the star. We observed the older disks within each of the two star forming regions to be preferentially

  8. Emerging technologies in extraction and processing of metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Ramana G.

    2003-04-01

    The growing need to conserve energy and materials and prevent environmental pollution led to an increased demand for better understanding of potential as well as existing processes. In this context, thermodynamic and transport modeling of materials and processes provides a rapid and cost-effective means of conducting and minimizing the complexity of experimental investigations and developing innovative and environmentally friendly metallurgical processes. This presentation concentrates on some fundamentals on new technologies as extractive metallurgy of copper, lead, aluminum, and other nonferrous metals and processing of nanocomposites. The newer routes of copper smelting and modeling of impurities in copper and lead slags and mattes are reviewed. The copper smelting capacity increased by a factor of 10 during the last three decades, the smelting rate increased by a factor of 6, and the process fuel equivalent decreased by a factor of 2. The a priori prediction, with no adjustable parameters, of impurity capacities of S and As in copper slags and S in lead slags, based on the Reddy-Blander model, is reviewed. Excellent agreement between the model-predicted capacities data and laboratory experimental and industrial data was observed. The model is an invaluable tool for optimization of process parameters in the efficient removal of impurities from the nonferrous-metals smelting and refining processes. A new in-situ processing technology for the production of a lightweight alloy matrix with ceramic particle reinforcements such as SiC in aluminum alloy matrix composites by bubbling reactive gas is reviewed. Thermal plasma processing of a nanoscale aluminum alloy matrix with TiC and TiN composites is discussed. The in-situ formed reinforcements are thermodynamically stable, and the composite particles are of uniform size. The optimum process parameters for the production of composite powders by thermal plasma are discussed. A low-temperature aluminum production and

  9. Geometric validation of MV topograms for patient localization on TomoTherapy.

    PubMed

    Blanco Kiely, Janid P; White, Benjamin M; Low, Daniel A; Qi, Sharon X

    2016-01-21

    Our goal was to geometrically validate the use of mega-voltage orthogonal scout images (MV topograms) as a fast and low-dose alternative to mega-voltage computed tomography (MVCT) for daily patient localization on the TomoTherapy system. To achieve this, anthropomorphic head and pelvis phantoms were imaged on a 16-slice kilo-voltage computed tomography (kVCT) scanner to synthesize kilo-voltage digitally reconstructed topograms (kV-DRT) in the Tomotherapy detector geometry. MV topograms were generated for couch speeds of 1-4 cm s(-1) in 1 cm s(-1) increments with static gantry angles in the anterior-posterior and left-lateral directions. Phantoms were rigidly translated in the anterior-posterior (AP), superior-inferior (SI), and lateral (LAT) directions to simulate potential setup errors. Image quality improvement was demonstrated by estimating the noise level in the unenhanced and enhanced MV topograms using a principle component analysis-based noise level estimation algorithm. Average noise levels for the head phantom were reduced by 2.53 HU (AP) and 0.18 HU (LAT). The pelvis phantom exhibited average noise level reduction of 1.98 HU (AP) and 0.48 HU (LAT). Mattes Mutual Information rigid registration was used to register enhanced MV topograms with corresponding kV-DRT. Registration results were compared to the known rigid displacements, which assessed the MV topogram localization's sensitivity to daily positioning errors. Reduced noise levels in the MV topograms enhanced the registration results so that registration errors were <1 mm. The unenhanced head MV topograms had discrepancies < 2.1 mm and the pelvis topograms had discrepancies < 2.7 mm. Result were found to be consistent regardless of couch speed. In total, 64.7% of the head phantom MV topograms and 60.0% of the pelvis phantom MV topograms exactly measured the phantom offsets. These consistencies demonstrated the potential for daily patient positioning using MV topogram pairs in the context bony

  10. Angular Momentum Evolution in Young Low Mass Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinzón, G.; de La Reza, R.

    2006-06-01

    During the last decades, the study of rotation in young low mass stars has been one of the more active areas in the field of stellar evolution. Many theoretical efforts have been made to understand the angular momentum evolution and our picture now, reveals the main role of the stellar magnetic field in all pre-main sequence stage (Ghosh & Lamb 1979, ApJ, 234, 296; Cameron & Campbell 1993, A&A, 274, 309; Cameron & Campbell 1995, A&A, 298, 133; Kúker, Henning, & Rúdiger 2003, ApJ, 589, 397; Matt & Pudritz 2005, MNRAS, 356, 167). The mean rotation of most of the cool low mass stars remains roughly constant during the T Tauri stage. This can be explained by the disc locking scenario. This paradigm suggest that star start out as CTTS with periods of 4-14 days, perhaps locked to their disc, and that this disc is eventually lost mainly by accretion. At the current time, it is not clear that this is true for all low mass stars. Some authors have questioned its validity for stars less massive than 0.5 solar masses. Although the reality may eventually turn out to be considerably more complex, a simple consideration of the effects of and limits on disc locking of young low mass stars seems necessary.We have investigated the exchange of angular momentum between a low mass star and an accretion disc during the Hayashi Track (Pinzón, Kúker, & de la Reza 2005, in preparation) and also along the first 100Myr of stellar evolution. The model incorporates changes in the star's moment of inertia, magnetic field strength (Elstner & Rúdiger 2000, A&A, 358, 612), angular momentum loss by a magnetic wind and an exponential decrease of the accretion rate. The lifetime of the accretion disc is a free parameter in our model. The resulting rotation rates are in agreement with observed vsin and photometric periods for young stars belonging to co-moving groups and open young clusters.

  11. Electronic distractions of the respiratory therapist and their impact on patient safety.

    PubMed

    Papadakos, Peter J

    2014-08-01

    Over the last decade, data from the lay press, government agencies, and the business world have identified ever-growing problems with electronic distraction and changes in human relationships in this electronically interconnected planet. As health professionals, we are well aware of the epidemic growth of injuries and deaths related to texting and driving. It should not surprise us that this distracted behavior has affected all levels of health-care providers and has impacted patient care. This advent of “distracted doctoring” was first coined by the Pulitzer Prize-winning correspondent Matt Richtel in a landmark article in the New York Times, “As doctors use more devices, potential for distraction grows.” This article was a flashpoint for professional organizations to reflect on this change in behavior and how it will impact patient safety and how we relate to patients. The explosion in technology (both personnel and hospital-based), coupled with a rapid social shift, creates an environment that constantly tempts health-care workers to surf the internet, check social media outlets, or respond to e-mails. Studies and commentaries in the medical literature only support how this is a growing problem in patient safety and may both increase medical errors and affects costs and the way we relate to patients and fellow staff. The Emergency Care Research Institute (ECRI) released its annual list of technology hazards for 2013, and three ring true for United States caregivers: distractions from smartphones and mobile devices, alarm hazards, and patient/data mismatches in electronic medical records and other health IT systems, all being in the top 10. How do we begin to address these new technological threats to our patients? First and foremost, we accept that this problem exists. We begin by educating our students and staff that this electronic explosion affects our behavior through addiction and the environment within our hospital through the use of electronic

  12. Block-like motion of Tibetan Plateau: Evidences from active faults , GPS velocities and recent earthquake slips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, X.; Cheng, J.

    2012-12-01

    Collision of India with Eurasia during the past ~ 55 million years has created the high Tibetan Plateau with a flat interior at an average altitude of ~ 5000 m (Matte et al., 1996; Tapponnier et al., 1986, 2001). Two alternative end-member models of how the Tibetan Plateau formed have been proposed: (1) continuous thickening and widespread viscous channel flow of the crust and mantle of the entire plateau (e. g. Bai et al., 2011; Beaumont et al., 2001; Bendick and Flesch, 2007; Clark and Royden, 2000; Houseman and England, 1996; Royden et al., 1997; Shen F. et al., 2001; Zhang et al., 2004; Bai et al., 2010), and (2) time-dependent, localized shear between coherent lithospheric blocks (e. g. Avouac and Tapponnier, 1993; Peltzer and Saucier, 1996; Replumaz and Tapponnier, 2003; Ryerson et al., 2006; Tapponnier et al., 2001; Thatcher, 2007). A new 3-D mechanical model, in which the underthrust India and Tibet are strongly coupled, seems to explain spatial variation in faulting style, and to be inconsistent with channel-flow model for the southern Tibet (Copley et al., 2011). This 3-D model has placed important new constraints on mechanical behavior of the Tibetan lithosphere in its most extreme environment and forced a critical evaluation of the Tibetan channel flow models (Freymueller, 2011), but does not match details of the GPS velocity field, and underestimates the EW extension rate across the southern Tibet. More important is that the model approximates Tibet as a continuous medium, and cannot include localized slip on the mega-strike-slip fault systems, and thus cannot further discuss relationship among the eastward block-like motion, mega-strike-slip faults, normal faults and thrust faults in and around the Tibetan Plateau. It has been recognized for many years that GPS data are likely to be ultimately decisive in distinguishing between block-like and continuous models, at least for describing present-day deformation. Nonetheless, both block-like models and

  13. Final report on the key comparison CCPR-K5: Spectral diffuse reflectance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadal, Maria; Eckerle, Kenneth L.; Early, Edward A.; Ohno, Yoshi

    2013-01-01

    The CCPR K5 key comparison on spectral diffuse reflectance was carried out in the framework of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement, by 13 national metrology institutes (MMIs) as participants. The participants were CSIR-NML (South Africa), HUT (Finland), IFA-CSIC (Spain), KRISS (Republic of Korea), MSL (New Zealand), NIM (China), NIST (United States of America), NMIJ (Japan), NPL (United Kingdom), NRC (Canada), OMH (Hungary), PTB (Germany) and VNIIOFI (Russia Federation). NIST (USA) piloted the comparison. The aim of this comparison was to check the agreement of measurement of the spectral diffuse reflectance among participants, using the measurement geometry of d/0 or 0/d in the wavelength range of 360 nm to 820 nm at 20 nm increment. The comparison was a star type comparison with the samples provided by the pilot laboratory and with the measurement sequence: Pilot-Participant-Pilot. Spectralon and matte white ceramic tiles were used as the transfer standards. Each participant received three of each type of sample and at least one sample of each type was measured three times on three separate days, and the other two samples were measured once. The report presents the description of the measurement facilities, procedures and uncertainties of all the participants as well as the results of the comparison. Measurement results from the participants and their associated uncertainties were analyzed in accordance with the Guidelines for CCPR Key Comparison Report Preparation, using weighted mean with cut-off. For the calculation of the Key Comparison Reference Value (KCRV), as agreed by the participants, the data of both samples were used for the 460 nm to 820 nm region and only the data of the Spectralon samples were used in the spectral region of 360 nm to 440 nm. The unilateral degrees of equivalence (DoE) calculated for each participant are mostly consistent within the uncertainty (k = 2) of the DoE. This international comparison of spectral diffuse reflectance

  14. Numerical Simulations of Granular Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Derek C.; Michel, Patrick; Schwartz, Stephen R.; Ballouz, Ronald-Louis; Yu, Yang; Matsumura, Soko

    2014-11-01

    . Matt. 14, 363. [4] Schwartz, S.R. et al. 2013, Icarus 226, 67; [5] Schwartz, S.R. et al. 2014, P&SS, 10.1016/j.pss.2014.07.013; [6] Yu, Y. et al. 2014, Icarus, 10.1016/j.icarus.2014.07.027; [7] Matsumura, S. et al. 2014, MNRAS, 10.1093/mnras/stu1388.

  15. Correction of terrestrial LiDAR intensity channel using Oren-Nayar reflectance model: An application to lithological differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrea, Dario; Abellan, Antonio; Humair, Florian; Matasci, Battista; Derron, Marc-Henri; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2016-03-01

    Ground-based LiDAR has been traditionally used for surveying purposes via 3D point clouds. In addition to XYZ coordinates, an intensity value is also recorded by LiDAR devices. The intensity of the backscattered signal can be a significant source of information for various applications in geosciences. Previous attempts to account for the scattering of the laser signal are usually modelled using a perfect diffuse reflection. Nevertheless, experience on natural outcrops shows that rock surfaces do not behave as perfect diffuse reflectors. The geometry (or relief) of the scanned surfaces plays a major role in the recorded intensity values. Our study proposes a new terrestrial LiDAR intensity correction, which takes into consideration the range, the incidence angle and the geometry of the scanned surfaces. The proposed correction equation combines the classical radar equation for LiDAR with the bidirectional reflectance distribution function of the Oren-Nayar model. It is based on the idea that the surface geometry can be modelled by a relief of multiple micro-facets. This model is constrained by only one tuning parameter: the standard deviation of the slope angle distribution (σslope) of micro-facets. Firstly, a series of tests have been carried out in laboratory conditions on a 2 m2 board covered by black/white matte paper (perfect diffuse reflector) and scanned at different ranges and incidence angles. Secondly, other tests were carried out on rock blocks of different lithologies and surface conditions. Those tests demonstrated that the non-perfect diffuse reflectance of rock surfaces can be practically handled by the proposed correction method. Finally, the intensity correction method was applied to a real case study, with two scans of the carbonate rock outcrop of the Dents-du-Midi (Swiss Alps), to improve the lithological identification for geological mapping purposes. After correction, the intensity values are proportional to the intrinsic material reflectance

  16. High temperature oxidation of copper and copper aluminium alloys: Impact on furnace side wall cooling systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plascencia Barrera, Gabriel

    The high temperature oxidation behaviours of copper and dilute Cu-Al alloys were investigated. Experiments were carried out by: (i) Oxidizing under various oxygen potentials at different temperatures using a combined TG-DTA apparatus. (ii) Oxidizing in a muffle furnace (in air) at different temperatures for extended periods of time. The oxidation mechanisms were evaluated based upon the kinetic data obtained as well as by X-ray diffraction and microscopical (SEM and optical) analyses. It was found that oxidation of copper strongly depends on the temperature. Two distinct mechanisms were encountered. Between 300 and 500°C, the oxidation rate is controlled by lateral growth of the oxide on the metal surface, whereas between 600 and 1000°C oxidation is controlled by lattice diffusion of copper ions through the oxide scale. On the other hand, the partial pressure of oxygen only has a small effect on the oxidation of copper. Alloy oxidation is also dependent on the temperature. As temperature increases, more aluminium is required to protect copper from being oxidized. It was shown that if the amount of oxygen that dissolves in the alloy exceeds the solubility limit of oxygen in copper, an internal oxidation layer will develop, leading to the formation of a tarnishing scale. On the other hand if the oxygen content in the alloy lies below the solubility limit of oxygen in copper, no oxidation products will form since a tight protective alumina layer will form on the alloy surface. Surface phenomena may affect the oxidation behaviour of dilute Cu-Al alloys. Immersion tests in molten copper matte and copper converting slag, using laboratory scale cooling elements with various copper based materials, were conducted. Results from these tests showed that alloying copper with 3 to 4 wt% Al decreases the oxidation rate of pure copper by 4 orders of magnitude; however due to a significant drop in thermal conductivity, the ability to extract heat is compromised, leading to

  17. Sustainable Seas Student Intertidal Monitoring Project at Duxbury Reef in Bolinas, CA (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soave, K.; Dean, A.; Darakananda, K.; Ball, O.; Butti, C.; Yang, G.; Vetter, M.; Grimaldi, Z.

    2009-12-01

    Sustainable Seas Student Intertidal Monitoring Project at Duxbury Reef in Bolinas, CA Kathy Soave, Amy Dean, Olivia Ball, Karin Darakananda, Matt Vetter, Grant Yang, Charlotte Butti, Zoe Grimaldi The Sustainable Seas Student Monitoring Project at the Branson School in Ross, CA has monitored Duxbury Reef in Bolinas, CA since 1999, in cooperation with the Farallones Marine Sanctuary Association and the Gulf of Farallones National Marine Sanctuary. Goals of the project include: 1) To monitor the rocky intertidal habitat and develop a baseline database of invertebrates and algal density and abundance; 2) To contribute to the conservation of the rocky intertidal habitat through education of students and visitors about intertidal species and the requirements for maintaining a healthy, diverse intertidal ecosystem; 3) To increase stewardship in the Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary; and 4) To contribute abundance and population data on key algae and invertebrate species to the national database, LiMPETS (Long Term Monitoring Program & Experiential Training for Students). Student volunteers complete an intensive training course on the natural history of intertidal invertebrates and algae, identification of key species, rocky intertidal monitoring techniques, and history of the sanctuary. Students identify and count key invertebrate and algae species along two permanent transects (A and B) and using randomly determined points within a permanent 100 m2 area, three times per year (fall, winter, and late spring). Using the data collected since 2004, we will analyze the population densities, seasonal abundance and long-term population trends of key algal and invertebrate species. Future analyses and investigations will include intertidal abiotic factors (including water temperature and human foot-traffic) to enhance insights into the workings of the Duxbury Reef ecosystem, in particular, the high intertidal zone which experiences the greatest amount of human

  18. Geometric validation of MV topograms for patient localization on TomoTherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco Kiely, Janid P.; White, Benjamin M.; Low, Daniel A.; Qi, Sharon X.

    2016-01-01

    Our goal was to geometrically validate the use of mega-voltage orthogonal scout images (MV topograms) as a fast and low-dose alternative to mega-voltage computed tomography (MVCT) for daily patient localization on the TomoTherapy system. To achieve this, anthropomorphic head and pelvis phantoms were imaged on a 16-slice kilo-voltage computed tomography (kVCT) scanner to synthesize kilo-voltage digitally reconstructed topograms (kV-DRT) in the Tomotherapy detector geometry. MV topograms were generated for couch speeds of 1-4 cm s-1 in 1 cm s-1 increments with static gantry angles in the anterior-posterior and left-lateral directions. Phantoms were rigidly translated in the anterior-posterior (AP), superior-inferior (SI), and lateral (LAT) directions to simulate potential setup errors. Image quality improvement was demonstrated by estimating the noise level in the unenhanced and enhanced MV topograms using a principle component analysis-based noise level estimation algorithm. Average noise levels for the head phantom were reduced by 2.53 HU (AP) and 0.18 HU (LAT). The pelvis phantom exhibited average noise level reduction of 1.98 HU (AP) and 0.48 HU (LAT). Mattes Mutual Information rigid registration was used to register enhanced MV topograms with corresponding kV-DRT. Registration results were compared to the known rigid displacements, which assessed the MV topogram localization’s sensitivity to daily positioning errors. Reduced noise levels in the MV topograms enhanced the registration results so that registration errors were  <1 mm. The unenhanced head MV topograms had discrepancies  <2.1 mm and the pelvis topograms had discrepancies  <2.7 mm. Result were found to be consistent regardless of couch speed. In total, 64.7% of the head phantom MV topograms and 60.0% of the pelvis phantom MV topograms exactly measured the phantom offsets. These consistencies demonstrated the potential for daily patient positioning using MV topogram pairs in the

  19. Large-Scale Uncertainty and Error Analysis for Time-dependent Fluid/Structure Interactions in Wind Turbine Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, Juan J.; Iaccarino, Gianluca

    2013-08-25

    The following is the final report covering the entire period of this aforementioned grant, June 1, 2011 - May 31, 2013 for the portion of the effort corresponding to Stanford University (SU). SU has partnered with Sandia National Laboratories (PI: Mike S. Eldred) and Purdue University (PI: Dongbin Xiu) to complete this research project and this final report includes those contributions made by the members of the team at Stanford. Dr. Eldred is continuing his contributions to this project under a no-cost extension and his contributions to the overall effort will be detailed at a later time (once his effort has concluded) on a separate project submitted by Sandia National Laboratories. At Stanford, the team is made up of Profs. Alonso, Iaccarino, and Duraisamy, post-doctoral researcher Vinod Lakshminarayan, and graduate student Santiago Padron. At Sandia National Laboratories, the team includes Michael Eldred, Matt Barone, John Jakeman, and Stefan Domino, and at Purdue University, we have Prof. Dongbin Xiu as our main collaborator. The overall objective of this project was to develop a novel, comprehensive methodology for uncertainty quantification by combining stochastic expansions (nonintrusive polynomial chaos and stochastic collocation), the adjoint approach, and fusion with experimental data to account for aleatory and epistemic uncertainties from random variable, random field, and model form sources. The expected outcomes of this activity were detailed in the proposal and are repeated here to set the stage for the results that we have generated during the time period of execution of this project: 1. The rigorous determination of an error budget comprising numerical errors in physical space and statistical errors in stochastic space and its use for optimal allocation of resources; 2. A considerable increase in efficiency when performing uncertainty quantification with a large number of uncertain variables in complex non-linear multi-physics problems; 3. A

  20. Time-Resolved Infrared Reflectance Studies of the Dehydration-Induced Transformation of Uranyl Nitrate Hexahydrate to the Trihydrate Form

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Timothy J.; Sweet, Lucas E.; Meier, David E.; Mausolf, Edward J.; Kim, Eunja; Weck, Philippe F.; Buck, Edgar C.; McNamara, Bruce K.

    2015-10-01

    Uranyl nitrate is a key species in the nuclear fuel cycle. However, this species is known to exist in different states of hydration, including the hexahydrate ([UO2(NO3)2(H2O)6] often called UNH), the trihydrate [UO2(NO3)2(H2O)3 or UNT], and in very dry environments the dihydrate form [UO2(NO3)2(H2O)2]. Their relative stabilities depend on both water vapor pressure and temperature. In the 1950s and 1960s the different phases were studied by infrared transmission spectroscopy, but were limited both by instrumental resolution and by the ability to prepare the samples for transmission. We have revisited this problem using time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy, which requires no sample preparation and allows dynamic analysis while the sample is exposed to a flow of N2 gas. Samples of known hydration state were prepared and confirmed via X-ray diffraction patterns of known species. In reflectance mode the hexahydrate UO2(NO3)2(H2O)6 has a distinct uranyl asymmetric stretch band at 949.0 cm-1 that shifts to shorter wavelengths and broadens as the sample desiccates and recrystallizes to the trihydrate, first as a shoulder growing in on the blue edge but ultimately results in a doublet band with reflectance peaks at 966 and 957 cm-1. The data are consistent with transformation from UNH to UNT as UNT has two inequivalent UO22+ sites. The dehydration of UO2(NO3)2(H2O)6 to UO2(NO3)2(H2O)3 is both a structural and morphological change that has the lustrous lime green UO2(NO3)2(H2O)6 crystals changing to the matte greenish yellow of the trihydrate solid. The phase transformation and crystal structures were confirmed by density functional theory calculations and optical microscopy methods, both of which showed a transformation with two distinct sites for the uranyl cation in the trihydrate, with but one in the hexahydrate.

  1. Classification of very high resolution satellite remote sensing data in a pilot phase of the forest cover classification of the Democratic Republic of Congo, Forêts d'Afrique Central Evaluées par Télédetection (FACET) product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singa Monga Lowengo, C.

    2012-12-01

    The Observatoire Satellital des Forêts d'Afrique Centrale (OSFAC) based in Kinshasa, serves as the focal point of the GOFC-GOLD network for Central Africa. OSFAC's long term objective is building regional capacity to use remotely sensed data to map forest cover and forest cover change across Central Africa. OSFAC archives and disseminates satellite data, offers training in geospatial data applications in coordination with the University of Kinshasa, and provides technical support to CARPE partners. Forêts d'Afrique Centrale Évaluées par Télédétection (FACET) is an OSFAC initiative that implements the UMD/SDSU methodology at the national level and quantitatively evaluates the spatiotemporal dynamics of forest cover in Central Africa. The multi-temporal series of FACET data is a useful contribution to many projects, such as biodiversity monitoring, climate modeling, conservation, natural resource management, land use planning, agriculture and REDD+. I am working as Remote Sensing and GIS Officer in various projects of OSFAC. My activities include forest cover and lands dynamics monitoring in Congo Basin. I am familiar with the use of digital mapping software, GIS and RS (Arc GIS, ENVI and PCI Geomatica etc.), classification and spatial Analysis of satellite images, 3D modeling, etc. I started as an intern at OSFAC, Assistant Trainer (Professional Training) and Consultant than permanent employee since October 2009. To assist in the OSFAC activities regarding the monitoring of forest cover and the CARPE program in the context of natural resources management, I participated in the development of the FACET Atlas (Republic of Congo). I received data from Matt Hansen (map.img), WRI and Brazzaville (shapefiles). With all these data I draw maps of the ROC Atlas and statistics of forest cover and forest loss. We organize field work on land to collect data to validate the FACET product. Therefore, to assess forest cover in the region of Kwamouth and Kahuzi-Maiko Biega

  2. Near-surface Thermal Infrared Imaging of a Mixed Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubrecht, D. M.; Helliker, B. R.; Richardson, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Measurement of an organism's temperature is of basic physiological importance and therefore necessary for ecosystem modeling, yet most models derive leaf temperature from energy balance arguments or assume it is equal to air temperature. This is because continuous, direct measurement of leaf temperature outside of a controlled environment is difficult and rarely done. Of even greater challenge is measuring leaf temperature with the resolution required to understand the underlying energy balance and regulation of plant processes. To measure leaf temperature through the year, we have mounted a high-resolution, thermal infrared camera overlooking the canopy of a temperate deciduous forest. The camera is co-located with an eddy covariance system and a suite of radiometric sensors. Our camera measures longwave thermal infrared (λ = 7.5-14 microns) using a microbolometer array. Suspended in the canopy within the camera FOV is a matte black copper plate instrumented with fine wire thermocouples that acts as a thermal reference for each image. In this presentation, I will discuss the challenges of continuous, long-term field operation of the camera, as well as measurement sensitivity to physical and environmental parameters. Based on this analysis, I will show that the uncertainties in converting radiometric signal to leaf temperature are well constrained. The key parameter for minimizing uncertainty is the emissivity of the objects being imaged: measuring the emissivity to within 0.01 enables leaf temperature to be calculated to within 0.5°C. Finally, I will present differences in leaf temperature observed amongst species. From our two-year record, we characterize high frequency, daily, and seasonal thermal signatures of leaves and crowns, in relation to environmental conditions. Our images are taken with sufficient spatial and temporal resolution to quantify the preferential heating of sunlit portions of the canopy and the cooling effect of wind gusts. Future work will

  3. A new Energy Saving method of manufacturing ceramic products from waste glass

    SciTech Connect

    Haun Labs

    2002-07-05

    for applications requiring slip resistance, such as floor tile. The coarser matte finish of this product type was produced by modifying the basic process to include crystalline fillers and partial crystallization of the glass. Additional details of the project results are discussed in Section III.

  4. Comparing the intra-annual wood formation of three European species (Fagus sylvatica, Quercus petraea and Pinus sylvestris) as related to leaf phenology and non-structural carbohydrate dynamics.

    PubMed

    Michelot, Alice; Simard, Sonia; Rathgeber, Cyrille; Dufrêne, Eric; Damesin, Claire

    2012-08-01

    Monitoring cambial phenology and intra-annual growth dynamics is a useful approach for characterizing the tree growth response to climate change. However, there have been few reports concerning intra-annual wood formation in lowland temperate forests with high time resolution, especially for the comparison between deciduous and coniferous species. The main objective of this study was to determine how the timing, duration and rate of radial growth change between species as related to leaf phenology and the dynamics of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) under the same climatic conditions. We studied two deciduous species, Fagus sylvatica L. and Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl., and an evergreen conifer, Pinus sylvestris L. During the 2009 growing season, we weekly monitored (i) the stem radial increment using dendrometers, (ii) the xylem growth using microcoring and (iii) the leaf phenology from direct observations of the tree crowns. The NSC content was also measured in the eight last rings of the stem cores in April, June and August 2009. The leaf phenology, NSC storage and intra-annual growth were clearly different between species, highlighting their contrasting carbon allocation. Beech growth began just after budburst, with a maximal growth rate when the leaves were mature and variations in the NSC content were low. Thus, beech radial growth seemed highly dependent on leaf photosynthesis. For oak, earlywood quickly developed before budburst, which probably led to the starch decrease quantified in the stem from April to June. For pine, growth began before the needles unfolding and the lack of NSC decrease during the growing season suggested that the substrates for radial growth were new assimilates of the needles from the previous year. Only for oak, the pattern determined from the intra-annual growth measured using microcoring differed from the pattern determined from dendrometer data. For all species, the ring width was significantly influenced by growth duration

  5. Probing DNA in nanopores via tunneling: from sequencing to ``quantum'' analogies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Ventra, Massimiliano

    2012-02-01

    , Biophys. J. 97, 1990, (2009).[0pt] [6] M. Zwolak, J. Lagerqvist, and M. Di Ventra, Ionic conductance quantization in nanopores, Phys. Rev.Lett. 103, 128102 (2009).[0pt] [7] M. Zwolak, J. Wilson, and M. Di Ventra, Dehydration and ionic conductance quantization in nanopores, J. Phys. Cond. Matt. 22 454126 (2011). [0pt] [8] M. Krems and M. Di Ventra, Ionic Coulomb blockade in nanopores arXiv:1103.2749.

  6. Drought and air warming affect the species-specific levels of stress-related foliar metabolites of three oak species on acidic and calcareous soil.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bin; Simon, Judy; Rennenberg, Heinz

    2013-05-01

    Climate change as projected for Central Europe will lead to prolonged periods of summer drought and enhanced air temperature. Thus, forest management practices are required to take into account how species performance is adapted to cope with these climate changes. Oak trees may play a major role in future forests because of their relative drought-tolerance compared with other species like beech. Therefore, this study investigated the stress responses (i.e., anti-oxidants, free amino acids) in the leaves of three widely distributed oak species in Central Europe (i.e., Quercus robur L., Q. petraea [Matt.] Libel., Q. pubescens Willd.) to drought, air warming and the combination of drought plus air warming under controlled conditions after periods of spring drought, a short rewetting and summer drought. We quantified foliar levels of thiols, ascorbate, and free amino compounds in Q robur, Q. petraea and Q. pubescens. Our study showed that oak saplings had increased levels of γ-glutamylcysteine and total glutathione and proline with drought and air warming. Foliar ascorbate, glutathione disulfide and dehydroascorbic acid levels were not affected. The comparison of stress responses to drought and/or air warming between the three species showed higher foliar thiol levels in Q. robur and Q. pubescens compared with Q. petraea. For total and reduced ascorbic acid and γ-aminobutyric acid, the highest levels were found in Q. robur. In conclusion, our study showed that foliar anti-oxidant and free amino acid levels were significantly affected by drought plus air warming; however, this effect was species-dependent with the drought-tolerant species of Q. pubescens having the highest reactive oxygen species scavenging capacity among three tested oak species. Furthermore, stress responses as shown by increased levels of foliar anti-oxidants and free amino acids differ between calcareous and acidic soil indicating that the capacities of anti-oxidative defense and osmotic stress

  7. Stellar Metamorphosis:

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    edge-on, where the direct starlight is blocked by the dusty cocoon. Otherwise, the starlight would overwhelm the nebular light, making it very difficult to see the butterfly-shaped nebula. In a few hundred years, intense ultraviolet radiation from the central star will energize the surrounding gas, causing it to glow brightly, and a planetary nebula is born. These observations were made with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 using three filters: yellow-green, blue, and near-infrared. The images were taken in 1997 by Sun Kwok and in 1996 by Matt Bobrowsky. Credits: Sun Kwok and Kate Su (University of Calgary), Bruce Hrivnak (Valparaiso University), and NASA ----------------- The Hubble Space Telescope Sees Remarkable Structure in the Heart of a Planetary Nebula [BOTTOM LEFT AND RIGHT] This Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 image of NGC 6818 shows two distinct layers of gas (with dust): a spherical outer region and a brighter, vase-shaped interior 'bubble.' Astronomers believe that a fast wind - material propelled by radiation from the hot central star - is creating the inner elongated shape. The central star of the planetary nebula appears as a tiny blue dot. The material in the wind is traveling so fast that it smashes through older, slower-moving stellar debris, causing a 'blowout' at both ends of the bubble (lower right and upper left). This nebula looks like a twin of NGC 3918, another planetary nebula that has been observed by the Hubble telescope. The structure of NGC 3918 is remarkably similar to that of NGC 6818. It has an outer spherical envelope and an inner, brighter, elongated bubble. A fast-moving wind also appears to have created an orifice at one end (bottom right-hand corner) of the inner bubble. There are even faint wisps of material that were probably blown out of this hole. In the opposite direction (top left-hand corner), there is a protrusion that seems on the verge of breaking through to form a hole. By finding and studying such similar objects

  8. Clearing the Cosmic Fog - The Most Distant Galaxy Ever Measured

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-10-01

    A European team of astronomers using ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) has measured the distance to the most remote galaxy so far. By carefully analysing the very faint glow of the galaxy they have found that they are seeing it when the Universe was only about 600 million years old (a redshift of 8.6). These are the first confirmed observations of a galaxy whose light is clearing the opaque hydrogen fog that filled the cosmos at this early time. The results were presented at an online press conference with the scientists on 19 October 2010, and will appear in the 21 October issue of the journal Nature. "Using the ESO Very Large Telescope we have confirmed that a galaxy spotted earlier using Hubble is the most remote object identified so far in the Universe" [1], says Matt Lehnert (Observatoire de Paris) who is lead author of the paper reporting the results. "The power of the VLT and its SINFONI spectrograph allows us to actually measure the distance to this very faint galaxy and we find that we are seeing it when the Universe was less than 600 million years old." Studying these first galaxies is extremely difficult. By the time that their initially brilliant light gets to Earth they appear very faint and small. Furthermore, this dim light falls mostly in the infrared part of the spectrum because its wavelength has been stretched by the expansion of the Universe - an effect known as redshift. To make matters worse, at this early time, less than a billion years after the Big Bang, the Universe was not fully transparent and much of it was filled with a hydrogen fog that absorbed the fierce ultraviolet light from young galaxies. The period when the fog was still being cleared by this ultraviolet light is known as the era of reionisation [2]. Despite these challenges the new Wide Field Camera 3 on the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope discovered several robust candidate objects in 2009 [3] that were thought to be galaxies shining in the era of reionisation. Confirming the

  9. A Year To Make a Difference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, J. Emory

    1999-01-01

    Secondary School Feature Articles * Animating Reactions: A Low-Cost Activity for Particle Conceptualization at the Secondary Level, by Robert W. Milne, p 50. * The Gravity of the Situation, by Damon Diemente, p 55. You must be the change you wish to see in the world. Mahatma Ghandi The beginning of a new year always brings with it a feeling of anticipation, a desire to achieve new goals, and a certain urgency to accomplish. Beginning the last year of the 1900s seems somehow to amplify these feelings. This week I was reminded twice of the challenge that lies in focusing on those things that we can change and not being fettered by those we cannot. The first example occurred in my office on a Monday afternoon. A young woman was considering the choice between entering graduate school or seeking a high school teaching position. After approximately 10 years in the workforce, she had entered college and was now within a semester of graduation. While pursuing her studies she had served as a substitute teacher in her home community, believing the experience would affirm her longstanding desire to teach. The behavioral characteristics of some students seemed to be at odds with her memories of high school only a dozen years earlier. Now she was questioning whether she could make a difference in young lives or if she should give up the idea of teaching in high school in favor of graduate degrees in her discipline, which would lead to a career in post-secondary education. Although I assured her that she could indeed have a great impact on high school students, I empathized with the concern she was feeling. The second example occurred the same day, in a class for chemistry majors who are preparing to teach high school chemistry. While considering the importance of performance assessment, with discussion centered on a JCE article ((a href="//1998/jan/abs64.html">Rasp, S. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 64-66), one class member asked why we only discussed and read about what teachers

  10. A Year To Make a Difference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, J. Emory

    1999-01-01

    Secondary School Feature Articles * Animating Reactions: A Low-Cost Activity for Particle Conceptualization at the Secondary Level, by Robert W. Milne, p 50. * The Gravity of the Situation, by Damon Diemente, p 55. You must be the change you wish to see in the world. Mahatma Ghandi The beginning of a new year always brings with it a feeling of anticipation, a desire to achieve new goals, and a certain urgency to accomplish. Beginning the last year of the 1900s seems somehow to amplify these feelings. This week I was reminded twice of the challenge that lies in focusing on those things that we can change and not being fettered by those we cannot. The first example occurred in my office on a Monday afternoon. A young woman was considering the choice between entering graduate school or seeking a high school teaching position. After approximately 10 years in the workforce, she had entered college and was now within a semester of graduation. While pursuing her studies she had served as a substitute teacher in her home community, believing the experience would affirm her longstanding desire to teach. The behavioral characteristics of some students seemed to be at odds with her memories of high school only a dozen years earlier. Now she was questioning whether she could make a difference in young lives or if she should give up the idea of teaching in high school in favor of graduate degrees in her discipline, which would lead to a career in post-secondary education. Although I assured her that she could indeed have a great impact on high school students, I empathized with the concern she was feeling. The second example occurred the same day, in a class for chemistry majors who are preparing to teach high school chemistry. While considering the importance of performance assessment, with discussion centered on a JCE article ((a href="//1998/jan/abs64.html">Rasp, S. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 64-66), one class member asked why we only discussed and read about what teachers

  11. Especially for High School Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, J. Emory

    2000-01-01

    Ideas and Resources in This Issue This issue contains a broad spectrum of topics of potential interest to high school teachers, including chemical safety, history, demonstrations, laboratory activities, electrochemistry, small group learning, and instructional software. In his report on articles published recently in The Science Teacher, Steve Long includes annotated references from that journal, and also from JCE, that provide timely and practical information (pp 21-22). The chemical significance of several anniversaries that will occur in the year 2000 are discussed in an article by Paul Schatz (pp 11-14). Scientists and inventors mentioned include Dumas, Wöhler, Goodyear, Joliot-Curie, Krebs, Pauli, Kjeldahl, and Haworth. Several discoveries are also discussed, including development of the voltaic pile, the use of chlorine to purify water, and the discovery of element 97, berkelium. This is the fourth consecutive year that Schatz has written an anniversaries article (1-3). Although most readers probably do not plan to be teaching in the years 2097-3000, these articles can make a nice addition to your file of readily available historical information for use now in meeting NSES Content Standard G (4). In contrast to the short historical summaries, an in-depth account of the work of Herman Boerhaave is provided by Trinity School (NY) teacher Damon Diemente. You cannot recall having heard of Boerhaave? Diemente explains in detail how Boerhaave's scientific observations, imperfect though they were, contributed significantly to the understanding of temperature and heat by scientists who followed him. Chemical demonstrations attract the interest of most of us, and Kathy Thorsen discusses several that appeared in Chem 13 News during the past year (pp 18-20). Included are demonstrations relating to LeChâtelier's principle, electronegativity, and the synthesis and reactions of carbon monoxide. Ideas for investigating the hydrophobic nature of Magic Sand are given in JCE

  12. Mid-late Holocene climate and vegetation in northeastern part of the Altai Mountains recorded in Lake Teletskoye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudaya, Natalia; Nazarova, Larisa; Novenko, Elena; Babich, Valery; Kalugin, Ivan; Daryin, Andrei

    2015-04-01

    intervals during the Late Holocene. Kravchinsky et al. (2013) presume that the 1000- and 500-year periodicities recorded in magnetic properties of soil layers correspond to solar activity induced climate changes in Southern Siberia; however, Stuiver&Braziunas (1993) relate the ~500-yr cycle to flux oscillations in the Atlantic Ocean thermohaline circulation. The ˜210-year periodicities may reflect the ~200-year solar de Vries cycle that is commonly believed to be one of the most intense solar cycles (e.g. Wagner G. et al., 2001; Damon&Peristykh, 2000; Stuiver&Braziunas, 1993). Dendrochronlogical data obtained from the Tien Shan and Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau confirm the existence of 200-year climatic cycles associated with solar activity in Central Asia (Raspopov et al., 2008). Absence of 1500-year climatic cycles (Bond events) in Tel 2006 record may be explained by deep intercontinental location of the Lake Teletskoye whereas 1500-year cycles are linked with the North Atlantic oceanic circulation (Bond et al., 2001; Debret et al., 2007).

  13. Interpretation of high rate dust measurements with the Cassini dust detector CDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempf, Sascha

    2008-03-01

    For two years the cosmic dust analyser (CDA) onboard the Cassini spacecraft has been exploring the dust environment of Saturn [Srama, R., Kempf, S., Moragas-Klostermeyer, G., Helfert, S., Ahrens, T. J., Altobelli, N., Auer, S., Beckmann, U., Bradley, J.G., Burton, M., Dikarev, V.V., Economou, T., Fechtig, H., Green, S.F., Grande, M., Havnes, O., Hillier, J.K., Horanyi, M., Igenbergs, E., Jessberger, E.K., Johnson, T.V., Krüger, H., Matt, G., McBride, N., Mocker, A., Lamy, P., Linkert, D., Linkert, G., Lura, F., McDonnell, J.A.M., Möhlmann, D., Morfill, G.E., Postberg, F., Roy, M., Schwehm, G.H., Spahn, F., Svestka, J., Tschernjawski, V., Tuzzolino, A.J., Wäsch, R., Grün, E., 2006. In situ dust measurements in the inner Saturnian system. Planet. Space Sci. 54, 967-987]. One major goal of the CDA instruments is to investigate Saturn's enigmatic E ring - the largest known planetary ring of the solar system. The sophisticated main detector (dust analyser - DA) of CDA is rather slow when processing the impact data, and limits the detectable number of impacts to 60min-1 [Srama, R., Ahrens, T., Altobelli, N., Auer, S., Bradley, J., Burton, M., Dikarev, V., Economou, T., Fechtig, H., Görlich, M., Grande, M., Graps, A., Grün, E., Havnes, O., Helfert, S., Horányi, M., Igenbergs, E., Jeßberger, E., Johnson, T., Kempf, S., Krivov, A., Krüger, H., Mocker-Ahlreep, A., Moragas-Klostermeyer, G., Lamy, P., Landgraf, M., Linkert, D., Linkert, G., Lura, F., McDonnel, J., Möhlmann, D., Morfill, G., Müller, M., Roy, M., Schäfer, G., Schlotzhauer, G., Schwehm, G., Spahn, F., Stübig, M., Svestka, J., Tschernjawski, V., Tuzzolino, A., Wäsch, R., Zook, H., 2004. The Cassini cosmic dust analyser. Space Sci. Rev. 114, 465-518]. However, measurements by the CDA high rate detector (HRD) imply that the DA impact rates in the inner core of the E ring exceed 1000min-1. Clearly, to investigate dust-rich environments with the DA requires knowledge about the instrument performance at

  14. Human impact, geomorphological and bio-environmental indicators for mapping and monitoring of a Mediterranean urban-beach with Posidonia oceanica (Gulf of Cagliari-Sardinia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Muro, Sandro; Pusceddu, Nicola; Frongia, Paolo; Buosi, Carla; Passarella, Marinella; Ibba, Angelo

    2016-04-01

    This work describes the human conditioned evolution (medium term) and the short term dynamics (mainly sediment transport) in southern Sardinia beach (between Giorgino and Cala d'Orri, about 11km), composed of fine to coarse quartz sand, backed by dune ridges and lagoons. The study was founded by NEPTUNE Project, Tender6 (L n. 7/2007). Geomorphological and bio-environmental indicators as: urbanization and coastal defence expansion, dune and beach changes, biotic indices (benthic foraminifera and Posidonia meadow) have been used. Medium-term evolution, over a period of 60 years, was carried out by ortho-images (1954-2015) for reconstructing coastline changes at this temporal scale. The main modifications were the building of the canal harbor, the consequent loss of 2.5km of beach, and the construction of several coastal defense structures, which caused asymmetric accumulations (lee zones) and erosion areas. Short-term variations have been periodically monitored (2014-2015) during 5 different field surveys (DGPS and Echo-sounder data) obtaining topo-bathymetric digital models. Sedimentary and hydrodynamic characteristics have been studied. Wave propagation, coastal currents and sediment transport, have been simulated through numerical models within Delft3D software. The results obtained allowed to visualize the response of the beach to wave stress, forced from SW, S, SE (Cagliari buoy and weather data). The comparison between data collected, thematic maps and models allowed to identify the main controlling factors and distribution mechanisms of the sedimentary paths on the shoreface. Those human modifications (e.g. building of the canal harbour and jetties, lagoon mouths stabilization, the consequent modified hydrodynamics and bottom trawling) have direct influence on the Posidonia oceanica and on its upper limit. In 2002, the Italian Environment Office reported a wide area (between -4m and -20m) of degraded Posidonia and dead matte in front of the study beach

  15. A framework for validating light fields created using physically based rendering techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittinghill, David M.

    This research study presents a framework for applying physically based global illumination techniques to the creation of software models of light fields that are then validated against actual light fields measured in physical experiments. A prior experiment was performed by horticulture scientists in which the light field of an empty plant growth chamber was measured using quantum sensors at fixed spatial intervals. The result was a light map consisting of a 9 x 45, fixed-width, two-dimensional graph of sensor readings that described the intensity of radiant energy present in the chamber at the chosen locations. A single observation of the growth chamber was made resulting in a single data set consisting of 45 different, location-sensitive irradiance observations. To test this framework a series of simulations were performed in which the physical attributes of the growth chamber were duplicated as closely as possible in a virtual growth chamber software model. Modeled attributes included physical dimensions, wall and light reflectivity, and full-spectrum light characterization. Light transport was modeled using a physically based, global illumination rendering technique called photon mapping. Virtual sensors that recorded the intensity of the light that transmitted through their surface were placed in the virtual chamber at the same position and interval as the ones that were used in the physical experiment. The output of the virtual chamber experiments were represented as a graph in the same configuration as the one in the physical experiment. The experiment was conducted using a modified version of pbrt, a physically based, extensible renderer developed by Matt Pharr and Greg Humphreys [1]. As photon mapping uses a stochastic algorithm, many repetitions of the virtual chamber experiment were performed and the mean and standard deviation were recorded as a global measure for each chamber as well as for each individual sensor location. The global means of the

  16. The circular Uneged Uul structure (East Gobi Basin, Mongolia) - Geomorphic and structural evidence for meteorite impact into an unconsolidated coarse-clastic target?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmieder, Martin; Seyfried, Hartmut; Gerel, Ochir

    2013-03-01

    geomorphic and structural features resembling those at some eroded complex impact structures on Earth. Morphologically similar central peaks are observed at the Spider and Matt Wilson impact structures in Australia; the central annular ridge reminds of that at Gosses Bluff in Australia; the outer domal ridges might correspond to ring-like features as known from Tin Bider in Algeria. We, therefore, cautiously propose that an impact may have produced the Uneged Uul feature causing structural uplift (˜1000 m) of basement rocks at its center. So far, no convincing evidence for shock metamorphism could be proven by field work and petrographic analyses. However, it is likely that at the time of the deformation event the unconsolidated conglomerates were highly porous and possibly immersed in groundwater buffering the propagation of sudden stress-reducing deformation. Further studies will be in order to unravel the nature of the Uneged Uul structure, which should be considered a promising possible impact structure.

  17. NASA's Newest Orbital Debris Ground-based Telescope Assets: MCAT and UKIRT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lederer, S.; Frith, J.; Pace, L. F.; Cowardin, H. M.; Hickson, P.; Glesne, T.; Maeda, R.; Buckalew, B.; Nishimoto, D.; Douglas, D.; Stansbery, E. G.

    2014-09-01

    these ground-based telescope assets will yield spectral coverage ranging from 0.3 25 microns, allowing orbital debris to be studied in depth across a wider wavelength range in the visible and IR than ever previously studied by ODPO. Located on opposite sides of the world and in opposite hemispheres, they offer access to nearly the entire GEO belt on any given night, allowing immediate coverage of nearly any time-critical break-up event. By expanding the methods for surveying, detecting, and characterizing orbital debris, we can better model the debris environment and ultimately gain insight into how to mitigate potential collisions for future missions. Acknowledgments: Special thanks to Matt Bold, Rick Kendrick, the UKIRT staff, the Joint Astronomy Centre, Lockheed Martin, and the University of Arizona, for their collaborative efforts toward modifying UKIRT to boldly venture inward in space to track tiny man-made objects orbiting the Earth.

  18. Quantum Field Theory in Curved Spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Sally C.; Gallagher, Andrew

    2012-03-01

    ; 19. Assimilation and modern human origins in the African peripheries Fred H. Smith, Vance T. Hutchinson and Ivor Janković; 20. Patterns of Middle Pleistocene hominin evolution in Africa and the emergence of modern humans Emma Mbua and Günter Bräuer; 21. Integration of the genetic, anatomical, and archaeological data for the African origin of modern humans: problems and prospects Osbjorn M. Pearson; Part IV. In Search of Context: Hominin Environments, Behaviour and Lithic Cultures: 22. Animal palaeocommunity variability and habitat preference of robust australopiths in South Africa Darryl J. de Ruiter, Matt Sponheimer and Julia Lee-Thorp; 23. Impacts of environmental change and community ecology on the composition and diversity of the southern African monkey fauna from the Plio-Pleistocene to the present Sarah Elton; 24. African genesis revisited: reflections on Raymond Dart and the 'Predatory Transition from Ape(-Man) to Man' Travis R. Pickering; 25. Shared intention in early artefacts: an exploration of deep structure and implications for communication and language John A. J. Gowlett; 26. Sibudu Cave: recent archaeological work on the Middle Stone Age Lyn Wadley; 27. The oldest burials and their significance Avraham Ronen; Index.

  19. Time-resolved infrared reflectance studies of the dehydration-induced transformation of uranyl nitrate hexahydrate to the trihydrate form

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Timothy J.; Sweet, Lucas E.; Meier, David E.; Edward J. Mausolf; Kim, Eunja; Weck, Philippe F.; Buck, Edgar C.; Bruce K. McNamara

    2015-09-08

    Uranyl nitrate is a key species in the nuclear fuel cycle. However, this species is known to exist in different states of hydration, including the hexahydrate ([UO2(NO3)2(H2O)6] often called UNH), the trihydrate [UO2(NO3)2(H2O)3 or UNT], and in very dry environments the dihydrate form [UO2(NO3)2(H2O)2]. Their relative stabilities depend on both water vapor pressure and temperature. In the 1950s and 1960s, the different phases were studied by infrared transmission spectroscopy but were limited both by instrumental resolution and by the ability to prepare the samples for transmission. We have revisited this problem using time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy, which requires no sample preparation and allows dynamic analysis while the sample is exposed to a flow of N2 gas. Samples of known hydration state were prepared and confirmed via X-ray diffraction patterns of known species. In reflectance mode the hexahydrate UO2(NO3)2(H2O)6 has a distinct uranyl asymmetric stretch band at 949.0 cm–1 that shifts to shorter wavelengths and broadens as the sample desiccates and recrystallizes to the trihydrate, first as a shoulder growing in on the blue edge but ultimately results in a doublet band with reflectance peaks at 966 and 957 cm–1. The data are consistent with transformation from UNH to UNT as UNT has two inequivalent UO22+ sites. The dehydration of UO2(NO3)2(H2O)6 to UO2(NO3)2(H2O)3 is both a structural and morphological change that has the lustrous lime green UO2(NO3)2(H2O)6 crystals changing to the matte greenish yellow of the

  20. Automatic classification of protein structures using low-dimensional structure space mappings

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Protein function is closely intertwined with protein structure. Discovery of meaningful structure-function relationships is of utmost importance in protein biochemistry and has led to creation of high-quality, manually curated classification databases, such as the gold-standard SCOP (Structural Classification of Proteins) database. The SCOP database and its counterparts such as CATH provide a detailed and comprehensive description of the structural and evolutionary relationships of the proteins of known structure and are widely employed in structural and computational biology. Since manual classification is both subjective and highly laborious, automated classification of novel structures is increasingly an active area of research. The design of methods for automated structure classification has been rendered even more important since the recent past, due to the explosion in number of solved structures arising out of various structural biology initiatives. In this paper we propose an approach to the problem of structure classification based on creating and tessellating low dimensional maps of the protein structure space (MPSS). Given a set of protein structures, an MPSS is a low dimensional embedding of structural similarity-based distances between the molecules. In an MPSS, a group of proteins (such as all the proteins in the PDB or sub-samplings thereof) under consideration are represented as point clouds and structural relatedness maps to spatial adjacency of the points. In this paper we present methods and results that show that MPSS can be used to create tessellations of the protein space comparable to the clade systems within SCOP. Though we have used SCOP as the gold standard, the proposed approach is equally applicable for other structural classifications. Methods In the proposed approach, we first construct MPSS using pairwise alignment distances obtained from four established structure alignment algorithms (CE, Dali, FATCAT and MATT). The low

  1. JOINTS AND SYN-SEDIMENTARY FAULTS NETWORKS IN MARINE CLAYS AND MUDSTONES. Importance for Radwaste storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnould, M.

    2009-12-01

    There is a number of marine clays, mudstones, marls, 100 to 200 m thick, showing smectites, mixed layers illite/smectite, with a small percentage of organic matter and sulphides with a variable clay, silt, and carbonate content. I published (Arnould , 2006) examples from Lower Cambrian to Miocene in age and from the Baltic shore to Spain in Europe. Observations were made mostly in quarries and pits down to more than 40 m and in underground research laboratories (URL). Only visible on fresh cuts amongst a variety of fissures there is always a network of joints. Schematically one family is the bedding (horizontal) the two others are normal to the bedding and orthogonal between them. The orientations of vertical joints are different from the orientations of pits and quarries’s walls. The networks are intrinsic. It was first well described by Skempton & al (1969) in Eocene London Clay. Joints are matt in texture, clean, without filling or cement. The order of magnitude of their linear dimensions is decimeter to meter. It is necessary to start from the original sediment: mud. Deposited in flakes mud has a bee’s nest microscopic structure. Each nest is full of water. Hence mud may have a water content up to 300%, reported to its dry weight. Paradoxically mud is impervious. As proposed by Cosgrove (2001) progressive but discontinuous hydraulic fracturing could be the origin of vertical joints, with drainage upwards and compaction of the sediment. Geological observations show that ioints are formed during the sedimentation process. There is also a world literature concluding at the necessary early fracturing of mudstones and marls hosts of sand dykes. Very few faults are identified in field observations and on exploration logs. But it is obvious that drainage and compaction of mud over thousands square kilometers induced differential settlements with many syn-sedimentary non tectonic faults constituting another discontinuity network. These faults inside the same

  2. PREFACE: 4th Workshop on Theory, Modelling and Computational Methods for Semiconductors (TMCSIV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomić, Stanko; Probert, Matt; Migliorato, Max; Pal, Joydeep

    2014-06-01

    renowned theoretical groups from many European countries (Spain, France, Ireland, Germany, Switzerland, Luxemburg, Norway, Italy, Poland, Denmark, Sweden, Serbia, etc.), as well as Asia (Iran, Japan) and USA. We would like to thank all participants for making this a very successful meeting and for their contribution to the conference programme and these proceedings. We would also like to acknowledge the financial support from the Institute of Physics (Semiconductor Physics Group and Computational Physics Group), EPSRC-UK, the CECAM UK-Hartree Node, CCP9, and Quantum Wise (distributors of Atomistix). The Editors Acknowledgments Conference Organising Committee: Stanko Tomić (Chair, University of Salford) Matt Probert (University of York) Max Migliorato (University of Manchester) Joydeep Pal (University of Manchester) Programme Committee: David Whittaker (University of Sheffield, UK) John Robertson (University of Cambridge, UK) Risto Nieminen (Helsinki University of Technology Finland) Eoin O'Reilly (Tyndall Institute Cork Republic of Ireland) Marco Califano (University of Leeds, UK) Stewart Clark (University of Durham, UK) Stanko Tomić (University of Salford, UK) Mauro Pereira (Sheffield Hallam University, UK) Aldo Di Carlo (University of Rome ''Tor Vergata,'' Italy) Lev Kantorovich (King's College London, UK) Mervin Roy (University of Leicester, UK) Ben Hourahine (University of Strathclyde, UK) Rita Magri (University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy) Zoran Ikonic (University of Leeds) John Barker (University of Glasgow) The proceedings were edited and compiled by Joydeep Pal, Max Migliorato and Stanko Tomić.

  3. Emergent nanoscale fluctuations in high rock-salt PbTe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billinge, Simon

    2013-03-01

    describe the results of these experiments. This work gives key insights into PbTe, the possible origin of its anomalous electronic structure properties, and why it is such an attractive parent compound for nanostructured high performance thermoelectric materials. I would like to acknowledge the excellent collaborations that occurred during this work, including Emil Bozin at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Mercouri Kanatzidis and Christos Malliakas at Northwestern University and Argonne National Laboratory, Kirsten Jensen from U. Aarhus, Steve Shapiro at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Matt Stone and Mark Lumsden at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Nicola Spalding at ETH Zurich and Petros Souvatzis at Los Alamos National Laboratory. I would also like to acknowledge the support of the national user facilities and their staff where the work was done. Financial support for this work was from DOE office of Basic Energy Sciences through award DE-AC02-98CH10886.

  4. The Air-Sea Interface and Surface Stress under Tropical Cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soloviev, Alexander; Lukas, Roger; Donelan, Mark; Ginis, Isaac

    2013-04-01

    of the drag coefficient wind speed dependence around 65 m/s. This minimum may contribute to the rapid intensification of storms to major tropical cyclones. The subsequent slow increase of the drag coefficient with wind above 65 m/s serves as an obstacle for further intensification of tropical cyclones. Such dependence may explain the observed bi-modal distribution of tropical cyclone intensity. Implementation of the new parameterization into operational models is expected to improve predictions of tropical cyclone intensity and the associated wave field. References: Donelan, M. A., B. K. Haus, N. Reul, W. Plant, M. Stiassnie, H. Graber, O. Brown, and E. Saltzman, 2004: On the limiting aerodynamic roughness of the ocean in very strong winds, Farrell, B.F, and P.J. Ioannou, 2008: The stochastic parametric mechanism for growth of wind-driven surface water waves. Journal of Physical Oceanography 38, 862-879. Kelly, R.E., 1965: The stability of an unsteady Kelvin-Helmholtz flow. J. Fluid Mech. 22, 547-560. Koga, M., 1981: Direct production of droplets from breaking wind-waves-Its observation by a multi-colored overlapping exposure technique, Tellus 33, 552-563. Miles, J.W., 1959: On the generation of surface waves by shear flows, part 3. J. Fluid. Mech. 6, 583-598. Soloviev, A.V. and R. Lukas, 2010: Effects of bubbles and sea spray on air-sea exchanges in hurricane conditions. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 136, 365-376. Soloviev, A., A. Fujimura, and S. Matt, 2012: Air-sea interface in hurricane conditions. J. Geophys. Res. 117, C00J34.

  5. PERSPECTIVE: Waorani at the head of the table: towards inclusive conservation in Yasuní

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McSweeney, Kendra; Pearson, Zoe

    2009-09-01

    Kendra McSweeney Zoe Pearson In 'Ecuador's Yasuní Biosphere Reserve: a brief modern history and conservation challenges', Matt Finer and colleagues draw from a wide literature to describe the overlapping jurisdictions, confusing designations, and conflicting imperatives that are the Yasuní Biosphere Reserve. Yasuní's complexity is emblematic of 21st-century conservation landscapes world-wide: products of long isolation at the global periphery, they are erstwhile biological and cultural refuges transformed into contested and violent resource frontiers (Peluso and Watts 2001). At stake in how those contests play out in Yasuní is its spectacular biodiversity, and the ability of its indigenous residents (including Waorani and others living in voluntary isolation) to enjoy their rights as enshrined in the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (United Nations 2007). The authors review several promising recent initiatives for strengthening both conservation and indigenous rights in Yasuní. These include legislative efforts to curtail oil and road development, innovative carbon-marketing schemes, territorial mapping, constitutional amendments, enhanced military presence, and the promotion of sustainable development projects. Each of these measures is vital and important. But Yasuní's history alerts us to the instability of such measures. Government administrations change, and with them the political commitment to particular programs. Further, carbon markets are economically untested and vulnerable to international price volatility (Ma'anit 2008), militarization of natural areas is a double-edged sword (Sawyer 2003), and tourism-based development projects rely on the goodwill of fickle first-world consumers. Furthermore, such measures as these are largely exogenous. While they may work on behalf of and with Yasuní's indigenous residents, they do not begin with them—that is, Waorani are typically consulted mid-stream (at best) within the project

  6. The Future of Theoretical Physics and Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbons, G. W.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Rankin, S. J.

    2009-08-01

    Preface; List of contributors; 1. Introduction; Part I. Popular Symposium: 2. Our complex cosmos and its future Martin J. Rees; 3. Theories of everything and Hawking's wave function of the Universe James B. Hartle; 4. The problem of space-time singularities: implications for quantum gravity? Roger Penrose; 5. Warping spacetime Kip Thorne; 6. 60 years in a nutshell Stephen W. Hawking; Part II. Spacetime Singularities: 7. Cosmological perturbations and singularities George F. R. Ellis; 8. The quantum physics of chronology protection Matt Visser; 9. Energy dominance and the Hawking-Ellis vacuum conservation theorem Brandon Carter; 10. On the instability of extra space dimensions Roger Penrose; Part III. Black Holes: 11. Black hole uniqueness and the inner horizon stability problem Werner Israel; 12. Black holes in the real universe and their prospects as probes of relativistic gravity Martin J. Rees; 13. Primordial black holes Bernard Carr; 14. Black hole pair creation Simon F. Ross; 15. Black holes as accelerators Steven Giddings; Part IV. Hawking Radiation: 16. Black holes and string theory Malcolm Perry; 17. M theory and black hole quantum mechanics Joe Polchinski; 18. Playing with black strings Gary Horowitz; 19. Twenty years of debate with Stephen Leonard Susskind; Part V. Quantum Gravity: 20. Euclidean quantum gravity: the view from 2002 Gary Gibbons; 21. Zeta functions, anomalies and stable branes Ian Moss; 22. Some reflections on the status of conventional quantum theory when applied to quantum gravity Chris Isham; 23. Quantum geometry and its ramifications Abhay Ashtekar; 24. Topology change in quantum gravity Fay Dowker; Part VI. M Theory and Beyond: 25. The past and future of string theory Edward Witten; 26. String theory David Gross; 27. A brief description of string theory Michael Green; 28. The story of M Paul Townsend; 29. Gauged supergravity and holographic field theory Nick Warner; 30. 57 varieties in a NUTshell Chris Pope; Part VII. de Sitter Space

  7. Anthropogenic versus natural processes and pollution in Padana Valley in last years involving new communication/policy strategies and ethical issues in research evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quattrocchi, Fedora; Vaccaro, Carmela; Boschi, Enzo

    2014-05-01

    reconstruction of the true facts. Moreover these areas are affected by natural enrichment in heavy metals and toxic elements harmful to the health: geochemical surveying may allow both to recognize issues of diffuse "natural pollution" and to identify markers and tracers able to discriminate among anthropogenic and natural anomalies by geochemical methods mostly. The discovery of pollution emergency poses the problem of how to share to the public scientific data, avoiding that communication produces alarmism or persecution for the involved researchers, as occurred in the past. When diffuse pollution is linked to natural causes which can be defined as transient that precede potential gas-burst disasters, the risk communication by researchers not always meets sufficient support from those who are responsible for the administration of the territory, being afraid to lose the political consensus. Conflicts of interest in promoting certain non urgent research should be highlighted readily and clearly. This is one of the main cause of low resources devoted to the study of transient geochemical contamination in shallow aquifers, which could be useful for seismotectonic research too. A discussion about: i) intellectual property & equal opportunity for all Earth Science researchers to have access to the public research calls (MIUR, MATT MSE Ministries); ii) about the critical research on some short-term hazards, which penalized the researchers in terms of scientific productivity and career was opened by the paper, suggesting new research evaluation indicators -ethical ones- than Impact Factor only.

  8. Obituary: Clifford G. Toner (1959-2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Frank

    2011-12-01

    in Hawai'i, K.D. Leka, recalls that "Cliff was the embodiment of a "gentle giant"; so tall, yet so soft-spoken and patient, and I just recall a sense of his always being ready to help any living thing. Cliff was out with a back injury in March 1991, and it was under his temporarily-abandoned desk that Betsy, the IfA cat had her one (and only) litter (when my cat Audrey, whom many of you know, was born). As the littermates grew, Cliff, Matt Penn and I had kittens crawling over us; I can still hear his chuckles, "well helloooh, who are you there now?" as they would scramble up his chair to his desk. It was always with a smile that he'd greet me when we ran into each other after the "Hawai'i days"; we'd swap some stories, kid updates but only recently we were more in touch as I'm now playing with GONG data. I was heartened to hear he was working on the magnetogram merging, because I knew it'd be done really well with his attention." Cliff Toner was a caring and loving person, an excellent scientist, and a hero of GONG. He will be sorely missed by everyone who knew him. He is survived by his wife, Nelsey, children, Ariel, Nathaniel, Miranda, and Kayla, sister Gloria, brothers Ethan (Heather) and Emanuel (Lisa).

  9. A 400 year reconstruction of July relative air humidity for the region Vienna (eastern Austria) based on carbon and oxygen stable isotope ratios in tree-ring latewood cellulose of oaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haupt, M.; Boettger, T.; Weigl, M.; Grabner, M.

    2009-04-01

    Stable isotope chronologies and correlation to climate. We present the stable isotope chronologies of carbon (^13Clw) and oxygen (^18Olw) for the period from 1600 to 2003 respectively of non-exchangeable hydrogen (^2Hlw) for the last century constructed base upon tree-ring latewood cellulose from oaks (Quercus petraea Matt. Liebl.) grown in the region Vienna (Austria). The stable isotope ratios correspond mainly to the summer climate conditions. For the calibration period (1900-2003) we found high significant correlations (p < 0.001) between ^13Clw and relative air humidity (RH) of July (-0.66), between ^18Olw and RHV I-V II (-0.61) and between ^2Hlw and RHV I-V III(-0.56). In the case of temperatures high significant correlations between the growing season temperature and ^13Clw (0.55), between the annual mean temperatures and ^18Olw ratios (0.45) and between summer mean temperatures (June to August) and ^2Hlw values (0.49) were estimated. Modeling. Various univariate and multivariate linear regressions models were proved for the reconstruction of summer relative air humidity and temperature. We found that establishing of robust models had several uncertainties: - using common linear transfer functions which oversimplify the complexity of relations; - using of pooled material and neglecting of different reactions from individual trees to climate; - high-order autocorrelations in the isotope time series; - climatic trends in the investigated region which are different in the first and in the second half of 20th century; - temporal instability of climate signals in the isotope ratios of tree ring cellulose. In the case of temperature no valid model could be estimated caused by temporal instabilities of signal strength. For relative air humidity two bivariate models RHV II = (-4.3 ± 0.7) * ^13Clw + (-2.8 ± 0.5) * ^18Olw + 44 [1] and RHV II = (-4.7 ± 0.7) * ^13Clw + (-0.35 ± 0.07) * ^2Hlw - 68 [2] were found as verifiable and applicable to reconstruct RHV II

  10. Solid State Ionic Materials - Proceedings of the 4th Asian Conference on Solid State Ionics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdari, B. V. R.; Yahaya, M.; Talib, I. A.; Salleh, M. M.

    1994-07-01

    * The Sputtered La0.5Sr0.5MnO3-Yttria Stabilized Zirconia Composite Electrode in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells * A Solid Electrochemical Ferro Sensor for Molten Matte * SnO2-based Sensor for H2S Monitoring-Electrical Conductivity Measurements and Device Testing * Humidity Sensor using Potassium Tungsten Bronze Synthesized from Peroxo-Polytungstic Acid * Study on Li/LiClO4/V6O13 Test Cells * Fabrication and Characterisation of Some Solid Electrolyte Cells Containing CuI and Silver Oxysalts * Solid State Battery of Proton Conducting Sodium Thiosulphate Pentahydrate * Low Temperature Synthesis of LiMn2O4 for Secondary Lithium Batteries * Effect of Different Cathode Active Materials on Battery Performance with Silver Molybdate Electrolyte Partially Substituted with Zinc Oxide * Fabrication and Characterization of Electrochemical Cells based on Silver Molybdoarsenate and Silver Tungstoarsenate Glass Electrolytes * Lorentz Force Dependence of Dissipation in a Granular Superconductor * Late Entry (Invited paper) * Simultaneous Voltammetry and Spectroscopy of Polyaniline in Propylene Carbonate * Author Index * Tentative List of Participants

  11. Final Report on Portable Laser Coating Removal Systems Field Demonstrations and Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothgeb, Matthew J.; McLaughlin, Russell L.

    2008-01-01

    were very positive. Corrosion was effectively removed from steel, but less successfully from aluminum alloys. Coatings were able to be removed, with varying results, generally dark, matte and thin coatings were easier to remove. Steel and aluminum panels were able to be cleaned for welding, with no known deleterious effects and weld-lines were able to have coatings removed in critical areas for NDE while saving time as compared to other methods.

  12. Corroboration for the influence of a component of solar irradiance on subsurface radon signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinitz, G.; Piatibratova, O.; Kotlarsky, P.; Sturrock, P.; Maritn, C.

    2012-04-01

    ., Kotlarsky, P., 2011. Possible effect of solar tides on radon signals. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 102, 749-765. doi: 10.1016/j.jenvrad.2011.04.002. 5. Steinitz, G., Piatibratova, O., Kotlarsky, P., 2011. Solar radiation tidal forcing of radon signals in subsurface air. Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 13, EGU2011-733, 2011 6. Sturrock, P.A., Buncher , J.B., Fischbach, E., Gruenwald, J.T., Javorsek, D., Jenkins, J.H., Lee, R.H., Mattes, J.J., Newport, J.R., 2010b. Power Spectrum Analysis of Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt Decay-Rate Data: Evidence for Solar Rotational Modulation. Solar Physics, 267, 251-265. DOI: 10.1007/s11207-010-9659-4

  13. A 400 year reconstruction of July relative air humidity for the region Vienna (eastern Austria) based on carbon and oxygen stable isotope ratios in tree-ring latewood cellulose of oaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haupt, M.; Boettger, T.; Weigl, M.; Grabner, M.

    2009-04-01

    Stable isotope chronologies and correlation to climate. We present the stable isotope chronologies of carbon (^13Clw) and oxygen (^18Olw) for the period from 1600 to 2003 respectively of non-exchangeable hydrogen (^2Hlw) for the last century constructed base upon tree-ring latewood cellulose from oaks (Quercus petraea Matt. Liebl.) grown in the region Vienna (Austria). The stable isotope ratios correspond mainly to the summer climate conditions. For the calibration period (1900-2003) we found high significant correlations (p < 0.001) between ^13Clw and relative air humidity (RH) of July (-0.66), between ^18Olw and RHV I-V II (-0.61) and between ^2Hlw and RHV I-V III(-0.56). In the case of temperatures high significant correlations between the growing season temperature and ^13Clw (0.55), between the annual mean temperatures and ^18Olw ratios (0.45) and between summer mean temperatures (June to August) and ^2Hlw values (0.49) were estimated. Modeling. Various univariate and multivariate linear regressions models were proved for the reconstruction of summer relative air humidity and temperature. We found that establishing of robust models had several uncertainties: - using common linear transfer functions which oversimplify the complexity of relations; - using of pooled material and neglecting of different reactions from individual trees to climate; - high-order autocorrelations in the isotope time series; - climatic trends in the investigated region which are different in the first and in the second half of 20th century; - temporal instability of climate signals in the isotope ratios of tree ring cellulose. In the case of temperature no valid model could be estimated caused by temporal instabilities of signal strength. For relative air humidity two bivariate models RHV II = (-4.3 ± 0.7) * ^13Clw + (-2.8 ± 0.5) * ^18Olw + 44 [1] and RHV II = (-4.7 ± 0.7) * ^13Clw + (-0.35 ± 0.07) * ^2Hlw - 68 [2] were found as verifiable and applicable to reconstruct RHV II

  14. PREFACE: Ocean and climate changes in polar and sub-polar environments: proceedings from the 2010 IODP-Canada/ECORD summer school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St-Onge, Guillaume; Veiga-Pires, Cristina; Solignac, Sandrine

    2011-05-01

    /GEOTOP, Canada) Mathieu Duchesne (Geological Survey of Canada-Québec, Canada) Frédérique Eynaud (EPOC/Universite Bordeaux I, France) Pierre Francus (INRS-ETE/GEOTOP, Canada) Martin Frank (IFM-GEOMAR, Germany) Yves Gélinas (Concordia/GEOTOP, Canada) Joël Guiot (CEREGE, France) Claude Hillaire-Marcel (UQAM/GEOTOP, Canada) Patrick Lajeunesse (University Laval, Canada) Jean-François Lemieux (Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, USA) Guillaume Massé (LOCEAN/Institut Pierre-Simon Laplace, France) Matt O'Regan (Cardiff University, UK) Joseph Ortiz (Kent State University, USA) Frank Rack (University Nebraska-Lincoln, USA/ANDRILL Science Management Office) Taoufik Radi (UQAM/GEOTOP, Canada) André Rochon (ISMER-UQAR/GEOTOP, Canada) Ruediger Stein (Alfred Wegener Institute, Germany) Guillaume St-Onge (ISMER-UQAR/GEOTOP, Canada) Bjorn Sundby (ISMER-UQAR, Canada) GEOTOP logoUQAM UQAR logoINRS logo Universite de Quebec logoGeological Survey of Canada logo

  15. Geological Evidences For Late Paleozoic Intra-pangea Dextral Shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muttoni, G.; Kent, D. V.; Abrahamsen, N.; Brack, P.

    interpretations us- ing paleomagnetic data. We present new paleomagnetic data from Adria (i.e., West Gondwana) to verify whether Pangea B is paleomagnetically defensible, and review recent geological data from the literature in support of any pre-Jurassic intra-Pangea dextral mega-shear which could be reconciled with the necessary Pangea B to A tran- sition. Relevant geological lines of evidence for Gondwana vs. Laurasia Pangean mo- tions which build on the interpretations of late Hercynian faults sensu Arthaud and Matte (1977 GSA Bulletin) are as follows: (i) Late Paleozoic mantle-scale dextral 1 shear with simultaneous emplacement of orogen-scale granitoids characterized late Hercynian Pyrenees D2 deformation (e.g., Leblanc et al., Tectonophysics, 261, 1996; Gleizes et al., J. Struct. Geol., 20, 1998, Druguet and Hutton, J. Struct. Geol., 20, 1998). (ii) The Hercynian orogen of Gondwanan France and Iberia has been recently interpreted as the result of the juxtaposition of far-travelled terranes bounded by Late Paleozoic mainly dextral transpressive faults with up to 2000km of dextral displace- ment (Shelley and Bossiere, J. Struct. Geol., 22, 2000). (iii) the Alps preserve evidence for an orogen-scale Permian (trans)tensional event characterized by the emplacement of mafic and ultramafic rocks at the crust-mantle boundary (the Ivrea-Verbano Zone: e.g., Handy and Zingg, Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 103, 1987; Handy and Streit, Earth Pl. Sc. Lett., 165, 1999; the Malenco Unit: e.g., Trommsdorff et al., Ofioliti, 24, 1999). A similar scenario characterized also the northern Apennines (Marroni et al., Tectono- physics, 292, 1998). Permian magmatic underplating is accompanied by coeval em- placement of granitic and rhyolitic magmatism in shallower levels of the (southern) Alpine crust (e.g., Bozen porphyrites), and volcanosedimentary sequences deposited in dextral pull-apart basins (i.e., Collio Fm.). (iv) central Europe is occupied by ca. 48000km3 of Permian volcanics erupted in a general

  16. Final Report- "An Algorithmic and Software Framework for Applied Partial Differential Equations (APDEC): A DOE SciDAC Integrated Software Infrastructure Center (ISIC)

    SciTech Connect

    Elbridge Gerry Puckett

    2008-05-13

    All of the work conducted under the auspices of DE-FC02-01ER25473 was characterized by exceptionally close collaboration with researchers at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). This included having one of my graduate students - Sarah Williams - spend the summer working with Dr. Ann Almgren a staff scientist in the Center for Computational Sciences and Engineering (CCSE) which is a part of the National Energy Research Supercomputer Center (NERSC) at LBNL. As a result of this visit Sarah decided to work on a problem suggested by Dr. John Bell the head of CCSE for her PhD thesis, which she finished in June 2007. Writing a PhD thesis while working at one of the University of California (UC) managed DOE laboratories is a long established tradition at the University of California and I have always encouraged my students to consider doing this. For example, in 2000 one of my graduate students - Matthew Williams - finished his PhD thesis while working with Dr. Douglas Kothe at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Matt is now a staff scientist in the Diagnostic Applications Group in the Applied Physics Division at LANL. Another one of my graduate students - Christopher Algieri - who was partially supported with funds from DE-FC02-01ER25473 wrote am MS Thesis that analyzed and extended work published by Dr. Phil Colella and his colleagues in 1998. Dr. Colella is the head of the Applied Numerical Algorithms Group (ANAG) in the National Energy Research Supercomputer Center at LBNL and is the lead PI for the APDEC ISIC which was comprised of several National Laboratory research groups and at least five University PI's at five different universities. Chris Algieri is now employed as a staff member in Dr. Bill Collins' research group at LBNL developing computational models for climate change research. Bill Collins was recently hired at LBNL to start and be the Head of the Climate Science Department in the Earth Sciences Division at LBNL. Prior to this he had

  17. Modeling hydrodynamics, water temperature, and water quality in the Klamath River upstream of Keno Dam, Oregon, 2006-09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sullivan, Annett B.; Rounds, Stewart A.; Deas, Michael L.; Asbill, Jessica R.; Wellman, Roy E.; Stewart, Marc A.; Johnston, Matthew W.; Sogutlugil, I. Ertugrul

    2011-01-01

    . * Water temperatures ranged from near freezing in winter to near 30 degrees C at some locations and periods in summer; seasonal water temperature patterns were similar at the inflow and outflow. Although vertical temperature stratification was not present at most times and locations, weak stratification could persist for periods up to 1-2 weeks, especially in the downstream parts of the reach. Thermal stratification was important in controlling vertical variations in water quality. * The specific conductance, and thus density, of tributaries within the reach usually was higher than that of the river itself, so that inflows tended to sink below the river surface. This was especially notable for inflows from the Klamath Straits Drain, which tended to sink to the bottom of the Klamath River at its confluence and not mix vertically for several miles downstream. * The model was able to capture most of the seasonal changes in the algal population by modeling that population with three algal groups: blue-green algae, diatoms, and other algae. The blooms of blue-green algae, consisting mostly of Aphanizomenon flos aquae that entered from Upper Klamath Lake, were dominant, dwarfing the populations of the other two algae groups in summer. A large part of the blue-green algae population that entered this reach from upstream tended to settle out, die, and decompose, especially in the upper part of the Link-Keno reach. Diatoms reached a maximum in spring and other algae in midsummer. * Organic matter, occurring in both dissolved and particulate forms, was critical to the water quality of this reach of the Klamath River, and was strongly tied to nutrient and dissolved-oxygen dynamics. Dissolved and particulate organic matter were subdivided into labile (quickly decaying) and refractory (slowing decaying) groups for modeling purposes. The particulate matter in summer, consisting largely of dead blue-green algae, decayed quickly. Consequently, this particulate matt

  18. PREFACE: International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems (SCES 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littlewood, P. B.; Lonzarich, G. G.; Saxena, S. S.; Sutherland, M. L.; Sebastian, S. E.; Artacho, E.; Grosche, F. M.; Hadzibabic, Z.

    2012-11-01

    , Kyushu G. R. Stewart, Gainesville C. Di Castro, Rome R. Osborn, Chicago H. Takagi, Tokyo M. Eremets, Mainz S. Ovchnikov, Krasnoyarsk L. Taillefer, Sherbrooke M. Fiebig, Bonn C. Panagopoulos, Singapore & Heraklion J. D. Thompson, Los Alamos Z. FiskIrvine S. Paschen, Vienna Y. Tokura, Tokyo J. Flouquet, Grenoble C. Pfleiderer, Munich K. Ueda, Tokyo P. Fulde, Dresden P. Phillips, Urbana C. M. Varma, Riverside A. Geim, Manchester D. Pines, Davis T. Vojta, Rolla J.C. Gomez-Sal, Santander T. V. Ramakrishnan, Bangalore N.L. Wang, Beijing A. Kavokin, Southampton A.K. Raychaudhuri, Calcutta T. Xiang, Beijing J. Goodenough, Austin M. Reifers, Kosice L. Yu, Beijing H. Hosono, Tokyo P. Riseborough, Philadelphia F. C. Zhang, Hong Kong S. Julian, Toronto M. L Saboungi, Orleans G. Zwicknagl, Braunschweig Operational Team Anson Cheung (co-ordinator)Hyeong Jin KimPaul Nahai-Williamson Beng Tan (co-ordinator)Jack GillettPeter Logg Cheng Liu (co-ordinator)Jo WensleyPrajakti Kalra Swee K. Goh (co-ordinator)Jonathan SilverRichard Brierley Adam HalskiLara SibleyRobert Hay Edd CavannaLeona HopeSeb Haines Felix NissenLina KlintbergSitikantha Das Gareth ConduitMarianne BauerStephen Rowley Gerie LonzarichMatt BurgessSven Friedemann Greg LeverMuhammad Ahsan ZebYang Zou Hannah PriceNick BristoweYiqian Xu Haruka TaniguchiOleksandr PoplavskyyZhuo Feng

  19. Prospectus 1999

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Jon L.; Gettys, Nancy S.

    1999-01-01

    assignments, and activities using JCE Software publications submitted by users. All JCE Software users are invited to contribute to this area. Get in touch with JCE Software and let us know how you are using our materials so that we can share your ideas with others! Although the word software is in our name, many of our publications are not traditional software. We also publish video on videotape, videodisc, and CD-ROM and electronic documents (Mathcad and Mathematica, spreadsheet files and macros, HTML documents, and PowerPoint presentations). Most chemistry instructors who use a computer in their teaching have created or considered creating one or more of these for their classes. If you have an original computer presentation, electronic document, animation, video, or any other item that is not printed text it is probably an appropriate submission for JCE Software. By publishing your work in any branch of the Journal of Chemical Education, you will share your efforts with chemistry instructors and students all over the world and get professional recognition for your achievements. Literature Cited 1. Schatz, P. F.; Moore, J. W.; Holmes, J. L. Illustrated Periodic Table; J. Chem. Educ. Software 1995, 2D2. 2. Kotz. J. C.; Young, S. Chemistry Navigator; J. Chem. Educ. Software 1995, 6C2. 3. Banks, A. Periodic Table Videodisc, 2nd ed.; J. Chem. Educ. Software 1996, SP1. 4. QuickTime 3.0, Apple Computer, Inc.: 1 Infinite Loop, Cupertino, CA 95014-2084. 5. Jacobsen, J. J.; Moore, J. W. Chemistry Comes Alive!, Volume 1; J. Chem. Educ. Software 1997, SP 18. 6. Jacobsen, J. J.; Moore, J. W. Chemistry Comes Alive!, Volume 2; Chem. Educ. Software 1998, SP 21. 7. Moore, J. W.; Jacobsen, J. J.; Hunsberger, L. R.; Gammon, S. D.; Jetzer, K. H.; Zimmerman, J. ChemDemos Videodisc; J. Chem. Educ. Software 1994, SP 8. 8. Moore, J. W.; Jacobsen, J. J.; Jetzer, K. H.; Gilbert, G.; Mattes, F.; Phillips, D.; Lisensky, G.; Zweerink, G. ChemDemos II; J. Chem. Educ. Software 1996, SP 14. 9. Jacobsen

  20. PERSPECTIVE: Waorani at the head of the table: towards inclusive conservation in Yasuní

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McSweeney, Kendra; Pearson, Zoe

    2009-09-01

    Kendra McSweeney Zoe Pearson In 'Ecuador's Yasuní Biosphere Reserve: a brief modern history and conservation challenges', Matt Finer and colleagues draw from a wide literature to describe the overlapping jurisdictions, confusing designations, and conflicting imperatives that are the Yasuní Biosphere Reserve. Yasuní's complexity is emblematic of 21st-century conservation landscapes world-wide: products of long isolation at the global periphery, they are erstwhile biological and cultural refuges transformed into contested and violent resource frontiers (Peluso and Watts 2001). At stake in how those contests play out in Yasuní is its spectacular biodiversity, and the ability of its indigenous residents (including Waorani and others living in voluntary isolation) to enjoy their rights as enshrined in the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (United Nations 2007). The authors review several promising recent initiatives for strengthening both conservation and indigenous rights in Yasuní. These include legislative efforts to curtail oil and road development, innovative carbon-marketing schemes, territorial mapping, constitutional amendments, enhanced military presence, and the promotion of sustainable development projects. Each of these measures is vital and important. But Yasuní's history alerts us to the instability of such measures. Government administrations change, and with them the political commitment to particular programs. Further, carbon markets are economically untested and vulnerable to international price volatility (Ma'anit 2008), militarization of natural areas is a double-edged sword (Sawyer 2003), and tourism-based development projects rely on the goodwill of fickle first-world consumers. Furthermore, such measures as these are largely exogenous. While they may work on behalf of and with Yasuní's indigenous residents, they do not begin with them—that is, Waorani are typically consulted mid-stream (at best) within the project