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Sample records for maturing pinus radiata

  1. 6-benzyladenine metabolism during reinvigoration of mature Pinus radiata buds in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huaibi; Horgan, Kathryn J; Reynolds, Paul H S; Jameson, Paula E

    2010-04-01

    Maturation or phase change is a serious challenge in the deployment of superior trees of Pinus radiata D. Don because of the difficulties associated with propagation of cuttings from mature trees. We used an in vitro system to study 6-benzyladenine (BA)-induced reinvigoration of the fascicle meristems of mature buds during in vitro culture. Anatomical examinations revealed that BA inhibited the development of secondary needle primordia and 'rejuvenated' the fascicle meristems of the mature bud to produce primary needles, which are characteristic of the juvenile phase in P. radiata. Without BA supplement in the culture media, fascicle primordia continued developing secondary needles and quiescent fascicle meristems. BA metabolite analysis showed that the novel cytokinin pathway reported previously in P. radiata (H. Zhang, K.J. Horgan, P.H.S. Reynolds, G.E. Norris and P.E. Jameson. 2001. Novel cytokinins: The predominant forms in mature buds of Pinus radiata. Physiol. Plant. 112: 127-134) was mirrored in vitro, with BA converted into a variety of metabolites including 6-benzylamino-9-glucopyranosylribosyl-purine and its novel phosphorylated form, 6-benzylamino-9-glucopyranosylribosyl-purine. The culture of mature buds in the presence of BA caused a reduction in the level of endogenous cytokinins, suggesting a direct action of BA itself. Similar correlations are noted between levels of certain metabolites and the maturation status of buds from field-grown trees and buds in culture, indicating that this in vitro system may be a good model for studying the processes of maturation and reinvigoration. PMID:20144924

  2. Stand variation in Pinus radiata and its relationship with allometric scaling and critical buckling height

    PubMed Central

    Waghorn, Matthew J.; Watt, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Allometric relationships and the determination of critical buckling heights have been examined for Pinus radiata in the past. However, how they relate to more mature Pinus radiata exhibiting a wide range of stem diameters, slenderness and modulus of elasticity (E) at operationally used stand densities is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between Pinus radiata stand structure variables and allometric scaling and critical buckling height. Methods Utilizing a Pinus radiata Nelder trial with stand density and genetic breed as variables, critical buckling height was calculated whilst reduced major axis regression was used to determine scaling exponents between critical height (Hcrit), actual height (H), ground line diameter (D), slenderness (S), density-specific stiffness (E/ρ) and modulus of elasticity (E). Key Results Critical buckling height was highly responsive to decreasing diameter and increasing slenderness. Safety factors in this study were typically considerably lower than previously reported margins in other species. As density-specific stiffness scaled negatively with diameter, the exponent of 0·55 between critical height and diameter did not meet the assumed value of 0·67 under constant density-specific stiffness. E scaled positively with stem slenderness to the power of 0·78. Conclusions The findings suggest that within species density-specific stiffness variation may influence critical height and the scaling exponent between critical height and diameter, which is considered so important in assumptions regarding allometric relationships. PMID:23388878

  3. 90SR UPTAKE BY PINUS PONDEROSA AND PINUS RADIATA SEEDLINGS INOCULATED WITH ECOTOMYCORRHIZAL FUNGI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Strontium-90 (90Sr) is a radionuclide characteristic of fallout from nuclear reactor accidents and nuclear weapons testing. rior studies have shown that Pinus ponderosa and P. radiata seedlings can remove appreciable quantities of 90Sr from soil and store it in plant tissue. n th...

  4. Factors Affecting Growth of Pinus radiata in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Munoz, Jose Santos

    The Chilean forestry industry is based on hundreds of thousands of hectares of Pinus radiata plantations that have been established in a variety of soil and climate conditions. This approach has resulted in highly variable plantation productivity even when the best available technology was used. Little information is known about the ecophysiology basis for this variability. We explored the spatial and temporal variation of stand growth in Chile using a network of permanent sample plots from Modelo Nacional de Simulacion de Pino radiata. We hypothesized that the climate would play an important role in the annual variations in productivity. To answer these questions we developed the following projects: (1) Determination of site resource availability from historical data from automatic weather stations (rainfall, temperatures) and a geophysical model for solar irradiation, (2) Determination of peak annual leaf area index (LAI) for selected permanent sample plots using remote sensing technologies, (3) Analysis of soil, climate, canopy and stand factors affecting the Pinus radiata plantation growth and the use efficiency of site resources. For project 1, we estimated solar irradiation using the r.sun , Hargreaves-Samani (HS), and Bristow-Campbell (BC) models and validated model estimates with observations from weather stations. Estimations from a calibrated r.sun model accounted for 94% of the variance (r2=0.94) in monthly mean measured values. The r.sun model performed quite well for a wide range of Chilean conditions when compared with the HS and BC models. Our estimates of global irradiation may be improved with better estimates of cloudiness as they become available. Our model was able to provide spatial estimates of daily, weekly, monthly and yearly solar irradiation. For project 2, we estimated the inter-annual variation of LAI (Leaf Area Index), using remote sensing technologies. We determined LAI using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data covering a 5 year period

  5. Adsorption kinetics and equilibrium study of nitrogen species onto radiata pine (Pinus radiata) sawdust.

    PubMed

    Harmayani, Kadek D; Faisal Anwar, A H M

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen species (NH3-N, NO3-N, and NO2-N) are found as one of the major dissolved constituents in wastewater or stormwater runoff. In this research, laboratory experiments were conducted to remove these pollutants from the water environment using radiata pine (Pinus radiata) sawdust. A series of batch tests was conducted by varying initial concentration, dosage, particle size, pH, and contact time to check the removal performance. Test results confirmed the effectiveness of radiata pine sawdust for removing these contaminants from the aqueous phase (100% removal of NO3-N, and NO2-N; 55% removal of NH3-N). The adsorbent dosage and initial concentration showed a significantly greater effect on the removal process over pH or particle sizes. The optimum dosage for contaminant removal on a laboratory scale was found to be 12 g. Next, the adsorption kinetics were studied using intraparticle diffusion, liquid-film diffusion, and a pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order model. The adsorption of all species followed a pseudo-second order model but NO2-N adsorption followed both models. In addition, the kinetics of NO2-N adsorption showed two-step adsorption following intraparticle diffusion and liquid-film diffusion. The isotherm study showed that NO3-N and NO2-N adsorption fitted slightly better with the Freundlich model but that NH3-N adsorption followed both Freundlich and Langmuir models. PMID:27438245

  6. CCoAOMT suppression modifies lignin composition in Pinus radiata.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Armin; Tobimatsu, Yuki; Phillips, Lorelle; Flint, Heather; Torr, Kirk; Donaldson, Lloyd; Pears, Lana; Ralph, John

    2011-07-01

    A cDNA clone encoding the lignin-related enzyme caffeoyl CoA 3-O-methyltransferase (CCoAOMT) was isolated from a Pinus radiata cDNA library derived from differentiating xylem. Suppression of PrCCoAOMT expression in P. radiata tracheary element cultures affected lignin content and composition, resulting in a lignin polymer containing p-hydroxyphenyl (H), catechyl (C) and guaiacyl (G) units. Acetyl bromide-soluble lignin assays revealed reductions in lignin content of up to 20% in PrCCoAOMT-deficient transgenic lines. Pyrolysis-GC/MS and 2D-NMR studies demonstrated that these reductions were due to depletion of G-type lignin. Correspondingly, the proportion of H-type lignin in PrCCoAOMT-deficient transgenic lines increased, resulting in up to a 10-fold increase in the H/G ratio relative to untransformed controls. 2D-NMR spectra revealed that PrCCoAOMT suppression resulted in formation of benzodioxanes in the lignin polymer. This suggested that phenylpropanoids with an ortho-diphenyl structure such as caffeyl alcohol are involved in lignin polymerization. To test this hypothesis, synthetic lignins containing methyl caffeate or caffeyl alcohol were generated and analyzed by 2D-NMR. Comparison of the 2D-NMR spectra from PrCCoAOMT-RNAi lines and synthetic lignins identified caffeyl alcohol as the new lignin constituent in PrCCoAOMT-deficient lines. The incorporation of caffeyl alcohol into lignin created a polymer containing catechyl units, a lignin type that has not been previously identified in recombinant lignin studies. This finding is consistent with the theory that lignin polymerization is based on a radical coupling process that is determined solely by chemical processes. PMID:21426426

  7. Water use by Pinus radiata trees in a plantation.

    PubMed

    Teskey, R. O.; Sheriff, D. W.

    1996-01-01

    We used the heat-pulse velocity technique to estimate transpirational water use of trees in an experimental 16-year-old Pinus radiata D. Don plantation in South Australia during a 4-month period from November 1993 to March 1994 (spring-summer). Fertilization and other silvicultural treatments during the first 8 years of the plantation produced trees ranging in diameter at a height of 1.3 m from 0.251 to 0.436 m, with leaf areas ranging from 83 to 337 m(2). Daily water use was greater for large trees than for small trees, but transpiration per unit leaf area was nearly identical. Daily transpiration was highly correlated with available soil water in the upper 1 m of soil and weakly correlated with irradiance and air temperature. For the stand (0.4 ha), estimated rates of transpiration ranged from 6.8 to 1.4 mm day(-1) in wet and dry soil conditions, respectively. Total water use by the plantation during the 4-month study period was 346 mm. Water transpired by the trees was about three times that extracted from the upper 1 m of soil. Large trees extracted water from the same soil volume as small trees and did not exhibit a greater potential to extract water from deeper soil when the upper horizons become dry. PMID:14871772

  8. Modeling productivity and transpiration of Pinus radiata: climatic effects.

    PubMed

    Sheriff, D. W.; Mattay, J. P.; McMurtrie, R. E.

    1996-01-01

    Climatic effects on annual net carbon gain, stem biomass and annual transpiration were simulated for Pinus radiata D. Don at Canberra and Mt. Gambier. Simulations were conducted with an existing process-based forest growth model (BIOMASS, Model 1) and with a modified version of the BIOMASS model (Model 2) in which response functions for carbon assimilation and leaf conductance were replaced with those derived from field gas exchange data collected at Mt. Gambier. Simulated carbon gain was compared with a published report stating that mean annual stem volume increment (MAI) at Mt. Gambier was 1.8 times greater than at Canberra and that the difference could be the result solely of differences in climate. Regional differences in climate resulted in a 20% greater simulated annual transpiration at Canberra than at Mt. Gambier but only small differences in simulated productivity, indicating that climatic differences did not account for the reported differences in productivity. With Model 1, simulated annual net carbon gain and annual increase in stem biomass were greater at Canberra than at Mt. Gambier, whereas Model 2 indicated a similar annual net carbon gain and annual stem biomass increase in both regions. PMID:14871762

  9. Family 34 glycosyltransferase (GT34) genes and proteins in Pinus radiata (radiata pine) and Pinus taeda (loblolly pine).

    PubMed

    Ade, Carsten P; Bemm, Felix; Dickson, James M J; Walter, Christian; Harris, Philip J

    2014-04-01

    Using a functional genomics approach, four candidate genes (PtGT34A, PtGT34B, PtGT34C and PtGT34D) were identified in Pinus taeda. These genes encode CAZy family GT34 glycosyltransferases that are involved in the synthesis of cell-wall xyloglucans and heteromannans. The full-length coding sequences of three orthologs (PrGT34A, B and C) were isolated from a xylem-specific cDNA library from the closely related Pinus radiata. PrGT34B is the ortholog of XXT1 and XXT2, the two main xyloglucan (1→6)-α-xylosyltransferases in Arabidopsis thaliana. PrGT34C is the ortholog of XXT5 in A. thaliana, which is also involved in the xylosylation of xyloglucans. PrGT34A is an ortholog of a galactosyltransferase from fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) that is involved in galactomannan synthesis. Truncated coding sequences of the genes were cloned into plasmid vectors and expressed in a Sf9 insect cell-culture system. The heterologous proteins were purified, and in vitro assays showed that, when incubated with UDP-xylose and cellotetraose, cellopentaose or cellohexaose, PrGT34B showed xylosyltransferase activity, and, when incubated with UDP-galactose and the same cello-oligosaccharides, PrGT34B showed some galactosyltransferase activity. The ratio of xylosyltransferase to galactosyltransferase activity was 434:1. Hydrolysis of the galactosyltransferase reaction products using galactosidases showed the linkages formed were α-linkages. Analysis of the products of PrGT34B by MALDI-TOF MS showed that up to three xylosyl residues were transferred from UDP-xylose to cellohexaose. The heterologous proteins PrGT34A and PrGT34C showed no detectable enzymatic activity. PMID:24517843

  10. Chronic effects of Pinus radiata and Eucalyptus globulus kraft mill effluents and phytosterols on Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    López, D; Chamorro, S; Silva, J; Bay-Schmith, E; Vidal, G

    2011-12-01

    Two kraft pulp mill effluents were compared in terms of their chronic toxicity to Daphnia magna. One resulted from pulping Pinus radiata and the other came from a parallel processing of Pinus radiata and Eucalyptus globulus (mixed kraft pulp mill effluent). The concentration of phytosterols found in the mixed kraft pulp mill effluent was higher than in the effluent from Pinus radiata, with values of 0.1082 and 0.02 μg/L, respectively. The phytosterols per se are responsible for 12.9% and 8.1% of the deviation from the natural shape, while the kraft pulp mill effluents account for 25.6%-27.8% of shape deviation. The role of β-sitosterol and stigmasterol is discussed in relation to endocrine disruption. PMID:21979137

  11. Modeling the water balance of a small Pinus radiata catchment.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, D.; Kelliher, F. M.

    1991-01-01

    An hourly biophysical model was used to calculate the water balance over a period of one year for an 8.7-ha catchment with a closed-canopy, 13-year-old Pinus radiata D. Don forest in the central North Island, New Zealand. Components of the model are transpiration from the dry tree canopy, evaporation from the partially wet tree canopy and stems, evaporation from the understory and soil, and drainage from a single-layer root zone. The model requires input of hourly weather data (net radiation, air and wet bulb temperatures, windspeed, and rainfall), tree stand characteristics (average height, tree number, leaf area index), physical characteristics of the site (root zone depth, relationship between root zone matric potential and volumetric water content, the relationship between the rate of drainage from the root zone and volumetric water content, and the area of open-stream channels). A submodel of the response of stomatal conductance to air saturation deficit and root zone matric potential is also required. Tree transpiration (704 mm year(-1) or 50% of annual rainfall) was a dominant component of the catchment water balance. Estimated evaporation from the wet tree canopy was 203 mm year(-1) (15%). Evaporation from the understory was much less, amounting to 94 mm year(-1) (7%) and an increase in water storage for the 3.5 m root zone depth was estimated to be 53 mm year(-1) (4%). Estimated daily rates of drainage generally agreed well with measurements of streamflow, although estimated annual drainage (349 mm year(-1), 24%) exceeded measured streamflow (234 mm year(-1)). The significance of the results is discussed in relation to closure of the hydrologic balance. PMID:14972854

  12. MODIFYING LIGNIN IN CONIFERS: THE ROLE OF HCT DURING TRACHEARY ELEMENT FORMATION IN PINUS RADIATA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The enzyme hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA: shikimate hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (HCT) is involved in the production of methoxylated monolignols that are precursors to guaiacyl and syringyl lignin in angiosperm species. We identified and cloned a putative HCT gene from Pinus radiata, a coniferous gymnosperm, ...

  13. A functional–structural model for radiata pine (Pinus radiata) focusing on tree architecture and wood quality

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, M. Paulina; Norero, Aldo; Vera, Jorge R.; Pérez, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    Backgrounds and Aims Functional–structural models are interesting tools to relate environmental and management conditions with forest growth. Their three-dimensional images can reveal important characteristics of wood used for industrial products. Like virtual laboratories, they can be used to evaluate relationships among species, sites and management, and to support silvicultural design and decision processes. Our aim was to develop a functional–structural model for radiata pine (Pinus radiata) given its economic importance in many countries. Methods The plant model uses the L-system language. The structure of the model is based on operational units, which obey particular rules, and execute photosynthesis, respiration and morphogenesis, according to their particular characteristics. Plant allometry is adhered to so that harmonic growth and plant development are achieved. Environmental signals for morphogenesis are used. Dynamic turnover guides the normal evolution of the tree. Monthly steps allow for detailed information of wood characteristics. The model is independent of traditional forest inventory relationships and is conceived as a mechanistic model. For model parameterization, three databases which generated new information relating to P. radiata were analysed and incorporated. Key Results Simulations under different and contrasting environmental and management conditions were run and statistically tested. The model was validated against forest inventory data for the same sites and times and against true crown architectural data. The performance of the model for 6-year-old trees was encouraging. Total height, diameter and lengths of growth units were adequately estimated. Branch diameters were slightly overestimated. Wood density values were not satisfactory, but the cyclical pattern and increase of growth rings were reasonably well modelled. Conclusions The model was able to reproduce the development and growth of the species based on mechanistic

  14. Price sensitivity of bioethanol produced in New Zealand from Pinus radiata wood

    SciTech Connect

    Manderson, G.J.; Spencer, K.; Paterson, A.H.J. . Dept. of Biotechnology); Qureshi, N. ); Jansen, D.E. )

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis conducted of designs for industry-scale ethanol production facilities that use both hexoses and pentoses to produce 97 to 107 tonnes of anhydrous ethanol per day from 960 tonnes of Pinus radiata wood of 50% moisture content (480 oven-dried tonnes). Various process options and available technologies were considered for cost comparisons. The base case plant design was used to assess the probable importance of not fermenting thee wood pentose fraction. When pentose sugars were not fermented, the ethanol price increased from $0.71/L to $0.75/L. The influence of various economic factors on selling price is assessed.

  15. Relationships between nutrient status, carbon assimilation and water use efficiency in Pinus radiata (D. Don) needles.

    PubMed

    Sheriff, D. W.; Nambiar, E. K. S.; Fife, D. N.

    1986-12-01

    The productivity of Pinus radiata D. Don plantations can be increased on many soils by N and P fertilization. Foliar analyses are usually taken as a guide for nutrient management, but there is little information about the relationship of foliar nutrient status to foliar physiology. This paper provides such information from N and P fertilization experiments. The concentrations and contents of N and P in the needles of P. radiata change because of accumulation during needle growth, retranslocation during shoot growth, and replenishment from current uptake during periods of little shoot growth. Up to 60% P and 50% N may be retranslocated in a single growing season from needles less than one year old. Three years after fertilizer application to a 10-year-old thinned P. radiata stand, net carbon assimilation rate per unit leaf area was in the order NP>P>N. There were positive associations between foliar P and assimilation at full sunlight, diffusive conductance and quantum yield. Foliar N was negatively associated with these variables. Higher concentrations of P and N were both accompanied by higher instantaneous water use efficiency by the foliage. Estimated trends in whole tree assimilation were similar to those in aboveground biomass accumulation. The interplay between the dynamic nature of nutrients in the foliage and their influence on the physiology of needles is discussed. PMID:14975843

  16. 90sr uptake by 'pinus ponderosa' and 'pinus radiata' seedlings inoculated with ectomycorrhizal fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Entry, J.A.; Rygiewicz, P.T.; Emmingham, W.H.

    1994-01-01

    In the study, the authors inoculated P. ponderosa and P. radiata seedlings with one of five isolates of ectomycorrhizal fungi; inoculated and nonincoculated (control) seedlings were compared for their ability to remove Sr90 from an organic growth medium. Seedlings were grown for 3 months in a growth chamber in glass tubes containing 165 cu cm of sphagnum peat moss and perlite and, except in the controls, the fungal inoculum. After 3 months, 5978 Bq of Sr90 in 1 ml of sterile, distilled, deionized water was added. Seedlings were grown for an additional month and then harvested. P. ponderosa seedlings that were inoculated with ectomycorrhizal fungi accumulated 3.0-6.0% of the Sr90; bioconcentration ratios ranged from 98-162. Inoculated P. radiata seedlings accumulated 6.0-6.9% of the Sr90; bioconcentration ratios ranged from 88-133. Noninoculated P. ponderosa and P. radiata seedlings accumulated only 0.6 and 0.7% of the Sr90 and had bioconcentration ratios of 28 and 27, respectively.

  17. Application of hydrothermal treatment to affect the fermentability of Pinus radiata pulp mill effluent sludge.

    PubMed

    Andrews, John; Smit, Anne-Marie; Wijeyekoon, Suren; McDonald, Ben; Baroutian, Saeid; Gapes, Daniel

    2014-10-01

    A hybrid technique incorporating a wet oxidation stage and secondary fermentation step was used to process Pinus radiata pulp mill effluent sludge. The effect of hydrothermal oxidation at high temperature and pressure on the hydrolysis of constituents of the waste stream was studied. Biochemical acidogenic potential assays were conducted to assess acid production resulting from anaerobic hydrolysis of the wet oxidised hydrolysate under acidogenic conditions. Significant degradation of the lignin, hemicellulose, suspended solids, carbohydrates and extractives were observed with wet oxidation. In contrast, cellulose showed resistance to degradation under the experimental conditions. Extensive degradation of biologically inhibitory compounds by wet oxidation did not show a beneficial impact on the acidogenic or methanogenic potential compared to untreated samples. PMID:25125197

  18. Responses of carbon gain and growth of Pinus radiata stands to thinning and fertilizing.

    PubMed

    Sheriff, D W

    1996-06-01

    Thinning of forest stands is widely carried out to minimize the slowing of growth of individual stems that follows from increasing competition among trees as they become bigger. After thinning, there is an increase in the growth rate of remaining trees because of an increase in the availability of resources per tree. Often, there is also an increase in foliar efficiency (biomass increase/foliage amount). On sites where mineral nutrient supply is limiting, fertilizers may be applied, often in association with thinning, to boost productivity. Growth responses to fertilizer application depend on an adequate supply of other resources, but also involve nonlinear interactions among mineral nutrients and between nutrients and other growth-limiting environmental factors. The effects of thinning and fertilizing on the carbon gain and growth responses of Pinus radiata D. Don to availability of resources (light, mineral nutrients and water) and to changes in the canopy are discussed. PMID:14871706

  19. Assessment of holocellulose for the production of bioethanol by conserving Pinus radiata cones as renewable feedstock.

    PubMed

    Victor, Amudhavalli; Pulidindi, Indra Neel; Gedanken, Aharon

    2015-10-01

    Renewable and green energy sources are much sought. Bioethanol is an environmentally friendly transportation fuel. Pine cones from Pinus radiata were shown to be a potential feedstock for the production of bioethanol. Alkaline (NaOH) pretreatment was carried out to delignify the lignocellulosic material and generate holocellulose (72 wt. % yield). The pretreated biomass was hydrolysed using HCl as catalyst under microwave irradiation and hydrothermal conditions. Microwave irradiation was found to be better than the hydrothermal process. Microwave irradiation accelerated the hydrolysis of biomass (42 wt. % conversion) with the reaction conditions being 3 M HCl and 5 min of irradiation time. Interestingly, even the xylose, which is the major component of the hydrolyzate was found to be metabolized to ethanol using Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) under the experimental conditions. 5.7 g of ethanol could be produced from 100 g of raw pine cones. PMID:26247310

  20. Ophiostoma species (Ascomycetes: Ophiostomatales) associated with bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) colonizing Pinus radiata in northern Spain.

    PubMed

    Romón, Pedro; Zhou, XuDong; Iturrondobeitia, Juan Carlos; Wingfield, Michael J; Goldarazena, Arturo

    2007-06-01

    Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) are known to be associated with fungi, especially species of Ophiostoma sensu lato and Ceratocystis. However, very little is known about these fungi in Spain. In this study, we examined the fungi associated with 13 bark beetle species and one weevil (Coleoptera: Entiminae) infesting Pinus radiata in the Basque Country of northern Spain. This study included an examination of 1323 bark beetles or their galleries in P. radiata. Isolations yielded a total of 920 cultures, which included 16 species of Ophiostoma sensu lato or their asexual states. These 16 species included 69 associations between fungi and bark beetles and weevils that have not previously been recorded. The most commonly encountered fungal associates of the bark beetles were Ophiostoma ips, Leptographium guttulatum, Ophiostoma stenoceras, and Ophiostoma piceae. In most cases, the niche of colonization had a significant effect on the abundance and composition of colonizing fungi. This confirms that resource overlap between species is reduced by partial spatial segregation. Interaction between niche and time seldom had a significant effect, which suggests that spatial colonization patterns are rarely flexible throughout timber degradation. The differences in common associates among the bark beetle species could be linked to the different niches that these beetles occupy. PMID:17668036

  1. Chloroplast DNA Diversity among Trees, Populations and Species in the California Closed-Cone Pines (Pinus Radiata, Pinus Muricata and Pinus Attenuata)

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Y. P.; Hipkins, V. D.; Strauss, S. H.

    1993-01-01

    The amount, distribution and mutational nature of chloroplast DNA polymorphisms were studied via analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphisms in three closely related species of conifers, the California closed-cone pines-knobcone pine: Pinus attenuata Lemm.; bishop pine: Pinus muricata D. Don; and Monterey pine: Pinus radiata D. Don. Genomic DNA from 384 trees representing 19 populations were digested with 9-20 restriction enzymes and probed with cloned cpDNA fragments from Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] that comprise 82% of the chloroplast genome. Up to 313 restriction sites were surveyed, and 25 of these were observed to be polymorphic among or within species. Differences among species accounted for the majority of genetic (haplotypic) diversity observed [G(st) = 84(+/-13)%]; nucleotide diversity among species was estimated to be 0.3(+/-0.1)%. Knobcone pine and Monterey pine displayed almost no genetic variation within or among populations. Bishop pine also showed little variability within populations, but did display strong population differences [G(st) = 87(+/-8)%] that were a result of three distinct geographic groups. Mean nucleotide diversity within populations was 0.003(+/-0.002)%; intrapopulation polymorphisms were found in only five populations. This pattern of genetic variation contrasts strongly with findings from study of nuclear genes (allozymes) in the group, where most genetic diversity resides within populations rather than among populations or species. Regions of the genome subject to frequent length mutations were identified; estimates of subdivision based on length variant frequencies in one region differed strikingly from those based on site mutations or allozymes. Two trees were identified with a major chloroplast DNA inversion that closely resembled one documented between Pinus and Pseudotsuga. PMID:7905846

  2. Photosynthetic responses of field-grown Pinus radiata trees to artificial and aphid-induced defoliation.

    PubMed

    Eyles, Alieta; Smith, David; Pinkard, Elizabeth A; Smith, Ian; Corkrey, Ross; Elms, Stephen; Beadle, Chris; Mohammed, Caroline

    2011-06-01

    The phloem-feeding aphid Essigella californica represents a potential threat to the productivity of Pinus radiata plantations in south-eastern Australia. Five- and nine-year-old field trials were used to characterize the effects of artificial and natural aphid-induced (E. californica) defoliation, respectively, on shoot photosynthesis and growth. Photosynthetic capacity (A(max)) was significantly greater following a 25% (D25) (13.8 µmol m(-2) s(-1)) and a 50% (D50) (15.9 µmol m(-2) s(-1)) single-event upper-crown artificial defoliation, 3 weeks after defoliation than in undefoliated control trees (12.9 µmol m(-2) s(-1)). This response was consistently observed for up to 11 weeks after the defoliation event; by Week 16, there was no difference in A(max) between control and defoliated trees. In the D50 treatment, this increased A(max) was not sufficient to fully compensate for the foliage loss as evidenced by the reduced diameter increment (by 15%) in defoliated trees 36 weeks after defoliation. In contrast, diameter increment of trees in the D25 treatment was unaffected by defoliation. The A(max) of trees experiencing upper-crown defoliation by natural and repeated E. californica infestations varied, depending on host genotype. Despite clear differences in defoliation levels between resistant and susceptible genotypes (17 vs. 35% of tree crown defoliated, respectively), growth of susceptible genotypes was not significantly different from that of resistant genotypes. The observed increases in A(max) in the lower crown of the canopy following attack suggested that susceptible genotypes were able to partly compensate for the loss of foliage by compensatory photosynthesis. The capacity of P. radiata to regulate photosynthesis in response to natural aphid-induced defoliation provides evidence that the impact of E. californica attack on stem growth will be less than expected, at least for up to 35% defoliation. PMID:21697147

  3. Suppression of 4-coumarate-CoA ligase in the coniferous gymnosperm Pinus radiata.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Armin; Donaldson, Lloyd; Kim, Hoon; Phillips, Lorelle; Flint, Heather; Steward, Diane; Torr, Kirk; Koch, Gerald; Schmitt, Uwe; Ralph, John

    2009-01-01

    Severe suppression of 4-coumarate-coenzyme A ligase (4CL) in the coniferous gymnosperm Pinus radiata substantially affected plant phenotype and resulted in dwarfed plants with a "bonsai tree-like" appearance. Microscopic analyses of stem sections from 2-year-old plants revealed substantial morphological changes in both wood and bark tissues. This included the formation of weakly lignified tracheids that displayed signs of collapse and the development of circumferential bands of axial parenchyma. Acetyl bromide-soluble lignin assays and proton nuclear magnetic resonance studies revealed lignin reductions of 36% to 50% in the most severely affected transgenic plants. Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance and pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry studies indicated that lignin reductions were mainly due to depletion of guaiacyl but not p-hydroxyphenyl lignin. 4CL silencing also caused modifications in the lignin interunit linkage distribution, including elevated beta-aryl ether (beta-O-4 unit) and spirodienone (beta-1) levels, accompanied by lower phenylcoumaran (beta-5), resinol (beta-beta), and dibenzodioxocin (5-5/beta-O-4) levels. A sharp depletion in the level of saturated (dihydroconiferyl alcohol) end groups was also observed. Severe suppression of 4CL also affected carbohydrate metabolism. Most obvious was an up to approximately 2-fold increase in galactose content in wood from transgenic plants due to increased compression wood formation. The molecular, anatomical, and analytical data verified that the isolated 4CL clone is associated with lignin biosynthesis and illustrated that 4CL silencing leads to complex, often surprising, physiological and morphological changes in P. radiata. PMID:18971431

  4. Production, composition and toxicology studies of Enzogenol® Pinus radiata bark extract.

    PubMed

    Frevel, Mathias A E; Pipingas, Andrew; Grigsby, Warren J; Frampton, Chris M; Gilchrist, Nigel L

    2012-12-01

    Enzogenol® pine bark extract is a dietary supplement and food ingredient produced by water extraction of Pinus radiata. We present production method, composition, and safety data from rat and dog toxicological and human clinical studies. The dry powder contains proanthocyanidins (>80%), taxifolin (1-2%), other flavonoids and phenolic acids (up to 8%), and carbohydrates (5-10%). Reverse mutation assays showed lack of mutagenic activity. Single and 14-day repeat dosing in rats and dogs had no influence on body weight, feed consumption, blood chemistry, and haematology at any dose level. There were no treatment related findings on gross and detailed necroscopy, organ weights, organ weight ratios and histology. The only adverse events were emesis and diarrhoea in dogs occurring mainly in un-fed condition and at the highest dose level in a total of 18% of applications. The MTD and NOAEL in the present rat and dog studies were 2500 and 750 mg/kg/day, respectively. Consumption of 480 mg/day for 6 months and 960 mg/day for 5 weeks in two human studies showed Enzogenol® had no adverse influence on liver and kidney function, haematology, and did not cause any adverse events. Our studies indicate lack of toxicity of Enzogenol® and support safe use as a food ingredient. PMID:22982471

  5. Improved cognitive performance after dietary supplementation with a Pinus radiata bark extract formulation.

    PubMed

    Pipingas, Andrew; Silberstein, Richard B; Vitetta, Luis; Rooy, Cindy Van; Harris, Elizabeth V; Young, Joanna M; Frampton, Christopher M; Sali, Avni; Nastasi, Joseph

    2008-09-01

    Dietary interventions may have the potential to counter age-related cognitive decline. Studies have demonstrated an improvement in age-related cognitive impairment in animals after supplementation with plant extracts containing flavonoids but there are few human studies. This double-blind, controlled study examined the effects on cognitive performance of a 5 week supplementation with Enzogenol Pinus radiata bark extract containing flavonoids, in 42 males aged 50-65 years, with a body mass index >25. Participants were supplemented for 5 weeks either with Enzogenol plus vitamin C, or with vitamin C only. A battery of computerized cognitive tests was administered, and cardiovascular and haematological parameters were assessed prior to and following supplementation. The speed of response for the spatial working memory and immediate recognition tasks improved after supplementation with Enzogenol plus vitamin C, whereas vitamin C alone showed no improvements. A trend in a reduction of systolic blood pressure was observed with Enzogenol plus vitamin C, but not with vitamin C alone. The blood safety parameters were unchanged. The findings suggest a beneficial effect of supplementation with Enzogenol on cognition in older individuals. Larger studies are needed to ascertain its potential as a preventive treatment for age-related cognitive decline. PMID:18683195

  6. Realized gain and prediction of yield with genetically improved Pinus radiata in New Zealand

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, S.D.; Hayes, J.D. ); Garcia, O. . Centro de Investigacions Forestais de Lourizan)

    1999-05-01

    Pinus radiata D. Don seedlots of varying genetic quality were compared in block-plot genetic-gain trials at 10 locations representing most of the site types in New Zealand. Permanent sample plots were measured annually for growth from age 6--8 yr from planting to ages 15--17 (midrotation). Seedlots from first-generation open-pollinated seed orchards and a mix of crosses that all involved the top-performing parent were, respectively, on average 4.5 % and 5.3% taller and had 6% and 11% larger mean diameter, 12% and 30% more basal area, and 15% and 34% more stem volume than seedlots originating from mild mass selection in harvested stands (climbing select). The observed growth increases were quantified as changes in the rate of growth from that predicted by pre-existing growth models in order to account for tree size and stocking differences. Seedlots from first-generation seed orchards and crosses of the top clone, respectively, grew 5.1% and 4.5% faster in height, and functions for basal area and stocking changed 13% and 26.4% faster, respectively, than the baseline growth models, which were based on climbing select. This implies that increased basal area growth must be taken into account in order to obtain accurate prediction of gain in stem volume. The incorporation of these observed increases in growth rates into stand growth models as genetic-gain multipliers in order to extrapolate predictions of growth of genetically improved seedlots beyond the sites, silvicultures, and seedlots represented in the genetic gain trials is discussed.

  7. Biomarker genes highlight intraspecific and interspecific variations in the responses of Pinus taeda L. and Pinus radiata D. Don to Sirex noctilio F. acid gland secretions.

    PubMed

    Bordeaux, John Michael; Lorenz, W Walter; Dean, Jeffrey F D

    2012-10-01

    Sirex noctilio F., a Eurasian horntail woodwasp recently introduced into North America, oviposits in pines and other conifers and in the process spreads a phytopathogenic fungus that serves as a food source for its larvae. During oviposition the woodwasp also deposits mucus produced in its acid (venom) gland that alters pine defense responses and facilitates infection by the fungus. A 26,496-feature loblolly pine cDNA microarray was used to survey gene expression of pine tissue responding to S. noctilio venom. Six genes were selected for further assessment by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), including one that encoded an apparent PR-4 protein and another that encoded a thaumatin-like protein. Expression of both was strongly induced in response to venom, while expression of an apparent actin gene (ACT1) was stable in response to the venom. The pattern of gene response was similar in Pinus taeda L. and Pinus radiata D. Don, but the magnitude of response in P. radiata was significantly stronger for each of the induced genes. The magnitude of the biomarker gene response to venom also varied according to genotype within these two species. The qRT-PCR assay was used to demonstrate that the primary bioactive component in S. noctilio venom is a polypeptide. PMID:23042767

  8. Understanding Trichoderma in the root system of Pinus radiata: associations between rhizosphere colonisation and growth promotion for commercially grown seedlings.

    PubMed

    Hohmann, Pierre; Jones, E Eirian; Hill, Robert A; Stewart, Alison

    2011-08-01

    Two Trichoderma isolates (T. hamatum LU592 and T. atroviride LU132) were tested for their ability to promote the growth and health of commercially grown Pinus radiata seedlings. The colonisation behaviour of the two isolates was investigated to relate rhizosphere competence and root penetration to subsequent effects on plant performance. Trichoderma hamatum LU592 was shown to enhance several plant health and growth parameters. The isolate significantly reduced seedling mortality by up to 29%, and promoted the growth of shoots (e.g. height by up to 16%) and roots (e.g. dry weight by up to 31%). The introduction of LU592 as either seed coat or spray application equally improved seedling health and growth demonstrating the suitability of both application methods for pine nursery situations. However, clear differences in rhizosphere colonisation and root penetration between the two application methods highlighted the need for more research on the impact of inoculum densities. When spray-applied, LU592 was found to be the predominant Trichoderma strain in the plant root system, including bulk potting mix, rhizosphere and endorhizosphere. In contrast, T. atroviride LU132 was shown to colonise the root system poorly, and no biological impact on P. radiata seedlings was detected. This is the first report to demonstrate rhizosphere competence as a useful indicator for determining Trichoderma bio-inoculants for P. radiata. High indigenous Trichoderma populations with similar population dynamics to the introduced strains revealed the limitations of the dilution plating technique, but this constraint was alleviated to some extent by the use of techniques for morphological and molecular identification of the introduced isolates. PMID:21802056

  9. Decomposition of litter in a dry sclerophyll eucalypt forest and a Pinus radiata plantation in southeastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crockford, R. H.; Richardson, D. P.

    2002-12-01

    This study of litter decomposition was part of an extensive project examining the partitioning of rainfall, the associated chemistry, and litterfall in a dry sclerophyll eucalypt forest and a Pinus radiata plantation in southeastern Australia. The eucalypt species studied were Eucalyptus rossii, E. mannifera and E. dives. The components tested were Pinus radiata needles, leaves of the three eucalypt species, and the bark of E. rossii and E. mannifera.During the first 16 weeks of the decomposition experiment there was a rapid decrease in the concentrations of potassium, magnesium, sodium and phosphorus; this was attributed to leaching. During this period, concentrations of nitrogen and calcium increased for most components. After this period, decomposition became the dominant process, during which the concentrations of most elements increased. By the end of the experiment there was, compared with the initial values, a marked reduction in concentrations of sodium, magnesium and potassium for all eucalypt and pine litter. Calcium concentrations increased through time, with eucalypt bark showing a mid-period decline. Phosphorus concentrations decreased for the eucalypt leaves but increased substantially for the pine needles and the eucalypt bark. For all components of both the eucalypts and pines, total nitrogen concentrations rose consistently throughout the decomposition period. This was attributed to the formation of nitrogen-substituted lignin, which was more resistant to decomposition than the other nitrogen-containing compounds, as well as some nitrogen being stored in the micro-organisms responsible for decomposition. Because of loss of fragmented litter from the litter bags after 16 weeks, the weight changes could not be confidently measured after this period.

  10. Genome‐wide gene expression dynamics of the fungal pathogen Dothistroma septosporum throughout its infection cycle of the gymnosperm host Pinus radiata

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yanan; Sim, Andre D.; Kabir, M. Shahjahan; Chettri, Pranav; Ozturk, Ibrahim K.; Hunziker, Lukas; Ganley, Rebecca J.; Cox, Murray P.

    2015-01-01

    Summary We present genome‐wide gene expression patterns as a time series through the infection cycle of the fungal pine needle blight pathogen, Dothistroma septosporum, as it invades its gymnosperm host, Pinus radiata. We determined the molecular changes at three stages of the disease cycle: epiphytic/biotrophic (early), initial necrosis (mid) and mature sporulating lesion (late). Over 1.7 billion combined plant and fungal reads were sequenced to obtain 3.2 million fungal‐specific reads, which comprised as little as 0.1% of the sample reads early in infection. This enriched dataset shows that the initial biotrophic stage is characterized by the up‐regulation of genes encoding fungal cell wall‐modifying enzymes and signalling proteins. Later necrotrophic stages show the up‐regulation of genes for secondary metabolism, putative effectors, oxidoreductases, transporters and starch degradation. This in‐depth through‐time transcriptomic study provides our first snapshot of the gene expression dynamics that characterize infection by this fungal pathogen in its gymnosperm host. PMID:25919703

  11. Genome-wide gene expression dynamics of the fungal pathogen Dothistroma septosporum throughout its infection cycle of the gymnosperm host Pinus radiata.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Rosie E; Guo, Yanan; Sim, Andre D; Kabir, M Shahjahan; Chettri, Pranav; Ozturk, Ibrahim K; Hunziker, Lukas; Ganley, Rebecca J; Cox, Murray P

    2016-02-01

    We present genome-wide gene expression patterns as a time series through the infection cycle of the fungal pine needle blight pathogen, Dothistroma septosporum, as it invades its gymnosperm host, Pinus radiata. We determined the molecular changes at three stages of the disease cycle: epiphytic/biotrophic (early), initial necrosis (mid) and mature sporulating lesion (late). Over 1.7 billion combined plant and fungal reads were sequenced to obtain 3.2 million fungal-specific reads, which comprised as little as 0.1% of the sample reads early in infection. This enriched dataset shows that the initial biotrophic stage is characterized by the up-regulation of genes encoding fungal cell wall-modifying enzymes and signalling proteins. Later necrotrophic stages show the up-regulation of genes for secondary metabolism, putative effectors, oxidoreductases, transporters and starch degradation. This in-depth through-time transcriptomic study provides our first snapshot of the gene expression dynamics that characterize infection by this fungal pathogen in its gymnosperm host. PMID:25919703

  12. Aerobic moving bed bioreactor performance: a comparative study of removal efficiencies of kraft mill effluents from Pinus radiata and Eucalyptus globulus as raw material.

    PubMed

    Villamar, C A; Jarpa, M; Decap, J; Vidal, G

    2009-01-01

    A Moving Bed Bioreactor (MBBR) was operated during 333 days. Two different effluents were fed in six different phases. Phases I and II were fed with effluent where Pinus radiata was used as raw material, while phases III to VI were fed with effluent where Eucalyptus globulus was used as raw material. The HRT was reduced from 85 to 4 h, and the BOD(5):N:P ratio (100:5:1, 100:3:1 and 100:1:1) was also simultaneously evaluated as an operation strategy. When MBBR was operated with Pinus radiata influent, the performance presents a high BOD(5) removal level (above 95%), although COD removal is below 60%. Most of the recalcitrant COD contained in the effluent has a molecular weight higher than 10,000 Da. When MBBR was operated with Eucalyptus globulus influent, the performance is around 97.9-97.6% and 68.6-65.1% for BOD(5) and COD, respectively (with HRT up to 17 h). In the Pinus radiata and Eucalyptus globus effluents, the color was mainly found in the molecular weight fraction up to 10,000 Daltons. PMID:19214005

  13. Cell differentiation, secondary cell-wall formation and transformation of callus tissue of Pinus radiata D. Don.

    PubMed

    Möller, Ralf; McDonald, Armando G; Walter, Christian; Harris, Philip J

    2003-09-01

    Tracheid and sclereid differentiation was induced in callus cultures of Pinus radiata D. Don by culturing on a basal medium containing activated charcoal but no phytohormones; sclereids differentiated in callus derived from xylem strips, but not in callus derived from hypocotyl segments. The tracheids differentiated in hypocotyl-derived callus had helical, scalariform, reticulated or pitted secondary cell-wall patterns, but those differentiated in xylem-derived callus had a reticulate or pitted pattern. The thickened tracheid and sclereid walls contained lignin as indicated by the red colour reaction given with phloroglucinol-HCl. The presence of lignin in the cell walls of differentiated callus was confirmed using pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry by the detection of phenylpropanoid components derived from lignin. Lignin was also detected using solid-state (13)C cross-polarisation/magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and quantified as thioglycolic acid lignin. Monosaccharide analyses of the cell walls isolated from differentiated and undifferentiated calli showed that the cell walls of the differentiated calli contained higher proportions of glucose and mannose, consistent with the presence of greater proportions of gluco- and/or galactogluco-mannans in the secondary cell walls of the differentiated cells. A protocol for the stable transformation of undifferentiated, xylem-derived cultures was successfully developed. Transgenic cell lines were established following Biolistic particle bombardment with a plasmid containing the coding region of the nptII gene and the coding region of the cad gene from P. radiata. Expression of the nptII gene in transgenic lines was confirmed by an NPTII-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The overexpression of cad in the transgenic lines resulted in a down-regulation of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.195) expression. PMID:12811558

  14. Modelling Environmental Variation in Young's Modulus for Pinus radiata and Implications for Determination of Critical Buckling Height

    PubMed Central

    WATT, MICHAEL S.; MOORE, JOHN R.; FAÇON, JEAN-PHILIPPE; DOWNES, GEOFF M.; CLINTON, PETER W.; COKER, GRAHAM; DAVIS, MURRAY R.; SIMCOCK, ROBYN; PARFITT, ROGER L.; DANDO, JOHN; MASON, EUAN G.; BOWN, HORACIO E.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Although density-specific stiffness, E/ρ, (where E is Young's modulus and ρ is wood density) is often assumed constant by the elastic similarity model, and in determination of critical buckling height (Hcrit), few studies have tested this assumption within species. Here this assumption is tested for Pinus radiata growing across an environmental gradient, and theory is combined with data to develop a model of Young's modulus. • Methods Analyses use an extensive series of environmental plots covering the range of climatic and edaphic conditions over which P. radiata is grown in New Zealand. Reduced major axis regression was used to determine scaling exponents between log–log plots of Hcrit vs. groundline diameter (D), and E/ρ vs. D. Path analysis was used to identify significant direct and indirect (through stem slenderness) edaphic and climatic influences on E. • Key Results Density-specific stiffness exhibited 3-fold variation. As E/ρ scaled positively with D, the exponent of 0·95 between Hcrit and D exceeded the assumed value of 0·67 under constant E/ρ. The final path analysis model included mean air temperature in early autumn (Taut) and slenderness as significant (P < 0·05) positive direct influences on E. Tree leaf area index and Taut were indirectly associated with E through their significant (P < 0·05) positive direct relationship with stem slenderness. Young's modulus was most sensitive to Taut, followed by stem slenderness then leaf area index, and the final model explained 76 % of the variance in E. • Conclusions The findings suggest that within species E/ρ variation may influence Hcrit and the scaling exponent between D and Hcrit so important in assumptions regarding allometric relationships. The model presented may provide a useful means of determining variation in E, E/ρ and Hcrit across environmental gradients. PMID:16868003

  15. Genes Expressed in Pinus radiata Male Cones Include Homologs to Anther-Specific and Pathogenesis Response Genes1

    PubMed Central

    Walden, Adrian R.; Walter, Christian; Gardner, Richard C.

    1999-01-01

    We describe the isolation and characterization of 13 cDNA clones that are differentially expressed in male cones of Pinus radiata (D. Don). The transcripts of the 13 genes are expressed at different times between meiosis and microspore mitosis, timing that corresponds to a burst in tapetal activity in the developing anthers. In situ hybridization showed that four of the genes are expressed in the tapetum, while a fifth is expressed in tetrads during a brief developmental window. Six of the seven cDNAs identified in database searches have striking similarity to genes expressed in angiosperm anthers. Seven cDNAs are homologs of defense and pathogen response genes. The cDNAs identified are predicted to encode a chalcone-synthase-like protein, a thaumatin-like protein, a serine hydrolase thought to be a putative regulator of programmed cell death, two lipid-transfer proteins, and two homologs of the anther-specific A9 genes from Brassica napus and Arabidopsis. Overall, our results support the hypothesis that many of the reproductive processes in the angiosperms and gymnosperms were inherited from a common ancestor. PMID:10594098

  16. Dataset of UV induced changes in nuclear proteome obtained by GeLC-Orbitrap/MS in Pinus radiata needles.

    PubMed

    Alegre, Sara; Pascual, Jesús; Nagler, Matthias; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Cañal, María Jesús; Valledor, Luis

    2016-06-01

    Although responses to UV stress have been characterised at system and cellular levels, the dynamics of the nuclear proteome triggered in this situation are still unknown, despite its essential role in regulating gene expression and in last term plant physiology. To fill this gap, we characterised the variations in the nuclear proteome after 2 h and 16 h (8 h/day) of UV irradiation by using state-of-the-art mass spectrometry-based shotgun proteomics methods combined with novel bioinformatics workflows that were employed in the manuscript entitled "The variations in the nuclear proteome reveal new transcription factors and mechanisms involved in UV stress response in Pinus radiata" (Pascual et al., 2016) [1]. We employed in-gel digestion followed by a 120 min gradient prior to MS analysis. Data was processed following two approaches: a database dependent employing the SEQUEST algorithm and custom databases, and a database independent by mass accuracy precursor alignment (MAPA). 388 proteins were identified by SEQUEST search and 9094 m/z were quantified by MAPA. Significant m/z were de novo sequenced using the Novor algorithm. We present here the complete datasets and the analysis workflow. PMID:27182543

  17. Fourier transform infrared imaging and microscopy studies of Pinus radiata pulps regarding the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Rosario del P; Araya, Juan; Troncoso, Eduardo; Vinet, Silenne; Freer, Juanita

    2015-03-25

    The distribution and chemical patterns of lignocellulosic components at microscopic scale and their effect on the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process (SSF) in the production of bioethanol from Pinus radiata pulps were analyzed by the application of diverse microscopical techniques, including scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) - Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy. This last technique was accompanied with multivariate methods, including principal component analysis (PCA) and multivariate curve resolution with alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) to evaluate the distribution patterns and to generate pure spectra of the lignocellulosic components of fibers. The results indicate that the information obtained by the techniques is complementary (ultrastructure, confocality and chemical characterization) and that the distribution of components affects the SSF yield, identifying lignin coalescence droplets as a characteristic factor to increase the SSF yield. Therefore, multivariate analysis of the infrared spectra enabled the in situ identification of the cellulose, lignin and lignin-carbohydrates arrangements. These techniques could be used to investigate the lignocellulosic components distribution and consequently their recalcitrance in many applications where minimal sample manipulation and microscale chemical information is required. PMID:25732688

  18. Allelic Variation in Cell Wall Candidate Genes Affecting Solid Wood Properties in Natural Populations and Land Races of Pinus radiata

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, S. K.; Nolan, M.; Li, W.; Bell, C.; Wu, H. X.; Southerton, S. G.

    2010-01-01

    Forest trees are ideally suited to association mapping due to their high levels of diversity and low genomic linkage disequilibrium. Using an association mapping approach, single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers influencing quantitative variation in wood quality were identified in a natural population of Pinus radiata. Of 149 sites examined, 10 demonstrated significant associations (P < 0.05, q < 0.1) with one or more traits after accounting for population structure and experimentwise error. Without accounting for marker interactions, phenotypic variation attributed to individual SNPs ranged from 2 to 6.5%. Undesirable negative correlations between wood quality and growth were not observed, indicating potential to break negative correlations by selecting for individual SNPs in breeding programs. Markers that yielded significant associations were reexamined in an Australian land race. SNPs from three genes (PAL1, PCBER, and SUSY) yielded significant associations. Importantly, associations with two of these genes validated associations with density previously observed in the discovery population. In both cases, decreased wood density was associated with the minor allele, suggesting that these SNPs may be under weak negative purifying selection for density in the natural populations. These results demonstrate the utility of LD mapping to detect associations, even when the power to detect SNPs with small effect is anticipated to be low. PMID:20498299

  19. Associations between Ectomycorrhizal Fungi and Bacterial Needle Endophytes in Pinus radiata: Implications for Biotic Selection of Microbial Communities.

    PubMed

    Rúa, Megan A; Wilson, Emily C; Steele, Sarah; Munters, Arielle R; Hoeksema, Jason D; Frank, Anna C

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the ecological and evolutionary relationships between plants and their associated microbes have long been focused on single microbes, or single microbial guilds, but in reality, plants associate with a diverse array of microbes from a varied set of guilds. As such, multitrophic interactions among plant-associated microbes from multiple guilds represent an area of developing research, and can reveal how complex microbial communities are structured around plants. Interactions between coniferous plants and their associated microbes provide a good model system for such studies, as conifers host a suite of microorganisms including mutualistic ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi and foliar bacterial endophytes. To investigate the potential role ECM fungi play in structuring foliar bacterial endophyte communities, we sampled three isolated, native populations of Monterey pine (Pinus radiata), and used constrained analysis of principal coordinates to relate the community matrices of the ECM fungi and bacterial endophytes. Our results suggest that ECM fungi may be important factors for explaining variation in bacterial endophyte communities but this effect is influenced by population and environmental characteristics, emphasizing the potential importance of other factors - biotic or abiotic - in determining the composition of bacterial communities. We also classified ECM fungi into categories based on known fungal traits associated with substrate exploration and nutrient mobilization strategies since variation in these traits allows the fungi to acquire nutrients across a wide range of abiotic conditions and may influence the outcome of multi-species interactions. Across populations and environmental factors, none of the traits associated with fungal foraging strategy types significantly structured bacterial assemblages, suggesting these ECM fungal traits are not important for understanding endophyte-ECM interactions. Overall, our results suggest that both biotic species

  20. Associations between Ectomycorrhizal Fungi and Bacterial Needle Endophytes in Pinus radiata: Implications for Biotic Selection of Microbial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Rúa, Megan A.; Wilson, Emily C.; Steele, Sarah; Munters, Arielle R.; Hoeksema, Jason D.; Frank, Anna C.

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the ecological and evolutionary relationships between plants and their associated microbes have long been focused on single microbes, or single microbial guilds, but in reality, plants associate with a diverse array of microbes from a varied set of guilds. As such, multitrophic interactions among plant-associated microbes from multiple guilds represent an area of developing research, and can reveal how complex microbial communities are structured around plants. Interactions between coniferous plants and their associated microbes provide a good model system for such studies, as conifers host a suite of microorganisms including mutualistic ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi and foliar bacterial endophytes. To investigate the potential role ECM fungi play in structuring foliar bacterial endophyte communities, we sampled three isolated, native populations of Monterey pine (Pinus radiata), and used constrained analysis of principal coordinates to relate the community matrices of the ECM fungi and bacterial endophytes. Our results suggest that ECM fungi may be important factors for explaining variation in bacterial endophyte communities but this effect is influenced by population and environmental characteristics, emphasizing the potential importance of other factors — biotic or abiotic — in determining the composition of bacterial communities. We also classified ECM fungi into categories based on known fungal traits associated with substrate exploration and nutrient mobilization strategies since variation in these traits allows the fungi to acquire nutrients across a wide range of abiotic conditions and may influence the outcome of multi-species interactions. Across populations and environmental factors, none of the traits associated with fungal foraging strategy types significantly structured bacterial assemblages, suggesting these ECM fungal traits are not important for understanding endophyte-ECM interactions. Overall, our results suggest that both biotic

  1. Early induced protein 1 (PrELIP1) and other photosynthetic, stress and epigenetic regulation genes are involved in Pinus radiata D. don UV-B radiation response.

    PubMed

    Valledor, Luis; Cañal, María Jesús; Pascual, Jesús; Rodríguez, Roberto; Meijón, Mónica

    2012-11-01

    The continuous atmospheric and environmental deterioration is likely to increase, among others, the influx of ultraviolet B (UV-B) radiation. The plants have photoprotective responses, which are complex mechanisms involving different physiological responses, to avoid the damages caused by this radiation that may lead to plant death. We have studied the adaptive responses to UV-B in Pinus radiata, given the importance of this species in conifer forests and reforestation programs. We analyzed the photosynthetic activity, pigments content, and gene expression of candidate genes related to photosynthesis, stress and gene regulation in needles exposed to UV-B during a 96 h time course. The results reveal a clear increase of pigments under UV-B stress while photosynthetic activity decreased. The expression levels of the studied genes drastically changed after UV-B exposure, were stress related genes were upregulated while photosynthesis (RBCA and RBCS) and epigenetic regulation were downregulated (MSI1, CSDP2, SHM4). The novel gene PrELIP1, fully sequenced for this work, was upregulated and expressed mainly in the palisade parenchyma of needles. This gene has conserved domains related to the dissipation of the UV-B radiation that give to this protein a key role during photoprotection response of the needles in Pinus radiata. PMID:22471584

  2. Micromorphological changes and mechanism associated with wet ball milling of Pinus radiata substrate and consequences for saccharification at low enzyme loading.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, Alankar A; Donaldson, Lloyd A; Newman, Roger H; Suckling, Ian D; Campion, Sylke H; Lloyd, John A; Murton, Karl D

    2016-08-01

    In this work, substrates prepared from thermo-mechanical treatment of Pinus radiata chips were vibratory ball milled for different times. In subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis, percent glucan conversion passed through a maximum value at a milling time of around 120min and then declined. Scanning electron microscopy revealed breakage of fibers to porous fragments in which lamellae and fibrils were exposed during ball milling. Over-milling caused compression of the porous fragments to compact globular particles with a granular texture, decreasing accessibility to enzymes. Carbon-13 NMR spectroscopy showed partial loss of interior cellulose in crystallites, leveling off once fiber breakage was complete. A mathematical model based on observed micromorphological changes supports ball milling mechanism. At a low enzyme loading of 2FPU/g of substrate and milling time of 120min gave a total monomeric sugar yield of 306g/kg of pulp which is higher than conventional pretreatment method such as steam exploded wood. PMID:27131293

  3. Influence of CO/sub 2/ enrichment and phosphorus deficiency on chlorophyll A fluorescence, photosynthesis and growth of Pinus Radiata

    SciTech Connect

    Conroy, J.; Smillie, R.; Kuppers, M.; Barlow, S.

    1987-04-01

    Needles from phosphorus (P) deficient seedlings of P.radiata grown for 8 weeks at either 330 or 660 ul CO/sub 2/1/sup -1/ displayed chlorophyll fluorescence induction kinetics characteristic of structural changes within the chloroplast thylakoid membrane. The effect was greatest in plants grown at 660 ul CO/sub 2/1/sup -1/. By week 22, at 330 ul CO/sub 2/1/sup -1/, acclimation to P deficiency had occurred as shown by the similarity between the deficient and adequate P plants in their fluorescence and photosynthetic characteristics. Acclimation did not occur at 660 ul CO/sub 2/1/sup -1/. The light saturated rate of photosynthesis was higher at 660 ul CO/sub 2/1/sup -1/ when P was adequate but not when it was deficient. Similarly, growth was only enhanced by high CO/sub 2/ when P was adequate.

  4. Effect of liming and organic and inorganic fertilization on soil carbon sequestered in macro-and microaggregates in a 17-year old Pinus radiata silvopastoral system.

    PubMed

    Mosquera-Losada, M R; Rigueiro-Rodríguez, A; Ferreiro-Domínguez, N

    2015-03-01

    Agroforestry systems have been recognized as a potential greenhouse gas mitigation strategy under the Kyoto Protocol because of their ability to absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and store carbon mainly in the soil. Soil particle size and land management practices are known to have a considerable influence on carbon storage in soils. This study evaluated changes in soil chemical and physical properties, and quantified and compared the amount of C stored in the bulk soil and in three different soil fractions (250-2000, 53-250 and <53 μm) at each of four soil depths (0-25, 25-50, 50-75 and 75-100 cm) in a silvopastoral system located on an acidic forest soil under Pinus radiata D. Don. Areas of this system were subjected ten years ago to one of nine fertilization treatments: three different doses of sewage sludge or no fertilization, all with or without the addition of lime, and mineral fertilizer with no liming. Seventeen years after reforestation and seven years after canopy closure, strong gradients with soil depth were found regarding soil bulk density, pH and carbon storage. Intense soil management (high doses of sewage sludge and liming) generally reduced soil carbon storage, mainly in coarse aggregates, but this could be compensated by the increase in tree and pasture development observed in soils subject to intermediate sewage sludge doses. PMID:25460421

  5. Activities of Ribulose Bisphosphate Carboxylase and Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase and 14C-Bicarbonate Fixation during in Vitro Culture of Pinus radiata Cotyledons 1

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Prakash P.; Bender, Ludwig; Thorpe, Trevor A.

    1988-01-01

    The activities of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBPC) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), as indicators of autotrophic and nonautotrophic CO2 fixation, were measured in excised cotyledons of Pinus radiata D. Don cultured for 21 days under shoot-forming (SF) and nonshoot-forming (NSF) conditions. The activity of RuBPC was found to increase in both SF and NSF cultures during the initial 5 days of culture. However, it leveled off from day 5 to day 10 and subsequently began to decrease until the end of the culture period under the SF conditions. In contrast, in the NSF cultures, RuBPC activity increased until day 15, when it was twofold higher than the maximum activity found in the SF cultures. An increase in PEPC activity of about 2.5 times the level of activity in freshly excised cotyledons was observed during the initial 5 days of culture under the SF conditions. PEPC activity began to decline after day 5 until it reached the level of activity seen in NSF cotyledons by day 15. In contrast, the activity of PEPC did not show any significant increase during the initial 10 days of culture under the NSF conditions. The Km (phosphoenolpyruvate) of PEPC from SF cotyledons was about 35% higher than that of NSF cotyledons. Cotyledons from two culture periods (days 5 and 15) were incubated for 15 seconds with NaH14CO3. The label in the malate and asparatate fractions as a percentage of total 14C incorporation was 3 times higher in the SF cotyledons than in the NSF cotyledons. A higher incorporation of 14C into products of photosynthesis under the NSF conditions was also observed. PMID:16666206

  6. Dataset of UV induced changes in nuclear proteome obtained by GeLC-Orbitrap/MS in Pinus radiata needles

    PubMed Central

    Alegre, Sara; Pascual, Jesús; Nagler, Matthias; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Cañal, María Jesús; Valledor, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Although responses to UV stress have been characterised at system and cellular levels, the dynamics of the nuclear proteome triggered in this situation are still unknown, despite its essential role in regulating gene expression and in last term plant physiology. To fill this gap, we characterised the variations in the nuclear proteome after 2 h and 16 h (8 h/day) of UV irradiation by using state-of-the-art mass spectrometry-based shotgun proteomics methods combined with novel bioinformatics workflows that were employed in the manuscript entitled “The variations in the nuclear proteome reveal new transcription factors and mechanisms involved in UV stress response in Pinus radiata” (Pascual et al., 2016) [1]. We employed in-gel digestion followed by a 120 min gradient prior to MS analysis. Data was processed following two approaches: a database dependent employing the SEQUEST algorithm and custom databases, and a database independent by mass accuracy precursor alignment (MAPA). 388 proteins were identified by SEQUEST search and 9094 m/z were quantified by MAPA. Significant m/z were de novo sequenced using the Novor algorithm. We present here the complete datasets and the analysis workflow. PMID:27182543

  7. Chlorophyll a fluorescence and photosynthetic and growth responses of Pinus radiata to phosphorus deficiency, drought stress, and high CO/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Conroy, J.P.; Smillie, R.M.; Kueppers, M.; Bevege, D.I.; Barlow, E.W.

    1986-06-01

    Needles from phosphorus deficient seedlings of Pinus radiata D. Don grown for 8 weeks at either 330 or 660 microliters CO/sub 2/ per liter displayed chlorophyll a fluorescence induction kinetics characteristic of structural changes within the thylakoid chloroplast membrane, i.e. constant yield fluorescence (F/sub O/) was increased and induced fluorescence ((F/sub P/-F/sub I/)/F /sub O/) was reduced. The effect was greatest in the undroughted plants grown at 660 ..mu..l CO/sub 2/ L/sup -1/. By week 22 at 330 ..mu..lCO/sub 2/L/sup -1/ acclimation to P deficiency had occurred as shown by the similarity in the fluorescence characteristics and maximum rates of photosynthesis of the needles from the two P treatments. However, acclimation did not occur in the plants grown at 660 ..mu..l CO/sub 2/ L/sup -1/. The light saturated rate of photosynthesis of needles with adequate P was higher at 660 ..mu..l CO/sub 2/ L/sup -1/ than at 330 ..mu..l CO/sub 2/ L/sup -1/, whereas photosynthesis of P deficient plants showed no increase when grown at the higher CO/sub 2/ concentration. The average growth increase due to CO/sub 2/ enrichment was 14% in P deficient plants and 32% when P was adequate. In drought stressed plants grown at 330 ..mu..l CO/sub 2/ L/sup -1/, there was a reduction in the maximal rate of quenching of fluorescence (R/sub Q/) after the major peak. Constant yield fluorescence was unaffected but induced fluorescence was lower. These results indicate that electron flow subsequent to photosystem II was affected by drought stress. At 660 ..mu..l CO/sub 2/L/sup -1/ this response was eliminated showing that CO/sub 2/ enrichment improved the ability of the seedlings to acclimate to drought stress. The average growth increase with CO/sub 2/ enrichment was 37% in drought stressed plants and 19% in unstressed plants.

  8. Accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals in the tree foliage of Eucalyptus rostrata, Pinus radiata and Populus hybridus in the vicinity of a large aluminium smelter in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, J. H.; Wannaz, E. D.; Salazar, M. J.; Pignata, M. L.; Fangmeier, A.; Franzaring, J.

    2012-08-01

    A pollution gradient of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was observed in tree foliage sampled in the vicinity of a large aluminium production facility in Patagonia (Argentina). Leaves of Eucalyptus rostrata, Populus hybridus and one-year-old needles of Pinus radiata were collected, and concentrations of 12 PAHs including the so-called EPA priority pollutants as well as heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn) were analysed. The PAH concentrations indicated a steep pollution gradient in the study area associated with the Al-industry, while the heavy metal content was unrelated to this activity. The present study confirms that aluminium smelting results in the deposition of PAH in the study area, and therefore further studies should be carried out taking into account the potentially adverse effects of these compounds on human and ecosystem health.

  9. Growth response of Pinus ponderosa seedlings and mature tree branches to acid rain and ozone exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, P.D.; Houpis, J.L.J.; Helms, J.A.

    1994-10-01

    Forests of the central and southern Sierra Nevada in California have been subjected to chronic damage by ozone and other atmospheric pollutants for the past several decades. Until recently, pollutant exposure of northern Sierra Nevada forests has been mild but increasing population and changes in land use throughout the Sacramento Valley and Sierra Nevada foothills may lead to increased pollutant damage in these forests. Although, better documented in other regions of the United States, little is known regarding the potential for acidic precipitation damage to Sierra Nevada forests. Only recently have studies directed towards understanding the potential interactive effects of ozone and acidic precipitation been undertaken. A key issue in resolving potential regional impacts of pollutants on forests is the extent to which research results can be scaled across genotypes and life-stages. Most of the pollution research to date has been performed using seedlings with varying degrees of genetic control. It is important to determine if the results obtained in such studies can be extrapolated to mature trees and to different genetic sources. In this paper, we present results from a one-year study examining the interactive effects of foliar exposure to acidic rain and ozone on the growth of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), a conifer known to be sensitive to ozone. The response to pollutants is characterized for both seedlings and mature tree branches of three genotypes grown in a common environment.

  10. Conserved Epigenetic Mechanisms Could Play a Key Role in Regulation of Photosynthesis and Development-Related Genes during Needle Development of Pinus radiata

    PubMed Central

    Meijón, Mónica; Escandón, Mónica; Cañal, María Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Needle maturation is a complex process that involves cell growth, differentiation and tissue remodelling towards the acquisition of full physiological competence. Leaf induction mechanisms are well known; however, those underlying the acquisition of physiological competence are still poorly understood, especially in conifers. We studied the specific epigenetic regulation of genes defining organ function (PrRBCS and PrRBCA) and competence and stress response (PrCSDP2 and PrSHMT4) during three stages of needle development and one de-differentiated control. Gene-specific changes in DNA methylation and histone were analysed by bisulfite sequencing and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). The expression of PrRBCA and PrRBCS increased during needle maturation and was associated with the progressive loss of H3K9me3, H3K27me3 and the increase in AcH4. The maturation-related silencing of PrSHMT4 was correlated with increased H3K9me3 levels, and the repression of PrCSDP2, to the interplay between AcH4, H3K27me3, H3K9me3 and specific DNA methylation. The employ of HAT and HDAC inhibitors led to a further determination of the role of histone acetylation in the regulation of our target genes. The integration of these results with high-throughput analyses in Arabidopsis thaliana and Populus trichocarpa suggests that the specific epigenetic mechanisms that regulate photosynthetic genes are conserved between the analysed species. PMID:25965766

  11. Progress report for the project: Comparison of the response of mature branches and seedlings of Pinus ponderosa to atmospheric pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Houpis, J.L.J.; Anderson, P.D.; Benes, S.E.; Phelps, S.P.; Loeffler, A.T.

    1990-09-01

    This progress report details Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) performance regarding the projects Comparison of the Response of Mature Branches and Seedlings of Pinus ponderosa to Atmospheric Pollution'' and Effects of Ozone, acid Precipitation, and Their Interactions on Mature Branches and Seedlings of Ponderosa Pine'' for the months of November 1989 to June 1990. During the last eight months, we have initiated ozone and acid precipitation exposures, and we began intensive growth, morphological, and physiological measurements. During these major physiological measurement periods, we measured photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal conductance, respiration, antioxidant activity, pigmentation, and foliar nutrient concentration. We have also concluded the analysis of our branch autonomy experiment, which we conducted in the fall. We determined that virtually no carbon is exported among branches in close proximity to one another. This conclusion assists in validating the approach of using branches and branch exposure chambers as a means of assessing the effects of air pollution on mature trees of Ponderosa pine. 6 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Modeling the physiological and growth responses of mature Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws. to climatic change

    SciTech Connect

    Constable, J.V.H.; Taylor, G.E. Jr.; Laurence, J.A.

    1995-06-01

    Using the TREGRO model we simulated the effects of altered CO{sub 2} (+200 {mu}L/L), temperature (+4{degrees}C) and O{sub 3} (0.5x, 1x and 2x ambient) on the physiology and growth of Pinus ponderosa. Photosynthesis (Pn) increased at elevated CO{sub 2} or temperature, enhancing total tree growth 29% and 13%, respectively. In both scenarios the greatest increase in dry matter was in fine root biomass. Ozone at all exposures reduced Pn, total tree growth was unaffected at 0.5x O{sub 3}, however, at higher O{sub 3} total growth was reduced 19% (1x) and 39% (2x). Reductions in fine root biomass and total non-structural carbohydrate dominated at all O{sub 3} exposures. Increased Pn at elevated CO{sub 2} or temperature reduced, but did not eliminate, O{sub 3}-induced growth reductions. In the model changes in Pn and stomatal conductance largely determined the growth response to multiple climatic alterations, however, changes in fine root biomass may control growth response in the field.

  13. Modeling the response of mature Pinus ponderosa Laws. to tropospheric ozone: Effects of genotypic variability

    SciTech Connect

    Constable, J.V.H.; Taylor, G.E. Jr. ); Weinstein, D.A.; Laurence, J.A. )

    1994-06-01

    Regionally distributed pollutants (e.g., tropospheric ozone and CO[sub 2]) can influence the growth of terrestrial plants. The mosaic of genotypes in natural populations makes it difficult to predict the ecological consequences of pollutants throughout a species' distribution. We simulated the response of Pinus ponderosa Laws to ambient, sub-ambient and above-ambient troposopheric O[sub 3] for 3 years using TREGRO, a physiologically based three growth model. Parameters controlling growth and carbon allocation were obtained from the literature and were varied to simulate intravarietal and intervarietal genotypes (western var. Ponderosa and eastern var. Scopulorum) of Ponderosa Pine. Parameter differences between the varieties include physiology, carbon allocation and phenoloy. Ozone altered 3 year biomass gain (+6% to 61%) and fine root to leaf mass ratio ([minus]8% to [minus]14%) in spite of a small effect on photosynthesis ([<=] 10%). Overall, O[sub 3] caused growth differences between varieties to be reduced. The reduction in growth differences between genotypes due to ozone has consequences for regional identification of populations sensitive to the effects of tropospheric ozone.

  14. A mycobacterium isolated from tissue cultures of mature Pinus sylvestris interferes with growth of Scots pine seedlings.

    PubMed

    Laukkanen, H; Soini, H; Kontunen-Soppela, S; Hohtola, A; Viljanen, M

    2000-07-01

    We isolated a rapidly growing, pigment-producing mycobacterium from senescent tissue cultures derived from mature Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The bacterium was found in three senescent suspension cultures and in a senescent protoplast culture. Growth of Scots pine cells had ceased in all of these cultures. Exogenous contamination was eliminated by rigorous surface sterilization of the buds with hypochlorite before aseptic removal of the bud scales. Based on biochemical and physiological properties and DNA sequence comparisons, the isolated mycobacterium did not belong to any known species. Its sequence most closely resembled those of Mycobacterium obuense (97%) and M. aichiense (96%). Tissue browning was frequently observed in callus or suspension culture of Scots pine. Because the effect of the mycobacterium on growth of undifferentiated tissues that were browning was difficult to evaluate, we applied the bacterium to Scots pine seeds in aseptic conditions. Seedlings grown in the presence of the mycobacterium had shorter hypocotyls than control seedlings and seedlings cocultivated with a Pseudomonas strain known to be harmless to plants. However, hypocotyl growth of seedlings cocultivated with another mycobacterium, M. chlorophenolicum, was similar to that observed in the presence of the isolated mycobacterium. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity of seedlings cocultivated with the mycobacterium isolate was significantly higher than that of control seedlings or seedlings cocultivated with M. chlorophenolicum or Pseudomotnas fluorescens. We believe that this is the first report of the isolation of mycobacteria from tissue cultures of a tree. Our finding that the mycobacterium may interfere with the growth of Scots pine in vitro warrants further study. PMID:11303582

  15. Influence of water deficit on the molecular responses of Pinus contorta × Pinus banksiana mature trees to infection by the mountain pine beetle fungal associate, Grosmannia clavigera.

    PubMed

    Arango-Velez, Adriana; González, Leonardo M Galindo; Meents, Miranda J; El Kayal, Walid; Cooke, Barry J; Linsky, Jean; Lusebrink, Inka; Cooke, Janice E K

    2014-11-01

    Conifers exhibit a number of constitutive and induced mechanisms to defend against attack by pests and pathogens such as mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) and their fungal associates. Ecological studies have demonstrated that stressed trees are more susceptible to attack by mountain pine beetle than their healthy counterparts. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that water deficit affects constitutive and induced responses of mature lodgepole pine × jack pine hybrids (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia Engelm. ex S. Wats. × Pinus banksiana Lamb.) to inoculation with the mountain pine beetle fungal associate Grosmannia clavigera (Robinson-Jeffrey and Davidson) Zipfel, de Beer and Wingfield. The degree of stress induced by the imposed water-deficit treatment was sufficient to reduce photosynthesis. Grosmannia clavigera-induced lesions exhibited significantly reduced dimensions in water-deficit trees relative to well-watered trees at 5 weeks after inoculation. Treatment-associated cellular-level changes in secondary phloem were also observed. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to analyze transcript abundance profiles of 18 genes belonging to four families classically associated with biotic and abiotic stress responses: aquaporins (AQPs), dehydration-responsive element binding (DREB), terpene synthases (TPSs) and chitinases (CHIs). Transcript abundance profiles of a TIP2 AQP and a TINY-like DREB decreased significantly in fungus-inoculated trees, but not in response to water deficit. One TPS, Pcb(+)-3-carene synthase, and the Class II CHIs PcbCHI2.1 and PcbCHI2.2 showed increased expression under water-deficit conditions in the absence of fungal inoculation, while another TPS, Pcb(E)-β-farnesene synthase-like, and two CHIs, PcbCHI1.1 and PcbCHI4.1, showed attenuated expression under water-deficit conditions in the presence of fungal inoculation. The effects were observed both locally and systemically. These results demonstrate

  16. Cotyledonary somatic embryos of Pinus pinaster Ait. most closely resemble fresh, maturing cotyledonary zygotic embryos: biological, carbohydrate and proteomic analyses.

    PubMed

    Morel, Alexandre; Trontin, Jean-François; Corbineau, Françoise; Lomenech, Anne-Marie; Beaufour, Martine; Reymond, Isabelle; Le Metté, Claire; Ader, Kevin; Harvengt, Luc; Cadene, Martine; Label, Philippe; Teyssier, Caroline; Lelu-Walter, Marie-Anne

    2014-11-01

    Cotyledonary somatic embryos (SEs) of maritime pine are routinely matured for 12 weeks before being germinated and converted to plantlets. Although regeneration success is highly dependent on SEs quality, the date of harvesting is currently determined mainly on the basis of morphological features. This empirical method does not provide any accurate information about embryo quality with respect to storage compounds (proteins, carbohydrates). We first analyzed SEs matured for 10, 12 and 14 weeks by carrying out biological (dry weight, water content) and biochemical measurements (total protein and carbohydrate contents). No difference could be found between collection dates, suggesting that harvesting SEs after 12 weeks is appropriate. Cotyledonary SEs were then compared to various stages, from fresh to fully desiccated, in the development of cotyledonary zygotic embryos (ZEs). We identified profiles that were similar using hierarchical ascendant cluster analysis (HCA). Fresh and dehydrated ZEs could be distinguished, and SEs clustered with fresh ZEs. Both types of embryo exhibited similar carbohydrate and protein contents and signatures. This high level of similarity (94.5 %) was further supported by proteome profiling. Highly expressed proteins included storage, stress-related, late embryogenesis abundant and energy metabolism proteins. By comparing overexpressed proteins in developing and cotyledonary SEs or ZEs, some (23 proteins) could be identified as candidate biomarkers for the late, cotyledonary stage. This is the first report of useful generic protein markers for monitoring embryo development in maritime pine. Our results also suggest that improvements of SEs quality may be achieved if the current maturation conditions are refined. PMID:25115559

  17. Antioxidant activity in mature branches of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) under long-term, low concentration ozone exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Benes, S.E.; Murphy, T.M.; Laeuchli, A. ); Anderson, P.D.; Houpis, J.L.J. )

    1990-05-01

    Antioxidant activity (superoxide dismutase, peroxidases and glutathione) is being examined in mature needle tissue of ponderosa pine exposed to elevated levels of ozone (O{sub 3}). Trees used in this study are 8-14 year-old clones produced from buds from a 70 year-old tree grafted onto seedling rootstock. Trees are exposed to O{sub 3} using a newly developed branch exposure chamber (BEC). Ozone treatments are charcoal-filtered, ambient and 2x ambient concentrations. A non-chambered branch will determine the effect of exposure chamber. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity measured in current-year needles in February via nitrobluetetrazolium (NBT) reduction was 138.5 {plus minus} 15 (SD) units mg{sup {minus}1} protein. The activity of guaiacol-oxidizing peroxidases was 89 {plus minus} 19 (SD) {Delta}A{sub 470} min{sup {minus}1} mg{sup {minus}1} protein. Ascorbate peroxidase and the ratio of oxidized to reduced glutathione (GSSG/GSH) are also being monitored. Antioxidant activity will be measured monthly across the ozone season (March to November) and during natural ozone episodes. Cellular antioxidant activity will be related to needle photosynthesis, respiration and stomatal conductance measured using a Licor 6200 portable photosynthesis apparatus.

  18. Comparison of the response of mature branches and seedlings of Pinus ponderosa to atmospheric pollution: Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Houpis, J.L.J.; Surano, K.A.; Cowles, S.; Costella, M.P.; Benes, S.E.; Anderson, P.D.

    1989-03-01

    Our first objective, the development and construction of a branch exposure chamber is near completion. We have conducted numerous tests on the BEC environment. Further characterization of the BEC internal environment will continue up until the time of field deployment. Continued BEC testing will enable us to improve the basic BEC design, and evaluate the effects of modifications made for delivery of acid precipitation. We have also made significant progress in the actual construction of the 90 BEC chambers that will be needed in the ozone and acid precipitation studies. To date, we have assembled BEC frames and fan housing components for all 90 BEC chambers to be used in the ozone and acid precipitation studies. Our second experimental objective, testing for branch autonomy, is in progress. We have completed the first of two pulse-studies, with final results of the first pulse-chase study expected in January 1989. The third major objective of our study is the actual exposure of the mature and seeding tissue. This aspect of our study is scheduled to begin in early 1989, and we expect to be on schedule. We are continually preparing for the establishment of our remote field site. Preparation has included the selection and finalization of our field site (USFS Tree Improvement Center, Chico, California). We have also serviced all analyzers that will be used at the field site and we have renovated the instrument trailers that will house all analytical equipment. We have also begun writing the necessary data acquisition and control program using a recently acquired Hewlett-Packard 9816 computer. 32 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  19. Identification case of evidence in timber tracing of Pinus radiate, using high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis.

    PubMed

    Solano, Jaime; Anabalón, Leonardo; Encina, Francisco

    2016-03-01

    Fast, accurate detection of plant species and their hybrids using molecular tools will facilitate assessment and monitoring of timber tracing evidence. In this study the origin of unknown pine samples is determined for a case of timber theft in the region of Araucania southern Chile. We evaluate the utility of the trnL marker region for species identification applied to pine wood based on High Resolution Melting. This efficient tracing methods can be incorporated into forestry applications such as certification of origin. The object of this work was genotype identification using high-resolution melting (HRM) and trnL approaches for Pinus radiata (Don) in timber tracing evidence. Our results indicate that trnL is a very sensitive marker for delimiting species and HRM analysis was used successfully for genotyping Pinus samples for timber tracing purposes. Genotyping samples by HRM analysis with the trnL1 approach allowed us to differentiate two wood samples from the Pinaceae family: Pinus radiata (Don) and Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco. The same approach with Pinus trnL wood was not able to discriminate between samples of Pinus radiata, indicating that the samples were genetically indistinguishable, possibly because they have the same genotype at this locus. Timber tracing with HRM analysis is expected to contribute to future forest certification schemes, control of illegal trading, and molecular traceability of Pinus spp. PMID:26626827

  20. An investigation of the effects of simulated acid rain and elevated ozone on the physiology of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) seedlings and mature trees

    SciTech Connect

    Momen, B.

    1993-12-31

    This study investigated the combined effects of simulated acid rain and ozone on foliar water relations, carbon and nitrogen contents, gas exchange, and respiration of ponderosa pine seedlings and mature trees grown in the field at the USDA Forest Service Tree Improvement Center in Chico, California. Acid rain levels (pH 5.1 and 3) were applied weekly on foliage only, from January to April, 1992. Plants were exposed to ozone levels (ambient and twice ambient) during the day only, from August to December, 1990, and from September to November, 1992. Results suggested that elevated ozone, particularly in combination with strong acid, caused osmotic adjustment that may benefit plants during drought. The observed effects of pollutants are similar to the reported effects of drought on plant water relations. Elevated ozone decreased foliar nitrogen content and thus increased the C:N ratio, particularly in seedlings. Stomatal conductance was not affected by pollutants but net photosynthesis was decreased by elevated ozone, especially in mature trees. The greater sensitivity of net photosynthesis of mature trees to elevated ozone was contrary to all other plant characteristics investigated. Elevated ozone increased seedling respiration. Under controlled, temperature, light, and vapor pressure deficit conditions, net photosynthesis responded positively to increases in plant age, light intensity, and rain pH, but negatively to increases in tissue age, heat, and ozone concentration. Overall results indicated that acid rain and elevated ozone declined the carbon pool of ponderosa pine due to increased respiration and decreased net photosynthesis. Pollutant effects were more profound in mid-summer when ozone concentrations were highest. On many occasions the effects of acid rain and ozone levels interacted. Seedlings were more sensitive to pollutants than mature trees.

  1. Effects of compaction and simulated root channels in the subsoil on root development, water uptake and growth of radiata pine.

    PubMed

    Nambiar, E K; Sands, R

    1992-04-01

    Effects of subsoil compaction and simulated root channels (perforations) through the compacted layer on root growth, water uptake, foliar nutrient concentration and growth of radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) were studied in a field experiment where a range of treatments were applied in reconstituted soil profiles. Subsoil compaction adversely affected root penetration in deeper parts of the soil and consequently caused greater water stress in trees. However, the effect of compaction was largely overcome when the subsoil was perforated to render 0.2% of the soil volume into vertical channels. Roots showed a remarkable ability to reach the points of low penetration strength and to travel through them to deeper parts of the profile. Perforations through compacted soil layers at a relatively low frequency may be a practical solution to allow root development into deeper parts of the soil and allow greater soil water exploration by roots. PMID:14969986

  2. Ectomycorrhizal Community Structure and Soil Characteristics of Mature Lodgepole Pine (Pinus Contorta) and Adjacent Stands of Old Growth Mixed Conifer in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, Robert B.; Parker, V. Thomas; Cullings, Kenneth W.; Sun, Sidney (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Forest development patterns following disturbance are known to influence the physical and chemical attributes of soils at different points in time. Changes in soil resources are thought to have a corresponding effect on ectomycorrhizal (ECM) community structure. We used molecular methods to compare below-ground ECM species richness, composition, and abundance between adjacent stands of homogenous lodgepole pine and old growth mixed conifer in Yellowstone National Park (YNP). In each stand-type we collected soil cores to both identify mycorrhizae and assess soil chemistry. Although no statistical difference was observed in the mean number of ECM root tips per core between stand types, the total number of species identified (85 versus 35) and the mean number of species per core (8.8 +/- 0.6 versus 2.5 +/- 0.3) were significantly higher in lodgepole pine. Differences between the actual and estimated species richness levels indicated that these forest types support a high number of ECM species and that undersampling was severe. Species compositions were widely disparate between stands where only four species were shared out of a total of 116. Soil analysis also revealed that mixed conifer was significantly lower in pH, but higher in organic matter, potassium, phosphorus, and ammonium when compared to lodgepole pine stands. Species richness per core was correlated with these chemical data, however, analysis of covariance indicated that stand type was the only statistically significant factor in the observed difference in species richness. Our data suggest that ECM fungal richness increases as homogenous lodgepole pine stands grow and mature, but declines after Engelmann spruce and subalpine fir colonize. Despite difficulties linking species composition with soil chemistry, there are a variety of physical and chemical factors that could be influencing ECM community structure. Future field experiments are necessary to test some of the mechanisms potentially operating

  3. Understory Plant Community Composition Is Associated with Fine-Scale Above- and Below-Ground Resource Heterogeneity in Mature Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta) Forests

    PubMed Central

    McIntosh, Anne C. S.; Macdonald, S. Ellen; Quideau, Sylvie A.

    2016-01-01

    Understory plant communities play critical ecological roles in forest ecosystems. Both above- and below-ground ecosystem properties and processes influence these communities but relatively little is known about such effects at fine (i.e., one to several meters within-stand) scales, particularly for forests in which the canopy is dominated by a single species. An improved understanding of these effects is critical for understanding how understory biodiversity is regulated in such forests and for anticipating impacts of changing disturbance regimes. Our primary objective was to examine the patterns of fine-scale variation in understory plant communities and their relationships to above- and below-ground resource and environmental heterogeneity within mature lodgepole pine forests. We assessed composition and diversity of understory vegetation in relation to heterogeneity of both the above-ground (canopy tree density, canopy and tall shrub basal area and cover, downed wood biomass, litter cover) and below-ground (soil nutrient availability, decomposition, forest floor thickness, pH, and phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) and multiple carbon-source substrate-induced respiration (MSIR) of the forest floor microbial community) environment. There was notable variation in fine-scale plant community composition; cluster and indicator species analyses of the 24 most commonly occurring understory species distinguished four assemblages, one for which a pioneer forb species had the highest cover levels, and three others that were characterized by different bryophyte species having the highest cover. Constrained ordination (distance-based redundancy analysis) showed that two above-ground (mean tree diameter, litter cover) and eight below-ground (forest floor pH, plant available boron, microbial community composition and function as indicated by MSIR and PLFAs) properties were associated with variation in understory plant community composition. These results provide novel insights

  4. Understory Plant Community Composition Is Associated with Fine-Scale Above- and Below-Ground Resource Heterogeneity in Mature Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta) Forests.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Anne C S; Macdonald, S Ellen; Quideau, Sylvie A

    2016-01-01

    Understory plant communities play critical ecological roles in forest ecosystems. Both above- and below-ground ecosystem properties and processes influence these communities but relatively little is known about such effects at fine (i.e., one to several meters within-stand) scales, particularly for forests in which the canopy is dominated by a single species. An improved understanding of these effects is critical for understanding how understory biodiversity is regulated in such forests and for anticipating impacts of changing disturbance regimes. Our primary objective was to examine the patterns of fine-scale variation in understory plant communities and their relationships to above- and below-ground resource and environmental heterogeneity within mature lodgepole pine forests. We assessed composition and diversity of understory vegetation in relation to heterogeneity of both the above-ground (canopy tree density, canopy and tall shrub basal area and cover, downed wood biomass, litter cover) and below-ground (soil nutrient availability, decomposition, forest floor thickness, pH, and phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) and multiple carbon-source substrate-induced respiration (MSIR) of the forest floor microbial community) environment. There was notable variation in fine-scale plant community composition; cluster and indicator species analyses of the 24 most commonly occurring understory species distinguished four assemblages, one for which a pioneer forb species had the highest cover levels, and three others that were characterized by different bryophyte species having the highest cover. Constrained ordination (distance-based redundancy analysis) showed that two above-ground (mean tree diameter, litter cover) and eight below-ground (forest floor pH, plant available boron, microbial community composition and function as indicated by MSIR and PLFAs) properties were associated with variation in understory plant community composition. These results provide novel insights

  5. Physiological responses of radiata pine roots to soil strength and soil water deficit.

    PubMed

    Zou, Chris; Sands, Roger; Sun, Osbert

    2000-11-01

    We investigated physiological responses of radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) roots to soil strength and soil water deficit by measuring the osmotic potential (Psi(pi)) and yield turgor (Y) in the elongation zone of root segments of seedlings growing (i) in polyethylene glycol 4000-containing rooting solution of different water potentials (Psi(s)) and (ii) in soil of different soil strengths (Q) at the same soil matric potential (Psi(m)). Root elongation rate (Deltal/Deltat) decreased progressively with decreasing Psi(s) and was associated with decreased Psi(pi) and decreased turgor pressure (P). Osmotic adjustment occurred at Psi(s) < -0.2 MPa. Over a range in Psi(s) of -0.01 to -1.0 MPa, Psi(pi) fell 0.3 MPa whereas P fell 0.7 MPa. Mean Psi in the solution experiment was 0.37 MPa and did not differ significantly with Psi(s) (P = 0.10). Root elongation rate decreased exponentially as Q increased from 0 to 3.0 MPa, and was associated with an increase in P of 0.11 MPa as a consequence of Psi(pi) decreasing by the same amount. Mean Y in the soil experiment was 0.49 MPa and did not change significantly with Q (P = 0.87). PMID:12651497

  6. Ecological impacts of long-term application of biosolids to a radiata pine plantation.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jianming; Kimberley, Mark O; Ross, Craig; Gielen, Gerty; Tremblay, Louis A; Champeau, Olivier; Horswell, Jacqui; Wang, Hailong

    2015-10-15

    Assessment of the ecological impact of applying biosolids is important for determining both the risks and benefits. This study investigated the impact on soil physical, chemical and biological properties, tree nutrition and growth of long-term biosolids applications to a radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) plantation growing on a Sandy Raw Soil in New Zealand. Biosolids were applied to the trial site every 3 years from tree age 6 to 19 years at three application rates: 0 (Control), 300 (Standard) and 600 (High) kg nitrogen (N) ha(-1), equivalent to 0, 3 and 6 Mg ha(-1) of dry biosolids, respectively. Tree nutrition status and growth have been monitored annually. Soil samples were collected 13 years after the first biosolids application to assess the soil properties and functioning. Both the Standard and High biosolids treatments significantly increased soil (0-50 cm depth) total carbon (C), N, and phosphorus (P), Olsen P and cation exchange capacity (CEC), reduced soil pH, but had no significant effects on soil (0-20 cm depth) physical properties including bulk density, total porosity and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. The High biosolids treatment also increased concentrations of soil total cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) at 25-50 cm depth, but these concentrations were still considered very low for a soil. Ecotoxicological assessment showed no significant adverse effects of biosolids application on either the reproduction of springtails (Folsomia candida) or substrate utilisation ability of the soil microbial community, indicating no negative ecological impact of bisolids-derived heavy metals or triclosan. This study demonstrated that repeated application of biosolids to a plantation forest on a poor sandy soil could significantly improve soil fertility, tree nutrition and pine productivity. However, the long-term fate of biosolids-derived N, P and litter-retained heavy metals needs to be further monitored in the receiving environment

  7. Isolation and characterization of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis)convicilin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A vicilin-like globulin seed storage protein, termed convicilin, was isolated for the first time from Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) by a combination of anion exchange, hydrophobic interaction, and gel filtration chromatography. The protein is less abundant than vicilin in low-salt extracts of matur...

  8. An Experimental Test of Insect-Mediated Colonisation of Damaged Pinus radiata Trees by Sapstain Fungi

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, James K.; Brockerhoff, Eckehard G.; Didham, Raphael K.

    2013-01-01

    Vector-pathogen dynamics play a central role in understanding tree health and forest dynamics. There is substantial evidence that bark beetles act as spore vectors for many species of fungi that cause ‘sapstain’ discolouration of damaged trees and timber. However, the direct quantitative link between vector-mediated spore dispersal and subsequent sapstain colonisation of wood is not fully understood. Here, we used caged versus uncaged experimental logs to test whether the exclusion of bark beetles quantitatively alters the distribution and intensity of sapstain fungal spread within damaged trees. Using generalised linear mixed models, we tested the effect of bark beetle exclusion on sapstain intensity within and among cut logs at two plantation forest sites. Overall, sapstain was found on all logs regardless of caging treatment, indicating that sapstain colonisation can occur (to some degree) without arthropod vectors, probably via wind, rain-splash and, potentially, latent endophytic development. This was supported by the dominance of Diplodia pinea in fungal isolations taken from trees felled at the site, as this fungal species is known to disperse independently of bark beetles. However, the intensity of sapstain within and among experimental logs was significantly greater in uncaged than in caged logs, where beetle colonisation was significantly greater. This appeared to be driven by a significant within-log association between the intensity of staining and the intensity of beetle, and other arthropod, tunnelling and feeding activities. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that the dominant mechanism underlying the role of bark beetles in sapstain development in this study system is not vector-mediated spore dispersal, per se, but rather the facilitation of spore entry and hyphal development through tunnelling and feeding activities. We discuss the implications of these findings for forest management and the effective salvage-harvest of trees damaged by stochastic climate events such as storm and fire damage. PMID:23405198

  9. Bioassay conditions for infection of Pinus radiata seedlings with Phytophthora pinifolia zoospores

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora pinifolia is known to cause a devastating disease on Monterey pines in Chile. Although this pathogen is not yet present in the U.S., there is reason for concern. The main source of Monterey pine genetic material is found in California and there is potential for other important tree sp...

  10. SILENCING OF 4-COUMARATE-CoA LIGASE IN PINUS RADIATA, A CONIFEROUS GYMNOSPERM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The enzyme 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (4CL) is involved in the general phenylpropanoid pathway and provides monolignol precursors such as p-coumaroyl-CoA, ultimately for the biosynthesis of lignin. Recombinant studies designed to assess the role of 4CL in the lignification process have focused on angios...

  11. Investigation into the lignin decomposition mechanism by analysis of the pyrolysis product of Pinus radiata.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Min; Jae, Jungho; Myung, Soyoung; Sung, Bong Hyun; Dong, Jong-In; Park, Young-Kwon

    2016-11-01

    Lignin pyrolysis chemistry was investigated via the analysis of the products obtained from the fast pyrolysis of a pine wood at different temperatures. Methoxy phenols, such as guaiacols and eugenols, were produced mainly at 375 and 475°C, while non-methoxy phenols, such as alkyl phenols and pyrocatechols were dominant at 525 and 575°C. At 575°C, aromatic hydrocarbons were formed together with larger amounts of light hydrocarbon gases. When the temperature was increased from 375 and 475°C, the yield of pyrolytic lignin was increased, whereas its average molecular weight was decreased. At 525°C, smaller molecular pyrolytic lignin with a maximum concentration of phenolic hydroxyl groups was produced due to the increased secondary cracking of the reaction intermediates. On the other hand, at 575°C, larger molecular pyrolytic lignin with smaller amounts of phenolic hydroxyl groups was produced due to the increased condensation activity of the pyrolysis reaction intermediates. PMID:27501034

  12. The complete mitochondrial genome of mungbean Vigna radiata var. radiata NM92 and a phylogenetic analysis of crops in angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ching-Ping; Lo, Hsiao-Feng; Chen, Chien-Yu; Chen, Long-Fang Oliver

    2016-09-01

    The entire mitogenome of the Vigna radiata var. radiata NM92 was identified as a circular molecule of 401 262 bp length (DDBJ accession number: AP014716). The contents of A, T, C, and G in the NM92 mitogenome were found to be 27.48%, 27.41%, 22.63%, and 22.48%, respectively. The NM92 mitogenome encoded 3 rRNAs, 16 tRNAs and 33 proteins. Eight protein-coding genes (nad1, nad2, nad4, nad5, nad7, rps3, and rps10) centain introns. Among them, three (nad1, nad2, and nad5) are trans-spliced genes. A phylogenetic tree was reconstructed using the 21 protein-coding genes of 16 crops. A species of gymnosperms, Cycas, was selected as the outgroup. This complete mitogenome sequence provides useful information to understand the cultivation of Vigna radiata and other crops. PMID:26469726

  13. Seasonal monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions from Pinus taeda and Pinus virginiana

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seasonal volatile organic compound emission data from loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) and Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana) were collected using branch enclosure techniques in Central North Carolina, USA. Pinus taeda monoterpene emission rates were at least ten times higher than oxyge...

  14. Transcriptional Slippage and RNA Editing Increase the Diversity of Transcripts in Chloroplasts: Insight from Deep Sequencing of Vigna radiata Genome and Transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ching-Ping; Ko, Chia-Yun; Kuo, Ching-I; Liu, Mao-Sen; Schafleitner, Roland; Chen, Long-Fang Oliver

    2015-01-01

    We performed deep sequencing of the nuclear and organellar genomes of three mungbean genotypes: Vigna radiata ssp. sublobata TC1966, V. radiata var. radiata NM92 and the recombinant inbred line RIL59 derived from a cross between TC1966 and NM92. Moreover, we performed deep sequencing of the RIL59 transcriptome to investigate transcript variability. The mungbean chloroplast genome has a quadripartite structure including a pair of inverted repeats separated by two single copy regions. A total of 213 simple sequence repeats were identified in the chloroplast genomes of NM92 and RIL59; 78 single nucleotide variants and nine indels were discovered in comparing the chloroplast genomes of TC1966 and NM92. Analysis of the mungbean chloroplast transcriptome revealed mRNAs that were affected by transcriptional slippage and RNA editing. Transcriptional slippage frequency was positively correlated with the length of simple sequence repeats of the mungbean chloroplast genome (R2=0.9911). In total, 41 C-to-U editing sites were found in 23 chloroplast genes and in one intergenic spacer. No editing site that swapped U to C was found. A combination of bioinformatics and experimental methods revealed that the plastid-encoded RNA polymerase-transcribed genes psbF and ndhA are affected by transcriptional slippage in mungbean and in main lineages of land plants, including three dicots (Glycine max, Brassica rapa, and Nicotiana tabacum), two monocots (Oryza sativa and Zea mays), two gymnosperms (Pinus taeda and Ginkgo biloba) and one moss (Physcomitrella patens). Transcript analysis of the rps2 gene showed that transcriptional slippage could affect transcripts at single sequence repeat regions with poly-A runs. It showed that transcriptional slippage together with incomplete RNA editing may cause sequence diversity of transcripts in chloroplasts of land plants. PMID:26076132

  15. Genetic transformation and gene expression in white pine (pinus strobus)

    SciTech Connect

    Minocha, R.

    1987-10-01

    The objectives of the study were: (1) to develop protocols for transformation of white pine (Pinus strobus) embryonic tissue; and (2) to analyze the regulation of foreign gene expression in Pinus strobus. A number of Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains containing chimeric genes for neomycin phosphotransferase (NPTII for kanamycin resistance) and chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) under the control of either a constitutive promoter (NOS-nopaline synthase) or light-inducible promoters (RuBisCO small subunit and chlorophyll a/b binding protein) were used. A variety of tissues from white pine seedlings and mature trees was used. The techniques for transformation were modified from those used for tobacco transformation. The results show that white pine tissue from young seedlings is high suitable for transformation by A. tumefaciens. Whereas the normal tissues are very sensitive to kanamycin, transformed callus was quite resistant to this antibiotic.

  16. Microstructural Changes of Anterior Corona Radiata in Bipolar Depression

    PubMed Central

    Karababa, I. Fatih; Bayazıt, Huseyin; Kılıçaslan, Nihat; Celik, Mustafa; Cece, Hasan; Karakas, Ekrem

    2015-01-01

    Objective In bipolar disorder, dysregulation of mood may result from white matter abnormalities that change fiber tract length and fiber density. There are few studies evaluating the white matter microstructural changes in bipolar I patients (BD) with depressive episodes. The present study aimed to evaluate anterior corona radiata in BD patients with depressive episode using Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI). Methods Twenty-one patients with bipolar depression and 19 healthy controls were investigated and groups were matched for age and gender. Diffusion-weighted echoplanar brain images (DW-EPI) were obtained using a 1.5 T MRI scanner. Regions of interest (ROIs) were manually placed on directional maps based on principal anisotropy. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) values of white matter were measured in the anterior corona radiata (ACR) bilaterally by diffusion tensor imaging. Results There was not a significant difference between groups of age and gender (p>0.05). Significantly lower FA was observed in bilateral ACR in bipolar patients with depression compared with healthy individuals. And there is significantly higher ADC values in the left frontal corona radiate in bipolar patients. Conclusion White matter abnormalities can be detected in patients with BD using DTI. The neuropathology of these abnormalities is unclear, but neuronal and axonal loss, myelin abnormalities and reduced white matter fiber density are likely to be relevant. PMID:26207131

  17. Toxicity of pesticides to Tamarixia radiata, a parasitoid of the Asian citrus psyllid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sixteen pesticides including two fungicides were evaluated for toxicity to adult Tamarixia radiata (Waterston) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a parasitoid of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). Percentage mortality data were evaluated to generally assess IPM-com...

  18. Psychosis post corona radiata and lentiform nucleus infarction.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Khadijah Hasanah Abang; Saini, Suriati Mohamed; Sharip, Shalisah; Rahman, Abdul Hamid Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Complications of stroke can include neuropsychiatric symptoms. However, post-stroke psychosis is rare. We report a case where an acute presentation of psychosis, depression and fluctuating cognitive impairment in a middle-aged man turned out to be related to a silent brain infarction. The patient had a background of poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus with glycated haemoglobin level of 9.0-11.0%, hypertension and ischaemic heart disease. His CT brain results showed multifocal infarct with hypodensities at bilateral lentiform nucleus and bilateral corona radiata. His strong genetic predisposition of psychosis and a history of brief psychotic disorder with complete remission 3 years prior to the current presentation might possibly contribute to his post-stroke atypical neuropsychiatric presentation, and posed diagnostic challenges. He showed marked improvement with risperidone 6 mg nocte, chlorpromazine 50 mg nocte and fluvoxamine of 200 mg nocte. The need of comprehensive treatments to modify his stroke risk factors was addressed. PMID:25837653

  19. Localization of cell wall polysaccharides in normal and compression wood of radiata pine: relationships with lignification and microfibril orientation.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, Lloyd A; Knox, J Paul

    2012-02-01

    The distribution of noncellulosic polysaccharides in cell walls of tracheids and xylem parenchyma cells in normal and compression wood of Pinus radiata, was examined to determine the relationships with lignification and cellulose microfibril orientation. Using fluorescence microscopy combined with immunocytochemistry, monoclonal antibodies were used to detect xyloglucan (LM15), β(1,4)-galactan (LM5), heteroxylan (LM10 and LM11), and galactoglucomannan (LM21 and LM22). Lignin and crystalline cellulose were localized on the same sections used for immunocytochemistry by autofluorescence and polarized light microscopy, respectively. Changes in the distribution of noncellulosic polysaccharides between normal and compression wood were associated with changes in lignin distribution. Increased lignification of compression wood secondary walls was associated with novel deposition of β(1,4)-galactan and with reduced amounts of xylan and mannan in the outer S2 (S2L) region of tracheids. Xylan and mannan were detected in all lignified xylem cell types (tracheids, ray tracheids, and thick-walled ray parenchyma) but were not detected in unlignified cell types (thin-walled ray parenchyma and resin canal parenchyma). Mannan was absent from the highly lignified compound middle lamella, but xylan occurred throughout the cell walls of tracheids. Using colocalization measurements, we confirmed that polysaccharides containing galactose, mannose, and xylose have consistent correlations with lignification. Low or unsubstituted xylans were localized in cell wall layers characterized by transverse cellulose microfibril orientation in both normal and compression wood tracheids. Our results support the theory that the assembly of wood cell walls, including lignification and microfibril orientation, may be mediated by changes in the amount and distribution of noncellulosic polysaccharides. PMID:22147521

  20. Bioassay development using early life stages of the marine macroalga, Ecklonia radiata

    SciTech Connect

    Bidwell, J.R.; Wheeler, K.D.; Roper, J.; Burridge, T.R.

    1995-12-31

    A lack of standard toxicity test methods for species native to Australia has stimulated research to overcome this deficiency. In the present work, germination inhibition was utilized as an endpoint in 48h bioassays with the marine macroalga Ecklonia radiata. E radiata is often a dominant member of temperate subtidal communities in Australia and other parts of the southern hemisphere. The alga fills an ecological niche similar to that of Macrocystis pyrifera, the giant kelp which occurs in the northern hemisphere. In an adaptation of test methods used for M. pyrifera, release of E. radiata zoospores was induced in the laboratory. Settled spores were then exposed to toxicants for 48 h and germination success was determined by scoring the spores for the development of a germination tube. At 20 C, EC{sub 50} values ranging between 53.4 and 77.4 mg/L were generated in tests with hexavalent chromium (potassium chromate). The EC{sub 50} for copper (cupric chloride) was 0.53 mg/L. Sensitivity of E. radiata to metals such as copper may have significance toward assessing the environmental impacts of some antifoulant coatings used on seagoing vessels. In future studies, growth of zoospore germination tubes and comparative sensitivity of different E. radiata populations will be examined.

  1. Fatty acids of Pinus elliottii tissues.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laseter, J. L.; Lawler, G. C.; Walkinshaw, C. H.; Weete, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    The total fatty constituents of slash pine (Pinus elliottii) tissue cultures, seeds, and seedlings were examined by GLC and MS. Qualitatively, the fatty acid composition of these tissues was found to be very similar to that reported for other pine species. The fatty acid contents of the tissue cultures resembled that of the seedling tissues. The branched-chain C(sub 17) acid reported for several other Pinus species was confirmed as the anteiso isomer.

  2. Effects of Nano Silver Oxide and Silver Ions on Growth of Vigna radiata.

    PubMed

    Singh, Divya; Kumar, Arun

    2015-09-01

    Transformation of silver oxide nanoparticles (nano-Ag2O) to silver nanoparticles (nano-Ag) and silver ions in environment is possible which might pose toxicity to plants and other species. The objective of this study was to study effects of nano-Ag2O and silver ions on growth of Mung bean (Vigna radiata) seedlings. V. radiata seeds were exposed to nano-Ag2O and silver ions (concentration range: 4.3 × 10(-7), 4.3 × 10(-6), 4.3 × 10(-5), 4.3 × 10(-4), and 4.3 × 10(-3) mol/L) for 6 days. Root length, shoot length and dry weight of seedlings were found to decrease due to exposure of nano-Ag2O and silver ions. These findings indicate silver ions to be more toxic to V. radiata seeds than nano-Ag2O. Silver content in seedlings was found to increase with increasing concentrations of nano-Ag2O and silver ions. Overall, findings of the present study add to the existing knowledge of phytotoxicity of silver-based nanoparticles of different chemical compositions to V. radiata seeds and need to be considered during use of nanoparticles-contaminated water for irrigation purposes. PMID:26155963

  3. Extensive haplotype variation in Tamarixia radiata populations from the Americas: multiple groups

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field collected populations of Tamarixia radiata (n=48) were analyzed by a phylogeographic analysis inferred from the partial mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene (COI) (518-bp). Three populations were from North America, one each from the U. S. states of Florida and Texas and one from t...

  4. Volcanic mercury in Pinus canariensis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio; Nanos, Nikos; Miranda, José Carlos; Carbonell, Gregoria; Gil, Luis

    2013-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element that is emitted to the atmosphere by both human activities and natural processes. Volcanic emissions are considered a natural source of mercury in the environment. In some cases, tree ring records taken close to volcanoes and their relation to volcanic activity over time are contradictory. In 1949, the Hoyo Negro volcano (La Palma-Canary Islands) produced significant pyroclastic flows that damaged the nearby stand of Pinus canariensis. Recently, 60 years after the eruption, we assessed mercury concentrations in the stem of a pine which survived volcano formation, located at a distance of 50 m from the crater. We show that Hg content in a wound caused by pyroclastic impacts (22.3 μg kg(-1)) is an order of magnitude higher than the Hg concentrations measured in the xylem before and after the eruption (2.3 μg kg(-1)). Thus, mercury emissions originating from the eruption remained only as a mark-in pyroclastic wounds-and can be considered a sporadic and very high mercury input that did not affect the overall Hg input in the xylem. In addition, mercury contents recorded in the phloem (9.5 μg kg(-1)) and bark (6.0 μg kg(-1)) suggest that mercury shifts towards non-living tissues of the pine, an aspect that can be related to detoxification in volcanism-adapted species. PMID:23760570

  5. Volcanic mercury in Pinus canariensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio; Nanos, Nikos; Miranda, José Carlos; Carbonell, Gregoria; Gil, Luis

    2013-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element that is emitted to the atmosphere by both human activities and natural processes. Volcanic emissions are considered a natural source of mercury in the environment. In some cases, tree ring records taken close to volcanoes and their relation to volcanic activity over time are contradictory. In 1949, the Hoyo Negro volcano (La Palma-Canary Islands) produced significant pyroclastic flows that damaged the nearby stand of Pinus canariensis. Recently, 60 years after the eruption, we assessed mercury concentrations in the stem of a pine which survived volcano formation, located at a distance of 50 m from the crater. We show that Hg content in a wound caused by pyroclastic impacts (22.3 μg kg-1) is an order of magnitude higher than the Hg concentrations measured in the xylem before and after the eruption (2.3 μg kg-1). Thus, mercury emissions originating from the eruption remained only as a mark—in pyroclastic wounds—and can be considered a sporadic and very high mercury input that did not affect the overall Hg input in the xylem. In addition, mercury contents recorded in the phloem (9.5 μg kg-1) and bark (6.0 μg kg-1) suggest that mercury shifts towards non-living tissues of the pine, an aspect that can be related to detoxification in volcanism-adapted species.

  6. Potential of Vigna radiata (L.) sprouts in the management of inflammation and arthritis in rats: Possible biochemical alterations.

    PubMed

    Venkateshwarlu, E; Reddy, K Purnima; Dilip, D

    2016-01-01

    Vigna radiata (Fabaceae) is an important pulse crop widespread throughout the tropics and warm temperature regions. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro anti-inflammatory and in vivo antiarthritic activity of Vigna radiata sprouts in rats. The in vitro anti-inflammatory activity was determined by membrane stabilization and protein denaturation method. Whereas, the antiarthritic activity of the ethanolic extract of the sprouts was evaluated by complete Freund's adjuvant model with diclofenac sodium as the standard drug. Body weights, paw volume, biochemical parameters such as lipid peroxidation, total reduced glutathione, myeloperoxidase and lysosomal enzymes like cathepsin-D, N-acetyl β-D-glucosamindase and β-D-glucuronidase were estimated. Treatment with ethanolic extract of V. radiata exhibited significant membrane stabilization activity and protein denaturation activity, and significantly attenuated the biochemical changes induced by administration of complete Freund's adjuvant. The findings of the present study suggest the possible role of Vigna radiata in the therapeutics of arthritis. PMID:26891551

  7. Market maturity

    SciTech Connect

    Meade, B.; Bowden, S.; Ellis, M

    1995-02-01

    The power sector in the Philipines provides one of the most mature independent power markets in Asia. Over the past five years, National Power Corp. (NPC), the government owned utility, has actively invited the power sector into power generation. Distribution has remained in the hands of private and rural cooperative utilities. Private utilities have been operating as full requirements customers of NPC while the growth in capacity additions by independent power producers (IPPs) has outpaced NPC`s for the second year in a row. With a recovering economy and regulatory reform proceeding, the outlook for independent power remains strong through the end of the decade. The Philipine Congress is now reviewing draft legislation that will decentralize NPC and begin the process of privatization and market-based reforms throughout the country`s power sector.

  8. Gene Expression Profiling of Shoot-Derived Calli from Adult Radiata Pine and Zygotic Embryo-Derived Embryonal Masses

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Mendiguren, O.; Montalbán, I. A.; Stewart, D.; Moncaleán, P.; Klimaszewska, K.; Rutledge, R. G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although somatic embryogenesis has an unprecedented potential for large-scale clonal propagation of conifers, the ability to efficiently induce the embryonal cultures required for somatic embryo production has long been a challenge. Furthermore, because early stage zygotic embryos remain the only responsive explants for pines, it is not possible to clone individual trees from vegetative explants at a commercial scale. This is of particular interest for adult trees because many elite characteristics only become apparent following sexual maturation. Findings Shoot explants collected from adult radiata pine trees were cultured on four induction media differing in plant growth regulator composition, either directly after collection or from in vitro-generated axillary shoots. Six callus lines were selected for microscopic examination, which failed to reveal any embryonal masses (EM). qPCR expression profiling of five of these lines indicated that explant type influenced the absolute level of gene expression, but not the type of genes that were expressed. The analysis, which also included three EM lines induced from immature zygotic embryos, encompassed five categories of genes reflective of metabolic, mitotic and meristematic activity, along with putative markers of embryogenicity. Culture medium was found to have no significant impact on gene expression, although differences specific to the explant’s origin were apparent. Expression of transcriptional factors associated with vegetative meristems further suggested that all of the callus lines possessed a substantive vegetative character. Most notable, however, was that they all also expressed a putative embryogenic marker (LEC1). Conclusions While limited in scope, these results illustrate the utility of expression profiling for characterizing tissues in culture. For example, although the biological significance of LEC1 expression is unclear, it does present the possibility that these callus lines possess

  9. Lethal and Sublethal Impacts of Acaricides on Tamarixia radiata (Hemiptera: Eulophidae), an Important Ectoparasitoid of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae).

    PubMed

    Lira, A C S; Zanardi, O Z; Beloti, V H; Bordini, G P; Yamamoto, P T; Parra, J R P; Carvalho, G A

    2015-10-01

    The use of synthetic acaricides for management of pest mites may alter the efficacy of the ectoparasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Waterston) in biological control of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, the vector of the bacteria associated with huanglongbing (HLB) in citrus orchards. We evaluated the toxicity of 16 acaricides that are recommended for the control of citrus-pest mites to T. radiata. Acrinathrin, bifenthrin, carbosulfan, and fenpropathrin caused high acute toxicity and were considered harmful (mortality >77%) to T. radiata. Abamectin, diflubenzuron, etoxazole, fenbutatin oxide, fenpyroximate, flufenoxuron, hexythiazox, propargite, spirodiclofen, and sulfur caused low acute toxicity and affected the parasitism rate and emergence rate of adults (F1 generation), and were considered slightly harmful to T. radiata. Dicofol and pyridaben did not affect the survival and action of the ectoparasitoid, and were considered harmless. In addition to its acute toxicity, carbosulfan caused mortality higher than 25% for >30 d after application, and was considered persistent. Acrinathrin, bifenthrin, fenpropathrin, fenpyroximate, propargite, and sulfur caused mortalities over 25% until 24 d after application and were considered moderately persistent; abamectin was slightly persistent, and fenbutatin oxide was short lived. Our results suggest that most acaricides used to control pest mites in citrus affect the density and efficacy of T. radiata in the biological control of D. citri. However, further evaluations are needed in order to determine the effect of these products on this ectoparasitoid under field conditions. PMID:26453716

  10. Characterization of the bacterial flora associated with root systems of Pinus contorta var. latifolia.

    PubMed

    Dangerfield, J A; Westlake, D W; Cook, F D

    1978-12-01

    Root systems of young and mature lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia Englem.) were removed from forest stands and the associated aerobic bacterial flora isolated. Characterization of rhizoplane and control soil isolates from these tree root systems demonstrated differences from that reported for agricultural crops. Ammonifying, proteolytic, and amylolytic organisms were proportionately reduced within the rhizoplane. The rhizoplane organisms grew more slowly than the control soil isolates, although they responded in greater numbers to the addition of an amino acid supplement to the growth media. The rhizoplane organisms also showed an increased ability to solubilize phosphate. The chitinolytic organisms were suppressed within the rhizoplane of the mature tree but were stimulated by the young trees. With this exception, the rhizoplane microflora of older and younger trees were similar. PMID:747813

  11. Influence of acid-soluble proteins from bivalve Siliqua radiata ligaments on calcium carbonate crystal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zeng-Qiong; Zhang, Gang-Sheng

    2016-08-01

    In vitro biomimetic synthesis of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in the presence of shell proteins is a heavily researched topic in biomineralization. However, little is known regarding the function of bivalve ligament proteins in the growth of CaCO3 crystals. In this study, using fibrous protein K58 from Siliqua radiata ligaments or coverslips as substrates, we report the results of our study of CaCO3 precipitation in the presence or absence of acid-soluble proteins (ASP) from inner ligament layers. ASP can disturb the controlling function of K58 or a coverslip on the crystalline phase, resulting in the formation of aragonite, calcite, and vaterite. In addition, we identified the following four primary components from ASP by mass spectroscopy: alkaline phosphatase (ALP), ABC transporter, keratin type II cytoskeletal 1 (KRT 1), and phosphate ABC transporter, phosphate-binding protein (PstS). Further analysis revealed that the first three proteins and especially ALP, which is important in bone mineralisation, could affect the polymorphism and morphology of CaCO3 crystals by trapping calcium ions in their domains. Our results indicate that ALP may play an important role in the formation of aragonite in S. radiata ligaments. This paper may facilitate our understanding of the biomineralization process.

  12. SITE SITE DISTURBANCE EFFECTS ON A CLAY SOIL UNDER PINUS RADIATA - ROOT BIOMASS, MYCORRHIZAL COLONISATION, 15AMMONIUM UPTAKE, AND FOLIAR NUTRIENT LEVELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Timber harvesting can result in adverse physical, chemical and biological alterations to soil. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of site disturbance to determine the extent and duration of possible harvesting impacts on soil chemical and biological propertie...

  13. Incidence of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) and its parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in Florida citrus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, vectors the bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, one of the causal organisms of the devastating citrus disease “huanglongbing” or citrus greening. In the United States, D. citri was first discovered in Florida, in 1998. Tamarixia radiata Waterston, was imported fro...

  14. INDUCTION OF ZONA RADIATA PROTEINS AND VITELLOGENINS IN ESTRADIOL AND NONYLPHENOL EXPOSED MALE SHEEPSHEAD MINNOWS (CYPRINODON VARIEGATUS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Knoebl, Iris, Michael J. Hemmer and Nancy D. Denslow. 2004. Induction of Zona Radiata Proteins and Vitellogenins in Estradiol and Nonylphenol Exposed Male Sheepshead Minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus). Mar. Environ. Res. 58(2-5):547-551. (ERL,GB X1059).

    Several genes normall...

  15. Spatial variability of 13C: 12C and D:H in Ecklonia radiata (C.Ag.) J. Agardh (Laminariales)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenton, Gwen E.; Ritz, David A.

    1989-01-01

    The spatial variability of δ 13C and δD in four individual Ecklonia radiata plants was determined and the range compared to the range of individual values obtained for co-occuring macroalga species. Carbon values varied over a range of 3-4‰ in three of the E. radiata individuals, while values within another plant were found to vary by 7·43‰. Overall the carbon values ranged from -14·01 to -21·44‰, with a mean of overlinex = 16.06‰. SD = 1.43 . Hydrogen values however, exhibited a far greater range; within individual plants they ranged from 43·01‰ to 89·43‰. The isotopic range exhibited within E. radiata was half that of the range of carbon and one and a half times that of hydrogen values recorded for the co-occurring species analysed. This reduces the value of the techique for tracing the origin of detrital matter from seaweeds. The pattern of isotopic composition observed in E.radiata suggests differential storage of isotopically distinct compounds.

  16. Immature oocyte quality and maturational competence of porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes subpopulations.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Gabriel Martin; Dalvit, Gabriel Carlos; Achi, María Verónica; Miguez, Marcelo Sergio; Cetica, Pablo Daniel

    2009-12-01

    Porcine immature oocyte quality (i.e., that of live oocytes at the germinal vesicle stage) was evaluated according to features of the surrounding cumulus, aiming to establish maturational competence of different subpopulations of such cumulus-oocyte complexes. Six subpopulations were identified: A1 (with a dense cumulus), A2 (with a translucent cumulus), B1 (with the corona radiata), B2 (partly naked oocytes), C (naked oocytes), D (with a dark cumulus). The percent incidence of live oocyte in these subpopulations changed significantly as related to cumulus features, however the occurrence of oocytes in the germinal vesicle stage was lower in class D only. Similar metaphase II rates achieved in A1, A2, B1 and B2 classes after in vitro maturation suggest that the nucleus may in fact mature in vitro, in spite of the different accompanying cumulus features which are typical of these classes. In contrast, a higher cytoplasmic maturation rate obtained in class A may indicate a stronger dependence of this variable upon cumulus features than that shown by nuclear maturation. When different types of cumulus expansion after in vitro maturation were considered (i.e., fully expanded cumulus, partly expanded cumulus, and partly naked oocyte), no differences were found in the percent of oocytes reaching metaphase II or cytoplasmic maturation. It is concluded that morphological features of the collected porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes (rather than cumulus behavior during culture) may be useful for selection of potentially competent oocytes for in vitro fertilization and embryo production. PMID:20067032

  17. Incidence of invasive Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) and its introduced parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in Florida citrus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) vectors the bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, one of the causal organisms of Huanglongbing or citrus greening, a devastating disease of citrus. A eulophid parasitoid, Tamarixia radiata Waterson, was imported ...

  18. Purification and characterization of high salt-soluble vicilin from mung bean (Vigna radiata).

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, S P; Biswas, B B

    1990-01-01

    We report a method for the purification of vicilin from mung bean (Vigna radiata) mainly on the basis of solubility of mung bean vicilin even in high salt. Mung bean vicilin remains in solution even after 90% relative saturation of ammonium sulphate. The resulting supernatant after dialysis was subjected to gel filtration (Sephadex G-150) to remove other contaminant polypeptides, and finally the protein was purified by DEAE cellulose chromatography. This purified fraction exhibited 3 bands on SDS-PAGE compared with vicilin from other legumes which exhibite more than 3 bands generally. The results raise the possibility that the presence of the two small polypeptides in vicilin preparations is the breakdown product of the major larger one of mol.wt. 52 K and that vicilin may be a tetramer of four subunits of Mr 52000. That the high salt-soluble protein containing 52 K subunit is vicilin has been determined by several criteria. PMID:2241993

  19. Stem compression reversibly reduces phloem transport in Pinus sylvestris trees.

    PubMed

    Henriksson, Nils; Tarvainen, Lasse; Lim, Hyungwoo; Tor-Ngern, Pantana; Palmroth, Sari; Oren, Ram; Marshall, John; Näsholm, Torgny

    2015-10-01

    Manipulating tree belowground carbon (C) transport enables investigation of the ecological and physiological roles of tree roots and their associated mycorrhizal fungi, as well as a range of other soil organisms and processes. Girdling remains the most reliable method for manipulating this flux and it has been used in numerous studies. However, girdling is destructive and irreversible. Belowground C transport is mediated by phloem tissue, pressurized through the high osmotic potential resulting from its high content of soluble sugars. We speculated that phloem transport may be reversibly blocked through the application of an external pressure on tree stems. Thus, we here introduce a technique based on compression of the phloem, which interrupts belowground flow of assimilates, but allows trees to recover when the external pressure is removed. Metal clamps were wrapped around the stems and tightened to achieve a pressure theoretically sufficient to collapse the phloem tissue, thereby aiming to block transport. The compression's performance was tested in two field experiments: a (13)C canopy labelling study conducted on small Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees [2-3 m tall, 3-7 cm diameter at breast height (DBH)] and a larger study involving mature pines (∼15 m tall, 15-25 cm DBH) where stem respiration, phloem and root carbohydrate contents, and soil CO2 efflux were measured. The compression's effectiveness was demonstrated by the successful blockage of (13)C transport. Stem compression doubled stem respiration above treatment, reduced soil CO2 efflux by 34% and reduced phloem sucrose content by 50% compared with control trees. Stem respiration and soil CO2 efflux returned to normal within 3 weeks after pressure release, and (13)C labelling revealed recovery of phloem function the following year. Thus, we show that belowground phloem C transport can be reduced by compression, and we also demonstrate that trees recover after treatment, resuming C

  20. Lethal and Sublethal Effects of Insecticides Used on Citrus, on the Ectoparasitoid Tamarixia radiata.

    PubMed

    Beloti, Vitor Hugo; Alves, Gustavo Rodrigues; Araújo, Diogo Feliciano Dias; Picoli, Mateus Manara; Moral, Rafael de Andrade; Demétrio, Clarice Garcia Borges; Yamamoto, Pedro Takao

    2015-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is a disease associated with the bacteria "Candidatus Liberibacter spp." and has been devastating citrus orchards around the world. Its management involves control of the insect vector, the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama. However, the indiscriminate use of chemicals has caused pest outbreaks and eliminated the natural enemies of the vector, such as the parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Waterston), the main agent for biological control of D. citri. This study assessed the lethal and sublethal effects of insecticides recommended for integrated production of citrus on the parasitoid T. radiata. When adult parasitoids were exposed to residues of 25 insecticides, 20% of them, i.e., gamma-cyhalothrin, etofenprox, azadirachtin, tebufenozide and pyriproxyfen, were considered as harmless (Class 1), 12% as slightly harmful (Class 2), 12% as moderately harmful (Class 3) and 56% as harmful (Class 4), according to the classification proposed by the IOBC/WPRS. Afterward, 14 insecticides (5 harmless and 9 harmful) were sprayed on the parasitoid pupae. Of the 14 insecticides tested, only the organophosphates dimethoate and chlorpyrifos affected the parasitoid emergence. The effects of insecticides on the parasitism capacity of adults exposed to residues of azadirachtin, etofenprox, gamma-cyhalothrin, pyriproxyfen and tebufenozide (harmless) were also evaluated. Tebufenozide and gamma-cyhalothrin affected the parasitism of the F0 generation, but did not affect the emergence of the F1 and F2 generations. Therefore, for an effective IPM program, selective insecticides or harmful pesticides to adult parasitoids could be used in the field, provided that the adults do not occur naturally and the chemical applications do not coincide with parasitoid releases. PMID:26132327

  1. Macrofauna associated with an introduced oyster, Pinctada radiata: Spatial scale implications of community differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tlig-Zouari, Sabiha; Rabaoui, Lotfi; Cosentino, Andrea; Irathni, Ikram; Ghrairi, Hafedh; Hassine, Oum Kalthoum Ben

    2011-01-01

    The macrozoobenthos associated with the introduced pearl oyster Pinctada radiata has been sampled at two different spatial scales of three sectors (order of hundreds of kilometres) and of eight localities (order of tens of kilometres). Moreover, the NW sector was selected to compare three localities with the presence of P. radiata (low density) and one locality where it was totally absent. The first design was hierarchical, with random localities nested within sectors; the second one was an asymmetrical factorial design, in which the presence/absence of Pinctada and hydrodynamism were considered. Similarity relationships were investigated by means of multivariate clustering, similarity percentage analysis and nm-MDS ordination; the two experimental designs have been tested by permutational MANOVA and analysis of dispersion (PERMDISP). Most of the variability of the associated zoobenthic community appeared to be mainly captured by local environmental factors; the meso-scale variability was more discriminating than differences at larger spatial scale. Large scale NW-SE biogeographic gradient may also have some effects in the assemblage composition. Although the whole arrangement of samples in the MDS plane showed a clear Bray-Curtis distance between the locality without Pinctada and all the remaining sites, pair-wise contrasts were not all significant. The factor "presence/absence" was not significant in this design, whereas the exposure was more indicative of differences in the local assemblage composition. These results may not confirm that the community structure variability is due to the impact of Pincata invasion because the potential and subtle community shift may be masked by the overwhelming influence of just the local environmental gradients. In spite of this, the introduced oyster may play the role of an engineer species at high densities, contributing to the complexity of the benthic habitat and influencing the trophic pattern of its fauna.

  2. Lethal and Sublethal Effects of Insecticides Used on Citrus, on the Ectoparasitoid Tamarixia radiata

    PubMed Central

    Beloti, Vitor Hugo; Alves, Gustavo Rodrigues; Araújo, Diogo Feliciano Dias; Picoli, Mateus Manara; Moral, Rafael de Andrade; Demétrio, Clarice Garcia Borges; Yamamoto, Pedro Takao

    2015-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is a disease associated with the bacteria “Candidatus Liberibacter spp.” and has been devastating citrus orchards around the world. Its management involves control of the insect vector, the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama. However, the indiscriminate use of chemicals has caused pest outbreaks and eliminated the natural enemies of the vector, such as the parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Waterston), the main agent for biological control of D. citri. This study assessed the lethal and sublethal effects of insecticides recommended for integrated production of citrus on the parasitoid T. radiata. When adult parasitoids were exposed to residues of 25 insecticides, 20% of them, i.e., gamma-cyhalothrin, etofenprox, azadirachtin, tebufenozide and pyriproxyfen, were considered as harmless (Class 1), 12% as slightly harmful (Class 2), 12% as moderately harmful (Class 3) and 56% as harmful (Class 4), according to the classification proposed by the IOBC/WPRS. Afterward, 14 insecticides (5 harmless and 9 harmful) were sprayed on the parasitoid pupae. Of the 14 insecticides tested, only the organophosphates dimethoate and chlorpyrifos affected the parasitoid emergence. The effects of insecticides on the parasitism capacity of adults exposed to residues of azadirachtin, etofenprox, gamma-cyhalothrin, pyriproxyfen and tebufenozide (harmless) were also evaluated. Tebufenozide and gamma-cyhalothrin affected the parasitism of the F0 generation, but did not affect the emergence of the F1 and F2 generations. Therefore, for an effective IPM program, selective insecticides or harmful pesticides to adult parasitoids could be used in the field, provided that the adults do not occur naturally and the chemical applications do not coincide with parasitoid releases. PMID:26132327

  3. Mature Teachers Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berl, Patricia Scallan

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the consequences of losing mature teachers due to voluntary separation or retirement and the mindset of a mature teacher that is different from younger teachers in a number of ways. Mature teachers are colleagues over 45 years of age possessing significant experience in the field. Future trends in teacher…

  4. Late Eocene white pines (Pinus subgenus Strobus) from southern China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qingqing; Zhou, Wenjun; Kodrul, Tatiana M.; Naugolnykh, Serge V.; Jin, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Fossil records indicate that the genus Pinus L. split into two subgenera by the Late Cretaceous, although subgenus Strobus (D. Don) Lemmon is less well documented than subgenus Pinus L., especially in eastern Asia. In this paper, Pinus maomingensis sp. nov. is established based on a compressed seed cone from the upper Eocene of the Maoming Basin of southern China. This species is attributed to genus Pinus, subgenus Strobus, section Quinquefoliae Duhamel, subsection Strobus Loudon based on the combination of morphological characters obtained from the cone scales, specifically from the terminal umbo, rhombic apophysis, and cuticle structure. Associated fascicles of needle leaves with deciduous sheaths and bulbous bases are recognized as Pinus sp. and also represent Pinus subgenus Strobus. This new discovery from the Maoming Basin constitutes the first megafossil record of subgenus Strobus from southern China and implies that the members of this subgenus arrived in the southern region of China by the late Eocene. The extant species of subgenus Strobus are mainly distributed in northern temperate and tropical to subtropical mountainous regions. We propose that the Maoming Basin was adjacent to a mountainous region during the late Eocene. PMID:26548658

  5. [Temporal variations of soil microbial biomass and enzyme activities during the secondary succession of primary broadleaved-Pinus koraiensis forests in Changbai Mountains of Northeast].

    PubMed

    Hu, Song; Zhang, Ying; Shi, Rong-Jiu; Han, Si-Qin; Li, Hui; Xu, Hui

    2013-02-01

    By the method of space-for-time Substitution, and taking the matured (>200 years old) and over-matured (>200 years old) primary broadleaved-Pinus koraiensis forests and, their secondary forests at different succession stages (20-, 30-, 50-, 80-, and 100 years old Betula platphylla forests) in Changbai Mountains of Northeast China as test objects, this paper studied the temporal variations of soil organic carbon, soil microbial biomass, and soil enzyme activities during the secondary succession of primary broadleaved-Pinus koraiensis forests in the Mountains. Under the 20- and 80 years old B. platphylla forests, the soil organic carbon content in humus layer was the highest (154.8 and 154.3 g.kg-1, respectively); while under the matured and over-matured primary broad-leaved-Pinus koraiensis forests, this organic carbon content was relatively low, being 141. 8 and 133. 4 g.kg , respectively. The soil microbial biomass carbon and microbial quotient and the activities of soil cellulase, peroxidase, acid phosphatase, and cellobiase under the 50- and 80 years old B. platphylla forests were the highest, but the activity of soil polyphenol oxidase was the lowest, which revealed that under middle-aged and matured B. platphylla forests, soil organic carbon had a faster turnover rate, and was probably in a stronger accumulation phase. Statistical analysis showed that the soil microbial biomass carbon had significant positive correlations with the soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, and available phosphorus (r = 0.943, 0. 963, and 0.953, respectively; PMID:23705380

  6. Transcriptome characterisation of Pinus tabuliformis and evolution of genes in the Pinus phylogeny

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Chinese pine (Pinus tabuliformis) is an indigenous conifer species in northern China but is relatively underdeveloped as a genomic resource; thus, limiting gene discovery and breeding. Large-scale transcriptome data were obtained using a next-generation sequencing platform to compensate for the lack of P. tabuliformis genomic information. Results The increasing amount of transcriptome data on Pinus provides an excellent resource for multi-gene phylogenetic analysis and studies on how conserved genes and functions are maintained in the face of species divergence. The first P. tabuliformis transcriptome from a normalised cDNA library of multiple tissues and individuals was sequenced in a full 454 GS-FLX run, producing 911,302 sequencing reads. The high quality overlapping expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were assembled into 46,584 putative transcripts, and more than 700 SSRs and 92,000 SNPs/InDels were characterised. Comparative analysis of the transcriptome of six conifer species yielded 191 orthologues, from which we inferred a phylogenetic tree, evolutionary patterns and calculated rates of gene diversion. We also identified 938 fast evolving sequences that may be useful for identifying genes that perhaps evolved in response to positive selection and might be responsible for speciation in the Pinus lineage. Conclusions A large collection of high-quality ESTs was obtained, de novo assembled and characterised, which represents a dramatic expansion of the current transcript catalogues of P. tabuliformis and which will gradually be applied in breeding programs of P. tabuliformis. Furthermore, these data will facilitate future studies of the comparative genomics of P. tabuliformis and other related species. PMID:23597112

  7. [Effects of litterfall and root input on soil physical and chemical properties in Pinus massoniana plantations in Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China].

    PubMed

    Ge, Xiao-Gai; Huang, Zhi-Lin; Cheng, Rui-Mei; Zeng, Li-Xiong; Xiao, Wen-Fa; Tan, Ben-Wang

    2012-12-01

    An investigation was made on the soil physical and chemical properties in different-aged Pinus massoniana plantations in Three Gorges Reservoir Area under effects of litterfall and roots. The annual litter production in mature stand was 19.4% and 65.7% higher than that in nearly mature and middle-aged stands, respectively. The litter standing amount was in the sequence of mature stand > middle-aged stand > nearly mature stand, while the litter turnover coefficient was in the order of nearly mature stand (0.51) > mature stand (0.40) > middle-aged stand (0.36). The total root biomass, live root biomass, and dead root biomass were the highest in middle-aged stand, and the lowest in nearly mature stand. In middle-aged stand, soil total porosity was the highest, and soil bulk density was the lowest. Soil organic matter and total nitrogen contents were in the order of mature stand > middle-aged stand > nearly mature stand, soil nitrate nitrogen occupied a larger proportion of soil mineral N in nearly mature stand, while ammonium nitrogen accounted more in middle-aged and mature stands. In nearly mature stand, litter production was moderate but turnover coefficient was the highest, and soil nutrient contents were the lowest. In middle-aged stand, root biomass and soil total porosity were the highest, and soil bulk density were the lowest. In mature stand, root biomass was lower while soil nutrient contents were the highest. The increase of root biomass could improve soil physical properties. PMID:23479870

  8. Cone Early Maturity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hop cone early maturity is thought to be caused by diffuse infections of cone, just prior to harvest, by Podosphaera macularis. The disease is best managed by limiting the amount of leaf infection by P. macularis prior to bloom. The yield and quality reductions associated with Hop cone early matur...

  9. Isolation and Characterization of Tonoplast from Chilling-Sensitive Etiolated Seedlings of Vigna radiata L. 12

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Shizuo; Kawata, Takefumi; Uemura, Matsuo; Niki, Teruo

    1986-01-01

    Tonoplasts were isolated in a high purity from etiolated young seedlings of Vigna radiata L. (mung bean) utilizing a sucrose density gradient system. The excised hypocotyls were homogenized in a sorbitol-buffer system and the 3,600 to 156,000g pellets obtained after the differential centrifugations were suspended in a sorbitol medium and loaded on a linear sucrose density gradient. After centrifugation at 89,000g for 2 hours, tonoplasts were banded at the sample load/sucrose interface. Assessed by electron microscopy and marker enzymes, the purity and the quantity were found to be sufficient for biochemical and biophysical analyses. The tonoplasts were associated with NO3−-sensitive and vana-date-insensitive ATPase. The tonoplast ATPase was stimulated by proton ionophores such as carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenyl-hydrazone and gramicidin D, suggesting a proton-pumping enzyme. In the presence of ATP and Mg2+, a proton gradient was formed in the isolated tonoplast vesicles as assessed by fluorescence quenching of quinacrine. The tonoplasts contained several kinds of mannosylated or glycosylated glycoproteins and a major protein (65 kilodaltons) which was unique to the membranes. Images Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:16664574

  10. Centrifugal partition chromatography elution gradient for isolation of sesquiterpene lactones and flavonoids from Anvillea radiata.

    PubMed

    Destandau, Emilie; Boukhris, Meryem Alaoui; Zubrzycki, Sandrine; Akssira, Mohamed; Rhaffari, Lhoucine El; Elfakir, Claire

    2015-03-15

    An innovative procedure coupling pressurized solvent extraction and centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) used in linear gradient elution mode was developed to isolate two pure germacranolides (9α-hydroxyparthenolide and 9β-hydroxyparthenolide) and to separate flavonoids (nepetin, isorhamnetin and jaceosidin) and chlorophyll pigments from aerial parts of Anvillea radiata (Coss.&Durieu). The two main germacranolides recovered using this method represent 2 and 5% of the dried plant material respectively. These molecules were extracted using accelerated solvent extraction with chloroform. After optimization of the CPC method, a two-phase solvent system composed of heptane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water (1:5:1:5 v/v/v/v) was employed in descending mode to isolate the germacranolides. Then the lower phase of a heptane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water (6:5:6:5 v/v/v/v) system was pumped in descending mode to generate a linear elution gradient, progressively decreasing the mobile phase polarity, that enabled the flavonoid compounds to be separated in the same run. The efficiency of the preparative separation was controlled through RP-HPLC analysis of the obtained fractions using UV, evaporative light scattering and mass spectrometry detection. The structural identification of the two germacranolides purified over 99% was established by (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR. The least abundant flavonoids were identified by mass spectrometry. PMID:25647341

  11. Appraisal of gene action for indeterminate growth in mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Javed; Ahsan, Muhammad; Saleem, Muhammad; Ali, Asghar

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the inheritance pattern of indeterminate growth in Vigna radiata, various related traits were studied. The techniques used for the purpose were generation mean and variance analyses. Narrow sense heritability estimates were also computed. Four out of fifty greengram accessions were selected during preliminary screen trial based on DDd2 and DDh2 values. Two cross combinations were made by utilizing four parents. Generation variance analysis demonstrated the engagement of additive and environmental components, with the pre-pondrance of additive gene action. Narrow sense heritability estimates (>67%) also supported the same. In generation mean analysis both cross combinations manifested non-allelic epistatic digenic interactions for the investigated traits except for plant height at first flower initiation and for seed yield per plant in one cross combination, where only additive and dominance components were important. For pyramiding the additive genes favoring determinate plant growth, higher harvest index and simultaneously purging the genes promoting twining growth habit escorted with low seed yield, any modified breeding scheme which could serve the said purpose may be opted. PMID:26388879

  12. Nutritional Assessment and Antioxidant Activities of Different Varieties of Vigna radiata

    PubMed Central

    Ullah, Zain; Al-Deyab, Salem S.; Adnan, Muhammad; Tariq, Akash

    2014-01-01

    Three cultivars of Vigna radiata, namely, NM-92, NM-98, and NM-06, were analyzed for their proximate composition. The samples were also tested by HPLC for amino acid content. The data showed that all the varieties had same moisture level. The maximum ash content (4.29%) was present in NM-92, and crude fat (2.26%) was highest in NM-98 while NM-06 contained maximum amount of crude protein. About eighteen types of amino acids were detected in each of the three varieties. Acidic amino acids, that is, aspartic and glutamic acids, were in considerable amount ranged from 13 to 23% followed by leucine, isoleucine, alanine, valine, lysine, phenyl alanine, serine, and arginine which fell in the range of 3–8% of total protein. The maximum amount (13.00 and 22.80%) of aspartic and glutamic acids was present in NM-98. Similarly arginine (6.83%) and serine (5.45%) were also in highest amount in this variety. Leucine (7.46%) was maximum in NM-92 variety. NM-06 contained almost all the amino acids in lesser quantity except for few like threonine, proline, glycine, and alanine. It was concluded from the present study that varieties were of different nutritional value and HPLC was a sensitive method for amino acids determination. Antioxidant activities of all three varieties were also assayed and showed significant results. PMID:25401158

  13. Connectivity of the habitat-forming kelp, Ecklonia radiata within and among estuaries and open coast.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Melinda A

    2013-01-01

    With marine protected areas being established worldwide there is a pressing need to understand how the physical setting in which these areas are placed influences patterns of dispersal and connectivity of important marine organisms. This is particularly critical for dynamic and complex nearshore marine environments where patterns of genetic structure of organisms are often chaotic and uncoupled from broad scale physical processes. This study determines the influence of habitat heterogeneity (presence of estuaries) on patterns of genetic structure and connectivity of the common kelp, Ecklonia radiata. There was no genetic differentiation of kelp between estuaries and the open coast and the presence of estuaries did not increase genetic differentiation among open coast populations. Similarly, there were no differences in level of inbreeding or genetic diversity between estuarine and open coast populations. The presence of large estuaries along rocky coastlines does not appear to influence genetic structure of this kelp and factors other than physical heterogeneity of habitat are likely more important determinants of regional connectivity. Marine reserves are currently lacking in this bioregion and may be designated in the future. Knowledge of the factors that influence important habitat forming organisms such as kelp contribute to informed and effective marine protected area design and conservation initiatives to maintain resilience of important marine habitats. PMID:23717648

  14. Data Product Maturity

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-03-25

    ... document, maturity levels are provided separately for each scientific data set (SDS) included with the data files. The data product ... indiscriminate use of these data products as the basis for research findings, journal publications, and/or presentations.   ...

  15. A review of phytochemistry, metabolite changes, and medicinal uses of the common food mung bean and its sprouts (Vigna radiata)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The seeds and sprouts of mung bean (Vigna radiata), a common food, contain abundant nutrients with biological activities. This review provides insight into the nutritional value of mung beans and its sprouts, discussing chemical constituents that have been isolated in the past few decades, such as flavonoids, phenolic acids, organic acids, amino acids, carbohydrates, and lipids. Moreover, we also summarize dynamic changes in metabolites during the sprouting process and related biological activities, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, lipid metabolism accommodation, antihypertensive, and antitumor effects, etc., with the goal of providing scientific evidence for better application of this commonly used food as a medicine. PMID:24438453

  16. Spatial patterns of ectomycorrhizal fungal inoculum in arbuscular mycorrhizal barrens communities: implications for controlling invasion by Pinus virginiana.

    PubMed

    Thiet, Rachel K; Boerner, R E J

    2007-09-01

    Invasion of globally threatened ecosystems dominated by arbuscular mycorrhizal plants, such as the alkaline prairies and serpentine barrens of eastern North America, by species of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) pine (Pinus) seriously threatens the persistence, conservation, and ongoing restoration of these rare plant communities. Using Maryland serpentine barrens and an Ohio alkaline prairie complex as model systems, we tested the hypothesis that the invasiveness of Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana L.) into such communities is regulated by the spatial pattern of ECM fungal inoculum in the soil. ECM colonization of pine seedlings can occur by (1) hyphae growing from the roots of mature ECM pines colonizing nearby seedlings (contagion model), (2) pine seedlings being infected after germinating in open areas where spores are concentrated in feces of animals that have consumed sporocarps (centers of infection model), and (3) colonization from spores that are wind-dispersed across the landscape (background model). To test these models of dispersal of ECM fungal inoculum into these barrens, we used autocorrelation and spatially explicit mapping techniques (semivariance analysis and kriging) to characterize the distribution and abundance of ECM inoculum in soil. Our results strongly suggest that ECM fungi most often disperse into open barrens by contagion, thereby facilitating rapid pine colonization in an advancing front from mature pine forests bordering the barrens. Spatial patterns consistent with the centers of infection model were present but less common. Thus, current management techniques that rely on cutting and fire to reverse pine invasion may be ineffective because they do not kill or disrupt hyphal mats attached to mature roots of neighboring pines. Management alternatives are discussed. PMID:17356853

  17. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Pinus roxburghii Sarg.

    PubMed Central

    Kaushik, Dhirender; Kumar, Ajay; Kaushik, Pawan; Rana, A. C.

    2012-01-01

    The Chir Pine, Pinus roxburghii, named after William Roxburgh, is a pine native to the Himalaya. Pinus roxburghii Sarg. (Pinaceae) is traditionally used for several medicinal purposes in India. As the oil of the plant is extensively used in number of herbal preparation for curing inflammatory disorders, the present study was undertaken to assess analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of its bark extract. Dried and crushed leaves of Pinus roxburghii Sarg. were defatted with petroleum ether and then extracted with alcohol. The alcoholic extract at the doses of 100 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg, and 500 mg/kg body weight was subjected to evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in experimental animal models. Analgesic activity was evaluated by acetic acid-induced writhing and tail immersion tests in Swiss albino mice; acute and chronic anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carrageenan-induced paw oedema and cotton pellet granuloma in Wistar albino rats. Diclofenac sodium and indomethacin were employed as reference drugs for analgesic and anti-inflammatory studies, respectively. In the present study, the alcoholic bark extract of Pinus roxburghii Sarg. demonstrated significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in the tested models. PMID:22761611

  18. Rainfall interception and partitioning by pinus monophylla and juniperus osteosperma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated canopy interception of simulated rainfall by singleleaf piñon (Pinus monophylla) and Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma) in central Nevada. Research has shown that although piñon and juniper occurred historically throughout the western United States, the infilling of woodlan...

  19. Ageing of resin from Pinus species assessed by infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Beltran, Victòria; Salvadó, Nati; Butí, Salvador; Pradell, Trinitat

    2016-06-01

    Resins obtained from Pinus genus species have been widely used in very different fields throughout history. As soon as the resins are secreted, molecular changes start altering their chemical, mechanical and optical properties. The ageing processes are complex, and the chemical and structural changes associated with resin degradation are not yet fully known. Many questions still remain open, for instance changes happening in pimaranes, one of the two diterpenoid constituents of the resin. A systematic study of the ageing process of Pinus resins is done through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) using chemical standards and complementing the obtained results with gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis when necessary. Moreover, long-term degradation processes are also investigated through the analysis of a selection of dated historical resins. This study overcomes the limitations of GC/MS and brings new information about the reactions and interactions between molecules during Pinus resin ageing processes. It also provides information about which bonds are affected and unaffected, and these can be used as specific markers of the degradation and of the resins themselves. Graphical Abstract Changes in the IR spectral features due to the Pinus resin ageing processes. PMID:27052772

  20. Nontarget effects of chemical pesticides and biological pesticide on rhizospheric microbial community structure and function in Vigna radiata.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sunil; Gupta, Rashi; Kumari, Madhu; Sharma, Shilpi

    2015-08-01

    Intensive agriculture has resulted in an indiscriminate use of pesticides, which demands in-depth analysis of their impact on indigenous rhizospheric microbial community structure and function. Hence, the objective of the present work was to study the impact of two chemical pesticides (chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin) and one biological pesticide (azadirachtin) at two dosages on the microbial community structure using cultivation-dependent approach and on rhizospheric bacterial communities involved in nitrogen cycle in Vigna radiata rhizosphere through cultivation-independent technique of real-time PCR. Cultivation-dependent study highlighted the adverse effects of both chemical pesticide and biopesticide on rhizospheric bacterial and fungal communities at different plant growth stages. Also, an adverse effect on number of genes and transcripts of nifH (nitrogen fixation); amoA (nitrification); and narG, nirK, and nirS (denitrification) was observed. The results from the present study highlighted two points, firstly that nontarget effects of pesticides are significantly detrimental to soil microflora, and despite being of biological origin, azadirachtin exerted negative impact on rhizospheric microbial community of V. radiata behaving similar to chemical pesticides. Hence, such nontarget effects of chemical pesticide and biopesticide in plants' rhizosphere, which bring out the larger picture in terms of their ecotoxicological effect, demand a proper risk assessment before application of pesticides as agricultural amendments. PMID:25801369

  1. Expression patterns of conserved microRNAs in the male gametophyte of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda).

    PubMed

    Quinn, Christina R; Iriyama, Rie; Fernando, Danilo D

    2014-06-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNAs that regulate genes involved in various aspects of plant development, but their presence and expression patterns in the male gametophytes of gymnosperms have not yet been established. Therefore, this study identified and compared the expression patterns of conserved miRNAs from two stages of the male gametophyte of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda), which are the mature (ungerminated) and germinated pollen. Microarray was used to identify conserved miRNAs that varied in expression between these two stages of the loblolly pine male gametophyte. Forty-seven conserved miRNAs showed significantly different expression levels between mature and germinated loblolly pine pollen. In particular, miRNAs representing 14 and 8 families were up- and down-regulated in germinated loblolly pine pollen, respectively. qRT-PCR was used to validate their expression patterns using representative miRNAs. Target genes and proteins were identified using psRNATarget program. Predicted targets of the 22 miRNA families belong mostly to classes of genes involved in defense/stress response, metabolism, regulation, and signaling. qRT-PCR was also used to validate the expression patterns of representative target genes. This study shows that conserved miRNAs are expressed in mature and germinated loblolly pine pollen. Many of these miRNAs are differentially expressed, which indicates that the two stages of the male gametophyte examined are regulated at the miRNA level. This study also expands our knowledge of the male gametophytes of seed plants by providing insights on some similarities and differences in the types and expression patterns of conserved miRNAs between loblolly pine with those of rice and Arabidopsis. PMID:24664256

  2. Seasonal monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions from Pinus taeda and Pinus virginiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geron, Chris D.; Arnts, Robert R.

    2010-11-01

    Seasonal volatile organic compound emission data from loblolly pine ( Pinus taeda) and Virginia pine ( Pinus virginiana) were collected using branch enclosure techniques in Central North Carolina, USA. P. taeda monoterpene emission rates were at least ten times higher than oxygenated monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions in all seasons. α-pinene and β-pinene were the most abundant emissions, while β-caryophyllene had the highest sesquiterpene emission rate from this species. β-phellandrene was the dominant compound emitted from P. virginiana, followed by the sesquiterpene β-caryophyllene. Sesquiterpene emissions from P. virginiana have not been reported in the literature previously. Summer sesquiterpene emissions from P. virginiana were nearly as high as monoterpene emissions, but were 4-12 times lower than monoterpene emissions in the other seasons. Oxygenated monoterpenes and 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol were emitted at higher rates from P. taeda than from P. virginiana. Temperature response of the pinenes from P. taeda is similar to previously reported values used in emission models, while that for other compounds falls at the lower end of the previously reported range. Temperature response of all compounds from P. virginiana is in reasonable agreement with previously reported values from other pine species. There is evidence of light dependence of sesquiterpene emission after accounting for temperature response from both species. This effect is somewhat stronger in P. taeda. Bud break, needle expansion, and needle fall (and therefore wind events) seemed to increase monoterpene emission during non-summer seasons. In some instances springtime monoterpene emissions were higher than summertime emissions despite cooler temperatures. Emissions of individual compounds within monoterpene, oxygenated monoterpene, and sesquiterpene classes were highly correlated with each other. Compounds from different classes were much less correlated within each species. This is due

  3. Ocean acidification reverses the positive effects of seawater pH fluctuations on growth and photosynthesis of the habitat-forming kelp, Ecklonia radiata.

    PubMed

    Britton, Damon; Cornwall, Christopher E; Revill, Andrew T; Hurd, Catriona L; Johnson, Craig R

    2016-01-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) is the reduction in seawater pH due to the absorption of human-released CO2 by the world's oceans. The average surface oceanic pH is predicted to decline by 0.4 units by 2100. However, kelp metabolically modifies seawater pH via photosynthesis and respiration in some temperate coastal systems, resulting in daily pH fluctuations of up to ±0.45 units. It is unknown how these fluctuations in pH influence the growth and physiology of the kelp, or how this might change with OA. In laboratory experiments that mimicked the most extreme pH fluctuations measured within beds of the canopy-forming kelp Ecklonia radiata in Tasmania, the growth and photosynthetic rates of juvenile E. radiata were greater under fluctuating pH (8.4 in the day, 7.8 at night) than in static pH treatments (8.4, 8.1, 7.8). However, pH fluctuations had no effect on growth rates and a negative effect on photosynthesis when the mean pH of each treatment was reduced by 0.3 units. Currently, pH fluctuations have a positive effect on E. radiata but this effect could be reversed in the future under OA, which is likely to impact the future ecological dynamics and productivity of habitats dominated by E. radiata. PMID:27229624

  4. Biological control of Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) in Florida by the parasitoid Tamarixia radiata in urban plantings of orange jasmine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian citrus psyllid is an important invasive citrus pest in the United States because it vectors a bacterium responsible for a devastating disease of citrus known as huanglongbing. A parasitoid of the psyllid, Tamarixia radiata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), was imported from Southeast Asia and re...

  5. Ocean acidification reverses the positive effects of seawater pH fluctuations on growth and photosynthesis of the habitat-forming kelp, Ecklonia radiata

    PubMed Central

    Britton, Damon; Cornwall, Christopher E.; Revill, Andrew T.; Hurd, Catriona L.; Johnson, Craig R.

    2016-01-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) is the reduction in seawater pH due to the absorption of human-released CO2 by the world’s oceans. The average surface oceanic pH is predicted to decline by 0.4 units by 2100. However, kelp metabolically modifies seawater pH via photosynthesis and respiration in some temperate coastal systems, resulting in daily pH fluctuations of up to ±0.45 units. It is unknown how these fluctuations in pH influence the growth and physiology of the kelp, or how this might change with OA. In laboratory experiments that mimicked the most extreme pH fluctuations measured within beds of the canopy-forming kelp Ecklonia radiata in Tasmania, the growth and photosynthetic rates of juvenile E. radiata were greater under fluctuating pH (8.4 in the day, 7.8 at night) than in static pH treatments (8.4, 8.1, 7.8). However, pH fluctuations had no effect on growth rates and a negative effect on photosynthesis when the mean pH of each treatment was reduced by 0.3 units. Currently, pH fluctuations have a positive effect on E. radiata but this effect could be reversed in the future under OA, which is likely to impact the future ecological dynamics and productivity of habitats dominated by E. radiata. PMID:27229624

  6. Molecular genetic studies confirm that populations of Tamarixia radiata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) from Texas and Florida area a single species: natural enemies of the Asian citrus psylild

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tamarixia radiata (Waterston) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is a natural enemy of the Asian citrus pysllid [Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae]). D. citri is an important economic world-wide pest of citrus that recently invaded Texas, among several other states in the U. S. D. citri vecto...

  7. Survival of adult Tamarixia radiata subjected to different short-term storage methods prior to field releases for biological control of Asian citrus psyllid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tamarixia radiata is regarded as one of the Asian citrus psyllid’s most important natural enemies and is thus currently being mass-reared and released by a number of laboratories in North America. It may not always be possible to immediately release newly-emerged adults, in which case it would be a...

  8. Jealousy and Moral Maturity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathes, Eugene W.; Deuger, Donna J.

    Jealousy may be perceived as either good or bad depending upon the moral maturity of the individual. To investigate this conclusion, a study was conducted testing two hypothesis: a positive relationship exists between conventional moral reasoning (reference to norms and laws) and the endorsement and level of jealousy; and a negative relationship…

  9. Needle morphological evidence of the homoploid hybrid origin of Pinus densata based on analysis of artificial hybrids and the putative parents, Pinus tabuliformis and Pinus yunnanensis.

    PubMed

    Xing, Fangqian; Mao, Jian-Feng; Meng, Jingxiang; Dai, Jianfeng; Zhao, Wei; Liu, Hao; Xing, Zhen; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Xiao-Ru; Li, Yue

    2014-05-01

    Genetic analyses indicate that Pinus densata is a natural homoploid hybrid originating from Pinus tabuliformis and Pinus yunnanensis. Needle morphological and anatomical features show relative species stability and can be used to identify coniferous species. Comparative analyses of these needle characteristics and phenotypic differences between the artificial hybrids, P. densata, and parental species can be used to determine the genetic and phenotypic evolutionary consequences of natural hybridization. Twelve artificial hybrid families, the two parental species, and P. densata were seeded in a high-altitude habitat in Linzhi, Tibet. The needles of artificial hybrids and the three pine species were collected, and 24 needle morphological and anatomical traits were analyzed. Based on these results, variations in 10 needle traits among artificial hybrid families and 22 traits among species and artificial hybrids were predicted and found to be under moderate genetic control. Nineteen needle traits in artificial hybrids were similar to those in P. densata and between the two parental species, P. tabuliformis and P. yunnanensis. The ratio of plants with three needle clusters in artificial hybrids was 22.92%, which was very similar to P. densata. The eight needle traits (needle length, the mean number of stomata in sections 2 mm in length of the convex and flat sides of the needle, mean stomatal density, mesophyll/vascular bundle area ratio, mesophyll/resin canal area ratio, mesophyll/(resin canals and vascular bundles) area ratio, vascular bundle/resin canal area ratio) relative to physiological adaptability were similar to the artificial hybrids and P. densata. The similar needle features between the artificial hybrids and P. densata could be used to verify the homoploid hybrid origin of P. densata and helps to better understand of the hybridization roles in adaptation and speciation in plants. PMID:24963383

  10. Uptake of trifluoroacetate by Pinus ponderosa via atmospheric pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benesch, J. A.; Gustin, M. S.

    Trifluoroacetate (TFA, CF 3COO -), a break down product of hydro(chloro)-fluorocarbons (HFC/HCFCs), has been suggested to contribute to forest decline syndrome. To investigate the possible effects, Pinus ponderosa was exposed to TFA applied as mist (150 and 10,000 ng l -1) to foliar surfaces. Needles accumulated TFA as a function of concentration and time. However, no adverse physiological responses, as plant morphology, photosynthetic and conductance rates, were observed at the TFA concentrations used in this study.

  11. Glacial Refugium of Pinus pumila (Pall.) Regel in Northeastern Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Shilo, N A; Lozhkin, A V; Anderson, P M; Brown, T A; Pakhomov, A Y; Solomatkina, T B

    2007-02-10

    One of the most glowing representatives of the Kolyma flora [1], ''Pinus pumila'' (Pall.) Regel (Japanese stone pine), is a typical shrub in larch forests of the northern Okhotsk region, basins of the Kolyma and Indigirka rivers, and high-shrub tundra of the Chukchi Peninsula. It also forms a pine belt in mountains above the forest boundary, which gives way to the grass-underbrush mountain tundra and bald mountains. In the southern Chukchi Peninsula, ''Pinus pumila'' along with ''Duschekia fruticosa'' (Rupr.) Pouzar and ''Betula middendorffii'' Trautv. et C. A. Mey form trailing forests transitional between tundra and taiga [2]. Pinus pumila pollen, usually predominating in subfossil spore-and-pollen spectra of northeastern Siberia, is found as single grains or a subordinate component (up 2-3%, rarely 10%) in spectra of lacustrine deposits formed during the last glacial stage (isotope stage 2) in the Preboreal and Boreal times of the Holocene. Sometimes, its content increases to 15-22% in spectra of lacustrine deposits synchronous to the last glacial stage near the northern coast of the Sea of Okhotsk [3], evidently indicating the proximity of Japanese stone pine thickets.

  12. Ectomycorrhizal diversity associated with Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the Kashmir Himalaya, India.

    PubMed

    Itoo, Zahoor Ahmad; Reshi, Zafar A

    2014-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to document the ectomycorrhizal diversity associated with the Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the Kashmir Himalaya, India. The extensive field surveys carried out in the Kashmir Himalaya at five study sites resulted in the collection and identification of 76 potential ectomycorrhizal fungal species associated with the Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana. Maximum 32 number of species were found associated with Pinus wallichiana, 19 with Cedrus deodara and 25 species were found growing in association with both the conifers. The present study reveals that Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the Kashmir Himalaya, India harbour diverse ectomycorrhizal fungal species. PMID:24783775

  13. Complete genome sequence of Habenaria mosaic virus, a new potyvirus infecting a terrestrial orchid (Habenaria radiata) in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Hideki; Maeda, Takanori; Gara, I Wayan; Chiba, Sotaro; Maruyama, Kazuyuki; Tamada, Tetsuo; Suzuki, Nobuhiro

    2014-01-01

    The complete genomic sequence of Habenaria mosaic virus (HaMV), which infects terrestrial orchids (Habenaria radiata), has been determined. The genome is composed of 9,499 nucleotides excluding the 3'-terminal poly(A) tail, encoding a large polyprotein of 3,054 amino acids with the genomic features typical of a potyvirus. Putative proteolytic cleavage sites were identified by sequence comparison to those of known potyviruses. The HaMV polyprotein showed 58 % amino acid sequence identity to that encoded by the most closely related potyvirus, tobacco vein banding mosaic virus. Phylogenetic analysis of the polyprotein amino acid sequence and its coding sequences confirmed that HaMV formed a cluster with the chilli veinal mottle virus group, most of which infect solanaceous plants. These results suggest that HaMV is a distinct member of the genus Potyvirus. PMID:23857506

  14. The influences of perinatal challenge persist into the adolescent period in socially housed bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata).

    PubMed

    Laudenslager, Mark L; Natvig, Crystal; Corcoran, Christopher A; Blevins, Maria W; Pierre, Peter J; Bennett, Allyson J

    2013-04-01

    Social challenges during the perinatal period influence the mother-infant relationship in nonhuman primates and may affect the offspring's response to later social challenge(s). Relocation of a breeding colony of monkeys (Macaca radiata) created two groups of infants: one group experienced social group relocation to a new housing facility during the perinatal period (ATYPICAL) and the second group developed within a constant environment (TYPICAL). At a mean age of 25 months, all animals were removed from their natal group and placed in same sex adolescent social groups. Behavioral observations were collected after group formation or introduction to a new group. ATYPICAL subjects showed increased aggression and reduced affiliation compared to TYPICAL subjects. Hair cortisol in male subjects collected 6 months after introduction was elevated in the ATYPICAL subjects compared to TYPICAL subjects. These findings demonstrate that early life challenges affect behavior as well as stress hormone responses to social challenge in adolescence. PMID:22488164

  15. Foliar nutrient status of Pinus ponderosa exposed to ozone and acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, P.D.; Houpis, J.L.J. )

    1991-05-01

    A direct effect of foliar exposure to acid rain may be increased leaching of nutrient elements. Ozone exposure, through degradation of the cuticle and cellular membranes, may also result in increased nutrient leaching. To test these hypotheses, the foliar concentrations of 13 nutrient elements were monitored for mature branches of three clones of Pinus ponderosa exposed to ozone and/or acid rain. The three clones represented three distinct levels of phenotypic vigor. Branches were exposed to charcoal filtered, ambient, or 2 x ambient concentrations of ozone and received no acid rain (NAP), pH 5.1 rain (5.1), or pH 3.0 (3.0) rain. Following 10 months of continuous ozone exposure and 3 months of weekly rain applications, the concentrations of P and Mg differed significantly among rain treatments with a ranking of: 5.1 < NAP < 3.0. The S concentration increased with rain application regardless of pH. For the clones of moderate and low vigor, the concentration of N decreased with increasing rain acidity. There was no evidence of significant ozone or ozone x acid rain response. Among the three families, high phenotypic vigor was associated with significantly greater concentrations of N, P, K, Mg, B and An. These results indicate generally negligible leaching as a result of exposure to acid rain and/or ozone for one growing season. Increases in foliar concentrations of S, Mg and P are possibly the result of evaporative surface deposition from the rain solution.

  16. Comparative behavior of root pathogens in stems and roots of southeastern Pinus species.

    PubMed

    Matusick, George; Nadel, Ryan L; Walker, David M; Hossain, Mohammad J; Eckhardt, Lori G

    2016-04-01

    Root diseases are expected to become a greater threat to trees in the future due to accidental pathogen introductions and predicted climate changes, thus there is a need for accurate and efficient pathogenicity tests. For many root pathogens, these tests have been conducted in stems instead of roots. It, however, remains unclear whether stem and root inoculations are comparable for most fungal species. In this study we compared the growth and damage caused by five root pathogens (Grosmannia huntii, Grosmannia alacris, Leptographium procerum, Leptographium terebrantis, and Heterobasidion irregulare) in root and stem tissue of two Pinus species by inoculating mature trees and tissue amended agar in the laboratory. Most fungal species tested caused greater damage in roots of both pine hosts following inoculation. The relationship between root and stem damage was, however, similar when most combinations of pathogens were compared. These results suggest that although stem inoculations are not suitable for determining the actual damage potential of a given species, they may be viewed as a useful surrogate for root inoculations when comparing the relative pathogenicity of multiple species. When grown on amended agar, fungal species generally had greater growth in stem tissue, contrasting with the findings from tree inoculations. PMID:27020149

  17. Cloning and characterization of a serotonin N-acetyltransferase from a gymnosperm, loblolly pine (Pinus taeda).

    PubMed

    Park, Sangkyu; Byeon, Yeong; Lee, Hyoung Yool; Kim, Young-Soon; Ahn, Taeho; Back, Kyoungwhan

    2014-10-01

    Serotonin N-acetyltransferase (SNAT) is the penultimate enzyme in melatonin biosynthesis in both animals and plants. SNAT catalyzes serotonin into N-acetylserotonin, an immediate precursor for melatonin biosynthesis by N-acetylserotonin methyltransferase (ASMT). We cloned the SNAT gene from a gymnosperm loblolly pine (Pinus teada). The loblolly pine SNAT (PtSNAT) gene encodes 255 amino acids harboring a transit sequence with 67 amino acids and shows 67% amino acid identity with rice SNAT when comparing the mature polypeptide regions. Purified recombinant PtSNAT showed peak activity at 55°C with the K(m) (428 μM) and Vmax (3.9 nmol/min/mg protein) values. As predicted, PtSNAT localized to chloroplasts. The SNAT mRNA was constitutively expressed in all tissues, including leaf, bud, flower, and pinecone, whereas the corresponding protein was detected only in leaf. In accordance with the exclusive SNAT protein expression in leaf, melatonin was detected only in leaf at 0.45 ng per gram fresh weight. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis indicated that the gymnosperm PtSNAT had high homology with SNATs from all plant phyla (even with cyanobacteria), and formed a clade separated from the angiosperm SNATs, suggestive of direct gene transfer from cyanobacteria via endosymbiosis. PMID:25208036

  18. Pinus sylvestris as a missing source of nitrous oxide and methane in boreal forest

    PubMed Central

    Machacova, Katerina; Bäck, Jaana; Vanhatalo, Anni; Halmeenmäki, Elisa; Kolari, Pasi; Mammarella, Ivan; Pumpanen, Jukka; Acosta, Manuel; Urban, Otmar; Pihlatie, Mari

    2016-01-01

    Boreal forests comprise 73% of the world’s coniferous forests. Based on forest floor measurements, they have been considered a significant natural sink of methane (CH4) and a natural source of nitrous oxide (N2O), both of which are important greenhouse gases. However, the role of trees, especially conifers, in ecosystem N2O and CH4 exchange is only poorly understood. We show for the first time that mature Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees consistently emit N2O and CH4 from both stems and shoots. The shoot fluxes of N2O and CH4 exceeded the stem flux rates by 16 and 41 times, respectively. Moreover, higher stem N2O and CH4 fluxes were observed from wet than from dry areas of the forest. The N2O release from boreal pine forests may thus be underestimated and the uptake of CH4 may be overestimated when ecosystem flux calculations are based solely on forest floor measurements. The contribution of pine trees to the N2O and CH4 exchange of the boreal pine forest seems to increase considerably under high soil water content, thus highlighting the urgent need to include tree-emissions in greenhouse gas emission inventories. PMID:26997421

  19. Pinus sylvestris as a missing source of nitrous oxide and methane in boreal forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machacova, Katerina; Bäck, Jaana; Vanhatalo, Anni; Halmeenmäki, Elisa; Kolari, Pasi; Mammarella, Ivan; Pumpanen, Jukka; Acosta, Manuel; Urban, Otmar; Pihlatie, Mari

    2016-03-01

    Boreal forests comprise 73% of the world’s coniferous forests. Based on forest floor measurements, they have been considered a significant natural sink of methane (CH4) and a natural source of nitrous oxide (N2O), both of which are important greenhouse gases. However, the role of trees, especially conifers, in ecosystem N2O and CH4 exchange is only poorly understood. We show for the first time that mature Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees consistently emit N2O and CH4 from both stems and shoots. The shoot fluxes of N2O and CH4 exceeded the stem flux rates by 16 and 41 times, respectively. Moreover, higher stem N2O and CH4 fluxes were observed from wet than from dry areas of the forest. The N2O release from boreal pine forests may thus be underestimated and the uptake of CH4 may be overestimated when ecosystem flux calculations are based solely on forest floor measurements. The contribution of pine trees to the N2O and CH4 exchange of the boreal pine forest seems to increase considerably under high soil water content, thus highlighting the urgent need to include tree-emissions in greenhouse gas emission inventories.

  20. Diversity of fungi in organic soils under a moorland--Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) gradient.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Ian C; Campbell, Colin D; Prosser, James I

    2003-11-01

    The conservation and regeneration of native Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) woodlands is being actively encouraged by conservation agencies in the UK because of their high biodiversity value. In the present study, the consequences of regeneration on terrestrial fungal communities was determined in three parallel transects running from open moorland, through an intermediate zone showing seedling colonization, into a mature Scots pine forest at Abernethy Forest, Cairngorm, Scotland. Soil cores were taken at 18 m intervals along each 180 m transect, and the diversity of the soil fungal community was investigated by DGGE and sequence analysis of ITS fragments PCR-amplified from DNA extracted from soil. Analysis of DGGE profiles generated for two of the three transects indicates a clear shift in the community from the moorland region of the transects to the forest region. Whereas a few bands were present at all sampling points across the transects, the majority of bands were unique to either the moorland or forest samples. FASTA database searches of ITS sequence data generated from excised DGGE bands revealed the closest species match for each band. In some cases, the similarity of ITS sequences to database sequences was poor, but the remaining sequences were most closely related to ITS sequences of both mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal fungi. The data are discussed in relation to the effect of native pine woodland expansion on the soil fungal community. PMID:14641592

  1. Pinus sylvestris as a missing source of nitrous oxide and methane in boreal forest.

    PubMed

    Machacova, Katerina; Bäck, Jaana; Vanhatalo, Anni; Halmeenmäki, Elisa; Kolari, Pasi; Mammarella, Ivan; Pumpanen, Jukka; Acosta, Manuel; Urban, Otmar; Pihlatie, Mari

    2016-01-01

    Boreal forests comprise 73% of the world's coniferous forests. Based on forest floor measurements, they have been considered a significant natural sink of methane (CH4) and a natural source of nitrous oxide (N2O), both of which are important greenhouse gases. However, the role of trees, especially conifers, in ecosystem N2O and CH4 exchange is only poorly understood. We show for the first time that mature Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees consistently emit N2O and CH4 from both stems and shoots. The shoot fluxes of N2O and CH4 exceeded the stem flux rates by 16 and 41 times, respectively. Moreover, higher stem N2O and CH4 fluxes were observed from wet than from dry areas of the forest. The N2O release from boreal pine forests may thus be underestimated and the uptake of CH4 may be overestimated when ecosystem flux calculations are based solely on forest floor measurements. The contribution of pine trees to the N2O and CH4 exchange of the boreal pine forest seems to increase considerably under high soil water content, thus highlighting the urgent need to include tree-emissions in greenhouse gas emission inventories. PMID:26997421

  2. Effects of long-term elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations on Pinus ponderosa

    SciTech Connect

    Surano, K.A.; Kercher, J.R.

    1993-10-01

    This report details the results from an experiment of the effects of long-term elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations on ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) saplings and seedlings. The study began in 1983 as a pilot study designed to explore the feasibility of using open-top chambers for continuous multi-year exposures on sapling-sized trees and to examine possible CO{sub 2} responses so that future research could be adequately designed. however, following the first year of exposure, preliminary results from the study indicated that measurements of CO{sub 2} responses should be intensified. Open-top chambers proved suitable for use in multiyear exposures of mature trees. With respect to the preliminary examination of CO{sub 2} responses, many interesting observations were made. The nature of the preliminary results suggests that future long-term field CO{sub 2} exposures on perennial species may be critical to the understanding and preparation for future environments. Other research reported here attempted to adapt an existing western coniferous forest growth and succession model for use in elevated CO{sub 2} scenarios using differential species responses, and assessed the usefulness of the model in that regard. Seven papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  3. A Consensus Genetic Map for Pinus taeda and Pinus elliottii and Extent of Linkage Disequilibrium in Two Genotype-Phenotype Discovery Populations of Pinus taeda.

    PubMed

    Westbrook, Jared W; Chhatre, Vikram E; Wu, Le-Shin; Chamala, Srikar; Neves, Leandro Gomide; Muñoz, Patricio; Martínez-García, Pedro J; Neale, David B; Kirst, Matias; Mockaitis, Keithanne; Nelson, C Dana; Peter, Gary F; Davis, John M; Echt, Craig S

    2015-08-01

    A consensus genetic map for Pinus taeda (loblolly pine) and Pinus elliottii (slash pine) was constructed by merging three previously published P. taeda maps with a map from a pseudo-backcross between P. elliottii and P. taeda. The consensus map positioned 3856 markers via genotyping of 1251 individuals from four pedigrees. It is the densest linkage map for a conifer to date. Average marker spacing was 0.6 cM and total map length was 2305 cM. Functional predictions of mapped genes were improved by aligning expressed sequence tags used for marker discovery to full-length P. taeda transcripts. Alignments to the P. taeda genome mapped 3305 scaffold sequences onto 12 linkage groups. The consensus genetic map was used to compare the genome-wide linkage disequilibrium in a population of distantly related P. taeda individuals (ADEPT2) used for association genetic studies and a multiple-family pedigree used for genomic selection (CCLONES). The prevalence and extent of LD was greater in CCLONES as compared to ADEPT2; however, extended LD with LGs or between LGs was rare in both populations. The average squared correlations, r(2), between SNP alleles less than 1 cM apart were less than 0.05 in both populations and r(2) did not decay substantially with genetic distance. The consensus map and analysis of linkage disequilibrium establish a foundation for comparative association mapping and genomic selection in P. taeda and P. elliottii. PMID:26068575

  4. A Consensus Genetic Map for Pinus taeda and Pinus elliottii and Extent of Linkage Disequilibrium in Two Genotype-Phenotype Discovery Populations of Pinus taeda

    PubMed Central

    Westbrook, Jared W.; Chhatre, Vikram E.; Wu, Le-Shin; Chamala, Srikar; Neves, Leandro Gomide; Muñoz, Patricio; Martínez-García, Pedro J.; Neale, David B.; Kirst, Matias; Mockaitis, Keithanne; Nelson, C. Dana; Peter, Gary F.; Echt, Craig S.

    2015-01-01

    A consensus genetic map for Pinus taeda (loblolly pine) and Pinus elliottii (slash pine) was constructed by merging three previously published P. taeda maps with a map from a pseudo-backcross between P. elliottii and P. taeda. The consensus map positioned 3856 markers via genotyping of 1251 individuals from four pedigrees. It is the densest linkage map for a conifer to date. Average marker spacing was 0.6 cM and total map length was 2305 cM. Functional predictions of mapped genes were improved by aligning expressed sequence tags used for marker discovery to full-length P. taeda transcripts. Alignments to the P. taeda genome mapped 3305 scaffold sequences onto 12 linkage groups. The consensus genetic map was used to compare the genome-wide linkage disequilibrium in a population of distantly related P. taeda individuals (ADEPT2) used for association genetic studies and a multiple-family pedigree used for genomic selection (CCLONES). The prevalence and extent of LD was greater in CCLONES as compared to ADEPT2; however, extended LD with LGs or between LGs was rare in both populations. The average squared correlations, r2, between SNP alleles less than 1 cM apart were less than 0.05 in both populations and r2 did not decay substantially with genetic distance. The consensus map and analysis of linkage disequilibrium establish a foundation for comparative association mapping and genomic selection in P. taeda and P. elliottii. PMID:26068575

  5. Accelerated Stem Growth Rates and Improved Fiber Properties of Loblolly Pine: Functional Analysis Of CyclinD from Pinus taeda

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. John Cairney, School of Biology and Institute of Paper Science and Technology @ Georgia Tech, Georgia Institute of Technology; Dr. Gary Peter, University of Florida; Dr. Ulrika Egertsdotter, Dept. of Forestry, Virgina Tech; Dr. Armin Wagner, New Zealand Forest Research Institute Ltd.

    2005-11-30

    divisions in the cambial meristem as expected. We isolated a promoter from a cambial specific gene and commenced development of transformation protocols for loblolly pine. Since our results show that cyclin D expression correlates with increased growth we continued with experiments to demonstrate the effect of cyclin overexpression upon tree growth. Vectors which constitutively express the cyclin D cDNA were constructed and transformed into a transgenic pine system through the collaboration with Forest Research, New Zealand. The transformation system for Pinus radiata is well established and we hoped to gain phenotypic information in a closely related pine, rather than await development of a robust loblolly pine transformation method. Transformation experiments were conducted by a biolistic method developed at Forest Research, NZ. A total of 78 transgenic embryogenic lines were generated and bulked up with a good representation of transgenic lines per construct. Transformed calli were originally identified by resistance to the antibiotic Geneticin contained in the medium. The transgenic nature of the selected lines was subsequently confirmed using histochemical GUS staining. To date, 10 out of 13 selected transgenic lines have produced embryos and we are currently harvesting the first transgenic plantlets. At present time 22 of those plantlets have been moved to GMO facilities. We will soon develop a strategy for assessing potential phenotypic differences between the transclones and non-transformed controls. Transgenic plants are being grown to a stage (approx. 1 year) when meaningful phenotypic evaluation can be conducted. The recent availability of 10,000 element loblolly pine cDNA microarray will permit the evaluation of cyclinD overexpression upon gene expression in transgenic Pinus.

  6. Vocational Maturity and Self Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helbing, Hans

    The relationship between separate dimensions of vocational maturity and different self-concept and identity variables were examined. Subjects were Dutch students, age 14-18 years. The vocational maturity dimensions were measured by Dutch adaptations of American vocational maturity scales. Instruments for self-concept and identity measurement were…

  7. A Socioanalytic Model of Maturity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Robert; Roberts, Brent W.

    2004-01-01

    K0 describes a point of view on maturity that departs from earlier treatments in two ways. First, it rejects the popular assumption from humanistic psychology that maturity is a function of self-actualization and stipulates that maturity is related to certain performance capacities--namely, the ability to form lasting relationships and to achieve…

  8. Impact of drought on the temporal dynamics of wood formation in Pinus sylvestris

    PubMed Central

    GRUBER, ANDREAS; STROBL, STEFAN; VEIT, BARBARA; OBERHUBER, WALTER

    2011-01-01

    Summary We determined the temporal dynamics of cambial activity and xylem cell differentiation of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) within a dry inner Alpine valley (750 m asl, Tyrol, Austria), where radial growth is strongly limited by drought in spring. Repeated micro-sampling of the developing tree ring of mature trees was carried out during 2 contrasting years at two study plots that differ in soil water availability (xeric and dry-mesic site). In 2007, when air temperature at the beginning of the growing season in April exceeded the long-term mean by 6.4 °C, cambial cell division started in early April at both study plots. A delayed onset of cambial activity of c. 2 wk was found in 2008, when average climate conditions prevailed in spring, indicating that resumption of cambial cell division after winter dormancy is temperature-controlled. Cambial cell division consistently ended about the end of June/early July in both study years. Radial enlargement of tracheids started almost 3 wk earlier in 2007 compared with 2008 at both study plots. At the xeric site, the maximum rate of tracheid production in 2007 and 2008 was reached in early and mid-May, respectively, and c. 2 wk later, at the dry-mesic site. Since in both study years, more favorable growing conditions (i.e., an increase in soil water content) were recorded during summer, we suggest a strong sink competition for carbohydrates to mycorrhizal root and shoot growth. Wood formation stopped c. 4 wk earlier at the xeric compared with the dry-mesic site in both years, indicating a strong influence of drought stress on cell differentiation. This is supported by radial widths of earlywood cells, which were found to be significantly narrower at the xeric than at the dry-mesic site (P < 0.05). Repeated cellular analyses during the two growing seasons revealed that, although spatial variability in the dynamics and duration of cell differentiation processes in Pinus sylvestris exposed to drought is strongly

  9. Bionomics of Asian Citrus Psyllid (Hemiptera: Liviidae) Associated with Orange Jasmine Hedges in Southeast Central Florida, with Special Reference to Biological Control by Tamarixia radiata.

    PubMed

    Hall, David G; Rohrig, Eric

    2015-06-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is an important pest in Florida because it transmits bacteria responsible for citrus huanglongbing disease. In addition to infesting citrus, orange jasmine (Murraya exotica L.) is one of Asian citrus psyllid's preferred host plants and is widely grown as an ornamental hedge. We report on Asian citrus psyllid bionomics over three years at five urban plantings of orange jasmine and on biological control of Asian citrus psyllid by a parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Waterston). T. radiata had been released in Florida shortly after Asian citrus psyllid was first found, and the parasitoid was known to be established at each planting. Additionally, three new T. radiata haplotypes were released every 3 wk at three plantings during the first study year (one haplotype per planting, over all releases an average of 17 parasitoids per linear meter of hedge); all three haplotypes were released at a fourth planting beginning midway through the study (over all releases, an average combined total of 202 parasitoids per linear meter of hedge). Asian citrus psyllid populations were present year-round at each planting, often at large levels. Such plantings may pose risk to commercial citrus as Asian citrus psyllid reservoirs. Releases of the new haplotypes did not cause any measurable reduction in Asian citrus psyllid population levels during the study, and ironically percentage parasitism was generally highest at a planting where no releases were made. Higher release rates might have been more effective. The probability is discussed that repetitive pruning of orange jasmine reduced the full potential of T. radiata against Asian citrus psyllid in this study. PMID:26470246

  10. Detoxification potential and expression analysis of eutypine reducing aldehyde reductase (VrALR) during progressive drought and recovery in Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek roots.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Debashree; Mudalkar, Shalini; Reddy, Attipalli R

    2012-10-01

    Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plants is an inevitable consequence of adverse environmental cues and the ability to detoxify deleterious by-products of ROS-mediated oxidation reactions reflect an important defence strategy to combat abiotic stress. Here, we have cloned the eutypine reducing aldehyde reductase gene (VrALR) from Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek roots. We have expressed and purified the VrALR protein and analyzed its enzyme kinetic parameters and catalytic efficiency with three different substrates to confirm its identity. The functional characterization of this enzyme was unravelled through heterologous expression of the gene in Escherichia coli BL21 and an oxidative stress-sensitive Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant strain, W3O3-1-A. Finally, the endogenous VrALR enzyme activity and the mRNA expression patterns of the VrALR gene in the roots of V. radiata in response to progressive drought stress in vivo was studied to correlate the ROS-detoxifying role of this important enzyme under the influence of progressive drought stress. Our results, for the first time, demonstrate that eutypine reducing VrALR provides varying degree of stress tolerance in bacteria, yeast systems and also plays a promising protective role against oxidative stress in V. radiata roots during gradual water deprivation. The present study provides an unequivocal evidence to understand the crucial role of aldehyde reductase ROS-detoxifying system which is highly essential for developing stress tolerance in economically important crop plants. PMID:22837052

  11. CFD - Mature Technology?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwak, Dochan

    2005-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, numerical methods and simulation tools for fluid dynamic problems have advanced as a new discipline, namely, computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Although a wide spectrum of flow regimes are encountered in many areas of science and engineering, simulation of compressible flow has been the major driver for developing computational algorithms and tools. This is probably due to a large demand for predicting the aerodynamic performance characteristics of flight vehicles, such as commercial, military, and space vehicles. As flow analysis is required to be more accurate and computationally efficient for both commercial and mission-oriented applications (such as those encountered in meteorology, aerospace vehicle development, general fluid engineering and biofluid analysis) CFD tools for engineering become increasingly important for predicting safety, performance and cost. This paper presents the author's perspective on the maturity of CFD, especially from an aerospace engineering point of view.

  12. Transcriptional Landscape of Cardiomyocyte Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Uosaki, Hideki; Cahan, Patrick; Lee, Dong I.; Wang, Songnan; Miyamoto, Matthew; Fernandez, Laviel; Kass, David A.; Kwon, Chulan

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Decades of progress in developmental cardiology has advanced our understanding of the early aspects of heart development, including cardiomyocyte (CM) differentiation. However, control of CM maturation which is subsequently required to generate adult myocytes, remains elusive. Here, we analyzed over 200 microarray datasets from early embryonic to adult hearts and identified a large number of genes whose expression shifts gradually and continuously during maturation. We generated an atlas of integrated gene expression, biological pathways, transcriptional regulators, and gene regulatory networks (GRNs), which show discrete sets of key transcriptional regulators and pathways activated or suppressed during CM maturation. We developed a GRN-based program named MatStatCM that indexes CM maturation status. MatStatCM reveals that pluripotent stem cell-derived CMs mature early in culture, but are arrested at the late embryonic stage with aberrant regulation of key transcription factors. Our study provides a foundation for understanding CM maturation. PMID:26586429

  13. Ectomycorrhizal fungal communities on seedlings and conspecific trees of Pinus mugo grown on the coastal dunes of the Curonian Spit in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Aučina, Algis; Rudawska, Maria; Leski, Tomasz; Ryliškis, Darius; Pietras, Marcin; Riepšas, Edvardas

    2011-04-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) communities of mature trees and regenerating seedlings of a non-native tree species Pinus mugo grown in a harsh environment of the coastal region of the Curonian Spit National Park in Lithuania were assessed. We established three study sites (S1, S2, and S3) that were separated from each other by 15 km. The ECM species richness was rather low in particular for mature, 100-year-old trees: 12 ectomycorrhizal taxa were identified by molecular analysis from 11 distinguished morphotypes. All 12 taxa were present on seedlings and on mature trees, with between 8-11 and 9-11 taxa present on seedlings and mature trees, respectively. Cenococcum geophilum dominated all ECM communities, but the relative abundance of C. geophilum mycorrhizas was nearly two times higher on seedlings than on mature trees. Mycorrhizal associations formed by Wilcoxina sp., Lactarius rufus, and Russula paludosa were also abundant. Several fungal taxa were only occasionally detected, including Cortinarius sp., Cortinarius obtusus, Cortinarius croceus, and Meliniomyces sp. Shannon's diversity indices for the ECM assemblages of P. mugo ranged from 0.98 to 1.09 for seedling and from 1.05 to 1.31 for mature trees. According to analysis of similarity, the mycorrhizal communities were similar between the sites (R = 0.085; P = 0.06) and only slightly separated between seedlings and mature trees (R = 0.24; P < 0.0001). An incidental fruiting body survey that was conducted weakly reflected the below-ground assessment of the ECM fungal community and once again showed that ECM and fruiting body studies commonly supply different partial accounts of the true ECM fungal diversity. Our results show that P. mugo has moved into quite distinct habitats and is able to adapt a suite of ECM symbionts that sufficiently support growth and development of this tree and allow for natural seedling regeneration. PMID:20938693

  14. [Community characteristics of Pinus armandi forest on Qinling Mountains].

    PubMed

    Wang, Dexiang; Liu, Jianjun; Li, Dengwu; Lei, Ruide; Lan, Guoyu

    2004-03-01

    The community characteristics of Pinus armandi forest distributed on the mid-west zone of Qinling Mountains' south slope were investigated. The results showed that there were 166 seed plants belonging to 51 families, 111 generas. Among them, 65 genera, 66.7% of the total, belonged to temperate biome. There was a closely relationship between Pinus armandi forest and the temperate biome. As regards to the physiognomy of the community, phanerophyte made up 75.9% of the total, dominating the community. In the community, 96 species with middle-sized leaves made up 57.8%, and there were 139 single leaf species, accounted for 83.7% of the total. There was a complicated vertical structure in the community, which could be divided into three layers:arbor layer, shrub layer and herb layer. In addition, there were also a lot of inter-stratum plants in the community. It is also found that the lack of seedlings, saplings and small trees was due to both the self-thinning caused by intra-specific competition and the alien-thinning by inter-specific competition for the light resource in the stand. The population of P. armandi was characterized with the patch size about 100 m2. The dynamics of the community showed that the community was stable and in a process of development. PMID:15227979

  15. The complete plastid genome of Bunge's pine Pinus bungeana (Pinaceae).

    PubMed

    Li, Zhong-Hu; Zhu, Juan; Yang, Yi-Xin; Yang, Jie; He, Jing-Wen; Zhao, Gui-Fang

    2016-07-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of Bunge's pine Pinus bungeana Zucc. ex Endl. chloroplast genome (cp DNA) was determined in this study. The cpDNA was 117 861 bp in length, containing a pair of 475 bp inverted repeat regions (IRa and IRb), which were separated by large and small single copy regions (LSC and SSC) of 65 373 and 51 538 bp, respectively. The cpDNA contained 111 genes, including 71 protein-coding genes (71 PCG species), 4 ribosomal RNA genes (4 rRNA species) and 36 tRNA genes (32 tRNA species). In these genes, 13 harbored a single intron and 1 (ycf3) contained a couple of introns. The overall AT content of Bunge's pine cpDNA is 61.2%, while the corresponding values of the LSC, SSC and IR regions are 61.9%, 60.2% and 62.5%, respectively. A phylogenetic reconstruction based on the maximum parsimony analysis suggested that all the sampled Pinus species clustered a monophyletic clade and have a high bootstrap support, and the cpDNA of P. bungeana is closely related to that of congeneric P. gerardiana. PMID:26122332

  16. [Feasibility to introduce rare tree species Pinus sibirica into China].

    PubMed

    Liu, Guifeng; Yang, Chuanping; Zhao, Guangyi

    2002-11-01

    Pinus sibirica growing mainly in Siberia of Russia is distributed over the Euro-Asia Taiga forest belt. There are many high-quality populations due to a great deal of variations. This kind of tree has an advantage of standing up to frigid environment, and can spread out in such places that have cold weather and high altitude. In China, boreal forest is a wide-spreaded type of forest that has the largest area and high volume. For this reason, it is feasible to introduce Pinus sibirica into the region that the condition is suitable. Introducing this kind of tree is a strategic project that can improve the structure and quality of our boreal forest. Introducing it can not only meet the demands of improved variety in short time, but also do the experiment of producing edible seeds and build up the developing center of nut, which can be a way of getting rid of poverty of forest region in heavy frigid area where is regarded as infertile area for farming formerly. PMID:12625013

  17. The oldest know Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines (Pinus aristata Engelm. )

    SciTech Connect

    Brunstein, F.C. ); Yamaguchi, D.K. )

    1992-08-01

    We have found 12 living Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines (Pinus aristata) more than 1600 yr old, including four that are more than 2 1 00 yr old, on Black Mountain, near South Park, and on Almagre Mountain, in the southern Front Range, Colorado. A core from the oldest of these trees has an inner-ring date of 442 B.C. This tree is therefore at least 2435 yr old and exceeds the age of the oldest previously reported Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine by 846 yr, The ages of these trees show that Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines, under arid environmental conditions, achieve much older ages than have been previously reported. The ages also show that previously inferred trends in bristlecone pine ages, where maximum ages in the eastern range of Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines are much less than maximum ages in the western range of Great Basin bristlecone pines (Pinus longaea), are less strong than previously supposed. Ancient Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines, such as those found in this study, have the potential to expand our knowledge of late Holocene climatic conditions in western North America.

  18. Maturational and Non-Maturational Factors in Heritage Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Ji Hye

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation aims to understand the maturational and non-maturational aspects of early bilingualism and language attrition in heritage speakers who have acquired their L1 incompletely in childhood. The study highlights the influential role of age and input dynamics in early L1 development, where the timing of reduction in L1 input and the…

  19. The Mature Athlete

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Moira M.; Hannafin, Jo A.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Aging changes the biology, healing capacity, and biomechanical function of tendons and ligaments and results in common clinical pathologies that present to orthopedic surgeons, primary care physicians, physical therapists, and athletic trainers. A better understanding of the age-related changes in these connective tissues will allow better patient care. Evidence Acquisition: The PubMed database was searched in December 2012 for English-language articles pertaining to age-related changes in tendons and ligaments. Level of Evidence: Level 5. Results: The mature athlete faces challenges associated with age-dependent changes in the rotator cuff, Achilles tendon, lateral humeral epicondylar tendons, quadriceps tendon, and patellar tendon. The anterior cruciate ligament and the medial collateral ligament are the most studied intra-articular and extra-articular ligaments, and both are associated with age-dependent changes. Conclusion: Tendons and ligaments are highly arranged connective tissue structures that maintain joint motion and joint stability. These structures are subject to vascular and compositional changes with increasing age that alter their mechanotransduction, biology, healing capacity, and biomechanical function. Emerging research into the etiology of age-dependent changes will provide further information to help combat the age-related clinical complications associated with the injuries that occur to tendons and ligaments. PMID:24427441

  20. [Vertical distribution of fuels in Pinus yunnanensis forest and related affecting factors].

    PubMed

    Wang, San; Niu, Shu-Kui; Li, De; Wang, Jing-Hua; Chen, Feng; Sun, Wu

    2013-02-01

    In order to understand the effects of fuel loadings spatial distribution on forest fire kinds and behaviors, the canopy fuels and floor fuels of Pinus yunnanensis forests with different canopy density, diameter at breast height (DBH), tree height, and stand age and at different altitude, slope grade, position, and aspect in Southwest China were taken as test objects, with the fuel loadings and their spatial distribution characteristics at different vertical layers compared and the fire behaviors in different stands analyzed. The relationships between the fuel loadings and the environmental factors were also analyzed by canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). In different stands, there existed significant differences in the vertical distribution of fuels. Pinus yunnanensis-Qak-Syzygium aromaticum, Pinus yunnanensis-oak, and Pinus yunnanensis forests were likely to occur floor fire but not crown fire, while Pinus yunnanensis-Platycladus orientalis, Pinus yunnanensis-Keteleeria fortune, and Keteleeria fortune-Pinus yunnanensis were not only inclined to occur floor fire, but also, the floor fire could be easily transformed into crown fire. The crown fuels were mainly affected by the stand age, altitude, DBH, and tree height, while the floor fuels were mainly by the canopy density, slope grade, altitude, and stand age. PMID:23705375

  1. Levels and sources of PAHs in selected sites from Portugal: biomonitoring with Pinus pinea and Pinus pinaster needles.

    PubMed

    Ratola, Nuno; Amigo, José Manuel; Alves, Arminda

    2010-04-01

    Pine needle samples from two pine species (Pinus pinaster Ait. and Pinus pinea L.) were collected at 29 sites scattered throughout Portugal, in order to biomonitor the levels and trends of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The values obtained for the sum of all PAHs ranged from 76 to 1944 ng/g [dry weight (dw)]. Despite the apparent matrix similarities between both pine species, P. pinaster needles revealed higher mean entrapment levels than P. pinea (748 and 399 ng/g (dw) per site, respectively). The urban and industrial sites have the highest average of PAH incidence [for P. pinea, 465 and 433 ng/g (dw) per site, respectively, and for P. pinaster, 1147 and 915 ng/g (dw)], followed by the rural sites [233 ng/g and 711 ng/g (dw) per site, for P. pinea and P. pinaster, respectively]. The remote sites, both from P. pinaster needles, show the least contamination, with 77 ng/g (dw) per site. A predominance of 3-ring and 4-ring PAHs was observed in most samples, with phenanthrene having 30.1% of the total. Naphthalene prevailed in remote sites. Rainfall had no influence on the PAHs levels, but there was a relationship between higher wind speeds and lower concentrations. PAH molecular ratios revealed the influence of both petrogenic and pyrogenic sources. PMID:20107982

  2. Career Maturity of Welfare Recipients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckman, Carol M.

    To investigate the career maturity of welfare recipients, this thesis examines six independent variables: (1) race; (2) sex; (3) age; (4) level of formal education; (5) general intelligence; and (6) locus of control. Scales taken from the Career Maturity Inventory served as the dependent variables. The sample consisted of 83 welfare recipients who…

  3. Strong seed-specific protein expression from the Vigna radiata storage protein 8SGα promoter in transgenic Arabidopsis seeds.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mo-Xian; Zheng, Shu-Xiao; Yang, Yue-Ning; Xu, Chao; Liu, Jie-Sheng; Yang, Wei-Dong; Chye, Mee-Len; Li, Hong-Ye

    2014-03-20

    Vigna radiata (mung bean) is an important crop plant and is a major protein source in developing countries. Mung bean 8S globulins constitute nearly 90% of total seed storage protein and consist of three subunits designated as 8SGα, 8SGα' and 8SGβ. The 5'-flanking sequences of 8SGα' has been reported to confer high expression in transgenic Arabidopsis seeds. In this study, a 472-bp 5'-flanking sequence of 8SGα was identified by genome walking. Computational analysis subsequently revealed the presence of numerous putative seed-specific cis-elements within. The 8SGα promoter was then fused to the gene encoding β-glucuronidase (GUS) to create a reporter construct for Arabidopsis thaliana transformation. The spatial and temporal expression of 8SGα∷GUS, as investigated using GUS histochemical assays, showed GUS expression exclusively in transgenic Arabidopsis seeds. Quantitative GUS assays revealed that the 8SGα promoter showed 2- to 4-fold higher activity than the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus (CaMV) 35S promoter. This study has identified a seed-specific promoter of high promoter strength, which is potentially useful for directing foreign protein expression in seed bioreactors. PMID:24503210

  4. The mitochondrial genome of the legume Vigna radiata and the analysis of recombination across short mitochondrial repeats.

    PubMed

    Alverson, Andrew J; Zhuo, Shi; Rice, Danny W; Sloan, Daniel B; Palmer, Jeffrey D

    2011-01-01

    The mitochondrial genomes of seed plants are exceptionally fluid in size, structure, and sequence content, with the accumulation and activity of repetitive sequences underlying much of this variation. We report the first fully sequenced mitochondrial genome of a legume, Vigna radiata (mung bean), and show that despite its unexceptional size (401,262 nt), the genome is unusually depauperate in repetitive DNA and "promiscuous" sequences from the chloroplast and nuclear genomes. Although Vigna lacks the large, recombinationally active repeats typical of most other seed plants, a PCR survey of its modest repertoire of short (38-297 nt) repeats nevertheless revealed evidence for recombination across all of them. A set of novel control assays showed, however, that these results could instead reflect, in part or entirely, artifacts of PCR-mediated recombination. Consequently, we recommend that other methods, especially high-depth genome sequencing, be used instead of PCR to infer patterns of plant mitochondrial recombination. The average-sized but repeat- and feature-poor mitochondrial genome of Vigna makes it ever more difficult to generalize about the factors shaping the size and sequence content of plant mitochondrial genomes. PMID:21283772

  5. Reproductive toxicity of chromium in adult bonnet monkeys (Macaca radiata Geoffrey). Reversible oxidative stress in the semen

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, Senthivinayagam . E-mail: subbi100@yahoo.co.uk; Rajendiran, Gopalakrishnan; Sekhar, Pasupathi; Gowri, Chandrahasan; Govindarajulu, Pera; Aruldhas, Mariajoseph Michael

    2006-09-15

    The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that oxidative stress mediates chromium-induced reproductive toxicity. Monthly semen samples were collected from adult monkeys (Macaca radiata), which were exposed to varying doses (50, 100, 200 and 400 ppm) of chromium (as potassium dichromate) for 6 months through drinking water. Chromium treatment decreased sperm count, sperm forward motility and the specific activities of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase, and the concentration of reduced glutathione in both seminal plasma and sperm in a dose- and duration-dependent manner. On the other hand, the quantum of hydrogen peroxide in the seminal plasma/sperm from monkeys exposed to chromium increased with increasing dose and duration of chromium exposure. All these changes were reversed after 6 months of chromium-free exposure period. Simultaneous supplementation of vitamin C (0.5 g/L; 1.0 g/L; 2.0 g/L) prevented the development of chromium-induced oxidative stress. Data support the hypothesis and show that chronic chromium exposure induces a reversible oxidative stress in the seminal plasma and sperm by creating an imbalance between reactive oxygen species and antioxidant system, leading to sperm death and reduced motility of live sperm.

  6. Assessment of microbial communities in mung bean (Vigna radiata) rhizosphere upon exposure to phytotoxic levels of Copper.

    PubMed

    Sharaff, Murali; Archana, G

    2015-11-01

    Pollution of agricultural soils by Cu is of concern as it could bring about alterations in microbial communities, ultimately eliminating certain plant beneficial bacteria thus disturbing soil fertility and plant growth. To understand the response of rhizobacterial communities upon Cu perturbation, mung bean (Vigna radiata) plants were grown in agricultural soil amended with CuSO4 (0-1000 mg kg(-1) ) under laboratory conditions. Culture-independent and -dependent Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (CI-DGGE and CD-DGGE) fingerprinting techniques were employed to monitor rhizobacterial community shifts upon Cu amendment. In group specific PCR-DGGE, a negative impact was seen on α-Proteobacteria followed by β-Proteobacteria resulting in a concomitant decrease in diversity indices with increased Cu concentration. No significant changes were observed in Firmicutes and Actinomycetes populations. In CD-DGGE rhizobacterial community shift was observed above 500 mg kg(-1) (CuSO4 ), however certain bands were predominantly present in all treatments. Plants showed toxic effects by reduction in growth and elevated Cu accumulation, with root system being affected prominently. From this study it is evident that above 250 mg kg(-1) , rhizobacterial communities are adversely affected. α-Proteobacteria was found to be a sensitive bio-indicator for Cu toxicity and is of particular significance since this group includes majority of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. PMID:26073767

  7. The relationship between physical variables on topographically simple and complex reefs and algal assemblage structure beneath an Ecklonia radiata canopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toohey, Benjamin D.

    2007-01-01

    Limestone reefs in South-Western Australia range in topographic complexity at the 1-10 m scale from simple, flat, planar reef structures to topographically complex reefs with many rock walls, overhangs and channels. Algal assemblage structure is known to differ between topographically simple and complex reefs. This research assessed if differences in algal assemblage structure could be associated with the physical environment present on each reef type. Sampling of the physical environment and algal assemblage was carried out on simple, planar reefs and complex, rugose reefs. The physical environment described almost 80% of the algal assemblage structure under an Ecklonia radiata canopy. It was found that topographically simple reefs had greater sediment cover and water depth than adjacent reefs with more complex topography which had more downwelling light, stronger and more turbulent water motion and a greater range of substrate slopes. Greater variation in most physical variables on topographically complex reef shows a greater diversity of microenvironments on that reef type. It is argued that these differences in physical environment between reef types have a considerable influence on algal assemblages by altering key biological processes such as recruitment and interspecific competition.

  8. The Mitochondrial Genome of the Legume Vigna radiata and the Analysis of Recombination across Short Mitochondrial Repeats

    PubMed Central

    Alverson, Andrew J.; Zhuo, Shi; Rice, Danny W.; Sloan, Daniel B.; Palmer, Jeffrey D.

    2011-01-01

    The mitochondrial genomes of seed plants are exceptionally fluid in size, structure, and sequence content, with the accumulation and activity of repetitive sequences underlying much of this variation. We report the first fully sequenced mitochondrial genome of a legume, Vigna radiata (mung bean), and show that despite its unexceptional size (401,262 nt), the genome is unusually depauperate in repetitive DNA and "promiscuous" sequences from the chloroplast and nuclear genomes. Although Vigna lacks the large, recombinationally active repeats typical of most other seed plants, a PCR survey of its modest repertoire of short (38–297 nt) repeats nevertheless revealed evidence for recombination across all of them. A set of novel control assays showed, however, that these results could instead reflect, in part or entirely, artifacts of PCR-mediated recombination. Consequently, we recommend that other methods, especially high-depth genome sequencing, be used instead of PCR to infer patterns of plant mitochondrial recombination. The average-sized but repeat- and feature-poor mitochondrial genome of Vigna makes it ever more difficult to generalize about the factors shaping the size and sequence content of plant mitochondrial genomes. PMID:21283772

  9. The response of Pinus sylvestris to drought: stomatal control of transpiration and hydraulic conductance.

    PubMed

    Irvine, J.; Perks, M. P.; Magnani, F.; Grace, J.

    1998-06-01

    We investigated the impact of drought on the physiology of 41-year-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in central Scotland. Measurements were made of the seasonal course of transpiration, canopy stomatal conductance, needle water potential, xylem water content, soil-to-needle hydraulic resistance, and growth. Comparison was made between drought-treated plots and those receiving average precipitation. In response to drought, transpiration rate declined once volumetric water content (VWC) over the top 20 cm of soil reached a threshold value of 12%. Thereafter, transpiration was a near linear function of soil water content. As the soil water deficit developed, the hydraulic resistance between soil and needles increased by a factor of three as predawn needle water potential declined from -0.54 to -0.71 MPa. A small but significant increase in xylem embolism was detected in 1-year-old shoots. Stomatal control of transpiration prevented needle water potential from declining below -1.5 MPa. Basal area, and shoot and needle growth were significantly reduced in the drought treatment. In the year following the drought, canopy stomatal conductance and soil-to-needle hydraulic resistance recovered. Current-year needle extension recovered, but a significant reduction in basal area increment was evident one year after the drought. The results suggest that, in response to soil water deficit, mature Scots pine closes its stomata sufficiently to prevent the development of substantial xylem embolism. Reduced growth in the year after a severe soil water deficit is most likely to be the result of reduced assimilation in the year of the drought, rather than to any residual embolism carried over from one year to the next. PMID:12651364

  10. Climatic influences on intra-annual stem radial increment of Pinus sylvestris (L.) exposed to drought.

    PubMed

    Oberhuber, Walter; Gruber, Andreas

    2010-06-25

    Within a dry inner Alpine valley in the Eastern Central Alps (750 m a.s.l., Tyrol, Austria) the influence of climate variables (precipitation, air humidity, temperature) and soil water content on intra-annual dynamics of tree-ring development was determined in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) at two sites differing in soil water availability (xeric and dry-mesic site). Radial stem development was continuously followed during 2007 and 2008 by band dendrometers and repeated micro-sampling of the developing tree rings of mature trees. Daily and seasonal fluctuations of the stem radius, which reached almost half of total annual increment, primarily reflected changes in tree water status and masked radial stem growth especially during drought periods in spring. However, temporal dynamics of intra-annual radial growth determined by both methods were found to be quite similar, when onset of radial growth in dendrometer traces was defined by the occurrence of first enlarging xylem cells. Radial increments during the growing period, which lasted from early April through early August showed statistically significant relationships with precipitation (Kendall τ = 0.234, p < 0.01, and τ = 0.184, p < 0.05, at the xeric and dry-mesic site, respectively) and relative air humidity (Pearson r = 0.290, p < 0.05, and r = 0.306, p < 0.05 at the xeric and dry-mesic site, respectively). Soil water content and air temperature had no influence on radial stem increment. Culmination of radial stem growth was detected at both study plots around mid-May, prior to occurrence of more favourable climatic conditions, i.e. an increase in precipitation during summer. We suggest that the early decrease in radial growth rate is due to a high belowground demand for carbohydrates to ensure adequate resource acquisition on the drought prone substrate. PMID:22003269

  11. Climatic influences on intra-annual stem radial increment of Pinus sylvestris (L.) exposed to drought

    PubMed Central

    OBERHUBER, Walter; GRUBER, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Within a dry inner Alpine valley in the Eastern Central Alps (750 m a.s.l., Tyrol, Austria) the influence of climate variables (precipitation, air humidity, temperature) and soil water content on intra-annual dynamics of tree-ring development was determined in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) at two sites differing in soil water availability (xeric and dry-mesic site). Radial stem development was continuously followed during 2007 and 2008 by band dendrometers and repeated micro-sampling of the developing tree rings of mature trees. Daily and seasonal fluctuations of the stem radius, which reached almost half of total annual increment, primarily reflected changes in tree water status and masked radial stem growth especially during drought periods in spring. However, temporal dynamics of intra-annual radial growth determined by both methods were found to be quite similar, when onset of radial growth in dendrometer traces was defined by the occurrence of first enlarging xylem cells. Radial increments during the growing period, which lasted from early April through early August showed statistically significant relationships with precipitation (Kendall τ = 0.234, p < 0.01, and τ = 0.184, p < 0.05, at the xeric and dry-mesic site, respectively) and relative air humidity (Pearson r = 0.290, p < 0.05, and r = 0.306, p < 0.05 at the xeric and dry-mesic site, respectively). Soil water content and air temperature had no influence on radial stem increment. Culmination of radial stem growth was detected at both study plots around mid-May, prior to occurrence of more favourable climatic conditions, i.e. an increase in precipitation during summer. We suggest that the early decrease in radial growth rate is due to a high belowground demand for carbohydrates to ensure adequate resource acquisition on the drought prone substrate. PMID:22003269

  12. Comparison of the response of mature branches and seedlings of Pinus ponderosa to atmospheric pollution: Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Houpis, J.L.J.; Surano, K.A.; Cowles, S.

    1988-01-01

    This report is divided into four sections. These sections are: (1) Project Overview; (2) Physiology-Morphology-Autonomy Studies; (3) Instrumentation; and (4) Data Management and Analysis. The Project Overview section contains general information relating to the management of the project. In the Physiology-Morphology-Autonomy Studies section, information and results pertaining to studies conducted in these areas are reported. The Instrumentation section includes informatiopn on topics pertaining to the branch exposure system and on instruments involved in fumigation and monitoring. The Data Management and Analysis section contains information relating to experimental design and data management.

  13. Coarse woody debris manipulations and the response of soricid and herpetofaunal communities in mature loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands.

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, Audrey, K.

    2006-04-01

    Coarse woody debris (CWD) may increase abundance of forest-floor dwelling fauna. Understanding the role of CWD in ecosystem function is necessary to manage species that rely on it, however, the extent to which soricids and herpetofauna use CWD is not understood. This research took a large- and small-scale approach to investigate the response of soricids and herpetofauna to CWD manipulations in the southeastern Coastal Plain. The results suggest that the addition of CWD can increase abundance and activity of the southeastern shrew. However, herpetofauna exhibited little response to CWD manipulations. Many Coastal Plain species may be adapted to burrowing in soil or under leaf litter because of naturally low levels of CWD, although these species may use and benefit from CWD. Overall the results suggest that CWD, at least of early to moderate decay, is not a critical habitat component for most soricids and herpetofauna in the southeastern Coastal Plain.

  14. Transcriptomic analysis highlights epigenetic and transcriptional regulation during zygotic embryo development of Pinus pinaster

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background It is during embryogenesis that the plant body plan is established and the meristems responsible for all post-embryonic growth are specified. The molecular mechanisms governing conifer embryogenesis are still largely unknown. Their elucidation may contribute valuable information to clarify if the distinct features of embryo development in angiosperms and gymnosperms result from differential gene regulation. To address this issue, we have performed the first transcriptomic analysis of zygotic embryo development in a conifer species (Pinus pinaster) focusing our study in particular on regulatory genes playing important roles during plant embryo development, namely epigenetic regulators and transcription factors. Results Microarray analysis of P. pinaster zygotic embryogenesis was performed at five periods of embryo development from early developing to mature embryos. Our results show that most changes in transcript levels occurred in the first and the last embryo stage-to-stage transitions, namely early to pre-cotyledonary embryo and cotyledonary to mature embryo. An analysis of functional categories for genes that were differentially expressed through embryogenesis highlighted several epigenetic regulation mechanisms. While putative orthologs of transcripts associated with mechanisms that target transposable elements and repetitive sequences were strongly expressed in early embryogenesis, PRC2-mediated repression of genes seemed more relevant during late embryogenesis. On the other hand, functions related to sRNA pathways appeared differentially regulated across all stages of embryo development with a prevalence of miRNA functions in mid to late embryogenesis. Identification of putative transcription factor genes differentially regulated between consecutive embryo stages was strongly suggestive of the relevance of auxin responses and regulation of auxin carriers during early embryogenesis. Such responses could be involved in establishing embryo patterning

  15. Patterns of biomass and carbon distribution across a chronosequence of Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis) forests.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jinlong; Kang, Fengfeng; Wang, Luoxin; Yu, Xiaowen; Zhao, Weihong; Song, Xiaoshuai; Zhang, Yanlei; Chen, Feng; Sun, Yu; He, Tengfei; Han, Hairong

    2014-01-01

    Patterns of biomass and carbon (C) storage distribution across Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis) natural secondary forests are poorly documented. The objectives of this study were to examine the biomass and C pools of the major ecosystem components in a replicated age sequence of P. tabulaeformis secondary forest stands in Northern China. Within each stand, biomass of above- and belowground tree, understory (shrub and herb), and forest floor were determined from plot-level investigation and destructive sampling. Allometric equations using the diameter at breast height (DBH) were developed to quantify plant biomass. C stocks in the tree and understory biomass, forest floor, and mineral soil (0-100 cm) were estimated by analyzing the C concentration of each component. The results showed that the tree biomass of P. tabulaeformis stands was ranged from 123.8 Mg·ha-1 for the young stand to 344.8 Mg·ha-1 for the mature stand. The understory biomass ranged from 1.8 Mg·ha-1 in the middle-aged stand to 3.5 Mg·ha-1 in the young stand. Forest floor biomass increased steady with stand age, ranging from 14.9 to 23.0 Mg·ha-1. The highest mean C concentration across the chronosequence was found in tree branch while the lowest mean C concentration was found in forest floor. The observed C stock of the aboveground tree, shrub, forest floor, and mineral soil increased with increasing stand age, whereas the herb C stock showed a decreasing trend with a sigmoid pattern. The C stock of forest ecosystem in young, middle-aged, immature, and mature stands were 178.1, 236.3, 297.7, and 359.8 Mg C ha-1, respectively, greater than those under similar aged P. tabulaeformis forests in China. These results are likely to be integrated into further forest management plans and generalized in other contexts to evaluate C stocks at the regional scale. PMID:24736660

  16. Endobacteria in some ectomycorrhiza of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris).

    PubMed

    Izumi, Hironari; Anderson, Ian C; Alexander, Ian J; Killham, Ken; Moore, Edward R B

    2006-04-01

    The diversity of cultivable endobacteria associated with four different ectomycorrhizal morphotypes (Suillus flavidus, Suillus variegatus, Russula paludosa and Russula sp.) of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) was analysed by restriction fragment length polymorphism profiling of PCR-amplified rDNA intergenic spacer regions and by sequence analyses of 16S rRNA genes. Ectomycorrhizal root tip surface-sterilization methods were developed and assessed for their efficiencies. Bacterial communities from surface-sterilized ectomycorrhizal root tips were different from those of ectomycorrhizal root tips without surface-sterilization for all the morphotypes studied. Endobacteria belonging to the genera Pseudomonas, Burkholderia and Bacillus were isolated from more than one ectomycorrhizal morphotype, whereas species of Rahnella, Janthinobacterium and Rhodococcus were only isolated from the single morphotypes of S. variegatus, R. paludosa and Russula sp., respectively. Some of the isolated endobacteria utilized fungal sugars more readily than typical plant sugars in carbon utilization assays. PMID:16542403

  17. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Pinus eldarica Bark Extract

    PubMed Central

    Iravani, Siavash; Zolfaghari, Behzad

    2013-01-01

    Recently, development of reliable experimental protocols for synthesis of metal nanoparticles with desired morphologies and sizes has become a major focus of researchers. Green synthesis of metal nanoparticles using organisms has emerged as a nontoxic and ecofriendly method for synthesis of metal nanoparticles. The objectives of this study were production of silver nanoparticles using Pinus eldarica bark extract and optimization of the biosynthesis process. The effects of quantity of extract, substrate concentration, temperature, and pH on the formation of silver nanoparticles are studied. TEM images showed that biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (approximately in the range of 10–40 nm) were predominantly spherical in shape. The preparation of nano-structured silver particles using P. eldarica bark extract provides an environmentally friendly option, as compared to currently available chemical and/or physical methods. PMID:24083233

  18. Comparative mapping among subsection Australes (genus Pinus, family Pinaceae).

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Mervyn; Williams, Claire G

    2008-05-01

    Comparative mapping in conifers has not yet been used to test for small-scale genomic disruptions such as inversions, duplications, and deletions occurring between closely related taxa. Using comparative mapping to probe this smaller scale of inquiry may provide clues about speciation in a phylogenetically problematic taxon, the diploxylon pine subsection Australes (genus Pinus, family Pinaceae). Genetic maps were constructed for two allopatric species of Australes, P. elliottii var. elliottii and P. caribaea var. hondurensis, using microsatellites and an F1 hybrid. A third map was generated directly from the meiotic products of an adult F1 hybrid, eliminating the need for an F2 generation. Numerous small-scale disruptions were detected in addition to synteny and collinearity, and these included (1) map shrinkage, (2) a paracentric inversion, (3) transmission ratio distortion, and (4) mild selection against a parental haplotype. Such cryptic signatures of genomic divergence between closely related interfertile species are useful in elucidating this problematic evolutionary history. PMID:18438435

  19. Isolation and characterization of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) convicilin.

    PubMed

    Jin, Tengchuan; Wang, Yang; Chen, Yu-Wei; Albillos, Silvia M; Kothary, Mahendra H; Fu, Tong-Jen; Tankersley, Boyce; McHugh, Tara H; Zhang, Yu-Zhu

    2014-07-01

    A vicilin-like globulin seed storage protein, termed convicilin, was isolated for the first time from Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis). SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that Korean pine convicilin was post-translationally processed. The N-terminal peptide sequences of its components were determined. These peptides could be mapped to a protein translated from an embryo abundant transcript isolated in this study. Similar to vicilin, native convicilin appeared to be homotrimeric. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses revealed that this protein is less resistant to thermal treatment than Korean pine vicilin. Its transition temperature was 75.57 °C compared with 84.13 °C for vicilin. The urea induced folding-unfolding equilibrium of pine convicilin monitored by intrinsic fluorescence could be interpreted in terms of a two-state model, with a Cm of 4.41 ± 0.15 M. PMID:24735553

  20. Predictive Capability Maturity Model (PCMM).

    SciTech Connect

    Swiler, Laura Painton; Knupp, Patrick Michael; Urbina, Angel

    2010-10-01

    Predictive Capability Maturity Model (PCMM) is a communication tool that must include a dicussion of the supporting evidence. PCMM is a tool for managing risk in the use of modeling and simulation. PCMM is in the service of organizing evidence to help tell the modeling and simulation (M&S) story. PCMM table describes what activities within each element are undertaken at each of the levels of maturity. Target levels of maturity can be established based on the intended application. The assessment is to inform what level has been achieved compared to the desired level, to help prioritize the VU activities & to allocate resources.

  1. Mitochondrial Genome of Phlebia radiata Is the Second Largest (156 kbp) among Fungi and Features Signs of Genome Flexibility and Recent Recombination Events

    PubMed Central

    Salavirta, Heikki; Oksanen, Ilona; Kuuskeri, Jaana; Mäkelä, Miia; Laine, Pia; Paulin, Lars; Lundell, Taina

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria are eukaryotic organelles supporting individual life-style via generation of proton motive force and cellular energy, and indispensable metabolic pathways. As part of genome sequencing of the white rot Basidiomycota species Phlebia radiata, we first assembled its mitochondrial genome (mtDNA). So far, the 156 348 bp mtDNA is the second largest described for fungi, and of considerable size among eukaryotes. The P. radiata mtDNA assembled as single circular dsDNA molecule containing genes for the large and small ribosomal RNAs, 28 transfer RNAs, and over 100 open reading frames encoding the 14 fungal conserved protein subunits of the mitochondrial complexes I, III, IV, and V. Two genes (atp6 and tRNA-IleGAU) were duplicated within 6.1 kbp inverted region, which is a unique feature of the genome. The large mtDNA size, however, is explained by the dominance of intronic and intergenic regions (sum 80% of mtDNA sequence). The intergenic DNA stretches harness short (≤200 nt) repetitive, dispersed and overlapping sequence elements in abundance. Long self-splicing introns of types I and II interrupt eleven of the conserved genes (cox1,2,3; cob; nad1,2,4,4L,5; rnl; rns). The introns embrace a total of 57 homing endonucleases with LAGLIDADGD and GYI-YIG core motifs, which makes P. radiata mtDNA to one of the largest known reservoirs of intron-homing endonucleases. The inverted duplication, intergenic stretches, and intronic features are indications of dynamics and genetic flexibility of the mtDNA, not fully recognized to this extent in fungal mitochondrial genomes previously, thus giving new insights for the evolution of organelle genomes in eukaryotes. PMID:24824642

  2. Cerebellar mature teratoma in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Zavanone, M; Alimehmeti, R; Campanella, R; Ram-Pini, P; Locatelli, M; Egidi, M; Righini, A; Bauer, D

    2002-03-01

    Mature teratoma of the posterior cranial fossa in adults is extremely rare. We report a particularly rare case of medio-lateral cerebellar mature teratoma that became symptomatic in a middle-aged man. The CT revealed the lesion of heterogeneous density with calcifications in the solid medial portion. Only the MRI could reliably define the borders of the cystic component extending into the left cerebellar lobe. Histologically the presence of fully matured representative tissues of the 3 germ layers ensured the diagnosis of mature teratoma. We suggest that the cyst formation from progressive latent hemorrhage and/or secretion from the gland cells of the tumor, may be responsible for the clinical decompensation even in adulthood. PMID:12118223

  3. Greek Pinus essential oils: larvicidal activity and repellency against Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Koutsaviti, Katerina; Giatropoulos, Athanassios; Pitarokili, Danae; Papachristos, Dimitrios; Michaelakis, Antonios; Tzakou, Olga

    2015-02-01

    The needle volatiles metabolites of seven Pinus spp.: Pinus nigra (3 samples), Pinus stankewiczii, Pinus brutia, Pinus halepensis, Pinus canariensis, Pinus pinaster and Pinus strobus from Greece were determined by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. P. nigra and P. canariensis essential oils were dominated by α-pinene (24.9-28.9 % and 15 %, respectively) and germacrene D (20.3-31.9 % and 55.8 %, respectively), whereas P. brutia and P. strobus by α-pinene (20.6 % and 31.4 %, respectively) and β-pinene (31.7 % and 33.6 %, respectively). P. halepensis and P. pinaster oils were characterized by β-caryophyllene (28.5 % and 22.5 %, respectively). Finally, β-pinene (31.4 %), germacrene D (23.3 %) and α-pinene (17.5 %) were the most abundant compounds in the needle oil of P. stankewiczii. Additionally the larvicidal and repellent properties of their essential oils were evaluated against Aedes albopictus, a mosquito of great ecological and medical importance. The results of bioassays revealed that repellent abilities of the tested essential oils were more potent than their larvicidal activities. The essential oils of P. brutia, P. halepensis and P. stankewiczii presented considerable larvicidal activity (LC50 values 67.04 mgL(-1) and 70.21 mgL(-1), respectively), while the others were weak to inactive against larvae. The essential oils of P. halepensis, P. brutia, and P. stankewiczii presented a high repellent activity, even at the dose of 0.2 μL cm(-2), while in the dose of 0.4 μL cm(-2), almost all the tested EOs displayed protection against the mosquito. PMID:25399814

  4. 7 CFR 51.3746 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Honey Dew and Honey Ball Type Melons Definitions § 51.3746 Mature. Mature means that the melon has reached the stage of maturity which will insure the proper completion of the...

  5. 7 CFR 51.3746 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Honey Dew and Honey Ball Type Melons Definitions § 51.3746 Mature. Mature means that the melon has reached the stage of maturity which will...

  6. 7 CFR 51.3746 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Honey Dew and Honey Ball Type Melons Definitions § 51.3746 Mature. Mature means that the melon has reached the stage of maturity which will insure the proper completion of the...

  7. 7 CFR 51.3746 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Honey Dew and Honey Ball Type Melons Definitions § 51.3746 Mature. Mature means that the melon has reached the stage of maturity which will...

  8. 7 CFR 51.3746 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Honey Dew and Honey Ball Type Melons Definitions § 51.3746 Mature. Mature means that the melon has reached the stage of maturity which will insure the proper completion of the...

  9. Axial Diffusivity of the Corona Radiata at 24 Hours Post-Stroke: A New Biomarker for Motor and Global Outcome.

    PubMed

    Moulton, Eric; Amor-Sahli, Mélika; Perlbarg, Vincent; Pires, Christine; Crozier, Sophie; Galanaud, Damien; Valabregue, Romain; Yger, Marion; Baronnet-Chauvet, Flore; Samson, Yves; Dormont, Didier; Rosso, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Fractional anisotropy (FA) is an effective marker of motor outcome at the chronic stage of stroke yet proves to be less efficient at early time points. This study aims to determine which diffusion metric in which location is the best marker of long-term stroke outcome after thrombolysis with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) at 24 hours post-stroke. Twenty-eight thrombolyzed patients underwent DTI at 24 hours post-stroke onset. Ipsilesional and contralesional FA, mean (MD), axial (AD), and radial (RD) diffusivities values were calculated in different Regions-of-Interest (ROIs): (1) the white matter underlying the precentral gyrus (M1), (2) the corona radiata (CoRad), (3) the posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC) and (4) the cerebral peduncles (CP). NIHSS scores were acquired at admission, day 1, and day 7; modified Rankin Scores (mRS) at 3 months. Significant decreases were found in FA, MD, and AD of the ipsilesional CoRad and M1. MD and AD were also significantly lower in the PLIC. The ratio of ipsi and contralesional AD of the CoRad (CoRad-rAD) was the strongest diffusion parameter correlated with motor NIHSS scores on day 7 and with the mRS at 3 months. A Receiver-Operator Curve analysis yielded a model for the CoRad-rAD to predict good outcome based on upper limb NIHSS motor scores and mRS with high specificity and sensitivity. FA values were not correlated with clinical outcome. In conclusion, axial diffusivity of the CoRad from clinical DTI at 24 hours post-stroke is the most appropriate diffusion metric for quantifying stroke damage to predict outcome, suggesting the importance of early axonal damage. PMID:26562509

  10. Axial Diffusivity of the Corona Radiata at 24 Hours Post-Stroke: A New Biomarker for Motor and Global Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Moulton, Eric; Amor-Sahli, Mélika; Perlbarg, Vincent; Pires, Christine; Crozier, Sophie; Galanaud, Damien; Valabregue, Romain; Yger, Marion; Baronnet-Chauvet, Flore; Samson, Yves; Dormont, Didier; Rosso, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Fractional anisotropy (FA) is an effective marker of motor outcome at the chronic stage of stroke yet proves to be less efficient at early time points. This study aims to determine which diffusion metric in which location is the best marker of long-term stroke outcome after thrombolysis with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) at 24 hours post-stroke. Twenty-eight thrombolyzed patients underwent DTI at 24 hours post-stroke onset. Ipsilesional and contralesional FA, mean (MD), axial (AD), and radial (RD) diffusivities values were calculated in different Regions-of-Interest (ROIs): (1) the white matter underlying the precentral gyrus (M1), (2) the corona radiata (CoRad), (3) the posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC) and (4) the cerebral peduncles (CP). NIHSS scores were acquired at admission, day 1, and day 7; modified Rankin Scores (mRS) at 3 months. Significant decreases were found in FA, MD, and AD of the ipsilesional CoRad and M1. MD and AD were also significantly lower in the PLIC. The ratio of ipsi and contralesional AD of the CoRad (CoRad-rAD) was the strongest diffusion parameter correlated with motor NIHSS scores on day 7 and with the mRS at 3 months. A Receiver-Operator Curve analysis yielded a model for the CoRad-rAD to predict good outcome based on upper limb NIHSS motor scores and mRS with high specificity and sensitivity. FA values were not correlated with clinical outcome. In conclusion, axial diffusivity of the CoRad from clinical DTI at 24 hours post-stroke is the most appropriate diffusion metric for quantifying stroke damage to predict outcome, suggesting the importance of early axonal damage. PMID:26562509

  11. Belowground legacies of Pinus contorta invasion and removal result in multiple mechanisms of invasional meltdown

    PubMed Central

    Dickie, Ian A.; St John, Mark G.; Yeates, Gregor W.; Morse, Chris W.; Bonner, Karen I.; Orwin, Kate; Peltzer, Duane A.

    2013-01-01

    Plant invasions can change soil biota and nutrients in ways that drive subsequent plant communities, particularly when co-invading with belowground mutualists such as ectomycorrhizal fungi. These effects can persist following removal of the invasive plant and, combined with effects of removal per se, influence subsequent plant communities and ecosystem functioning. We used field observations and a soil bioassay with multiple plant species to determine the belowground effects and post-removal legacy caused by invasion of the non-native tree Pinus contorta into a native plant community. Pinus facilitated ectomycorrhizal infection of the co-occurring invasive tree, Pseudotsuga menziesii, but not conspecific Pinus (which always had ectomycorrhizas) nor the native pioneer Kunzea ericoides (which never had ectomycorrhizas). Pinus also caused a major shift in soil nutrient cycling as indicated by increased bacterial dominance, NO3-N (17-fold increase) and available phosphorus (3.2-fold increase) in soils, which in turn promoted increased growth of graminoids. These results parallel field observations, where Pinus removal is associated with invasion by non-native grasses and herbs, and suggest that legacies of Pinus on soil nutrient cycling thus indirectly promote invasion of other non-native plant species. Our findings demonstrate that multi-trophic belowground legacies are an important but hitherto largely unconsidered factor in plant community reassembly following invasive plant removal. PMID:25228312

  12. Belowground legacies of Pinus contorta invasion and removal result in multiple mechanisms of invasional meltdown.

    PubMed

    Dickie, Ian A; St John, Mark G; Yeates, Gregor W; Morse, Chris W; Bonner, Karen I; Orwin, Kate; Peltzer, Duane A

    2014-01-01

    Plant invasions can change soil biota and nutrients in ways that drive subsequent plant communities, particularly when co-invading with belowground mutualists such as ectomycorrhizal fungi. These effects can persist following removal of the invasive plant and, combined with effects of removal per se, influence subsequent plant communities and ecosystem functioning. We used field observations and a soil bioassay with multiple plant species to determine the belowground effects and post-removal legacy caused by invasion of the non-native tree Pinus contorta into a native plant community. Pinus facilitated ectomycorrhizal infection of the co-occurring invasive tree, Pseudotsuga menziesii, but not conspecific Pinus (which always had ectomycorrhizas) nor the native pioneer Kunzea ericoides (which never had ectomycorrhizas). Pinus also caused a major shift in soil nutrient cycling as indicated by increased bacterial dominance, NO3-N (17-fold increase) and available phosphorus (3.2-fold increase) in soils, which in turn promoted increased growth of graminoids. These results parallel field observations, where Pinus removal is associated with invasion by non-native grasses and herbs, and suggest that legacies of Pinus on soil nutrient cycling thus indirectly promote invasion of other non-native plant species. Our findings demonstrate that multi-trophic belowground legacies are an important but hitherto largely unconsidered factor in plant community reassembly following invasive plant removal. PMID:25228312

  13. The mechanism for exclusion of Pinus massoniana during the succession in subtropical forest ecosystems: light competition or stoichiometric homoeostasis?

    PubMed

    Yan, Junhua; Li, Kun; Peng, Xingju; Huang, Zhongliang; Liu, Shizhong; Zhang, Qianmei

    2015-01-01

    Competition for light has traditionally been considered as the main mechanism for exclusion of Pinus massoniana during succession in subtropical forest ecosystems. However, both long-term inventories and a seedling cultivation experiment showed that growth of mature individuals and young seedlings of P. massoniana was not limited by available light, but was strongly influenced by stoichiometric homoeostasis. This is supported by the results of homoeostatic regulation coefficients for nitrogen (HN) and phosphorus (HP) estimated using the measured data from six transitional forests across subtropical China. Among three dominant tree species in subtropical forests, P. massoniana and Castanopsis chinensis had the lowest values of HP and HN, respectively. Therefore P. massoniana cannot survive in the advanced stage due to soil phosphorus limitation and C. chinensis cannot successfully grow in the pioneer stage due to soil nitrogen limitation. Our results support that stoichiometric homeostasis is the main reason for gradual exclusion of P. massoniana from the transitional forest and the eventual elimination from the advanced forest during the subtropical forest succession. Therefore greater attention should be paid to stoichiometric homeostasis as one of the key mechanisms for species exclusion during forest succession. PMID:26046944

  14. A comparison of the community diversity of foliar fungal endophytes between seedling and adult loblolly pines (Pinus taeda).

    PubMed

    Oono, Ryoko; Lefèvre, Emilie; Simha, Anita; Lutzoni, François

    2015-10-01

    Fungal endophytes represent one of the most ubiquitous plant symbionts on Earth and are phylogenetically diverse. The structure and diversity of endophyte communities have been shown to depend on host taxa and climate, but there have been relatively few studies exploring endophyte communities throughout host maturity. We compared foliar fungal endophyte communities between seedlings and adult trees of loblolly pines (Pinus taeda) at the same seasons and locations by culturing and culture-independent methods. We sequenced the internal transcribed spacer region and adjacent partial large subunit nuclear ribosomal RNA gene (ITS-LSU amplicon) to delimit operational taxonomic units and phylogenetically characterize the communities. Despite the lower infection frequency in seedlings compared to adult trees, seedling needles were receptive to a more diverse community of fungal endophytes. Culture-free method confirmed the presence of commonly cultured OTUs from adult needles but revealed several new OTUs from seedling needles that were not found with culturing methods. The two most commonly cultured OTUs in adults were rarely cultured from seedlings, suggesting that host age is correlated with a selective enrichment for specific endophytes. This shift in endophyte species dominance may be indicative of a functional change between these fungi and their loblolly pine hosts. PMID:26399186

  15. Chemotaxis of the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, to volatiles associated with host pine, Pinus massoniana, and its vector Monochamus alternatus.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li Lin; Wei, Wei; Kang, Le; Sun, Jiang Hua

    2007-06-01

    The pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, the most important invasive species in pine forests of Asia, is transported to new pine hosts by beetles of the genus Monochamus. Third-stage dispersal juveniles (J(III)) aggregate in pupal chambers around the vector as it matures. We demonstrated that the ratio of three terpenes (alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, and longifolene at 1:2.7:1.1) released by larval Monochamus alternatus strongly attract J(III), whereas the different ratio (1:0.1:0.01) of these three terpenes found in healthy xylem of Pinus massoniana attracts only the propagative stage (J(n)) of the nematode. We suggest that the volatiles produced by the host plants could be the basis of a chemoecological relationship between plant parasitic nematodes and their vector insects. Capture of J(III) with terpene-baited trap tubes deployed for 2 hr in the field was demonstrated. This technique may lead to the development of rapid sampling methodologies for use at either ports-of-entry or in the field. PMID:17447123

  16. The mechanism for exclusion of Pinus massoniana during the succession in subtropical forest ecosystems: light competition or stoichiometric homoeostasis?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Junhua; Li, Kun; Peng, Xingju; Huang, Zhongliang; Liu, Shizhong; Zhang, Qianmei

    2015-06-01

    Competition for light has traditionally been considered as the main mechanism for exclusion of Pinus massoniana during succession in subtropical forest ecosystems. However, both long-term inventories and a seedling cultivation experiment showed that growth of mature individuals and young seedlings of P. massoniana was not limited by available light, but was strongly influenced by stoichiometric homoeostasis. This is supported by the results of homoeostatic regulation coefficients for nitrogen (HN) and phosphorus (HP) estimated using the measured data from six transitional forests across subtropical China. Among three dominant tree species in subtropical forests, P. massoniana and Castanopsis chinensis had the lowest values of HP and HN, respectively. Therefore P. massoniana cannot survive in the advanced stage due to soil phosphorus limitation and C. chinensis cannot successfully grow in the pioneer stage due to soil nitrogen limitation. Our results support that stoichiometric homeostasis is the main reason for gradual exclusion of P. massoniana from the transitional forest and the eventual elimination from the advanced forest during the subtropical forest succession. Therefore greater attention should be paid to stoichiometric homeostasis as one of the key mechanisms for species exclusion during forest succession.

  17. Gill tissue reactions in walleye Stizostedion vitreum vitreum and common carp Cyprinus carpio to glochidia of the freshwater mussel Lampsilis radiata siliquoidea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waller, D.L.; Mitchell, L.G.

    1989-01-01

    The glochidia of many freshwater mussels, which are obligate parasites on the gills, fins, and other body parts of specific fishes, attach to a suitable host, become encapsulated, and develop to the free-living juvenile stage. Using light and electron microscopy we compared gill tissue reactions in a suitable host (walleye Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) and unsuitable host (common carp Cyprinus carpio) infected with Lampsilis radiata siliquoidea. Encapsulation of glochidia on walleye gills was completed by 6 h post-infection at 20 to 22°C. Capsular formation and compaction were accompanied by a general increase in epithelioid cells. Fibrotic material appeared in capsules at about 48 h and virtually filled capsular cells from about Day 5 to Day 11 post-infection. Liberation of juvenile mussels was accompanied by thinning of the capsule from about Day 11 to Day l7. Although glochidia attached to the gills of common carp, few became encapsulated. By 48 h post-infection, preliminary capsular growth was evident and necrotic cells and cellular debris appeared at the edges of the growth. However, all glochidia were sloughed from carp gills by 60 h. Host specificity of L. radiata siliquoidea apparently depended on a combination of the attachment response of glochidia, differences in the encapsulation process, and tissue reactions in the fish.

  18. Cheese maturity assessment using ultrasonics.

    PubMed

    Benedito, J; Carcel, J; Clemente, G; Mulet, A

    2000-02-01

    The relationship between Mahon cheese maturity and ultrasonic velocity was examined. Moisture and textural properties were used as maturity indicators. The ultrasonic velocity of the cheese varied between 1630 and 1740 m/s, increasing with the curing time mainly because of loss of water, which also produced an increase of the textural properties. Because of the nature of low-intensity ultrasonics, velocity was better related to those textural parameters that involved small displacements. Ultrasonic velocity decreased with increasing temperature because of the negative temperature coefficient of the ultrasonic velocity of fat and the melting of fat. These results highlight the potential use of ultrasonic velocity measurements to rapidly and nondestructively assess cheese maturity. PMID:10714857

  19. Effects of "short" photoperiods on seedling growth of Pinus brutia.

    PubMed

    Iakovoglou, V; Radoglou, K; Kostopoulou, P; Dini-Papanastasi, O

    2012-03-01

    This study investigated how nurseries could benefit by inducing "short" photoperiods as low as 4 hr to produce "better" seedlings characterized by more vigorous roots; a substantial feature to overcome transplanting stress. The carryover effect of the photoperiod was also investigated on seedlings that grew for 30 days more underthe consistent 14 hr photoperiod. Seedlings of Pinus brutia were subjected to 4, 6, 8 and 14 hr photoperiod for 3 week. Fifteen seedlings were used to evaluate the leaf area, the root and shoot dry weight and their ratio. Six and sixteen seedlings were used to evaluate the shoot electrolyte leakage and the root growth potential, respectively. Based on the results, the 6 and 8 hr photoperiod indicated greater root allocation (4.8 and 4.9 mg, respectively) and chlorophyll content (3.7 and 4.4, respectively). They also indicated greater leaf area values (3.3 and 3.5 cm2, respectively) along with the 14 hr (3.4 cm2). The photoperiod effect continued even after seedlings were subjected at consistent photoperiod. Overall, "short" photoperiods could provide "better" P. brutia seedlings to accommodate immediate massive reforestation and afforestation needs. PMID:23033672

  20. Pharmaceutical and nutraceutical effects of Pinus pinaster bark extract.

    PubMed

    Iravani, S; Zolfaghari, B

    2011-01-01

    In everyday life, our body generates free radicals and other reactive oxygen species which are derived either from the endogenous metabolic processes (within the body) or from external sources. Many clinical and pharmacological studies suggest that natural antioxidants can prevent oxidative damage. Among the natural antioxidant products, Pycnogenol(®) (French Pinus pinaster bark extract) has been received considerable attention because of its strong free radical-scavenging activity against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. P. pinaster bark extract (PBE) contains polyphenolic compounds (these compounds consist of catechin, taxifolin, procyanidins of various chain lengths formed by catechin and epicatechin units, and phenolic acids) capable of producing diverse potentially protective effects against chronic and degenerative diseases. This herbal medication has been reported to have cardiovascular benefits, such as vasorelaxant activity, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibiting activity, and the ability to enhance the microcirculation by increasing capillary permeability. Moreover, effects on the immune system and modulation of nitrogen monoxide metabolism have been reported. This article provides a brief overview of clinical studies describing the beneficial and health-promoting effects of PBE. PMID:22049273

  1. Urbanization in China drives soil acidification of Pinus massoniana forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Juan; Zhang, Wei; Mo, Jiangming; Wang, Shizhong; Liu, Juxiu; Chen, Hao

    2015-09-01

    Soil acidification instead of alkalization has become a new environmental issue caused by urbanization. However, it remains unclear the characters and main contributors of this acidification. We investigated the effects of an urbanization gradient on soil acidity of Pinus massoniana forests in Pearl River Delta, South China. The soil pH of pine forests at 20-cm depth had significantly positive linear correlations with the distance from the urban core of Guangzhou. Soil pH reduced by 0.44 unit at the 0-10 cm layer in urbanized areas compared to that in non-urbanized areas. Nitrogen deposition, mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation were key factors influencing soil acidification based on a principal component analysis. Nitrogen deposition showed significant linear relationships with soil pH at the 0-10 cm (for ammonium N (-N), P < 0.05 for nitrate N (-N), P < 0.01) and 10-20 cm (for -N, P < 0.05) layers. However, there was no significant loss of exchangeable non-acidic cations along the urbanization gradient, instead their levels were higher in urban than in urban/suburban area at the 0-10 cm layer. Our results suggested N deposition particularly under the climate of high temperature and rainfall, greatly contributed to a significant soil acidification occurred in the urbanized environment.

  2. Association genetics of the loblolly pine (Pinus taeda, Pinaceae) metabolome.

    PubMed

    Eckert, Andrew J; Wegrzyn, Jill L; Cumbie, W Patrick; Goldfarb, Barry; Huber, Dudley A; Tolstikov, Vladimir; Fiehn, Oliver; Neale, David B

    2012-03-01

    The metabolome of a plant comprises all small molecule metabolites, which are produced during cellular processes. The genetic basis for metabolites in nonmodel plants is unknown, despite frequently observed correlations between metabolite concentrations and stress responses. A quantitative genetic analysis of metabolites in a nonmodel plant species is thus warranted. Here, we use standard association genetic methods to correlate 3563 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to concentrations of 292 metabolites measured in a single loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) association population. A total of 28 single locus associations were detected, representing 24 and 20 unique SNPs and metabolites, respectively. Multilocus Bayesian mixed linear models identified 2998 additional associations for a total of 1617 unique SNPs associated to 255 metabolites. These SNPs explained sizeable fractions of metabolite heritabilities when considered jointly (56.6% on average) and had lower minor allele frequencies and magnitudes of population structure as compared with random SNPs. Modest sets of SNPs (n = 1-23) explained sizeable portions of genetic effects for many metabolites, thus highlighting the importance of multi-SNP models to association mapping, and exhibited patterns of polymorphism consistent with being linked to targets of natural selection. The implications for association mapping in forest trees are discussed. PMID:22129444

  3. [Relationship between selection of Pinus massoniana families and Folium Pini].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Man-xi; Yan, Cui-qi; Wang, Wei; Ye, Jian-ming; Zhong, Yong-kun; Ke, Zun-hong; Hao, Xiao-feng; Ke, Xiao; Ye, Liang; Huang, Lu-qi

    2015-05-01

    Based on variation of Pinus massoniana families, heritablility and correlation analysis, the contents of shikimic acid and procyanidine (heritability 0.90, 0.70), dry weight of single branch (heritability 0.60) and and leaf length (heritability 0.46) were screened out as quality, yield and harvest cost traits of Folium Pini, respectively. For the different medicinal application of Folium Pini, varied methods were chosen to estimate weight and construct index equation. Weight adjustment based.on equal emphasis were used as economic weight determining method to select the best families, and the index (accuracy 0. 936 4 and heritability 0. 881 6) obtained was a little better than that obtained by equal emphasis, and much better than that by restricted index. The superior families selected with adjustment weight and equal emphasis were No. 46, 43 and 28. Partial regression were used as economic weight determining method to select the best families,and the index obtained had the highest accuracy (0.941 5) , index heritability (0. 889 9) and the genetic gain of shikimic acid content. The superior families selected with this method were No. 46, 27 and 47. No. 46 was the best families with maximal economic benefit. Our study indicated that suitable method for estimate weight and construct index equation can be applied for better accuracy of superior families selection of P. massoniana. PMID:26323132

  4. Nitrogen metabolism in Lignifying Pinus taeda cell cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    van Heerden, P. S.; Towers, G. H.; Lewis, N. G.

    1996-01-01

    The primary metabolic fate of phyenylalanine, following its deamination in plants, is conscription of its carbon skeleton for lignin, suberin, flavonoid, and related metabolite formation. Since this accounts for approximately 30-40% of all organic carbon, an effective means of recycling the liberated ammonium ion must be operative. In order to establish how this occurs, the uptake and metabolism of various 15N-labeled precursors (15N-Phe, 15NH4Cl, 15N-Gln, and 15N-Glu) in lignifying Pinus taeda cell cultures was investigated, using a combination of high performance liquid chromatography, 15N NMR, and gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry analyses. It was found that the ammonium ion released during active phenylpropanoid metabolism was not made available for general amino acid/protein synthesis. Rather it was rapidly recycled back to regenerate phenylalanine, thereby providing an effective means of maintaining active phenylpropanoid metabolism with no additional nitrogen requirement. These results strongly suggest that, in lignifying cells, ammonium ion reassimilation is tightly compartmentalized.

  5. Urbanization in China drives soil acidification of Pinus massoniana forests.

    PubMed

    Huang, Juan; Zhang, Wei; Mo, Jiangming; Wang, Shizhong; Liu, Juxiu; Chen, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Soil acidification instead of alkalization has become a new environmental issue caused by urbanization. However, it remains unclear the characters and main contributors of this acidification. We investigated the effects of an urbanization gradient on soil acidity of Pinus massoniana forests in Pearl River Delta, South China. The soil pH of pine forests at 20-cm depth had significantly positive linear correlations with the distance from the urban core of Guangzhou. Soil pH reduced by 0.44 unit at the 0-10 cm layer in urbanized areas compared to that in non-urbanized areas. Nitrogen deposition, mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation were key factors influencing soil acidification based on a principal component analysis. Nitrogen deposition showed significant linear relationships with soil pH at the 0-10 cm (for ammonium N(NH4+(-N)), P < 0.05; for nitrate N(NO3-(-N)), P < 0.01) and 10-20 cm (for NO3-(-N), P < 0.05) layers. However, there was no significant loss of exchangeable non-acidic cations along the urbanization gradient, instead their levels were higher in urban than in urban/suburban area at the 0-10 cm layer. Our results suggested N deposition particularly under the climate of high temperature and rainfall, greatly contributed to a significant soil acidification occurred in the urbanized environment. PMID:26400019

  6. Urbanization in China drives soil acidification of Pinus massoniana forests

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Juan; Zhang, Wei; Mo, Jiangming; Wang, Shizhong; Liu, Juxiu; Chen, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Soil acidification instead of alkalization has become a new environmental issue caused by urbanization. However, it remains unclear the characters and main contributors of this acidification. We investigated the effects of an urbanization gradient on soil acidity of Pinus massoniana forests in Pearl River Delta, South China. The soil pH of pine forests at 20-cm depth had significantly positive linear correlations with the distance from the urban core of Guangzhou. Soil pH reduced by 0.44 unit at the 0–10 cm layer in urbanized areas compared to that in non-urbanized areas. Nitrogen deposition, mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation were key factors influencing soil acidification based on a principal component analysis. Nitrogen deposition showed significant linear relationships with soil pH at the 0–10 cm (for ammonium N (-N), P < 0.05; for nitrate N (-N), P < 0.01) and 10–20 cm (for -N, P < 0.05) layers. However, there was no significant loss of exchangeable non-acidic cations along the urbanization gradient, instead their levels were higher in urban than in urban/suburban area at the 0–10 cm layer. Our results suggested N deposition particularly under the climate of high temperature and rainfall, greatly contributed to a significant soil acidification occurred in the urbanized environment. PMID:26400019

  7. [Soil microbial functional diversity of different altitude Pinus koraiensis forests].

    PubMed

    Han, Dong-xue; Wang, Ning; Wang, Nan-nan; Sun, Xue; Feng, Fu-juan

    2015-12-01

    In order to comprehensively understand the soil microbial carbon utilization characteristics of Pinus koraiensis forests, we took the topsoil (0-5 cm and 5-10 cm) along the 700-1100 m altitude in Changbai Mountains and analyzed the vertical distributed characteristics and variation of microbial functional diversity along the elevation gradient by Biolog microplate method. The results showed that there were significant differences in functional diversity of microbial communities at different elevations. AWCD increased with the extension of incubation time and AWCD at the same soil depth gradually decreased along with increasing altitude; Shannon, Simpson and McIntosh diversity index also showed the same trend with AWCD and three different diversity indices were significantly different along the elevation gradient; Species diversity and functional diversity showed the same variation. The utilization intensities of six categories carbon sources had differences while amino acids were constantly the most dominant carbon source. Principal component analysis (PCA) identified that soil microbial carbon utilization at different altitudes had obvious spatial differentiation, as reflected in the use of carbohydrates, amino acids and carboxylic acids. In addition, the cluster of the microbial diversity indexes and AWCD values of different altitudes showed that the composition of vegetation had a significant impact on soil microbial composition and functional activity. PMID:27112001

  8. Masting in whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) depletes stored nutrients.

    PubMed

    Sala, Anna; Hopping, Kelly; McIntire, Eliot J B; Delzon, Sylvain; Crone, Elizabeth E

    2012-10-01

    • In masting trees, synchronized, heavy reproductive events are thought to deplete stored resources and to impose a replenishment period before subsequent masting. However, direct evidence of resource depletion in wild, masting trees is very rare. Here, we examined the timing and magnitude (local vs individual-level) of stored nutrient depletion after a heavy mast event in Pinus albicaulis. • In 2005, the mast year, we compared seasonal changes in leaf and sapwood nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations and leaf photosynthetic rates in cone-bearing branches, branches that never produced cones, and branches with experimentally removed cones. We also compared nutrient concentrations in cone branches and branches that had never had cones between 2005 and 2006, and measured tree ring width and new shoot growth during 2005. • During the mast year, N or P depletion occurred only in tissue fractions of reproductive branches, where photosynthetic rates were reduced. However, by the end of the following year, nutrients were depleted in all branches, indicating individual-level resource depletion. New shoot and radial growth were not affected by masting. • We provide direct evidence that mast events in wild trees deplete stored nutrients. Our results highlight the importance of evaluating reproductive costs over time and at the individual level. PMID:22889129

  9. Hydraulic adjustments underlying drought resistance of Pinus halepensis.

    PubMed

    Klein, Tamir; Cohen, Shabtai; Yakir, Dan

    2011-06-01

    Drought-induced tree mortality has increased over the last decades in forests around the globe. Our objective was to investigate under controlled conditions the hydraulic adjustments underlying the observed ability of Pinus halepensis to survive seasonal drought under semi-arid conditions. One hundred 18-month saplings were exposed in the greenhouse to 10 different drought treatments, simulating combinations of intensities (fraction of water supply relative to control) and durations (period with no water supply) for 30 weeks. Stomata closed at a leaf water potential (Ψ(l)) of -2.8 MPa, suggesting isohydric stomatal regulation. In trees under extreme drought treatments, stomatal closure reduced CO(2) uptake to -1 µmol m(-2) s(-1), indicating the development of carbon starvation. A narrow hydraulic safety margin of 0.3 MPa (from stomatal closure to 50% loss of hydraulic conductivity) was observed, indicating a strategy of maximization of CO2 uptake in trees otherwise adapted to water stress. A differential effect of drought intensity and duration was observed, and was explained by a strong dependence of the water stress effect on the ratio of transpiration to evapotranspiration T/ET and the larger partitioning to transpiration associated with larger irrigation doses. Under intense or prolonged drought, the root system became the main target for biomass accumulation, taking up to 100% of the added biomass, while the stem tissue biomass decreased, associated with up to 60% reduction in xylem volume. PMID:21712236

  10. Comparison of laboratory colonies and field populations of Tamarixia radiata, an ecto-parasitoid of the Asian Citrus Psyllid, using internal transcribed spacer and cytochrome oxidase subunit l DNA sequences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genetic diversity of Tamarixia radiata laboratory colonies derived from collections in China, northern Vietnam, Pakistan, and a mixed colony from Taiwan and southern Vietnam was evaluated using the internal transcribed spacer region 1 (ITS-1), internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS-2) and the...

  11. Changes in soil quality after converting Pinus to Eucalyptus plantations in southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, K.; Zheng, H.; Chen, F. L.; Ouyang, Z. Y.; Wang, Y.; Wu, Y. F.; Lan, J.; Fu, M.; Xiang, X. W.

    2015-02-01

    Vegetation plays a key role in maintaining soil quality, but long-term changes in soil quality due to plant species change and successive planting are rarely reported. Using the space-for-time substitution method, adjacent plantations of Pinus and first, second, third and fourth generations of Eucalyptus in Guangxi, China were used to study changes in soil quality caused by converting Pinus to Eucalyptus and successive Eucalyptus planting. Soil chemical and biological properties were measured and a soil quality index was calculated using principal component analysis. Soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, alkaline hydrolytic nitrogen, microbial biomass carbon, microbial biomass nitrogen, cellobiosidase, phenol oxidase, peroxidase and acid phosphatase activities were significantly lower in the first and second generations of Eucalyptus plantations compared with Pinus plantation, but they were significantly higher in the third and fourth generations than in the first and second generations and significantly lower than in Pinus plantation. Soil total and available potassium were significantly lower in Eucalyptus plantations (1.8-2.5 g kg-1 and 26-66 mg kg-1) compared to the Pinus plantation (14.3 g kg-1 and 92 mg kg-1), but total phosphorus was significantly higher in Eucalyptus plantations (0.9-1.1 g kg-1) compared to the Pinus plantation (0.4 g kg-1). As an integrated indicator, soil quality index was highest in the Pinus plantation (0.92) and lowest in the first and second generations of Eucalyptus plantations (0.24 and 0.13). Soil quality index in the third and fourth generations (0.36 and 0.38) was between that in Pinus plantation and in first and second generations of Eucalyptus plantations. Changing tree species, reclamation and fertilization may have contributed to the change observed in soil quality during conversion of Pinus to Eucalyptus and successive Eucalyptus planting. Litter retention, keeping understorey coverage, and reducing soil disturbance during

  12. Tree mortality patterns following prescribed fire for Pinus and Abies across the southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Mantgem, Philip J.; Nesmith, Jonathan C. B.; Keifer, MaryBeth; Brooks, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    The reintroduction of fire to historically fire-prone forests has been repeatedly shown to reduce understory fuels and promote resistance to high severity fire. However, there is concern that prescribed fire may also have unintended consequences, such as high rates of mortality for large trees and fire-tolerant Pinus species. To test this possibility we evaluated mortality patterns for two common genera in the western US, Pinus and Abies, using observations from a national-scale prescribed fire effects monitoring program. Our results show that mortality rates of trees >50 DBH were similar for Pinus (4.6% yr-1) and Abies (4.0% yr-1) 5 years following prescribed fires across seven sites in the southwestern US. In contrast, mortality rates of trees >50 cm DBH differed between Pinus (5.7% yr-1) and Abies (9.0% yr-1). Models of post-fire mortality probabilities suggested statistically significant differences between the genera (after including differences in bark thickness), but accounting for these differences resulted in only small improvements in model classification. Our results do not suggest unusually high post-fire mortality for large trees or for Pinus relative to the other common co-occurring genus, Abies, following prescribed fire in the southwestern US.

  13. Paleoclimatic implications of glacial and postglacial refugia for Pinus pumila in western Beringia

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, P M; Lozhkin, A V; Solomatkina, T B; Brown, T A

    2010-02-05

    Palynological results from Julietta Lake currently provide the most direct evidence to support the existence of a glacial refugium for Pinus pumila in mountains of southwestern Beringia. Both percentages and accumulation rates indicate the evergreen shrub survived until at least {approx}19,000 14C yr B.P. in the Upper Kolyma region. Percentage data suggest numbers dwindled into the late glaciation, whereas pollen accumulation rates point towards a more rapid demise shortly after {approx}19,000 14C yr B.P. Pinus pumila did not re-establish in any great numbers until {approx}8100 14C yr B.P., despite the local presence {approx}9800 14C yr B.P. of Larix dahurica, which shares similar summer temperature requirements. The postglacial thermal maximum (in Beringia {approx}11,000-9000 14C yr B.P.) provided Pinus pumila shrubs with equally harsh albeit different conditions for survival than those present during the LGM. Regional records indicate that in this time of maximum warmth Pinus pumila likely sheltered in a second, lower-elevation refugium. Paleoclimatic models and modern ecology suggest that shifts in the nature of seasonal transitions and not only seasonal extremes have played important roles in the history of Pinus pumila over the last {approx}21,000 14C yr B.P.

  14. The People Capability Maturity Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wademan, Mark R.; Spuches, Charles M.; Doughty, Philip L.

    2007-01-01

    The People Capability Maturity Model[R] (People CMM[R]) advocates a staged approach to organizational change. Developed by the Carnegie Mellon University Software Engineering Institute, this model seeks to bring discipline to the people side of management by promoting a structured, repeatable, and predictable approach for improving an…

  15. Enticing Mature Females into College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loseth, Lexie; Moreau, Linda

    Following a review of the literature on mature female students, this paper examines enrollment trends in a selection of colleges in Alberta (Canada) and presents the findings of a survey of returning women students at Red Deer College. The literature review highlights factors related to the personal and professional development of women graduates…

  16. Adolescent Maturation in Transitioning Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulroy, Kevin; Palacios, Anna; Reid, Robert E.

    This is a theoretical study of adolescent maturation within a cultural context. Personality development and disintegration due to the pressure of a dominant culture on a minority culture is considered. An attempt is made to understand how teachers might assist students to work out their psychological growth by story telling. The need for cultural…

  17. Motivational Maturity and Helping Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haymes, Michael; Green, Logan

    1977-01-01

    Maturity in conative development (type of motivation included in Maslow's needs hierarchy) was found to be predictive of helping behavior in middle class white male college students. The effects of safety and esteem needs were compared, and the acceptance of responsibility was also investigated. (GDC)

  18. Chyloabdomen in a mature cat.

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, K L

    2001-01-01

    A mature, castrated male cat presented with progressive lethargy and a severely distended abdomen. Abdominal radiographs, abdominocentesis, and evaluation of the fluid obtained led to a diagnosis of chyloabdomen. The underlying pathology, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment associated with this disease are discussed. PMID:11360862

  19. Mature Cystic Teratoma of Liver

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Richa; Bansal, Kalpana; Manchanda, Vivek

    2013-01-01

    A four-year-old boy presented with constipation and mild abdominal distention for one year. Radiologic investigations showed a multiloculated cystic lesion in the caudate lobe of liver with focal calcification in the wall. The child underwent laparotomy with marsupialization of the cystic lesion. Histopathologic examination showed mature teratoma of liver. PMID:24040591

  20. Costs and benefits of a mature first-generation loblolly pine tree improvement program

    SciTech Connect

    Talbert, J.T.; Weir, R.J.; Arnold, R.D.

    1985-03-01

    First-generation tree improvement programs with loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) are now reaching maturity. Yields from first generation seeds orchards in the North Carolina State University - Industry Cooperative Tree Improvement Program are now great enough to allow most members to meet all of their regeneration needs with improved stock. Progeny test measurement is a major activity of the cooperative, with the final-first generation progeny tests established in 1983. Final crop gains on 25 year rotations from one generation of loblolly pine tree improvement are estimated to be as high as 7% in height (site index), 12% in cubic foot volume, and 32% in harvest value. Tree improvement continues to be an attractive investment opportunity. Rates of return for investments in loblolly pine tree improvement depend on seed orchard yields, but appear to be on the order of 17 to 19% after taxes. 27 references.

  1. Selectivity of Pinus sylvestris extract and essential oil to estrogen-insensitive breast cancer cells Pinus sylvestris against cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Hoai, Nguyen Thi; Duc, Ho Viet; Thao, Do Thi; Orav, Anne; Raal, Ain

    2015-01-01

    Background: So far, the anticancer action of pine tree extracts has mainly been shown for the species distributed widely around the Asian countries. Objective: Therefore, this study was performed to examine the potential cytotoxicity of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) native also to the European region and growing widely in Estonia. Materials and Methods: The cytotoxic activity of methanol extract and essential oil of Scots pine needles was determined by sulforhodamine B assay in different human cancer cell lines. Results: This needle extract was found to suppress the viability of several human cancer cell lines showing some selectivity to estrogen receptor negative breast cancer cells, MDA-MB-231(half maximal inhibitory concentration [IC50] 35 μg/ml) in comparison with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cells, MCF-7 (IC50 86 μg/ml). It is the strongest cytotoxic effect at all measured, thus far for the needles and leaves extracts derived from various pine species, and is also the first study comparing the anticancer effects of pine tree extracts on molecularly different human breast cancer cells. The essential oil showed the stronger cytotoxic effect to both negative and positive breast cancer cell lines (both IC50 29 μg/ml) than pine extract (IC50 42 and 80 μg/ml, respectively). Conclusion: The data from this report indicate that Scots pine needles extract and essential oil exhibits some potential as chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic agent for mammary tumors unresponsive to endocrine treatment. PMID:26664017

  2. [Comparative sequence analysis of the LEA gene fragment in Pinus sibirica du tour and Pinus pumila (Pallas) regel].

    PubMed

    Mglinets, A V; Sokolov, V A; Petrova, E A; Goroshkevich, S N

    2014-02-01

    A comparative sequence analysis of the LEA (Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA)-like gene) intron fragment was performed in Pinus sibirica and P. pumila differing in geographic origin. It was demonstrated that in P. sibirica this fragment was represented by two types of PCR products, 224 and 202 bp in size. Similarly, in accessions of P. pumila, two PCR products of 224 and 159 bp in size were identified. Comparison of 224 bp fragments in P. sibirica and P. pumila showed that they differed in single nucleotide substitutions. Analysis of the intron fragment in a plant, which was characterized as an interspecific hybrid based on morphological characters, showed that it had fragments of 224 and 159 bp in size. The sequence of 224 bp fragment was similar to that of the corresponding fragment in P. sibirica. The structure of the short fragment was the same as the structure of the corresponding fragment in P. pumila. The data obtained are discussed in terms of the use of the sequences examined for species taxonomic classification and of an analysis of species hybridization. PMID:25711024

  3. [Stem respiration of Pinus koraiensis in Changbai Mountains].

    PubMed

    Wang, Miao; Ji, Lanzhu; Li, Qiurong; Xiao, Dongmei; Liu, Hailiang

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, soil respiration chamber, a simple and precise method, was used to measure the stem respiration of trees. LI-6400-09 respiration chamber serving as a system is usually used in soil respiration, but we made polyvinyl chloride (PVC) collar and fixed it on the stem surface to measure the stem respiration. From May to October 2003, the stem respiration of Pinus koraiensis, the dominant tree species in Changbai Mountain, was measured in different time and different places using this technique. Meanwhile, the temperatures in the stems and in the forests were measured. The results showed that the stem respiration rate had a remarkably seasonal tendency with a single peak, the maximum was in August and the minimum was in February. The stem respiration rate had an exponential relationship with stem temperature, and the curve exponential regressions for stem respiration rate and temperature factor of trees with big DBH were better than those with small DBH. The stem respiration in different DBH trees was higher in the south stem face than that in the north stem face, and the variance of respiration rate between south and north decreased with a decrease of DBH trees. During the growing season from May to October, the average maintenance respiration accounted for 63.63% in different DBH trees, and the maintenance respiration contribution to total respiratory consumption increased with increasing DBH, which was 66.76, 73.29% and 50.84%, respectively. The stem respiration Q10 values ranged from 2.56-3.32 in different DBH of trees, and the seasonal tendency for stem R, and Rm in different DBH of trees was obtained by using respiration Q10. Therefore, the differences between different parts of stem and different DBH of trees should be considered in estimating the respiration model in ecosystem. PMID:15852948

  4. Maturation of the adolescent brain

    PubMed Central

    Arain, Mariam; Haque, Maliha; Johal, Lina; Mathur, Puja; Nel, Wynand; Rais, Afsha; Sandhu, Ranbir; Sharma, Sushil

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is the developmental epoch during which children become adults – intellectually, physically, hormonally, and socially. Adolescence is a tumultuous time, full of changes and transformations. The pubertal transition to adulthood involves both gonadal and behavioral maturation. Magnetic resonance imaging studies have discovered that myelinogenesis, required for proper insulation and efficient neurocybernetics, continues from childhood and the brain’s region-specific neurocircuitry remains structurally and functionally vulnerable to impulsive sex, food, and sleep habits. The maturation of the adolescent brain is also influenced by heredity, environment, and sex hormones (estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone), which play a crucial role in myelination. Furthermore, glutamatergic neurotransmission predominates, whereas gamma-aminobutyric acid neurotransmission remains under construction, and this might be responsible for immature and impulsive behavior and neurobehavioral excitement during adolescent life. The adolescent population is highly vulnerable to driving under the influence of alcohol and social maladjustments due to an immature limbic system and prefrontal cortex. Synaptic plasticity and the release of neurotransmitters may also be influenced by environmental neurotoxins and drugs of abuse including cigarettes, caffeine, and alcohol during adolescence. Adolescents may become involved with offensive crimes, irresponsible behavior, unprotected sex, juvenile courts, or even prison. According to a report by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the major cause of death among the teenage population is due to injury and violence related to sex and substance abuse. Prenatal neglect, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption may also significantly impact maturation of the adolescent brain. Pharmacological interventions to regulate adolescent behavior have been attempted with limited success. Since several factors, including age, sex

  5. Maturity model for enterprise interoperability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guédria, Wided; Naudet, Yannick; Chen, David

    2015-01-01

    Historically, progress occurs when entities communicate, share information and together create something that no one individually could do alone. Moving beyond people to machines and systems, interoperability is becoming a key factor of success in all domains. In particular, interoperability has become a challenge for enterprises, to exploit market opportunities, to meet their own objectives of cooperation or simply to survive in a growing competitive world where the networked enterprise is becoming a standard. Within this context, many research works have been conducted over the past few years and enterprise interoperability has become an important area of research, ensuring the competitiveness and growth of European enterprises. Among others, enterprises have to control their interoperability strategy and enhance their ability to interoperate. This is the purpose of the interoperability assessment. Assessing interoperability maturity allows a company to know its strengths and weaknesses in terms of interoperability with its current and potential partners, and to prioritise actions for improvement. The objective of this paper is to define a maturity model for enterprise interoperability that takes into account existing maturity models while extending the coverage of the interoperability domain. The assessment methodology is also presented. Both are demonstrated with a real case study.

  6. Cumulus and oocyte maturation and in vitro and in vivo fertilization of oocytes in relation to follicular steroids, prolactin, and glycosaminoglycans throughout the estrous period in superovulated heifers with a normal LH surge, no detectable LH surge, and progestin inhibition of LH surge.

    PubMed

    Wise, T; Suss, U; Stranzinger, G; Wuthrich, K; Maurer, R R

    1994-01-01

    Crossbred heifers (n = 103) were synchronized to estrus with prostaglandin (PGF2 alpha) and superovulated with follicle stimulating hormone (FSH-P). Animals were ovariectomized every 12 hr after the PGF2 alpha injection (n = 7 to 9/time) up to 108 hr to monitor the follicular, hormonal, and oocyte changes associated with follicular development and ovulation. Twenty-eight animals were implanted with Norgestomet implants 12 hr before PGF2 alpha and ovariectomized at 72, 84, 96, and 108 hr post PGF2 alpha injection to monitor effects of progesterone and suppression of the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge on oocyte maturation and quality. Follicular fluid was collected and analyzed for progesterone, estradiol, prolactin, and glycosaminoglycan content in conjunction with cumulus maturation and nuclear stage of oocyte maturation. Analysis of in vivo matured oocytes by in vitro fertilization was carried out at 60, 72, 84, and 96 hr post PGF2 alpha and in vitro matured oocytes at 12 to 108 hr post PGF2 alpha. No developmental changes in cumulus cells surrounding the oocyte of small follicles was noted (< or = 4 mm dia) indicating a static population. Medium (> 4 < or = 8 mm) and large size (> 8 mm) follicles developed to the corona radiata and loose cumulus stages in animals in which an LH surge was detected but cumulus status remained primarily in the tight cumulus stage for animals without an LH surge. The estradiol-to-progesterone ratio for tight cumulus (TC), corona radiata (CR), and loose cumulus (LC) stages was 1.8 +/- .1, 1.0 +/- .1, and .4 +/- .2, respectively (P < .01). Nuclear maturation of oocytes in small follicles from animals without a detectable LH surge seem to indicate early maturation (48 to 72 hr post PGF2 alpha) in conjunction with a high percent of degenerate oocytes not seen in animals exhibiting an LH surge. Oocytes from medium size follicles matured to germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) and early meiosis (metaphase I; MI) stages of development in all

  7. Soil microbiological properties and enzymatic activities of long-term post-fire recovery in dry and semiarid Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis M.) forest stands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedo, J.; Lucas-Borja, M. E.; Wic, C.; Andrés Abellán, M.; de Las Heras, J.

    2014-10-01

    Wildfires affecting forest ecosystems and post-fire silvicultural treatments may cause considerable changes in soil properties. The capacity of different microbial groups to recolonize soil after disturbances is crucial for proper soil functioning. The aim of this work was to investigate some microbial soil properties and enzyme activities in semiarid and dry Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis M.) forest stands. Different plots affected by a wildfire event 17 years ago without or with post-fire silvicultural treatments five years after the fire event were selected. A mature Aleppo pine stand unaffected by wildfire and not thinned was used as a control. Physicochemical soil properties (soil texture, pH, carbonates, organic matter, electrical conductivity, total N and P), soil enzymes (urease, phosphatase, β-glucosidase and dehydrogenase activities), soil respiration and soil microbial biomass carbon were analysed in the selected forests areas and plots. The main finding was that long time after this fire event produces no differences in the microbiological soil properties and enzyme activities of soil after comparing burned and thinned, burned and not thinned, and mature plots. Thus, the long-term consequences and post-fire silvicultural management in the form of thinning have a significant effect on the site recovery after fire. Moreover, significant site variation was generally seen in soil enzyme activities and microbiological parameters. We conclude that total vegetation restoration normalises microbial parameters, and that wildfire and post-fire silvicultural treatments are not significant factors of soil properties after 17 years.

  8. Soil microbiological properties and enzymatic activities of long-term post-fire recovery in dry and semiarid Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis M.) forest stands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedo, J.; Lucas-Borja, M. E.; Wic, C.; Andrés-Abellán, M.; de Las Heras, J.

    2015-02-01

    Wildfires affecting forest ecosystems and post-fire silvicultural treatments may cause considerable changes in soil properties. The capacity of different microbial groups to recolonise soil after disturbances is crucial for proper soil functioning. The aim of this work was to investigate some microbial soil properties and enzyme activities in semiarid and dry Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis M.) forest stands. Different plots affected by a wildfire event 17 years ago without or with post-fire silvicultural treatments 5 years after the fire event were selected. A mature Aleppo pine stand, unaffected by wildfire and not thinned was used as a control. Physicochemical soil properties (soil texture, pH, carbonates, organic matter, electrical conductivity, total N and P), soil enzymes (urease, phosphatase, β-glucosidase and dehydrogenase activities), soil respiration and soil microbial biomass carbon were analysed in the selected forests areas and plots. The main finding was that long time after this fire event produces no differences in the microbiological soil properties and enzyme activities of soil after comparing burned and thinned, burned and not thinned, and mature plots. Moreover, significant site variation was generally seen in soil enzyme activities and microbiological parameters. We conclude that total vegetation recovery normalises post-fire soil microbial parameters, and that wildfire and post-fire silvicultural treatments are not significant factors affecting soil properties after 17 years.

  9. Multiple-response optimization of the acidic treatment of the brown alga Ecklonia radiata for the sequential extraction of fucoidan and alginate.

    PubMed

    Lorbeer, Andrew John; Lahnstein, Jelle; Bulone, Vincent; Nguyen, Trung; Zhang, Wei

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to optimize the acidic treatment of the brown alga Ecklonia radiata in order to extract fucoidan and facilitate the efficient sequential extraction of alginates. Response surface methodology was used to determine the effects of the temperature, pH, and duration of the acidic treatment on fucoidan yield, alginate extractability, and the molecular weight of sequentially extracted alginates. Desirability functions were then used to predict the best overall combinations of responses. The most desirable compromise allowed for the recovery of a fucoidan-rich fraction with a yield of 3.75% (w/w of alga) and the sequential extraction of alginates having an average molecular weight of 730kDa at a yield of 44% (w/w of alga), with low cross-contamination between the products. The optimized acidic treatment could form the basis of an industrial biorefinery process for the production of both fucoidan and alginate. PMID:26342343

  10. Studies on the management of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita-wilt fungus, Fusarium oxysporum disease complex of green gram, Vigna radiata cv ML-1108

    PubMed Central

    Haseeb, Akhtar; Sharma, Anita; Shukla, Prabhat Kuma

    2005-01-01

    Studies were conducted under pot conditions to determine the comparative efficacy of carbofuran at 1 mg a.i./kg soil, bavistin at 1 mg a.i./kg soil, neem (Azadirachta indica) seed powder at 50 mg/kg soil, green mould (Trichoderma harzianum) at 50.0 ml/kg soil, rhizobacteria (Pseudomonas fluorescens) at 50.0 ml/kg soil against root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita–wilt fungus, Fusarium oxysporum disease complex on green gram, Vigna radiata cv ML-1108. All the treatments significantly improved the growth of the plants as compared to untreated inoculated plants. Analysis of data showed that carbofuran and A. indica seed powder increased plant growth and yield significantly more in comparison to bavistin and P. fluorescens. Carbofuran was highly effective against nematode, bavistin against fungus, A. indica seed powder against both the pathogens and both the bioagents were moderately effective against both the pathogens. PMID:16052706

  11. Effect of soaking and fermentation on content of phenolic compounds of soybean (Glycine max cv. Merit) and mung beans (Vigna radiata [L] Wilczek).

    PubMed

    María Landete, José; Hernández, Teresa; Robredo, Sergio; Dueñas, Montserrat; de Las Rivas, Blanca; Estrella, Isabel; Muñoz, Rosario

    2015-03-01

    Mung beans (Vigna radiata [L] Wilczek) purchased from a Spanish company as "green soybeans", showed a different phenolic composition than yellow soybeans (Glycine max cv. Merit). Isoflavones were predominant in yellow soybeans, whereas they were completely absent in the green seeds on which flavanones were predominant. In order to enhance their health benefits, both types of bean were subjected to technological processes, such as soaking and fermentation. Soaking increased malonyl glucoside isoflavone extraction in yellow beans and produced an increase in apigenin derivatives in the green beans. Lactobacillus plantarum CECT 748 T fermentation produced an increase in the bioactivity of both beans since a conversion of glycosylated isoflavones into bioactive aglycones and an increase of the bioactive vitexin was observed in yellow and green beans, respectively. In spite of potential consumer confusion, since soybean and "green soybean" are different legumes, the health benefits of both beans were enhanced by lactic fermentation. PMID:25582183

  12. Metal accumulation and growth response in Vigna radiata L. inoculated with chromate tolerant rhizobacteria and grown on tannery sludge amended soil.

    PubMed

    Singh, N K; Rai, U N; Tewari, A; Singh, M

    2010-01-01

    The effects of inoculation of four chromate tolerant rhizobacterial strains previously isolated from rhizosphere of plants from chromium contaminated area in mung plant Vigna radiata grown on tannery sludge amended soil were evaluated. An increase of 138%, 88%, 256% and 54.14% in root length, shoot length, biomass and total chlorophyll, respectively was observed after 60 days of treatments by consortium. Similarly, a significant enhancement in Fe, Mn, Zn, Ni, Pb, Cr, Cu and Cd accumulation was observed in consortium inoculated plants as compared to non-inoculated plants. Results showed that rhizobacterial strain helps in ameliorating metal induced phytotoxicity, acquiring higher biomass and metal uptake in the plant may be useful in decontamination of metal from polluted soil. PMID:19784534

  13. 7 CFR 51.2651 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades for Sweet Cherries 1 Definitions § 51.2651 Mature. Mature means that the cherries have reached the stage of growth which will insure the...

  14. Young Children's Social Maturity and Their Drawings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Norejane J.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    The relationship between preschool children's level of social maturity and their drawing expressions was tested; findings stregthened the contention that the drawings of preschoolers are not appropriate indicators of their social maturity. (SDH)

  15. Induction of Bulb Maturity of Ornithogalum Thyrsoides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of bulb maturity at bulb harvest on growth and flowering response of Ornithogalum thyrsoides Jacq. ‘Chesapeake Starlight’ was investigated. Experiments were designed to determine if bulb maturity can be induced by bulb storage temperatures and whether bulb maturity can be evaluated by...

  16. Measured differences in snow accumulation and melt among clearcut, juvenile, and mature forests in southern British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, R. D.; Spittlehouse, D. L.; Golding, D. L.

    2005-01-01

    Quantification of the relationships between snow and forest cover, including its removal through logging, insects or disease and its regrowth, is a prerequisite to assessing the effects of forestry practices on streamflow from montane and boreal forest watersheds. Over a 3 year period, a juvenile and a juvenile-thinned lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) stand, a mature mixed Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii Parry), subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt) and lodgepole pine stand, and a clearcut were intensively surveyed to quantify differences in snow water equivalent (SWE). Daily snowmelt, weather conditions, and the energy balance were measured during the first year of this study. The 1 April SWE was 32% and 14% less under the mature and juvenile forests respectively than in the clearcut. No significant differences in peak SWE were measured between the juvenile and juvenile-thinned stands. Continuous snowmelt lysimeter measurements showed that snowmelt began earlier, accumulated more rapidly, and disappeared 2 to 4 days earlier in the juvenile-thinned stand than in either the unthinned juvenile stand or the clearcut. When the snowpack had disappeared from the clearcut and juvenile stands, 30% of the SWE on 1 April remained in the mature forest. The results not only show that snow accumulation and melt differ significantly between clearcut, juvenile, and mature stands, but also that snowmelt patterns vary among juvenile stands with distinct structural differences. This is due to the difference in the energy balances, dominated by radiant heat fluxes, of the four sites. Copyright

  17. Galactoglucomannan Oligosaccharides (GGMO) from a Molasses Byproduct of Pine (Pinus taeda) Fiberboard Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    “Temulose” is the trade name for a water-soluble molasses produced on a large scale (300 - 400 tonnes per year) as a byproduct of the fiberboard industry. The feedstock for temulose is predominantly a single species of pine (Pinus taeda) grown and harvested in stands in southeastern Texas. Because...

  18. CO2 AND O3 ALTER PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND WATER VAPOR EXCHANGE FOR PINUS PONDEROSA NEEDLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    1. Effects of CO2 and O3 were determined for a key component of ecosystem carbon and water cycling: needle gas exchange (photosynthesis, conductance, transpiration and water use efficiency). The measurements were made on Pinus ponderosa seedlings grown in outdoor, sunlit, mesoc...

  19. Multi-Season Monoterpene and Sesquiterpene Analysis of Pinus taeda Needle Tissue

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pinus taeda (Loblolly pine) is one of the worlds most important timber crop and accounts for a significant portion of the southeastern U.S. landcover. Biogenic voltile organic compound (BVOC) content was extracted from the tissue material of P. taeda needles and analyzed over a m...

  20. CARBON ISOTOPE DISCRIMINATION AND GROWTH RESPONSE OF OLD PINUS PONDEROSA TREES TO STAND DENSITY REDUCTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stand density reductions have been proposed as a method by which old-growth ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests of North America can be converted back to pre-1900 conditions, thereby reducing the danger of catastrophic forest fires and insect attacks while increasing product...

  1. EFFECTS OF CARBON DIOXIDE AND OZONE ON GROWTH AND BIOMASS ALLOCATION IN PINUS PONDEROSA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The future productivity of forests will be affected by combinations of elevated atmospheric CO2 and O3. Because productivity of forests will, in part, be determined by growth of young trees, we evaluated shoot growth and biomass responses of Pinus ponderosa seedlings exposed to ...

  2. Geographic patterns of genetic variation and population structure in Pinus aristata, Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pinus aristata Engelm., Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine, has a narrow core geographic and elevational distribution, occurs in disjunct populations and is threatened by multiple stresses, including rapid climate change, white pine blister rust, and bark beetles. Knowledge of genetic diversity and pop...

  3. Mitochondrial DNA capture and divergence in Pinus provide new insights into the evolution of the genus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Baosheng; Wang, Xiao-Ru

    2014-11-01

    The evolution of the mitochondrial (mt) genome is far from being fully understood. Systematic investigations into the modes of inheritance, rates and patterns of recombination, nucleotide substitution, and structural changes in the mt genome are still lacking in many groups of plants. In this study, we sequenced >11kbp mtDNA segments from multiple accessions of 36 pine species to characterize the evolutionary patterns of mtDNA in the genus Pinus. We found extremely low substitution rates and complex repetitive sequences scattered across different genome regions, as well as chimeric structures that were probably generated by multiple intergenomic recombinations. The mtDNA-based phylogeny of the genus differed from that based on chloroplast and nuclear DNA in the placement of several groups of species. Such discordances suggest a series of mtDNA capture events during past range shifts of the pine species and that both vertical and horizontal inheritance are implicated in the evolution of mtDNA in Pinus. MtDNA dating revealed that most extant lineages of the genus originated during Oligocene-Miocene radiation and subgenus Strobus diversified earlier than subgenus Pinus. Our findings illustrate a reticular evolutionary pathway for the mt genome through capture and recombination in the genus Pinus, and provide new insights into the evolution of the genus. PMID:25106134

  4. ECTOMYCORRHIZAL DIVERSITY IN A LOBLOLLY PINE (PINUS TAEDA L.) GENETICS PLANTATION: INFLUENCE OF FERTILIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) Has co-evolved a high dependency on ectomycorrhizal (ECM) associations most likely because its natural range includes soils of varying moisture that are P- and/or N-deficient. Because of its wide geographic distrubition, we would expect its roots t...

  5. LEAF AREA INDEX (LAI) CHANGE DETECTION ANALYSIS ON LOBLOLLY PINE (PINUS TAEDA) FOLLOWING COMPLETE UNDERSTORY REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The confounding effect of understory vegetation contributions to satellite-derived estimates of leaf area index (LAI) was investigated on two loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) forest stands located in Virginia and North Carolina. In order to separate NDVI contributions of the dominantc...

  6. Galactoglucomannan Oligosaccharides (GGMO) from a Molasses Byproduct of Pine (Pinus taeda) Fiberboard Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    "Temulose" is the trade name for a water-soluble molasses produced on a large scale (300 - 400 tonnes per year) as a byproduct of the fiberboard industry. The feedstock for temulose is predominantly a single species of pine (Pinus taeda) grown and harvested in stands in south-eastern Texas. Becaus...

  7. WATER-USE ALONG A HYDROLOGICAL GRADIENT IN CENTRAL FLORIDA: A TALE OF TWO PINUS SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although central Florida is relatively flat, the distribution of species on the landscape is controlled by subtle changes in elevation. Along a four-meter elevation gradient, xeric sandhill vegetation dominated by Pinus palustris (Longleaf pine) gives way to mesic pine flatwoods...

  8. Living on the Edge: Contrasted Wood-Formation Dynamics in Fagus sylvatica and Pinus sylvestris under Mediterranean Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Martinez del Castillo, Edurne; Longares, Luis A.; Gričar, Jožica; Prislan, Peter; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio; Čufar, Katarina; de Luis, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Wood formation in European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) was intra-annually monitored to examine plastic responses of the xylem phenology according to altitude in one of the southernmost areas of their distribution range, i.e., in the Moncayo Natural Park, Spain. The monitoring was done from 2011 to 2013 at 1180 and 1580 m a.s.l., corresponding to the lower and upper limits of European beech forest in this region. Microcores containing phloem, cambium and xylem were collected biweekly from twenty-four trees from the beginning of March to the end of November to assess the different phases of wood formation. The samples were prepared for light microscopy to observe the following phenological phases: onset and end of cell production, onset and end of secondary wall formation in xylem cells and onset of cell maturation. The temporal dynamics of wood formation widely differed among years, altitudes and tree species. For Fagus sylvatica, the onset of cambial activity varied between the first week of May and the third week of June. Cambial activity then slowed down and stopped in summer, resulting in a length of growing season of 48–75 days. In contrast, the growing season for P. sylvestris started earlier and cambium remained active in autumn, leading to a period of activity varying from 139-170 days. The intra-annual wood-formation pattern is site and species-specific. Comparison with other studies shows a clear latitudinal trend in the duration of wood formation, positive for Fagus sylvatica and negative for P. sylvestris. PMID:27047534

  9. Sexual maturation of female Saguinus oedipus oedipus

    SciTech Connect

    Tardif, S.D.

    1982-01-01

    This study is an examination of the process of female sexual maturation in the cotton-top tamarin, Saguinus oedipus oedipus, a South-American primate of the family, Callitrichidae. Two types of questions are addressed. The first question is whether the type of social grouping in which a young female lives affects the rate of her sexual maturation. Specifically, is there a difference between the maturation rate of a female housed with a strange adult male and a female housed with her natal group (i.e., her parents and various siblings). Second, the effect of sexual maturation on various social interactions is examined. Specifically are male-female interactions in mated pairs and mother-daughter interactions in natal groups changed by the sexual maturation of the young females. The mother's presence was not related to the daughter's maturation age. However, whether the natal group, as a whole, inhibited maturation, or unrelated males accelerated maturation, or both, remains unknown. Most of the behavioral interactions involving maturing females were unchanged by maturation. There was some indication that certain behaviors were affected by maturation, but only if a strange unrelated male was present.

  10. Responses of mature loblolly pine trees to elevated CO[sub 2] concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Lie, S.; Teskey, R.O. )

    1993-06-01

    The direct responses of mature loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) foliage to increasing atmospheric CO[sub 2] were investigated in six 18-year-old loblolly pine trees using the branch-chamber technique. On each tree, six main branches were randomly selected and each enclosed in one of six chambers. Each branch received one of the following six treatments: ambient CO[sub 2]/ambient temperature (1), 1.5 x ambient CO[sub 2] ambient temperature (2), 2.0 x ambient CO[sub 2]/ambient temperature (3), ambient CO[sub 2]/2.0[degrees]C + ambient temperature (4), 1.5 x ambient CO[sub 2]/2.0[degree]C + ambient temperature (5) and 2.0 x ambient CO[sub 2]/2.0[degree]C + ambient temperature (6). A/C, curves were run and P- (photosynthetic rate at saturating light) of the current year, first flush needles was measured at each respective treatment CO[sub 2] level for treatments 1, 2 and 3 using the Li-cor 6200 photosynthesis system. Both elevated CO[sub 2] concentrations significantly increased the photosynthesis of the foliage of the mature loblolly pine trees. However, comparison of the slopes of the initial linear part of the A/C[sub 1], curves suggested no reduction in the rubisco carboxylation activity. Additionally, there was no indication of photosynthetic acclimation to elevated CO[sub 2].

  11. Pain perception development and maturation.

    PubMed

    Simons, Sinno H P; Tibboel, Dick

    2006-08-01

    Newborn infants are not small adults. The pharmacokinetics and dynamics of analgesic drugs are immature at birth. Volumes of distribution, drug clearances, side-effects and drug efficacy all differ in newborns as compared to adults. Interestingly, these parameters develop before birth and during the postnatal period, reaching adult values after a period of months or years. This means that clinicians should anticipate on pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) changes in newborns with increasing post-conceptual age. The ability to perceive pain might also be immature at birth. Lower pain thresholds due to the absence of inhibitory descending spinothalamic fibers and a not yet fully developed cortical pain memory system are points of interest for our understanding of differences in pain perception in the newborn infant. Although this is a relatively unexplored area of research in humans, we will discuss the maturation and development of neonatal pain experience and perception in this paper. PMID:16621747

  12. Maturation of the MOUTh Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Jablonski-Jaudon, Rita A.; Kolanowski, Ann M.; Winstead, Vicki; Jones-Townsend, Corteza; Azuero, Andres

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current article is to describe a personalized practice originally conceived as a way to prevent and minimize care-resistant behavior to provide mouth care to older adult with dementia. The original intervention, Managing Oral Hygiene Using Threat Reduction Strategies (MOUTh), matured during the clinical trial study into a relationship-centered intervention with emphasis on developing strategies that support residents behavioral health and staff involved in care. Relationships that were initially pragmatic (i.e., focused on the task of completing mouth care) developed into more personal and responsive relationships that involved deeper engagement between mouth care providers and nursing home (NH) residents. Mouth care was accomplished and completed in a manner enjoyable to NH residents and mouth care providers. The MOUTh intervention may also concurrently affirm the dignity and personhood of the care recipient because of its emphasis on connecting with older adults. PMID:26934969

  13. Changes in homologous and heterologous gap junction contacts during maturation-inducing hormone-dependent meiotic resumption in ovarian follicles of Atlantic croaker

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bolamba, D.; Patino, R.; Yoshizaki, G.; Thomas, P.

    2003-01-01

    Homologous (granulosa cell-granulosa cell) gap junction (GJ) contacts increase in ovarian follicles of Atlantic croaker (Micropogonias undulatus) during the early (first) stage of maturation, but their profile during the second stage [i.e., during maturation-inducing hormone (MIH)-mediated meiotic resumption] is unknown. The profile of homologous GJ contacts during the second stage of maturation in croaker follicles was examined in this study and compared to that of heterologous (granulosa cell-oocyte) GJ, for which changes have been previously documented. Follicles were incubated with human chorionic gonadotropin to induce maturational competence (first stage), and then with MIH to induce meiotic resumption. The follicles were collected for examination immediately before and after different durations of MIH exposure until the oocyte had reached the stage of germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD; index of meiotic resumption). Ultrathin sections were observed by transmission electron microscopy, and homologous and heterologous GJ contacts were quantified along a 100-??m segment of granulosa cell-zona radiata complex per follicle (three follicles/time/fish, n=3 fish). Relatively high numbers of both types of GJ were observed before and after the first few hours of MIH exposure (up to the stage of oil droplet coalescence). GJ numbers declined during partial yolk globule coalescence (at or near GVBD) and were just under 50% of starting values after the completion of GVBD (P<0.05). These results confirm earlier observations that GVBD temporally correlates with declining heterologous GJ contacts, and for the first time in teleosts show that there is a parallel decline in homologous GJ. The significance of the changes in homologous and heterologous GJ is uncertain and deserves further study. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  14. Optimizing IV and V for Mature Organizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuhman, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    NASA is intending for its future software development agencies to have at least a Level 3 rating in the Carnegie Mellon University Capability Maturity Model (CMM). The CMM has built-in Verification and Validation (V&V) processes that support higher software quality. Independent Verification and Validation (IV&V) of software developed by mature agencies can be therefore more effective than for software developed by less mature organizations. How is Independent V&V different with respect to the maturity of an organization? Knowing a priori the maturity of an organization's processes, how can IV&V planners better identify areas of need choose IV&V activities, etc? The objective of this research is to provide a complementary set of guidelines and criteria to assist the planning of IV&V activities on a project using a priori knowledge of the measurable levels of maturity of the organization developing the software.

  15. Carbohydrate translocation and branch autonomy of Pinus ponderosa

    SciTech Connect

    Houpis, J.L.J.; Benes, S.E.

    1989-03-01

    We are testing the degree of mature branch autonomy in P. ponderosa using {sup 14}CO{sub 2}. Determination of the level of branch autonomy involves four elements that are based on pulsing one branchlet with {sup 14}CO{sub 2}: (1) determine if the canopy position of a branch in the canopy, of which one branchlet is pulsed with {sup 14}CO{sub 2}, affects the amount of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} found in other types of tissue (stems, needles, buds) located on the same branch; (2) determine if the position (apical or lateral) of a branchlet that is pulsed with {sup 14}CO{sub 2}, affects the amount of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} found in other tissue across different branchlets located on the same branch; (3) determine if the position of a branchlet in relation to the pulsed branchlet affect the amount of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} that is traced into the target branchlet; and (4) determine if the length of time between pulsing and sampling of trace tissue affects the detection of {sup 14}CO{sub 2}. 2 refs.

  16. Maturation feeding and transmission of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Nematoda: Parasitaphelenchidae) by Monochamus alternatus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) inoculated with Beauveria bassiana (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes).

    PubMed

    Maehara, Noritoshi; He, Xueyou; Shimazu, Mitsuaki

    2007-02-01

    We examined the amount of maturation feeding and transmission of pinewood nematodes, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner et Buhrer) Nickle (Nematoda: Parasitaphelenchidae), to healthy pine (Pinus spp.) trees by pine sawyer Monochamus alternatus Hope (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) adults infected with Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuill. (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes). Inoculated beetles fed less than noninoculated beetles, probably because feeding by inoculated beetles began to decrease at about 4 d postinoculation and inoculated beetles ceased to feed for several days before their death. In inoculated beetles carrying >1,000 nematodes, some beetles died before nematode departure. The remaining heavily nematode-infested beetles lived until the beginning of nematode departure, but they had stopped feeding, preventing the nematodes from entering pine twigs. We suggest that microbial control of pine sawyer adults by B. bassiana may be effective in preventing transmission of pine wilt disease to healthy pine trees. PMID:17370808

  17. Photosynthetic acclimation to enriched CO{sub 2} concentrations in Pinus Ponderosa

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, M.P.

    1995-11-01

    By the middle of the 21st century earth`s ambient CO{sub 2} level is expected to increase two-fold ({approximately}350 umol/L). Higher levels of CO{sub 2} are expected to cause major changes in the morphological, physiological, and biochemical traits of the world`s vegetation. Therefore, we constructed an experiment designed to measure the long-term acclimation processes of Pinus Ponderosa. As a prominent forest conifer, Pinus Ponderosa is useful when assessing a large scale global carbon budget. Eighteen genetically variable families were exposed to 3 different levels of CO{sub 2} (350 umol/L, 525 umol/L, 700 umol/L), for three years. Acclimation responses were quantified by assays of photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll fluorescence, and chlorophyll pigment concentrations.

  18. Volatiles as Chemosystematic Markers for Distinguishing Closely Related Species within the Pinus mugo Complex.

    PubMed

    Celiński, Konrad; Bonikowski, Radosław; Wojnicka-Półtorak, Aleksandra; Chudzińska, Ewa; Maliński, Tomasz

    2015-08-01

    Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled to GC/MS analysis was used to identify the constituents of pine-needle volatiles differentiating three closely-related pine species within the Pinus mugo complex, i.e., P. uncinata Ramond ex DC., P. uliginosa G.E.Neumann ex Wimm., and P. mugo Turra. Moreover, chemosystematic markers were proposed for the three analyzed pine species. The major constituents of the pine-needle volatiles were α-pinene (28.4%) and bornyl acetate (10.8%) for P. uncinata, δ-car-3-ene (21.5%) and α-pinene (16.1%) for P. uliginosa, and α-pinene (20%) and δ-car-3-ene (18.1%) for P. mugo. This study is the first report on the application of the composition of pine-needle volatiles for the reliable identification of closely-related pine species within the Pinus mugo complex. PMID:26265572

  19. Voltammetric analysis of Pinus needles with physiological, phylogenetic, and forensic applications.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Miranda, Annette S; König, Peter; Kahlert, Heike; Scholz, Fritz; Osete-Cortina, Laura; Doménech-Carbó, María Teresa; Doménech-Carbó, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    Polyphenolic compounds are electrochemically active components of vegetal matter which were targeted under simple experimental conditions to produce voltammetric profiles characterizing the metabolite composition. Application to bivariate and multivariate chemometric techniques permits to discriminate the species and age of plant leaves, illustrated here for the case of six Pinus species from two different subgenera. Such responses, associated with the electrochemical oxidation of polyphenolic compounds (quercetin, gallic acid, ellagic acid, among others), define a voltammetric profile which varies systematically with the age of the leaves for the different species. The application of this methodology for phylogenetic studies, plant physiology, forensic science, and chemoecology is discussed. Graphical Abstract Image of Pinus in a typical Mediterranean forest; Courtesy of the Botanic Garden of the University of Valencia. PMID:27173392

  20. Occurrence of cyclic AMP and related enzymes during germination of Pinus pinea seeds.

    PubMed

    Martelli, P; Lusini, P; Bovalini, L; Bartali, R; Franchi, G G; Cinci, G

    1987-01-01

    The occurrence of cAMP, adenylate cyclase and cAMP phosphodiesterase has been tested in Pinus pinea seed during germination. The study has been carried out on dormant and imbibed seeds, seedlings, endospermic residues, roots and cotyledons. cAMP has been detected by the protein binding method and its occurrence has been verified by HPLC detections. cAMP phosphodiesterase shows a very high activity at acidic pH, while being completely inactive at pH 7.4. At this pH value, well detectable levels of adenylate cyclase have been observed. Therefore, the classical pathway of synthesis and breakdown of cAMP, already accepted for animal and bacterial cells, seems to be operating in Pinus pinea plant too. PMID:3038780

  1. Effect of Pinus massoniana Lamb. bark extract on lytic cycle of Epstein-Barr virus.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shuxia; Zhang, Shimin; Wang, Xuedong; Gao, Yaqian; Qin, Xing; Wu, Kun

    2012-10-01

    Pinus massoniana bark extract (PMBE) at a concentration of 60 microg/mL or more inhibits the expression of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) lytic proteins, such as Rta, Zta, and EA-D. EBV lytic cycle was blocked by inhibiting the transcription of immediate-early genes. The results suggest that the PMBE has anti-EBV activity. Thus, the extract is potentially useful in preventing the lytic development of EBV in vitro. PMID:23214264

  2. Motivational maturity and helping behavior.

    PubMed

    Haymes, M; Green, L

    1977-12-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the independent influences of conative development (the Maslow needs hierarchy) upon behavioral aspects of prosocial orientations. It provides a behavioral demonstration of conative effects in a helping paradigm, among college-age men. A comparison of the conative data across the ages of 15-22 provided a cross-sectional view of conative development itself. Conative maturity was found to be predictive of greater helping among college-age men. Situational demands were demonstrated which tended to mask, but not override, these predispositional influences on helping. The cross-sectional data on conative development point to probable movement to early esteem concerns among high school men who have reached the conative level of love and belonging. On the other hand, the stability across the years of 15-22 of proportion of safety concerns suggests fixation of such concerns in those exhibiting them in high school. Results are discussed in terms of conative growth for development of prosocial orientations. PMID:24408562

  3. Smart Grid Interoperability Maturity Model

    SciTech Connect

    Widergren, Steven E.; Levinson, Alex; Mater, J.; Drummond, R.

    2010-04-28

    The integration of automation associated with electricity resources (including transmission and distribution automation and demand-side resources operated by end-users) is key to supporting greater efficiencies and incorporating variable renewable resources and electric vehicles into the power system. The integration problems faced by this community are analogous to those faced in the health industry, emergency services, and other complex communities with many stakeholders. To highlight this issue and encourage communication and the development of a smart grid interoperability community, the GridWise Architecture Council (GWAC) created an Interoperability Context-Setting Framework. This "conceptual model" has been helpful to explain the importance of organizational alignment in addition to technical and informational interface specifications for "smart grid" devices and systems. As a next step to building a community sensitive to interoperability, the GWAC is investigating an interoperability maturity model (IMM) based on work done by others to address similar circumstances. The objective is to create a tool or set of tools that encourages a culture of interoperability in this emerging community. The tools would measure status and progress, analyze gaps, and prioritize efforts to improve the situation.

  4. Ectomycorrhizae influences on CO/sub 2/ exchange and carbon allocation in Pinus

    SciTech Connect

    Kidd, F.A.

    1983-01-01

    Although the importance of mycorrhizal fungi in nutrient ion absorption is relatively well documented, little is known concerning the energy cost required of the host plant for the maintenance of the nurient-absorbing area provided by the mycorrhizae. The objective of this research was to gain further knowledge on how the basic physiological processes of photosynthesis and respiration, as well as allocation of carbon compounds, may be stimulated in host Pinus seedlings through source-sink relationships resulting from mycorrhizae. Seedlings of four Pinus species with 50-75% short root infection by three mycorrhizae species had a rate of net photosynthesis 3X as great as that of noninfected plants. The increase in CO/sub 2/ fixation appeared linear with respect to fungal infection as percentage short root infection increased from zero to 75%. When other parameters of seedling growth and morphology, i.e. shoot and root dry weight, dark respiration rates, and foliar concentration of nitrogen, were correlated with net photosynthetic rate, only mycorrhizae infection demonstrated a statistically significant (P < 0.05) influence on increasing host CO/sub 2/ exchange. Partitioning of current photosynthate was examined by pulse-labeling Pinus taeda L. with /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ at each of six time intervals. Although the stimulation of photosynthesis and allocation of current photosynthate to the root system by mycorrhizae formation was consistent with the source-sink concept of sink demand, foliar N and P concentrations were also greater in mycorrhizal plants.

  5. Dissipation of excess excitation energy of the needle leaves in Pinus trees during cold winters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, AO; Cui, Zhen-Hai; Yu, Jia-Lin; Hu, Zi-Ling; Ding, Rui; Ren, Da-Ming; Zhang, Li-Jun

    2016-05-01

    Photooxidative damage to the needle leaves of evergreen trees results from the absorption of excess excitation energy. Efficient dissipation of this energy is essential to prevent photodamage. In this study, we determined the fluorescence transients, absorption spectra, chlorophyll contents, chlorophyll a/b ratios, and relative membrane permeabilities of needle leaves of Pinus koraiensis, Pinus tabulaeformis, and Pinus armandi in both cold winter and summer. We observed a dramatic decrease in the maximum fluorescence (F m) and substantial absorption of light energy in winter leaves of all three species. The F m decline was not correlated with a decrease in light absorption or with changes in chlorophyll content and chlorophyll a/b ratio. The results suggested that the winter leaves dissipated a large amount of excess energy as heat. Because the cold winter leaves had lost normal physiological function, the heat dissipation depended solely on changes in the photosystem II supercomplex rather than the xanthophyll cycle. These findings imply that more attention should be paid to heat dissipation via changes in the photosystem complex structure during the growing season.

  6. Chloroplast evolution in the Pinus montezumae complex: a coalescent approach to hybridization.

    PubMed

    Matos, J A; Schaal, B A

    2000-08-01

    This study addresses the evolutionary history of the chloroplast genomes of two closely related pine species, Pinus hartwegii Lindl. and P. montezumae Lamb (subsect. Ponderosae) using coalescent theory and some of the statistical tools that have been developed from it during the past two decades. Pinus hartwegii and P. montezumae are closely related species in the P. montezumae complex (subsect. Ponderosae) of Mexico and Central America. Pinus hartwegii is a high elevation species, whereas P. montezumae occurs at lower elevations. The two species occur on many of the same mountains throughout Mexico. A total of 350 individuals of P. hartwegii and P. montezumae were collected from Nevado de Colima (Jalisco), Cerro Potosí (Nuevo León), Iztaccihuatl/Popocatepetl (México), and Nevado de Toluca (México). The chloroplast genome of P. hartwegii and P. montezumae was mapped using eight restriction enzymes. Fifty-one different haplotypes were characterized; 38 of 160 restriction sites were polymorphic. Clades of most parsimoniously related chloroplast haplotypes are geographically localized and do not overlap in distribution, and the geographically localized clades of haplotypes include both P. hartwegii and P. montezumae. Some haplotypes in the clades occur in only one of the two species, whereas other haplotypes occur in both species. These data strongly suggest ancient and/or ongoing hybridization between P. hartwegii and P. montezumae and a shared chloroplast genome history within geographic regions of Mexico. PMID:11005290

  7. [Major features of decline of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica plantation on sandy land].

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiangyun; Jiang, Fengqi; Li, Xiaodan; Xue, Yang; Qiu, Sufen

    2004-12-01

    In view of the decline of man-made sand-fixation forest of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica in Zhanggutai sand land of Liaoning Province, this paper studied the major characteristics of the decline. The appearance of the declining man-made sand-fixation forest of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica was grey green, its needle leaf was very thin, the blooming and fruiting rate was low, the average quantity of cones per tree was only 10.4-16.5, with only 6.96 g to 7.39 g per thousand seeds, and there were many empty and astringent seeds. The seasonal dynamics of nutrients in 2-year-old pine needle leaf was similar, i.e., the N and P contents decreased, while K content increased, showing that the nutrient cycle was imbalance. The chlorophyll content in 2-year-old needle leaf of declined forest was high, while that in 1-year-old healthy forest was also high but with a wide increasing range. The infected harm of shoot blight was the clearest mark to the decline of man-made sand-fixation forest of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica. After the forest declined, the height and the DBH of the pine trees decreased evidently, and the structure of DBH distribution moved "left". The quantity of weak pine trees increased by 15.9%-27.2%, the roots decreased by 22.9%-28.9%, and the absorbing roots (diameter < 0.5 cm) decreased most seriously. PMID:15825430

  8. Polyamines Confer Salt Tolerance in Mung Bean (Vigna radiata L.) by Reducing Sodium Uptake, Improving Nutrient Homeostasis, Antioxidant Defense, and Methylglyoxal Detoxification Systems

    PubMed Central

    Nahar, Kamrun; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Rahman, Anisur; Alam, Md. Mahabub; Mahmud, Jubayer-Al; Suzuki, Toshisada; Fujita, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    The physiological roles of PAs (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) were investigated for their ability to confer salt tolerance (200 mM NaCl, 48 h) in mung bean seedlings (Vigna radiata L. cv. BARI Mung-2). Salt stress resulted in Na toxicity, decreased K, Ca, Mg, and Zn contents in roots and shoots, and disrupted antioxidant defense system which caused oxidative damage as indicated by increased lipid peroxidation, H2O2 content, O2•- generation rate, and lipoxygenase activity. Salinity-induced methylglyoxal (MG) toxicity was also clearly evident. Salinity decreased leaf chlorophyll (chl) and relative water content (RWC). Supplementation of salt affected seedlings with exogenous PAs enhanced the contents of glutathione and ascorbate, increased activities of antioxidant enzymes (dehydroascorbate reductase, glutathione reductase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase) and glyoxalase enzyme (glyoxalase II), which reduced salt-induced oxidative stress and MG toxicity, respectively. Exogenous PAs reduced cellular Na content and maintained nutrient homeostasis and modulated endogenous PAs levels in salt affected mung bean seedlings. The overall salt tolerance was reflected through improved tissue water and chl content, and better seedling growth. PMID:27516763

  9. Exogenous Spermidine Alleviates Low Temperature Injury in Mung Bean (Vigna radiata L.) Seedlings by Modulating Ascorbate-Glutathione and Glyoxalase Pathway.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Kamrun; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Alam, Md Mahabub; Fujita, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    The role of exogenous spermidine (Spd) in alleviating low temperature (LT) stress in mung bean (Vigna radiata L. cv. BARI Mung-3) seedlings has been investigated. Low temperature stress modulated the non-enzymatic and enzymatic components of ascorbate-glutathione (AsA-GSH) cycle, increased H₂O₂ content and lipid peroxidation, which indicate oxidative damage of seedlings. Low temperature reduced the leaf relative water content (RWC) and destroyed leaf chlorophyll, which inhibited seedlings growth. Exogenous pretreatment of Spd in LT-affected seedlings significantly increased the contents of non-enzymatic antioxidants of AsA-GSH cycle, which include AsA and GSH. Exogenous Spd decreased dehydroascorbate (DHA), increased AsA/DHA ratio, decreased glutathione disulfide (GSSG) and increased GSH/GSSG ratio under LT stress. Activities of AsA-GSH cycle enzymes such as ascorbate peroxidase (APX), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) and glutathione reductase (GR) increased after Spd pretreatment in LT affected seedlings. Thus, the oxidative stress was reduced. Protective effects of Spd are also reflected from reduction of methylglyoxal (MG) toxicity by improving glyoxalase cycle components, and by maintaining osmoregulation, water status and improved seedlings growth. The present study reveals the vital roles of AsA-GSH and glyoxalase cycle in alleviating LT injury. PMID:26694373

  10. Detection of quantitative trait loci for mungbean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV) resistance in mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) in India and Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Kitsanachandee, Ratanakorn; Somta, Prakit; Chatchawankanphanich, Orawan; Akhtar, Khalid P.; Shah, Tariq Mahmud; Nair, Ramakrishnan M.; Bains, Tejinderjit S.; Sirari, Asmita; Kaur, Livinder; Srinives, Peerasak

    2013-01-01

    Yellow mosaic disease (YMD) is one of the major diseases affecting mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek). In this study, we report the mapping of the quantitative trait locus (QTL) for mungbean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV) resistance in mungbean. An F8 recombinant inbred line (RIL) mapping population was generated in Thailand from a cross between NM10-12-1 (MYMIV resistance) and KPS2 (MYMIV susceptible). One hundred and twenty-two RILs and their parents were evaluated for MYMIV resistance in infested fields in India and Pakistan. A genetic linkage map was developed for the RIL population using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Composite interval mapping identified five QTLs for MYMIV resistance: three QTLs for India (qYMIV1, qYMIV2 and qYMIV3) and two QTLs for Pakistan (qYMIV4 and qYMIV5). qYMIV1, qYMIV2, qYMIV3, qYMIV4 and qYMIV5 explained 9.33%, 10.61%, 12.55%, 21.93% and 6.24% of variation in disease responses, respectively. qYMIV1 and qYMIV4 appeared to be the same locus and were common to a major QTL for MYMIV resistance in India identified previously using a different resistant mungbean. PMID:24399908

  11. Exogenous Spermidine Alleviates Low Temperature Injury in Mung Bean (Vigna radiata L.) Seedlings by Modulating Ascorbate-Glutathione and Glyoxalase Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Nahar, Kamrun; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Alam, Md. Mahabub; Fujita, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    The role of exogenous spermidine (Spd) in alleviating low temperature (LT) stress in mung bean (Vigna radiata L. cv. BARI Mung-3) seedlings has been investigated. Low temperature stress modulated the non-enzymatic and enzymatic components of ascorbate-glutathione (AsA-GSH) cycle, increased H2O2 content and lipid peroxidation, which indicate oxidative damage of seedlings. Low temperature reduced the leaf relative water content (RWC) and destroyed leaf chlorophyll, which inhibited seedlings growth. Exogenous pretreatment of Spd in LT-affected seedlings significantly increased the contents of non-enzymatic antioxidants of AsA-GSH cycle, which include AsA and GSH. Exogenous Spd decreased dehydroascorbate (DHA), increased AsA/DHA ratio, decreased glutathione disulfide (GSSG) and increased GSH/GSSG ratio under LT stress. Activities of AsA-GSH cycle enzymes such as ascorbate peroxidase (APX), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) and glutathione reductase (GR) increased after Spd pretreatment in LT affected seedlings. Thus, the oxidative stress was reduced. Protective effects of Spd are also reflected from reduction of methylglyoxal (MG) toxicity by improving glyoxalase cycle components, and by maintaining osmoregulation, water status and improved seedlings growth. The present study reveals the vital roles of AsA-GSH and glyoxalase cycle in alleviating LT injury. PMID:26694373

  12. A facile biomimetic preparation of highly stabilized silver nanoparticles derived from seed extract of Vigna radiata and evaluation of their antibacterial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhary, Manoj Kumar; Kataria, Jyoti; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh; Singh, Jagdish

    2016-01-01

    The significant antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles draws the major attention toward the present nanobiotechnology. Also, the use of plant material for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles is considered as a green technology. In this context, a non-toxic, eco-friendly, and cost-effective method has been developed for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using seed extract of mung beans ( Vigna radiata). The synthesized nanoparticles have been characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The UV-visible spectrum showed an absorption peak at around 440 nm. The different types of phytochemicals present in the seed extract synergistically reduce the Ag metal ions, as each phytochemical is unique in terms of its structure and antioxidant function. The colloidal silver nanoparticles were observed to be highly stable, even after 5 months. XRD analysis showed that the silver nanoparticles are crystalline in nature with face-centered cubic geometry and the TEM micrographs showed spherical particles with an average size of 18 nm. Further, the antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles was evaluated by well-diffusion method and it was observed that the biogenic silver nanoparticles have an effective antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The outcome of this study could be useful for nanotechnology-based biomedical applications.

  13. Gene Mapping of a Mutant Mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) Using New Molecular Markers Suggests a Gene Encoding a YUC4-like Protein Regulates the Chasmogamous Flower Trait.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jingbin; Somta, Prakit; Chen, Xin; Cui, Xiaoyan; Yuan, Xingxing; Srinives, Peerasak

    2016-01-01

    Mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) is a cleistogamous plant in which flowers are pollinated before they open, which prevents yield improvements through heterosis. We previously generated a chasmogamous mutant (CM) mungbean in which open flowers are pollinated. In this study, we developed insertion/deletion (indel) markers based on the transcriptome differences between CM and Sulu-1 (i.e., normal flowering) plants. An F2 population derived from a cross between CM and Sulu-1 was used for gene mapping. Segregation analyses revealed that a single recessive gene regulates the production of chasmogamous flowers. Using newly developed indel and simple sequence repeat markers, the cha gene responsible for the chasmogamous flower trait was mapped to a 277.1-kb segment on chromosome 6. Twelve candidate genes were detected in this segment, including Vradi06g12650, which encodes a YUCCA family protein associated with floral development. A single base pair deletion producing a frame-shift mutation and a premature stop codon in Vradi06g12650 was detected only in CM plants. This suggested that Vradi06g12650 is a cha candidate gene. Our results provide important information for the molecular breeding of chasmogamous mungbean lines, which may serve as new genetic resources for hybrid cultivar development. PMID:27375671

  14. Polyamines Confer Salt Tolerance in Mung Bean (Vigna radiata L.) by Reducing Sodium Uptake, Improving Nutrient Homeostasis, Antioxidant Defense, and Methylglyoxal Detoxification Systems.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Kamrun; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Rahman, Anisur; Alam, Md Mahabub; Mahmud, Jubayer-Al; Suzuki, Toshisada; Fujita, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    The physiological roles of PAs (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) were investigated for their ability to confer salt tolerance (200 mM NaCl, 48 h) in mung bean seedlings (Vigna radiata L. cv. BARI Mung-2). Salt stress resulted in Na toxicity, decreased K, Ca, Mg, and Zn contents in roots and shoots, and disrupted antioxidant defense system which caused oxidative damage as indicated by increased lipid peroxidation, H2O2 content, [Formula: see text] generation rate, and lipoxygenase activity. Salinity-induced methylglyoxal (MG) toxicity was also clearly evident. Salinity decreased leaf chlorophyll (chl) and relative water content (RWC). Supplementation of salt affected seedlings with exogenous PAs enhanced the contents of glutathione and ascorbate, increased activities of antioxidant enzymes (dehydroascorbate reductase, glutathione reductase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase) and glyoxalase enzyme (glyoxalase II), which reduced salt-induced oxidative stress and MG toxicity, respectively. Exogenous PAs reduced cellular Na content and maintained nutrient homeostasis and modulated endogenous PAs levels in salt affected mung bean seedlings. The overall salt tolerance was reflected through improved tissue water and chl content, and better seedling growth. PMID:27516763

  15. Gene Mapping of a Mutant Mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) Using New Molecular Markers Suggests a Gene Encoding a YUC4-like Protein Regulates the Chasmogamous Flower Trait

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jingbin; Somta, Prakit; Chen, Xin; Cui, Xiaoyan; Yuan, Xingxing; Srinives, Peerasak

    2016-01-01

    Mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) is a cleistogamous plant in which flowers are pollinated before they open, which prevents yield improvements through heterosis. We previously generated a chasmogamous mutant (CM) mungbean in which open flowers are pollinated. In this study, we developed insertion/deletion (indel) markers based on the transcriptome differences between CM and Sulu-1 (i.e., normal flowering) plants. An F2 population derived from a cross between CM and Sulu-1 was used for gene mapping. Segregation analyses revealed that a single recessive gene regulates the production of chasmogamous flowers. Using newly developed indel and simple sequence repeat markers, the cha gene responsible for the chasmogamous flower trait was mapped to a 277.1-kb segment on chromosome 6. Twelve candidate genes were detected in this segment, including Vradi06g12650, which encodes a YUCCA family protein associated with floral development. A single base pair deletion producing a frame-shift mutation and a premature stop codon in Vradi06g12650 was detected only in CM plants. This suggested that Vradi06g12650 is a cha candidate gene. Our results provide important information for the molecular breeding of chasmogamous mungbean lines, which may serve as new genetic resources for hybrid cultivar development. PMID:27375671

  16. Biogenic green synthesis of monodispersed gum kondagogu (Cochlospermum gossypium) iron nanocomposite material and its application in germination and growth of mung bean (Vigna radiata) as a plant model.

    PubMed

    Raju, Dugyala; Mehta, Urmil J; Beedu, Sashidhar Rao

    2016-06-01

    An eco-friendly green and one-pot synthesis of highly monodispersed iron (Fe) nanoparticles (NPs) by using a natural biopolymer, gum kondagogu (GK) as reducing and capping agent is proposed. The NPs synthesised were characterised by ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. As the concentration of gum and time increases, the intensity of NPs formation increased. The NPs were highly monodispersed with uniform circular shapes of 2-6 nm in size. The formed NPs were crystalline in nature which was confirmed by diffraction analysis. The conversion ratio of Fe ionic form to NPs was 21% which was quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Fe is essential for plant growth and development. A study was conducted to examine the effect of these NPs on the growth of mung bean (Vigna radiata). The radical length and biomass was increased in seeds exposed to Fe NPs than the ions. The uptake of Fe NPs by the sprouts was also quantified by ICP-MS, in which Fe was more in mung bean seeds exposed to NPs. The α-amylase activity was increased in the seeds exposed to NPs. The observed increase in the biomass by Fe NPs and seed germination may facilitate its application in the agriculture as an important cost-effective method for plant growth. PMID:27256894

  17. Role of cumulus cells during vitrification and fertilization of mature bovine oocytes: Effects on survival, fertilization, and blastocyst development.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Escribano, N; Smits, K; Piepers, S; Van den Abbeel, E; Woelders, H; Van Soom, A

    2016-07-15

    This study was designed to determine the role of cumulus cells during vitrification of bovine oocytes. Mature cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) with many layers of cumulus cells, corona radiata oocytes (CRs), with a few layers of cumulus cells, and denuded oocytes (DOs) without cumulus cells were vitrified in 15% ethylene glycol, 15% dimethyl sulfoxide, and 0.5-M sucrose. Oocytes that survived the vitrification process were fertilized. Denuded oocytes were fertilized with or without supplementation of intact COCs (DOsCOCs). First, survival and embryo development rates were studied. Higher survival rates were obtained for DOs and DOsCOCs (94% and 95%, respectively) compared with COCs (82.7%, P < 0.05). Corona radiata oocytes showed similar survival rates when compared with DOs. The cleavage and blastocyst rates of vitrified DOs were compromised because cumulus cells were not present during the fertilization (34% and 2.7%, respectively). However, the situation could be reverted when DOs were supplemented with intact COCs (DOsCOCs; 62.7% and 12.7%, respectively, P < 0.05). Vitrified CRs showed similar cleavage and blastocyst rate (49.3% and 7.7%, respectively) compared with COCs (54.8% and 4.9%, respectively). In the second experiment, the penetration rate was analyzed. Removing cumulus cells before fertilization reduced the fertilization of vitrified DOs compared with COCs (24.3% vs. 52.8%, P < 0.05). The supplementation of DOs with intact COCs (DOsCOCs) improved the fertilization rate though (49.6%, P < 0.05). No differences in the fertilization rate were found between CRs and COCs. In the third experiment, parthenogenetic activation was examined. Interestingly, the CRs group showed higher cleavage and blastocyst rates (76.8% and 29.6%, respectively) than the COCs (39.1% and 7.5%, respectively, P < 0.05). Furthermore, oocytes from vitrified CRs had the same odds to become a blastocyst as fresh oocytes (1.1 vs. 1.5, respectively). In conclusion, our data

  18. Differences in defence responses of Pinus contorta and Pinus banksiana to the mountain pine beetle fungal associate Grosmannia clavigera are affected by water deficit.

    PubMed

    Arango-Velez, Adriana; El Kayal, Walid; Copeland, Charles C J; Zaharia, L Irina; Lusebrink, Inka; Cooke, Janice E K

    2016-04-01

    We tested the hypotheses that responses to the mountain pine beetle fungal associate Grosmannia clavigera will differ between the evolutionarily co-evolved host lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) and the naïve host jack pine (Pinus banksiana) and that these responses will be influenced by water availability. G. clavigera inoculation resulted in more rapid stem lesion development in lodgepole than in jack pine; water deficit delayed lesion development in both species. Decreased hydraulic conductivity was observed in inoculated lodgepole pine seedlings, likely because of tracheid occlusion by fungal hyphae and/or metabolite accumulation. Drought but not inoculation significantly impacted bark abscisic acid levels. Jasmonic and salicylic acid were implicated in local and systemic responses of both species to G. clavigera, with salicylic acid appearing to play a greater role in jack pine response to G. clavigera than lodgepole pine. Water deficit increased constitutive levels and/or attenuated induced responses to G. clavigera for several monoterpenes in lodgepole but not jack pine. Instead, inoculation of well-watered but not water deficit jack pine resulted in a greater number of xylem resin ducts. These findings reveal mechanisms underlying differences in G. clavigera-induced responses between lodgepole and jack pine hosts, and how water availability modulates these responses. PMID:26205849

  19. Assay and Electrophoresis of Superoxide Dismutase from Red Spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.), Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda L.), and Scotch Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) 1

    PubMed Central

    Tandy, Norman E.; Di Giulio, Richard T.; Richardson, Curtis J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports a method for extracting the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) from the needles of red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.), loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.), and scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) with high efficiency and free from interfering compounds. The extraction employs phosphate buffer with polyvinylpolypyrrolidone and Triton X-100 followed by dialysis overnight. The isozymes of SOD in each species were separated electrophoretically and tested for their sensitivity to KCN and H2O2. An isozyme resistant to these inhibitors was found in the spruce but not the pine needles. The isozymes from the spruce needles were examined for individual responses to aging and H2O2 inhibition. Four of the five CuZn isozymes in spruce were found to have increased significantly but equally by October of their first year and two of those four isozymes were found to be more sensitive to H2O2. The response of the SOD isozymes in loblolly pine seedlings to O3 was also examined and the isozymes were found to be induced equally. Because the SOD activity in the young pine needles was too low to electrophorese, the SOD activity from the pines in the O3 experiment had to be partially purified using CHCl3 and ethanol, then concentrated. PMID:16666837

  20. Egg maturation dynamics of Homalodisca vitripennis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The egg maturation dynamics of holometabolous insects are particularly well studied compared to those of hemimetabolous insects. The wealth of knowledge produced from studies on holometabolous insects has allowed researchers to test for correlations between egg maturation schedule and specific life...

  1. New definitions for cotton fiber maturity ratio

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton fiber maturity affects fiber physical, mechanical, and chemical properties, as well as the processability and qualities of yarn and fabrics. New definitions of cotton fiber maturity ratio are introduced. The influences of sampling, sample preparation, measurement method, and correlations am...

  2. Biased experimental fineness and maturity results

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Part I of this series, models were developed and computer simulations were performed to understand the variability in coefficients of determination (R2) between fineness and maturity, micronaire and fineness, and micronaire and maturity of cotton. Part II concentrated on derivation and testing of...

  3. 7 CFR 51.767 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from, Florida Department of Citrus... Mature. Mature shall have the same meaning assigned the term in the Florida Citrus Code, Chapter 601, 1995 Edition, and the Official Rules Affecting the Florida Citrus Industry, in effect as of February...

  4. 7 CFR 51.1823 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from, Florida Department of Citrus, Post Office Box 148... Mature. Mature shall have the same meaning assigned the term in the Florida Citrus Code, Chapter 601, 1995 Edition, and the Official Rules Affecting the Florida Citrus Industry, in effect as of February...

  5. 7 CFR 51.767 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from, Florida Department of Citrus... Mature. Mature shall have the same meaning assigned the term in the Florida Citrus Code, Chapter 601, 1995 Edition, and the Official Rules Affecting the Florida Citrus Industry, in effect as of February...

  6. 7 CFR 51.1158 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from, Florida Department of Citrus, Post Office Box 148... § 51.1158 Mature. Mature shall have the same meaning assigned the term in the Florida Citrus Code, Chapter 601, 1995 Edition, and the Official Rules Affecting the Florida Citrus Industry, in effect as...

  7. 7 CFR 51.1158 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from, Florida Department of Citrus, Post Office Box 148... § 51.1158 Mature. Mature shall have the same meaning assigned the term in the Florida Citrus Code, Chapter 601, 1995 Edition, and the Official Rules Affecting the Florida Citrus Industry, in effect as...

  8. 7 CFR 51.1823 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from, Florida Department of Citrus, Post Office Box 148... Mature. Mature shall have the same meaning assigned the term in the Florida Citrus Code, Chapter 601, 1995 Edition, and the Official Rules Affecting the Florida Citrus Industry, in effect as of February...

  9. The FMI: Dimensions of Follower Maturity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Loren I.

    1976-01-01

    The Follower Maturity Index (FMI) is an instrument derived from leadership theory and based on observations of verbal and nonverbal behavior of followers in task groups. Dimensions of follower maturity--achievement, responsibility, experience, activity, dependence, variety, interests, perspective, position, and awareness--are discussed. For…

  10. Canopy temperature and maturity in cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heat units are a widely used indicator of maturity in cotton. It is generally assumed that it takes approximately 2200°F (1222°C) heat units for a cotton plant on the South High Plains of Texas to mature. This value is based on a typical planting date of May 15 with ample irrigation. As water for c...

  11. Motivation and Maturity Patterns in Marital Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, David C.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Married couples rated their marital satisfaction and played interpersonal competitive games which revealed the success with which they interacted. Younger husbands who scored more maturely on the Stewart measure of psychosocial maturity belonged to more successful marriages, as did college-educated wives who showed less immaturity and more phallic…

  12. 7 CFR 51.312 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apples Definitions § 51.312 Mature. “Mature” means that the apples have reached the stage of development which will insure the proper completion of the ripening process. Before a mature apple becomes overripe it will show varying degrees of...

  13. 7 CFR 51.312 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apples Definitions § 51.312 Mature. “Mature” means that the apples have reached the stage of development which will insure the proper completion of the ripening process. Before a mature apple becomes overripe it will show varying degrees of...

  14. Thinned Mature Deciduous Forest Silvopastures for Appalachia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little information is available on effective management and utilization of silvopastures developed from the ubiquitous mature woodlots which comprise 40-50% of small Appalachian farm acreage. We thinned a white oak dominated mature second growth forested area establishing two 0.5 ha, eight-paddock,...

  15. Effects of glucose metabolism during in vitro maturation on cytoplasmic maturation of mouse oocytes.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hong-Li; Wang, Yan-Bo; Jiao, Guang-Zhong; Kong, De-Ling; Li, Qing; Li, Hong; Zheng, Liang-Liang; Tan, Jing-He

    2016-01-01

    Although there are many reports on the effect of glucose metabolism on oocyte nuclear maturation, there are few studies on its effect on ooplasmic maturation. By manipulating glucose metabolism pathways using a maturation medium that could support oocyte nuclear maturation but only a limited blastocyst formation without glucose, this study determined effects of glucose metabolism pathways on ooplasmic maturation. During maturation of cumulus-oocyte-complexes (COCs) with glucose, the presence of PPP inhibitor, DHEA or glycolysis inhibitor, iodoacetate significantly decreased blastocyst rates, intraoocyte glutathione and ATP. While blastocyst rates, GSH/GSSG ratio and NADPH were higher, ROS was lower significantly in COCs matured with iodoacetate than with DHEA. Fructose-6-phosphate overcame the inhibitory effect of DHEA on PPP. During maturation of COCs with pyruvate, electron transport inhibitor, rotenone or monocarboxylate transfer inhibitor, 4-CIN significantly decreased blastocyst rates. Cumulus-denuded oocytes had a limited capacity to use glucose or lactate, but they could use pyruvate to support maturation. In conclusion, whereas glycolysis promoted ooplasmic maturation mainly by supplying energy, PPP facilitated ooplasmic maturation to a greater extent by both reducing oxidative stress and supplying energy through providing fructose-6-phosphate for glycolysis. Pyruvate was transferred by monocarboxylate transporters and utilized through mitochondrial electron transport to sustain ooplasmic maturation. PMID:26857840

  16. Effects of glucose metabolism during in vitro maturation on cytoplasmic maturation of mouse oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Hong-Li; Wang, Yan-Bo; Jiao, Guang-Zhong; Kong, De-Ling; Li, Qing; Li, Hong; Zheng, Liang-Liang; Tan, Jing-He

    2016-01-01

    Although there are many reports on the effect of glucose metabolism on oocyte nuclear maturation, there are few studies on its effect on ooplasmic maturation. By manipulating glucose metabolism pathways using a maturation medium that could support oocyte nuclear maturation but only a limited blastocyst formation without glucose, this study determined effects of glucose metabolism pathways on ooplasmic maturation. During maturation of cumulus-oocyte-complexes (COCs) with glucose, the presence of PPP inhibitor, DHEA or glycolysis inhibitor, iodoacetate significantly decreased blastocyst rates, intraoocyte glutathione and ATP. While blastocyst rates, GSH/GSSG ratio and NADPH were higher, ROS was lower significantly in COCs matured with iodoacetate than with DHEA. Fructose-6-phosphate overcame the inhibitory effect of DHEA on PPP. During maturation of COCs with pyruvate, electron transport inhibitor, rotenone or monocarboxylate transfer inhibitor, 4-CIN significantly decreased blastocyst rates. Cumulus-denuded oocytes had a limited capacity to use glucose or lactate, but they could use pyruvate to support maturation. In conclusion, whereas glycolysis promoted ooplasmic maturation mainly by supplying energy, PPP facilitated ooplasmic maturation to a greater extent by both reducing oxidative stress and supplying energy through providing fructose-6-phosphate for glycolysis. Pyruvate was transferred by monocarboxylate transporters and utilized through mitochondrial electron transport to sustain ooplasmic maturation. PMID:26857840

  17. Changes in cumulus-oocyte complexes of pregnant and non-pregnant camels (Camelus dromedarius) during maturation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Torner, H; Heleil, B; Alm, H; Ghoneim, I M; Srsen, V; Kanitz, W; Tuchscherer, A; Fattouh, E M

    2003-09-15

    The aim of the present study was to examine the cumulus morphology and the oocyte chromatin quality of camel cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) at the time of recovery, and to monitor changes in oocyte chromatin configuration and apoptosis in cumulus cells from camel COCs during in vitro maturation (IVM) (0, 12, 24, 32, 36, 42, and 48 p.IVM) depending on pregnancy of donors. A total of 1023 COCs were isolated from sliced ovaries after slaughtering of 47 pregnant and 43 non-pregnant camels in an abattoir. The mean number of COCs per donor was 10.3 in pregnant and 12.5 in non-pregnant donors. The cumulus morphology of COCs was independent of the type of donor and was divided in COCs with compact (26.9 and 28%), dispersed (39.3 and 46%), corona radiata cumulus investment (27.9 and 21.7%) and without cumulus (6 and 4.2%), respectively for pregnant and non-pregnant donors. The highest proportion of COCs exhibited dispersed cumulus (P<0.05). Oocytes with meiotic stages of diplotene >50% were found only in compact (55 and 56.5%) and in dispersed COCs (58.4 and 60%), respectively for pregnant and non-pregnant donors. During IVM (0-48h) the first significant onset of specific meiotic stages were different in oocytes from pregnant donors: metaphase 1 (24-32h), metaphase 2 (36-42h), versus oocytes from non-pregnant donors: metaphase 1 (24h), metaphase 2 (32-48h) (P<0.05). The level of apoptotic cells in cumuli of matured COCs increased during IVM and was higher in matured COCs from non-pregnant donors for each time point during IVM (P<0.01). Camel oocytes meiosis during IVM is accompanied by a drastic increase of apoptosis in the surrounding cumulus cells 0-32 and 0-24h during IVM, respectively for pregnant and non-pregnant donors. The oocytes of pregnant camels require 36h of maturation to reach levels of >50% metaphase 2 stage in comparison to oocytes from non-pregnant donors where 32h are sufficient. The earlier onset of apoptosis in the COCs derived from non-pregnant donors

  18. Rhizodeposition of Nitrogen and Carbon by Mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) and Its Contribution to Intercropped Oats (Avena nuda L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zang, Huadong; Yang, Xuechao; Feng, Xiaomin; Qian, Xin; Hu, Yuegao; Ren, Changzhong; Zeng, Zhaohai

    2015-01-01

    Compounds released by mungbean roots potentially represent an enormous source of nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) in mungbean-oat intercropping systems. In this study, an in situ experiment was conducted using a 15N - 13C double stem-feeding method to measure N and C derived from the rhizodeposition (NdfR and CdfR) of mungbean and their transfer to oats in an intercropping system. Mungbean plants were sole cropped (S) or intercropped (I) with oat. The plants were labeled 5 weeks after planting and were harvested at the beginning of pod setting (Ip and Sp) and at maturity (Im and Sm). More than 60% and 50% of the applied 15N and 13C, respectively, were recovered in each treatment, with 15N and 13C being quite uniformly distributed in the different plant parts. NdfR represented 9.8% (Sp), 9.2% (Ip), 20.1% (Sm), and 21.2% (Im) of total mungbean plant N, whereas CdfR represented 13.3% (Sp), 42.0% (Ip), 15.4% (Sm), and 22.6% (Im) of total mungbean plant C. When considering the part of rhizodeposition transferred to associated oat, intercropping mungbean released more NdfR and CdfR than mungbean alone. About 53.4–83.2% of below-ground plant N (BGP-N) and 58.4–85.9% of BGP-C originated from NdfR and CdfR, respectively. The N in oats derived from mungbean increased from 7.6% at the pod setting stage to 9.7% at maturity, whereas the C in oats increased from 16.2% to 22.0%, respectively. Only a small percentage of rhizodeposition from mungbean was transferred to oats in the intercropping systems, with a large percentage remaining in the soil. This result indicates that mungbean rhizodeposition might contribute to higher N and C availability in the soil for subsequent crops. PMID:25821975

  19. Peroxidase and catalase activities are involved in direct adventitious shoot formation induced by thidiazuron in eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) zygotic embryos.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wei; Newton, Ronald J

    2005-08-01

    We reported establishment of an efficient plant regeneration procedure through direct adventitious shoot (DAS) formation from cotyledons and hypocotyls of eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) mature embryos in this investigation. Multiple DASs were initiated from cotyledons of embryos on PS medium containing N6-benzyladenine (BA), thidiazuron (TDZ), or kinetin (KIN). Among different concentrations of casein enzymatic hydrosylate (CH) and glutamine used in this study, 500 mg l(-1) CH or 600 mg l(-1) glutamine induced the highest frequency of DAS formation. Rooting of regenerated shoots was obtained on PS medium supplemented with 0.01-0.1 microM indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) with the highest frequency on medium containing 0.01 muM IAA. No DASs were obtained on medium without TDZ. Measurement of peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) activity during direct shoot induction and differentiation demonstrated that the lowest POD activity appeared in the 5-6th week of culture and lowest CAT activity occurred in the 7-8th week of culture on medium with TDZ. No such a change in POD and CAT activities was observed on medium without TDZ. These results demonstrated that POD and CAT activities were involved in DAS formation induced by TDZ in eastern white pine. PMID:16129608

  20. [Allozyme variation of seed embryos and mating system in relict populations of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) from the Kremenets Hill Ridge and Maloe Poles'e].

    PubMed

    Korshikov, I I; Kalafat, L A; Lisnichuk, A N; Velikorid'ko, T I; Mudrik, E A

    2011-07-01

    Allozyme variation at ten polymorphic loci and mating system was studied in three small isolated relict populations (4.4 to 22 ha) and in three artificial stands of Pinus sylvestris from the Kremenets Hill Ridge and Maloe Poles'e. It was established that the mean heterozygosity of 130 to 140 year-old trees from natural populations (H(O) = 0.288; H(E) = 0.277) was substantially lower, compared to 30 to 40 year-old trees from artificial stands (H(O) = 0.358; H(E) = 0.330). The observed heterozygosity of seed embryos (H(O) = 0.169 and 0.180) was substantially lower than of the mature trees from populations and artificial stands, respectively. In the embryo samples, irrespectively of the forest stand origin, substantial hetedrozygote deficiency was observed (at six to eight loci), compared to the Hardy-Weinberg expectations. The proportion of cross pollination in the populations and artificial stands was low, t(m) = 0.588 to 0.721; and t(m) = 0.455 to 0.837, respectively. PMID:21938957

  1. [Population structure and understory species diversity of different aged Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica plantations in Nenjiang Sandy Land of Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiang-Nan; Zhao, Yu-Sen; Zheng, Lei; Xin, Ying

    2012-09-01

    Taking the Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica sand-fixing plantations at different development stages (24-, 29-, 39-, and 43 years old) in Nenjiang Sandy Land as test objects, this paper studied their population structure, understory species composition, and species diversity. No regenerated seedlings were found in all the four P. sylvestris var. mongolica plantations. The mean individual height and DBH of the populations differed significantly with development stage. With the increasing age of the plantations, the proportion of small-sized individuals decreased obviously, while that of large-sized individuals increased, population tended to mature, and the diameter structure except 43 years old plantation was in normal distribution. A total of 33 understory plant species were recorded, belonging to 28 genera and 15 families. Setaria viridis was the dominant species, but its dominance decreased gradually with increasing age of the plantations. With the increase of plantation age, the proportion of annual plants decreased, while that of perennial plants increased. The Simpson index and Pielou index had no significant differences among the different aged plantations, but the richness index, Shannon index, and Alatalo index of 39 years old plantation were significantly higher than those of 24 years old stands, suggesting that the species diversity of the community improved with time. PMID:23285985

  2. Salt restrains maturation in subsalt plays

    SciTech Connect

    Mello, U.T. ); Anderson, R.N.; Karner, G.D. . Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory)

    1994-01-31

    The thermal positive anomaly associated with the top of salt diapirs has attracted significant attention in modifying the temperature structure and history of a sedimentary basin. Here the authors explore the role of the negative thermal anomaly beneath salt in modifying the maturation history of the source rocks in subsalt sediments. Organic matter maturation is believed to follow temperature dependent chemical reactions. Therefore, any temperature anomaly associated with salt masses affects the nearby maturation of potential source rocks. The level of maturity of source rocks close to salt diapirs will differ from that predicted based on regional trends. The impact of the thermal anomaly on a given point will depend on the duration and distance of the thermal anomaly to this particular point. Consequently, the maturation history of source rocks in salt basins is closely related to the salt motion history, implying that a transient thermal analysis is necessary to evaluate the sure impact on maturation of the thermal anomalies associated with salt diapirism. The paper describes vitrinite kinetics, salt in evolving basins, correlation of salt and temperature, salt dome heat drains, and restrained maturation.

  3. Protein syntehsis during soybean seed maturation

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, L.A.; Rinne, R.W.

    1987-04-01

    The authors previous work has demonstrated that physiological and biochemical changes specifically associated with soybean seed maturation can be separated from events associated with seed development. The objective of this study was to determine if soybean seed metabolism is altered during maturation drying at the level of protein synthesis. Seed harvested 35 days after flowering (0% seedling growth) were induced to mature (100% seedling growth) through controlled dehydration. Proteins labeled with (/sup 35/S)-methionine were extracted and analyzed by 1-D PAGE coupled with autoradiography and densitometry. Results show a 31 kD and 128 kD polypeptide synthesized de novo during dehydration and precocious maturation. The same two polypeptides are synthesized during natural dehydration and maturation (>60 days after flowering). Furthermore, these polypeptides persist during rehydration and germination of both precociously and naturally matured seed, but specifically disappear during early seedling growth. The authors are currently investigating the role of protein synthesis during soybean seed maturation and if it is required for establishment of a soybean seedling.

  4. Paraoxonase 1 and HDL maturation.

    PubMed

    Gugliucci, Alejandro; Menini, Teresita

    2015-01-15

    Understanding the kinetics and function of paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is becoming an important issue in atherosclerosis. Low PON1 activity has been consistently linked with an increased risk of major cardiovascular events in the setting of secondary prevention of coronary artery disease. Recent studies have shown that there is a specific interaction of myeloperoxidase (MPO)-apoAI-PON1 on HDL surface that seems to be germane to atherogenesis. MPO specifically inhibits PON1 and PON1 mitigates MPO effects. Surprisingly, very little is known about the routes by which PON1 gets integrated into HDL or its fate during HDL remodeling in the intravascular space. We have developed a method that assesses PON1 activity in the individual HDL subclasses with the aid of which we have shown that PON1 is present across the HDL particle range and preferentially in HDL3, confirming data from ultracentrifugation (UC) studies. Upon HDL maturation ex vivo PON1 is activated and it shows a flux to both smaller and larger HDL particles as well as to VLDL and sdLDL. At the same time apoE, AI and AII are shifted across particle sizes. PON1 activation and flux across HDL particles are blocked by CETP and LCAT inhibitors. In a group of particles with such a complex biology as HDL, knowledge of the interaction between apo-lipoproteins, lipids and enzymes is key for an increased understanding of the yet multiple unknown features of its function. Solving the HDL paradox will necessitate the development of techniques to explore HDL function that are practical and well adapted to clinical studies and eventually become useful in patient monitoring. The confluence of proteomic, functional studies, HDL subclasses, PON1 assays and zymogram will yield data to draw a more elaborate and comprehensive picture of the function of HDL. It must be noted that all these studies are static and conducted in the fasting state. The crucial phase will be achieved when human kinetic studies (both in the fasting and post

  5. Sexual maturity in western Atlantic bluefin tuna.

    PubMed

    Heinisch, Gilad; Rosenfeld, Hanna; Knapp, Jessica M; Gordin, Hillel; Lutcavage, Molly E

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a novel endocrine approach for assessing the unresolved matter of the timing of sexual maturation in western Atlantic bluefin tuna (ABFT), a highly migratory population whose status remains uncertain. Ratios of follicle stimulating hormone to luteinizing hormone, a sexual maturity indicator, in all ABFT ≥ 134 cm curved fork length (CFL) were <0.4, similar to Mediterranean spawners, indicating that western ABFT mature at considerably smaller sizes and at a much younger age than currently assumed (≥ 185 cm CFL). PMID:25431301

  6. Delayed visual maturation and lead pollution.

    PubMed

    Gulson, B L; Yui, L A; Howarth, D

    1998-12-11

    Three children were born in the Broken Hill Australia lead mining community with delayed visual maturation of the optic nerve (blindness) within a period of 19 months. Because of the association with the lead pollution, the delayed visual maturation was attributed to lead exposure of the fetus during pregnancy. Lead isotopic analyses of the shed deciduous teeth from the three children demonstrate that they were not exposed to increased levels of lead from a mining or any other source during pregnancy and the etiology of the delayed visual maturation must be sought elsewhere. PMID:9926437

  7. Variation in Gross Nitrogen Mineralization and Microbial Communities Along a Chronosequence of Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta) Stands, Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smithwick, E. A.; Turner, M. G.; Metzger, K. M.; Balser, T. C.

    2003-12-01

    Soils and vegetation were analyzed in 20 forest stands in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA that varied in age from 50 to 350 years and had initiated following stand-replacing fire. Our goal was to determine how nitrogen (N) availability (NH4+) varied among post-fire, mature lodgpole pine (Pinus contorta) stands and to determine whether that variability was related to stand age, stand tree density, microbial community composition and aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP). Gross N mineralization was measured using a laboratory isotopic dilution technique, and microbial community composition was measured using a hybrid Fatty-Acid-Methyl-Esther/ Phospho-Lipid Fatty Acid procedure. Gross nitrogen mineralization rates ranged from 0.3 to 4.2 μ gN g soil-1 d-1 (average=1.44+/-0.24 μ gN g soil-1 d-1). Gross N mineralization rates declined with increasing stand age: 2.11 +/- 0.41 (50-100 yr), 1.83 +/- 0.75 (125-175 yr), 0.99 +/- 0.24 (200-250 yr), 0.82 +/- 0.21 (300-350 yr). Gross mineralization rates in the 50-100 age class were significantly higher than in the 200-250 and 300-350 age classes. Gross mineralization was positively related to stand ANPP (p=0.0186, R2=0.96), negatively related to stand foliar N averaged by age-class (p=0.0219, R2=0.96), and was not significantly related to tree density. The first principal component (PC1), which explained 53% of the variation in microbial community composition, was correlated with age class. PC1 was strongly controlled by a fungal lipid (18:2 ω 6c). The proportion of microbial lipids in specified functional guilds differed among age classes but did not differ with stand density. These results are consistent with other studies reporting declines in N availability with increasing time-since-fire, which we attribute to changes in ANPP and changes in microbial community composition.

  8. Assessing variation in the radial profile of sap flux density in Pinus species and its effect on daily water use.

    PubMed

    Ford, Chelcy R; McGuire, Mary Anne; Mitchell, Robert J; Teskey, Robert O

    2004-03-01

    We monitored sap flux density (v) diurnally in nine mature southeastern pine (Pinus spp.) trees with a thermal dissipation probe that spanned the sapwood radius. We found the expected pattern of high v near the cambium and decreasing v with depth toward the center of the tree; however, the pattern was not constant within a day or between trees. Radial profiles of trees were steeper earlier in the day and became less steep later in the day. As a result, time-dependent changes in the shape of the radial profile of v were sometimes correlated with daily changes in evaporative demand. As the radial profile became less steep, the inner xylem contributed relatively more to total tree sap flow than it did earlier in the day. We present a 3-parameter Gaussian function that can be used to describe the radial distribution of v in trees. Parameters in the function represent depth in the xylem from the cambium, maximum v, depth in the xylem where maximum v occurs, and the rate of radial change in v with radial depth (beta). Values of beta varied significantly between trees and with time, and were sometimes correlated with air vapor pressure deficit (D). We hypothesize that this occurred during periods of high transpiration when the water potential gradient became great enough to move water in the inner sapwood despite its probable high hydraulic resistance. We examined discrepancies among estimates of daily water use based on single-point, two-point and multi-point (i.e., every 20 mm in the sapwood) measurements. When radial distribution of v was not considered, a single-point measurement resulted in errors as large as 154% in the estimate of daily water use relative to the estimate obtained from a multi-point measurement. Measuring v at two close sample points (10 and 30 mm) did not improve the estimate; however, estimates derived from v measured at two distant sample points (10 and 70 mm) significantly improved the estimate of daily water use, although errors were as great

  9. 7 CFR 51.1218 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Peaches Definitions § 51.1218 Mature. “Mature” means that the peach has reached the stage of growth which will ensure a proper completion of...

  10. 7 CFR 51.1218 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Peaches Definitions § 51.1218 Mature. “Mature” means that the peach has reached the stage of growth which will ensure a proper completion of...

  11. Quantifying Semantic Linguistic Maturity in Children.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Kristina; Bååth, Rasmus; Löhndorf, Simone; Sahlén, Birgitta; Sikström, Sverker

    2016-10-01

    We propose a method to quantify semantic linguistic maturity (SELMA) based on a high dimensional semantic representation of words created from the co-occurrence of words in a large text corpus. The method was applied to oral narratives from 108 children aged 4;0-12;10. By comparing the SELMA measure with maturity ratings made by human raters we found that SELMA predicted the rating of semantic maturity made by human raters over and above the prediction made using a child's age and number of words produced. We conclude that the semantic content of narratives changes in a predictable pattern with children's age and argue that SELMA is a measure quantifying semantic linguistic maturity. The study opens up the possibility of using quantitative measures for studying the development of semantic representation in children's narratives, and emphasizes the importance of word co-occurrences for understanding the development of meaning. PMID:26440529

  12. Transcriptome resources and functional characterization of monoterpene synthases for two host species of the mountain pine beetle, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The mountain pine beetle (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemic has affected lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) across an area of more than 18 million hectares of pine forests in western Canada, and is a threat to the boreal jack pine (Pinus banksiana) forest. Defence of pines against MPB and associated fungal pathogens, as well as other pests, involves oleoresin monoterpenes, which are biosynthesized by families of terpene synthases (TPSs). Volatile monoterpenes also serve as host recognition cues for MPB and as precursors for MPB pheromones. The genes responsible for terpene biosynthesis in jack pine and lodgepole pine were previously unknown. Results We report the generation and quality assessment of assembled transcriptome resources for lodgepole pine and jack pine using Sanger, Roche 454, and Illumina sequencing technologies. Assemblies revealed transcripts for approximately 20,000 - 30,000 genes from each species and assembly analyses led to the identification of candidate full-length prenyl transferase, TPS, and P450 genes of oleoresin biosynthesis. We cloned and functionally characterized, via expression of recombinant proteins in E. coli, nine different jack pine and eight different lodgepole pine mono-TPSs. The newly identified lodgepole pine and jack pine mono-TPSs include (+)-α-pinene synthases, (-)-α-pinene synthases, (-)-β-pinene synthases, (+)-3-carene synthases, and (-)-β-phellandrene synthases from each of the two species. Conclusion In the absence of genome sequences, transcriptome assemblies are important for defence gene discovery in lodgepole pine and jack pine, as demonstrated here for the terpenoid pathway genes. The product profiles of the functionally annotated mono-TPSs described here can account for the major monoterpene metabolites identified in lodgepole pine and jack pine. PMID:23679205

  13. Cambial activity and xylem cell development in Pinus cembra and Pinus sylvestris at their climatic limits in the Eastern Alps in 2007

    PubMed Central

    Swidrak, Irene; Gruber, Andreas; Oberhuber, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Summary It has been frequently stressed that at distributional boundaries, like at the Alpine timberline and within dry inner Alpine environments, tree growth will be affected first by changing climate conditions. Climate in 2007 was characterized by the occurrence of exceptionally mild temperatures in spring (3.4 and 2.7 °C above long-term mean (LTM) at timberline and the valley sites, respectively) with an almost continuous drought period recorded in April and slightly warmer than average temperatures throughout summer (1.3 °C above LTM at both sites). We compared temporal dynamics of cambial activity and xylem cell development in Pinus cembra at the Alpine timberline (1950 m a.s.l.) and Pinus sylvestris at a xeric inner Alpine site (750 m a.s.l.) by repeated cellular analyses of micro-cores (n = 5 trees/site). While onset of wood formation in P. sylvestris and P. cembra differed by about two weeks (12 and 27 April, respectively), maximum daily growth rates peaked on 6 May at the valley site and on 23 June at timberline. At both sites maximum tracheid production was reached prior to occurrence of more favourable climatic conditions during summer, i.e. an increase in precipitation and temperature. Xylem formation ended on 31 August and 28 October at the xeric site and at timberline, respectively. This study demonstrates the plasticity of tree-ring formation along an altitudinal transect in response to water availability and temperature. Whether early achievement of maximum growth rates is an adaptation to cope with extreme environmental conditions prevailing at limits of tree growth needs to be analysed more closely by taking belowground carbon allocation into account. PMID:24273354

  14. Accumulation of copper, nickel, lead and zinc by snail, Lunella coronatus and pearl oyster, Pinctada radiata from the Kuwait coast before and after the Gulf War oil spill.

    PubMed

    Bu-Olayan, A H; Subrahmanyam, M N

    1997-04-30

    This study investigated the contribution of the 1991 oil spill to heavy metal contamination in the marine environment of the Gulf in Kuwait by analyzing moleskin organisms (gastropod snail, Lunella coronatus and bivalve Pearl oyster, Pinctada radiata) for their heavy metal contents before and after the spill. Concentrations of copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) were determined in the soft tissue of both snail and oyster samples from three coastal stations during 1990 and 1994. In the 1990 samples, the metal concentrations in snail and oysters from different sampling stations were between 0.35 and 0.67; 0.11 and 2.29 micrograms/g for Cu, 1.50 and 4.50; 0.47 and 1.33 micrograms/g for Ni, 0.16 and 2.98; 0.44 and 0.69 microgram/g for Pb and 19.94 and 54.79; 247.20 and 1204.40 micrograms/g for Zn, respectively. In the 1994 samples, the metal concentrations were between 11.24 and 55.00; 28.90 and 168.43 micrograms/g for Cu, 15.33 and 16.96; 0.08 and 1.54 micrograms/g for Ni, 0.37 and 0.57 microgram/g; 0.07 and 0.44 microgram/g for Pb and 28.86 and 486.61; 17.75 and 575.00 micrograms/g for Zn respectively. The 1994 samples have significantly higher mean concentrations of Cu, Ni and Zn than the 1990 samples, except Pb in the 1994 samples, which showed a slightly lower mean concentration. The difference in patterns of metal occurrence and the significant increase in the Cu, Ni, and Zn concentrations in the 1994 snail and oyster samples were due to a contribution from the 1991 Gulf War oil spill. PMID:9151438

  15. Seed priming with BABA (β-amino butyric acid): a cost-effective method of abiotic stress tolerance in Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek.

    PubMed

    Jisha, K C; Puthur, Jos T

    2016-03-01

    The effects of β-amino butyric acid (BABA) on abiotic stress tolerance potential of three Vigna radiata varieties were studied. The reduction in the growth of seedlings subjected to NaCl/polyethylene glycol (PEG) stress is alleviated by BABA seed priming, which also enhanced photosynthetic pigment content and photosynthetic and mitochondrial activities, and also modified the chlorophyll a fluorescence-related parameters. Moreover, BABA seed priming reduced malondialdehyde content in the seedlings and enhanced the accumulation of proline, total protein, total carbohydrate, nitrate reductase activity, and activities of antioxidant enzymes like guaiacol peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. Most of these positive features of BABA priming were predominantly exhibited when the plants were encountered with stress (NaCl/PEG). The BABA content in the BABA-treated green gram seeds and seedlings was also detected and quantified with high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), and it revealed that the priming effect of BABA initiated in seeds and further gets carried over to the seedlings. It was concluded that BABA seed priming improved the drought and salinity stress tolerance potential of all the three green gram varieties, and it was evident in the NaCl-tolerant variety Pusa Vishal as compared to Pusa Ratna (abiotic stress sensitive) and Pusa 9531(drought tolerant). Dual mode in cost effectiveness of BABA priming is evident from: (1) the positive features of priming are being exhibited more during the exposure of plants to stress, and (2) priming of seedlings can be carried out by BABA application to seeds at very low concentration and volume. PMID:25837010

  16. Effects of ultraviolet irradiation, pulsed electric field, hot water dip and ethanol vapours treatment on keeping and sensory quality of mung bean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek) sprouts.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Ankit; Siddiqui, Saleem

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this research work was to evaluate the effects of UV- irradiation, pulsed electric field (PEF), hot water dip (HWD) and ethanol vapours on the quality and storage life of mung bean sprouts (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek). The sprouts were subjected to various treatments viz., UV-Irradiation (10 kJm(-2) in laminar flow chamber for 1 h), PEF (10,000 V for 10s), HWD (50 °C for 2 min) and ethanol vapours (1 h); and then stored in thermocol cups wrapped with perforated cling films at room (25 ± 1 °C) and low (7 ± 1 °C) temperature conditions. The sprouts were analyzed regularly at 24 h interval for sprout length, sprout weight, total soluble solids (TSS), titratable acidity, non-enzymatic browning, total plate count and overall acceptability. Sprout length and weight increased during storage. There was no significant effect of various treatments on sprout length and weight, except in ethanol treatment, where suppression was observed. HWD showed higher TSS and acidity than that of control. The least browning was observed in ethanol treatment. The total plate count was not significantly affected by various treatments. Overall acceptability under various treatments decreased during storage period both at room and low temperature. Hot water and ethanol vapour treated sprouts showed higher acceptability than other treatments. However, the acceptability scores for sprouts remained within the acceptable range (≥6) up to 72 h at room temperature and 120 h at low temperature conditions. PMID:25328209

  17. Reduced white matter integrity in the cingulum and anterior corona radiata in posttraumatic stress disorder in male combat veterans: A diffusion tensor imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Sanjuan, Pilar Margaret; Thoma, Robert; Claus, Eric Daniel; Mays, Nicci; Caprihan, Arvind

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress (PTSD) and alcohol use (AUD) disorders are associated with abnormal anterior cingulate cortex/ventromedial prefrontal cortex, thalamus, and amygdala function, yet microstructural white matter (WM) differences in executive-limbic tracts are likely also involved. Investigating WM in limbic-thalamo-cortical tracts, this study hypothesized (1) fractional anisotropy (FA) in dorsal cingulum, parahippocampal cingulum, and anterior corona radiata (ACR) would be lower in individuals with comorbid PTSD/AUD compared to in individuals with AUD-only and (2) that FA would be related to both AUD and PTSD severity. 22 combat veterans with comorbid PTSD/AUD or AUD-only completed DTI scans. ANCOVAs indicated lower FA in right (F(df= 1,19)=9.091, P=0.0071) and left (F(df= 1,19) = 10.375, P=0.0045) dorsal cingulum and right ACR (F(df= 1,19) = 18.914, P= 0.0003) for individuals with comorbid PTSD/AUD vs. individuals with AUD-only, even controlling for alcohol use. Multiple linear regressions revealed that FA in the right ACR was inversely related to PTSD severity (r= −0.683, P=0.004). FA was not significantly related to alcohol severity. Reduced WM integrity in limbic-thalamo-cortical tracts is implicated in PTSD, even in the presence of comorbid AUD. These findings suggest that diminished WM integrity in tracts important for top-down control may be an important anomaly in PTSD and/or comorbid PTSD/AUD. PMID:24074963

  18. Biochemical and physiological characteristics of tropical mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) cultivars against chronic ozone stress: an insight to cultivar-specific response.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Amit Kumar; Agrawal, S B

    2015-05-01

    Surface-level ozone (O3) has been regarded as one of the most significant phytotoxic pollutants worldwide. Investigations addressing adverse impacts of elevated O3 on mung bean (Vigna radiata L.), an important leguminous crop of the Indian subcontinent, are still limited. The present study analyzed the differences on the foliar injury, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, antioxidative defense system, physiology, and foliar protein profile of two tropical mung bean cultivars (HUM-2 and HUM-6) exposed to elevated O3 under near-natural conditions. Both cultivars were negatively affected by the pollutant, but the response was cultivar-specific. Results revealed that elevated O3 induced higher levels of ROS (O2 (·-) and H2O2) and lipid peroxidation leading to greater foliar injury in HUM-2 compared to HUM-6. Photosynthetic pigments, photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, and photochemical efficiency reduced under elevated O3 exposure and the extent of reduction was higher in HUM-2. Principal component analysis revealed that photosynthetic performance and quantum yield were drastically affected in HUM-2 as compared to HUM-6. Activities of antioxidative enzymes were also stimulated, suggesting generation of oxidative stress under elevated O3. HUM-6 showed higher induction of antioxidative enzymes than HUM-2. One-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis showed drastic reductions in the abundantly present ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) large and small subunits and the decrease was higher in HUM-2. Altogether, results suggested that higher accumulation of ROS and limited induction of antioxidant defense system led to more leaf injury and impairment of photosynthesis in HUM-2 than HUM-6 depicting its higher sensitivity towards elevated O3. PMID:25326391

  19. Response of green gram (Vigna radiata L.) to an application of Minjingu Mazao fertilizer grown on Olasiti soils from Minjingu-Manyara, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kisetu, Eliakira; Teveli, Christina Ngomzee Medutieki

    2013-11-15

    A screen-house pot experiment was conducted to assess the response of green gram (Vigna radiata L.) to the application of Minjingu Mazao fertilizer (31% P2O5) on Olasiti soil, Manyara Region-Tanzania. This study was prompted by very low or limited use of Minjingu Mazao fertilizer by smallholder farmers in the country while yields turnout of most crops, green gram inclusive, is not promising. The soil was clay with medium pH (pH 5.5-7.0) and neutral reaction (pH 6.6-7.3). The results showed that the number of pods and seeds increased from 3-6 and 7-9, respectively, at 40 to 160 mg per 4 kg soil of fertilizer applied. Similarly, the tissue N and P increased with treatment levels. The number of pods per plant and seeds per pod showed similar increase, signifying the role of these nutrients in protein synthesis in leguminous plants like green gram. Soil properties could be the spearhead to low responses obtained at low (< 80 mg per 4 kg soil) and high (> 320 mg per 4 kg soil) rates of Minjingu Mazao fertilizer applied. It was concluded that to optimize green gram production in Olasiti soil, Minjingu Mazao fertilizer containing 31% P2O5 should be applied at a rate of 160-320 kg ha(-1) while considering other necessary agronomic practices. However, field studies to confirm the findings of this study and verify the usefulness of this fertilizer brand to green gram in Olasiti soil under field conditions could practically be the viable option before its recommendation to the smallholder farmers. PMID:24511709

  20. Structure, Function and Dynamics in Adenovirus Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Mangel, Walter F.; San Martín, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Here we review the current knowledge on maturation of adenovirus, a non-enveloped icosahedral eukaryotic virus. The adenovirus dsDNA genome fills the capsid in complex with a large amount of histone-like viral proteins, forming the core. Maturation involves proteolytic cleavage of several capsid and core precursor proteins by the viral protease (AVP). AVP uses a peptide cleaved from one of its targets as a “molecular sled” to slide on the viral genome and reach its substrates, in a remarkable example of one-dimensional chemistry. Immature adenovirus containing the precursor proteins lacks infectivity because of its inability to uncoat. The immature core is more compact and stable than the mature one, due to the condensing action of unprocessed core polypeptides; shell precursors underpin the vertex region and the connections between capsid and core. Maturation makes the virion metastable, priming it for stepwise uncoating by facilitating vertex release and loosening the condensed genome and its attachment to the icosahedral shell. The packaging scaffold protein L1 52/55k is also a substrate for AVP. Proteolytic processing of L1 52/55k disrupts its interactions with other virion components, providing a mechanism for its removal during maturation. Finally, possible roles for maturation of the terminal protein are discussed. PMID:25421887

  1. Structure, function and dynamics in adenovirus maturation

    SciTech Connect

    Mangel, Walter F.; San Martín, Carmen

    2014-11-21

    Here we review the current knowledge on maturation of adenovirus, a non-enveloped icosahedral eukaryotic virus. The adenovirus dsDNA genome fills the capsid in complex with a large amount of histone-like viral proteins, forming the core. Maturation involves proteolytic cleavage of several capsid and core precursor proteins by the viral protease (AVP). AVP uses a peptide cleaved from one of its targets as a “molecular sled” to slide on the viral genome and reach its substrates, in a remarkable example of one-dimensional chemistry. Immature adenovirus containing the precursor proteins lacks infectivity because of its inability to uncoat. The immature core is more compact and stable than the mature one, due to the condensing action of unprocessed core polypeptides; shell precursors underpin the vertex region and the connections between capsid and core. Maturation makes the virion metastable, priming it for stepwise uncoating by facilitating vertex release and loosening the condensed genome and its attachment to the icosahedral shell. The packaging scaffold protein L1 52/55k is also a substrate for AVP. Proteolytic processing of L1 52/55k disrupts its interactions with other virion components, providing a mechanism for its removal during maturation. In conclusion, possible roles for maturation of the terminal protein are discussed.

  2. Structure, function and dynamics in adenovirus maturation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mangel, Walter F.; San Martín, Carmen

    2014-11-21

    Here we review the current knowledge on maturation of adenovirus, a non-enveloped icosahedral eukaryotic virus. The adenovirus dsDNA genome fills the capsid in complex with a large amount of histone-like viral proteins, forming the core. Maturation involves proteolytic cleavage of several capsid and core precursor proteins by the viral protease (AVP). AVP uses a peptide cleaved from one of its targets as a “molecular sled” to slide on the viral genome and reach its substrates, in a remarkable example of one-dimensional chemistry. Immature adenovirus containing the precursor proteins lacks infectivity because of its inability to uncoat. The immature core ismore » more compact and stable than the mature one, due to the condensing action of unprocessed core polypeptides; shell precursors underpin the vertex region and the connections between capsid and core. Maturation makes the virion metastable, priming it for stepwise uncoating by facilitating vertex release and loosening the condensed genome and its attachment to the icosahedral shell. The packaging scaffold protein L1 52/55k is also a substrate for AVP. Proteolytic processing of L1 52/55k disrupts its interactions with other virion components, providing a mechanism for its removal during maturation. In conclusion, possible roles for maturation of the terminal protein are discussed.« less

  3. Effect of hemiplegia on skeletal maturation.

    PubMed

    Roberts, C D; Vogtle, L; Stevenson, R D

    1994-11-01

    Children with cerebral palsy have been reported to have poor growth and delayed skeletal maturation, but it is unclear whether these effects are related to the underlying brain injury or to concomitant malnutrition. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of hemiplegic cerebral palsy on skeletal maturation and growth, with the unaffected side used as each subject's control. Bilateral hand-wrist radiographs were obtained for 19 children with spastic hemiplegia. Skeletal maturation was determined in a blinded fashion with the Fels method. The skeletal age of the affected (hemiplegic) side was less than that of the unaffected (control) side in all 19 subjects; the mean difference in skeletal age was 7.3 months (p < 0.001). The delay in skeletal maturation of the affected side correlated linearly with age and upper extremity function. These findings show that brain injury results in delayed skeletal maturation independent of malnutrition. This effect on skeletal maturation may explain, in part, the reason that some children with cerebral palsy grow poorly. PMID:7965443

  4. Review of Sexual Maturity in the Minipig.

    PubMed

    Howroyd, Paul C; Peter, Birgit; de Rijk, Eveline

    2016-06-01

    It is important to know whether the animals used in toxicology studies are sexually mature. As minipigs are being used increasingly in toxicity studies, we reviewed published data on the age of sexual maturity in the minipig. Maturity in females was assessed on the basis either of normal cycles of progesterone secretion or of the histological presence of corpora lutea and, in males, was assessed on the histological appearance of the seminiferous tubules and epididymides. In female Göttingen minipigs, the first progesterone peak was at 3.7 to 4.2 or 6.1 to 6.5 months of age. These animals were in the presence of a boar. In female Göttingen minipigs in toxicology studies, which were not in the presence of a boar, at least 1 corpus luteum in the ovaries was present in only 50% of the females by 6.5 months of age, while all were mature by 7.7 months of age. Histological maturity in the male Yucatan minipig is reported to be attained at about 4.4 months old, but in male Göttingen minipigs at about 2 months old, although the definition of maturity may have been different in the 2 studies. PMID:27102651

  5. Color back projection for fruit maturity evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dong; Lee, Dah-Jye; Desai, Alok

    2013-12-01

    In general, fruits and vegetables such as tomatoes and dates are harvested before they fully ripen. After harvesting, they continue to ripen and their color changes. Color is a good indicator of fruit maturity. For example, tomatoes change color from dark green to light green and then pink, light red, and dark red. Assessing tomato maturity helps maximize its shelf life. Color is used to determine the length of time the tomatoes can be transported. Medjool dates change color from green to yellow, and the orange, light red and dark red. Assessing date maturity helps determine the length of drying process to help ripen the dates. Color evaluation is an important step in the processing and inventory control of fruits and vegetables that directly affects profitability. This paper presents an efficient color back projection and image processing technique that is designed specifically for real-time maturity evaluation of fruits. This color processing method requires very simple training procedure to obtain the frequencies of colors that appear in each maturity stage. This color statistics is used to back project colors to predefined color indexes. Fruit maturity is then evaluated by analyzing the reprojected color indexes. This method has been implemented and used for commercial production.

  6. Maturation processing and characterization of streptopain.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chiu-Yueh; Luo, Shih-Chi; Kuo, Chih-Feng; Lin, Yee-Shin; Wu, Jiunn-Jong; Lin, Ming T; Liu, Ching-Chuan; Jeng, Wen-Yih; Chuang, Woei-Jer

    2003-05-01

    Streptopain is a cysteine protease expressed by Streptococcus pyogenes. To study the maturation mechanism of streptopain, wild-type and Q186N, C192S, H340R, N356D and W357A mutant proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. Proteolytic analyses showed that the maturation of prostreptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B zymogen (pro-SPE B) involves eight intermediates with a combination of cis- and trans-processing. Based on the sequences of these intermediates, the substrate specificity of streptopain favors a hydrophobic residue at the P2 site. The relative autocatalytic rates of these mutants exhibited the order Q186N > W357A > N356D, C192S, H340R. Interestingly, the N356D mutant containing protease activity could not be converted into the 28-kDa form by autoprocessing. This observation suggested that Asn(356) might involve the cis-processing of the propeptide. In addition, the maturation rates of pro-SPE B with trypsin and plasmin were 10- and 60-fold slower than that with active mature streptopain. These findings indicate that active mature streptopain likely plays the most important role in the maturation of pro-SPE B under physiological conditions. PMID:12621045

  7. Effects of drought and irrigation on ecosystem functioning in a mature Scots pine forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbertin, Matthias; Brunner, Ivano; Egli, Simon; Eilmann, Britta; Graf Pannatier, Eisabeth; Schleppi, Patrick; Zingg, Andreas; Rigling, Andreas

    2010-05-01

    Climate change is expected to increase temperature and reduce summer precipitation in Switzerland. To study the expected effects of increased drought in mature forests two different approaches are in general possible: water can be partially or completely removed from the ecosystems via above- or below-canopy roofs or water can be added to already drought-prone ecosystems. Both methods have advantages and disadvantages. In our study water was added to a mature 90-year old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forest with a few singe pubescent oaks (Quercus pubescens Willd.), located in the valley bottom of the driest region of Switzerland (Valais). In Valais, Scots pines are declining, usually with increased mortality rates following drought years. It was therefore of special interest to study here how water addition is changing forest ecosystem functioning. The irrigation experiment started in the summer of 2003. Out of eight 0.1 ha experimental plots, four were randomly selected for irrigation, the other four left as a control. Irrigation occurred during rainless nights between April and October, doubling the annual rainfall amount from 650 to 1300 mm. Irrigation water, taken from a near-by irrigation channel, added some nutrients to the plots, but nutrients which were deficient on the site, e.g. nitrogen and phosphorus, were not altered. Tree diameter, tree height and crown width were assessed before the start of the irrigation in winter 2002/2003 and after 7 years of the experiment in 2009/2010. Tree crown transparency (lack of foliage) and leaf area index (LAI) were annually assessed. Additionally, tree mortality was annually evaluated. Mycorrhizal fruit bodies were identified and counted at weekly intervals from 2003 until 2007. Root samples were taken in 2004 and 2005. In 2004 and 2005 wood formation of thirteen trees was analysed in weekly or biweekly intervals using the pinning method. These trees were felled in 2006 for stem, shoot and needle growth analysis

  8. The Influence of Pinus brutia on the Water Balance of Fractured Mediterranean Mountain Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliades, Marinos; Bruggeman, Adriana; Lubczynski, Maciek; Christou, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    In dry Mediterranean environments, both rainfall and temperature vary throughout the year and frequent droughts occur. The mountainous topography is characterized by steep slopes, often leading to shallow soil layers with limited water storage capacity. While for most of the tree species, these conditions can be characterized as unfavourable, Pinus brutia trees manage to survive and thrive. The main objective of this study is to define and quantify the water balance components of a Pinus brutia forest at tree level. Our study was conducted from 30/12/2014 until 31/09/2015 in an 8966-m2 fenced area of Pinus brutia forest. The site is located on the northern foothills of Troodos mountain at 620 m elevation, in Cyprus. The slope of the site ranged between 0 and 82%. The average daily minimum temperature is 5 0C in January and the average daily maximum temperature is 35 oC in August. The mean annual rainfall is 425 mm. We measured the diameter at breast height (DBH) from a total of 122 trees. Based on the average DBH, four trees were selected for monitoring (two were above the average DBH and two were below). We measured soil depth in a 1-m grid around each of the four selected trees. We processed soil depths in ArcGIS software (ESRI) to create a soil depth map. We used a Total Station and a differential GPS for the creation of a high resolution DEM of the area covering the four selected trees. We installed soil moisture sensors at 15-cm depth at distances of 1 and 2 m from the selected trees and a second sensor at 30-cm depth when the soil was deeper than 20 cm.. We randomly installed four metric manual rain gauges under each trees' canopy to measure throughfall and for stemflow we installed a plastic tube around each tree trunk and connected it to a manual rain gauge. We used six sap flow heat ratio method instruments to determine sap flow rates of the Pinus brutia trees. Two trees had one sensor installed at 1.3 m height facing north. The remaining trees had two sap

  9. Molecular phylogenetics and evolutionary history of sect. Quinquefoliae (Pinus): implications for Northern Hemisphere biogeography.

    PubMed

    Hao, Zhen-Zhen; Liu, Yan-Yan; Nazaire, Mare; Wei, Xiao-Xin; Wang, Xiao-Quan

    2015-06-01

    Climatic changes and tectonic events in the Cenozoic have greatly influenced the evolution and geographic distribution of the temperate flora. Such consequences should be most evident in plant groups that are ancient, widespread, and diverse. As one of the most widespread genera of trees, Pinus provides a good model for investigating the history of species diversification and biogeographic disjunction in the Northern Hemisphere. In this study, we reconstructed the phylogeny and investigated the evolutionary and biogeographic history of sect. Quinquefoliae (Pinus), a species-rich lineage disjunctly distributed in Asia, Europe and North America, based on complete taxon sampling and by using nine DNA fragments from chloroplast (cp), mitochondrial (mt) and nuclear genomes. The monophyly of the three subsections, Krempfianae, Gerardianae, and Strobus, is well-supported by cpDNA and nuclear gene phylogenies. However, neither subsect. Gerardianae nor subsect. Strobus forms a monophyletic group in the mtDNA phylogeny, in which sect. Quinquefoliae was divided into two major clades, one consisting of the North American and northeastern Asian species as well as the European P. peuce of subsect. Strobus, and the other comprising the remaining Eurasian species belonging to three subsections. The significant topological incongruence among the gene trees, in conjunction with divergence time estimation and ancestral area reconstruction, indicates that both ancient and relatively recent introgressive hybridization events occurred in the evolution of sect. Quinquefoliae, particularly in northeastern Asia and northwestern North America. In addition, the phylogenetic analysis suggests that the species of subsect. Strobus from subtropical eastern Asia and neighboring areas may have a single origin, although species non-monophyly is very widespread in the nuclear gene trees. Moreover, our study seems to support a Tethyan origin of sect. Quinquefoliae given the distributions and

  10. Metal(loid) allocation and nutrient retranslocation in Pinus halepensis trees growing on semiarid mine tailings.

    PubMed

    Parraga-Aguado, Isabel; Querejeta, Jose-Ignacio; González-Alcaraz, María Nazaret; Conesa, Hector M

    2014-07-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate internal metal(loid) cycling and the risk of metal(loid) accumulation in litter from Pinus halepensis trees growing at a mine tailing disposal site in semiarid Southeast Spain. Internal nutrient retranslocation was also evaluated in order to gain insight into the ability of pine trees to cope with the low-fertility soil conditions at the tailings. We measured metal(loid) concentrations in the foliage (young and old needles), woody stems and fresh leaf litter of pine trees growing on tailings. The nutrient status and stable isotope composition of pine foliage (δ(13)C, δ(15)N, δ(18)O as indicators of photosynthesis and water use efficiency) were also analyzed. Tailing soil properties in vegetation patches and in adjacent bare soil patches were characterized as well. Significant amounts of metal(loid)s such us Cd, Cu, Pb and Sb were immobilized in the woody stems of Pinus halepensis trees growing on tailings. Leaf litterfall showed high concentrations of As, Cd, Sb, Pb and Zn, which thereby return to the soil. However, water extractable metal(loid) concentrations in tailing soils were similar between vegetation patches (mineral soil under the litter layer) and bare soil patches. The pines growing on mine tailings showed very low foliar P concentrations in all leaf age classes, which suggests severe P deficiency. Young (current year) needles showed lower accumulation of metal(loid)s, higher nutrient concentrations (P and K), and higher water use efficiency (as indicated by and δ(13)C and δ(18)O data) than older needles. Substantial nutrient resorption occurred before leaf litterfall, with 46% retranslocation efficiency for P and 89% for K. In conclusion, phytostabilization of semiarid mine tailings with Pinus halepensis is feasible but would require careful monitoring of the trace elements released from litterfall, in order to assess the long term risk of metal(loid) transfer to the food chain. PMID:24742549

  11. Novel taxa in the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex from Pinus spp.

    PubMed Central

    Herron, D.A.; Wingfield, M.J.; Wingfield, B.D.; Rodas, C.A.; Marincowitz, S.; Steenkamp, E.T.

    2015-01-01

    The pitch canker pathogen Fusarium circinatum has caused devastation to Pinus spp. in natural forests and non-natives in commercially managed plantations. This has drawn attention to the potential importance of Fusarium species as pathogens of forest trees. In this study, we explored the diversity of Fusarium species associated with diseased Pinus patula, P. tecunumanii, P. kesiya and P. maximinoi in Colombian plantations and nurseries. Plants displaying symptoms associated with a F. circinatum-like infection (i.e., stem cankers and branch die-back on trees in plantations and root or collar rot of seedlings) were sampled. A total of 57 isolates were collected and characterised based on DNA sequence data for the translation elongation factor 1-α and β-tubulin gene regions. Phylogenetic analyses of these data allowed for the identification of more than 10 Fusarium species. These included F. circinatum, F. oxysporum, species within the Fusarium solani species complex and seven novel species in the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (formerly the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex), five of which are described here as new. Selected isolates of the new species were tested for their pathogenicity on Pinus patula and compared with that of F. circinatum. Of these, F. marasasianum, F. parvisorum and F. sororula displayed levels of pathogenicity to P. patula that were comparable with that of F. circinatum. These apparently emerging pathogens thus pose a significant risk to forestry in Colombia and other parts of the world. PMID:26955193

  12. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry study of sterols from Pinus elliotti tissues.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laseter, J. L.; Evans, R.; Weete, J. D.; Walkinshaw, C. H.

    1973-01-01

    A comparative study of the sterol components of slash pine (Pinus elliotti) callus tissue cultures, seeds, and seedlings was carried out using GC-MS techniques. Cholesterol, desmosterol, campesterol, stigmasterol, sitosterol and cycloeucalenol were identified in all tissues while lophenol and 24-methylenelophenol were identified in only the seed and seedlings. 24-Ethylidenelophenol was detected in trace concentrations in only the seedlings. Sitosterol was the predominant sterol component, i.e., 80.8, 38.1 and 47.8% of the tissue culture, seed and seedling sterols, respectively.

  13. Consumption of seeds of southwestern white pine (Pinus strobiformis) by Black Bear (Ursus americanus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattson, David J.; Arundel, Terry A.

    2013-01-01

    We report a discovery of black bears (Ursus americanus) consuming seeds of southwestern white pine (Pinus strobiformis) on north slopes of the San Francisco Peaks near Flagstaff, Arizona, in high-elevation, mixed-species conifer forest. In one instance, a bear had obtained seeds from cones excavated from a larder horde made by a red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). Consumption of seeds of southwestern white pine by bears had not been previously documented. This discovery adds to the number of species of pine used by bears for food as well as the geographic range within which the behavior occurs.

  14. Changes in soil quality due to converting Pinus to Eucalyptus plantations and subsequent successive Eucalyptus planting in southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, K.; Zheng, H.; Chen, F. L.; Ouyang, Z. Y.; Wang, Y.; Wu, Y. F.; Lan, J.; Fu, M.; Xiang, X. W.

    2014-09-01

    Plants play a key role in maintaining soil quality, but long-term changes in soil quality due to plant species change and successive planting are rarely reported. Using the space-for-time substitution method, adjacent plantations of Pinus and 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th generations of Eucalyptus in Guangxi, China were used to study changes in soil quality caused by converting Pinus to Eucalyptus and successive Eucalyptus planting. Soil chemical and biological properties were measured and a soil quality index (SQI) was calculated. Soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, alkaline hydrolytic nitrogen, microbial biomass carbon, microbial biomass nitrogen, cellobiosidase, phenol oxidase, peroxidase and acid phosphatase activities significantly decreased in the 1st and 2nd generations of Eucalyptus plantations after conversion from Pinus to Eucalyptus but gradually recovered in the 3rd and 4th generations. Soil total and available potassium were significantly lower, but total phosphorus was significantly higher in Eucalyptus plantations compared to the Pinus plantation. As an integrated indicator, SQI was highest in the Pinus plantation (0.92), but decreased to 0.24 and 0.13 in the 1st and 2nd generations of Eucalyptus plantations, respectively. However, it recovered to 0.36 and 0.38 in the 3rd and 4th generations, respectively. Changing tree species, reclamation and fertilization may have contributed to the "U" shaped change observed in soil quality during conversion of Pinus to Eucalyptus and successive Eucalyptus planting. Litter retention, keeping understory coverage, and reducing soil disturbance during logging and subsequent establishment of the next rotation should be considered to help improving soil quality during plantation management.

  15. Comparison of maturity based on steroid and vanadyl porphyrin parameters: A new vanadyl porphyrin maturity parameter for higher maturities

    SciTech Connect

    Sundararaman, P. ); Moldowan, J.M. )

    1993-03-01

    Correlations are demonstrated between steriod maturity parameters and the porphyrin maturity parameter (PMP) which is based on the ratio of specific vanadyl porphyrins C[sub 28]E/(C[sub 28]E + C[sub 32]D) measured by HPLC. Measurements from a global selection of >100 rock extracts and oils show that PMP parallels changes in the C[sub 29]-sterane 20S/(20S + 20R) and tri/(tri + mono) aromatic steroid ratios, and that all three parameters appear to attain their maximum values at similar maturity levels. The triaromatic steroid side chain cracking parameter, TA I/(I + II), reaches approximately 20% of its maximum value when PMP has reached 100%. These results suggest that PMP is effective in the early to peak portion of the oil window. A new parameter, PMP-2, based on changes in the relative concentrations of two peaks in the HPLC fingerprint (vanadyl [open quotes]etio[close quotes] porphyrins), appears effective in assessing the maturity of source rocks beyond peak oil generation. In combination with PMP this parameter extends the effective range of vanadyl porphyrins parameters to higher maturities as demonstrated by a suite of oils from the Oriente Basin, Ecuador, South America. 22 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  16. AmeriFlux CA-TPD Ontario - Turkey Point Mature Deciduous

    SciTech Connect

    Arain, M. Altaf

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site CA-TPD Ontario - Turkey Point Mature Deciduous. Site Description - The forest is approximately 90 years old. Naturally regenerated on sandy terrain and abandoned agricultural land. Predominantly hardwood species with a few scattered conifers. Site has been managed (thinned) in the past. It has a high biodiversity with 573 tree and plant species, 102 bird species, 23 mamal species and 22 reptile and amphibian species (SWALSREP Report, 1999). The dominant tree species is white oak (Quercus alba), with other scattered broadleaf Carolinian species including sugar and red maple (Acer saccharum, A. rubrum), American beech (Fagus grandifolia), black and red oak (Q. velutina, Q. rubra) and white ash (Fraxinus americana) . There are also scattered conifers, mostly white and red pine (Pinus strobes, P. resinosa), comprising about 5% of the trees. Average tree height is 25.7 m with a stand density of 504 ± 18 trees per hectare. Average tree diameter at breast height is 22.3 cm and basal area is 0.06 m2 or approximately 29 square meters per hectare.

  17. Growth responses of mature loblolly pine to dead wood.manipulations.

    SciTech Connect

    Ulyshen, Michael D.; Horn, Scott; Hanula, James L.

    2012-04-01

    Large-scale manipulations of dead wood in mature Pinus taeda L. stands in the southeastern United States included a major one-time input of logs (fivefold increase in log volume) created by felling trees onsite, annual removals of all dead wood above >10 cm in diameter and >60 cm in length, and a reference in which no manipulations took place. We returned over a decade later to determine how these treatments affected tree growth using increment cores. There were no significant differences in tree density, basal area or tree diameters among treatments at the time of sampling. Although tree growth was consistently higher in the log-input plots and lower in the removal plots, this was true even during the 5 year period before the experiment began. When growth data from this initial period were included in the model as a covariate, no differences in post-treatment tree growth were detected. It is possible that treatment effects will become apparent after more time has passed, however.

  18. Source rock maturation, San Juan sag

    SciTech Connect

    Gries, R.R.; Clayton, J.L.

    1989-09-01

    Kinetic modeling for thermal histories was simulated for seven wells in the San Juan sag honoring measured geochemical data. Wells in the area of Del Norte field (Sec. 9, T40N, R5E), where minor production has been established from an igneous sill reservoir, show that the Mancos Shale source rocks are in the mature oil generation window as a combined result of high regional heat flow and burial by approximately 2,700 m of Oligocene volcanic rocks. Maturation was relatively recent for this area and insignificant during Laramide subsidence. In the vicinity of Gramps field (Sec. 24, T33N, R2E) on the southwest flank of the San Juan sag, these same source rocks are exposed due to erosion of the volcanic cover but appear to have undergone a similar maturation history. At the north and south margins of the sag, two wells (Champlin 34A-13, Sec. 13, T35N, R4.5E; and Champlin 24A-1, Sec. 1, T44N, R5E) were analyzed and revealed that although the regional heat flow was probably similar to other wells, the depth of burial was insufficient to cause maturation (except where intruded by thick igneous sills that caused localized maturation). The Meridian Oil 23-17 South Fork well (Sec. 17, T39N, R4E) was drilled in a deeper part of the San Juan sag, and source rocks were intruded by numerous igneous sills creating a complex maturation history that includes overmature rocks in the lowermost Mancos Shale, possible CO{sub 2} generation from the calcareous Niobrara Member of the Mancos Shale, and mature source rocks in the upper Mancos Shale.

  19. Changes in cellular structures and enzymatic activities during browning of Scots pine callus derived from mature buds.

    PubMed

    Laukkanen, Hanna; Rautiainen, Lea; Taulavuori, Erja; Hohtola, Anja

    2000-04-01

    Visible browning is a typical feature of callus cultures derived from shoot tips of mature Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Because the ability of callus to regenerate is low, we determined the effect of browning on growth and changes in cellular structure during culture. Striking alterations in cellular structure were detected by LM (light microscopy), EM (electron microscopy) and SEM (scanning electron microscopy). Accumulation of phenolic substances was shown by histochemical staining. Staining for beta-glucosidase activity of soluble proteins that had been subjected to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicated lignification of cells. The measured growth rate of callus was low compared with a hypothetical growth curve. Peroxidase activity increased rapidly soon after the start of the culture period, but especially between the second and third weeks of culture. At this time, the degradation of cell membranes and browning began coincident with the loss of chlorophyll. We conclude that browning is associated with cell disorganization and eventual cell death, making tissue culture of mature pine especially difficult. PMID:12651442

  20. Maturity Model for Advancing Smart Grid Interoperability

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, Mark; Widergren, Steven E.; Mater, J.; Montgomery, Austin

    2013-10-28

    Abstract—Interoperability is about the properties of devices and systems to connect and work properly. Advancing interoperability eases integration and maintenance of the resulting interconnection. This leads to faster integration, lower labor and component costs, predictability of projects and the resulting performance, and evolutionary paths for upgrade. When specifications are shared and standardized, competition and novel solutions can bring new value streams to the community of stakeholders involved. Advancing interoperability involves reaching agreement for how things join at their interfaces. The quality of the agreements and the alignment of parties involved in the agreement present challenges that are best met with process improvement techniques. The GridWise® Architecture Council (GWAC) sponsored by the United States Department of Energy is supporting an effort to use concepts from capability maturity models used in the software industry to advance interoperability of smart grid technology. An interoperability maturity model has been drafted and experience is being gained through trials on various types of projects and community efforts. This paper describes the value and objectives of maturity models, the nature of the interoperability maturity model and how it compares with other maturity models, and experiences gained with its use.

  1. Simulation of Tsunami Resistance of a Pinus Thunbergii tree in Coastal Forest in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanko, K.; Suzuki, S.; Noguchi, H.; Hagino, H.

    2015-12-01

    Forests reduce fluid force of tsunami, whereas extreme tsunami sometimes breaks down the forest trees. It is difficult to estimate the interactive relationship between the fluid and the trees because fluid deform tree architecture and deformed tree changes flow field. Dynamic tree deformation and fluid behavior should be clarified by fluid-structure interaction analysis. For the initial step, we have developed dynamic simulation of tree sway and breakage caused by tsunami based on a vibrating system with multiple degrees of freedom. The target specie of the simulation was Japanese black pine (pinus thunbergii), which is major specie in the coastal forest to secure livelihood area from the damage by blown sand and salt in Japanese coastal area. For the simulation, a tree was segmented into 0.2 m long circular truncated cones. Turning moment induced by tsunami and self-weight was calculated at each segment bottom. Tree deformation was computed on multi-degree-of-freedom vibration equation. Tree sway was simulated by iterative calculation of the tree deformation with time step 0.05 second with temporally varied flow velocity of tsunami. From the calculation of bending stress and turning moment at tree base, we estimated resistance of a Pinus thunbergii tree from tsunami against tree breakage.

  2. The complete chloroplast genome of the Taiwan red pine Pinus taiwanensis (Pinaceae).

    PubMed

    Fang, Min-Feng; Wang, Yu-Jin; Zu, Yu-Meng; Dong, Wan-Lin; Wang, Ruo-Nan; Deng, Tuan-Tuan; Li, Zhong-Hu

    2016-07-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the Taiwan red pine Pinus taiwanensis Hayata chloroplast genome (cpDNA) is determined in this study. The genome is composed of 119,741 bp in length, containing a pair of very short inverted repeat (IRa and IRb) regions of 495 bp, which was divided by a large single-copy (LSC) region of 65,670 bp and a small single-copy (SSC) region of 53,080 bp in length. The cpDNA contained 115 genes, including 74 protein-coding genes (73 PCG species), 4 ribosomal RNA genes (four rRNA species) and 37 tRNA genes (22 tRNA species). Out of these genes, 12 harbored a single intron, and one (rps12) contained a couple of introns. The overall AT content of the Taiwan red pine cpDNA is 61.5%, while the corresponding values of the LSC, SSC and IR regions are 62.2%, 60.6% and 63.6%, respectively. A maximum parsimony phylogenetic analysis suggested that the genus Pinus, Picea, Abies and Larix were strongly supported as monophyletic, and the cpDNA of P. taiwanensis is closely related to that of P. thunbergii. PMID:26057016

  3. Impact of Pinus Afforestation on Soil Chemical Attributes and Organic Matter in South Brazilian highlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinheiro Dick, D.; Benvenuti Leite, S.; Dalmolin, R.; Almeida, H.; Knicker, H.; Martinazzo, R.

    2009-04-01

    The region known as Campos de Cima da Serra, located at 800 to 1400 m above sea level in the northeas of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, is covered by a mosaic of natural grassland and Araucaria forest. Cattle raising, introduced by the first European settlers about 200 years ago, is the traditional economic activity in the region, occurring extensively and continuously on the natural pasture. In the last 30 years, while seeking for higher profits, local farmers have introduced agricultural crops and Pinus Taeda plantations in the original pasture lands. Pinus plantations are established in this area as dense monocultures and not as a sylvipastoral system, representing, thus, a severe threaten to the Campos' biodiversity. The soils are shallow, though very acidic (pH 4.2) and rich in exchangeable Al (28 to 47% of Al saturation), and present high contents of SOM in the surface layer (in general, higher than 4 %), which shows a low decomposition degree, as indicated by its high proportion of C-O alkyl groups (51 to 59 %). Considering that the biome sustainability of this region is being progressively affected by the change of land use and that systematic studies about exotic trees afforestation in that region are very scarce, our main objective was to investigate the impact of the introduction of Pinus on the SOM composition and chemical attributes of highland soils in 8 (Pi8) and 30 (Pi30) years old plantations, using as reference the original condition under native pasture (NP). In each studied Leptosol, soil samples were collected from three layers down to 15 cm ( 0-5 cm, 5-10 cm and 10-15 cm). Contents of exchangeable cations and of micronutrients and soil pH were determined. The SOM composition was investigated by means of elemental analyses, FTIR and fluorescence spectroscopy (three replicates). Prior to the spectroscopic analyses, samples were demineralized with 10% HF solution and organic matter loss was monitored. From the FTIR spectra, an aromaticity index

  4. Crystallization and initial crystallographic characterization of a vicilin-type seed storage protein from Pinus koraiensis

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Tengchuan; Fu, Tong-Jen; Kothary, Mahendra H.; Howard, Andrew; Zhang, Yu-Zhu

    2007-12-01

    In this study, the Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) vicilin-type 7S seed storage protein was isolated from defatted pine-nut extract and purified by sequential gel-filtration and anion-exchange chromatography. Well diffracting single crystals were obtained by the vapour-diffusion method in hanging drops. The cupin superfamily of proteins includes the 7S and 11S seed storage proteins. Many members of this family of proteins are known allergens. In this study, the Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) vicilin-type 7S seed storage protein was isolated from defatted pine-nut extract and purified by sequential gel-filtration and anion-exchange chromatography. Well diffracting single crystals were obtained by the vapor-diffusion method in hanging drops. The crystals belong to the primitive cubic space group P2{sub 1}3, with unit-cell parameters a = b = c = 148.174 Å. Two vicilin molecules were present in the asymmetric unit and the Matthews coefficient was determined to be 2.90 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1}, with a corresponding solvent content of ∼58%. A molecular-replacement structural solution has been obtained using the program Phaser. Refinement of the structure is currently under way.

  5. Unique features of the loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) megagenome revealed through sequence annotation.

    PubMed

    Wegrzyn, Jill L; Liechty, John D; Stevens, Kristian A; Wu, Le-Shin; Loopstra, Carol A; Vasquez-Gross, Hans A; Dougherty, William M; Lin, Brian Y; Zieve, Jacob J; Martínez-García, Pedro J; Holt, Carson; Yandell, Mark; Zimin, Aleksey V; Yorke, James A; Crepeau, Marc W; Puiu, Daniela; Salzberg, Steven L; Dejong, Pieter J; Mockaitis, Keithanne; Main, Doreen; Langley, Charles H; Neale, David B

    2014-03-01

    The largest genus in the conifer family Pinaceae is Pinus, with over 100 species. The size and complexity of their genomes (∼20-40 Gb, 2n = 24) have delayed the arrival of a well-annotated reference sequence. In this study, we present the annotation of the first whole-genome shotgun assembly of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.), which comprises 20.1 Gb of sequence. The MAKER-P annotation pipeline combined evidence-based alignments and ab initio predictions to generate 50,172 gene models, of which 15,653 are classified as high confidence. Clustering these gene models with 13 other plant species resulted in 20,646 gene families, of which 1554 are predicted to be unique to conifers. Among the conifer gene families, 159 are composed exclusively of loblolly pine members. The gene models for loblolly pine have the highest median and mean intron lengths of 24 fully sequenced plant genomes. Conifer genomes are full of repetitive DNA, with the most significant contributions from long-terminal-repeat retrotransposons. In depth analysis of the tandem and interspersed repetitive content yielded a combined estimate of 82%. PMID:24653211

  6. The complete chloroplast genome of Armand pine Pinus armandii, an endemic conifer tree species to China.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhong-Hu; Qian, Zeng-Qiang; Liu, Zhan-Lin; Deng, Tuan-Tuan; Zu, Yu-Meng; Zhao, Peng; Zhao, Gui-Fang

    2016-07-01

    The complete chloroplast genome (cpDNA) sequence of an endemic conifer species, Armand pine Pinus armandii Franch., is determined in this study. The cpDNA was 117,265 bp in length, containing a pair of 475 bp inverted repeat (IR) regions those distinguished in large and small single copy (LSC and SSC) regions of 64,548 and 51,767 bp in length, respectively. The cpDNA contained 114 genes, including 74 protein-coding genes (74 PCG species), 4 ribosomal RNA genes (four rRNA species) and 36 transfer RNA genes (33 tRNA species). Out of these genes, 12 harbor a single intron and most of the genes occurred in a single copy. The overall AT content of the Armand pine cpDNA was 61.2%, while the corresponding values of the LSC, SSC and IR regions were 62.0%, 60.2% and 62.7%, respectively. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that P. armandii chloroplast genome is closely related to that of the P. koraiensis within the genus Pinus. PMID:26024147

  7. [Spectral features analysis of Pinus massoniana with pest of Dendrolimus punctatus Walker and levels detection].

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhang-Hua; Liu, Jian; Yu, Kun-Yong; Gong, Cong-Hong; Xie, Wan-Jun; Tang, Meng-Ya; Lai, Ri-Wen; Li, Zeng-Lu

    2013-02-01

    Taking 51 field measured hyperspectral data with different pest levels in Yanping, Fujian Province as objects, the spectral reflectance and first derivative features of 4 levels of healthy, mild, moderate and severe insect pest were analyzed. On the basis of 7 detecting parameters construction, the pest level detecting models were built. The results showed that (1) the spectral reflectance of Pinus massoniana with pests were significantly lower than that of healthy state, and the higher the pest level, the lower the reflectance; (2) with the increase in pest level, the spectral reflectance curves' "green peak" and "red valley" of Pinus massoniana gradually disappeared, and the red edge was leveleds (3) the pest led to spectral "green peak" red shift, red edge position blue shift, but the changes in "red valley" and near-infrared position were complicated; (4) CARI, RES, REA and REDVI were highly relevant to pest levels, and the correlations between REP, RERVI, RENDVI and pest level were weak; (5) the multiple linear regression model with the variables of the 7 detection parameters could effectively detect the pest levels of Dendrolimus punctatus Walker, with both the estimation rate and accuracy above 0.85. PMID:23697126

  8. Catalytic Conversion of Pinus densiflora Over Mesoporous Catalysts Using Pyrolysis Process.

    PubMed

    Joo, Sung Kyun; Lee, In-Gu; Lee, Hyung Won; Chea, Kwang-Seok; Jo, Tae Su; Jung, Sang-Chul; Kim, Sang Chai; Ko, Chang Hyun; Park, Young-Kwon

    2016-02-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis experiments were conducted to investigate the possibility of obtaining valuable chemicals from Pinus densiflora, a native Korean tree species occupying 21.4% of the total area under forests in South Korea. Two representative mesoporous catalysts, Al-MCM-41 and Al-MSU-F, as well as hierarchical mesoporous MFI (Meso-MFI) that has both mesopores and micropores, were used as catalysts. Compared to non-catalytic pyrolysis, catalytic pyrolysis was shown to reduce the fractions of levoglucosan, phenolics, and acids in bio-oil, while increasing the fractions of aromatics, PAHs, and furans. Meso-MFI with strong acid sites showed a high selectivity toward aromatics and PAHs, whereas Al-MCM-41 and Al-MSU-F with weak acid sites exhibited a high selectivity toward furanic compounds. The results of this study indicate that choosing a catalyst with an adequate quantity of acidic sites with the required strength is critical for enhancing the production of desired chemicals from Pinus densiflora. PMID:27433632

  9. Fire-adapted traits of Pinus arose in the fiery Cretaceous.

    PubMed

    He, Tianhua; Pausas, Juli G; Belcher, Claire M; Schwilk, Dylan W; Lamont, Byron B

    2012-05-01

    • The mapping of functional traits onto chronograms is an emerging approach for the identification of how agents of natural selection have shaped the evolution of organisms. Recent research has reported fire-dependent traits appearing among flowering plants from 60 million yr ago (Ma). Although there are many records of fossil charcoal in the Cretaceous (65-145 Ma), evidence of fire-dependent traits evolving in that period is lacking. • We link the evolutionary trajectories for five fire-adapted traits in Pinaceae with paleoatmospheric conditions over the last 250 million yr to determine the time at which fire originated as a selective force in trait evolution among seed plants. • Fire-protective thick bark originated in Pinus c. 126 Ma in association with low-intensity surface fires. More intense crown fires emerged c. 89 Ma coincident with thicker bark and branch shedding, or serotiny with branch retention as an alternative strategy. These innovations appeared at the same time as the Earth's paleoatmosphere experienced elevated oxygen levels that led to high burn probabilities during the mid-Cretaceous. • The fiery environments of the Cretaceous strongly influenced trait evolution in Pinus. Our evidence for a strong correlation between the evolution of fire-response strategies and changes in fire regime 90-125 Ma greatly backdates the key role that fire has played in the evolution of seed plants. PMID:22348443

  10. Photosynthetic temperature adaptation of Pinus cembra within the timberline ecotone of the Central Austrian Alps

    PubMed Central

    Wieser, Gerhard; Oberhuber, Walter; Walder, Lisa; Spieler, Daniela; Gruber, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Temperature is suggested to determine the upper limit of tree life. Therefore, future climate warming may be of importance for tree distribution within the European Alps, where low temperatures limit carbon metabolism. We focused on the effects of air and soil temperature on net photosynthesis (Pn) of Pinus cembra an evergreen climax species of the timberline ecotone of the Central Austrian Alps. Light response and temperature response curves were estimated along an altitudinal gradient ranging from the forest limit up to the krummholz limit in both summer and fall. In general, Pn was significantly lower in fall as compared to summer. Nevertheless, independent from season mean Pn values tended to increase with elevation and were positively correlated with root zone temperatures. The specific leaf area by contrast declined with increasing elevation. Furthermore, the temperature optimum of net photosynthesis declined with increasing elevation and was positively correlated with the mean maximum air temperature of the 10 days prior the date of measurement. Thus, our findings appear to reflect a long-term adaptation of the photosynthetic apparatus of Pinus cembra to the general temperature conditions with respect to elevation combined with a short term acclimation to the prevailing temperature regime. PMID:21379394

  11. Photosynthetic temperature adaptation of Pinus cembra within the timberline ecotone of the Central Austrian Alps.

    PubMed

    Wieser, Gerhard; Oberhuber, Walter; Walder, Lisa; Spieler, Daniela; Gruber, Andreas

    2010-04-01

    Temperature is suggested to determine the upper limit of tree life. Therefore, future climate warming may be of importance for tree distribution within the European Alps, where low temperatures limit carbon metabolism.We focused on the effects of air and soil temperature on net photosynthesis (P(n)) of Pinus cembra an evergreen climax species of the timberline ecotone of the Central Austrian Alps. Light response and temperature response curves were estimated along an altitudinal gradient ranging from the forest limit up to the krummholz limit in both summer and fall.In general, P(n) was significantly lower in fall as compared to summer. Nevertheless, independent from season mean P(n) values tended to increase with elevation and were positively correlated with root zone temperatures. The specific leaf area by contrast declined with increasing elevation. Furthermore, the temperature optimum of net photosynthesis declined with increasing elevation and was positively correlated with the mean maximum air temperature of the 10 days prior the date of measurement.Thus, our findings appear to reflect a long-term adaptation of the photosynthetic apparatus of Pinus cembra to the general temperature conditions with respect to elevation combined with a short term acclimation to the prevailing temperature regime. PMID:21379394

  12. [Canopy interception of Pinus tabulaeformis plantation on Longzhong Loess Plateau, Northwest China: characteristics and simulation].

    PubMed

    Fang, Shu-Min; Zhao, Chuan-Yan; Jian, Sheng-Qi; Yu, Kai

    2013-06-01

    Taking the Pinus tabulaeformis plantation in the Anjiagou catchment on Longzhong Loess Plateau as test object, an observation was made on the characteristics of throughfall, stemflow, interception, and canopy structure of P. tabulaeformi during its growth season (from May to September) in 2011. Based on the observed data, the revised Gash analytical model was adopted to simulate the canopy interception, aimed to understand the ecological hydrological processes of Pinus tabulaeformis plantation and related mechanisms. In the observation period, a total of 19 precipitation events were observed, with a total precipitation of 215.80 mm. The throughfall, stemflow, and canopy interception were 165.24 mm, 2.29 mm, and 48.27 mm, occupying 76.7%, 1.1%, and 22.4% of the total precipitation, respectively. The simulated canopy interception was 41.24 mm, being 7.13 mm lower than the observed value and with a relative error of 14.7%. There were 33.8% and 60.0% of interception were evaporated from the canopy during and after precipitation, respectively. The revised Gash analytical model was highly sensitive to the canopy storage capacity, forest coverage, rainfall intensity, and evaporation, but less sensitive to the stemflow rate and stem water holding capacity. PMID:24066533

  13. Do stable oxygen isotope series from Pinus sylvestris growing in Scotland retain information on precipitation dynamics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodley, Ewan; Loader, Neil; McCarroll, Danny; Robertson, Iain; Heaton, Timothy

    2010-05-01

    In order to better constrain climate predictions it is essential to reduce error in climate reconstructions and understand how climate behaves at different temporal frequencies. Few high-resolution climate reconstructions exist for Britain, despite the strong influence of the North Atlantic on this temperate maritime zone. Annually-resolved stable oxygen isotope series from Pinus sylvestris L. growing at Southern Glens (western Highlands of Scotland) may provide information on precipitation dynamics in northern Britain. A significant correlation (r = 0.68; P< 0.01) exists between δ18O cellulose (Southern Glens) and mean June-July δ18O precipitation (Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation GNIP) from Wallingford, Oxfordshire (AD 1982-2003). Whilst acknowledging the limited length of the GNIP dataset, the strength of the correlation suggests that between AD 1982 and 2003 both Southern Glens and Wallingford were subjected to the same June-July low pressure systems (depressions) as they passed over Britain from west to east. These data indicate that despite evaporative enrichment in the leaf, a significant proportion of variance in δ18O precipitation (R2 = 0.45) may be retained in the cellulose of Pinus sylvestris growing at Southern Glens. Such a relationship demonstrates the potential for reconstructing the δ18O of precipitation at this site, possibly providing information on past variability in air mass dominance and precipitation dynamics in the region.

  14. Chitinase production in pine callus (Pinus sylvestris L.): a defense reaction against endophytes?

    PubMed

    Pirttilä, Anna Maria; Laukkanen, Hanna; Hohtola, Anja

    2002-04-01

    In shoot tip-derived tissue cultures of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), browning and subsequent degeneration of the culture is accompanied by lipid peroxidation and lignification of cells, which are characteristic features of a plant defense reaction. Since chitinases are enzymes acting primarily in plant defense, their expression was studied in pine callus in order to elucidate the defense reaction. Chitinases were present diversely in tissue cultures originating from shoot tips and embryos of P. sylvestris, in contrast to Pinus nigra embryogenic callus, where production of chitinases or browning was not detected. Because endophytic microbes had earlier been detected in buds of Scots pine, their subsequent presence in the tissue cultures was considered a potential cause of the defense reaction. Therefore, the presence of endophytes in the tissue cultures was examined by in situ hybridization. Endophytes were found to colonize heavily in 45% of the tissue cultures of P. sylvestris and to form biofilms, while the P. nigra callus was not found to contain any microbes. The endophytes seemed to propagate uncontrollably once a tissue culture of P. sylvestris was initiated. Regardless of the high level of chitinase production in the callus, the control of the endophytes presumably becomes inadequate during the tissue culture of P. sylvestris. PMID:11941460

  15. Construction of an AFLP genetic map with nearly complete genome coverage in Pinus taeda.

    PubMed

    Remington, D L; Whetten, R W; Liu, B H; O'Malley, D M

    1999-06-01

    De novo construction of complete genetic linkage maps requires large mapping populations, large numbers of genetic markers, and efficient algorithms for ordering markers and evaluating order confidence. We constructed a complete genetic map of an individual loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers segregating in haploid megagametophytes and PGRI mapping software. We generated 521 polymorphic fragments from 21 AFLP primer pairs. A total of 508 fragments mapped to 12 linkage groups, which is equal to the Pinus haploid chromosome number. Bootstrap locus order matrices and recombination matrices generated by PGRI were used to select 184 framework markers that could be ordered confidently. Order support was also evaluated using log likelihood criteria in MAPMAKER. Optimal marker orders from PGRI and MAPMAKER were identical, but the implied reliability of orders differed greatly. The framework map provides nearly complete coverage of the genome, estimated at approximately 1700 cM in length using a modified estimator. This map should provide a useful framework for merging existing loblolly pine maps and adding multiallelic markers as they become available. Map coverage with dominant markers in both linkage phases will make the map useful for subsequent quantitative trait locus mapping in families derived by self-pollination. PMID:12238515

  16. Unique Features of the Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda L.) Megagenome Revealed Through Sequence Annotation

    PubMed Central

    Wegrzyn, Jill L.; Liechty, John D.; Stevens, Kristian A.; Wu, Le-Shin; Loopstra, Carol A.; Vasquez-Gross, Hans A.; Dougherty, William M.; Lin, Brian Y.; Zieve, Jacob J.; Martínez-García, Pedro J.; Holt, Carson; Yandell, Mark; Zimin, Aleksey V.; Yorke, James A.; Crepeau, Marc W.; Puiu, Daniela; Salzberg, Steven L.; de Jong, Pieter J.; Mockaitis, Keithanne; Main, Doreen; Langley, Charles H.; Neale, David B.

    2014-01-01

    The largest genus in the conifer family Pinaceae is Pinus, with over 100 species. The size and complexity of their genomes (∼20–40 Gb, 2n = 24) have delayed the arrival of a well-annotated reference sequence. In this study, we present the annotation of the first whole-genome shotgun assembly of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.), which comprises 20.1 Gb of sequence. The MAKER-P annotation pipeline combined evidence-based alignments and ab initio predictions to generate 50,172 gene models, of which 15,653 are classified as high confidence. Clustering these gene models with 13 other plant species resulted in 20,646 gene families, of which 1554 are predicted to be unique to conifers. Among the conifer gene families, 159 are composed exclusively of loblolly pine members. The gene models for loblolly pine have the highest median and mean intron lengths of 24 fully sequenced plant genomes. Conifer genomes are full of repetitive DNA, with the most significant contributions from long-terminal-repeat retrotransposons. In depth analysis of the tandem and interspersed repetitive content yielded a combined estimate of 82%. PMID:24653211

  17. Effects of elevated CO{sub 2} on stem maintenance and construction respiration in Pinus ponderosa

    SciTech Connect

    Carey, E.V.; Delucia, E.H.; Ball, J.T. |

    1995-06-01

    We measured woody tissue respiration on stems of 4-year-old Pinus ponderosa growing under ambient (350 ppm) and twice ambient (700 ppm) atmospheric CO{sub 2} in open top chambers located at the Institute of Forest Genetics in Placerville, CA. Mean daily respiration rate per unit volume of wood was greater in trees growing under the elevated (700 ppm) treatment (46.75 vs 40.45 mol m{sup -3} d{sup -1}). This difference was due to a higher Q{sub 10} of respiration in the elevated (Q{sub 10}=2.20) versus the ambient (Q{sub 10}=1.67) treatment. The higher Q{sub 10} and CO{sub 2} efflux rate were not due to differences in phenology but may reflect a difference in demand for metabolic energy. In contrast to results seen in leaves growing under elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} analysis of tissue construction costs suggests no difference in wood composition between treatments. Estimates of growth respiration calculated from construction costs also did not differ. Under future predicted atmospheric conditions, changes in the maintenance respiration of woody tissue may lead to an increase in the respiration component of whole plant carbon budgets of Pinus ponderosa.

  18. Need for speed: Sexual maturation precedes social maturation in gray mouse lemurs.

    PubMed

    Hohenbrink, Sarah; Zimmermann, Elke; Radespiel, Ute

    2015-10-01

    The life history of mammals underlies a fast-slow continuum, ranging from "slow" species with large body size, delayed sexual maturation, low fertility, and long lifespan, to "fast" species showing the opposite traits. Primates fall into the "slow" category, considering their relatively low offspring numbers and delayed juvenile development. However, social and sexual maturation processes do not necessarily have to be completed simultaneously. The comparison of the timeframes for sexual and social maturation is largely lacking for primates, with the prominent exception of humans. Here, we compare both maturation processes in a basal primate, the gray mouse lemur, which ranges in many aspects at the fast end of the slow-fast life history continuum among primates. We compared the patterns and frequencies of various social and solitary behaviors in young adults (YA, 12-13 months old) and older individuals (A, ≥2 years) of both sexes outside estrus. Observations were conducted during mix-sexed dyadic encounter experiments under controlled captive conditions (eight dyads per age class). Results indicate that although all young adults were sexually mature, social maturation was not yet completed in all behavioral domains: Age-dependent differences were found in the number of playing dyads, female marking behavior, female aggression, and social tolerance. Thus, this study provides a first indication that social maturation lags behind sexual maturation in an ancestral nocturnal primate model, indicating that these two developmental schemes may have been decoupled early and throughout the primate lineage. PMID:26119105

  19. A rapid measurement for cotton breeders of maturity and fineness from developing and mature fibers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fiber’s maturity and fineness are important fiber properties that can impact the fiber’s downstream processing and the quality of yarn and fabric. The Cottonscope is a new instrument that simultaneously measures the fiber’s maturity and fineness using a very small amount of fiber sample. Previ...

  20. Genome-wide association mapping of flowering time and maturity dates in early mature soybean germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) is a photoperiod-sensitive and short-day major crop grown worldwide. Days to flowering (DTF) and maturity (DTM) are two traits affecting soybean adaptability and yield. Some genes conditioning soybean flowering and maturity have been recently characterized. However, ...

  1. Stacking the odds for Golgi cisternal maturation

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Somya; Thattai, Mukund

    2016-01-01

    What is the minimal set of cell-biological ingredients needed to generate a Golgi apparatus? The compositions of eukaryotic organelles arise through a process of molecular exchange via vesicle traffic. Here we statistically sample tens of thousands of homeostatic vesicle traffic networks generated by realistic molecular rules governing vesicle budding and fusion. Remarkably, the plurality of these networks contain chains of compartments that undergo creation, compositional maturation, and dissipation, coupled by molecular recycling along retrograde vesicles. This motif precisely matches the cisternal maturation model of the Golgi, which was developed to explain many observed aspects of the eukaryotic secretory pathway. In our analysis cisternal maturation is a robust consequence of vesicle traffic homeostasis, independent of the underlying details of molecular interactions or spatial stacking. This architecture may have been exapted rather than selected for its role in the secretion of large cargo. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16231.001 PMID:27542195

  2. HIV-1 Assembly, Budding, and Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Sundquist, Wesley I.; Kräusslich, Hans-Georg

    2012-01-01

    A defining property of retroviruses is their ability to assemble into particles that can leave producer cells and spread infection to susceptible cells and hosts. Virion morphogenesis can be divided into three stages: assembly, wherein the virion is created and essential components are packaged; budding, wherein the virion crosses the plasma membrane and obtains its lipid envelope; and maturation, wherein the virion changes structure and becomes infectious. All of these stages are coordinated by the Gag polyprotein and its proteolytic maturation products, which function as the major structural proteins of the virus. Here, we review our current understanding of the mechanisms of HIV-1 assembly, budding, and maturation, starting with a general overview and then providing detailed descriptions of each of the different stages of virion morphogenesis. PMID:22762019

  3. Calcium ion currents mediating oocyte maturation events

    PubMed Central

    Tosti, Elisabetta

    2006-01-01

    During maturation, the last phase of oogenesis, the oocyte undergoes several changes which prepare it to be ovulated and fertilized. Immature oocytes are arrested in the first meiotic process prophase, that is morphologically identified by a germinal vesicle. The removal of the first meiotic block marks the initiation of maturation. Although a large number of molecules are involved in complex sequences of events, there is evidence that a calcium increase plays a pivotal role in meiosis re-initiation. It is well established that, during this process, calcium is released from the intracellular stores, whereas less is known on the role of external calcium entering the cell through the plasma membrane ion channels. This review is focused on the functional role of calcium currents during oocyte maturation in all the species, from invertebrates to mammals. The emerging role of specific L-type calcium channels will be discussed. PMID:16684344

  4. Viral and host control of cytomegalovirus maturation

    PubMed Central

    Tandon, Ritesh; Mocarski, Edward S.

    2012-01-01

    Maturation in herpesviruses initiates in the nucleus of the infected cell with encapsidation of viral DNA to form nucleocapsids and concludes with envelopment in the cytoplasm to form infectious virions that egress the cell. The entire process of virus maturation is orchestrated by protein-protein interactions and enzymatic activities of viral and host origin. Viral tegument proteins play important roles in maintaining the structural stability of capsids and directing the acquisition of virus envelope. Envelopment occurs at modified host membranes and exploits host vesicular trafficking. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge and concepts in human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) maturation and their parallels in other herpesviruses with an emphasis on viral and host factors regulating this process. PMID:22633075

  5. Stacking the odds for Golgi cisternal maturation.

    PubMed

    Mani, Somya; Thattai, Mukund

    2016-01-01

    What is the minimal set of cell-biological ingredients needed to generate a Golgi apparatus? The compositions of eukaryotic organelles arise through a process of molecular exchange via vesicle traffic. Here we statistically sample tens of thousands of homeostatic vesicle traffic networks generated by realistic molecular rules governing vesicle budding and fusion. Remarkably, the plurality of these networks contain chains of compartments that undergo creation, compositional maturation, and dissipation, coupled by molecular recycling along retrograde vesicles. This motif precisely matches the cisternal maturation model of the Golgi, which was developed to explain many observed aspects of the eukaryotic secretory pathway. In our analysis cisternal maturation is a robust consequence of vesicle traffic homeostasis, independent of the underlying details of molecular interactions or spatial stacking. This architecture may have been exapted rather than selected for its role in the secretion of large cargo. PMID:27542195

  6. An unexpected twist in viral capsid maturation

    SciTech Connect

    Gertsman, Ilya; Gan, Lu; Guttman, Miklos; Lee, Kelly; Speir, Jeffrey A.; Duda, Robert L.; Hendrix, Roger W.; Komives, Elizabeth A.; Johnson, John E.

    2009-04-14

    Lambda-like double-stranded (ds) DNA bacteriophage undergo massive conformational changes in their capsid shell during the packaging of their viral genomes. Capsid shells are complex organizations of hundreds of protein subunits that assemble into intricate quaternary complexes that ultimately are able to withstand over 50 atm of pressure during genome packaging. The extensive integration between subunits in capsids requires the formation of an intermediate complex, termed a procapsid, from which individual subunits can undergo the necessary refolding and structural rearrangements needed to transition to the more stable capsid. Although various mature capsids have been characterized at atomic resolution, no such procapsid structure is available for a dsDNA virus or bacteriophage. Here we present a procapsid X-ray structure at 3.65 {angstrom} resolution, termed prohead II, of the lambda-like bacteriophage HK97, the mature capsid structure of which was previously solved to 3.44 {angstrom}. A comparison of the two largely different capsid forms has unveiled an unprecedented expansion mechanism that describes the transition. Crystallographic and hydrogen/deuterium exchange data presented here demonstrate that the subunit tertiary structures are significantly different between the two states, with twisting and bending motions occurring in both helical and -sheet regions. We also identified subunit interactions at each three-fold axis of the capsid that are maintained throughout maturation. The interactions sustain capsid integrity during subunit refolding and provide a fixed hinge from which subunits undergo rotational and translational motions during maturation. Previously published calorimetric data of a closely related bacteriophage, P22, showed that capsid maturation was an exothermic process that resulted in a release of 90 kJ mol{sup -1} of energy. We propose that the major tertiary changes presented in this study reveal a structural basis for an exothermic

  7. Examination of potential measures of vine maturity in potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant maturity is a complex physiological trait. The criteria used to characterize plant maturity are not universal among crop plants. In potato, vine characteristics are typically used to estimate plant maturity. This study investigates several reported measures of vine maturity in potato cultivars...

  8. Posttesticular sperm maturation, infertility, and hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Whitfield, Marjorie; Pollet-Villard, Xavier; Levy, Rachel; Drevet, Joël R; Saez, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Cholesterol is a key molecule in the mammalian physiology of especial particular importance for the reproductive system as it is the common precursor for steroid hormone synthesis. Cholesterol is also a recognized modulator of sperm functions, not only at the level of gametogenesis. Cholesterol homeostasis regulation is crucial for posttesticular sperm maturation, and imbalanced cholesterol levels may particularly affect these posttesticular events. Metabolic lipid disorders (dyslipidemia) affect male fertility but are most of the time studied from the angle of endocrine/testicular consequences. This review will focus on the deleterious effects of a particular dyslipidemia, i.e., hypercholesterolemia, on posttesticular maturation of mammalian spermatozoa. PMID:26067871

  9. The Maturely, Immature Orientale Impact Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahill, J. T.; Lawrence, D. J.; Stickle, A. M.; Delen, O.; Patterson, G.; Greenhagen, B. T.

    2015-12-01

    Lunar surface maturity is consistently examined using the NIR optical maturity parameter (OMAT) [1]. However, the NIR only provides a perspective of the upper microns of the lunar surface. Recent studies of Lunar Prospector (LP) and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter data sets are now demonstrating additional measures of maturity with sensitivities to greater depths (~2 m) in the regolith. These include thermal infrared, S-band radar, and epithermal neutron data sets [2-4]. Interestingly, each of these parameters is directly comparable to OMAT despite each measuring slightly different aspects of the regolith. This is demonstrated by Lawrence et al. [3] where LP-measured non-polar highlands epithermal neutrons trend well with albedo, OMAT, and the Christensen Feature (CF). Lawrence et al. [3] used these data to derive and map highlands hydrogen (H) which is dominantly a function of H-implantation. With this in mind, areas of enriched-H are mature, while areas of depleted H are immature. Surface roughness as measured by S-band radar [4], also provides a measure of maturity. In this case, the circular polarization ratio (CPR) is high when rough and immature, and low when smooth and mature. Knowing this, one can recognize areas in the non-polar lunar highlands that show contradictory measures of maturity. For example, while many lunar localities show consistently immature albedo, OMAT, CF, CPR, and H concentrations (e.g., Tycho), others do not. Orientale basin is the most prominent example, shown to have immature CPR, CF, and H concentrations despite a relatively mature albedo and OMAT values as well as an old age determination (~3.8 Ga). To better understand how the lunar regolith is weathering in the upper 1-2 m of regolith with time we examine the Orientale basin relative to other highlands regions. [1] Lucey et al. (2000) JGR, 105, 20377; [2] Lucey et al. (2013) LPSC, 44, 2890; [3] Lawrence et al. (2015) Icarus, j.icarus.2015.01.005; [4] Neish et al. (2013) JGR, 118

  10. 75 FR 42033 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition to List Pinus albicaulis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... published in the Federal Register on January 27, 1994 (59 FR 3824). Species Information Pinus albicaulis is... soil erosion by physically stabilizing soils, initiating succession as a hardy pioneer or as an early... listing actions (e.g., 75 FR 13910, March 23, 2010). The petitioner also cites several other models...

  11. CANOPY CONDUCTANCE OF PINUS TAEDA, LIQUIDAMBAR STYRACIFLUA AND QUERCUS PHELLOS UNDER VARYING ATMOSPHERIC AND SOIL WATER CONDITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sap flow, and atmospheric and soil water data were collected in closed-top chambers under conditions of high soil water potential for saplings of Liquidambar styraciflua L., Quercus phellos L., and Pinus taeda L., three co-occurring species in the southeastern USA. Responses of c...

  12. Do climate and outbreak frequency affect levels of foliar phytochemistry in different lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) stands?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex Louden) is a widely distributed tree in North American forests and is found in a variety of environments, each with different levels of disease activity. We quantified the levels of defense-associated metabolites (including soluble phenolics, lignin, and ter...

  13. 76 FR 42631 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List Pinus...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... January 27, 1994 (59 FR 3824). On December 9, 2008, we received a petition dated December 8, 2008, from... published in the Federal Register on July 20, 2010 (75 FR 42033). In that finding we determined that the... Pinus albicaulis (75 FR 42033), and received 20 letters from the public. This 12-month finding is...

  14. HYDROLOGICAL AND CLIMATIC RESPONSES OF OLD-GROWTH PINUS ELLIOTTII VAR. DENSA IN MESIC PINE FLATWOODS FLORIDA, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pinus elliottii Englem. var. densa Little & Dorman (Southern Slash Pine) is unique in that it is the only native sub-tropical pine in the USA. Once occupying much of the south Florida landscape, it is now restricted to an estimated 3% of its pre human settlement area. Land manag...

  15. Canopy Level Emissions of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol, monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes from a Pinus taeda Experimental Plantation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) observed during 2007 from a Pinus taeda experimental plantation in Central North Carolina are compared with model estimates from MEGAN 2.1. Relaxed Eddy Accumulation (REA) estimates of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO) fluxes are ...

  16. Soil nutrient bioavailability and nutrient content of pine trees (Pinus thunbergii) in areas impacted by acid deposition in Korea.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jae E; Lee, Wi-Young; Ok, Yong Sik; Skousen, Jeffrey

    2009-10-01

    Acid deposition has caused detrimental effects on tree growth near industrial areas of the world. Preliminary work has indicated that concentrations of NO(3-), SO(4)(2-), F( - ) and Al in soil solutions were 2 to 33 times higher in industrial areas compared to non-industrial areas in Korea. This study evaluated soil nutrient bioavailability and nutrient contents of red pine (Pinus thunbergii) needles in forest soils of industrial and non-industrial areas of Korea. Results confirm that forest soils of industrial areas have been acidified mainly by deposition of sulfate, resulting in increases of Al, Fe and Mn and decreases of Ca, Mg and K concentrations in soils and soil solutions. In soils of industrial areas, the molar ratios of Ca/Al and Mg/Al in forest soils were <2, which can lead to lower levels and availability of nutrients for tree growth. The Ca/Al molar ratio of Pinus thunbergii needles on non-industrial sites was 15, while that of industrial areas was 10. Magnesium concentrations in needles of Pinus thunbergii were lower in soils of industrial areas and the high levels of acid cations such as Al and Mn in these soils may have antagonized the uptake of base cations like Mg. Continued acidification can further reduce uptake of base cations by trees. Results show that Mg deficiency and high concentrations of Al and Mn in soil solution can be limiting factors for Pinus thunbergii growth in industrial areas of Korea. PMID:18758977

  17. EFFECTS OF ELEVATED CO-2 AND N FERTILIZATION ON FINE ROOT DYNAMICS AND FUNGAL GROWTH IN SEEDLING PINUS PONDEROSA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of elevated CO-2 and N fertilization on fine root growth of Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex P. Laws. C. Laws., grown in native soil in open-top field-exposure chambers at Placerville, CA, were monitored for a 2-year period using minirhizotrons. The experimental design was a...

  18. Genetic effects on total phenolics, condensed tannins and non-structural carbohydrates in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) needles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic and environmental effects on carbon allocation to soluble phenolics and non-structural carbohydrates in needles of widely-planted loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) genotypes could impact productivity, sustainability and biogeochemical cycling in the southeastern U.S. The magnitude of genetic a...

  19. Enhanced drought-tolerance in the homoploid hybrid species Pinus densata: implication for its habitat divergence from two progenitors.

    PubMed

    Ma, Fei; Zhao, Changming; Milne, Richard; Ji, Mingfei; Chen, Litong; Liu, Jianquan

    2010-01-01

    The homoploid hybrid species Pinus densata is restricted to alpine habitats that exceed the altitude range of its two parental species, Pinus tabulaeformis and Pinus yunnanensis. Alpine habitats usually generate cold-induced water stress in plants. To understand the ecological differentiation between these three species, we examined their physiological responses to drought stress. Potted seedlings of three species were subjected to low, mild, moderate and severe water stress in an automatic-controlled glasshouse. Fifteen indicators of fitness were measured for each species in each treatment, and most of these decreased as drought increased. Pinus densata exhibited higher fitness than both parental species in terms of total dry mass production (TDM) and long-term water use efficiency (WUE(L)) across all treatments; several other ecophysiological traits were also extreme but not across every treatment, and not always in the highest stress treatment. These results indicate that extreme characters that have become well fixed in P. densata, confer a faster seedling growth rate and more efficient water use, which in turn should confer increased drought tolerance. These traits of P. densata likely promoted its ecological separation from its parental species and facilitated its successful colonization and establishment in high-altitude habitats. PMID:19804499

  20. Correlation between infection by ophiostomatoid fungi and the presence of subterranean termites in Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) roots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Observations of subterranean termites feeding in pine sapwood containing ophiostomatoid fungi prompted a study to investigate the effect of infection by Leptographium fungi on the probability of encountering subterranean termites in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) roots. Root samples were collected f...

  1. MicroRNAs, polyamines, and the activities antioxidant enzymes are associated with in vitro rooting in white pine (Pinus strobus L.).

    PubMed

    Fei, Yunjun; Xiao, Bo; Yang, Man; Ding, Qiong; Tang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Molecular mechanism of in vitro rooting in conifer is not fully understood. After establishment of a regeneration procedure in eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) using mature embryos as explants to induce shoot formation on medium containing 3 μM IAA, 6 μM BA and 6 μM TDZ and induce root formation on medium containing 0.001-0.05 μM IAA, 0.001-0.05 μM IBA, 0.001-0.05 μM TDZ, we have investigated the changes of polyamine content and the activities of antioxidant enzymes during in vitro rooting in P. strobus. Our results demonstrated that putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd), and spermine (Spm) did not increase in P. strobus during the first week of rooting on medium supplemented with 0.01 μM indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), whereas the levels of Put, Spd, and Spm increased during the 1st-3rd week of culture on medium with IAA, and then decreased on medium with IAA. No such a change in Put, Spd, and Spm was observed on medium without IAA. Measurement of antioxidant enzyme activity demonstrated that the activities of polyphenol oxidase, catalase, and peroxidase slightly increased in the first week of culture and reached to the highest peak in the 3rd-5th week of culture. Quantitative RT-PCR results indicated that miR160 was increased on the 7th day, miR162, miR397, and miR408 was increased from the 21th to 35th day, miR857 was increased on the 35th day, and miR827 was increased on the 49th day. These results demonstrated that enhanced polyamine biosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activity, and microRNAs are correlated with the root induction and formation in P. strobus. PMID:27069836

  2. Biophysical modelling of intra-ring variations in tracheid features and wood density of Pinus pinaster trees exposed to seasonal droughts.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Sarah; Ogée, Jérôme; Domec, Jean-Christophe; Rayment, Mark; Wingate, Lisa

    2015-03-01

    Process-based models that link seasonally varying environmental signals to morphological features within tree rings are essential tools to predict tree growth response and commercially important wood quality traits under future climate scenarios. This study evaluated model portrayal of radial growth and wood anatomy observations within a mature maritime pine (Pinus pinaster (L.) Aït.) stand exposed to seasonal droughts. Intra-annual variations in tracheid anatomy and wood density were identified through image analysis and X-ray densitometry on stem cores covering the growth period 1999-2010. A cambial growth model was integrated with modelled plant water status and sugar availability from the soil-plant-atmosphere transfer model MuSICA to generate estimates of cell number, cell volume, cell mass and wood density on a weekly time step. The model successfully predicted inter-annual variations in cell number, ring width and maximum wood density. The model was also able to predict the occurrence of special anatomical features such as intra-annual density fluctuations (IADFs) in growth rings. Since cell wall thickness remained surprisingly constant within and between growth rings, variations in wood density were primarily the result of variations in lumen diameter, both in the model and anatomical data. In the model, changes in plant water status were identified as the main driver of the IADFs through a direct effect on cell volume. The anatomy data also revealed that a trade-off existed between hydraulic safety and hydraulic efficiency. Although a simplified description of cambial physiology is presented, this integrated modelling approach shows potential value for identifying universal patterns of tree-ring growth and anatomical features over a broad climatic gradient. PMID:25769337

  3. Using measurable physical characteristics to forecast beef heifer maturity: the identification of a maturity index.

    PubMed

    Stockton, M C; Wilson, R K; Feuz, D M; Stalker, L A; Funston, R N

    2013-09-01

    A target BW is often used to estimate sexual maturity in beef heifers. The target BW, a percentage of mature BW, is generally an average for the breed, herd, or both. Heifer development is done in groups or herds, and not all heifers respond similarly to the same development regimen. Generally, heifers fed at a higher plane of nutrition gain more BW and tend to have increased pregnancy rates, but this usually increases feed costs. Therefore, determining when increased feed costs exceed the economic gains resulting from greater conception rates is critical and requires the inclusion of economic information and relationships. This research focused on the individual heifer as the decision point, and identification of the individual heifer target BW was based on clearly defined biological relationships observed before breeding. These relationships were captured in a maturity index (MI) identified through a series of steps and guided by current, accepted knowledge of heifer growth and development. Using an in-sample mean absolute percent error comparison, it was determined the MI was more accurate than the current group or herd methods in forecasting actual maturity and target BW. Maturity index demonstrated the flexibility in achieving similar maturities with beef heifers of varying characteristics using alternative nutritional programs. The MI was also the only significant predictor of first pregnancy. These results allow for more precision in determining sexual maturity and probability of first pregnancy in beef heifers and serve as the basis for future studies in determining profit differences among heifers. PMID:23825325

  4. 7 CFR 51.888 - Maturity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from, in the case of Arizona maturity..., Standardization Section, Room 2065-S, 14th and Independence Avenue, Washington, DC 20250 or at the National....5 Cardinal, Emperor, Perlette, Ribier, Olivette Blanche, Rish Baba, Red Malaga, and...

  5. 7 CFR 51.888 - Maturity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from, in the case of Arizona maturity..., Standardization Section, Room 2065-S, 14th and Independence Avenue, Washington, DC 20250 or at the National....5 Cardinal, Emperor, Perlette, Ribier, Olivette Blanche, Rish Baba, Red Malaga, and...

  6. Depressive Symptomatology among Very Early Maturing Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rierdan, Jill; Koff, Elissa

    1991-01-01

    The relationship between very early menarche and depression was studied in a sample of 488 girls (336 sixth graders and 152 seventh graders), less than 10 percent of whom were very early maturers. Very early menarche was associated with higher levels of depression than was more normative development. (SLD)

  7. Teaching Copywriting Students about the Mature Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drewniany, Bonnie

    Advertising educators have a responsibility to make students aware of the importance of the mature market (older people) and to teach them methods to reach this group. An assignment in a copywriting class asked students to write and design ads to promote blue jeans to adults over 50. The assignment accomplished three things: (1) helped students…

  8. Vaccinia Virus Infection Requires Maturation of Macropinosomes.

    PubMed

    Rizopoulos, Zaira; Balistreri, Giuseppe; Kilcher, Samuel; Martin, Caroline K; Syedbasha, Mohammedyaseen; Helenius, Ari; Mercer, Jason

    2015-08-01

    The prototypic poxvirus, vaccinia virus (VACV), occurs in two infectious forms, mature virions (MVs) and extracellular virions (EVs). Both enter HeLa cells by inducing macropinocytic uptake. Using confocal microscopy, live-cell imaging, targeted RNAi screening and perturbants of endosome maturation, we analyzed the properties and maturation pathway of the macropinocytic vacuoles containing VACV MVs in HeLa cells. The vacuoles first acquired markers of early endosomes [Rab5, early endosome antigen 1 and phosphatidylinositol(3)P]. Prior to release of virus cores into the cytoplasm, they contained markers of late endosomes and lysosomes (Rab7a, lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 and sorting nexin 3). RNAi screening of endocytic cell factors emphasized the importance of late compartments for VACV infection. Follow-up perturbation analysis showed that infection required Rab7a and PIKfyve, confirming that VACV is a late-penetrating virus dependent on macropinosome maturation. VACV EV infection was inhibited by depletion of many of the same factors, indicating that both infectious particle forms share the need for late vacuolar conditions for penetration. PMID:25869659

  9. Thermal maturity of carboniferous strata, Ouachita Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Houseknecht, D.W.; Matthews, S.M.

    1985-03-01

    The Ouachita Mountains, a relatively untested, potential hydrocarbon province, contain a thick Paleozoic section of apparently favorable source beds, reservoir beds, and trap configurations. To estimate the thermal maturity of these strata, vitrinite reflectance was measured on 89 samples collected mostly from Carboniferous rocks from throughout the Ouachita outcrop area.

  10. Young Carers: Mature before Their Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, Grant; Stainton, Tim; Marshall, Sheila

    2009-01-01

    There is a population of remarkable young people who may go unnoticed due to the absence of overt acting out behaviors. Often mature beyond their age, they are forced by family situations to assume care-giving roles which are usually the responsibility of parents and elders. Being placed prematurely in adult caring roles potentially may have both…

  11. 7 CFR 989.213 - Maturity dockage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... between handler and tenderer, Natural (sun-dried) Seedless, Golden Seedless, Dipped Seedless, Monukka... dockage table applicable to lots of Natural (sun-dried) Seedless, Golden Seedless, Dipped Seedless... dockage factor for the preceding increment. (c) Maturity dockage table applicable to lots of Natural...

  12. 7 CFR 989.213 - Maturity dockage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... between handler and tenderer, Natural (sun-dried) Seedless, Golden Seedless, Dipped Seedless, Monukka... dockage table applicable to lots of Natural (sun-dried) Seedless, Golden Seedless, Dipped Seedless... dockage factor for the preceding increment. (c) Maturity dockage table applicable to lots of Natural...

  13. 7 CFR 989.213 - Maturity dockage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... between handler and tenderer, Natural (sun-dried) Seedless, Golden Seedless, Dipped Seedless, Monukka... dockage table applicable to lots of Natural (sun-dried) Seedless, Golden Seedless, Dipped Seedless... dockage factor for the preceding increment. (c) Maturity dockage table applicable to lots of Natural...

  14. 7 CFR 51.1313 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Winter Pears 1 Definitions § 51.1313 Mature. (a... also be given. (1) The following terms should be used for describing the ground color: Green, Light Green, Yellowish Green, and Yellow. (2) The following terms should be used for describing the...

  15. 7 CFR 51.1272 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Summer and Fall Pears 1 Definitions § 51.1272 Mature... also be given. (1) The following terms should be used for describing the ground color: Green, Light Green, Yellowish Green, and Yellow. (2) The following terms should be used for describing the...

  16. 24 CFR 200.82 - Maturity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maturity. 200.82 Section 200.82 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA...

  17. 7 CFR 1421.101 - Maturity dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maturity dates. 1421.101 Section 1421.101 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF... ASSISTANCE LOANS AND LOAN DEFICIENCY PAYMENTS FOR 2008 THROUGH 2012 Marketing Assistance Loans §...

  18. Prenatal Antecedents of Newborn Neurological Maturation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiPietro, Janet A.; Kivlighan, Katie T.; Costigan, Kathleen A.; Rubin, Suzanne E.; Shiffler, Dorothy E.; Henderson, Janice L.; Pillion, Joseph P.

    2010-01-01

    Fetal neurobehavioral development was modeled longitudinally using data collected at weekly intervals from 24 to 38 weeks gestation in a sample of 112 healthy pregnancies. Predictive associations between 3 measures of fetal neurobehavioral functioning and their developmental trajectories to neurological maturation in the first weeks after birth…

  19. 7 CFR 51.1823 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be... assigned the term in the Florida Citrus Code, Chapter 601, 1995 Edition, and the Official Rules Affecting the Florida Citrus Industry, in effect as of February 12, 1995. These tangerine maturity...

  20. 7 CFR 51.1823 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR Part 51. Copies may be... assigned the term in the Florida Citrus Code, Chapter 601, 1995 Edition, and the Official Rules Affecting the Florida Citrus Industry, in effect as of February 12, 1995. These tangerine maturity...

  1. 7 CFR 51.767 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51... assigned the term in the Florida Citrus Code, Chapter 601, 1995 Edition, and the Official Rules Affecting the Florida Citrus Industry, in effect as of February 12, 1995. These grapefruit maturity...

  2. 7 CFR 51.767 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51... assigned the term in the Florida Citrus Code, Chapter 601, 1995 Edition, and the Official Rules Affecting the Florida Citrus Industry, in effect as of February 12, 1995. These grapefruit maturity...

  3. 7 CFR 51.1823 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be... assigned the term in the Florida Citrus Code, Chapter 601, 1995 Edition, and the Official Rules Affecting the Florida Citrus Industry, in effect as of February 12, 1995. These tangerine maturity...

  4. Neuropsychological and Early Maturational Correlates of Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denno, Deborah J.

    A study designed to examine biological, sociological, and early maturational correlates of intelligence collected data prospectively, from birth to 15 years of age, on a sample of 987 black children. Multiple indicators of eight independent and three dependent variables were tested in a structural equation model. Altogether, clear sex differences…

  5. The Measurement of Cognitive Vocational Maturity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westbrook, Bert W.; Parry-Hill, Joseph W., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Describes an instrument designed to measure an individual's level of cognitive vocational maturity in six areas: Fields of Work, Job Selection, Work Conditions, Education Required, Attributes Required, and Duties. When vocational choices were in agreement with field of interest and ability level, scores on the subtests were higher. Mean scores on…

  6. Field Instruction and the Mature Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Raymond

    2004-01-01

    As increasing numbers of mature students enter schools of social work, it is a challenge and an obligation for field instructors to discover ways to recruit and sustain them in the educational endeavor. Building upon three theoretical perspectives--Freire's pedagogy of the oppressed, Knowles's andragogy, and Schon's reflective learning and…

  7. Sperm Proteome Maturation in the Mouse Epididymis

    PubMed Central

    Skerget, Sheri; Rosenow, Matthew A.; Petritis, Konstantinos; Karr, Timothy L.

    2015-01-01

    In mammals, transit through the epididymis, which involves the acquisition, loss and modification of proteins, is required to confer motility and fertilization competency to sperm. The overall dynamics of maturation is poorly understood, and a systems level understanding of the complex maturation process will provide valuable new information about changes occurring during epididymal transport. We report the proteomes of sperm collected from the caput, corpus and cauda segments of the mouse epididymis, identifying 1536, 1720 and 1234 proteins respectively. This study identified 765 proteins that are present in sperm obtained from all three segments. We identified 1766 proteins that are potentially added (732) or removed (1034) from sperm during epididymal transit. Phenotypic analyses of the caput, corpus and cauda sperm proteomes identified 60 proteins that have known sperm phenotypes when mutated, or absent from sperm. Our analysis indicates that as much as one-third of proteins with known sperm phenotypes are added to sperm during epididymal transit. GO analyses revealed that cauda sperm are enriched for specific functions including sperm-egg recognition and motility, consistent with the observation that sperm acquire motility and fertilization competency during transit through the epididymis. In addition, GO analyses revealed that the immunity protein profile of sperm changes during sperm maturation. Finally, we identified components of the 26S proteasome, the immunoproteasome, and a proteasome activator in mature sperm. PMID:26556802

  8. Career Maturity: A Priority for Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Manuel Alvarez

    2008-01-01

    This study reviews the current state of career maturity in secondary education--a period of education which is critical for development of this construct, when students are faced with ongoing academic and occupational decisions over the course of their studies. This paper is organized in three parts: first we focus on the concept, models,…

  9. 7 CFR 51.1313 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mature. 51.1313 Section 51.1313 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND...

  10. 7 CFR 51.1272 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mature. 51.1272 Section 51.1272 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND...

  11. Elevated Social Anxiety among Early Maturing Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenthal, Heidemarie; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W.; Babson, Kimberly A.; Gahr, Jessica L.; Trainor, Casey D.; Frala, Jamie L.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescence is a key period in terms of the development of anxiety psychopathology. An emerging literature suggests that early pubertal maturation is associated with enhanced vulnerability for anxiety symptomatology, although few studies have examined this association with regard to social anxiety. Accordingly, the current study was designed to…

  12. Gene expression associated with tuber periderm maturation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato periderm maturation and associated resistance to tuber excoriation, i.e. skinning injury, is of scientific and agricultural importance because of the losses created by shrinkage, tuber market quality defects and infections. The cells and cellular changes responsible for the development of re...

  13. Bluetongue virus capsid assembly and maturation.

    PubMed

    Mohl, Bjorn-Patrick; Roy, Polly

    2014-08-01

    Maturation is an intrinsic phase of the viral life cycle and is often intertwined with egress. In this review we focus on orbivirus maturation by using Bluetongue virus (BTV) as a representative. BTV, a member of the genus Orbivirus within the family Reoviridae, has over the last three decades been subjected to intense molecular study and is thus one of the best understood viruses. BTV is a non-enveloped virus comprised of two concentric protein shells that encapsidate 10 double-stranded RNA genome segments. Upon cell entry, the outer capsid is shed, releasing the core which does not disassemble into the cytoplasm. The polymerase complex within the core then synthesizes transcripts from each genome segment and extrudes these into the cytoplasm where they act as templates for protein synthesis. Newly synthesized ssRNA then associates with the replicase complex prior to encapsidation by inner and outer protein layers of core within virus-triggered inclusion bodies. Maturation of core occurs outside these inclusion bodies (IBs) via the addition of the outer capsid proteins, which appears to be coupled to a non-lytic, exocytic pathway during early infection. Similar to the enveloped viruses, BTV hijacks the exocytosis and endosomal sorting complex required for trafficking (ESCRT) pathway via a non-structural glycoprotein. This exquisitely detailed understanding is assembled from a broad array of assays, spanning numerous and diverse in vitro and in vivo studies. Presented here are the detailed insights of BTV maturation and egress. PMID:25196482

  14. 24 CFR 200.82 - Maturity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Maturity. 200.82 Section 200.82 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN...

  15. Job Search Manual for Mature Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Fred L.

    This document is designed to help mature persons find the "right" professional, managerial, or technical jobs. Section 1 introduces the materials. Section 2 shows job seekers how to write a general statement that defines the nature of the position desired and how to assess their skills, abilities, interests, work values, and personal qualities…

  16. Late Maturation of Auditory Perceptual Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huyck, Julia Jones; Wright, Beverly A.

    2011-01-01

    Adults can improve their performance on many perceptual tasks with training, but when does the response to training become mature? To investigate this question, we trained 11-year-olds, 14-year-olds and adults on a basic auditory task (temporal-interval discrimination) using a multiple-session training regimen known to be effective for adults. The…

  17. Evaluating Hass Avocado Maturity Using Hyperspectral Imaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The maturity of avocado fruit is usually assessed by measuring its dry matter content(DM), which is a destructive and time consuming process. The aim of this study is tointroduce a non-destructive and quick technique that can estimate the DM content of an avocado fruit. 'Hass' avocado fruits at diff...

  18. 7 CFR 51.312 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Apples Definitions § 51.312 Mature. “Mature” means that the apples have reached the... apple becomes overripe it will show varying degrees of firmness, depending upon the stage of the ripening process. The following terms are used for describing different stages of firmness of apples:...

  19. 7 CFR 51.312 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Apples Definitions § 51.312 Mature. “Mature” means that the apples have reached the... apple becomes overripe it will show varying degrees of firmness, depending upon the stage of the ripening process. The following terms are used for describing different stages of firmness of apples:...

  20. 7 CFR 51.312 - Mature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Apples Definitions § 51.312 Mature. “Mature” means that the apples have reached the... apple becomes overripe it will show varying degrees of firmness, depending upon the stage of the ripening process. The following terms are used for describing different stages of firmness of apples:...

  1. Adolescent Naturalistic Conceptions of Moral Maturity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Sam A.; Walker, Lawrence J.; Olsen, Joseph A.; Skalski, Jonathan E.; Basinger, Jason C.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding lay conceptions of morality is important not only because they can guide moral psychology theory but also because they may play a role in everyday moral functioning. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine adolescent conceptions of moral maturity. Study 1 (200 adolescents 12-18 years) involved a free-listing procedure to…

  2. 7 CFR 989.213 - Maturity dockage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... between handler and tenderer, Natural (sun-dried) Seedless, Golden Seedless, Dipped Seedless, Monukka... dockage table applicable to lots of Natural (sun-dried) Seedless, Golden Seedless, Dipped Seedless... dockage factor for the preceding increment. (c) Maturity dockage table applicable to lots of Natural...

  3. 7 CFR 989.213 - Maturity dockage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... between handler and tenderer, Natural (sun-dried) Seedless, Golden Seedless, Dipped Seedless, Monukka... dockage table applicable to lots of Natural (sun-dried) Seedless, Golden Seedless, Dipped Seedless... dockage factor for the preceding increment. (c) Maturity dockage table applicable to lots of Natural...

  4. Histology of salmonid testes during maturation.

    PubMed

    Dziewulska, Katarzyna; Domagała, Józef

    2003-03-01

    The commonly applied classification systems of fish gonad maturity divide the maturation process into certain stages. However, the scales do not entirely reflect the continuity of the maturation process. Based on light microscope observations, the paper describes a comprehensive pattern of testicular transformations during maturation. The study was carried out on precocious underyearling and 1-year-old males of sea trout (Salmo trutta m. trutta L.), 1-year-old males of salmon (Salmo salar L.), and males of brown trout (Salmo trutta m. fario L.) aged from 7 months to 4 years. A total of 821 gonads collected during all seasons of the year were examined. The fish were fixed in Bouin's fluid. Histological slides of the mid-part of the gonad were made using the standard paraffin technique. The 3-6 microm sections were stained with Heidenhain haematoxylin. Histological changes of testes during maturation were similar in the three species studied. Immature and resting gonads contained type A spermatogonia in lobules only. The appearance of cystic structures containing type B spermatogonia in the lobules signalled the beginning of the sexual cycle in male gonads. Type B spermatogonia underwent synchronous mitotic divisions resulting in an increase in the total number of spermatogonia. As the spermatogenesis continued, the gonads showed a gradual increase in the number of cysts containing cells at all the spermatogenetic stages: type B spermatogonia, primary and secondary spermatocytes, spermatids, and spermatozoa. The well-formed spermatozoa were released to the lobule lumen once the Sertoli cells and spermatozoa connections broke up and the cyst disappeared. This was a continuous process observed throughout the spawning season. The spermatozoa were moved to the efferent duct. While some of the germ cells were completing spermatogenesis, the lobules contained less and less cysts with type B spermatogonia, primary and secondary spermatocytes, and spermatids; eventually all

  5. A Drosophila model to image phagosome maturation.

    PubMed

    Shandala, Tetyana; Lim, Chiaoxin; Sorvina, Alexandra; Brooks, Douglas A

    2013-01-01

    Phagocytosis involves the internalization of extracellular material by invagination of the plasma membrane to form intracellular vesicles called phagosomes, which have functions that include pathogen degradation. The degradative properties of phagosomes are thought to be conferred by sequential fusion with endosomes and lysosomes; however, this maturation process has not been studied in vivo. We employed Drosophila hemocytes, which are similar to mammalian professional macrophages, to establish a model of phagosome maturation. Adult Drosophila females, carrying transgenic Rab7-GFP endosome and Lamp1-GFP lysosome markers, were injected with E. coli DH5α and the hemocytes were collected at 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes after infection. In wild-type females, E. coli were detected within enlarged Rab7-GFP positive phagosomes at 15 to 45 minutes after infection; and were also observed in enlarged Lamp1-GFP positive phagolysosomes at 45 minutes. Two-photon imaging of hemocytes in vivo confirmed this vesicle morphology, including enlargement of Rab7-GFP and Lamp1-GFP structures that often appeared to protrude from hemocytes. The interaction of endosomes and lysosomes with E. coli phagosomes observed in Drosophila hemocytes was consistent with that previously described for phagosome maturation in human ex vivo macrophages. We also tested our model as a tool for genetic analysis using 14-3-3e mutants, and demonstrated altered phagosome maturation with delayed E. coli internalization, trafficking and/or degradation. These findings demonstrate that Drosophila hemocytes provide an appropriate, genetically amenable, model for analyzing phagosome maturation ex vivo and in vivo. PMID:24709696

  6. An Unexpected Twist in Viral Capsid Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Gertsman, Ilya; Gan, Lu; Guttman, Miklos; Lee, Kelly; Speir, Jeffrey A.; Duda, Robert L.; Hendrix, Roger W.; Komives, Elizabeth A.; Johnson, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Lambda-like dsDNA bacteriophage undergo massive conformational changes in their capsid shell during the packaging of their viral genomes. Capsid shells are complex organizations of hundreds of protein subunits that assemble into intricate quaternary complexes that ultimately are able to withstand over 50 atm. of pressure during genome packaging1. The extensive integration between subunits in capsids is unlikely to form in a single assembly step, therefore requiring formation of an intermediate complex, termed a procapsid, from which individual subunits can undergo the necessary refolding and structural rearrangements needed to transition to the more stable capsid. Though various mature capsids have been characterized at atomic resolution, no such procapsid structure is available for a dsDNA virus or bacteriophage that undergoes large scale conformational changes. We present a procapsid x-ray structure at 3.65Å resolution, termed Prohead II, of the lambda like bacteriophage HK97, whose mature capsid structure was previously solved to 3.44 Å2. A comparison of the two largely different capsid forms has unveiled an unprecedented expansion mechanism that describes the transition. Crystallographic and Hydrogen/Deuterium exchange data presented here demonstrates that the subunit tertiary structures are significantly different between the two states, with twisting and bending motions occurring in both helical and β-sheet regions. We have also discovered conserved subunit interactions at each 3-fold of the virus capsid, from which capsid subunits maintain their integrity during refolding, facilitating the rotational and translational motions of maturation. Calormetric data of a closely related bacteriophage, P22, showed that capsid maturation was an exothermic process that resulted in a release of 90KJ/mol of energy3. We propose the major tertiary changes presented in this study reveal a structural basis for an exothermic maturation process likely present in many ds

  7. Ectomycorrhizae of Tuber huidongense and T. liyuanum with Castanea mollissima and Pinus armandii.

    PubMed

    Wan, Shan-Ping; Yu, Fu-Qiang; Tang, Li; Wang, Ran; Wang, Yun; Liu, Pei-Gui; Wang, Xiang-Hua; Zheng, Yi

    2016-04-01

    Tuber huidongense and T. liyuanum are common commercial white truffles in China that belong to the Rufum and Puberulum groups of the genus Tuber, respectively. Their mycorrhizae were successfully synthesized with two native trees--Castanea mollissima and Pinus armandii--under greenhouse conditions. The identities of the mycorrhizae were confirmed through internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analyses, and their morphological characteristics were described. All of the obtained mycorrhizae have an interlocking pseudoparenchymatous mantle, which is a typical feature of truffle mycorrhizae. The mycorrhizae of T. huidongense on the two trees have hyaline branched emanating hyphae, similar to the documented mycorrhizae of the Rufum group. The unramified, spiky, and hyaline cystidia on the mycorrhizae of T. liyuanum with both C. mollissima and P. armandii further confirmed that this characteristic is constant for the mycorrhizae of the Puberulum group. The successful mycorrhizal syntheses on the two nut-producing trees will be of economic importance in the cultivation of the two truffles. PMID:26452572

  8. Antimicrobial dihydrobenzofurans and xanthenes from a foliar endophyte of Pinus strobus.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Susan N; Nsiama, Tienabe K; Walker, Allison K; McMullin, David R; Miller, J David

    2015-09-01

    Foliar fungal endophytes of Pinus strobus (eastern white pine) were collected from different sites across south-eastern New Brunswick, Canada and screened for the production of bioactive metabolites. From one site, two fungal isolates representing a formerly unknown genus and species within the family Massarinaceae (Pleosporales, Dothideomycetes, Ascomycota) were resolved by phylogenetic analysis. These isolates produced crude organic extracts that were active against Microbotryum violaceum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. From these strains, DAOM 242779 and 242780, four dihydrobenzofurans (1-4) and two xanthenes (5-6) were characterized. Structures were elucidated by HRMS, interpretation of NMR spectra and other spectroscopic techniques. All isolated metabolites displayed antimicrobial activity against the biotrophic fungal pathogen M. violaceum and Bacillus subtilis. PMID:26189049

  9. Soil type affects Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum (Pinaceae) seedling growth in simulated drought experiments1

    PubMed Central

    Lindsey, Alexander J.; Kilgore, Jason S.

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Effects of drought stress and media type interactions on growth of Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum germinants were investigated. • Methods and Results: Soil properties and growth responses under drought were compared across four growth media types: two native soils (dolomitic limestone and granite), a soil-less industry standard conifer medium, and a custom-mixed conifer medium. After 35 d of growth, the seedlings under drought stress (reduced watering) produced less shoot and root biomass than watered control seedlings. Organic media led to decreased root biomass, but increased root length and shoot biomass relative to the mineral soils. • Conclusions: Media type affected root-to-shoot biomass partitioning of P. ponderosa var. scopulorum, which may influence net photosynthetic rates, growth, and long-term seedling survival. Further work should examine how specific soil properties like bulk density and organic matter influence biomass allocation in greenhouse studies. PMID:25202578

  10. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of essential oil of six pinus taxa native to China.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qing; Liu, Zhihong; Li, Zhouqi

    2015-01-01

    The essential oils obtained by steam distillation from needles of six China endemic Pinus taxa (P. tabulaeformis, P. tabulaeformis f. shekanensis, P. tabulaeformis var. mukdensis, P. tabulaeformis var. umbraculifera, P. henryi and P. massoniana) were analysed by GC/MS. A total of 72 components were separated and identified by GC/MS from the six taxa. The major constituents of the essential oils were: α-pinene (6.78%-20.55%), bornyl acetale (3.32%-12.71%), β-caryophellene (18.26%-26.31%), α-guaiene (1.23%-8.19%), and germacrene D (1.26%-9.93%). Moreover, the essential oils were evaluated for antioxidant potential by three assays (DPPH, FRAP and ABTS) and tested for their total phenolic content. The results showed that all essential oils exhibited acceptable antioxidant activities and these strongly suggest that these pine needles may serve as a potential source of natural antioxidants for food and medical purposes. PMID:26007189

  11. Antimicrobial terpenes from oleoresin of ponderosa pine tree Pinus ponderosa: A defense mechanism against microbial invasion

    SciTech Connect

    Himejima, Masaki; Hobson, K.R.; Otsuka, Toshikazu; Wood, D.L.; Kubo, Isao )

    1992-10-01

    The oleoresin of the ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa (Pinaceae) exhibited broad antimicrobial activity. In order to identify the active compounds, the oleoresin was steam distilled to give a distillate and residue. The distillate contained mainly monoterpenes and some sesquiterpenes, while the residue consisted chiefly of four structurally related diterpene acids. An antimicrobial assay with the pure compounds indicated that the monoterpenes were active primarily against fungi, but there was also some activity against gram-positive bacteria. The diterpene acids, in contrast, only exhibited activity against gram-positive bacteria. Although not all of the identified sesquiterpenes could be tested, longifolene showed activity only against gram-positive bacteria. Therefore, it appears that the oleoresin of P. ponderosa functions as a biochemical defense against microbial invasion.

  12. Phytoalexins from Pinus strobus bark infected with pinewood nematode, bursaphelenchus xylophilus.

    PubMed

    Hanawa, F; Yamada, T; Nakashima, T

    2001-05-01

    From the bark of Pinus strobus infected with pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, a stilbenoid 3-O-methyldihydropinosylvin and a flavanone (2S)-pinocembrin were isolated as active principles of inducibly produced antifungal compounds. The structures of the compounds were determined on the basis of spectroscopic analyses. Close investigations of spectroscopic analyses led to the complete assignment of 13C NMR and 1H NMR chemical shifts for the former compound and to the determination of the stereochemistry of the latter compound from P. strobus to be 2S. Furthermore, the distribution and time course accumulation of the identified compounds were investigated. The former compound was demonstrated to be nematocidal and the concentrations of the compound in the inoculated branches were sufficient enough to inactivate the pinewood nematode within one week after inoculation. PMID:11382237

  13. Quantification and characterization of Si in Pinus Insignis Dougl by TXRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, Henry; Bennun, Leonardo; Marcó, Lué M.

    2015-03-01

    A simple quantification of silicon is described, in woods such as Pinus Insigne Dougl obtained from the 8th region of Bío-Bío, 37°15″ South-73°19″ West, Chile. The samples were prepared through fractional calcination, and the ashes were directly analyzed by total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) technique. The analysis of 16 samples that were calcined is presented. The samples were weighed on plastic reflectors in a microbalance with sensitivity of 0.1 µg. Later, the samples were irradiated in a TXRF PICOFOX spectrometer, for 350 and 700 s. To each sample, cobalt was added as an internal standard. Concentrations of silicon over the 1 % in each sample and the self-absorption effect on the quantification were observed, in masses higher than 100 μg.

  14. Ectomycorrhizal specificity patterns in a mixed Pinus contorta and Picea engelmannii forest in Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cullings, K. W.; Vogler, D. R.; Parker, V. T.; Finley, S. K.

    2000-01-01

    We used molecular genetic methods to test two hypotheses, (i) that host plant specificity among ectomycorrhizal fungi would be common in a closed-canopy, mixed Pinus contorta-Picea engelmannii forest in Yellowstone National Park and (ii) that specificity would be more common in the early successional tree species, P. contorta, than in the invader, P. engelmannii. We identified 28 ectomycorrhizal fungal species collected from 27 soil cores. The proportion of P. engelmannii to P. contorta ectomycorrhizae was nearly equal (52 and 48%, respectively). Of the 28 fungal species, 18 composed greater than 95% of the fungal community. No species was associated exclusively with P. contorta, but four species, each found in only one core, and one species found in two cores were associated exclusively with P. engelmannii. These fungi composed less than 5% of the total ectomycorrhizae. Thus, neither hypothesis was supported, and hypothesized benefits of ectomycorrhizal specificity to both trees and fungi probably do not exist in this system.

  15. Chemical modification of coating of Pinus halepensis pollen by ozone exposure.

    PubMed

    Naas, Oumsaad; Mendez, Maxence; Quijada, Melesio; Gosselin, Sylvie; Farah, Jinane; Choukri, Ali; Visez, Nicolas

    2016-07-01

    Pollen coating, located on the exine, includes an extractible lipid fraction. The modification of the pollen coating by air pollutants may have implications on the interactions of pollen with plant stigmas and human cells. Pinus halepensis pollen was exposed to ozone in vitro and the pollen coating was extracted with organic solvent and analyzed by GC-MS. Ozone has induced chemical changes in the coating as observed with an increase in dicarboxylic acids, short-chain fatty acids and aldehydes. 4-Hydroxybenzaldehyde was identified as the main reaction product and its formation was shown to occur both on native pollen and on defatted pollen. 4-Hydroxybenzaldehyde is very likely formed via the ozonolysis of acid coumaric-like monomers constitutive of the sporopollenin. Modification of pollen coating by air pollutants should be accounted for in further studies on effect of pollution on germination and on allergenicity. PMID:27155099

  16. Nitrogen transport in the ectomycorrhiza association: the Hebeloma cylindrosporum-Pinus pinaster model.

    PubMed

    Müller, Tobias; Avolio, Meghan; Olivi, Martin; Benjdia, Mariam; Rikirsch, Enno; Kasaras, Alexis; Fitz, Michael; Chalot, Michel; Wipf, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    The function of the ectomycorrhizal mutualism depends on the ability of the fungal symbionts to take up nutrients (particularly nitrogen) available in inorganic and/or organic form in the soil and to translocate them (or their metabolites) to the symbiotic roots. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying nutrient exchanges between fungus and plant at the symbiotic interface is necessary to fully understand the function of the mycorrhizal symbioses. The present review reports the characterization of several genes putatively involved in nitrogen uptake and transfer in the Hebeloma cylindrosporum-Pinus pinaster ectomycorrhizal association. Study of this model system will further clarify the symbiotic nutrient exchange which plays a major role in plant nutrition as well as in resistance of plants against pathogens, heavy metals, drought stress, etc. Ultimately, ecological balance is maintained and/or improved with the help of symbiotic associations, and therefore, warrant further understanding. PMID:17083951

  17. Effects of Ectomycorrhizal Fungi on Growth of Seedlings of Pinus densiflora.

    PubMed

    Sim, Mi-Yeong; Eom, Ahn-Heum

    2006-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the different effects of ectomycorrhizal fungal (ECMF) species on the growth of seedlings of Pinus densiflora, and the effects of ECMF diversity on plant productivity. A total of five species of ECMF were isolated from root tips of pine seedlings collected from Mt. Songni and used as inocula. Pots containing pine seedlings were inoculated with either a single ECMF species or a mixture of five ECMF species. All of the seedlings formed ECM on their roots except for the control plants. The pine seedlings' growth responses varied by the different ECMF species. Also, pine seedlings inoculated with a mixture of five ECMF species showed the highest growth response. The results of the study suggest that the colonization of diverse species of ECMF will increase plant productivity, and the selection of suitable ECMF species could be an important factor for plant growth. PMID:24039497

  18. [Effects of elevated ozone on Pinus armandii growth: a simulation study with open-top chamber].

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang-Fu; Liu, Chen; He, Xing-Yuan; Ruan, Ya-Nan; Xu, Sheng; Chen, Zhen-Ju; Peng, Jun-Jie; Li, Teng

    2013-10-01

    By using open-top chamber (OTC) and the techniques of dendrochronology, this paper studied the growth of Pinus armandii under elevated ozone, and explored the evolution dynamics and adaptation mechanisms of typical forest ecosystems to ozone enrichment. Elevated ozone inhibited the stem growth of P. armandii significantly, with the annual growth of the stem length and diameter reduced by 35.0% and 12.9%, respectively. The annual growth of tree-ring width and the annual ring cells number decreased by 11.5% and 54.1%, respectively, but no significant change was observed in the diameter of tracheid. At regional scale, the fluctuation of ozone concentration showed significant correlation with the variation of local vegetation growth (NDVI). PMID:24483064

  19. Effect of drought and osmotic stress on gene expression in Jack Pine. [Pinus banksiana

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, M.; Mayne, M.; Coleman, J.R.; Blumwald, E. )

    1991-05-01

    The effect of drought and osmotic stress was studied in Jack Pine (Pinus banksiana) seedlings and cultured cell suspensions, respectively. The pattern of protein syntheses during stress was studied. Seedlings and cells were in vivo labeled with ({sup 35}S)methionine and membrane-bound proteins were isolated. proteins were resolved by SDS-PAGE, and identified by staining and autoradiography. Several changes in protein profiles were induced by stress. Messenger RNAs were isolated, translated in vitro, and complementary DNA libraries from control and stressed plants and cells were constructed in E. coli strain JM109. Antibodies, raised against electroeluted membrane-bound proteins that were significantly induced and/or enhanced during stress, were used to isolate stress-related genes from cDNA libraries.

  20. [Alternative Ways of Pinus sylvestris L. Migration from Southern Siberia to Europe and Asia Minor].

    PubMed

    Sannikov, S N; Egorov, E V

    2015-01-01

    Allozyme analysis of the parameters of the Nei genetic distances and gene flow between the populations of Scots pine Pinus sylvestris L. along two hypothetical alternative ways of their migrations in the Miocene-Pliocene from Southern Siberia to the Balkans, Central Europe, and Asia Minor was used; a lower probability of their settlement on the southern shores of the East Paratethys than on the northern ones was identified. It is suggested that the Middle Araks Strait of Paratethys in the Miocene and extreme aridity of the climate in the Pliocene headed the migration of the populations on the southern way, while on the northern way there were no essential water and mountain barriers for pine dispersal. PMID:26638233

  1. [Genetic structure of the populations of Pallas pine (Pinus pallasiana D. Don) reforested in extreme conditions].

    PubMed

    Korshikov, I I; Krasnoshtan, O V

    2010-01-01

    The paper reports on an intensive reforestation of Pallas pine (Pinus pallasiana D. Don) in post-fire sites in the native Mountainous Crimean populations and around the previously planted seed-producing trees in ore-mining dumps of the Krivoy Rog region. Self-sown progeny growing in the dump is characterized by a better growth and comes to the reproductive development phase earlier compared to that one growing in post-fire forest. Allele variability at 20 allozyme loci is less in self-sown progeny than in the native populations whereas its heterozygosity level is similar. Genetic distance (D(N)) among self-sown progenies in post-fire sites and ore-mining dump is comparable to that of the natural populations. PMID:20608157

  2. Leveraging People-Related Maturity Issues for Achieving Higher Maturity and Capability Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buglione, Luigi

    During the past 20 years Maturity Models (MM) become a buzzword in the ICT world. Since the initial Crosby's idea in 1979, plenty of models have been created in the Software & Systems Engineering domains, addressing various perspectives. By analyzing the content of the Process Reference Models (PRM) in many of them, it can be noticed that people-related issues have little weight in the appraisals of the capabilities of organizations while in practice they are considered as significant contributors in traditional process and organizational performance appraisals, as stressed instead in well-known Performance Management models such as MBQA, EFQM and BSC. This paper proposes some ways for leveraging people-related maturity issues merging HR practices from several types of maturity models into the organizational Business Process Model (BPM) in order to achieve higher organizational maturity and capability levels.

  3. Identification and persistence of Pinus pollen DNA on cotton fabrics: A forensic application.

    PubMed

    Schield, Cassandra; Campelli, Cassandra; Sycalik, Jennifer; Randle, Christopher; Hughes-Stamm, Sheree; Gangitano, David

    2016-01-01

    Advances in plant genomics have had an impact on the field of forensic botany. However, the use of pollen DNA profiling in forensic investigations has yet to be applied. Five volunteers wore a jacket with Pinus echinata pollen-containing cotton swatches for a 14-day period. Pollen decay was evaluated at days 0, 3, 6, 9 and 14 by microscopy. Pollen grains were then transferred to slides using a portable forensic vacuum handle. Ten single grains per swatch were isolated for DNA analysis. DNA was extracted using a high throughput extraction method. A nine-locus short tandem repeat (STR) multiplex system, including previously published primers from Pinus taeda, was developed. DNA was amplified by PCR using fluorescent dyes and analyzed by capillary electrophoresis. Pollen counts from cotton swatches in a 14-day period exhibited an exponential decay from 100% to 17%. The success rate of PCR amplification was 81.2%. Complete and partial STR profiles were generated from 250 pollen grains analyzed (44% and 37%, respectively). Due to the limited amount of DNA, drop-in events were observed (1.87%). However, the rate of contamination with pollen from other pine individuals originating from environmental sources was 4.4%. In conclusion, this study has shown that pollen can be a stable source of forensic DNA evidence, as a proof-of-principle, and that may persist on cotton clothing for at least 14 days of wear. This method can be applied in forensic cases where pollen grains larger than 10 μm (e.g., from herbs or trees) may be transferred to clothing (worn by suspect or victim) by primary contact. PMID:26746823

  4. The gymnosperm Pinus pinea contains both AOX gene subfamilies, AOX1 and AOX2.

    PubMed

    Frederico, António Miguel; Zavattieri, Maria Amely; Campos, Maria Doroteia; Cardoso, Hélia Guerra; McDonald, Allison E; Arnholdt-Schmitt, Birgit

    2009-12-01

    The gymnosperm Pinus pinea L. (stone pine) is a typical Mediterranean pine used for nuts and timber production, and as an ornamental around the world. Pine genomes are large in comparison to other species. The hypothesis that retrotransposons, such as gymny, made a large contribution to this alteration in genome size was recently confirmed. However, P. pinea is unique in other various aspects. P. pinea demonstrates a different pattern of gymny organization than other Pinus subgenera. Additionally, P. pinea has a highly recalcitrant behaviour in relation to standard conifer protocols for the induction of somatic embryogenesis or rooting. Because such types of cell reprogramming can be explained as a reaction of plant cells to external stress, it is of special interest to study sequence peculiarities in stress-inducible genes, such as the alternative oxidase (AOX). This is the first report containing molecular evidence for the existence of AOX in gymnosperms at the genetic level. P. pinea AOXs were isolated by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach and three genes were identified. Two of the genes belong to the AOX1 subfamily and one belongs to the AOX2 subfamily. The existence of both AOX subfamilies in gymnosperms is reported here for the first time. This discovery supports the hypothesis that AOX1 and AOX2 subfamilies arose prior to the separation of gymnosperms and angiosperms, and indicates that the AOX2 is absent in monocots because of subsequent gene loss events. Polymorphic P. pinea AOX1 sequences from a selected genetic clone are presented indicating non-allelic, non-synonymous and synonymous translation products. PMID:19863755

  5. Regeneration complexities of Pinus gerardiana in dry temperate forests of Indian Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Raj; Shamet, G S; Mehta, Harsh; Alam, N M; Kaushal, Rajesh; Chaturvedi, O P; Sharma, Navneet; Khaki, B A; Gupta, Dinesh

    2016-04-01

    Pinus gerardiana is considered an important species in dry temperate forests of North-Western Indian Himalaya because of its influence on ecological processes and economic dependence of local people in the region. But, large numbers of biotic and abiotic factors have affected P. gerardiana in these forests; hence, there is a crucial need to understand the regeneration dynamics of this tree species. The present investigation was conducted in P. gerardiana forests to understand vegetation pattern and regeneration processes on different sites in the region. Statistical analysis was performed to know variability in growing stock and regeneration on sample plots, while correlation coefficients and regression models were developed to find the relationship between regeneration and site factors. The vegetation study showed dominance of P. gerardiana, which is followed by Cedrus deodara, Pinus wallichiana and Quercus ilex in the region. The growing stock of P. gerardiana showed steep increasing and then steadily declining trend from lower to higher diameter class. The distribution of seedling, sapling, pole and trees was not uniform at different sites and less number of plots in each site were observed to have effective conditions for continuous regeneration, but mostly showed extremely limited regeneration. Regeneration success ranging from 8.44 to 15.93 % was recorded in different sites of the region, which suggests that in different sites regeneration success is influenced by collection of cone for extracting seed, grazing/browsing and physico-chemical properties of soil. Regeneration success showed significant correlation and relationship with most of abiotic and biotic factors. The regeneration success is lower than the requirement of sustainable forest, but varies widely among sites in dry temperate forests of Himalaya. More forest surveys are required to understand the conditions necessary for greater success of P. gerardiana in the region. PMID:26748929

  6. Transcriptional Programs Controlling Perinatal Lung Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Yanhua; Besnard, Valérie; Ikegami, Machiko; Wert, Susan E.; Heffner, Caleb; Murray, Stephen A.; Donahue, Leah Rae; Whitsett, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    The timing of lung maturation is controlled precisely by complex genetic and cellular programs. Lung immaturity following preterm birth frequently results in Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS) and Broncho-Pulmonary Dysplasia (BPD), which are leading causes of mortality and morbidity in preterm infants. Mechanisms synchronizing gestational length and lung maturation remain to be elucidated. In this study, we designed a genome-wide mRNA expression time-course study from E15.5 to Postnatal Day 0 (PN0) using lung RNAs from C57BL/6J (B6) and A/J mice that differ in gestational length by ∼30 hr (B6maturation. We identified both temporal and strain dependent gene expression patterns during lung maturation. For time dependent changes, cell adhesion, vasculature development, and lipid metabolism/transport were major bioprocesses induced during the saccular stage of lung development at E16.5–E17.5. CEBPA, PPARG, VEGFA, CAV1 and CDH1 were found to be key signaling and transcriptional regulators of these processes. Innate defense/immune responses were induced at later gestational ages (E18.5–20.5), STAT1, AP1, and EGFR being important regulators of these responses. Expression of RNAs associated with the cell cycle and chromatin assembly was repressed during prenatal lung maturation and was regulated by FOXM1, PLK1, chromobox, and high mobility group families of transcription factors. Strain dependent lung mRNA expression differences peaked at E18.5. At this time, mRNAs regulating surfactant and innate immunity were more abundantly expressed in lungs of B6 (short gestation) than in A/J (long gestation) mice, while expression of genes involved in chromatin assembly and histone modification were expressed at lower levels in B6 than in A/J mice. The present study systemically mapped key regulators, bioprocesses

  7. Biomarker tests for fetal lung maturity.

    PubMed

    Leung-Pineda, Van; Gronowski, Ann M

    2010-12-01

    The production of surfactant is a key step in fetal lung development. Surfactant decreases alveolar surface tension, thereby preventing alveolar collapse and allowing efficient gas exchange. The lack of adequate amounts of lung surfactant results in respiratory distress syndrome. Tests that assess surfactant concentrations in amniotic fluid are good predictors of infants that will not develop respiratory distress syndrome. The most frequently used test to assess fetal lung maturity (TDx FLM II) will not be available after December 2011. Therefore, we review the currently available tests for fetal lung maturity including lecithin:sphingomyelin ratio, phosphatidyl glycerol, surfactant:albumin ratio and lamellar body counts. Herein, we discuss their clinical utility and consider a suitable replacement for the future. PMID:21133706

  8. Remotely sensing wheat maturation with radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, T. F.; Ulaby, F. T.

    1975-01-01

    The scattering properties of wheat were studied in the 8-18 GHz band as a function of frequency, polarization, incidence angle, and crop maturity. Supporting ground truth was collected at the time of measurement. The data indicate that the radar backscattering coefficient is sensitive to both radar system parameters and crop characteristics particularly at incidence angles near nadir. Linear regression analyses of the radar backscattering coefficient on both time and plant moisture content result in rather good correlation. Furthermore, by calculating the average time rate of change of the radar backscattering coefficient it is found that it undergoes rapid variations shortly before and after the wheat is harvested. Both of these analyses suggest methods for estimating wheat maturity and for monitoring the progress of harvest.

  9. Visualizing antibody affinity maturation in germinal centers.

    PubMed

    Tas, Jeroen M J; Mesin, Luka; Pasqual, Giulia; Targ, Sasha; Jacobsen, Johanne T; Mano, Yasuko M; Chen, Casie S; Weill, Jean-Claude; Reynaud, Claude-Agnès; Browne, Edward P; Meyer-Hermann, Michael; Victora, Gabriel D

    2016-03-01

    Antibodies somatically mutate to attain high affinity in germinal centers (GCs). There, competition between B cell clones and among somatic mutants of each clone drives an increase in average affinity across the population. The extent to which higher-affinity cells eliminating competitors restricts clonal diversity is unknown. By combining multiphoton microscopy and sequencing, we show that tens to hundreds of distinct B cell clones seed each GC and that GCs lose clonal diversity at widely disparate rates. Furthermore, efficient affinity maturation can occur in the absence of homogenizing selection, ensuring that many clones can mature in parallel within the same GC. Our findings have implications for development of vaccines in which antibodies with nonimmunodominant specificities must be elicited, as is the case for HIV-1 and influenza. PMID:26912368

  10. Mature brain tissue in the sacrococcygeal region.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Binod Bade; Ghimire, Pradeep; Ghartimagar, Dilasma; Jwarchan, Bishnu; Lalchan, Subita; Karmacharya, Mikesh

    2016-01-01

    Complete mature brain tissue in sacrococcygeal region is a rare congenital anomaly in a newborn, which usually is misdiagnosed for sacrococcygeal teratoma. Glial tumor-like ependymoma is also common in sacrococcygeal area but mostly appears later in life. We present a case of complete heterotopic brain tissue in the sacrococcygeal region. The patient underwent total excision of mass with coccygectomy. To our knowledge it is the second case being reported. PMID:27194682

  11. Mature brain tissue in the sacrococcygeal region

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Binod Bade; Ghimire, Pradeep; Ghartimagar, Dilasma; Jwarchan, Bishnu; Lalchan, Subita; Karmacharya, Mikesh

    2016-01-01

    Complete mature brain tissue in sacrococcygeal region is a rare congenital anomaly in a newborn, which usually is misdiagnosed for sacrococcygeal teratoma. Glial tumor-like ependymoma is also common in sacrococcygeal area but mostly appears later in life. We present a case of complete heterotopic brain tissue in the sacrococcygeal region. The patient underwent total excision of mass with coccygectomy. To our knowledge it is the second case being reported. PMID:27194682

  12. Maturation of Fetal Responses to Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kisilevsky, B. S.; Hains, S. M. J.; Jacquet, A.-Y.; Granier-Deferre, C.; Lecanuet, J. P.

    2004-01-01

    Maturation of fetal response to music was characterized over the last trimester of pregnancy using a 5-minute piano recording of Brahms' Lullaby, played at an average of 95, 100, 105 or 110 dB (A). Within 30 seconds of the onset of the music, the youngest fetuses (28-32 weeks GA) showed a heart rate increase limited to the two highest dB levels;…

  13. Maturity schedules of lake trout in Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; DeSorcie, Timothy J.; Stedman, Ralph M.

    1998-01-01

    We determined maturity schedules of male and female lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Michigan from nearshore populations and from an offshore population on Sheboygan Reef, which is located in midlake. Gill nets and bottom trawls were used to catch lake trout in fall 1994 and 1995 from two nearshore sites and Sheboygan Reef. Each lake trout was judged immature or mature, based on visual examination of gonads. Probit analysis, coupled with relative potency testing, revealed that age-at-maturity and length-at-maturity were similar at the two nearshore sites, but that lake trout from the nearshore sites matured at a significantly earlier age than lake trout from Sheboygan Reef. However, length at maturity for the nearshore populations was nearly identical to that for the offshore population, suggesting that rate of lake trout maturation in Lake Michigan was governed by growth rather than age. Half of the lake trout males reached maturity at a total length of 580 mm, whereas half of the females were mature at a length of 640 mm. Over half of nearshore males were mature by age 5, and over half the nearshore females matured by age 6. Due to a slower growth rate, maturity was delayed by 2 years on Sheboygan Reef compared with the nearshore populations. Documentation of this delay in maturation may be useful in deciding stocking allocations for lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Michigan.

  14. The AGU Data Management Maturity Model Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    In September 2014, the AGU Board of Directors approved two initiatives to help the Earth and space sciences community address the growing challenges accompanying the increasing size and complexity of data. These initiatives are: 1) Data Science Credentialing: development of a continuing education and professional certification program to help scientists in their careers and to meet growing responsibilities and requirements around data science; and 2) Data Management Maturity (DMM) Model: development and implementation of a data management maturity model to assess process maturity against best practices, and to identify opportunities in organizational data management processes. Each of these has been organized within AGU as an Editorial Board and both Boards have held kick off meetings. The DMM model Editorial Board will recommend strategies for adapting and deploying a DMM model to the Earth and space sciences create guidance documents to assist in its implementation, and provide input on a pilot appraisal process. This presentation will provide an overview of progress to date in the DMM model Editorial Board and plans for work to be done over the upcoming year.

  15. Human mature erythroblasts are resistant to apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Hristoskova, Sashka; Holzgreve, Wolfgang; Hahn, Sinuhe; Rusterholz, Corinne

    2007-03-10

    Apoptosis plays an important role in red blood cell development, notably by regulating the fate of early erythroid progenitors. We show here that, by contrast, mature erythroblasts are resistant to apoptosis. Treatment of these cells with several apoptosis-inducing agents failed to trigger caspase activation and oligonucleosomal DNA fragmentation. Interestingly, we find that cytochrome c levels are dramatically reduced even though the cells contain mitochondria. Supplementation of cytosolic extracts from mature erythroblasts with cytochrome c, however, did not rescue caspase activation. This was not due to the presence of inhibitors of apoptosis, as these proteins were also missing in these cells. We also show that cytochrome c depletion is a normal event during erythroblast differentiation, which follows transient, developmentally induced caspase activation and correlates with the loss of response to cytokine withdrawal or drug-induced apoptosis. Our data therefore suggest that erythroblasts acquire resistance to apoptosis during maturation through the developmentally induced depletion of cytochrome c and other crucial regulators of the apoptotic machinery. PMID:17289021

  16. DNA damage response during mouse oocyte maturation.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Alexandra; Baran, Vladimir; Sakakibara, Yogo; Brzakova, Adela; Ferencova, Ivana; Motlik, Jan; Kitajima, Tomoya S; Schultz, Richard M; Solc, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Because low levels of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) appear not to activate the ATM-mediated prophase I checkpoint in full-grown oocytes, there may exist mechanisms to protect chromosome integrity during meiotic maturation. Using live imaging we demonstrate that low levels of DSBs induced by the radiomimetic drug Neocarzinostatin (NCS) increase the incidence of chromosome fragments and lagging chromosomes but do not lead to APC/C activation and anaphase onset delay. The number of DSBs, represented by γH2AX foci, significantly decreases between prophase I and metaphase II in both control and NCS-treated oocytes. Transient treatment with NCS increases >2-fold the number of DSBs in prophase I oocytes, but less than 30% of these oocytes enter anaphase with segregation errors. MRE11, but not ATM, is essential to detect DSBs in prophase I and is involved in H2AX phosphorylation during metaphase I. Inhibiting MRE11 by mirin during meiotic maturation results in anaphase bridges and also increases the number of γH2AX foci in metaphase II.  Compromised DNA integrity in mirin-treated oocytes indicates a role for MRE11 in chromosome integrity during meiotic maturation. PMID:26745237

  17. Technology Maturation of Integrated System Health Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feather, Martin S.; Uckun, Serdar; Hicks, Kenneth A.

    2008-01-01

    Despite two decades of significant investments in R&D of Integrated System Health Management (ISHM), mission-critical applications of it in aerospace are few and far between. ISHM is subject to the general difficulty of transitioning technologies out of R&D labs and into practical applications. New and unproven methods such as ISHM introduce multiple mission risks (technology, schedule, cost), and may require a transition to unconventional and as-yet-unproven operations concepts in order to be effective. Laboratory and flight demonstrations are necessary but insufficient to adequately reduce those risks. What is needed is a solid business case before a new technology can be considered for fleetwide deployment. To address these problems, we recently applied a technology maturation assessment process developed at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory to study the challenges of ISHM technology maturation. This application resulted in identification of the technologies (and technology maturation activities) that would result in the greatest risk reduction per investment dollar. Our approach and its results are described herein.

  18. Decelerating Mature Adipocyte Dedifferentiation by Media Composition.

    PubMed

    Huber, Birgit; Kluger, Petra J

    2015-12-01

    The establishment of adipose tissue test systems is still a major challenge in the investigation of cellular and molecular interactions responsible for the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases involving adipose tissue. Mature adipocytes are mainly involved in these pathologies, but rarely used in vitro, due to the lack of an appropriate culture medium which inhibits dedifferentiation and maintains adipocyte functionality. In our study, we showed that Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium/Ham's F-12 with 10% fetal calf serum (FCS) reported for the culture of mature adipocytes favors dedifferentiation, which was accompanied by a high glycerol release, a decreasing release of leptin, and a low expression of the adipocyte marker perilipin A, but high expression of CD73 after 21 days. Optimized media containing FCS, biotin, pantothenate, insulin, and dexamethasone decelerated the dedifferentiation process. These cells showed a lower lipolysis rate, a high level of leptin release, as well as a high expression of perilipin A. CD73-positive dedifferentiated fat cells were only found in low quantity. In this work, we showed that mature adipocytes when cultured under optimized conditions could be highly valuable for adipose tissue engineering in vitro. PMID:26228997

  19. Epigenetic mechanisms in pubertal brain maturation

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Kathleen E.; Rodgers, Ali B.; Morgan, Christopher P.; Bale, Tracy L.

    2014-01-01

    Puberty is a critical period of development during which the reemergence of gonadotropin releasing hormone secretion from the hypothalamus triggers a cascade of hormone-dependent processes. Maturation of specific brain regions including the prefrontal cortex occurs during this window, but the complex mechanisms underlying these dynamic changes are not well understood. Particularly, the potential involvement of epigenetics in this programming has been under-examined. The epigenome is known to guide earlier stages of development, and it is similarly poised to regulate vital pubertal-driven brain maturation. Further, as epigenetic machinery is highly environmentally responsive, its involvement may also lend this period of growth to greater vulnerability to external insults, resulting in reprogramming and increased disease risk. Importantly, neuropsychiatric diseases commonly present in individuals during or immediately following puberty, and environmental perturbations including stress may precipitate disease onset by disrupting the normal trajectory of pubertal brain development via epigenetic mechanisms. In this review, we discuss epigenetic processes involved in pubertal brain maturation, the potential points of derailment, and the importance of future studies for understanding this dynamic developmental window and gaining a better understanding of neuropsychiatric disease risk. PMID:24239720

  20. Maturation modeling in Otway Basin, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Middleton, M.F.; Falvey, D.A.

    1983-02-01

    The Otway basin is a Jurassic to Pliocene sedimentary basin formed on the southern Australian continental margin. Its formation is associated with rifting and breakup of the Australian and Antarctic plates. Lithospheric cooling and contraction have probably produced post-breakup subsidence. Either lithospheric stretching or deep crustal metamorphism may have produced pre-breakup subsidence. These mechanisms have identifiable thermal histories. Organic diagenesis (specifically the reflectance of vitrinite in oil) is empirically determined by the thermal and depositional history of an organic sediment. Thus, the stages of hydrocarbon maturity of Otway basin sediments can be modeled. Depositional history is determined from ''geohistory analysis'' and thermal history depends on the subsidence mechanism applied to the basin. A paleo-heat-flow history derived from the deep crustal metamorphism model of subsidence produces a maturation profile with depth that is consistent with observed vitrinite reflectance data, although organic diagenesis modeling is relatively insensitive to precise details of thermal history. Depositional and maturation history modeling for the present day, 20 Ma ago, 40 Ma ago, and 60 Ma ago is applied to a seismic profile across the southern Australian continental shelf in the Otway basin as a demonstration of the projection backward in time of sedimentation and organic diagenesis.

  1. Consequences for selected high-elevation butterflies and moths from the spread of Pinus mugo into the alpine zone in the High Sudetes Mountains.

    PubMed

    Bílá, Karolína; Šipoš, Jan; Kindlmann, Pavel; Kuras, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Due to changes in the global climate, isolated alpine sites have become one of the most vulnerable habitats worldwide. The indigenous fauna in these habitats is threatened by an invasive species, dwarf pine (Pinus mugo), which is highly competitive and could be important in determining the composition of the invertebrate community. In this study, the association of species richness and abundance of butterflies with the extent of Pinus mugo cover at individual alpine sites was determined. Butterflies at alpine sites in the High Sudetes Mountains (Mts.) were sampled using Moericke yellow water traps. The results of a Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) indicated that at a local scale the area of alpine habitats is the main limiting factor for native species of alpine butterflies. Butterfly assemblages are associated with distance to the tree-line with the optimum situated in the lower forest zone. In addition the CCA revealed that biotic factors (i.e. Pinus mugo and alpine tundra vegetation) accounted for a significant amount of the variability in species data. Regionally, the CCA identified that the species composition of butterflies and moths is associated with presence and origin of Pinus mugo. Our study provides evidence that the structure of the Lepidopteran fauna that formed during the postglacial period and also the present composition of species assemblages is associated with the presence of Pinus mugo. With global warming, Pinus mugo has the potential to spread further into alpine areas and negatively affect the local species communities. PMID:27330857

  2. Consequences for selected high-elevation butterflies and moths from the spread of Pinus mugo into the alpine zone in the High Sudetes Mountains

    PubMed Central

    Šipoš, Jan; Kindlmann, Pavel; Kuras, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Due to changes in the global climate, isolated alpine sites have become one of the most vulnerable habitats worldwide. The indigenous fauna in these habitats is threatened by an invasive species, dwarf pine (Pinus mugo), which is highly competitive and could be important in determining the composition of the invertebrate community. In this study, the association of species richness and abundance of butterflies with the extent of Pinus mugo cover at individual alpine sites was determined. Butterflies at alpine sites in the High Sudetes Mountains (Mts.) were sampled using Moericke yellow water traps. The results of a Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) indicated that at a local scale the area of alpine habitats is the main limiting factor for native species of alpine butterflies. Butterfly assemblages are associated with distance to the tree-line with the optimum situated in the lower forest zone. In addition the CCA revealed that biotic factors (i.e. Pinus mugo and alpine tundra vegetation) accounted for a significant amount of the variability in species data. Regionally, the CCA identified that the species composition of butterflies and moths is associated with presence and origin of Pinus mugo. Our study provides evidence that the structure of the Lepidopteran fauna that formed during the postglacial period and also the present composition of species assemblages is associated with the presence of Pinus mugo. With global warming, Pinus mugo has the potential to spread further into alpine areas and negatively affect the local species communities. PMID:27330857

  3. Transcriptome analysis of embryo maturation in maize

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Maize is one of the most important crops in the world. With the exponentially increasing population and the need for ever increased food and feed production, an increased yield of maize grain (as well as rice, wheat and other grains) will be critical. Maize grain development is understood from the perspective of morphology, hormone responses, and storage reserve accumulation. This includes various studies on gene expression during embryo development and maturation but a global study of gene expression of the embryo has not been possible until recently. Transcriptome analysis is a powerful new tool that can be used to understand the genetic basis of embryo maturation. Results We undertook a transcriptomic analysis of normal maturing embryos at 15, 21 and 27 days after pollination (DAP), of one elite maize germplasm line that was utilized in crosses to transgenic plants. More than 19,000 genes were analyzed by this method and the challenge was to select subsets of genes that are vitally important to embryo development and maturation for the initial analysis. We describe the changes in expression for genes relating to primary metabolic pathways, DNA synthesis, late embryogenesis proteins and embryo storage proteins, shown through transcriptome analysis and confirmed levels of transcription for some genes in the transcriptome using qRT-PCR. Conclusions Numerous genes involved in embryo maturation have been identified, many of which show changes in expression level during the progression from 15 to 27 DAP. An expected array of genes involved in primary metabolism was identified. Moreover, more than 30% of transcripts represented un-annotated genes, leaving many functions to be discovered. Of particular interest are the storage protein genes, globulin-1, globulin-2 and an unidentified cupin family gene. When expressing foreign proteins in maize, the globulin-1 promoter is most often used, but this cupin family gene has much higher expression and may be a

  4. 7 CFR 51.1555 - Fairly well matured.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....1555 Fairly well matured. Fairly well matured means that the skins of the potatoes are generally fairly firmly set and not more than 10 percent of the potatoes in the lot have more than one-fourth of the...

  5. 7 CFR 51.1555 - Fairly well matured.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....1555 Fairly well matured. Fairly well matured means that the skins of the potatoes are generally fairly firmly set and not more than 10 percent of the potatoes in the lot have more than one-fourth of the...

  6. Morphology of preovulatory bovine follicles as related to oocyte maturation.

    PubMed

    de Loos, F A; Bevers, M M; Dieleman, S J; Kruip, T A

    1991-03-01

    Thirty-three preovulatory bovine oocytes and their follicles were collected during the period of final maturation in normally cyclic cows. Cell density of the membrana granulosa, mitotic index of the membrana granulosa, and the occurrence of eosinophilic granulocytes around the basal membrane as well as the maturational stage of the oocyte were determined. Cell density decreased during the period of final maturation. Mitotic indices also decreased after an initial high level in the first hours of the final maturation. Eosinophilic granulocytes were only seen during the last hours of final maturation. The maturational stages of the oocytes were related to distinct maturational stages of the follicular wall as determined by morphological characteristics. We propose a scoring system for the maturity of the follicular wall based on cell density, presence of mitotic figures and the presence of eosinophilic granulocytes outside the vascular compartment. PMID:16726922

  7. Sensitive and specific detection of pine nut (Pinus spp.) by real-time PCR in complex food products.

    PubMed

    Garino, Cristiano; De Paolis, Angelo; Coïsson, Jean Daniel; Bianchi, Daniela Manila; Decastelli, Lucia; Arlorio, Marco

    2016-03-01

    Pine nuts are a known source of food allergens and several cases of adverse immunological reaction after ingestion have been reported. To protect allergic consumers, methods to unequivocally detect the presence of pine nuts in complex matrices must be developed. A Taqman-based real time PCR method for the detection of Pinus spp. was set up. A homemade pesto spiked at known concentration of pine nut powder was used as model food. Moreover, DNA was purified from commercial foods declaring or not the presence of pine nuts. The method displayed a very high efficiency and specificity for the genus Pinus. The intrinsic LOD was 1pg of DNA, while the practical LOD evaluated on model foods was 0.1ppm of pine nuts powder, the lowest ever registered for the detection of food allergens via real-time PCR. Finally, the declared presence/absence of pine nut in commercial foods was confirmed. PMID:26471643

  8. Career Maturity Determinants: Individual Development, Social Context, and Historical Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt-Rodermund, Eva; Silbereisen, Rainer K.

    1998-01-01

    Compares adolescents from East Germany who experienced an educational system offering little choice with adolescents from West Germany who experienced more leeway to investigate career maturity. East German adolescents reported more career maturity. Person-related variables predicted career maturity in both groups; family and peer context were…

  9. Using the Reading Maturity Survey in Teacher Education Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theiss, Deb; Philbrick, Anita; Jarman, Georgia

    2009-01-01

    This study surveyed pre-service teachers to determine their reading maturity using The Reading Maturity Survey (Thomas, 2001). Results indicate that pre-service teachers self-report high levels of confidence in their reading maturity with the exception of two areas that may relate to developing skills in critical reflection and transformational…

  10. 7 CFR 1427.174 - Maturity of seed cotton loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maturity of seed cotton loans. 1427.174 Section 1427..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.174 Maturity of seed cotton loans. Seed cotton loans mature on demand by CCC but no later than May 31...

  11. Military Service and Self-Perceived Maturation among Israeli Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dar, Yechezkel; Kimhi, Shaul

    2001-01-01

    Analyzed self-perceived maturation associated with service in the Israeli army according to gender, rank, service trajectory (unit or role), and the socialization environment of the individual (urban or kibbutz). Results for 633 subjects suggest that army service contributes to the maturation of Israeli youth, and maturation is moderately affected…

  12. 7 CFR 1427.174 - Maturity of seed cotton loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maturity of seed cotton loans. 1427.174 Section 1427..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.174 Maturity of seed cotton loans. Seed cotton loans mature on demand by CCC but no later than May 31...

  13. 7 CFR 1427.174 - Maturity of seed cotton loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maturity of seed cotton loans. 1427.174 Section 1427..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.174 Maturity of seed cotton loans. Seed cotton loans mature on demand by CCC but no later than May 31...

  14. 7 CFR 1427.174 - Maturity of seed cotton loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maturity of seed cotton loans. 1427.174 Section 1427..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.174 Maturity of seed cotton loans. Seed cotton loans mature on demand by CCC but no later than May 31...

  15. 7 CFR 1427.174 - Maturity of seed cotton loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maturity of seed cotton loans. 1427.174 Section 1427..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.174 Maturity of seed cotton loans. Seed cotton loans mature on demand by CCC but no later than May 31...

  16. Carbon sequestration and water flow regulation services in mature Mediterranean Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beguería, S.; Ovando, P.

    2015-12-01

    We develop a forestland use and management model that integrates spatially-explicit biophysical and economic data, to estimate the expected pattern of climate regulation services through carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration in tree and shrubs biomass, and water flow regulation. We apply this model to examine the potential trade-offs and synergies in the supply of CO2 sequestration and water flow services in mature Mediterranean forest, considering two alternative forest management settings. A forest restoration scenario through investments in facilitating forest regeneration, and a forestry activity abandonment scenario as result of unprofitable forest regeneration investment. The analysis is performed for different discount rates and price settings for carbon and water. The model is applied at the farm level in a group of 567 private silvopastoral farms across Andalusia (Spain), considering the main forest species in this region: Quercus ilex, Q. suber, Pinus pinea, P. halepensis, P. pinaster and Eucalyptus sp., as well as for tree-less shrubland and pastures. The results of this research are provided by forest land unit, vegetation, farm and for the group of municipalities where the farms are located. Our results draw attention to the spatial variability of CO2 and water flow regulation services, and point towards a trade-off between those services. The pattern of economic benefits associated to water and carbon services fluctuates according to the assumptions regarding price levels and discounting rates, as well as in connection to the expected forest management and tree growth models, and to spatially-explicit forest attributes such as existing tree and shrubs inventories, the quality of the sites for growing different tree species, soil structure or the climatic characteristics. The assumptions made regarding the inter-temporal preferences and relative prices have a large effect on the estimated economic value of carbon and water services. These results

  17. Three-dimensional surface topography of the needle stomatal complexes of Pinus rigida and its hybrid species by complementary microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Woo; Kim, Du-Hyun; Han, Sim-Hee; Lee, Jae-Cheon; Kim, Pan-Gi

    2010-08-01

    Three-dimensional surface topography of needle stomatal complexes was investigated in Pinus rigida, Pinus taeda, and their interspecific hybrid Pinus rigitaeda. The stomatal complexes of P. rigida appeared to be sunken and ca. 15 microm deep by white light scanning interferometry. Stomatal grooves were evident in P. taeda along the stomata and amounted to ca. 5 microm deep. The centers of stomata maintained the similar height to the stomatal apertures. Meanwhile, the stomatal complexes of P. rigitaeda (ca. 15 microm deep) were characterized by distinct stomatal grooves and sunken stomatal chambers. In addition, field emission scanning electron microscopy revealed the stomatal complexes of P. rigida partially filled with epicuticular waxes. It was common to observe distinct stomatal grooves and chamber-filled stomata on P. taeda needles. The stomatal complexes of P. rigitaeda had the distinct stomatal grooves and were partially filled with wax tubules and rodlets. Surface roughness measurements of stomatal complexes showed higher levels of roughness from P. rigida and P. rigitaeda than that from P. taeda. These results indicate that the hybrid species P. rigitaeda showed intermediacy in surface characteristics between the parent species, suggesting the genetic control of needle stomatal complexes in the hybrid species. PMID:20452778

  18. Performance, growth, and maturity of Nellore bulls.

    PubMed

    Costa e Silva, Luiz Fernando; Valadares Filho, Sebastião de Campos; Detmann, Edenio; Rotta, Polyana Pizzi; Zanetti, Diego; Villadiego, Faider Alberto Castaño; Pellizzoni, Samantha Gusmão; Pereira, Rafael Moura Guimarães

    2013-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the dry matter intake (DMI), digestibility, average daily gain (ADG), microbial efficiency, empty body weight (EBW) gain, and body composition of Nellore bulls. Additionally, Nellore bull maturity was estimated, and the prediction equation for DMI, suggested by the Brazilian nutrient requirements system (BR CORTE; Azevêdo et al. 2010), was evaluated. Thirty-three Nellore bulls, with a mean initial weight of 259 ± 25 kg and age of 14 ± 1 months, were used in this study. Five animals were slaughtered at the beginning of the experiment (control group), and the remaining 28 were divided into 4 groups, each slaughtered at 42-day intervals. Their diet was composed of corn silage and concentrate (55:45). The power model was used to estimate muscle tissue, bone tissue, crude protein (CP), mineral matter (MM), and water present in the empty body, while the exponential model was used to estimate adipose tissue and ether extract (EE) present in the empty body. When expressed in kilograms per day, differences were observed (P < 0.05) only for the intake of EE and neutral detergent fiber as a function of feedlot time periods. Although there was a difference in relation to nutrient intake, it did not affect (P > 0.05) digestibility, with the exception of EE digestibility. The equation suggested by BR CORTE correctly estimates the DMI of Nellore bulls. ADG was not affected (P > 0.05) by time spent in the feedlot. No differences were observed (P > 0.05) for microbial efficiency; a mean value of 142 g microbial crude protein/kg total digestible nutrients was achieved. The muscle and bone tissues, CP, MM, and water present in the empty body increased as the animal grew, although at a lower rate. The adipose tissue and EE present in the empty body increased their deposition rate when the animal reached its mature weight. Maturity is defined as when an animal reaches 22 % EE in the empty body, which

  19. Meeting maturational needs in the group setting.

    PubMed

    Ormont, L R

    2001-07-01

    Many people who enter treatment with intrapsychic conflicts also bring with them developmental deficits. These deficits stem from early environmental failures: Parenting figures did not provide needed maturational input, creating a gap that leaves the child with developmental deficits in their personality. These, like intrapsychic conflicts, engender formidable resistances to progress in treatment. This article intends to show that group treatment is ideally suited to the task of filling in these emotional voids. To enable members to address the deficit of a co-member, the group leader systematically initiates and oversees five basic steps. PMID:11447784

  20. The Homo Energeticus: maturity, inheritance, identity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Arthur

    2013-03-01

    In this letter, modern society’s intimate bond to the convenience and reliability of delivered energy services results in a form of identification I call the Homo Energeticus. The Homo Energeticus relies upon a mature system of services for achieving an equivalency of status and prestige that is historically similar to the morality of a noble class. I describe the uniqueness of this identity by its imperative for acquiring experience through an invisibility of energy expenditures. In this way, the Homo Energeticus cultivates a highly individualized life whose ambience of perfection, while created personally, is only successful insofar as it conceals energy expenditures in labor and supply.

  1. Essential oil composition variability among natural populations of Pinus mugo Turra in Kosovo.

    PubMed

    Hajdari, Avni; Mustafa, Behxhet; Ahmeti, Gresa; Pulaj, Bledar; Lukas, Brigitte; Ibraliu, Alban; Stefkov, Gjoshe; Quave, Cassandra L; Novak, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Pinus mugo Turra, is a native pine species in central and southern Europe, growing in high mountains area (altitudes 1.800-2.300 m.a.s.l.). In Kosovo, it is one of the native pines too, distributed in high altitudes in the Sharri Mountains and Albanian Alps Mountains. Its populations represent an important wealth of essential oil resources available, which make this species very important in terms of economic values. The chemical composition and yields of the essential oils of dwarf pine (Pinus mugo Turra) needles, twigs and cones from six wild populations in Kosovo were investigated with the aim to assess their natural variability. The identity of P. mugo was confirmed by morphology and DNA barcoding. Sixty-two compounds were identified representing 69-95 % of the total identified compounds. The yield ranged from 0.3-0.8 % v/w in needles, 1.0-2.4 % v/w in twigs and 0.1-0.5 % v/w in cones, depending on the origin of plant material and plant organs. α-Pinene (needles: 16.9-24.5 %; twigs: 4.5-8.8 %; cones: 3.1-5.6 %), β-pinene (needles: 1.5-5.4 %; twigs: 2.2-15.4 %; cones: 1.3-14.2 %), δ-3-carene (needles: 15.4-27.8 %; twigs: 24.0-51.6 %; cones: 10.5-31.5 %), limonene + β-phellandrene (needles: 1.9-5.9 %; twigs: 12.6-24.2 %; cones: 2.1-9.3 %), (E)-caryophyllene (needles: 4.4-8.9 %; twigs: 4.0-10.8 %; cones: 10.3-26.9 %) and germacrene D (needles: 4.0-8.3 %; twigs: 0.2-6.19 %; cones: 0.1-12.4 %) were the major components of the essential oil. Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analyses (HCA) suggests that the population of P. mugo clustering is not related to their geographic location, but rather seemed to be linked to local selective forces acting on chemotype diversity. Low variability related to their geographic location has an economic importance since samples originating from different locations in Kosovo can treated with same standards. PMID:26753115

  2. Validation of the Psychological Work Maturity Scale in Chinese employees.

    PubMed

    Tong, Jiajin; Wang, Lei

    2010-12-01

    Psychological work maturity is an important concept in situational leadership theory. The present research revised the Psychological Work Maturity Scale for use in Chinese organizations. Three samples of full-time employees (Ns = 205, 266, and 283) from different companies and industries participated in the present study. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that a single-factor structure fit the data. The scale had acceptable reliabilities, convergent and criterion-related validities, and was shown to be an appropriate measure of psychological work maturity in Chinese employees. Maturity differences in several demographic variables were not found, but employees with longer tenure in Sample 2 scored higher on maturity, which shows that psychological work maturity may be dependent on personal development in the interaction with the varying situational factors, especially in the work domain. Implications for research and practice on psychological work maturity in China are discussed. PMID:21323139

  3. Mediastinal Mature Teratoma Revealed by Empyema.

    PubMed

    Raoufi, Mohammed; Herrak, Laila; Benali, Anas; Achaachi, Leila; El Ftouh, Mustapha; Bellarbi, Salma; Tilfine, Charaf; Taouarsa, Firdaous

    2016-01-01

    Teratomas are germ cell tumors, manifested with a great variety of clinical features; the most common extragonadal site is the anterior mediastinum. In this case, we report the patient with a large mature mediastinal teratoma with several components of ectodermal and endothermal epithelium. A 24-year-old female patient presented with history of persistent chest pain and progressively aggravating dyspnea for the previous 3 months. A chest X-ray showed a large opacity of the entire left hemithorax. Transcutaneous needle aspiration revealed a purulent fluid. The tube thoracostomy was introduced and the effusion was evacuated. Some weeks later, patient was seen in emergency for persistent cough and lateral chest pain. CT scan revealed a mass of the left hemithorax. The mass showed heterogeneous density, without compressing mediastinum great vessels and left hilar structures. Lipase value was elevated in needle aspiration. The patient underwent a total resection of the mediastinum mass via a left posterolateral thoracotomy. Microscopy revealed a mature teratoma with cystic structures. The patient subsequently made a full recovery. This case provide benign mediastinal teratoma with total atelectasis of left lung and elevated lipase value in needle transcutaneous aspiration; this event is explained by pancreatic component in the cystic tumor. Total removal of the tumor is adequate treatment for this type of teratoma and the prognosis is excellent. PMID:27144046

  4. Mediastinal Mature Teratoma Revealed by Empyema

    PubMed Central

    Raoufi, Mohammed; Herrak, Laila; Benali, Anas; Achaachi, Leila; El Ftouh, Mustapha; Bellarbi, Salma; Tilfine, Charaf; Taouarsa, Firdaous

    2016-01-01

    Teratomas are germ cell tumors, manifested with a great variety of clinical features; the most common extragonadal site is the anterior mediastinum. In this case, we report the patient with a large mature mediastinal teratoma with several components of ectodermal and endothermal epithelium. A 24-year-old female patient presented with history of persistent chest pain and progressively aggravating dyspnea for the previous 3 months. A chest X-ray showed a large opacity of the entire left hemithorax. Transcutaneous needle aspiration revealed a purulent fluid. The tube thoracostomy was introduced and the effusion was evacuated. Some weeks later, patient was seen in emergency for persistent cough and lateral chest pain. CT scan revealed a mass of the left hemithorax. The mass showed heterogeneous density, without compressing mediastinum great vessels and left hilar structures. Lipase value was elevated in needle aspiration. The patient underwent a total resection of the mediastinum mass via a left posterolateral thoracotomy. Microscopy revealed a mature teratoma with cystic structures. The patient subsequently made a full recovery. This case provide benign mediastinal teratoma with total atelectasis of left lung and elevated lipase value in needle transcutaneous aspiration; this event is explained by pancreatic component in the cystic tumor. Total removal of the tumor is adequate treatment for this type of teratoma and the prognosis is excellent. PMID:27144046

  5. Contributions of proteomics to understanding phagosome maturation

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Lindsay D; Foster, Leonard J

    2008-01-01

    In metazoans macrophage cells use phagocytosis, the process of engulfing large particles, to control the spread of pathogens in the body, to clear dead or dying cells, and to aid in tissue remodelling, while the same process is also used by unicellular eukaryotes to ingest food. Phagocytosing cells essentially swallow the particles, trapping them in vacuoles called phagosomes that go through a series of maturation steps, culminating in the destruction of the internalized cargo. Because of their central role in innate immunity and their relatively simple structure (one membrane bilayer surrounding a single particle), phagosomes have been a popular subject for organelle proteomics studies. Qualitative proteomic technologies are now very sensitive so hundreds of different proteins have been identified in phagosomes from several species, revealing new properties of these intriguing compartments. More recently, quantitative proteomic approaches have also been applied, shedding new light on the dynamics and composition of maturing phagosomes. In this review we summarize the studies that have applied proteomic technologies to phagosomes and how they have changed our understanding of phagosome biology. PMID:18331591

  6. Electrophysiologic analysis of regional cortical maturation.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, H G

    1975-10-01

    Some issues in the study of human neurobehavioral development are briefly set forth. Attention is called to the limitations of strictly structural and behavioral approaches. The value of correlative morphophysiological and psychophysiological investigations is emphasized. By averaging brain activity with respect to stimuli and motor responses, event-related cortical potentials (ERP) can be reliably detected in the scalp EEG. Longitudinal topographic studies of ERP permit the definition of a sequence of regional cortical maturation during infancy and childhood. We have found that evoked potentials in the three major sensory modalities arise from both primary and secondary projection areas by 30 weeks of conceptional age. Frontocentral responses appear shortly thereafter. Thus, cortical mechanisms show a precocious development of electrogenesis which indicates the possibility for an early environmental impact on brain maturation. In contrast to the evoked potentials, association cortex potentials (ACP) do not seem to appear until early childhood. The behavioral significance of these neuroelectric phenomena is being sought in studies employing techniques which permit the concurrent recording of brain activity and behavioral responses in the waking infant and child. Some of the problems confronting the application of these methods to studies of infants are outlined. PMID:1203402

  7. New alignment marks for improved measurement maturity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidenmueller, U.; Alves, H.; Schnabel, B.; Icard, B.; Pain, L.; Le Denmat, J.-C.; Manakli, S.; Pradelles, J.

    2008-04-01

    With shrinking dimensions in the semiconductor industry the lithographic demands are exceeding the parameters of the standard optical lithography. Electron beam direct write (EBDW) presents a good solution to overcome these limits and to successfully use this technology in R&D as well as in prototyping and some niche applications. For the industrial application of EBDW an alignment strategy adapted to the industrial standards is required to be compatible with optical lithography. In this context the crucial factor is the overlay performance, i.e. the maturity of the alignment strategy under different process conditions. New alignment marks improve the alignment repeatability and increase the window of the signal-to-noise ratio towards smaller or noisier signals. Particularly the latter has proved to be a major contribution to a higher maturity of the alignment. A comparison between the double cross and the new Barker mark type is presented in this paper. Furthermore, the mark reading repeatability and the final overlay results achieved are discussed.

  8. Pitch perception prior to cortical maturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Bonnie K.

    Pitch perception plays an important role in many complex auditory tasks including speech perception, music perception, and sound source segregation. Because of the protracted and extensive development of the human auditory cortex, pitch perception might be expected to mature, at least over the first few months of life. This dissertation investigates complex pitch perception in 3-month-olds, 7-month-olds and adults -- time points when the organization of the auditory pathway is distinctly different. Using an observer-based psychophysical procedure, a series of four studies were conducted to determine whether infants (1) discriminate the pitch of harmonic complex tones, (2) discriminate the pitch of unresolved harmonics, (3) discriminate the pitch of missing fundamental melodies, and (4) have comparable sensitivity to pitch and spectral changes as adult listeners. The stimuli used in these studies were harmonic complex tones, with energy missing at the fundamental frequency. Infants at both three and seven months of age discriminated the pitch of missing fundamental complexes composed of resolved and unresolved harmonics as well as missing fundamental melodies, demonstrating perception of complex pitch by three months of age. More surprisingly, infants in both age groups had lower pitch and spectral discrimination thresholds than adult listeners. Furthermore, no differences in performance on any of the tasks presented were observed between infants at three and seven months of age. These results suggest that subcortical processing is not only sufficient to support pitch perception prior to cortical maturation, but provides adult-like sensitivity to pitch by three months.

  9. Stomata open at night in pole-sized and mature ponderosa pine: implications for O3 exposure metrics.

    PubMed

    Grulke, N E; Alonso, R; Nguyen, T; Cascio, C; Dobrowolski, W

    2004-09-01

    Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) is widely distributed in the western USA. We report the lack of stomatal closure at night in early summer for ponderosa pine at two of three sites investigated. Trees at a third site with lower nitrogen dioxide and nitric acid exposure, but greater drought stress, had slightly open stomata at night in early summer but closed stomata at night for the rest of the summer. The three sites had similar background ozone exposure during the summer of measurement (2001). Nighttime stomatal conductance (gs) ranged from one tenth to one fifth that of maximum daytime values. In general, pole-sized trees (< 40 years old) had greater nighttime gs than mature trees (> 250 years old). In late summer, nighttime gs was low (< 3.0 mmol H2O m(-2) s(-1)) for both tree size classes at all sites. Measurable nighttime gs has also been reported in other conifers, but the values we observed were higher. In June, nighttime ozone (O3) uptake accounted for 9, 5 and 3% of the total daily O3 uptake of pole-sized trees from west to east across the San Bernardino Mountains. In late summer, O3 uptake at night was < 2% of diel uptake at all sites. Nocturnal O3 uptake may contribute to greater oxidant injury development, especially in pole-sized trees in early summer. PMID:15234897

  10. Effects of sewage effluent and ethynyl oestradiol upon molecular markers of oestrogenic exposure, maturation and reproductive success in the sand goby (Pomatoschistus minutus, Pallas).

    PubMed

    Robinson, Craig D; Brown, Elaine; Craft, John A; Davies, Ian M; Moffat, Colin F; Pirie, David; Robertson, Fiona; Stagg, Ronald M; Struthers, Susan

    2003-01-24

    Male fish in several UK estuaries are known to be exposed to oestrogenic contamination, and whilst a limited number of studies have shown that exposure to oestrogens can reduce the reproductive success of fish, the impact of environmentally relevant exposures is less clear. The aim of this study was, therefore, to investigate the effects of exposure to environmentally realistic concentrations of a sewage effluent and the synthetic oestrogen 17alpha-ethynyl oestradiol (EE(2)) upon the reproductive success of a marine fish. Sand goby (Pomatoschistus minutus) were exposed for 7 months to EE(2) or a sewage effluent containing known xeno-oestrogens (alkylphenol polyethoxylates) and bred using within treatment crosses. Nominal exposure concentrations were 6 ng l(-1) EE(2), 0.3 or 0.03% v/v sewage effluent. At the end of the breeding trials, expression of hepatic zona radiata protein (Zrp) and vitellogenin (Vtg) mRNA were determined using two recently developed cDNA probes. Exposure to 6 ng l(-1) EE(2) induced Zrp and Vtg mRNA expression in male and female sand goby, impaired male maturation and reproductive behaviour, reduced female fecundity and reduced egg fertility. As a consequence, fertile egg production of the EE(2)-exposed population was reduced by 90%. Exposure to sewage effluent (0.3% v/v) increased adult mortality and female Zrp and Vtg mRNA expression, but did not induce male vitellogenesis. Exposure to EE(2) and 0.3% v/v sewage effluent impaired development of the male urogenital papilla. Fish exposed to 0.03% v/v sewage effluent produced more fertile eggs than those exposed to 0.3% effluent, or those receiving no effluent. It is concluded that male vitellogenesis in an oestrogenically exposed population may be accompanied by reduced reproductive success, but that it may not be indicative of altered reproductive output in a population exposed to an industrial sewage effluent. PMID:12505380

  11. Proteomic analyses provide new insights into the responses of Pinus massoniana seedlings to phosphorus deficiency.

    PubMed

    Fan, Fuhua; Ding, Guijie; Wen, Xiaopeng

    2016-02-01

    Phosphorus is an essential macronutrient for plant growth and development. Plants can respond defensively to phosphorus deficiency by modifying their morphology and metabolic pathways via the differential expression of low phosphate responsive genes. To better understand the mechanisms by which the Masson pine (Pinus massoniana) adapts to phosphorus deficiency, we conducted comparative proteomic analysis using an elite line exhibiting high tolerance to phosphorus deficiency. The selected seedlings were treated with 0.5 mM KH2 PO4 (control), 0.01 mM KH2 PO4 (P1), or 0.06 mM KH2 PO4 (P2) for 48 days. Total protein samples were separated via 2DE. A total of 98 differentially expressed proteins, which displayed at least 1.7-fold change expression compared to the control levels (p ≤ 0.05), were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. These phosphate starvation responsive proteins were implicated in photosynthesis, defense, cellular organization, biosynthesis, energy metabolism, secondary metabolism, signal transduction etc. Therefore, these proteins might play important roles in facilitating internal phosphorus homeostasis. Additionally, the obtained data may be useful for the further characterization of gene function and may provide a foundation for a more comprehensive understanding of the adaptations of the Masson pine to phosphorus-deficient conditions. PMID:26603831

  12. Characterization of culturable bacterial populations associating with Pinus sylvestris--Suillus bovinus mycorrhizospheres.

    PubMed

    Timonen, Sari; Hurek, Thomas

    2006-08-01

    Bacterial isolations were carried out on Pinus sylvestris--Suillus bovinus mycorrhizospheres obtained directly from boreal pine forest. When samples were taken during dry weather, the numbers of bacterial colony-forming units were significantly higher in uncolonized short roots and external mycelia than in mycorrhizal roots and soil outside the mycorrhizosphere. In contrast, the colony-forming unit counts were similar in all hypogeous samples after rainy weather. Culturable bacteria were absent from most Suillus bovinus sporocarps. The bacteria isolated from all types of mycorr hizo sphere samples, i.e. short roots, mycorrhizal roots, and external mycelia, consisted primarily of Burkholderia spp., whereas most isolates from soil outside the mycorrhizosphere were identified as Paenibacillus spp. This study shows that mycorrhizal external mycelia can expand the habitat favourable for common rhizosphere bacteria into the soil far from the immediate rhizosphere. Some of these bacteria may help the trees with nitrogen acquisition, since potentially diazotrophic bacteria harbouring nitrogenase reductase (nifH) genes were isolated from mycorrhizal root tips. PMID:16917536

  13. Intraspecific variation in the use of water sources by the circum-Mediterranean conifer Pinus halepensis.

    PubMed

    Voltas, Jordi; Lucabaugh, Devon; Chambel, Maria Regina; Ferrio, Juan Pedro

    2015-12-01

    The relevance of interspecific variation in the use of plant water sources has been recognized in drought-prone environments. By contrast, the characterization of intraspecific differences in water uptake patterns remains elusive, although preferential access to particular soil layers may be an important adaptive response for species along aridity gradients. Stable water isotopes were analysed in soil and xylem samples of 56 populations of the drought-avoidant conifer Pinus halepensis grown in a common garden test. We found that most populations reverted to deep soil layers as the main plant water source during seasonal summer droughts. More specifically, we detected a clear geographical differentiation among populations in water uptake patterns even under relatively mild drought conditions (early autumn), with populations originating from more arid regions taking up more water from deep soil layers. However, the preferential access to deep soil water was largely independent of aboveground growth. Our findings highlight the high plasticity and adaptive relevance of the differential access to soil water pools among Aleppo pine populations. The observed ecotypic patterns point to the adaptive relevance of resource investment in deep roots as a strategy towards securing a source of water in dry environments for P. halepensis. PMID:26193768

  14. Energy Balance and CO2 Exchange Behaviour in Sub-Tropical Young Pine (Pinus roxburghii) Plantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, B. K.; Singh, N.; Soni, P.; Parihar, J. S.

    2011-08-01

    A study was conducted to understand the seasonal and annual energy balance behaviour of young and growing sub-tropical chir pine (Pinus roxburghii) plantation of eight years age in the Doon valley, India and its coupling with CO2 exchange. The seasonal cycle of dekadal daytime latent heat fluxes mostly followed net radiation cycle with two minima and range between 50-200 Wm-2 but differed from the latter during the period when soil wetness and cloudiness were not coupled. Dekadal evaporative fraction closely followed the seasonal dryness-wetness cycle thus minimizing the effect of wind on energy partitioning as compared to diurnal variation. Daytime latent heat fluxes were found to have linear relationship with canopy net assimilation rate (Y = 0.023X + 0.171, R2 = 0.80) though nonlinearity exists between canopy latent heat flux and hourly net CO2 assimilation rate . Night-time plant respiration was found to have linear relationship (Y = 0.088 + 1.736, R2 = 0.72) with night-time average vapour pressure deficit (VPD). Daily average soil respiration was found to be non-linearly correlated to average soil temperatures (Y = -0.034X2 + 1.676X - 5.382, R2 = 0.63) The coupled use of empirical models, seasonal energy fluxes and associated parameters would be useful to annual water and carbon accounting in subtropical pine ecosystem of India in the absence high-response eddy covariance tower.

  15. Relationships Between Phenomenon of Growing Weakness and Leaf Elements Contents in Pinus tabulaeformis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Juan; Wu, Jianzhi; Wang, Yanchun; Liu, Yan

    2014-01-01

    In order to find the relationships between leaf elements contents and phenomenon of growing weakness of plant, the variation of thirteen mineral elements in pine needles were determined at the period from well growth to weak growth for six consecutive years. Twelve elements consisting toxic metals (Pb, Cr, and Cd) and essential mineral elements (P, K, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Ca, Mg and Na) were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), and the N content was analyzed using automatic azotometer (KDY-9820 type). The results showed that there were no significantly variatation in elements N, K, Ca, Mg and Fe between normal and abnormal growing trees. However, the sharply increase of Na and toxic heavy metal Cr, and the gradually decrease of trace elements such as Mn, Cu, Zn, and further the rising of P year by year in pine needles might had much more relationships with the weak growth of Pinus tabulaeformis. The correlations of each element could be used to improve the ratios of different element in order to make plant grow well.

  16. Genet Variation of Ectomycorrhizal Suillus granulatus Fruiting Bodies in Pinus strobus Stands

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hwa-Yong

    2016-01-01

    The genets of Suillus granulatus in a Pinus strobus stand (13 m × 60 m) were identified using random amplified polymorphic DNA molecular markers and the DNA of mushrooms that fruited for two years, and variations in genet size and distribution were analyzed. From a total of 116 mushrooms, 73 genets were identified and were grouped into three locations. The genets of mushrooms in close proximity differed from each other. The genet sizes varied at any of the three locations. The lengths of the identified genets in the pine stand ranged from 0.09 to 2.90 m. The average number of mushrooms per genet was 1.2 to 2.3, and the percentage of genets that were represented by a single mushroom was 44% to 94%. This variation in the genets of mushrooms in close proximity suggests that the ectomycorrhizal mycelial bodies of S. granulatus propagated sexually by fusing haploid spores derived from the mushrooms gills with below-ground mycelia. Therefore, it is necessary further to investigate the formation of new genets through spores in ectomycorrhizal fungal colonies. PMID:27103849

  17. Composition and Chemical Variability of the Needle Oil from Pinus halepensis growing in Corsica.

    PubMed

    Nam, Anne-Marie; Tomi, Félix; Gibernau, Marc; Casanova, Joseph; Bighelli, Ange

    2016-04-01

    The composition of oil samples isolated from needles of Pinus halepensis growing in three locations in Corsica (Saleccia, Capo di Feno, and Tre Padule) has been investigated by combination of chromatographic (GC with retention indices) and spectroscopic (MS and (13)C-NMR) techniques. In total, 35 compounds that accounted for 77 - 100% of the whole composition have been identified. α-Pinene, myrcene, and (E)-β-caryophyllene were the major component followed by α-humulene and 2-phenylethyl isovalerate. Various diterpenes have been identified as minor components. 47 Oil samples isolated from pine needles have been analyzed and were differentiated in two groups. Oil samples of the first group (15 samples) contained myrcene (M = 28.1 g/100 g; SD = 10.6) and (E)-β-caryophyllene (M = 19.0 g/100 g; SD = 2.2) as major components and diterpenes were absent. All these oil samples were isolated from pine needles harvested in Saleccia. Oil samples of the second group (32 samples) contained mostly (E)-β-caryophyllene (M = 28.7 g/100 g; SD = 7.9), α-pinene (M = 12.3 g/100 g; SD = 3.6), and myrcene (M = 11.7 g/100 g; SD = 7.3). All these oil samples were isolated from pine needles harvested in Capo di Feno and Tre Padule. PMID:27103339

  18. Effects of Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen polysaccharide on the subunit vaccine of Proteus mirabilis in birds.

    PubMed

    Cui, Guolin; Zhong, Shixun; Yang, Shifa; Zuo, Xuemei; Liang, Manfei; Sun, Jing; Liu, Jingjing; Zhu, Ruiliang

    2013-05-01

    Three adjuvants, namely, Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen polysaccharide (TPPPS), white mineral oil (WO) and propolis (PP), were added to the outer membrane protein (OMP) of Proteus mirabilis (P. mirabilis) and their effects were compared. Three hundred 1-day-old chicks were randomly divided into five groups (I-V), with 60 chicks per group, and injected subcutaneously with WO-OMP vaccine (I), PP-OMP vaccine (II), TPPPS-OMP vaccine (III), OMP-only vaccine (IV) and physiological saline (V) at 3, 7 and 12 days old. On days 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42 and 49 after the first vaccination, the antibody titers, interleukin-2 levels (IL-2) and T-lymphocyte proliferation rates in the peripheral blood as well as the secreting-type IgA levels (SIgA) in the duodenum were measured. On day 7 after the third vaccination, the chicks were challenged with P. mirabilis strain Q1 and the protective effects of each group were observed. The highest protective rate was observed in group III. Moreover, the antibody titers as well as IL-2, SIgA and T-lymphocyte proliferation rates in this group significantly increased and were significantly higher than those in the other groups at most time points. The results indicate that TPPPS could significantly enhance the effects of the subunit vaccine of P. mirabilis; induced stronger humoral, cellular and mucosal immunity as compared with WO and PP; and should be developed as a vaccine adjuvant. PMID:23403027

  19. Genet Variation of Ectomycorrhizal Suillus granulatus Fruiting Bodies in Pinus strobus Stands.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hwa-Yong; Koo, Chang-Duck

    2016-03-01

    The genets of Suillus granulatus in a Pinus strobus stand (13 m × 60 m) were identified using random amplified polymorphic DNA molecular markers and the DNA of mushrooms that fruited for two years, and variations in genet size and distribution were analyzed. From a total of 116 mushrooms, 73 genets were identified and were grouped into three locations. The genets of mushrooms in close proximity differed from each other. The genet sizes varied at any of the three locations. The lengths of the identified genets in the pine stand ranged from 0.09 to 2.90 m. The average number of mushrooms per genet was 1.2 to 2.3, and the percentage of genets that were represented by a single mushroom was 44% to 94%. This variation in the genets of mushrooms in close proximity suggests that the ectomycorrhizal mycelial bodies of S. granulatus propagated sexually by fusing haploid spores derived from the mushrooms gills with below-ground mycelia. Therefore, it is necessary further to investigate the formation of new genets through spores in ectomycorrhizal fungal colonies. PMID:27103849

  20. Slow pyrolysis of wood barks from Pinus brutia Ten. and product compositions.

    PubMed

    Sensöz, Sevgi

    2003-09-01

    Biomass in the form of pine bark (Pinus brutia Ten.) was pyrolysed in an externally heated fixed-bed reactor. The effects of temperature and heating rate on the yields and compositions of the products were investigated. Pyrolysis runs were performed using reactor temperatures between 300 and 500 degrees C with heating rates of 7 and 40 degrees Cmin(-1). The product yields were significantly influenced by the process conditions. The bio-oil obtained at 450 degrees C, at which the liquid product yield was maximum, was analysed. It was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In addition, the solid and liquid products were analysed to determine their elemental composition and calorific value. Chemical fractionation of bio-oil showed that only low quantities of hydrocarbons were present, while oxygenated and polar fractions dominated. The empirical formula of the bio-oil with heating value of 31.03 MJkg(-1) was established as CH(1.43)O(0.332)N(0.0013). PMID:12798122